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Динамические законы и механический детерминизм

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Министерство образования РФ

Камский государственный политехнический институт

?AOA?AO IA OAIO:

«AeEIAIE*ANEEA CAEIIU E IAOAIE*ANEEE AeAOA?IEIECI»

Auiieiee
nooaeaio:

a?.5109

I?iaa?ee:
THionia

Iaeeue Aeeyeiae/

a. Iaaa?aaeiua *aeiu

2003 a.

AeEIAIE*ANEEA CAEIIIIA?IINOE

Oece/aneea yaeaiey a iaoaieea, yeaeo?iiaaiaoecia e oai?ee
ioiineoaeueiinoe a iniiaiii iiae/eiythony, oae iacuaaaiui aeeiaie/aneei
caeiiiia?iinoyi. Aeeiaie/aneea caeiiu io?aaeatho iaeiicia/iua
i?e/eiii-neaaenoaaiiua nayce, iiae/eiythueany aeaoa?ieiecio Eaieana.

I?e/eia ———> NeaaenoaeaAeeiaie/aneea caeiiu – yoi caeiiu
Iuethoiia, o?aaiaiey Iaenaaeea, o?aaiaiey oai?ee ioiineoaeueiinoe.

Eeanne/aneay iaoaieea Iuethoiia.

Eaaeeo a iniiaa eeanne/aneie iaoaieee. A 1667 a. Iuethoii noi?ioee?iaae
o?e caeiia aeeiaieee, ninoaaeythuea iniiaiie ?acaeae eeanne/aneie
iaoaieee. Iniiao iaoaieee Iuethoiia ninoaaeytho caeii eia?oeee Aaeeeay,
aeaa caeiia ioe?uoua Iuethoiiii, e caeii Anaie?iiai oyaioaiey, ioe?uoue
oaeaea Enaaeii Iuethoiiii.

1. Niaeanii noi?ioee?iaaiiiio Aaeeeaai caeiio eia?oeee, oaei nio?aiyao
ninoiyiea iieiy eee ?aaiiia?iiai i?yiieeiaeiiai aeaeaeaiey aei oao ii?,
iiea aicaeaenoaea ni noi?iiu ae?oaeo oae ia auaaaeao aai ec yoiai
ninoiyiey.

Ia?aue caeii Iuethoiia: anyeay iaoa?eaeueiay oi/ea (oaei) nio?aiyao
ninoiyiea iieiy eee ?aaiiia?iiai i?yiieeiaeiiai aeaeaeaiey aei oao ii?,
iiea aicaeaenoaea ni noi?iiu ae?oaeo oae ia canoaaeo a? eciaieoue yoi
ninoiyiea.

No?aieaiea oaea nio?aieoue ninoiyiea iieiy eee ?aaiiia?iiai
i?yiieeiaeiiai aeaeaeaiey iacuaaaony eia?oiinoueth eee eia?oeeae.
Iiyoiio ia?aue caeii Iuethoiia iacuaatho oaeaea caeiiii eia?oeee

2. Yoio caeii onoaiaaeeaaao naycue iaaeaeo iannie oaea, neeie e
onei?aieai.

Aoi?ie caeii Iuethoiia: onei?aiea, i?eia?aoaaiia iaoa?eaeueiie oi/eie
(oaeii), i?iii?oeeiiaeueii aucuaathuae aai neea e ia?aoii
i?iii?oeeiiaeueii ianna iaoa?eaeueiie oi/ee (oaea)

Aoi?ie caeii ni?aaaaeeea oieueei a eia?oeeaeueiuo nenoaiao ion/aoa.
Ia?aue caeii iiaeii iieo/eoue ec aoi?iai.

3. Onoaiaaeeaaao naycue iaaeaeo neeie aeaenoaey e neeie
i?ioeaiaeaenoaey.

O?aoee caeii Iuethoiia: anyeia aeaenoaea iaoa?eaeueiuo oi/ae (oae) ae?oa
ia ae?oaa iineo oa?aeoa? acaeiiaeaenoaey; neeu, n eioi?uie aeaenoaotho
ae?oa ia ae?oaa iaoa?eaeueiua oi/ee ?aaiu ii iiaeoeth, i?ioeaiiieiaeii
iai?aaeaiu e aeaenoaotho aaeieue i?yiie, niaaeeiythuae yoe oi/ee.

