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Дифракция электронов. Электронный микроскоп

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Ainoaea?noaaiiue eiieoao

?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee ii aunoaio ia?aciaaieth.

Eaoaae?a iauae oeceee.

?aoa?ao ia oaio:

«Aeeo?aeoeey yeaeo?iiia.

Yeaeo?iiiue iee?ineii».

Oaeoeueoao: AAO.

Eaoaae?a: ANO.

A?oiia: A-513.

Nooaeaio: Ai?cia Aiae?ae Ieeieaaae/.

I?aiiaeaaaoaeue: Onieueoeaaa Iaeee sseiaeaaia.

Aeaoa: 1 aeaeaa?y 1996 a.

Iiaineae?ne-96.

Niaea?aeaiea:

Iooue iee?ineiiee 3

I?aaeae iee?ineiiee 5

Iaaeaeeiua eceo/aiey 7

Yeaeo?iiu e yeaeo?iiiay iioeea 9

Yeaeo?iiu — aieiu!? 12

Ono?ienoai yeaeo?iiiiai iee?ineiia 13

Iauaeou yeaeo?iiiie iee?ineiiee 15

Aeaeu yeaeo?iiiuo iee?ineiiia 17

Iniaaiiinoe ?aaiou n yeaeo?iiiui iee?ineiiii
21

Iooe i?aiaeieaiey aeeo?aeoeeiiiiai i?aaeaea yeaeo?iiiie iee?ineiiee
23

Nienie eeoa?aoo?u 27

?enoiee 28

I?eia/aiey:

Neiaie ( icia/aao aicaaaeaiea a noaiaiue. Iai?eia?, 2(3 icia/aao «2 a
noaiaie 3».

Neiaie e icia/aao caienue /enea a iieacaoaeueiie oi?ia. Iai?eia?, 2e3
icia/aao «2, oiiiaeaiiia ia 10 a 3 noaiaie».

Ana ?enoiee iaoiaeyony ia iineaaeiae no?aieoea.

Aneaaenoaea eniieueciaaiey ia nianai «naaaeae» eeoa?aoo?u aeaiiua a
yoii ?aoa?aoa ia ioee/athony iniaie «naaaeanoueth».

Aeac ia aeaeae au Nieioea,

anee au ii ia aue iiaeiaai

Nieioeo.

A?oa.

Iooue iee?ineiiee.

Eiaaea ia ii?iaa XVII noieaoey aue nicaeai ia?aue iee?ineii, a?yae ee
eoi-eeai (e aeaaea aai ecia?aoaoaeue) iia i?aaenoaaeoue aoaeouea oniaoe
e iiiai/eneaiiua iaeanoe i?eiaiaiey iee?ineiiee. Iaeyaeuaaynue iacaae,
iu oaaaeaeaainy, /oi yoi ecia?aoaiea ciaiaiiaaei niaie ia/oi aieueoaa,
/ai nicaeaiea iiaiai ono?ienoaa: aia?aua /aeiaae iieo/ee aiciiaeiinoue
oaeaeaoue ?aiaa iaaeaeeiia.

I?eia?ii e yoiio aea a?aiaie ioiineony aua iaeii niauoea ( ecia?aoaiea
oaeaneiia, iicaieeaoaa oaeaeaoue iaaeaeeiia a ie?a ieaiao e caacae.
Ecia?aoaiea iee?ineiia e oaeaneiia i?aaenoaaeyei niaie ?aaiethoeeth ia
oieueei a niiniaao eco/aiey i?e?iaeu, ii e a naiii iaoiaea
enneaaeiaaiey.

Aeaenoaeoaeueii, iaoo?oeeiniou ae?aaiinoe iaaethaeaee i?e?iaeo, ociaaay
i iae oieueei oi, /oi aeaeae aeac, /oanoaiaaea eiaea, neuoaei ooi.
Iiaeii eeoue oaeeaeyoueny oiio, eae iiiai i?aaeeueiuo naaaeaiee ia
ie?oaeathuai ie?a iieo/eee iie, iieuecoynue «iaaii?oaeaiiuie» i?aaiaie
/oanoa e ia noaay niaoeeaeueiuo yenia?eiaioia, eae yoi aeaeatho nae/an.
Aianoa n oai ia?yaeo n oi/iuie oaeoaie e aaieaeueiuie aeiaaaeeaie eae
iiiai eiaeiuo «iaaethaeaiee», ooaa?aeaeaiee e auaiaeia inoaaeee iai
o/aiua ae?aaiinoe e n?aaeieo aaeia!

Eeoue cia/eoaeueii iicaeiaa aue iaeaeai iaoiae eco/aiey i?e?iaeu,
caeeth/athueeny a iinoaiiaea niciaoaeueii ieaie?oaiuo yenia?eiaioia,
oeaeueth eioi?uo yaeyaony i?iaa?ea i?aaeiieiaeaiee e /aoei
noi?ioee?iaaiiuo aeiioac. Iniaaiiinoe yoiai iaoiaea enneaaeiaaiey
O?yinen Ayeii – iaeei ec aai nicaeaoaeae – au?acee a neaaeothueo,
noaaoeo ciaiaieouie, neiaao: «Noaaeoue yenia?eiaio – yoi o/eiyoue
aeii?in i?e?iaea».Naiua ia?aua oaae yenia?eiaioaeueiiai iaoiaea ii
nia?aiaiiui i?aaenoaaeaieyi auee ne?iiiu, e a aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa
yenia?eiaioaoi?u oiai a?aiaie iaoiaeeeenue aac eaeeo-eeai ono?ienoa,
«oneeeaathueo» i?aaiu /oanoa. Ecia?aoaiea iee?ineiia e oaeaneiia
i?aaenoaaeyei niaie eieinnaeueiia ?anoe?aiea aiciiaeiinoae iaaethaeaiey
e yenia?eiaioa.

Oaea ia?aua iaaethaeaiey, i?iaaae?iiua n iiiiuueth naiie i?inoie e
ianiaa?oaiiie ii nia?aiaiiui i?aaenoaaeaieyi oaoieee, ioe?uee «oeaeue
ie? a eaiea aiaeu». Ieacaeinue, /oi ciaeiiua i?aaeiaou auaeyaeyo nianai
ii-eiiio, anee eo ?anniao?eaaoue a iee?ineii: aeaaeeea ia acaeyae e
iuoiue iiaa?oiinoe ieacuaathony a aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe oa?ioiaaouie, a
«/enoie» aiaea aeaeaeoony ie?eaaeu iaeue/aeoeo i?aaieciia. Oi/ii oae aea
ia?aua ano?iiiie/aneea iaaethaeaiey n iiiiuueth oaeaneiiia aeaee
aiciiaeiinoue /aeiaaeo ii-iiaiio oaeaeaoue i?eau/iue ie? ieaiao e
ca?cae: iai?eia?, iiaa?oiinoue Eoiu, ainiaoie iiyoaie anao iieieaiee,
ieacaeanue ai?enoie e eniau??iiie iiiai/eneaiiuie e?aoa?aie, a o Aaia?u
auea iaia?oaeaia niaia oac, eae e o Eoiu.

A aeaeueiaeoai yoe i?inoaeoea iaaethaeaiey aeaaeoo aeeciue
naiinoiyoaeueiui iaeanoyi iaoee ( iee?ineiiee e iaaethaeaoaeueiie
ano?iiiiee. I?ieaeoo aiaeu, e eaaeaeay ec yoeo iaeanoae ?aciaueaony a
iiiai/eneaiiua ?acaaoaeaiey, au?aaeathueany a oeaeii ?yaea naiuo
?acee/iuo i?eiaiaiee a aeieiaee, iaaeeoeeia, oaoieea, oeiee, oeceea,
iaaeaaoeee.

Nia?aiaiiua iee?ineiiu, eioi?ua a ioee/ea io yeaeo?iiiuo iu aoaeai
iacuaaoue iioe/aneeie, i?aaenoaaeytho niaie niaa?oaiiua i?eai?u,
iicaieythuea iieo/aoue aieueoea oaaee/aiey n aunieie ?ac?aoathuae
niiniaiinoueth. ?ac?aoathuay niiniaiinoue ii?aaeaeyaony ?annoiyieai, ia
eioi?ii aeaa ninaaeieo yeaiaioa no?oeoo?u iiaoo auoue au? aeaeeiu
?acaeaeueii. Iaeiaei, eae iieacaee enneaaeiaaiey, iioe/aneay iee?ineiiey
i?aeoe/anee aeinoeaea i?eioeeieaeueiiai i?aaeaea naieo aiciiaeiinoae
ec-ca aeeo?aeoeee e eioa?oa?aioeee ( yaeaiee, iaoneiaeaiiuo aieiiaie
i?e?iaeie naaoa.

Noaiaiue iiiio?iiaoe/iinoe e eiaa?aioiinoe yaeyaony aaaeiie
oa?aeoa?enoeeie aiei ethaie i?e?iaeu (yeaeo?iiaaieoiuo, caoeiauo e
ae?.). Iiiio?iiaoe/aneea eieaaaiey ( yoi eieaaaiey, ninoiyuea ec
neionieaeaeueiuo aiei iaeiie ii?aaeae?iiie /anoiou. Eiaaea iu
i?aaenoaaeyai eieaaaiey a aeaea i?inoie neionieaeu niioaaonoaaiii n
iinoiyiiuie aiieeooaeie, /anoioie e oacie, oi yoi yaeyaony ii?aaeae?iiie
eaeaaeecaoeeae, oae eae, no?iai aiai?y, a i?e?iaea ia nouanoaoao
eieaaaiee e aiei, aaniethoii oi/ii iienuaaaiuo neionieaeie. Iaeiaei, eae
iieacaee enneaaeiaaiey, ?aaeueiua eieaaaiey e aieiu iiaoo n aieueoae eee
iaiueoae noaiaiueth oi/iinoe i?eaeeaeaoueny e eaeaaeueiie neionieaea
(iaeaaeaoue aieueoae eee iaiueoae noaiaiueth iiiio?iiaoe/iinoe).
Eieaaaiey e aieiu neiaeiie oi?iu iiaeii i?aaenoaaeoue a aeaea iaai?a
neionieaeaeueiuo eieaaaiee e aiei. Ii nooe aeaea, yoo iaoaiaoe/aneoth
iia?aoeeth inouanoaeyao i?ecia, ?aceaaathuay a oeaaoiie niaeo? nieia/iue
naao.

Iiiio?iiaoe/aneea aieiu, a oii /enea e naaoiaua, iaeiie e oie aea
/anoiou (i?e ii?aaeae?iiuo oneiaeyo!) iiaoo acaeiiaeaenoaiaaoue iaaeaeo
niaie oaeei ia?acii, /oi a ?acoeueoaoa «naao i?aa?aoeony a oaiiioo» eee,
eae aiai?yo, aieiu iiaoo eioa?oa?e?iaaoue. I?e eioa?oa?aioeee
i?ienoiaeyo ianoiua «oneeaiey e iiaeaaeaiey» aiei ae?oa ae?oaii. Aeey
oiai /oiau ea?oeia eioa?oa?aioeee aiei inoaaaeanue iaeciaiiie n oa/aieai
a?aiaie (iai?eia?, i?e ?anniao?eaaiee a? aeacii eee oioia?aoe?iaaiee),
iaiaoiaeeii, /oiau aieiu auee iaaeaeo niaie eiaa?aioiu (aeaa aieiu
eiaa?aioiu iaaeaeo niaie, anee iie aeatho onoie/eaoth ea?oeio
eioa?oa?aioeee, /aio niioaaonoaotho ?aaainoaa eo /anoio e iaeciaiiue
naeaea oac).

Anee ia iooe ?ani?ino?aiaiey aiei iiianoeoue i?aiyonoaey, oi iie aoaeoo
nouanoaaiii aeeyoue ia iai?aaeaiea ?ani?ino?aiaiey yoeo aiei. Oaeeie
i?aiyonoaeyie iiaoo auoue e?ay ioaa?noee a ye?aiao, iai?ic?a/iua
i?aaeiaou, a oaeaea ethaua ae?oaea aeaeu iaiaeii?iaeiinoae ia iooe
?ani?ino?aiaiey aiei. A /anoiinoe, iaiaeii?iaeiinoyie iiaoo auoue oaeaea
e i?ic?a/iua (aeey aeaiiiai eceo/aiey) i?aaeiaou, ii ioee/athueany ii
eiyooeoeeaioo i?aeiieaiey, a cia/eo, e ii nei?inoe i?ioiaeaeaiey aiei
aioo?e ieo. ssaeaiea eciaiaiey iai?aaeaiey ?ani?ino?aiaiey aiei i?e
i?ioiaeaeaiee eo aaeece i?aiyonoaee iacuaatho aeeo?aeoeeae. Iau/ii
aeeo?aeoeey nii?iaiaeaeaaony eioa?oa?aioeeiiiuie yaeaieyie.

I?aaeae iee?ineiiee .

Ecia?aaeaiea, iieo/aaiia i?e iiiiue ethaie iioe/aneie nenoaiu, anoue
?acoeueoao eioa?oa?aioeee ?acee/iuo /anoae naaoiaie aieiu, i?ioaaeoae
/a?ac yoo nenoaio. A /anoiinoe, ecaanoii, /oi ia?aie/aiea naaoiaie aieiu
aoiaeiui c?a/eii nenoaiu (e?ayie eeic, ca?eae e aeeao?aai, ninoaaeythueo
iioe/aneoth nenoaio) e naycaiiia n iei yaeaiea aeeo?aeoeee i?eaiaeeo e
oiio, /oi naaoyuayny oi/ea aoaeao ecia?aaeaia a aeaea aeeo?aeoeeiiiiai
e?oaeea. Yoi ianoiyoaeuenoai ia?aie/eaaao aiciiaeiinoue ?acee/aoue
iaeeea aeaoaee ecia?aaeaiey, oi?ie?oaiiai iioe/aneie nenoaiie.
Ecia?aaeaiea, iai?eia?, aaneiia/ii oaeae?iiiai enoi/ieea naaoa (caacaeu)
a ?acoeueoaoa aeeo?aeoeee ia e?oaeii c?a/ea (ii?aaa c?eoaeueiie o?oau),
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie aeiaieueii neiaeioth ea?oeio (ni. ?en. 1). Ia yoie
ea?oeia iiaeii oaeaeaoue iaai? eiioeaio?e/aneeo naaoeuo e o?iiuo eieaoe.
?ani?aaeaeaiea inaau?iiinoae, eioi?ia iiaeii caoeene?iaaoue, anee
aeaeaaoueny io oeaio?a ea?oeiu e a? e?ayi, iienuaaaony aeiaieueii
neiaeiuie oi?ioeaie, eioi?ua i?eaiaeyony a eo?nao iioeee. Iaeiaei
caeiiiia?iinoe, naienoaaiiua iieiaeaieth ia?aiai (io oeaio?a ea?oeiu)
o?iiiai eieueoea, auaeyaeyo i?inoi. Iaicia/ei /a?ac D aeeaiao? aoiaeiiai
c?a/ea iioe/aneie nenoaiu e /a?ac ( aeeeio aieiu naaoa, iinueaaiiai
aaneiia/ii oaeae?iiui enoi/ieeii.

