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Двойное лучепреломление электромагнитных волн

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Oi?aaeaiea ia?aciaaiey.

Aaeieieno?aoeey a. Aeaoa?eiao?aa.

?aoa?ao ii oeceea

ia oaio:

Aeaieiia eo/ai?aeiieaiea yeaeo?iiaaieoiuo aiei.

Eniieieoaeue: Iieuiei

Aeieo?ee Aeaenaaae/.

?oeiaiaeeoaeue: Eia?eaeiuo

TH?ee Oeiioaaae/.

Aeaoa?eiao?a

1997

Iaeaaeaiea.

TOC \o “1-3” Iaeaaeaiea. GOTOBUTTON _Toc407958837 PAGEREF
_Toc407958837 1

Iiey?ecaoeey naaoa GOTOBUTTON _Toc407958838 PAGEREF _Toc407958838
2

1. Naienoaa yeaeo?iiaaieoiuo aiei GOTOBUTTON _Toc407958839 PAGEREF
_Toc407958839 2

2. Iiey?ecaoeey naaoa. GOTOBUTTON _Toc407958840 PAGEREF
_Toc407958840 4

Aeaeu iiey?eciaaiiiai naaoa. GOTOBUTTON _Toc407958841 PAGEREF
_Toc407958841 4

3. Iiey?ecaoi?u. Caeii Iaethna. GOTOBUTTON _Toc407958842 PAGEREF
_Toc407958842 6

Aeaieiia eo/ai?aeiieaiea. GOTOBUTTON _Toc407958843 PAGEREF
_Toc407958843 8

1. ssaeaiea aeaieiiai eo/ai?aeiieaiey. GOTOBUTTON _Toc407958844
PAGEREF _Toc407958844 8

2. Aieiiaua iiaa?oiinoe. GOTOBUTTON _Toc407958845 PAGEREF
_Toc407958845 10

3. Iino?iaiea Atheaaina. GOTOBUTTON _Toc407958846 PAGEREF
_Toc407958846 12

GOTOBUTTON _Toc407958847 PAGEREF _Toc407958847 14

Yenia?eiaioaeueiay /anoue. GOTOBUTTON _Toc407958848 PAGEREF
_Toc407958848 17

1. Onoaiiaea. GOTOBUTTON _Toc407958849 PAGEREF _Toc407958849 17

2. Ecia?aiey. GOTOBUTTON _Toc407958850 PAGEREF _Toc407958850 18

Eeoa?aoo?a. GOTOBUTTON _Toc407958851 PAGEREF _Toc407958851 20

Iiey?ecaoeey naaoa

1. Naienoaa yeaeo?iiaaieoiuo aiei

iaaieoiiai iieae.

Aiciiaeiinoue nouanoaiaaiey yeaeo?iiaaieoiuo aiei iaoneiaeaia oai, /oi
nouanoaoao naycue iaaeaeo ia?aiaiiuie yeaeo?e/aneei e iaaieoiui iieyie.
Ia?aiaiiia iaaieoiia iiea nicaeaao aeo?aaia yeaeo?e/aneia iiea.
Nouanoaoao e ia?aoiia yaeaiea: ia?aiaiiia ai a?aiaie yeaeo?e/aneia iiea
ii?iaeaeaao aeo?aaia iaaieoiia iiea.

) ?acaeaeaiu oneiaii ia neaaeothuea iniiaiua aeeaiaciiu: ?aaeeiaieiu,
eio?ae?aniua aieiu, ?aioaaiianeea eo/e, aeaeeiue niaeo?,
oeueo?aoeieaoiaua aieiu e aaiia – eo/e. Oaeia ?acaeaeaiea
yeaeo?iiaaieoiuo aiei iniiaaii ia ?acee/ee eo naienoa i?e eceo/aiee,
?ani?ino?aiaiee e acaeiiaeaenoaee n aauanoaii.

a yeaeo?iiaaieoiie aieia a i?inoaeoai neo/aa iaiythony ii
aa?iiie/aneiio caeiio. O?aaiaieyie ieineie yeaeo?iiaaieoiie aieiu,
?ani?ino?aiythuaeny a iai?aaeaiee Z, yaeythony:

(1)

-ia/aeueiay oaca eieaaaiee.

ia iaeiaiueoee oaie aeaeai i?ienoiaeyuai i?ioea /aniaie no?aeee (?en.
1).

?en. 1

yeaeo?iiaaieoiie aieiu aaeieue ine OZ a aeaiiue iiiaio a?aiaie t.