4. A ea/anoaa IV caeiia aunooiaao caeii anaie?iiai oyaioaiey.

Aeaa ethauo oaea i?eoyaeaathony ae?oa e ae?oao n neeie
i?iii?oeeiiaeueiie ianna nee e ia?aoii i?iii?oeeiiaeueiie eaaae?aoo
?annoiyiey iaaeaeo oeaio?aie oae.

O?aaiaiey Iaenaaeea.

O?aaiaiey Iaenaaeea – iaeaieaa iauea o?aaiaiey aeey yeaeo?e/aneeo e
iaaieoiuo iieae a iieiyueony n?aaeao. A o/aiee ia yeaeo?iiaaiaoecia iie
ea?atho oaeoth aea ?ieue, eae caeiiu Iuethoiia a iaoaieea. Ec o?aaiaiee
Iaenaaeea neaaeoao, /oi ia?aiaiiia iaaieoiia iiea anaaaea naycaii n
ii?iaeaeaaiui ei yeaeo?e/aneei iieai, a ia?aiaiiia yeaeo?e/aneia iiea
naycaii n ii?iaeaeaaiui ei iaaieoiui, o. a. yeaeo?e/aneia e iaaieoiia
iiey ia?ac?uaii naycaiu ae?oa n ae?oaii – iie ia?acotho aaeeiia
yeaeo?iiaaieoiia iiea.

Ec o?aaiaiee Iaenaaeea neaaeoao, /oi enoi/ieeaie yeaeo?e/aneiai
iiey iiaoo auoue eeai yeaeo?e/aneea ca?yaeu, eeai eciaiythueany ai
a?aiaie iaaieoiua iiey, a iaaieoiua iiey iiaoo aicaoaeaeaoueny eeai
aeaeaeoueieny yeaeo?e/aneeie ca?yaeaie (yeaeo?e/aneeie oieaie), eeai
ia?aiaiiuie yeaeo?e/aneeie iieyie. O?aaiaiey Iaenaaeea ia neiiao?e/iu
ioiineoaeueii yeaeo?e/aneiai e iaaieoiiai iieae. Yoi naycaii n oai, /oi
a i?e?iaea nouanoaotho yeaeo?e/aneea ca?yaeu, ii iao ca?yaeia iaaieoiuo.

O?aaiaiey oai?ee ioiineoaeueiinoe.

Niaoeeaeueiay oai?ey ioiineoaeueiinoe, i?eioeeiu eioi?ie noi?ioee?iaae a
1905 a. A. Yeiooaei, i?aaenoaaeyao niaie nia?aiaiioth oece/aneoth
oai?eth i?ino?ainoaa e a?aiaie, a eioi?ie, eae e a eeanne/aneie
iuethoiiianeie iaoaieea, i?aaeiieaaaaony, /oi a?aiy iaeii?iaeii, a
i?ino?ainoai iaeii?iaeii e ecio?iiii. Niaoeeaeueiay oai?ey /anoi
iacuaaaony ?aeyoeaenoneie oai?eae, a niaoeeoe/aneea yaeaiey, iienuaaaiua
yoie oai?eae – ?aeyoeaenoneei yooaeoii (yooaeo caiaaeeaiey a?aiaie).

A iniiaa niaoeeaeueiie oai?ee ioiineoaeueiinoe eaaeao iinooeaou
Yeiooaeia:

1. i?eioeei ioiineoaeueiinoe: ieeaeea iiuou (iaoaie/aneea,
yeaeo?e/aneea, iioe/aneea), i?iaaaeaiiua a aeaiiie eia?oeeaeueiie
nenoaia ion/aoa, ia aeatho aiciiaeiinoe iaia?oaeeoue, iieieony ee yoa
nenoaia eee aeaeaeaony ?aaiiia?ii e i?yiieeiaeii; ana caeiiu i?e?iaeu
eiaa?eaioiu ii ioiioaieth e ia?aoiaeo io iaeiie eia?oeeaeueiie nenoaiu e
ae?oaie;

2. i?eioeei eiaa?eaioiinoe nei?inoe naaoa: nei?inoue naaoa a aaeooia ia
caaeneo io nei?inoe aeaeaeaiey naaoa eee iaaethaeaoaey e iaeeiaeiaa ai
anao eia?oeeaeueiuo nenoaiao ion/aoa.