?en. 1. Aeeo?aeoeeiiiia ecia?aaeaiea naaoyuaeny oi/ee (oae iacuaaaiue
aeene Ye?e).

Anee iaicia/eoue /a?ac j oaie, iiae eioi?ui aeaeai ?aaeeon ia?aiai
o?iiiai eieueoea, oi eae aeieacuaaaony a iioeea

sin ( ( 1,22(((/D).

Oaeei ia?acii, a ?acoeueoaoa ia?aie/aiey aieiiaiai o?iioa e?ayie
iioe/aneie nenoaiu (aoiaeiui c?a/eii) aianoi ecia?aaeaiey naaoyuaeny
oi/ee, niioaaonoaothuae aaneiia/ii oaeaeaiiiio iauaeoo, iu iieo/aai
iaai? aeeo?aeoeeiiiuo eieaoe. Anoanoaaiii, /oi yoi yaeaiea ia?aie/eaaao
aiciiaeiinoue ?acee/aiey aeaoo aeecei ?aniieiaeaiiuo oi/a/iuo enoi/ieeia
naaoa. Aeaenoaeoaeueii, a neo/aa aeaoo oaeaeaiiuo enoi/ieeia, iai?eia?
aeaoo caacae, ?aniieiaeaiiuo i/aiue aeecei ae?oa e ae?oao ia iaaaniii
naiaea, a ieineinoe iaaethaeaiey ia?acothony aeaa nenoaiu
eiioeaio?e/aneeo eieaoe. I?e ii?aaeaeaiiuo oneiaeyo iie iiaoo
ia?ae?uaaoueny, e ?acee/aiea enoi/ieeia noaiiaeony iaaiciiaeiui. Ia
neo/aeii iiyoiio a niioaaonoaee n «?aeiiaiaeaoeeae» oi?ioeu,
i?eaaaeaiiie auoa, no?aiyony no?ieoue ano?iiiie/aneea oaeaneiiu n
aieueoeie ?acia?aie aoiaeiiai c?a/ea. I?aaeae ?ac?aoaiey, i?e eioi?ii
iiaoo iaaethaeaoueny aeaa aeecei ?aniieiaeaiiuo enoi/ieea naaoa,
ii?aaeaeytho neaaeothuei ia?acii: aeey ii?aaeaeaiiinoe a ea/anoaa
i?aaeaea ?ac?aoaiey i?eieiatho oaeia iieiaeaiea aeeo?aeoeeiiiuo
ecia?aaeaiee aeaoo oi/a/iuo enoi/ieeia naaoa, i?e eioi?ii ia?aia o?iiia
eieueoei, nicaeaaaaiia iaeiei ec enoi/ieeia, niaiaaeaao n oeaio?ii
naaoeiai iyoia, nicaeaaaaiiai ae?oaei enoi/ieeii.

?en. 2. E?eaay ?ani?aaeaeaiey eioaineaiinoe a aeeo?aeoeeiiiie ea?oeia io
aeaoo oi/a/iuo enoi/ieeia naaoa.

d ( ?annoiyiea iaaeaeo oeaio?aeueiuie iaeneioiaie, M ( oaaee/aiea
iioe/aneie nenoaiu.

Ia ?en. 2 i?eaaae?i a?aoee, oa?aeoa?ecothuee ?ani?aaeaeaiea
eioaineaiinoe naaoa i?e iaeiaeaiee aeeo?aeoeeiiiuo ea?oei aeaoo aeecei
?aniieiaeaiiuo oi/a/iuo enoi/ieeia naaoa aeey neo/ay, niioaaonoaothuaai
e?eoa?eth ?aeay. Ii ine aanoeenn ioeiaeaia aaee/eia, i?iii?oeeiiaeueiay
?annoiyieth io oeaio?a (ni. ?en. 1). Nieioiay oiieay e?eaa oa?aeoa?ecoao
?ani?aaeaeaiea eioaineaiinoe naaoa, nicaeaaaaiia ia?aui enoi/ieeii;
ioieoe?iay e?eaay ioiineony ei aoi?iio ec ?ac?aoaaiuo enoi/ieeia. Ia?aua
iaeneioiu ii aunioa (o.a. eioaineaiinoe) caiaoii auoa iineaaeothueo,
niioaaonoaothueo eioaineaiinoe naaoa a eieueoeao, oaeae?iiuo io oeaio?a
(ni. ?en. 1). Nieioiay oienoay e?eaay oa?aeoa?ecoao noiia?iia
?ani?aaeaeaiea eioaineaiinoe naaoa.

Oai?ey iieacuaaao, /oi a neo/aa ?ac?aoaiey ii e?eoa?eth ?aeay oaie (,
iiae eioi?ui aeaeiu aeaa enneaaeoaiuo enoi/ieea naaoa, ?aaai:

( ( 0,61(((/D). *anoi eniieuecoaony aaee/eia A, ia?aoiay i?aaeaeueiiio
oaeo (:

A=(1/()=D/(0,61((),

iinyuay iacaaiea ?ac?aoathuae neeu iioe/aneie nenoaiu.

I?eaaae?iiua iniiaiua caeiiiia?iinoe iaoneiaeaiu aieiiaie i?e?iaeie
naaoa e ia?aie/eaatho aiciiaeiinoue ?ac?aoaiey enoi/ieeia n iiiiuueth
ethauo iioe/aneeo nenoai, a oii /enea a ano?iiiiee e iee?ineiiee.
Neaaeoao iiae/a?eiooue, /oi i?eaaae?iiay oi?ioea niioaaonoaoao neo/ath
naiinaaoyueony iauaeoia, iinueathueo iaeiaa?aioiua aieiu. Eae ecaanoii,
n iiiiuueth iee?ineiiia /anoi ?anniao?eaatho iauaeou, inaauaaiua
iinoi?iiiei enoi/ieeii; yoi cia/eo, /oi ioaeaeueiua oi/ee iauaeoa
?annaeaatho naaoiaua aieiu, enoiaeyuea ec iaeiie e oie aea oi/ee
enoi/ieea, e naao, eaeouee io ?aciuo oi/ae iauaeoa, ieacuaaaony iiyoiio
a cia/eoaeueiie ia?a eiaa?aioiui. Ii?aaeaeaiea ?ac?aoathuae niiniaiinoe
iee?ineiia a neo/aa eiaa?aioiiai inaauaiey, i?iaiaeeiia ii iaoiaeo Aaaa,
i?eaiaeeo e aiaeiae/iiio ?acoeueoaoo (iaeioi?ia ?acee/ea a /eneaiiuo
eiyooeoeeaioao ianouanoaaiii, iineieueeo aiiaua iiiyoea ?ac?aoathuae
niiniaiinoe ianeieueei oneiaii).

I?aaeaeueioth ?ac?aoathuoth niiniaiinoue iee?ineiia /anoi iacuaatho
aeeo?aeoeeiiiui i?aaeaeii, iineieueeo iia ii?aaeaeyaony yaeaieyie
aeeo?aeoeee ia aoiaeiii c?a/ea. I?aaaea, ?yae ino?ioiiuo ooeu?aiee
iicaieee «caaeyiooue» ianeieueei aeaeueoa yoiai i?aaeaea. Caeanue
neaaeoao oiiiyiooue iaoiae, iniiaaiiue ia i?eiaiaiee eiia?neiiiuo nenoai
(a eioi?ii i?ino?ainoai iaaeaeo i?aaeiaoii e iauaeoeaii caiieiyaony
niaoeeaeueiuie n?aaeaie) e iicaieythuee iiauneoue ?ac?aoathuoth
niiniaiinoue i?eia?ii a 1,5 ?aca; iaoiae o?iiiai iiey, iniiaaiiue ia
yaeaiee ?annayiey naaoa ia iaeuo /anoeoeao e iicaieythuee
?aaeno?e?iaaoue iaee/ea naa?oiaeuo /anoeoe, eiaaea eo ?acia?u eaaeao ca
i?aaeaeii ?ac?aoathuae niiniaiinoe iee?ineiia; iaoiae oaciaiai
eiio?anoa, i?e iiiiue eioi?iai iiaeii eco/aoue iieiinoueth i?ic?a/iua
iauaeou.

Iaaeaeeiua eceo/aiey.

Iieuecoynue nia?aiaiiui ycueii oai?ee eioi?iaoeee, iiaeii neacaoue, /oi
ca iiiuoeo i?iieeiooue ca aeeo?aeoeeiiiue i?aaeae i?eoiaeeony ieaoeoue
oeaiie iioa?e eioi?iaoeee i aeaoaeyo eco/aaiiai iauaeoa.
Aeaenoaeoaeueii, iaoiaeu noaiee?ineiiee iicaieytho eeoue noaeeoue i
iaee/ee iee?iiauaeoia a iiea c?aiey iee?ineiia, ii ia ia eo oi?ia e
ae?oaeo aeaoaeyo.

Aanueia caiaoiue ea/anoaaiiue nea/ie a iaoiaeao iee?ineiiee aue naeaeai
oeceeaie, eioi?ua noaee eniieueciaaoue a iee?ineiiee eio?ae?aniia,
oeueo?aoeieaoiaia e ae?oaea iaaeaeeiua aeacii eceo/aiey. I?eiaiaiea yoeo
eceo/aiee aeey inaauaiey iauaeoia iaaethaeaiey auei naycaii n eo
niiniaiinoueth iiaeiuaoue, io?aaeaoue, i?iioneaoue e i?aeiieyoue
iaaeathuaa ia ieo eceo/aiea. Iiyoiio, aiiaua aiai?y, i?e eniieueciaaiee
eceo/aiee ?acee/iuo o/anoeia niaeo?a yoe iauaeou auaeyaeyo ii-?aciiio.
Neaaeiaaoaeueii, iiaeae?ay niioaaonoaothuaa inaauaiea, iiaeii iieo/eoue
iiaoth eioi?iaoeeth i i?aaeiaoa, oae eae oa?aeoa?enoeee iiaeiuaiey,
io?aaeaiey, i?iioneaiey e i?aeiieaiey ?aaeueiuo iai?aaie/aneeo e
i?aaie/aneeo aauanoa caaenyo io aeeeiu aieiu.

Ia?yaeo n yoei neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi eniieueciaaiea a iee?ineiiee
oeueo?aoeieaoiaiai eceo/aiey (aieaa ei?ioeiaieiiaiai ii n?aaiaieth n
aeaeeiui) iicaieeei iiauneoue i?aaeae ?ac?aoathuae niiniaiinoe
iee?ineiia. Yoi eaaei iiiyoue, anee aniiiieoue, /oi oai?aoe/aneee
i?aaeae ?ac?aoathuae niiniaiinoe i?iii?oeeiiaeai aeeeia aieiu enoi/ieea
eceo/aiey. Anee i?e ( ( 5200 ( 5800 A( (ae?eoi-cae?iay iaeanoue, aaea
aeac iaeaaeaao iaeaieueoae /oanoaeoaeueiinoueth) oai?aoe/aneee i?aaeae
?ac?aoathuae niiniaiinoe i?e n=1 (aaea n – iieacaoaeue i?aeiieaiey)
ninoaaeyao ieiei 2000 A(, oi i?e eniieueciaaiee oeueo?aoeieaoiaiai
eceo/aiey (( ( 3000 A() oai?aoe/aneee i?aaeae ?ac?aoathuae niiniaiinoe
aeinoeaaao i?eia?ii 1200A(. ssnii, /oi a oaeeo oeueo?aoeieaoiauo
iee?ineiiao eniieuecothony niaoeeaeueiua iioe/aneea yeaiaiou.

Ana i?eai?u, eniieuecothuea iaaeaeeiua aeacii eceo/aiey, ninoiyo ec
inaaoeoaey (enoi/ieea inaauaiey), iioe/aneeo yeaiaioia (eeic, ca?eae,
i?eci e o. i.), i?eaiaeiuo aeey ?aaio a aeaiiii o/anoea niaeo?a, e
yeaiaioia, i?aia?acothueo «iaaeaeeiia ecia?aaeaiea» a aeaeeiia. A
iineaaeiaa a?aiy noaee oniaoii eniieueciaaoue aeey iieo/aiey eioi?iaoeee
i no?iaiee iauaeoia ?aaeeieceo/aiea (ieeeeiao?iaiai e
noaieeeeiao?iaiai), aeeeiu aiei eioi?iai cia/eoaeueii aieueoa aeeei aiei
aeaeeiiai eceo/aiey.

Inoaiiaeiny ianeieueei iiae?iaiaa ia iaeioi?uo iaueo oece/aneeo
caeiiiia?iinoyo, naienoaaiiuo iieo/aieth ecia?aaeaiey a iee?ineiiee.

Iieo/aiea aieueoiai oaaee/aiey a i?eioeeia inouanoaeii ioo?i
eniieueciaaiey niioaaonoaothueo iioe/aneeo yeaiaioia. Iaeiaei anee
i?aaeae ?ac?aoathuae niiniaiinoe i?eai?a oaea aeinoeaioo e aeaoaee
ecia?aaeaiey iaeuecy ?acee/eoue, oi aeaeueiaeoaa oaaee/aiea
enneaaeoaiiai i?aaeiaoa oa?yao i?aeoe/aneee niune. Iiyoiio nouanoaoao
oa?iei «iieaciia oaaee/aiea iee?ineiia». N aii?inii oaaee/aiey naycai
oaeaea e aii?in ia eneaaeaieyo a iee?ineiia (eae e a ae?oaeo iioe/aneeo
i?eai?ao). Yoe eneaaeaiey aicieeatho ec-ca ioeeiiaiey iioe/aneeo
iiaa?oiinoae yeaiaioia (eeic e o. i.) io eaeaaeueiie oi?iu, iaoi/iiai
?aniieiaeaiey yeaiaioia e o. i. E?iia yoiai, eneaaeaiey (o?iiaoe/aneay
aaa??aoeey) aicieeatho e ec-ca caaeneiinoe eiyooeoeeaioa i?aeiieaiey
iaoa?eaeia, ec eioi?uo ecaioaaeeaathony iioe/aneea yeaiaiou, io aeeeiu
aieiu naaoa (aeenia?nee naaoa a iaoa?eaeao). Oaeei ia?acii, iu aeaeei,
/oi «i?iieeiooue aeoaaea» a ie? iaeuo iauaeoia ioo?i eniieueciaaiey
aieueoeo oaaee/aiee iaeuecy. E oieueei eniieueciaaiea aieaa
ei?ioeiaieiiauo eceo/aiee, o. a. eceo/aiee n iaiueoeie aeeeiaie aiei,
/ai o aeaeeiiai naaoa, aeieaeii a i?eioeeia i?eaanoe e iiauoaieth
?ac?aoathuae niiniaiinoe. Oai naiui i?aneiaooue aeeo?aeoeeiiiue i?aaeae
iiaeao auoue «ioiaeaeioo», e ioe?uaaaony aiciiaeiinoue iaaethaeaiey e
enneaaeiaaiey iiauo eeannia iaaeaeeiuo iauaeoia e iiauo aeaoaeae oaea
ecaanoiuo iauaeoia.