?en. 2

a yeaeo?iiaaieoiie aieia eieaaethony a iaeeiaeiaie oaca (neioacii),
o.a. iie iaeiia?aiaiii ia?auathony a ioeue e iaeiia?aiaiii aeinoeaatho
iaeneiaeueiuo cia/aiee.

a i?ino?ainoaa.

2. Iiey?ecaoeey naaoa.

Aeaeu iiey?eciaaiiiai naaoa.

yeaeo?e/aneiai iiey (i?e aeaenoaee naaoa ia aauanoai iniiaiia cia/aiea
eiaao yeaeo?e/aneay ninoaaeythuay iiey aieiu, aeaenoaothuay ia yeaeo?iiu
a aoiiao aauanoaa).

Naao i?aaenoaaeyao niaie noiia?iia yeaeo?iiaaieoiia eceo/aiea iiiaeanoaa
aoiiia. Aoiiu aea eceo/atho naaoiaua aieiu iacaaeneii ae?oa io ae?oaa,
iiyoiio naaoiaay aieia, eceo/aaiay oaeii a oeaeii, oa?aeoa?ecoaony
anaaiciiaeiuie ?aaiiaa?iyoiuie eieaaaieyie naaoiaiai aaeoi?a (?en. 3, a;
eo/ ia?iaiaeeeoey?ai ieineinoe ?enoiea).

?en. 3

iacuaaaony anoanoaaiiui. Iaiiey?eciaaiiue (anoanoaaiiue) naao
enioneatho aieueoeinoai oeiiauo enoi/ieeia, iai?eia? eaiiu iaeaeeaaiey.

eieaaeaony oieueei a iaeiii iai?aaeaiee, ia?iaiaeeeoey?iii eo/o (?en.
3,a), iacuaaaony ieinei iiey?eciaaiiui (eeiaeii iiey?eciaaiiui).

eciaiyaony ni a?aiaiai oae, /oi aai eiiaoe iienuaaao yeeein, eaaeauee
a ieineinoe, ia?iaiaeeeoey?iie eo/o (?en. 4,a).

?en. 4

e ?aaainoaa aiieeooae neeaaeuaaaiuo aiei), oi eiaai aeaei n
oee?eoey?ii iiey?eciaaiiui (iiey?eciaaiiui ii e?oao) naaoii (?en. 4,a e
?en. 4,a niioaaonoaaiii).

3. Iiey?ecaoi?u. Caeii Iaethna.

, iai?eia? e?enoaeeu. Ec i?e?iaeiuo e?enoaeeia, aeaaii eniieuecoaiuo a
ea/anoaa iiey?ecaoi?ia, neaaeoao ioiaoeoue oo?iaeei. Oo?iaeei neeueii
iiaeiuaao naaoiaua eo/e, a eioi?uo yeaeo?e/aneee aaeoi? ia?iaiaeeeoey?ai
e iioe/aneie ine. Anee aea yeaeo?e/aneee aaeoi? ia?aeeaeai ine, oi oaeea
eo/e i?ioiaeyo /a?ac oo?iaeei ii/oe aac iiaeiuaiey. Iiyoiio anoanoaaiiue
naao, i?ieaey /a?ac ieanoeieo oo?iaeeia, iaiieiaeio iiaeiuaaony e
noaiiaeony eeiaeii iiey?eciaaiiui n yeaeo?e/aneei aaeoi?ii,
i?eaioe?iaaiiui ia?aeeaeueii iioe/aneie ine oo?iaeeia.

Oaeei aea naienoaii iaeaaeatho iiey?ieaeu, aieaa oaeiaiua a ia?auaiee.
Iie i?aaenoaaeytho niaie eneonnoaaiii i?eaioiaeaiiua eieeieaeiua ieaiee,
neoaeauea aeey iieo/aiey iiey?eciaaiiiai naaoa. Iiey?ieae, iiaeiaii
oo?iaeeio, aeaenoaoao, eae iaeei e?enoaee e iiaeiuaao naaoiaua
eieaaaiey, yeaeo?e/aneee aaeoi? eioi?uo ia?iaiaeeeoey?ai e iioe/aneie
ine.

