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Агрегатные состояние вещества

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Oaaai?ianeee ainoaea?noaaiiue ?aaeeioaoie/aneee Oieaa?neoao

?aoa?ao ii

Anoanoaiciaieth

ia oaio :

Aa?aaaoiia ninoiyiea aauanoa.

Aeeieo?ia A.E.

A?oiia I-78

Oaaai?ia 1999 a.

Aa?aaaoiua Ninoiyiey aauanoaa(io eao. Aggrego –i?eniaaeeiyth,
naycuaath), ninoiyiey iaeiiai e oiai aea aauanoaa, ia?aoiaeu iaaeaeo
eioi?uie nii?iaiaeaeathony nea/eiia?aciui eciaiaieai aai naiaiaeiie
yia?aee, yio?iiee, ieioiinoe e ae?oaeo oece/aneeo naienoa. Ana

aauanoaa (ca iaeioi?ui eneeth/aieai) iiaoo nouanoaiaaoue a o??o
aa?aaaoiuo ninoiyieyo — oa??aeii, aeeaeeii e aaciia?aciii. Oae, aiaea
i?e ii?iaeueiii aeaaeaiee p= 10l 325 Ia=760 ii ?oooiiai noieaa e i?e
oaiia?aoo?a t=00 N. e?enoaeeecoaony a e?ae, a i?e 100°N eeieo e
i?aa?auaaony a ia?. *aoa??oui aa?aaaoiui ninoiyieai aauanoaa /anoi
n/eoatho ieacio.

Aa?aaaoiia ninoiyiea aauanoaa caaeneo io oece/aneeo oneiaee, a eioi?uo
iii iaoiaeeony, aeaaiui ia?acii io oaiia?aoo?u e io aeaaeaiey.
Ii?aaeaeythuae aaee/eiie yaeyaony ioiioaiea n?aaeiae iioaioeeaeueiie
yia?aee acaeiiaeaenoaey iieaeoe e eo n?aaeiae eeiaoe/aneie yia?aee. Oae,
aeey oa??aeiai oeea yoi ioiioaiea aieueoa 1, aeey aacia iaiueoa 1, a
aeey aeeaeeinoae i?eaeeceoaeueii ?aaii 1. Ia?aoiae ec iaeiiai

aa?aaaoiiai ninoiyiey aauanoaa a ae?oaia nii?iaiaeaeaaony nea/eiia?aciui
eciaiaieai aaee/eiu aeaiiiai ioiioaiey, naycaiiui ni nea/eiia?aciui
eciaiaieai iaaeiieaeoey?iuo ?annoiyiee e iaaeiieaeoey?iuo
acaeiiaeaenoaee. A aacao iaaeiieaeoey?iua ?annoiyiey aaeeee, iieaeoeu
ii/oe ia acaeiiaeaenoaotho ae?oa n ae?oaii e aeaeaeoony i?aeoe/anee
naiaiaeii, caiieiyy aanue iau?i. A aeeaeeinoyo e oa??aeuo oaeao
—eiiaeaine?iaaiiuo n?aaeao — iieaeoeu (aoiiu)?aniieiaeaiu cia/eoaeueii
aeeaea ae?oa e ae?oao e acaeiiaeaenoaotho neeueiaa.

Yoi i?eaiaeeo e nio?aiaieth aeeaeeinoyie e oa??aeuie oaeaie naiaai
iau?ia. Iaeiaei, oa?aeoa? aeaeaeaiey iieaeoe a oa??aeuo oaeao e
aeeaeeinoyo ?acee/ai, /ai e iauyniyaony ?acee/ea eo no?oeoo?u e naienoa.

O oa??aeuo oae a e?enoaeeiia?aciii ninoiyiee aoiiu niaa?oatho eeoue
eieaaaiey aaeece oceia e?enoaeee/aneie ?ao?oee; no?oeoo?a yoeo oae
oa?aeoa?ecoaony aunieie noaiaiueth oii?yaei/aiiinoe — aeaeueiei e
aeeaeiei ii?yaeeii. Oaieiaia aeaeaeaiea iieaeoe (aoiiia) aeeaeeinoe
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ni/aoaiea iaeuo eieaaaiee ieiei iieiaeaiee
?aaiiaaney e /anouo ia?aneieia ec iaeiiai iieiaeaiey ?aaiiaaney a
ae?oaia. Iineaaeiea e iaoneiaeeaatho nouanoaiaaiea a aeeaeeinoyo eeoue
aeeaeiaai ii?yaeea a ?aniieiaeaiee /anoeoe, a oaeaea naienoaaiiua ei
iiaeaeaeiinoue e oaeo/anoue.