Aieueoea iaaeaaeaeu aiceaaaeenue e aiceaaathony ia aeeaiacii
?aioaaiianeeo eo/ae (iaeiaaea oaeinoaaiiuo X- eo/ae). Iaiiiiei, /oi
?aioaaiianeia eceo/aiea, nicaeaaaaiia a ?aioaaiianeeo o?oaeao iooai
?acaiia yeaeo?iiia yeaeo?e/aneei iieai e eo iineaaeothuaai oi?iiaeaiey
ia iieiaeeoaeueii ca?yaeaiiii yeaeo?iaea (aioeeaoiaea), oae aea eae e
aeaeeiue naao, yaeyaony yeaeo?iiaaieoiui eceo/aieai. Iii oa?aeoa?ecoaony
aeeeiaie aiei ia /aou?a-iyoue ii?yaeeia iaiueoeie, /ai o aeaeeiiai
naaoa. Iai?eia?, a iaaeeoeeineie aeeaaiinoeea i?eiaiyaony ?aioaaiianeia
eceo/aiea n ((0,17 ( 0,10A(, a i?e i?inaa/eaaiee iaoa?eaeia (oienoua
noaeueiua e ae?oaea ecaeaeey) ( n ( ( 0,05 A(. Ionthaea aeaeii, /oi
eniieueciaaiea ?aioaaiianeiai eceo/aiey a iau/iii iioe/aneii iee?ineiia
aianoi aeaeeiiai iiaei au aeaoue niioaaonoaothuaa, eaaei ioeaieaaaiia
oai?aoe/anee iiauoaiea ?ac?aoathuae niiniaiinoe i?eai?a.

Ainiieuecoainy oi?ioeie aeey ii?aaeaeaiey i?aaeaea ?ac?aoathuae
niiniaiinoe i?eai?a d((0,61(()/(n(sin(). Aeey ?aioaaiianeeo eo/ae
eiyooeoeeaio i?aeiieaiey n n?aaeu i/aiue aeecie e aaeeieoea. Iiyoiio,
anee ainiieueciaaoueny ?aioaaiianeei eceo/aieai n ( ( 0,1A( (yoi
niioaaonoaoao onei?ythuaio iai?yaeaieth ieiei 120 ea.), oi
aeeo?aeoeeiiiue i?aaeae ninoaaeo i?eaeeceoaeueii 0,05A(. Iaeiaei ia
iooe ?aaeecaoeee oaeie caiai/eaie aiciiaeiinoe nouanoaotho
i?eioeeieaeueiua o?oaeiinoe, naycaiiua n iniaaiiinoyie ?aioaaiianeiai
eceo/aiey e aai acaeiiaeaenoaey n aauanoaii. Ia?aay e iaeaieaa
nouanoaaiiay o?oaeiinoue caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi ?aioaaiianeea eo/e
i?aeoe/anee iaaiciiaeii oieone?iaaoue, iieo/aoue eo ca?eaeueiia
io?aaeaiea, a oaeaea ae?oaea yaeaiey, eaaeauea a iniiaa i?ioeanna
oi?ie?iaaiey ecia?aaeaiee a iioe/aneie iee?ineiiee. Aeey nicaeaiey eeic,
i?eci e ae?oaeo iiaeiaiuo iioe/aneeo yeaiaioia a yoii neo/aa ioaeiu
iaoa?eaeu n eiyooeoeeaioii i?aeiieaiey, aieueoei aaeeieoeu. Ec-ca
iniaaiiinoae acaeiiaeaenoaey ?aioaaiianeeo eo/ae n aauanoaii (iu caeanue
ia aoaeai eanaoueny iiae?iaiinoae yoiai aii?ina) eiyooeoeeaio
i?aeiieaiey eo i?aeoe/anee ai anao iaoa?eaeao aeecie e aaeeieoea, a
oi/iaa – ianeieueei iaiueoa aaeeieoeu. Aeaaea eo/oea iiee?iaaiiua
iiaa?oiinoe ia iiaoo iaania/eoue ca?eaeueiiai io?aaeaiey ?aioaaiianeeo
eo/ae (aeeeiu aiei ?aioaaiianeiai eceo/aiey i?aeoe/anee anaaaea iaiueoa
n?aaeieo ?acia?ia iaiaeii?iaeiinoae iiaa?oiinoe). Yoi ianoiyoaeuenoai
i?aiyonoaoao nicaeaieth ca?eaeueiiai ?aioaaiianeiai iee?ineiia.

Ianiio?y ia ia?a/eneaiiua cao?oaeiaiey, a NNN? e ca a?aieoeae auee
oniaoii i?iaaaeaiu yenia?eiaiou a iaeanoe ?aioaaiianeie iee?ineiiee,
eniieuecoy iaeioi?ua niaoeeaeueiua i?eaiu. I?aaaea, ?acoeueoaou yoeo
?aaio iiea ia iieo/eee oaoie/aneie ?aaeecaoeee. E?iia oiai, iie a
ianoiyuaa a?aiy ia aeatho aiciiaeiinoe iaaeayoueny ia eaeia-eeai
i?iaeaeaeaiea a noi?iio aeeo?aeoeeiiiiai i?aaeaea, niioaaonoaothuaai
aeeaiaciio ?aioaaiianeiai eceo/aiey. Aianoa n oai i?iaeaia ?aioaaiianeie
iee?ineiiee yaeyaony a ianoiyuaa a?aiy ianoieueei aeooaeueiie, /oi a
oaoieea iieo/eee ?acaeoea iaeioi?ua «iaoiaeiua» i?eaiu, iniiauaathueany
ia ni/aoaiee iaoiaeia ?aioaaiianeie i?iaeoeee n ?aaeeioaoie/aneeie (a
oii /enea oaeaaeceiiiuie) ono?ienoaaie, iicaieythueie iieo/eoue
aeiiieieoaeueiia oaaee/aiea (10(30*) e i?eaieaiia ?ac?aoaiea (ii?yaeea
ianeieueeeo aeanyoeia iee?ii). E oioy yoi /?acau/aeii aeaeaei io
iioaioeeaeueiuo aiciiaeiinoae ?aioaaiianeie iee?ineiiee, iiaeiaiua
ono?ienoaa iaoiaeyo i?eiaiaiea a iaoea e oaoieea.

Yeaeo?iiu e yeaeo?iiiay iioeea.

Iiaeeeiiay ?aaiethoeey a iee?ineiiee i?iecioea a 20-o aiaeao iaoaai
aaea, eiaaea aicieeea eaeay eniieueciaaoue a iae iioiee /anoeoe –
yeaeo?iiia. Ia iniiaa yoie eaeae aicieeea e auno?i ?acaeeanue iiaay
iaeanoue iaoee ? yeaeo?iiiay iee?ineiiey, iicaieeaoay inouanoaeoue
iaeaieaa aeoaieee i?i?ua a iaeanoe aeaeaiey e eco/aiey naa?oiaeuo
iauaeoia.

Iu i?eaueee e oiio, /oi aeaeaiea iauaeoa, oi?ie?iaaiea aai ecia?aaeaiey
naycaiu n iinooieaieai a i?eai? (a a eiia/iii n/?oa a aeac) naaoiauo
aiei io yoiai i?aaeiaoa, oiai, /oi iu iacuaaai eceo/aieai. Eae aea
iiaeii iieo/eoue ecia?aaeaiea iauaeoa, i?e/?i aeaaea n ai?acaei aieaa
aunieie ?ac?aoathuae niiniaiinoueth, eniieuecoy ia naaoiaia eceo/aiea, a
iioie yeaeo?iiia? Ae?oaeie neiaaie, eae aiciiaeii aeaeaiea i?aaeiaoia ia
iniiaa eniieueciaaiey ia aiei, a /anoeoe?

Caaaaay ianeieueei aia?aae, neaaeai, /oi yeaeo?iiu i?iyaeytho aieiiaua
naienoaa ioithaeue ia a iaiueoae ia?a, /ai «ianoiyuea», i?eau/iua aieiu,
iai?eia?, ?aaeei eee naaoiaua. Ii ia yoii ieaea… Aianoa n oai
yeaeo?iiu aaaeoo naay eae ianoiyuea /anoeoeu, iaeaaeathuea iannie,
o?aaeoi?eae aeaeaeaiey, yia?aeae e ae?oaeie naienoaaie, i?enoueie
?acee/iui i?aaeiaoai. Oae a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue aaaeoo naay yeaeo?iiu ai
iiiaeo i?eai?ao e ono?ienoaao, oe?iei i?eiaiythueony ia oieueei a iaoea
e oaoieea, ii e a auoo ( a yeaeo?iiiuo eaiiao, eeianeiiao e ae?oaeo
yeaeo?iiiuo i?eai?ao ?aaeeii?e?iieeia e oaeaaeci?ia.

Nia?aiaiiay oeceea aanueia iiae?iaii ciaao «aieaoiua aeaiiua» yeaeo?iia.
Yoi io?eoeaoaeueii ca?yaeaiiay /anoeoea (e=4,8e-10 CGSE) n iannie
9,1e-28 a, ii oeceee ouaoaeueii iaoiaeyo aii?inu, eioi?ua eiiaaea
oi/aony caaeaoue /?acia?ii ethaiiuoiui, iai?eia? i oi?ia yeaeo?iia, a i
aai ?acia?ao iau/ii aiai?yo n iaiai?eaie. Cao/eo yoa iaiai?ea i?eia?ii
oae: «eeanne/aneee ?aaeeon yeaeo?iia ninoaaeyao ( 10(-13 ni, a a ?aieao
?aeyoeaenoneie oai?ee yoi aiiaua oi/a/iay /anoeoea». Anee ia eanaoueny
ii?aaeae?iiie a?oiiu neooaoeee, a eioi?uo yeaeo?iiu aaaeoo naay ia ii
i?aaeeai «cae?aaiai niunea» (ia yoii ieaea), oi yoi /anoeoeu, iiaaaeaiea
eioi?uo iiaeii iienaoue e aanueia oi/ii ?ann/eoaoue ii caeiiai iaoaieee
e oai?ee yeaeo?iiaaiaoecia, eae e ethaiai ae?oaiai iauaeoa. I?aaaea, a
yoeo neo/ayo, o. a. oiaaea, eiaaea au? ia i?iyaeythony caeiiiia?iinoe
oae iacuaaaiie eaaioiaie iaoaieee, i?eoiaeeony o/eouaaoue i?iyaeaiea
yooaeoia oai?ee ioiineoaeueiinoe (?aeyoeaenoneeo yooaeoia) e a ia?aoth
i/a?aaeue aic?anoaiea iannu yeaeo?iia n ?inoii nei?inoe aai aeaeaeaiey.

Ai iiiaeo i?aeoe/aneeo i?eiaiaieyo yeaeo?iiiuo iioieia, iai?eia? a
aaeooiiuo i?eai?ao, yeaeo?iiu aaaeoo naay eae aiieia «ii?iaeueiua»
/anoeoeu. Iiae aeaenoaeai ecaanoiie neeu, iai?eia?, nicaeaaaaiie
yeaeo?e/aneei iieai iaaeaeo yeaeo?iaeaie, yeaeo?ii i?eia?aoaao
onei?aiea, i?iii?oeeiiaeueiia neea e ia?aoii i?iii?oeeiiaeueiia aai
ianna. Aeaeaeoueany iioiee yeaeo?iiia yeaeaaeaioiu yeaeo?e/aneei oieai,
iiyoiio iiaoo yooaeoeaii acaeiiaeaenoaiaaoue n aiaoieie iaaieoiuie
iieyie. Oaeei ia?acii, yeaeo?e/aneea e iaaieoiua iiey iiaoo nouanoaaiii
aeeyoue ia o?aaeoi?ee e nei?inoe yeaeo?iiiuo iioieia, e n iiiiuueth
oaeeo iieae iiaeii oi?aaeyoue aeaeaeaieai yeaeo?iiia. Iaoea,
caieiathuayny iaoiaeaeaieai o?aaeoi?ee aeaeaeaiey yeaeo?iiia a
yeaeo?e/aneeo e iaaieoiuo iieyo, a oaeaea ?an/?oii yeaiaioia e
ono?ienoa, niiniaiuo oi?ie?iaaoue ioaeiua iiey, iacuaaaony yeaeo?iiiie
iioeeie (ia?aoeoa aieiaiea ( yeaeo?iiiie iioeeie ).

Aieaa iiae?iaiue aiaeec aieaoiuo aeaiiuo yeaeo?iia iaia?oaeeaaao
iaiau/iinoue ?yaea aai naienoa. Aeaenoaeoaeueii, anee iiaeoiaeeoue e
yeaeo?iio n iau/iuie ia?eaie e n/eoaoue, /oi ii caieiaao iau?i V e
iaeaaeaao iannie m, oi «ieioiinoue aauanoaa a yeaeo?iia»
(((m/V)=(9,1e-28)/(4/3(((r(3)(10(11 a/ni(3 (!). Caeanue iu n/eoaai
yeaeo?ii oa?eeii n ?aaeeonii r ii?yaeea 10(-13 ni. Ianna, ca?yae e
iaeioi?ua ae?oaea iinoiyiiua, oa?aeoa?ecothuea yeaeo?iiu, ecaanoiu oaea
n aanueia aunieie oi/iinoueth. Aii?in i oii, eaeei ia?acii yeaeo?ii
oaea?aeeaaaony eae oeaeia e ia ?aceaoaaony iiae aeaenoaeai nee
?anoaeeeaaiey, auoiaeeo aeaeaei ca ?aiee yoiai ?aoa?aoa(

Anee i?aaeiaoai, n eioi?uie iu eiaai aeaei a iianaaeiaaiie aeecie,
aeinoaoi/ii o?oaeii niiaueoue aieueooth nei?inoue (iai?eia?, ii?yaeea
ianeieueeeo eeeiiao?ia a naeoiaeo), oi yeaeo?ii aeaaea a iiea n U=1A
i?eia?aoaao nei?inoue V=(2(e/m(U)(0,5(6e7 ni/nae. Oaeei ia?acii,
yeaeo?iiu eaa/a ?aciaiaoue aei aieueoeo nei?inoae, /ai «inoaiiaeoue», o.
a. canoaaeoue iaoiaeeoueny a iieia. Yeaeo?iiu a iau/iie iaaeeoeeineie
?aioaaiianeie o?oaea oi?iicyony a iiaa?oiinoiii neia aioeeaoiaea,
i?ioiaey i?e yoii iooue a ianeieueei aiano?ai. Io?eoeaoaeueiia onei?aiea
ia iooe s (iai?eia?, i?e U(100 ea.) i?e yoii aoaeao aanueia aaeeei:

(((v(2)/(2(s)(10(23 ni/nae(2 (!).