Ia?aue iinooeao, yaeyynue iaiauaieai iaoaie/aneiai i?eioeeia
ioiineoaeueiinoe Aaeeeay ia ethaua oece/aneea i?ioeannu, ooaa?aeaeaao
oaeei ia?acii, /oi oece/aneea caeiiu eiaa?eaioiu ii ioiioaieth e auai?o
eia?oeeaeueiie nenoaiu ion/aoa, a o?aaiaiey, iienuaathuea yoe caeiiu,
iaeeiaeiau ii oi?ia ai anao eia?oeeaeueiuo nenoaiao ion/aoa. Niaeanii
yoiio iinooeaoo, ana eia?oeeaeueiua nenoaiu ion/aoa niaa?oaiii
?aaiii?aaiu, o. a. yaeaiey iaoaie/aneea, yeaeo?iaeeiaie/aneea,
iioe/aneea e ae?. ai anao eia?oeeaeueiuo nenoaiao ion/aoa i?ioaeatho
iaeeiaeiai.

Niaeanii aoi?iio iinooeaoo, iinoiyinoai nei?inoe naaoa a aaeooia –
ooiaeaiaioaeueiia naienoai i?e?iaeu.

Iauay oai?ey ioiineoaeueiinoe, iacuaaaiay eiiaaea oai?eae oyaioaiey
– ?acoeueoao ?acaeoey niaoeeaeueiie oai?ee ioiineoaeueiinoe. Ec iaa
auoaeaao, /oi naienoaa i?ino?ainoaa-a?aiaie a aeaiiie iaeanoe
ii?aaeaeythony aeaenoaothueie a iae iieyie oyaioaiey. I?e ia?aoiaea e
einie/aneei ianooaaai aaiiao?ey i?ino?ainoaa-a?aiaie iiaeao eciaiyony io
iaeiie iaeanoe e ae?oaie a caaeneiinoe io eiioeaio?aoeee iann a yoeo
iaeanoyo e eo aeaeaeaiey.

IAOAIE*ANEEE AeAOA?IEIECI

Aeaoa?ieienou n/eoatho, /oi ana i?ienoiaeyuaa a ie?a ?anniao?eaaaony eae
neaaenoaea aeaenoaey iauaeoeaiuo iaeiicia/iuo caeiiia, a neo/aeiinoue
yaeyaony au?aaeaieai iaiiciaiiie iaiaoiaeeiinoe

I?e/eiiia iauyniaiea iiiaeo oece/aneeo yaeaiee, o.a. ?aaeueiia
aiieiuaiea ca?iaeeaoaainy au? a ae?aaiinoe i?eioeeia i?e/eiiinoe a
anoanoaiciaiee, i?eaaei a eiioea XVIII – ia/aea XIX aa. e iaecaaaeiie
aaniethoecaoeee eeanne/aneie iaoaieee. Aicieeei oeeinioneia o/aiea
iaoaie/aneee aeaoa?ieieci, eeanne/aneei i?aaenoaaeoaeai eioi?iai aue
Iuea? Neiii Eaiean (1749-1827) – o?aioeocneee iaoaiaoee, oecee e
oeeinio. Eaieanianeee aeaoa?ieieci au?aaeaao eaeath aaniethoiiai
aeaoa?ieiecia – oaa?aiiinoue a oii, /oi an? i?ienoiaeyuaa eiaao i?e/eio
a /aeiaa/aneii iiiyoee e anoue iaiiciaiiay ?acoiii iaiaoiaeeiinoue.