ssaeaiea iiey?ecaoeee naaoa eiaao ianoi e i?e io?aaeaiee eee i?aeiieaiee
naaoa ia a?aieoea aeaoo ecio?iiiuo aeeyeaeo?eeia. Yoio niinia
iiey?ecaoeee aue ioe?uo Iaethnii, eioi?ue neo/aeii caiaoee, /oi i?e
iiai?a/eaaiee e?enoaeea aie?oa eo/a, io?aaeaiiiai io noaeea,
eioaineaiinoue naaoa ia?eiaee/anee aic?anoaao e oiaiueoaaony, o.a.
io?aaeaiea io noaeea aeaenoaoao ia naao iiaeiaii i?ioiaeaeaieth /a?ac
oo?iaeei. I?aaaea, i?e yoii ia i?ienoiaeeei iieiiai iiaanaiey naaoa i?e
iaeioi?uo ii?aaeaeaiiuo iieiaeaieyo e?enoaeea, a iaaethaeaeinue eeoue
aai oneeaiea e ineaaeaiea.

Nouanoaotho e ae?oaea niiniau iieo/aiey iiey?eciaaiiiai naaoa.

Eoae, anyeee i?eai?, neoaeauee aeey iieo/aiey iiey?eciaaiiiai naaoa,
iacuaaaony iiey?ecaoi?ii. Oio aea i?eai?, i?eiaiyaiue aeey enneaaeiaaiey
iiey?ecaoeee naaoa, iacuaaaony aiaeecaoi?ii.

ia?acotho iaaeaeo niaie iaeioi?ue oaie (?en. 5).

. Ioiioaiea eioaineaiinoae i?iii?oeeiiaeueii ioiioaieth eaaae?aoia
aiieeooae:

e, neaaeiaaoaeueii

Yoi niioiioaiea eiaao iacaaiea caeii Iaethna:

iaaeaeo aiaeecaoi?ii e iiey?ecaoi?ii.

Caeii aue noi?ioee?iaai Iaethnii a 1810 aiaeo e iiaeoaa?aeaeai
ouaoaeueiuie oioiiao?e/aneeie ecia?aieyie A?aai.

Aeaieiia eo/ai?aeiieaiea.

1. ssaeaiea aeaieiiai eo/ai?aeiieaiey.

Ooiaeaiaioaeueiui naienoaii naaoiauo eo/ae i?e eo i?ioiaeaeaiee a
e?enoaeeao yaeyaony aeaieiia eo/ai?aeiieaiea, ioe?uoia a 1670 aiaeo
Aa?oieeiii e iiae?iaii enneaaeiaaiiia Atheaainii, iioaeeeiaaaoei a 1690
aiaeo naie ciaiaieoue “O?aeoao i naaoa, a eioi?ii eceiaeaiu i?e/eiu
oiai, /oi i?ienoiaeeo i?e io?aaeaiee e i?aeiieaiee e, a /anoiinoe, i?e
iaiaueiiaaiiii i?aeiieaiee a e?enoaeeao ec Eneaiaeee.” ssaeaiea
aeaieiiai eo/ai?aeiieaiey iauyniyaony iniaaiiinoyie ?ani?ino?aiaiey
naaoa a aiecio?iiiuo n?aaeao.

Anee ia e?enoaee eneaiaeneiai oiaoa iai?aaeoue oceee io/ie naaoa, oi ec
e?enoaeea aueaeoo aeaa i?ino?ainoaaiii ?acaeaeaiiuo eo/a, ia?aeeaeueiuo
ae?oa ae?oao e iaaeathuaio eo/o.

?en. 6

)(?en. 6).

Iai?aaeaiea a e?enoaeea, ii eioi?iio eo/ naaoa ?ani?ino?aiyaony ia
eniuouaay aeaieiiai eo/ai?aeiieaiey, iacuaaaony iioe/aneie inueth
e?enoaeea. A ieineinoue, i?ioiaeyuay /a?ac iai?aaeaiea eo/a naaoa e
iioe/aneoth inue e?enoaeea, iacuaaaony aeaaiie ieineinoueth (aeaaiui
na/aieai) e?enoaeea. Aiaeec iiey?ecaoeee naaoa iieacuaaao, /oi ia
auoiaea ec e?enoaeea eo/e ieacuaathony eeiaeii iiey?eciaaiiuie ai
acaeiii ia?iaiaeeeoey?iuo ieineinoyo.

?acaeaiaiea eo/a a e?enoaeea anaaaea i?ienoiaeeo a aeaaiie ieineinoe.
Oae eae i?e a?auaiee e?enoaeea aie?oa iaaeathuaai eo/a aeaaiay
ieineinoue iiai?a/eaaaony a i?ino?ainoaa, oi iaeiia?aiaiii
iiai?a/eaaaony e iaiaueiiaaiiue eo/. ?anniio?ei iaeioi?ua iaeaieaa
i?inoua neo/ae ?ani?ino?aiaiey naaoa a e?enoaeea.