Iaeiiaoe, oeaaeai, /oi, eae i?aaeei, a iaoeo i?eai?ao aeey eo
ii?iaeueiie ?aaiou iaiaoiaeei yeaeo?iiiue iioie, niaea?aeauee
aiooeoaeueiia /enei /anoeoe (iai?eia?, yeaeo?iiiiio oieo a 1A
niioaaonoaoao iioie yeaeo?iiia a 10(19 /anoeoe a naeoiaeo!).

Eoae, iieiaeaiea n yeaeo?iiaie auaeyaeeo naiaia?acii:

anoue iauaeo, eioi?ui iu oiaai oi?aaeyoue e naienoaa eioi?iai iao/eeenue
eniieueciaaoue;

iu aeinoaoi/ii oi?ioi ciaai naienoaa yoiai iauaeoa e iao/eeenue
i?iaiaeeoue ecia?aiea aeaaea oi/iaa, /ai aeey iiiaeo ae?oaeo iauaeoia, n
eioi?uie ano?a/aainy a iianaaeiaaiie aeecie e eioi?ua iiaeai aeaeaoue
iaaii?oae?iiui aeacii;

ieeoi ieeiaaea ia aeaeae yeaeo?iiia, ii ana ciaeiiu n ?acoeueoaoaie aai
aeaenoaee;

n oi/ee c?aiey «cae?aaiai niunea» e ia iniiaa niiinoaaeaiey ?acoeueoaoia
i/aiue oi?ioi iinoaaeaiiuo yenia?eiaioia yeaeo?ii yaeyaony aeaeaei ia
o?eaeaeueiui iauaeoii: ieioiinoue yeaeo?iiiiai aauanoaa oaioanoe/anee
aaeeea, ii yaeyaony naa?o i?i/iui iauaeoii, niiniaiui «i?ioeainoiyoue»
aeaenoaeth naa?oaieueoeo eia?oeeaeueiuo e yeaeo?e/aneeo (eoeiiianeeo)
nee.

Yeaeo?iiu ( aieiu!?

Ia/aai oaeeaeyoueny, /oi noieue «no?aiiay ee/iinoue», eaeie yaeyaony
yeaeo?ii, aaae?o naay oaea nianai iaiau/ii a ?yaea neooaoeee. Yoe
neooaoeee i?iyaeythony, ai-ia?auo, oiaaea, eiaaea yeaeo?iiia iiiai eee
aa?iaa, eiaaea eo iiiai a aaeeieoea iau?ia e, ai-aoi?uo, eiaaea
yeaeo?iiu acaeiiaeaenoaotho n aoiiaie e iieaeoeaie aauanoaa. Yoe e ?yae
ae?oaeo neooaoeee oa?aeoa?iu aeey yaeaiee, ?anniao?eaaaiuo eaaioiaie
iaoaieeie. Ec yoie oaeeaeoaeueiie iaeanoe iu oiiiyiai oieueei oi, /oi a
?yaea neooaoeee yeaeo?ii aaae?o naay eae aieia. *oi yoi cia/eo?

Iu ciaai, /oi, iai?eia?, naaoiaua aieiu i?e acaeiiaeaenoaee n
i?ino?ainoaaiiie ia?eiaee/aneie no?oeoo?ie i?aoa?iaaatho aeeo?aeoeeth.
Oi/ii oae aea i?e niaethaeaiee ii?aaeae?iiuo oneiaee aieiu iiaoo
eioa?oa?e?iaaoue. Aiaeiae/iua naienoaa iaaethaeathony o yeaeo?iiia. Oae,
iai?eia?, a ii?aaeae?iiuo oneiaeyo yeaeo?iiiue iioie,
acaeiiaeaenoaothuee n ia?eiaee/aneie i?ino?ainoaaiiie no?oeoo?ie
e?enoaeea, ia?acoao aeeo?aeoeeiiioth ea?oeio, eioi?oth iiaeii
caoeene?iaaoue ia oioiieanoeiea. Ecaanoii aieueoia /enei oaeoia, eiaaea
yeaeo?iiu i?iyaeytho aieiiaua naienoaa. Aieaa oiai, niaaoneea o/?iua A.
Oaa?eeaio, E. Aeaa?iai e I. Nooeei i?iaeaiiino?e?iaaee aieiiaua naienoaa
ioaeaeueiuo yeaeo?iiia!

Eoae, aieaoiua aeaiiua yeaeo?iia auaeyaeyo no?aiii e iaiau/ii.

Ia aaeaaaynue a oiieinoe aii?ina i aieiiauo naienoaao yeaeo?iiia (eae e
ae?oaeo iee?i/anoeoe!), neaaeai, /oi yeaeo?iio, aeaeaeouaiony ni
nei?inoueth v(ni/nae), niioaaonoaoao aeeeia aieiu (=h/(m(v), aaea m (
ianna yeaeo?iia, a h= 6,6e-27 y?a(nae ( ciaiaieoay eiinoaioa Ieaiea.

Oae eae v=(2(e/m(U), oi (=(12,25/U(0,5)A(; caeanue U au?aaeaii a
eeeiaieueoao.

Oae, iai?eia?, i?e U=100 ea. (=0,037 A(. Oaeei ia?acii, anee
eniieueciaaoue yeaeo?iiu a iee?ineiiee, oi aeeo?aeoeeiiiue i?aaeae,
iaoneiaeaiiue aieiiauie naienoaaie yeaeo?iiia, eaaeeo cia/eoaeueii
aeaeueoa, /ai a iioe/aneie iee?ineiiee. A oae eae yeaeo?iiaie iiaeii
oi?aaeyoue n iiiiuueth yeaeo?e/aneeo e iaaieoiuo iieae, oi yeaeo?iiiay
iioeea iicaieyao iai ca?aiaa ?ann/eouaaoue oaeea nenoaiu oi?ie?iaaiey
yoeo iieae, eioi?ua niiniaiu oieone?iaaoue iioiee yeaeo?iiia, oi?aaeyoue
yeaeo?iiiuie eo/aie e niaa?oaoue ae?oaea iaiaoiaeeiua aeaenoaey.

A iaoai ?anii?yaeaiee oaeaea eiathony ethieianoeaioiua ye?aiu, eioi?ua
naaoyony i?e iiiaaeaiee ia eo iiaa?oiinoue yeaeo?iiia (aniiiiei ?aaioo
eeianeiia a oaeaaeci?a!); i?e iiiaaeaiee yeaeo?iiia ia oioiieanoeieo
i?ienoiaeeo oioieeoe/aneia ii/a?iaiea. Nouanoaotho e ae?oaea niiniau
?aaeno?aoeee yeaeo?iiia. Iaiiiiei, /oi yeaeo?iiu niiniaiu, e?iia oiai,
i?iieeaoue neaicue oiieea neie iaoa?eaeia, io?aaeaoueny e ?annaeaaoueny
iaoa?eaeaie. Yoe naienoaa yeaeo?iiia e eo acaeiiaeaenoaey n iieyie e
enneaaeoaiui aauanoaii eaaeao a iniiaa yeaeo?iiiie iee?ineiiee.
?anniio?ei noaiu e iniaaiiinoe ono?ienoaa yeaeo?iiiuo iee?ineiiia.

Ono?ienoai yeaeo?iiiiai iee?ineiia.

Eae aea ono?iai yeaeo?iiiue iee?ineii? A /?i aai ioee/ea io iioe/aneiai
iee?ineiia, nouanoaoao ee iaaeaeo ieie eaeay-ieaoaeue aiaeiaey?

A iniiaa ?aaiou yeaeo?iiiiai iee?ineiia (iauee aeae aai i?eaaae?i ia
?en. 3) eaaeeo naienoai iaiaeii?iaeiuo yeaeo?e/aneeo e iaaieoiuo iieae,
iaeaaeathueo a?auaoaeueiie neiiao?eae, ieacuaaoue ia yeaeo?iiiua io/ee
oieone?othuaa aeaenoaea. Oaeei ia?acii, ?ieue eeic a yeaeo?iiiii
iee?ineiia ea?aao niaieoiiinoue niioaaonoaothuei ia?acii ?ann/eoaiiuo
yeaeo?e/aneeo e iaaieoiuo iieae; niioaaonoaothuea ono?ienoaa,
nicaeathuea yoe iiey, iacuaatho «yeaeo?iiiuie eeicaie». A caaeneiinoe io
aeaea yeaeo?iiiuo eeic yeaeo?iiiua iee?ineiiu aeaeyony ia iaaieoiua,
yeaeo?inoaoe/aneea e eiiaeie?iaaiiua.

?en. 3. Yeaeo?iiiue iee?ineii EM8 oe?iu AAN-Oeaenn.

Eaeiai aea oeia iauaeou iiaoo auoue enneaaeiaaiu n iiiiuueth
yeaeo?iiiiai iee?ineiia? Oae aea eae e a neo/aa iioe/aneiai iee?ineiia
iauaeou, ai-ia?auo, iiaoo auoue «naiinaaoyueieny», o. a. neoaeeoue
enoi/ieeii yeaeo?iiia. Yoi, iai?eia?, iaeaeaiiue eaoiae eee inaauaaiue
oioiyeaeo?iiiue eaoiae. Ai-aoi?uo, iiaoo auoue eniieueciaaiu iauaeou,
«i?ic?a/iua» aeey yeaeo?iiia, iaeaaeathueo ii?aaeae?iiie nei?inoueth.
Eiuie neiaaie, i?e ?aaioa ia i?inaao iauaeou aeieaeiu auoue aeinoaoi/ii
oiieeie, a yeaeo?iiu aeinoaoi/ii auno?uie, /oiau iie i?ioiaeeee neaicue
iauaeou e iinooiaee a nenoaio yeaeo?iiiuo eeic. E?iia oiai, ioo?i
eniieueciaaiey io?aae?iiuo yeaeo?iiiuo eo/ae iiaoo auoue eco/aiu
iiaa?oiinoe ianneaiuo iauaeoia (a iniiaiii iaoaeeia e iaoaeeece?iaaiiuo
ia?acoeia). Oaeie niinia iaaethaeaiey aiaeiae/ai iaoiaeai
io?aaeaoaeueiie iioe/aneie iee?ineiiee.

Ii oa?aeoa?o enneaaeiaaiey iauaeoia yeaeo?iiiua iee?ineiiu ?acaeaeytho
ia i?inaa/eaathuea, io?aaeaoaeueiua, yienneiiiua, ?ano?iaua, oaiaaua e
ca?eaeueiua.

Iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?ai?iiuie a ianoiyuaa a?aiy yaeythony yeaeo?iiaaieoiua
iee?ineiiu i?inaa/eaathuaai oeia, a eioi?uo ecia?aaeaiea nicaea?ony
yeaeo?iiaie, i?ioiaeyueie neaicue iauaeo iaaethaeaiey. Ono?ienoai oaeiai
iee?ineiia iieacaii ia ?en. 4 (neaaa aeey n?aaiaiey iieacaii ono?ienoai
iioe/aneiai iee?ineiia). Ii ninoieo ec neaaeothueo iniiaiuo oceia:
inaaoeoaeueiie nenoaiu, eaia?u iauaeoa, oieone?othuae nenoaiu e aeiea
?aaeno?aoeee eiia/iiai ecia?aaeaiey, ninoiyuaai ec oioieaia?u e
oeoi?anoee?othuaai ye?aia. Ana yoe oceu niaaeeiaiu ae?oa n ae?oaii,
ia?acoy oae iacuaaaioth eieiiio iee?ineiia, aioo?e eioi?ie
iiaeaea?aeeaaaony aeaaeaiea (10(-4 ( 10(-5 ii ?o. no. Inaaoeoaeueiay
nenoaia iau/ii ninoieo ec o??oyeaeo?iaeiie yeaeo?iiiie iooee (eaoiae,
oieone?othuee yeaeo?iae, aiiae) e eiiaeaini?iie eeicu (caeanue e aeaeaa
?a/ue eae?o ia yeaeo?iiiuo eeicao). Iia oi?ie?oao io/ie auno?uo
yeaeo?iiia ioaeiiai na/aiey e eioaineaiinoe e iai?aaeyao aai ia
enneaaeoaiue iauaeo, iaoiaeyueeny a eaia?a iauaeoia. Io/ie yeaeo?iiia,
i?ioaaeoee neaicue iauaeo, iinooiaao a oieone?othuoth (i?iaeoeeiiioth)
nenoaio, ninoiyuoth ec iauaeoeaiie eeicu e iaeiie eee ianeieueeeo
i?iaeoeeiiiuo eeic.

?en. 4. Noaiu ono?ienoa iioe/aneiai iee?ineiia (a) e yeaeo?iiiiai
iee?ineiia i?inaa/eaathuaai oeia (a):

1 ( enoi/iee naaoa (yeaeo?iiia);

2 ( eiiaeaini?iay eeica;

3 ( iauaeo;

4 ( iauaeoeaiay eeica;

5 ( i?iiaaeooi/iia ecia?aaeaiea;

6 ( i?iaeoeeiiiay eeica;

7 ( eiia/iia ecia?aaeaiea.

Iauaeoeaiay eeica i?aaeiacia/aia aeey iieo/aiey oaaee/aiiiai
yeaeo?iiiiai ecia?aaeaiey (iau/ii oaaee/aiea(100*). *anoi yoi
oaaee/aiiia ecia?aaeaiea iacuaatho i?iiaaeooi/iui. Aeey aai iaaethaeaiey
a ieineinoe ecia?aaeaiee iauaeoeaiie eeicu ?aniieaaatho niaoeeaeueiue
ye?ai. Yoio ye?ai, iie?uoue ethieianoee?othuei aauanoaii (ethieiioi?ii),
aiaeiae/ai ye?aio a eeianeiiao, i?aa?auaao yeaeo?iiiia ecia?aaeaiea a
aeaeeiia.