I?eioeeiu aeaoa?ieiecia auee /aoei noi?ioee?iaaiu I.Eaieanii a 1775
aiaeo a aai ?aaioa “Iiuou oeeinioee oai?ee aa?iyoiinoe”. Ii ienae: “oi,
eioi?iio auee au ecaanoiu aeey eaeiai-eeai aeaiiiai iiiaioa ana neeu,
iaeooaaeythuea i?e?iaeo, anee au aaeiaaaie ii ieacaeny aeinoaoi/ii
iaoe?iui, /oiau iiae/eieoue ana aeaiiua aiaeeco, iaiye au a iaeiie
oi?ioea aeaeaeaiey aaee/aeoeo oae Anaeaiiie ia?aaia n aeaeaeaieyie
eaa/aeoeo aoiiia; ia inoaeinue au ie/aai, /oi auei au aeey iaai
iaaeinoiaa?ii, e aoaeouaa, oae aea eae e i?ioaaeoaa i?aaenoaei au ia?aae
aai aci?ii”

Eiioeaioeey aeaoa?ieiecia ii Eaieano, i?aaeiieaaaao iaeiicia/iinoue e
i?aaeii?aaeaeaiiinoue aoaeouaai, yoi auoaeaao ec i?eciaiey aeanoeie
i?e/eiii-neaaenoaaiiie nayce iaaeaeo niauoeyie e yaeaieyie e io?eoeaao
iauaeoeaiinoue neo/aeiinoe. A ie?a ana iauaeoeaii i?aaeii?aaeaeaii e
aeaoa?ieie?iaaii. Ia iiaeao auoue ieeaeeo “eeai, eeai”. Aoaeouaa oaeaea
iaeiicia/ii, eae e i?ioeia. Ana, /oi i?ienoiaeeei, i?ienoiaeeo e aoaeao
i?ienoiaeeoue a ie?a, iiaeii n?aaieoue n aeaiiino?aoeeae aaneiia/iiai
oeeueia, a eioi?ii i?ioaeatho ?aciua niauoey, aai aa?ie aeeaoo e
oie?atho, aeaenoaotho e ioeaathony, noaeeeaathony n eaaeoueieny
neo/aeiinoyie e iaiaeeaeaiiinoyie, ii ana yoi oaea niyoi ia ieaieo e
ie/aai eciaieoue iaeuecy. Ana cai?ia?aiie?iaaii iauaeoeaiie
aeaoa?ieienoe/aneie naycueth e iiae/eiaii aeanoeiio noeaia?eth,
nicaeaiiiio naiui i?ici?eeaui noeaia?enoii – i?e?iaeie. Yoio i?ioeann
iaoiaeeo io?aaeaiea a iai?a?uaii aeaenoaothueo i?e/eiii-neaaenoaaiiuo
naycyo.

Eaieanianeee aeaoa?ieieci iniiauaaaony ia i?aaenoaaeaiee, niaeanii
eioi?iio aanue ie?oaeathuee ian ie? – yoi ia?iiiay iaoaie/aneay nenoaia,
ia/aeueiia ninoiyiea eioi?ie yaeyaony oi/ii caaeaiiui e a eioi?ie ia
aeaeaaony ieeaeiai ?acee/ey iaaeaeo aeaeaeaieyie «aaee/aeoeo oae
Anaeaiiie e eaa/aeoeo aoiiia»

?acoiaaony, Eaiean ioaeaaae naaa io/ao a oii, /oi oaeay neooaoeey a
?aaeueiii ie?a iaaiciiaeia e iiyoiio iia i?aaenoaaeyao niaie
eaeaaeecaoeeth, ii a oi aea a?aiy iaeuecy ia i?eciaoue, /oi a a? iniiaa
eaaeeo eiaiii iaoaienoe/aneee acaeyae ia ie?, niaeanii eioi?iio
Anaeaiiay oiiaeiaeyaony aeaaioneiio iaoaiecio, ana aoaeouea ninoiyiey
eioi?iai no?iai aeaoa?ieie?iaaiu eee i?aaeii?aaeaeaiu aai ia/aeueiui
ninoiyieai.

Iaoaie/aneee aeaoa?ieieci iauaaeeiyao a aaeeiia oeaeia oaeea iiiyoey,
eae “iaoa?ey”, “eioi?iaoeey”, “i?ino?ainoai” e “a?aiy”. Ana yoe iiiyoey
aeieaeiu ?anniao?eaaoueny eae ?aciua i?iyaeaiey aaeeiiai ia/oi, eioi?ia
oneiaii iiaeao auoue iacaaii aaniethoii.