?en. 7

ia?aeeaeai iioe/aneie ine (?en. 7), oi iieiaeaiea aeaaiie ieineinoe ia
ii?aaeaeaii. A /anoiinoe, ieineinoue ?enoiea yaeyaony aeaaiie
ieineinoueth, ii oaeie aea yaeyaony, iai?eia?, e ia?iaiaeeeoey?iay ae
ieineinoue. Oneiaey ?ani?ino?aiaiey eo/ae n ethaie iiey?ecaoeeae
iaeeiaeiau, e iie ia ?acaeaaeaathony.

eaeao ia?iaiaeeeoey?ii iioe/aneie ine (?en. 7), oi yeaeo?e/aneee
aaeoi?, eaaeauee a aeaaiie ieineinoe, ia?aeeaeai ine. Yeaeo?e/aneee
aaeoi?, ia?iaiaeeeoey?iue ine, eaaeeo i?e yoii a ieineinoe, ii?iaeueiie
e aeaaiie, oae /oi oneiaey ?ani?ino?aiaiey aeey yoeo ninoaaeythueo
yeaeo?e/aneiai iiey naaoiaie aieiu iaiaeeiaeiau: eo/e ia
?acaeaaeaathony, ii eiatho ?acee/ioth nei?inoue ?ani?ino?aiaiey.

eaeao iiae i?iecaieueiui oaeii e iioe/aneie ine, oi oneiaey
?ani?ino?aiaiey oeacaiiuo auoa ninoaaeythueo oaeaea iaiaeeiaeiau: eo/e
?ani?ino?aiythony ii ?acee/iui iai?aaeaieyi e n ?acee/iuie nei?inoyie
(?en. 7).

Eo/, eiathuee yeaeo?e/aneee aaeoi?, ia?iaiaeeeoey?iue iioe/aneie ine, ai
anao yoeo neo/ayo iaoiaeeony a iaeeiaeiauo oneiaeyo, oae /oi caeiiu aai
?ani?ino?aiaiey ia aeieaeiu caaenaoue io iai?aaeaiey ?ani?ino?aiaiey;
yoi e anoue iaueiiaaiiue eo/, iiae/eiythueeny iau/iui caeiiai
i?aeiieaiey.

).

2. Aieiiaua iiaa?oiinoe.

iaiaueiiaaiiiai eo/a yaeyaony ia?aiaiiie aaee/eiie, caaenyuae io
iai?aaeaiey eo/a.

aeey anao iai?aaeaiee, e?iia iai?aaeaiey iioe/aneie ine, e
iaoneaaeeaaao yaeaiea aeaieiiai eo/ai?aeiieaiey a iaeiiiniuo
e?enoaeeao..

aioo?e iaeiiiniiai e?enoaeea iaoiaeeony oi/a/iue enoi/iee naaoa.

), oi yeeeinieae iienai aie?oa noa?u (yeeeinieae nei?inoae ?anoyioo a
iai?aaeaiee, ia?iaiaeeeoey?iii iioe/aneie ine) e iaeiiiniue e?enoaee
iacuaaaony io?eoeaoaeueiui (?en. 8,a).

3. Iino?iaiea Atheaaina.

Aieueoie caneoaie Atheaaina yaeyaony nicaeaiea no?ieiie oai?ee
i?ioiaeaeaiey naaoiaie aieiu /a?ac e?enoaee, iauyniythuae aicieeiiaaiea
aeaieiiai eo/ai?aeiieaiey. I?eiaiaiiue ei iaoiae i?ino e iaaeyaeai, a
eae niinia ii?aaeaeaiey iai?aaeaiey iaueiiaaiiiai e iaiaueiiaaiiiai
eo/ae nio?aiee naia cia/aiea e ii nae aeaiue.

A iniiaa iauyniaiey aeaieiiai eo/ai?aeiieaiey eaaeeo i?eioeei Atheaaina,
a eioi?ii iinooee?oaony, /oi eaaeaeay oi/ea, aei eioi?ie aeioiaeeo
naaoiaia aicaoaeaeaiea, iiaeao ?anniao?eaaoueny eae oeaio?
niioaaonoaothueo aoi?e/iuo aiei. Aeey ii?aaeaeaiey aieiiaiai o?iioa
?ani?ino?aiythuaeny aieiu a iineaaeothuea iiiaiou a?aiaie neaaeoao
iino?ieoue iaeaathuoth yoeo aoi?e/iuo aiei.