*anoue yeaeo?iiia ec /enea iiiaaeathueo ia ye?ai iaiaoiaeeii iai?aaeyoue
a i?iaeoeeiiioth eeico aeey oi?ie?iaaiey eiia/iiai yeaeo?iiiiai
ecia?aaeaiey; n yoie oeaeueth a oeaio?a ye?aia naeaeaii e?oaeia
ioaa?noea. Iioie yeaeo?iiia, i?ioaaeoeo neaicue ioaa?noea, ia?aae
iinooieaieai a i?iaeoeeiiioth eeico aeeao?aaie?oaony. A aieaa neiaeiuo
iee?ineiiao eniieuecothony aeaa yeaeo?iiiua eeicu. A yoeo neo/ayo
ia?aoth ec eeic iacuaatho i?iiaaeooi/iie; iia oi?ie?oao aoi?ia
i?iiaaeooi/iia ecia?aaeaiea. Aoi?ay aea i?iaeoeeiiiay eeica oi?ie?oao
eiia/iia yeaeo?iiiia ecia?aaeaiea, eioi?ia oeene?oaony a aeiea
?aaeno?aoeee. ?acoeueoao yeaeo?iiii-iee?ineiie/aneiai enneaaeiaaiey
iiaeao auoue iieo/ai eeai a aeaea ?ani?aaeaeaiey ieioiinoae ii/a?iaiey
oioia?aoe/aneie ieanoeiee, eeai a aeaea ?ani?aaeaeaiey y?einoae naa/aiey
ethieianoeaioiiai ye?aia.

Ia?aciaaiea ecia?aaeaiey a i?inaa/eaathuai yeaeo?iiiii iee?ineiia
naycaii aeaaiui ia?acii n ?acee/iie noaiaiueth ?annayiey yeaeo?iiia
?acee/iuie o/anoeaie enneaaeoaiiai ia?acoea e a iaiueoae ia?a n
?acee/eai a iiaeiuaiee yeaeo?iiia yoeie o/anoeaie. A caaeneiinoe io
noaiaie ?annayiey yeaeo?iiia o/anoeaie ia?acoea /a?ac oae iacuaaaioth
aia?oo?ioth aeeao?aaio, iiiau?iioth ia?aae iauaeoeaiie eeicie, i?ioiaeeo
aieueoaa eee iaiueoaa /enei yeaeo?iiia (aeeao?aaia i?iioneaao eeoue oa
yeaeo?iiu, oaeu ?annayiey eioi?uo ia i/aiue aaeeee). Eiio?anoiinoue
iieo/aaiiai ecia?aaeaiey ii?aaeaeyaony ioiioaieai /enea i?ioaaeoeo /a?ac
aeeao?aaio yeaeo?iiia e iauaio /eneo yeaeo?iiia, ?annayiiuo aeaiiui
iee?io/anoeii ia?acoea.

Iaeneiaeueiia oaaee/aiea oaeiai iee?ineiia ii?aaeaeyaony aaee/eiaie
oieoniuo ?annoiyiee iauaeoeaiie e i?iaeoeeiiiie eeic e ?annoiyieai
iaaeaeo iauaeoii iaaethaeaiey e ieineinoueth eiia/iiai ecia?aaeaiey.
Aeey i?inaa/eaathuaai iee?ineiia n iaeiie i?iaeoeeiiiie eeicie yoa
caaeneiinoue au?aaeaaony neaaeothuae i?inoie oi?ioeie:

M=L(2/(4(f1(f2),

aaea L ( ?annoiyiea iaaeaeo iauaeoii e ieineinoueth ecia?aaeaiey; f1 e
f2 ( niioaaonoaaiii oieoniua ?annoiyiey iauaeoeaiie e i?iaeoeeiiiie
eeic.

Ec oi?ioeu aeaeii, /oi aeey aeinoeaeaiey aieueoeo oaaee/aiee
oeaeaniia?acii eniieueciaaoue ei?ioeioieoniua eeicu e ?aniieaaaoue eo ia
aieueoii ?annoiyiee ae?oa io ae?oaa, /oi niioaaonoaoao aieueoiio
cia/aieth aaee/eiu L. Caiaoei, /oi a yoii ioiioaiee yeaeo?iiiue
iee?ineii aiaeiae/ai iioe/aneiio.

?aaeueii a nia?aiaiiuo yeaeo?iiiuo iee?ineiiao L ia i?aauoaao 1( 2 i, a
aaee/eiu f1 e f2 ninoaaeytho ii?yaeea 1,5 ( 2 ii. Iao?oaeii
iiaen/eoaoue, /oi a yoii neo/aa Miaen=20000(40000. Iaeiaei aeey
yeaeo?iiiiai iee?ineiia anoue niune aeiaeaaoueny aeaeueiaeoaai iiauoaiey
oaaee/aiey au? ia ii?yaeie, iineieueeo iaeneiaeueiia iieaciia oaaee/aiea
aai, ii?aaeaeyaiia ioiioaieai ?ac?aoathuae niiniaiinoe /aeiaa/aneiai
aeaca ((0,2 ii) ia ?annoiyiee iaeeo/oaai c?aiey e ?ac?aoathuae
niiniaiinoe yeaeo?iiiiai iee?ineiia, ninoaaeyao ii?yaeea 400000.

Oioy, eae iu aeaeaee, oai?aoe/aneay ?ac?aoathuay niiniaiinoue a
yeaeo?iiiie iee?ineiiee, ia?aie/eaaaiay aeeo?aeoeeiiiui i?aaeaeii, i?e
eniieueciaaiee onei?ythuaai iai?yaeaiey ii?yaeea 100 ea ninoaaeyao
0,037A(, ?aaeueii aeinoeaeeiia ?ac?aoaiea a neeo ?yaea i?e/ei, i eioi?uo
?a/ue iieae?o ieaea, ieacuaaaony nouanoaaiii iaiueoa yoie aaee/eiu. A
nia?aiaiiuo yeaeo?iiiuo iee?ineiiao aa?aioe?oaiia ?ac?aoaiea ninoaaeyao
4,5 ( 5,0A(. Aaee/eia iaeneiaeueiiai iieaciiai oaaee/aiey (400(000*)
niioaaonoaoao ?ac?aoathuae niiniaiinoe a 5,0A(. Aeey aeinoeaeaiey noieue
aieueoiai oaaee/aiey a yeaeo?iiiuo iee?ineiiao iau/ii eniieuecothony
i?iiaaeooi/iua eeicu iaaieueoiai oaaee/aiey.

Iauaeou yeaeo?iiiie iee?ineiiee.

Oaia?ue iiniio?ei, eaeea iauaeou iiaeai iu iaaethaeaoue e enneaaeiaaoue
n iiiiuueth, iaeaaeathuaai ?ac?aoathuae niiniaiinoueth ii?yaeea
ianeieueeeo aiano?ai, o. a. ii?yaeea 10(-10 i. I/aiue iaiiiai aiai?eo
yoa oeeo?a, oae eae /enei n aeanyoueth ioeyie i?aaenoaaeoue ia i/aiue
i?inoi. Ii/aio yoo aaee/eio neaaeoao n/eoaoue iaeie e aeaaea naa?oiaeie?
Ii n?aaiaieth n /ai? A noa?ii o/aaieea oeceee Oeeiaa?a auea o?aca, niune
eioi?ie naiaeeeny e neaaeothuaio: «Anee ii?oiie ioea?ony a aeeeia aaoaai
ieaouey ia iaeei naioeiao?, au a?yae ee yoi caiaoeoa, ii anee iaai?uee
nianoeo aoeau ia iaeei naioeiao? ( yoi eaaeaeue n?aco caiaoeo». Aaee/eia
10(-10 i i/aiue iaeay, anee a? n?aaieaaoue n ?acia?aie i?aaeiaoia a
iaoae eiiiaoa. Yoi oaeaea i/aiue iaeay aaee/eia ii n?aaiaieth n
?acia?aie oao aauae, oao iauaeoia, eioi?ua iu iiaeai acyoue ?oeaie,
iiaeai iio?iaaoue. Ana yoe i?aaeiaou ninoiyo ec a?iiaaeiiai /enea aoiiia
e iieaeoe. Aaee/eia aea 10(-10 i n?aaieia n ?acia?aie ioaeaeueiuo aoiiia
e iieaeoe. Oaeei ia?acii, iao/eaoenue aeaeaoue e iauaoueny n oaeeie
aaee/eiaie, iu i?eia?aoaai aiciiaeiinoue «?aaioaoue» n ioaeaeueiuie
aoiiaie e iieaeoeaie aauanoaa eee ii e?aeiae ia?a n iauaeoaie, a eioi?uo
ia i/aiue iiiai aoiiia. Nia?aiaiiua yeaeo?iiiua iee?ineiiu iicaieytho
iaaethaeaoue e eco/aoue aieueoea i?aaie/aneea iieaeoeu.

Eoae, niaa?oea «i?i?ua» a n?aaenoaao iaaethaeaiey a iaeanoue ?acia?ia
ii?yaeea 10(-9(10(-10 i, iu ii n?aaiaieth n iao?ii ( aaee/eiie,
n?aaieiie n aeeeiie oaaa, niaa?oaai nea/ie a ieeeea?aeu (10(9) ?ac.
Ia?aoei aieiaiea, /oi ?annoiyiea io Caiee aei ie?aeiiuo iauaeoia
Nieia/iie nenoaiu (6e9 ei, eioi?ia naao(aai nei?inoue 300000 ei/nae)
i?ioiaeeo i?eia?ii ca 6 /, ii n?aaiaieth n eeiaeiuie ?acia?aie ai?iaea
((10 ei), ieacuaaaony aieueoa a 6e8 ?ac.

Ii oi?ioi, /oi aea iiaeii ociaoue iiaiai, i?iieeioa a iaeanoue naa?o
iaeuo ?acia?ia, ioe?uaaaiuo yeaeo?iiiie iee?ineiieae? Ia i?aaenoaaeyao
ee niaie yoio ie? aoiiia e iieaeoe ia/oi, a eioi?ii ionoonoaotho ia
oieueei e?anee e caoee, ii e aiiaua eaeea-eeai i?eciaee ?aciiia?acey,
aeecie e e?aniou? Ieacuaaaony ia ioaeii aeaaea iaeaaeaoue aiaaoui
aiia?aaeaieai, /oiau oaeaeaoue naiaia?acioth e?anioo ie?a naa?o iaeuo
iauaeoia e oaea/ueny ath. Iiniio?eoa ia ?en. 5, e au a yoii oaaaeeoanue.

?en. 5. E?enoaee K2PtCl4, au?aaeaiiue ia ieaiea ec aiaeiiai ?anoai?a.

Ia o?iaia ?acia?ia, ?ac?aoaaiie nia?aiaiiie yeaeo?iiiie iee?ineiieae,
?acai?a/eaathony niauoey, ea?athuea a eiia/iii eoiaa eneeth/eoaeueii
aaaeioth ?ieue a aeecie /aeiaaea, i?e?iaea e oaoieea. I?aaeaea anaai
aeieiaey. AEeaua eeaoee i?aaenoaaeytho niaie neiaeiua no?oeoo?iua
ia?aciaaiey; a ieo i?ioaeatho neiaeiaeoea, eco/aiiua eeoue /anoe/ii
aeioeie/aneea i?ioeannu. Oiae yoeo i?ioeannia ii?aaeaeyao
aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoue eeaoie, eo acaeiinaycue e a eiia/iii eoiaa
aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoue i?aaieciia.

A yoii ie?a iaoaio aci?o ioe?uaathony ?aiaa ia ecaanoiua iai
ianaeythuea aai «aeeoaee», eo aeaenoaey e i?eau/ee, acaeiiioiioaiey
iaaeaeo niaie, eo ae?oaeaa e iaeaiueeea o?aaaaeee, eioi?ua a eiia/iii
eoiaa i?eaiaeyo e niauoeyi, ea?athuei aaaeiaeooth ?ieue a ianooaaao
i?e?iaeu e /aeiaa/anoaa. Caeanue ia iieaeoey?iii o?iaia o?aieony
aaee/aeoay oaeia ( oaeia aeecie, aa aa/iiai aini?iecaaaeaiey e
niaa?oainoaiaaiey. Caeanue aea ni?yoaiu oaeea oaeoi?u, eae i?e/eiu
aieaciae e nia?oe, eeai i?a?uaathuea aeeciue, eeai aeaeathuea aa
o?aae/aneie; ae?onu iiiaeo a?iciuo aieaciae «eaaeeo», oaeeo, eae a?eii,
e no?aoiuo – oaeeo, eae /oia; neiaeiua iieaeoey?iua no?oeoo?u ( iieaeoeu
AeIE, ?IE, o?aiyuea aaeiaa/iue eiae aeecie, aini?iecaiaeyuea e
inouanoaeythuea yoo aeeciue, ( i?eiaaeeaaeao e yoiio ie?o.

Iiiaea naienoaa iaoa?eaeia, yaeythueony iniiaie nia?aiaiiie oaoieee e
eniieuecothueony a iianaaeiaaiie aeecie /aeiaaea e iauanoaa a oeaeii,
ii?aaeaeythony naienoaaie iee?ino?oeoo? aauanoaa, oaeaea ioiinyueony e
yoiio ie?o.

Oaeei ia?acii, ie?, eioi?ue ioe?uaatho iai iaoiaeu yeaeo?iiiie
iee?ineiiee, ia oieueei iiiaiia?acai e ii naiaio e?ani/ai, ii e ea?aao
/?acau/aeii aaaeioth ?ieue a aeecie i?e?iaeu e /aeiaa/anoaa.

Aeaeu yeaeo?iiiuo iee?ineiiia.

Iiiaiia?acea yaeaiee, o?aaothueo eco/aiey i?e iiiiue yeaeo?iiiie
iee?ineiiee, ii?aaeaeyao ?aciiia?acea e niaoeeoeeo aa iaoiaeia e
niioaaonoaothueo ono?ienoa. Iu oaea ciaeiiu n i?eioeeiii aeaenoaey
i?inaa/eaathuaai yeaeo?iiiiai iee?ineiia. N aai iiiiuueth iiaeii
enneaaeiaaoue oiieea ia?acoeu, i?iioneathuea iaaeathuee ia ieo io/ie
yeaeo?iiia.

A ?yaea neo/aaa e a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue aeey enneaaeiaaiey ianneaiuo
iauaeoia i?eiaiythony yeaeo?iiiua iee?ineiiu ae?oaeo oeiia.