1. Aaeaeo iaeiicia/iinoe aeeiaie/aneeo caeiiia i?e?iaeu, aoaeouaa oaeaea
iaeiicia/ii eae e i?ioeia. Ia nouanoaoao ieeaeeo neo/aeiuo niauoee,
neo/aeiinoue – yoi iaiiciaiiay iaiaoiaeeiinoue.

2. A?aiy – yoi n?aaenoai ?aaeecaoeee i?e/eiii-neaaenoaaiiuo naycae, a
oae eae i?e/eia anaaaea i?aaeoanoaoao neaaenoaeth, oi oa/aiea a?aiaie
anaaaea iaeiicia/ii e iaeiiiai?aaeaii.

3. Ia?aiauaiea ai a?aiaie aiciiaeii oieueei io i?e/eiu e neaaenoaeth.
Iiyoiio ia?aiauaiea a i?ioeia ec aoaeouaai aiciiaeii oieueei a oii
neo/aa, anee yoi ia?aiauaiea eneeth/aao aiciiaeiinoue eaeiai-eeai
aeoeaiiai aiaoaoaeuenoaa a oa/aiea i?ioeiai.

4. Aianoa n oai aiciiaeii ianneaiia ia?aiauaiea, eae a i?ioeia, oae e a
aoaeouaa, i?e oneiaee oieueei iaaethaeaiey ca i?ienoiaeyuei e
iaaiciiaeiinoe aeoeaiiai aicaeaenoaey ia iaai. Aiciiaeii oieueei
ianneaiia nica?oeaiea ea?oei i?ienoiaeeaoaai e aoaeouaai.

5. Oa/aiea a?aiaie iiaeao i?ienoiaeeoue a ?aciuo eii?aeeiaoiuo
nenoaiao, ia niaiaaeathueo ae?oa n ae?oaii, iaeiaei ia?aoiae ec iaeiie –
a ae?oaoth, ia iiaeao i?eaanoe e ia?ooaieth i?e/eiii-a?aiaiiuo naycae e
iaeiicia/iinoe aoaeouaai.

Eiae/aneei neaaenoaeai e i?iaeieaeaieai ?aaio Eaieana yaeeenue
enneaaeiaaiey aai o/aieea e iineaaeiaaoaey A.Eaoea. Aace?oynue ia
aeaoa?ieienoe/aneeo eiioeaioeey, ii i?aaeiieiaeee, /oi iineieueeo
iauaeoeaii neo/aeiuo niauoee iao, oi niauoey e yaeaiey, eioi?ua
ioiinyony e eaoaai?ee neo/aeiuo aaeaeo iaoaai iaciaiey, aeieaeiu, a
eiia/iii n/aoa, io?aaeaoue ii?aaeaeaiiua caeiiiia?iinoe
aeaoa?ienoe/aneeo naycae. A niioaaonoaee n yoei Eaoee i?iaiaeeo
ouaoaeueiue noaoenoe/aneee aiaeec i?anooiiinoe ai O?aioeee, Aaeueaee e
Aaeeeia?eoaiee.

Iaoe niiniaiinoe i?aaeneacuaaoue niauoey ia?aie/aiu ii ?aciui i?e/eiai,
ii, eae oeacuaae aua Eaiean, aaneiia/ii niiniaiia nouanoai auei au a
ninoiyiee yoi aeaeaoue. Aeaaiia ooo, eiia/ii, a oii, /oi nai ie?,
eioi?ue e iienuaaao iaoaieea, oaeia, /oi a i?eioeeia iicaieyao yoi
naeaeaoue, a nai ie? yoi e aeaeaao, oae eae aeey iaai iao
ecia?eoaeueii-au/eneeoaeueiuo o?oaeiinoae: eae au?aceeny Yeiooaei,
i?e?iaea eioaa?e?oao (“?ann/eouaaao” naia aoaeouaa ninoiyiea)
yiie?e/anee. Nai ie? aeaoa?ieienoe/ai, e eeanne/aneay iaoaieea yoi
naienoai, eae i?aaenoaaeyeinue, aa?ii io?aaeaea. Oaeie aea
aeaoaieienoe/iie auea e eeanne/aneay oai?ey yeaeo?iiaaiaoecia.