A ea/anoaa i?eia?a iino?iaiey iaueiiaaiiiai e iaiaueiiaaiiiai eo/ae
?anniio?ei i?aeiieaiea ieineie aieiu ia a?aieoea aiecio?iiiie n?aaeu,
iai?eia? iieiaeeoaeueiie (?en. 9). Iioe/aneay inue iieiaeeoaeueiiai
e?enoaeea eaaeeo a ieineinoe iaaeaiey iiae oaeii e i?aeiieythuae a?aie
e?enoaeea. Ia?aeeaeueiue io/ie naaoa iaaeaao iiae oaeii e iiaa?oiinoe
e?enoaeea.

?en. 9

iaiaueiiaaiiiai eo/a eieaaeaony a ieineinoe ?enoiea.

Ec iino?iaiey iiaeii naeaeaoue i/aaeaeiua caeeth/aiey:

A e?enoaeea i?ienoiaeeo aeaieiia eo/ai?aeiieaiea. Iino?iaiey Atheaaina
iicaieyao ii?aaeaeeoue iai?aaeaiey ?ani?ino?aiaiey iaueiiaaiiiai e
iaiaueiiaaiiiai eo/ae.

Iai?aaeaiea iaiaueiiaaiiiai eo/a e iai?aaeaiea ii?iaee e
niioaaonoaothuaio aieiiaiio o?iioo ia niaiaaeatho.

(?en. 10).

?en. 10

I?iaeoeee naaoiauo aaeoi?ia yoeo aiei ia niioaaonoaothuea ine
eciaiythony ii caeiio:

(2)

, e ?aaainoaa aiieeooae neeaaeuaaaiuo aiei, yeeein i?aa?auaaony a
ie?oaeiinoue.

:

-aeeeia aieiu a aaeooia.

?en. 11

, iaaeaeo eieaaaieyie eioi?uo aoaeao nouanoaiaaoue ?aciinoue oac (?en.
11,a).

, iacuaaaony ieanoeieie a iieaieiu.

, a ieanoeiea aoaeao ?ani?ino?aiyoueny oieueei iaeei eo/
(iaiaueiiaaiiue eee iaueiiaaiiue), oae /oi naao ia auoiaea ec ieanoeiee
inoaiaony ieinei iiey?eciaaiiui.

Yenia?eiaioaeueiay /anoue.

1. Onoaiiaea.

.

?en. 12.

2. Ecia?aiey.

enoi/iee aeaao ia ieinei iiey?eciaaiioth aieio. Yoi aeaeii ec ?enoiea
13 (nenoaia eii?aeeiao iiey?iay).

?en. 13.

aieia noaiiaeony ieinei iiey?eciaaiiie (?en. 14).

?en. 14.

, a caaeneiinoe io oieueiu ae?aaaneiu aieia i?aa?auaaony ec ieinei
iiey?eciaaiiie a yeeeioe/anee iiey?eciaaiioth(a iiai neo/aa- yoi ii/oe
ieinei iiey?eciaaiiay aieia). Yoi iauyniyaony oai, /oi iaueiiaaiiue e
iaiaueiiaaiiue eo/e ?ani?ino?aiythony a aiecio?iiiie ae?aaaneia n
?acee/iie nei?inoueth, e i?e auoiaea eiatho ?aciua aiieeooaeu i?e
acaeiii ia?iaiaeeeoey?iie ieineinoe eieaaaiee (?en. 15).

?en. 15.

Eeoa?aoo?a.

Ia?oeicii A.I., Iaeia I.I., Yoeei A.N. «Eo?n iauae oeceee. Iioeea e
aoiiiay oeceea.» Iineaa, I?inaauaiea, 1981.

Eaiaenaa?a A.N. «Iioeea.» Iineaa, Iaoea, 1976.

Ieoaeee/aiei TH.I. «Aeaieiia eo/ai?aeiieaiea naioeiao?iauo
yeaeo?iiaaieoiuo aiei. Iaoiaee/aneea oeacaiey.» Oiine, 1986.

A. Ii?oen. «Aa?eeaaaneee eo?n oeceee. Oece/aneay eaai?aoi?ey.» Iineaa,
Iaoea, 1972.

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