Yienneiiiue yeaeo?iiiue iee?ineii oi?ie?oao ecia?aaeaiea n iiiiuueth
yeaeo?iiia, enioneaaiuo naiei iauaeoii. Oaeia enioneaiea aeinoeaaaony
iooai iaa?aaaiey iauaeoa (oa?iiyeaeo?iiiay yienney), inaauaiey aai
(oioiyeaeo?iiiay yienney), aiiaa?aee?iaee yeaeo?iiaie eee eiiaie
(aoi?e/iay yeaeo?iiiay yienney), a oaeaea iiiauaieai aai a neeueiia
yeaeo?e/aneia iiea (aaoiyeaeo?iiiay yienney). Oaaee/aiiia ecia?aaeaiea
oi?ie?oaony iiaeiaii oiio, eae yoi aeaeaaony a iee?ineiia
i?inaa/eaathuaai oeia. Ia?aciaaiea ecia?aaeaiey a yienneiiiii
yeaeo?iiiii iee?ineiia i?ienoiaeeo a iniiaiii ca n/ao ?acee/iiai
enioneaiey yeaeo?iiia iee?io/anoeaie iauaeoa. I?e yienneiiiuo
enneaaeiaaieyo iauaeoia ?ac?aoathuay niiniaiinoue iee?ineiiia ninoaaeyao
(300A(.

Yienneiiiay yeaeo?iiiay iee?ineiiey iaoea oe?ieia i?eiaiaiea a
enneaaeiaaieyo e ?ac?aaioeao eaoiaeia yeaeo?iaaeooiiuo i?eai?ia
?acee/iiai, a oii /enea ?aaeeieieaoeeiiiiai i?eiaiaiey, a oaeaea a
oece/aneeo enneaaeiaaieyo iaoaeeia e iieoi?iaiaeieeia.

A io?aaeaoaeueiii yeaeo?iiiii iee?ineiia ecia?aaeaiea nicaeaaony n
iiiiuueth yeaeo?iiia, io?aaeaiiuo (?annayiiuo) iiaa?oiinoiui neiai
iauaeoa. Ia?aciaaiea ecia?aaeaiey a iai iaoneiaeaii ?acee/eai ?annayiey
yeaeo?iiia a ?aciuo oi/eao iauaeoa a caaeneiinoe io iaoa?eaea e
iee?i?aeueaoa. Iau/ii ia?acoeu iieo/athony iiae iaeui oaeii
(i?eaeeceoaeueii ianeieueei a?aaeonia) e iiaa?oiinoe. I?aeoe/anee ia
yeaeo?iiiuo iee?ineiiao oaeiai oeia aeinoeaiooi ?ac?aoaiea ii?yaeea 100
aiano?ai.

Iaeia ec iniaaiiinoae io?aaeaoaeueiiai yeaeo?iiiiai iee?ineiia —
?acee/ea oaaee/aiee a ?acee/iuo iai?aaeaiey aaeieue ieineinoe iauaeoa
naycaii n iaeeiiiui iieiaeaieai iauaeoa ii ioiioaieth e iioe/aneie ine
iee?ineiia. Iiyoiio oaaee/aiea oaeiai iee?ineiia oa?aeoa?ecotho iau/ii
aeaoiy aaee/eiaie: oaaee/aieai a ieineinoe iaaeaiey io/ea yeaeo?iiia e
oaaee/aieai a ieineinoe, ia?iaiaeeeoey?iie ieineinoe iaaeaiey.

?ano?iaue yeaeo?iiiue iee?ineii iniiaai ia eniieueciaaiee
i?aaeaa?eoaeueii noi?ie?iaaiiiai oiieiai yeaeo?iiiiai eo/a (ciiaea),
iieiaeaieai eioi?iai oi?aaeytho n iiiiuueth yeaeo?iiaaieoiuo iieae. Yoi
oi?aaeaiea (neaie?iaaiea) ai iiiaii aiaeiae/ii i?ioeanno ?acaa?oee a
oaeaaeceiiiuo eeianeiiao. Yeaeo?iiiue ciiae iineaaeiaaoaeueii i?ioiaeeo
ii iiaa?oiinoe enneaaeoaiiai ia?acoea. Iiae aicaeaenoaeai yeaeo?iiia
io/ea i?ienoiaeeo ?yae i?ioeannia, oa?aeoa?iuo aeey aeaiiiai iaoa?eaea e
aai no?oeoo?u. E eo /eneo ioiinyony ?annayiea ia?ae/iuo yeaeo?iiia,
enioneaiea (yienney) aoi?e/iuo yeaeo?iiia, iiyaeaiea yeaeo?iiia,
i?ioaaeoeo neaicue iauaeo (a neo/aa oiieeo iauaeoia), aicieeiiaaiea
?aioaaiianeiai eceo/aiey. A ?yaea niaoeeaeueiuo neo/aaa
(ethieianoee?othuea iaoa?eaeu, iieoi?iaiaeieee) aicieeaao oaeaea
naaoiaia eceo/aiea. ?aaeno?aoeey yeaeo?iiia, auoiaeyueo ec iauaeoa, a
oaeaea ae?oaeo aeaeia eceo/aiey (?aioaaiianeiai, naaoiaiai) aeaao
eioi?iaoeeth i ?acee/iuo naienoaao iee?io/anoeia eco/aaiiai iauaeoa.
Niioaaonoaaiii yoiio nenoaiu eiaeeeaoeee e ae?oaea yeaiaiou ?ano?iauo
iee?ineiiia ?acee/athony a caaeneiinoe io aeaea ?aaeno?e?oaiiai
eceo/aiey.

Neio?iiii n ?acaa?oeie yeaeo?iiiiai ciiaea inouanoaeyaony ?acaa?oea
eo/a aieueoiai eeianeiia. ?anniio?ei ?aaioo ?ano?iaiai yeaeo?iiiiai
iee?ineiia a ?aaeeia eiaeeeaoeee oiea aoi?e/iuo yeaeo?iiia. A yoii
neo/aa aaee/eia aoi?e/iiai yeaeo?iiiiai oiea ii?aaeaeyao aeoaeio
iiaeoeyoeee y?einoe ia ye?aia eeianeiia. ?ano?iaue yeaeo?iiiue iee?ineii
oaeiai oeia iicaieyao iieo/eoue oaaee/aiea 100 ( 100 000 i?e
aeinoaoi/iie eiio?anoiinoe ecia?aaeaiey. ?ac?aoathuay niiniaiinoue
?ano?iauo yeaeo?iiiuo iee?ineiiia ii?aaeaeyaony aeeaiao?ii yeaeo?iiiiai
ciiaea e a neo/aa iieo/aiey ecia?aaeaiey a yeaeo?iiiuo eo/ao ninoaaeyao
(300A(. ?ano?iaua yeaeo?iiiua iee?ineiiu iicaieytho eco/aoue, iai?eia?,
oae iacuaaaiua p-n ia?aoiaeu a iieoi?iaiaeieeao.

Ec yeaeo?iiiuo iee?ineiiia oiiiyiai ca?eaeueiue yeaeo?iiiue iee?ineii,
iniiaiie iniaaiiinoueth eioi?iai yaeyaony /oanoaeoaeueiinoue e
iee?ineiie/aneei yeaeo?e/aneei e iaaieoiui iieyi ia io?aaeathuai
ianneaiii iauaeoa. I?e yoii aeinoeaaaony ?ac?aoaiea aeaoaeae ii?yaeea
1000A( e oaaee/aiea ii/oe a 2000*. ?aaioa oaeiai iee?ineiia iniiaaia ia
aeaenoaee iee?ineiie/aneeo yeaeo?e/aneeo e iaaieoiuo iieae ia
yeaeo?iiiue iioie. Ca?eaeueiue yeaeo?iiiue iee?ineii iicaieyao eco/aoue,
iai?eia?, aeiiaiioth no?oeoo?o oa??iiaaieoiuo iaoa?eaeia, no?oeoo?o
naaiaoiyeaeo?eeia.

A oaiaaii yeaeo?iiiii iee?ineiia, oae aea eae e a ?ano?iaii,
oi?ie?oaony yeaeo?iiiue ciiae, iaeiaei iieiaeaiea aai inoaaony
iaeciaiiui. Yeaeo?iiiua eo/e ciiaea neoaeao aeey iieo/aiey oaaee/aiiiai
oaiaaiai ecia?aaeaiey iauaeoa, iiiauaiiiai a iaiin?aaenoaaiiie aeecinoe
io ciiaea. Ia?aciaaiea ecia?aaeaiey iaoneiaeaii ?annayieai e iiaeiuaieai
yeaeo?iiia ?acee/iuie o/anoeaie iauaeoa. Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi
eioaineaiinoue eiia/iiai ecia?aaeaiey a oaiaaii yeaeo?iiiii iee?ineiia
iacia/eoaeueia, iiyoiio iau/ii a ieo eniieuecothony oneeeoaee naaoa oeia
yeaeo?iiii-iioe/aneeo i?aia?aciaaoaeae.

Aaaeiie ?aciiaeaeiinoueth yeaeo?iiiuo iee?ineiiia ?ano?iaiai oeia
yaeyaony iee?i?aioaaiiniaeo?aeueiue aiaeecaoi?. I?eai? iniiaai ia
aicaoaeaeaiee oae iacuaaaiiai oa?aeoa?enoe/aneiai ?aioaaiianeiai
eceo/aiey aoiiia iaeiai o/anoea iiaa?oiinoe – ia?acoea n iiiiuueth
oiieiai aunieinei?inoiiai yeaeo?iiiiai ciiaea. Yeaeo?iiiue ciiae n
iiiiuueth nenoaiu ?acaa?oee iaaaaao enneaaeoaioth iiaa?oiinoue. I?e
oi?iiaeaiee yeaeo?iiia ia iiaa?oiinoe aicieeaao ia?yaeo n oae iacuaaaiui
oi?iiciui eceo/aieai oa?aeoa?enoe/aneia ?aioaaiianeia eceo/aiea,
naienoaa eioi?iai nouanoaaiii ii?aaeaeythony no?iaieai yeaeo?iiiuo
iaiei/ae a aoiiao aauanoaa. Yoi eceo/aiea iaycaii naiei aicieeiiaaieai
yia?aaoe/aneei ia?aoiaeii iaaeaeo aeoaieeie yia?aaoe/aneeie o?iaiyie
aoiiia.

Aicieeathuaa oa?aeoa?enoe/aneia eceo/aiea ?aaeno?e?oaony n iiiiuueth
?aioaaiiniaeo?aeueiie aiia?aoo?u. Aeeaiao? yeaeo?iiiiai ciiaea iiaeao
eciaiyoueny io 360 aei 0,5 iei, a ?acia? i?iniao?eaaaiie ieiuaaeee
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie eaaae?ao ni noi?iiie 360, 180, 90 eee 45 iei. A
iaeiii ec i?eai?ia oaeiai oeia nei?inoue aiaeeca ii iaeiiio oeie/aneiio
yeaiaioo niioaaonoaoao aeaeaeaieth ciiaea 8 eee 96 iei/iei (i?e
iaoaie/aneii ia?aiauaiee iauaeoa). Aiaeece?iaaoue iiaeii ana yeaiaiou
ia?eiaee/aneie nenoaiu yeaiaioia Iaiaeaeaaaa, eaaeeo (io aoiiiiai iiia?a
11 – iao?ey).ieieiaeueiue iauai aauanoaa, iiaeaeathuaainy
eiee/anoaaiiiio aiaeeco, ninoaaeyao 0,1 iea. N iiiiuueth
iee?i?aioaaiianeiai aiaeecaoi?a iieo/atho ?ani?aaeaeaiea
oeceei-oeie/aneiai ninoaaa aaeieue enneaaeoaiie iiaa?oiinoe.

A NNN? na?eeii auioneaaony (auioneaeny) iee?i?aioaaiianeee aiaeecaoi?
oeia IA?-1 (aeeaiao? ciiaea ieiei 1 iei, iaeiaiueoay aiaeece?oaiay
ieiuaaeue 1iei(2). I?eai?u oaeiai aeaea iaoiaeyo i?eiaiaiea a
yeaeo?iiiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe e a ae?oaeo iaeanoyo iaoee e oaoieee.

*eoaoaeue, aeaeeii, ia?aoee aieiaiea ia oio oaeo, /oi a yeaeo?iiiuo
iee?ineiiao ia aeinoeaaaony ?ac?aoathuay niiniaiinoue, i?aaeneacuaaaiay
oai?eae. A /ai aea aeaei? Aniiiiei, /oi a oi?ie?iaaiee ecia?aaeaiey a
yeaeo?iiiuo iee?ineiiao aaaeioth ?ieue ea?atho yeaiaiou yeaeo?iiiie
iioeee, iicaieythuea inouanoaeyoue oi?aaeaiea yeaeo?iiiuie io/eaie. Yoei
yeaiaioai — yeaeo?iiiui eeicai naienoaaiiu ?acee/iiai ?iaea ioeeiiaiey
io eaeaaeueiiai (o?aaoaiiai ?an/aoii) ?ani?aaeaeaiey yeaeo?e/aneeo e
iaaieoiuo iieae. Iieiaeaiea caeanue ai iiiaii aiaeiae/ii ia?aie/aieyi a
iioe/aneie iee?ineiiee, naycaiiui n iaoi/iinoueth ecaioiaeaiey
iioe/aneeo eeic, ca?eae e ae?oaeo yeaiaioia. E?iia oiai, ?yae
o?oaeiinoae naycai n iniaaiiinoyie ecaioiaeaiey e ?aaiou enoi/ieeia
yeaeo?iiiuo iioieia (eaoiaeia), a oaeaea n i?iaeaiie nicaeaiey iioieia,
a eioi?uo yeaeo?iiu iaei ioee/athony ii nei?inoyi. A niioaaonoaee n
yoeie oaeoaie, aeaenoaothueie a ?aaeueiuo oneiaeyo, ?acee/atho
ii?aaeae?iiua aeaeu eneaaeaiee a yeaeo?iiiuo iee?ineiiao, eniieuecoy i?e
yoii oa?ieiieiaeth, caeinoaiaaiioth ec naaoiaie iioeee.