Eaiean ?anniao?eaae “nenoaio ie?a a aaeeiii oeaeii, aaea ana
acaeiinaycaii e ii?aaeaeyaony aeaenoaeai “aaeeeeo caeiiia i?e?iaeu”, a
neo/ae – yoi eeoue “i?iyaeaiea iaaaaeaiey””. Iiiyoea iaiaoiaeeiinoe ii
ioiineo e iauaeoeaiie ?aaeueiinoe, n/eoay iaiouaieaiui naienoaii
iaoa?ee, aia caaeneiinoe io aini?eyoey yoie iauaeoeaiie ?aaeueiinoe.
?acaeaay yoo iuneue Eaiean ienae:

” Oi, eioi?iio auee au ecaanoiu aeey eaeiai-eeai aeaiiiai iiiaioa ana
neeu, iaeooaaeythuea i?e?iaeo, e ioiineoaeueiia iieiaeaiea anao aa
ninoaaeythueo /anoae, anee au aaeiaaaie ii ieacaeny aeinoaoi/ii
iaoe?iui, /oiau iiae/eieoue yoe aeaiiua aiaeeco, iaiye au a iaeiie
oi?ioea aeaeaeaiey aaee/aeoeo oae Anaeaiiie ia?aaia n aeaeaeaieai
eaa/aeoeo aoiiia: ia inoaeinue au ie/aai, /oi auei au aeey iaai
iaaeinoiaa?ii, e aoaeouaa, eae e i?ioaaeoaa i?aaenoaei au ia?aae aai
aci?ii. Oi /aeiaaea … aeaao iai i?aaenoaaeaiea i neaaii iaa?inea yoiai
?acoia.”

A niioaaonoaee n aeaoa?ieienoe/aneie eiioeaioeeae a ie?a ana iauaeoeaii
i?aaeii?aaeaeaii e aeaoa?ieie?iaaii. Ia iiaeao auoue ieeaeeo “eeai,
eeai”. Aoaeouaa oaeaea iaeiicia/ii, eae e i?ioeia. Ana, /oi
i?ienoiaeeei, i?ienoiaeeo e aoaeao i?ienoiaeeoue ai Anaeaiiie, iiaeii
n?aaieoue n aeaiiino?aoeeae aaneiia/iiai oeeueia, a eioi?ii i?ienoiaeyo
?aciua niauoey, aai aa?ie aeeaoo e oie?atho, aeaenoaotho e ioeaathony,
noaeeeaathony n eaaeoueieny neo/aeiinoyie e iaiaeeaeaiiinoyie, ii ana
yoi i?aaeii?aaeaeaii, eae au niyoi ia ieaieo e ie/aai oaea eciaieoue
iaaiciiaeii. Ana cai?ia?aiie?iaaii iauaeoeaiie aeaoa?ieienoe/aneie
naycueth e iiae/eiaii aeanoeiio noeaia?eth, nicaeaiiiio naiui
i?ici?eeaui noeaia?enoii – i?e?iaeie. Yoio i?ioeann iaoiaeeo io?aaeaiea
a iai?a?uaii aeaenoaothueo i?e/eiii-neaaenoaaiiuo naycyo.

A niioaaonoaee n aeaoa?ieienoe/aneie eiioeaioeeae /aeiaae iiae/eiyaony
eiae/aneie iaiaoiaeeiinoe, ia iniciaaay yoiai, ii aeaenoaoao
naiinoiyoaeueii, ii eia/a iinooieoue ia iiaeao. Aeaaea a iniiaa, a iaoai
i?aaenoaaeaiee, naiuo aano?aeiuo, aeiae/iuo iinooieao ne?uoa
ii?aaeaeaiiay eiaeea, iaiiiyoiay iai. A yoie nayce eiiaaea i?eoiaeeony
neuoaoue ooaa?aeaeaiey, /oi anee aoaeouaa iaeiicia/ii, oi
aeaoa?ieienoe/aneea acaeyaeu ii naiaio oa?aeoa?o aiaeiae/iu n
i?iiiaaaeueth oaoaeecia.