Iniiaiuie aeaeaie eneaaeaiee yeaeo?iiiuo eeic a i?inaa/eaathueo
iee?ineiiao yaeythony noa?e/aneay e o?iiaoe/aneay aaa??aoeee, a oaeaea
aeeo?aeoeey e i?einaaie anoeaiaoeci. Ia inoaiaaeeaaynue ia
i?ienoiaeaeaiee ?acee/iuo aeaeia eneaaeaiee, naycaiiuo n ia?ooaieyie
neiiao?ee iieae e acaeiiui ?aniieiaeaieai yeaiaioia yeaeo?iiiie iioeee,
oiiiyiai eeoue i o?iiaoe/aneie aaa??aoeee. Iineaaeiee aeae eneaaeaiee
aiaeiae/ai aicieeiiaaieth ie?aoaiiuo ecia?aaeaiee a i?inouo aeiieeyo e
eoiao. Eniieueciaaiea niaeo?aeueii /enoiai iiiio?iiaoe/aneiai naaoa a
iioeea (aianoi aaeiai) ono?aiyao yoio aeae eneaaeaiee. Aiaeiae/ii yoiio
a yeaeo?iiiie iee?ineiiee eniieuecotho ii aiciiaeiinoe io/ee yeaeo?iiia,
nei?inoe eioi?uo ioee/athony iaei (aniiiiei niioiioaiea (=h/(m(v) aeey
yeaeo?iia!). Yoiai aeinoeaatho i?eiaiaieai aunieinoaaeeueiuo enoi/ieeia
yeaeo?e/aneiai ieoaiey.

Aeeceei «?iaenoaaiieeii» yeaeo?iiiiai iee?ineiia yaeyaony yeaeo?iiia?ao
( i?eai?, eniieuecothuee yaeaiea aeeo?aeoeee yeaeo?iiia, oie naiie
aeeo?aeoeee, eioi?ay a nai? a?aiy iiaeoaa?aeeea iaee/ea aieiiauo naienoa
o yeaeo?iiia e noaaeo a iaoe aeie i?aaeae ?ac?aoaiey a yeaeo?iiiii
iee?ineiia. A neo/aa yeaeo?iiia iauaeoaie, a eioi?uo iiaeao
i?ienoiaeeoue aeeo?aeoeey ia ia?eiaee/aneie no?oeoo?a (aiaeiae/iie
iau?iiie aeeo?aeoeeiiiie ?ao?oea a iioeea), neoaeao e?enoaeee/aneea
no?oeoo?u. Ecaanoii, /oi a e?enoaeeao aoiiu ?aniieiaeaiu a no?iaii
aaiiao?e/aneii ii?yaeea ia ?annoiyieyo ii?yaeea aaeeieoe aiano?ai.
Iniaaiii i?aaeeueii yoi ?aniieiaeaiea a oae iacuaaaiuo iiiie?enoaeeao.
I?e acaeiiaeaenoaee yeaeo?iiia n oaeeie no?oeoo?aie aicieeaao ?annayiea
yeaeo?iiia a i?aeiouanoaaiiuo iai?aaeaieyo a niioaaonoaee n
i?aaeneacuaaaiuie oai?eae niioiioaieyie. ?aaeno?e?oy ?annayiiua
yeaeo?iiu (iai?eia?, oioia?aoe?oy eo), iiaeii iieo/aoue eioi?iaoeeth ia
aoiiiie no?oeoo?a aauanoaa. A nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo yeaeo?iiia?aoey
oe?iei i?eiaiyaony i?e enneaaeiaaieyo ia oieueei oa??aeuo, ii e
aeeaeeeo, aaciia?aciuo oae. I aeaea iieo/aaiuo yeaeo?iiia?aii iiaeii
noaeeoue ii oioia?aoeyi (ni. ?en.6).

?en. 6. Yeaeoi?iia?aiia aunieiai ?ac?aoaiey (ieenue oeeiea):

aaa?oo ( yeaeo?iiia?aiia; aieco ( oaaee/aiiia ecia?aaeaiea o/anoea A.

A iaoae no?aia e ca ?oaaaeii i?eiaiythony niaoeeaeece?iaaiiua
yeaeo?iiia?aou i?iiuoeaiiiai oeia. E?iia oiai, a iaeioi?uo yeaeo?iiiuo
iee?ineiiao i?aaeoniio?aia aiciiaeiinoue ?aaiou a ?aaeeia
yeaeo?iiia?aoee.

Neaaeoao caiaoeoue, /oi n oi/ee c?aiey oeceee iieo/aiea yeaeo?iiia?aii
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie i?ioeann, ai iiiaii aeeceee i?ioeanno iieo/aieth
?aioaaiia?aii a ?aioaaiino?oeoo?iii aiaeeca. Aeaenoaeoaeueii, anee a
yeaeo?ia?aoee eniieuecoaony aeeo?aeoeey yeaeo?iiia, oi a
?aioaaiino?oeoo?iii aiaeeca i?ienoiaeeo aeeo?aeoeey ?aioaaiianeeo eo/ae
ia aoiiiuo no?oeoo?ao. Anoanoaaiii, /oi eaaeaeue ec yoeo iaoiaeia eiaao
naith iaeanoue i?eiaiaiey.

Iniaaiiinoe ?aaiou n yeaeo?iiiui iee?ineiiii.

Inoaiiaeiny e?aoei ia iniiaiuo i?eaiao ?aaiou a yeaeo?iiiie
iee?ineiiee. Anoanoaaiii, /oi yoe i?eaiu naiaia?aciu, o/eouaay
naa?oiaeua ?acia?u iauaeoia, iiaeeaaeaueo enneaaeiaaieth. Oae, iai?eia?,
a aeieiae/aneeo enneaaeiaaieyo iaoiaeyo i?eiaiaiey «naa?ooiieea iiaee»
– iee?ioiiu, iicaieythuea iieo/aoue n?acu aeieiae/aneeo iauaeoia
oieueiie iaiaa 1 iei.

Aeaaiua iniaaiiinoe iaoiaeeee yeaeo?iiiie iee?ineiiee ii?aaeaeythony
iaiaoiaeeiinoueth iiiauaiey iauaeoa enneaaeiaaiey aioo?ue eieiiiu
yeaeo?iiiiai iee?ineiia, o.a. a aaeooi e iaania/aiey oneiaee aunieie
/enoiou, oae eae iaeaeoea caa?yciaiey iiaoo nouanoaaiii eneaceoue
?acoeueoaou. Aeey i?inaa/eaathuaai yeaeo?iiiiai iee?ineiia iauaeo
i?eaioiaeyaony a aeaea oiieeo ieaiie, a ea/anoaa eioi?uo iiaoo neoaeeoue
?acee/iiai ?iaea eaee, ieaiee iaoaeeia e iieoi?iaiaeieeia, oeueo?aoiieea
n?acu aeieiae/aneeo i?aia?aoia. E?iia oiai, iauaeoaie enneaaeiaaiey
iiaoo auoue oiiei eciaeue/aiiua (aeenia?ae?iaaiiua) niaieoiiinoe
/anoeoe. Iau/ii a i?inaa/eaathueo iee?ineiiao, ?aaioathueo i?e
iai?yaeaieyo 50-100 ea, oieueia iauaeoia ia iiaeao i?aauoaoue 200
A((aeey iai?aaie/aneeo aauanoa) e 1000 A( (aeey i?aaie/aneeo).
Aeieiae/aneea iauaeou a aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa i?eoiaeeony
eiio?anoe?iaaoue, o.a. «ie?aoeaaoue» (nieyie oyaeaeuo iaoaeeia),
iooaiyoue iaiueaieai iaoaeeia (ieaoeiie, iaeeaaeeai e ae?.) e
eniieueciaaoue ?yae ae?oaeo i?eaiia. Iaiaoiaeeiinoue eiio?anoe?iaaiey
aucaaia oai, /oi aieueoeinoai aeieiae/aneeo iauaeoia niaea?aeeo aoiiu
eaaeeo yeaiaioia (n iaeui aoiiiui iiia?ii) – aiaei?iae, oaea?iae, acio,
eenei?iae, oinoi? e o.ae. a oi aea a?aiy oieueia iauaeoia, eioa?aniuo
aeey aeieiaee e iaaeeoeeiu, ninoaaeyao aaee/eio ii?yaeea 50 A(. Aac
eiio?anoe?iaaiey i?e yeaeo?iiii-iee?ineiie/aneeo enneaaeiaaieyo ae?onia
iaaethaeathony aanno?oeoo?iua iyoia, a ioaeaeueiua iieaeoeu ioeeaeiiauo
eeneio aiiaua ia?acee/eiu. Eniieueciaaiea iaoiaeia eiio?anoe?iaaiey
iicaieyao yooaeoeaii i?eiaieoue yeaeo?iiioth iee?ineiieth a
aeieiae/aneeo enneaaeiaaieyo e a oii /enea i?e enneaaeiaaieyo aieueoeo
iieaeoe (iae?iiieaeoe) ( ni., iai?eia?, ?en. 7.

?en. 7. ?IE ec ae?ona oaaa/iie iicaeee (ec ?anoai?a n eiiiie neeie
0,0003 iei).

A ?yaea neo/aaa i?e enneaaeiaaiee, iai?eia?, ianneaiuo iauaeoia a
oaoieea oe?ieia i?eiaiaiea iaoiaeeo iaoiae iieo/aiey ioia/aoeia, eioi?ue
caeeth/aaony a ecaioiaeaiee e iineaaeothuai enneaaeiaaiee a iee?ineiia
eiiee iiaa?oiinoae iauaeoia.

Eniieuecothony eae anoanoaaiiua ioia/aoee (oiieea neie ieeneia), oae e
eneonnoaaiiua, iieo/aaiua iooai iaianaiey (iaiueaiey, inaaeaeaiey)
ieaiie eaa?oea, oaea?iaea e ae?oaeo aauanoa. Iaeaieueoaa ?ac?aoaiea (
(10 A() iicaieytho iieo/eoue oaieueiua ?aieeee, eioi?ua iaoiaeyo oe?ieia
i?eiaiaiea eae a oaoieea, oae e a aeieiaee.

I?e iaaethaeaiee yeaeo?iiii-iee?ineiie/aneeie iaoiaeaie aeaaeiuo
iauaeoia ( a oii /enea aeeauo eeaoie) eniieuecothony
aaeooiii-eciee?iaaiiua aaciaua iee?ieaia?u. Iauaeou enneaaeiaaiey
iiiauathony a yeaeo?iiiuo iee?ineiiao ia oii/aeoea ieaiee – iiaeeiaeee,
eioi?ua e?aiyony ia niaoeeaeueiuo naoeao, ecaioiaeyaiuo iau/ii ec iaaee
yeaeo?ieeoe/aneei niiniaii. Yoe ieaiee aeieaeiu oaeiaeaoai?youe oeaeiio
?yaeo o?aaiaaiee, iineieueeo ioiineoaeueii aieueoay oieueia eo, a oaeaea
neeueiia ?annayiea eie yeaeo?iiia i?eaiaeyo e ?aceiio oooaeoaieth
ea/anoaa ecia?aaeaiey iauaeoa. E?iia oiai, iaoa?eae oaeeo ieaiie
aeieaeai iaeaaeaoue oi?ioae oaieii?iaiaeiinoueth e aunieie noieeinoueth
e yeaeo?iiiie aiiaa?aee?iaea.

Enoaoe, ia yeaeo?iiiie aiiaa?aee?iaea iauaeoa enneaaeiaaiey e aa
iineaaenoaeyo. I?e iiiaaeaiee yeaeo?iiia ia iauaeo iie auaeaeytho
yia?aeth, i?eia?ii ?aaioth eeiaoe/aneie yia?aee eo aeaeaeaiey. A
?acoeueoaoa iiaoo i?ienoiaeeoue ianoiue ?acia?aa e ?ac?ooaiea o/anoeia
iauaeoa.

Yeaeo?iiiue iee?ineii /anoi eniieuecoaony aeey iee?ioeie/aneiai aiaeeca
enneaaeoaiiai aauanoaa niaeanii iaoiaeo, i?aaeeiaeaiiiio I. E.
Caieyiiaie e TH. I. Eooie?ii. Ii nouanoao yoio iaoiae aiaeiae/ai iaoiaeo
iee?ioeie/aneiai aiaeeca n iiiiuueth iioe/aneiai iee?ineiia. A aeaiiii
neo/aa yeaeo?iiiue iee?ineii eniieuecoaony a ea/anoaa ono?ienoaa,
niiniaiiai iaia?oaeeoue iaeua eiee/anoaa eneiiiai aauanoaa (ii oi?ia e
no?oeoo?a e?enoaeeia e o.i.). ia iiaa?oiinoue aiaeiiai ?anoai?a, a
eioi?ii i?aaeiieaaaaony iaee/ea eneiiuo eiiia, iaiineony eaiey 1 — 1,5%
?anoai?a ieo?ieeao/aoee a aieeaoeaoaoa. Eaiey ?anoaeaaony ii iiaa?oiinoe
aeeaeeinoe e ia?acoao eieeiaeeaaoth ieaieo, ia eioi?oth iaiineony eaiey
?aaaaioa. Eiiu ?aaaaioa i?iieeatho (aeeoooiaee?otho) neaicue ieaieo e,
acaeiiaeaenoaoy n ?anoai?ii, ia?acotho ia iiaa?oiinoe ieaiee e?enoaeeu,
eioi?ua niaea?aeao eiiu, iiaeeaaeauea iaia?oaeaieth. Iinea niaoeeaeueiie
i/enoee eoni/ae ieaiee n e?enoaeeeeaie iiiauaaony a yeaeo?iiiue
iee?ineii, e ia iniiaa eco/aiey yoeo e?enoaeeeeia ieacuaaaony aiciiaeiui
aeaoue ioaao i iaee/ee eneiiuo eiiia, a a ?yaea neo/aaa — e ia eo
eiioeaio?aoeee. Oaeie iaoiae iee?ioeie/aneiai aiaeeca oa?aeoa?ecoaony
aunieie /oanoaeoaeueiinoueth (ia 2 — 3 ii?yaeea aieueoae ii n?aaiaieth n
ae?oaeie niiniaaie). Iai?eia?, eiiu ia?aaioea iiaoo auoue iaia?oaeaiu a
?anoai?a n eiioeaio?aoeeae ia ieaea 10(-11 ii?iaeueiiai ?anoai?a i?e
niaea?aeaiee eiia 10(-11 a (ii aeaiiui A. I. ?aoaoieeiaa).

Iooe i?aiaeieaiey aeeo?aeoeeiiiiai i?aaeaea yeaeo?iiiie iee?ineiiee.

E ianoiyuaio a?aiaie yeaeo?iiiay iee?ineiiey aeinoeaea aieueoeo oniaoia
e iaoea iiiai/eneaiiua i?eiaiaiey. Iaeiaei a ?yaea neo/aaa, i eioi?uo
e?aoei auei neacaii auoa, auei au /?acau/aeii aeaeaoaeueiui aeiaeoueny
aeaeueiaeoaai i?ia?anna a yeaeo?iiiie iee?ineiiee. Yoi a ia?aoth
i/a?aaeue ioiineony e i?iaeaia aeinoeaeaiey aieueoae ?ac?aoathuae
niiniaiinoe.

Ia iooe ?aoaiey yoie e?aaoaieueiie caaea/e noiyo /?acau/aeii na?ueaciua
oaoie/aneea o?oaeiinoe, naycaiiua n i?iaeaiaie nicaeaiey yeaeo?iiiuo
eeic, eo acaeiiiai ?aniieiaeaiey oi?ie?iaaiey iaeiinei?inoiuo
yeaeo?iiiuo iioieia. Niaieoiiinoue yoeo oaeoi?ia i?eaiaeeo a eiia/iii
eoiaa e ?acee/iiai ?iaea eneaaeaieyi, ea?athuei aaaeioth ?ieue i?e
aieueoeo oaaee/aieyo e i?eaiaeyuei e oiio, /oi i?aeoe/anee aeinoeaaaiia
?ac?aoaiea ieacuaaaony ooaea i?aaeaeueiiai.

Ii ia?a i?eaeeaeaiey yeaeo?iiiie iee?ineiiee e naiei i?aaeaeueiui
aiciiaeiinoyi ana o?oaeiaa e o?oaeiaa noaiiaeony aiineoue a iaa
aeaeueiaeoea oniaa?oainoaiaaiey.

Naiua iineaaeiea aeinoeaeaiey a yeaeo?iiiie iee?ineiiee iniiaaiu ia
i?eiaiaiee iiauo aunieiaieueoiuo (V = 100 ea) e naa?oaunieiaaeooiiuo
(aaeooi 2e-10 ii ?o.(no.) i?eai?ia. Aunieiaieueoiay yeaeo?iiiay
iee?ineiiey, eae iieacuaaao iiuo, iicaieyao oiaiueoeoue o?iiaoe/aneoth
aaa??aoeeth yeaeo?iiiuo eeic. A ia/aoe niiauaaony, iai?eia?, i oii, /oi
n iiiiuueth iiaiai yiiineiai iee?ineiia SMH-5 iiaoo auoue iieo/aiu
oioia?aoee ?aoaoie n iaaeieineinoiui ?annoiyieai (1 A(. Niiauaaony
oaeaea, /oi ia iiaii yeaeo?iiiii iee?ineiia n onei?ythuei iai?yaeaieai
750 ea iieo/aii ?ac?aoaiea, ?aaiia 3 A(.

?anniao?eaathony aiciiaeiinoe i?eiaiaiey a yeaeo?iiiie iee?ineiiee eeic
ec naa?oi?iaiaeyueo nieaaia (iai?eia?, Hi ( Zn), eioi?ua iicaieyo
iieo/eoue aunieea iioe/aneea naienoaa yeaeo?iiiuo nenoai e
eneeth/eoaeueioth noaaeeueiinoue iieae. Iaeeaeaaony, /oi eniieueciaaiea
niaoeeaeueiuo eeic-oeeueo?ia iicaieeo iieo/eoue iiaua ?acoeueoaou a
io?aaeaoaeueiie yeaeo?iiiie iee?ineiiee. I?e eniieueciaaiee oaeeo eeic a
i?inaa/eaathuai yeaeo?iiiii iee?ineiia oaeaeinue nouanoaaiii oeo/oeoue
eo ?ac?aoathuoth niiniaiinoue.

A ?ano?iauo yeaeo?iiiuo iee?ineiiao i?inaa/eaathuaai oeia e ianoiyuaio
a?aiaie aeinoeaiooa ?ac?aoathuay niiniaiinoue a 100 A(. Iiaue
yienneiiiue iee?ineii iicaieyao iieo/aoue ?ac?aoaiey aeaoaeae n
?acia?aie io 120 (aeey oioiyiennee) aei 270 A( (aeey aoi?e/iie yiennee).

Aucuaaao eioa?an niiauaiea i oii, /oi aieeaiaeneay oe?ia Philips aiineo
?yae oniaa?oainoaiaaiee a iee?ineii oeia EM-300, eioi?ua iicaieyo
aeiaanoe i?aeoe/aneoth ?ac?aoathuoth niiniaiinoue aei oai?aoe/aneiai
i?aaeaea (!). I?aaaea, i nouanoaa yoeo oniaa?oainoaiaaiee iiea ia
niiauaaony.

Aaaeiinoue i?iaeaiu oeo/oaiey ?ac?aoathuae niiniaiinoe a yeaeo?iiiie
iee?ineiiee, i?eaeeaeaiea aa e oai?aoe/aneiio i?aaeaeo noeioee?iaaea
i?iaaaeaiea oeaeiai ?yaea enneaaeiaaiee a yoie iaeanoe. Ec
iiiai/eneaiiuo i?aaeeiaeaiee e eaeae, ca/anooth ino?ioiiuo e aanueia
ia?niaeoeaiuo, inoaiiaeiny ia eaeayo, auneacaiiuo aiaeeeneei oeceeii
Aaai?ii, iieo/eaoeo a iineaaeiea aiaeu oe?ieia ?acaeoea a iioeea,
?aaeeioeceea, aeonoeea, iniaaiii a nayce n nicaeaieai iioe/aneeo
eaaioiauo aaia?aoi?ia (eaca?ia). ?a/ue eaeao i oae iacuaaaiie
aieia?aoee, i eioi?ie ecaanoii nae/an ia oieueei niaoeeaeenoai, ii e
anai oai, eoi eioa?anoaony iiaaeoeie aeinoeaeaieyie oeceee. Aianoa n oai
ia ana, iaaa?iia, ciatho, /oi ia?aua ?aaiou Aaai?a ii aieia?aoee,
i?iaaaeaiiua aua a «aeieaca?iue» ia?eiae (1948-1951), auee iinoaaeaiu e
auiieiaiu eiaiii a nayce n caaea/ae iiauoaiey ?ac?aoathuae niiniaiinoe a
yeaeo?iiiie iee?ineiiee.

Nouiinoue i?aaeeaaaaoaainy iaoiaea naiaeeeanue e neaaeothuaio.
Iiiio?iiaoe/aneee iioie yeaeo?iiia, o.a. iioie, niaea?aeauee yeaeo?iiu n
iaeeiaeiauie nei?inoyie, inaauaao iauaeo enneaaeiaaiey (ii noaia
i?inaa/eaathuaai eee oaiaaiai iee?ineiia). I?e yoii i?ienoiaeeo
aeeo?aeoeey yeaeo?iiia ia iauaeoa (aniiiiei aieiiaua naienoaa
yeaeo?iiia!). Iau/ii a yeaeo?iiiii iee?ineiia io/ie, i?aoa?iaaoee
aeeo?aeoeeth ia iauaeoa, iinooiaao a nenoaio yeaeo?iiiuo eeic,
oi?ie?othueo ecia?aaeaiea e iaania/eaathueo ioaeiia aieueoia oaaee/aiea.
Iaeiaei yoe aea eeicu, eae iu oaea ioia/aee, yaeythony enoi/ieeaie
o?oaeii ono?aieiuo eneaaeaiee, i?aiyonoaothueo aeinoeaeaieth
oai?aoe/aneiai ?ac?aoaiey. A iiaii iaoiaea i?aaeeaaaeinue oeene?iaaoue
?acoeueoao aeeo?aeoeee yeaeo?iiia oioia?aoe/anee a aeaea aeeo?aeoeeiiiie
ea?oeiu e iiaeaa?aaoue yoo ea?oeio iineaaeothuae ia?aaioea n iiiiuueth
iioe/aneeo iaoiaeia, aaea iieo/aiea ioaeiuo oneeaiee iiaeao auoue
aeinoeaiooi n iaiueoeie eneaaeaieyie. A oaeii aeaoonooiai/aoii i?ioeanna
iieo/aiey ecia?aaeaiee iniiaiia oaaee/aiea aeinoeaaaony ca n/ao
ia?aoiaea io «yeaeo?iiiuo» aeeei aiei e iioe/aneei. I?e yoii neaaeoao
ioiaoeoue, /oi ia?aaaouaaaiay iioe/aneeie iaoiaeaie ea?oeia aeeo?aeoeee
i?aeoe/anee ia eiaao noiaenoaa n iauaeoii enneaaeiaaiey. Iaeiaei n
iiiiuueth naaoiaiai eceo/aiey (aeaeeiiai) ii yoie ea?oeia a ianeiaeiii
iioe/aneii ono?ienoaa iiaeii ainnoaiiaeoue ecia?aaeaiea enneaaeoaiiai
iauaeoa. Aeey yoiai enoi/iee eceo/aiey aeieaeai iinueaoue
iiiio?iiaoe/aneea eiaa?aioiua aieiu, o.a. aeieaeai iaeaaeaoue oaie
naienoaaie, eioi?ua oae y?ei i?iyaeythony o iioe/aneeo eaaioiauo
aaia?aoi?ia.

Caiaoei, /oi, ia?acii aiai?y, a yoii aeaoonooiai/aoii i?ioeanna iu
oeene?oai, «caii?aaeeaaai» o?iio yeaeo?iiiuo aiei e iioii aini?iecaiaeei
aai aiiaue a aeaea o?iioa naaoiaie aieiu a cia/eoaeueii aieueoai
ianooaaa, eniieuecoy i?e yoii ?acee/ea aeeei aiei naaoa e yeaeo?iiia
(yoi niioiioaiea, iai?eia?, iiaeao auoue ii?yaeea 6000A(/0,030A( (
200000).

A oaeii «aaceeiciaii», a iioiio e ia aiinyuei eneaaeaiee oaaee/aiee e
caeeth/aaony iniiaiia aeinoieinoai iaoiaea aieia?aoee a yeaeo?iiiie
iee?ineiiee.

E /eneo iiauo iai?aaeaiee neaaeoao oaeaea ioianoe iaeanoue iee?ineiiee,
eniieuecothuoth aianoi yeaeo?iiia ae?oaea aeaeu iee?i/anoeoe, oyaeaeuo
ii n?aaiaieth n yeaeo?iiaie. A yoii neo/aa aeeo?aeoeeiiiue i?aaeae,
i?aaeneacuaaaiue oai?eae, niauai a aieaa aeaeaeoth iaeanoue iaeuo
?acia?ia. I?eia?ii oaeiai iai?aaeaiey iee?ineiiee yaeyaony
?acaeaathuayny aaoieiiiay iee?ineiiey.

A aaoieiiiuo iee?ineiiao, eniieuecoaiuo i?e enneaaeiaaiee oeceee
iiaa?oiinoiuo yaeaiee, aeaaiui ia?acii a iaoaeeao, ieacuaaaony
aiciiaeiui aeaeaiea ioaeaeueiuo aoiiia. Iaoiaeeea aaoieiiiie iee?ineiiee
aanueia naiaia?acia; yoa iaeanoue i?aoa?iaaaao ao?iia ?acaeoea.

Eae aea aeaeaei iu niiaeai aua i?iaeaeiooueny ii iooe ?ane?uoey oaei
iee?iiauaeoia? Iu aeaeei, /oi ca enoi?e/anee ei?ioeee n?ie, eniieuecoy
iiaaeoea aeinoeaeaiey oeceee e ?aaeeiyeaeo?iieee, yeaeo?iiiay
iee?ineiiey i?aa?aoeeanue a iiuiia i?oaeea enneaaeiaaiey i?e?iaeu.
Iaic?eiia aoaeouaa yoie iaeanoe iaoee naycaii n ?aaeecaoeeae
aea?ciiaaiiuo i?iaeoia nicaeaiey oaeeo i?eai?ia, eioi?ua iicaieyo
«i?eaeeceoue» e naeaeaoue c?eiui iiiaiia?aciue e e?ani/iue iee?iie?.
Aeaeaei ia an? au? ynii ia yoii iooe, ia eioi?ii iinoiyiii aicieeatho
an? aieaa e aieaa neiaeiua iao/ii-oaoie/aneea e oaoiieiae/aneea
i?iaeaiu. Nia?aiaiiua i?eai?u iee?ineiiee yaeythony ian?aaiaiii aieaa
neiaeiuie ono?ienoaaie, /ai iee?ineiiu iaaeaaiaai i?ioeiai.

Oaea nae/an iu noaeeeaaainy n i/aaeaeiui oaeoii: i?eai?u iee?ineiiee
noaiiayony an? aieaa neiaeiuie e a?iiicaeeeie ii ia?a i?iieeiiaaiey a
?aiaa iaaeinyaaaiua oaeiu ie?a iaeuo iauaeoia. Aeaeueiaeoaa oneiaeiaiea
yoeo i?eai?ia, oaaee/aiea cao?ao ia eo ecaioiaeaiea ii?aaeaeythony
iaiaoiaeeiinoueth ?ac?aoaiey iiauo an? aieaa neiaeiuo i?iaeai.

Caeanue oianoii i?iaanoe aiaeiaeth n ?acaeoeai yenia?eiaioaeueiie
yaea?iie oeceee, aaea iieo/aiea eioi?iaoeee i naienoaao iee?i/anoeoe
aauanoaa, ec eioi?uo ninoiyo yae?a aoiiia, naycaii n nicaeaieai
neiaeiaeoeo e, eae i?aaeei, /?acau/aeii a?iiicaeeeo e aei?iaeo i?eai?ia
e onoaiiaie.

Iieo/aiea eioi?iaoeee, ?ane?uaathuae oaeiu iee?iie?a, iiea/eaaaony
aunieie oeaiie. Iaeiaei i?ienoiaeyuea i?e yoii cao?aou eioaeeaeooaeueiuo
e iaoa?eaeueiuo ?ano?nia, eae iieacuaaao iiuo enoi?ee iaoee, aaconeiaii,
ieoiathony oaie aiciiaeiinoyie, eioi?ua ioe?uaathony i?e yoii a oaoieea,
oeceea, oeiee, aeieiaee e iaaeeoeeia.

Eeoa?aoo?a:

?oeiai A.E. , Eeeiaiei E.N. Yeaeo?iiiay iee?ineiiey. I., Ciaiea, 1968.

Naaaeueaa E.A. Eo?n oeceee, o.3. I., Iaoea, 1989.

?enoiee:

Iaiiiiei, /oi 1(( (aiano?ai) = 10e-10 i.

A aaniethoiie nenoaia aaeeieoe eiyooeoeeaio i?aeiieaiey aaeooia ?aaai
aaeeieoea.

Ia?aoei aieiaiea ia oi, /oi ianna yeaeo?iia ii aeaiiui 1996 a. ecaanoia
n ioiineoaeueiie iia?aoiinoueth ia aieaa 0,00003, a ca?yae ( ia aieaa
0,00002.

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