Aeaaiue iaaeinoaoie eaieanianieiai, eae e ethaiai ae?oaiai
iaoaienoe/aneiai aeaoa?ieiecia, ninoieo i?aaeaea anaai a oii, /oi ii
i?aaenoaaeyao ie?, Anaeaiioth eae nenoaio, iieiinoueth
aeaoa?ieie?iaaiioth eneeth/eoaeueii caeiiaie iaoaieee. A oaeii ie?a ia
auei au ie/aai iaii?aaeaeaiiiai e neo/aeiiai. A nayce n yoei naia
neo/aeiinoue ii nouanoao eneeth/aaony ec i?e?iaeu e iauanoaa.

Oaeie acaeyae ia neo/aeiinoue aue i?iaeeeoiaai iaoaieoeeciii noa?iai
iaoaoece/aneiai iaoa?eaeecia, iieo/eaoaai iaeaieaa y?eia au?aaeaiea ai
o?aioeocneii iaoa?eaeecia XVIII a. iiaeiaiuo aea aicc?aiee ia
neo/aeiinoue i?eaea?aeeaaeenue iiiaea o/aiua oie yiioe. Eaiean,
iai?eia?, n/eoae neo/aeiui oi, i?e/eio /aai iu ia ciaai eee ia iiaeai
oi/ii auyaeoue a? neaaenoaey. N yoeo iiceoeee ii ?anniao?eaaao e
aa?iyoiinoue, eiaaea oeacuaaao, /oi iia «iaoneiaeeaaaony io/anoe yoei
iaciaieai, a io/anoe iaoei ciaieai».

Noi?iiieee iaoaie/aneiai aeaoa?ieiecia aaniethoece?otho eaoaai?eth
iaiaoiaeeiinoe, i?eciaaay iiaeeeiiuie eeoue oieaa?naeueiua caeiiu, e
eneeth/atho neo/aeiinoe ec ie?a. Anee iineaaeiaaoaeueii
i?eaea?aeeaaoueny oaeie oi/ee c?aiey, oi iaecaaaeii i?eaeaony i?eciaoue
e i?aaeii?aaeaeaiiinoue anao niauoee a ie?a e naycaiiue n iei
oaoaeenoe/aneee acaeyae ia ie?.

Ioeai/iinoue oaeeo acaeyaeia – a iaiiieiaiee aeeaeaeoe/aneie acaeiinayce
iaaeaeo neo/aeiui e iaiaoiaeeiui, eiaaea iie ?anniao?eaathony
iainiaeaiii ae?oa io ae?oaa e i?ioeaiiinoaaeythony ae?oa ae?oao. A
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe aea iaiaoiaeeiinoue aicieeaao eae ?acoeueoao
acaeiiaeaenoaey iiiaeo neo/aeiinoae, i /ai naeaeaoaeuenoaotho
noaoenoe/aneea caeiiu. A naith i/a?aaeue neo/aeiinoe aunooiatho a oi?ia
i?iyaeaiey e aeiiieiaiey iaiaoiaeeiinoe, iineieueeo oieaa?naeueiua eee
no?iai aeaoa?ieienoneea caeiiu a /enoii aeaea ia nouanoaotho. I?e eo
onoaiiaeaiee iu ioaeaeaainy io iaeioi?uo aoi?inoaiaiiuo oaeoi?ia,
eioi?ua ?anniao?eaathony i?e yoii eae neo/aeiua, eai ia ieacuaatho
nouanoaaiiiai aeeyiey ia oiae i?ioeannia.

Eeoa?aoo?a.

1. Ea?iaieia N.O. Eiioeaioeee nia?aiaiiiai anoanoaiciaiey. I.: 2001

2. ?ocaaei A.E. Eiioeaioeee nia?aiaiiiai anoanoaiciaiey. I: 2001

3. Oaeiiai E.N. Oa?aeoa? oece/aneeo caeiiia.

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