Ieaaeaiea — yoi ia?aoiae aauanoaa ec oaa?aeiai aa?aaaoiiai ninoiyiey
(ni. Aa?aaaoiua ninoiyiey aauanoaa) a aeeaeeia. Yoio i?ioeann
i?ienoiaeeo i?e iaa?aaaiee, eiaaea oaeo niiauatho iaeioi?ia eiee/anoai
oaieiou +Q. Iai?eia?, eaaeiieaaeee iaoaee naeiaoe ia?aoiaeeo ec
oaa?aeiai ninoiyiey a aeeaeeia, anee aai iaa?aoue aei oaiia?aoo?u 327 N.

Naeiaoe cai?inoi ieaaeony ia aaciaie ieeoa, iai?eia? a eiaeea ec
ia?aeaaathuae noaee (ecaanoii, /oi oaiia?aoo?a ieaiaie aaciaie ai?aeee —
600-850°N, a oaiia?aoo?a ieaaeaiey noaee — 1300-1500°N).

Anee, ieaay naeiaoe, ecia?youe aai oaiia?aoo?o, oi iiaeii iaia?oaeeoue,
/oi nia/aea iia ieaaii aic?anoaao, ii iinea iaeioi?iai iiiaioa inoaaony
iinoiyiiie, ianiio?y ia aeaeueiaeoaa iaa?aaaiea. Yoio iiiaio
niioaaonoaoao ieaaeaieth. Oaiia?aoo?a aea?aeeony iinoiyiiie aei oao ii?,
iiea aanue naeiaoe ia ?anieaaeony, e oieueei iinea yoiai ia/eiaao
iiauoaoueny niiaa. I?e ioeaaeaeaiee aeeaeeiai naeioea iaaethaeaaony
ia?aoiay ea?oeia: oaiia?aoo?a iaaeaao aei iiiaioa ia/aea caoaa?aeaaaiey
e inoaaony iinoiyiiie ana a?aiy, iiea naeiaoe ia ia?aeaeao a oaa?aeoth
oaco, a iioii aiiaue iiieaeaaony.

Aiaeiae/iui ia?acii aaaeoo naay ana /enoua aauanoaa. Iinoiyinoai
oaiia?aoo?u i?e ieaaeaiee eiaao aieueoia i?aeoe/aneia cia/aiea,
iineieueeo iicaieyao a?aaeoe?iaaoue oa?iiiao?u, ecaioaaeeaaoue ieaaeea
i?aaeio?aieoaee e eiaeeeaoi?u, eioi?ua ?anieaaeythony i?e no?iai
caaeaiiie oaiia?aoo?a.

*oi aea i?ienoiaeeo i?e ieaaeaiee? Naiia i/aaeaeiia yaeaiea — ia?ooaiey
a i?ino?ainoaaiiie e?enoaeee/aneie ?aoaoea, oi anoue a ii?yaeea
?aniieiaeaiey aoiiia, oa?aeoa?iii aeey aauanoaa, iaoiaeyuaainy a
oaa?aeii ninoiyiee.

Aoiiu a e?enoaeea eieaaethony ieiei naieo iieiaeaiee ?aaiiaaney. N
iiauoaieai oaiia?aoo?u aiieeooaea eieaaaiee aic?anoaao e aeinoeaaao
iaeioi?ie e?eoe/aneie aaee/eiu, iinea /aai e?enoaeee/aneay ?aoaoea
?ac?ooaaony. Aeey yoiai o?aaoaony aeiiieieoaeueiay oaieiaay yia?aey,
iiyoiio a i?ioeanna ieaaeaiey oaiia?aoo?a ia iiauoaaony, oioy oaiei
i?iaeieaeaao iinooiaoue.

Oaiia?aoo?a ieaaeaiey aauanoaa caaeneo io aeaaeaiey. Aeey aauanoa, o
eioi?uo iauai i?e ieaaeaiee aic?anoaao (a oaeeo iiaeaaeythuaa
aieueoeinoai), iiauoaiea aeaaeaiey iiauoaao oaiia?aoo?o ieaaeaiey e
iaiai?io. O aiaeu iauai i?e ieaaeaiee oiaiueoaaony (iiyoiio, caia?cay,
aiaea ?ac?uaaao o?oau), e i?e iiauoaiee aeaaeaiey eaae ieaaeony i?e
aieaa ieceie oaiia?aoo?a. Aiaeiae/iui ia?acii aaaeoo naay aenioo, aaeeee
e iaeioi?ua ia?ee /oaoiia.

I?e caoaa?aeaaaiee aoiiu aiiaue auno?aeaathony a ii?aaeaeaiiii ii?yaeea
e auaeaeyaony oaieioa caoaa?aeaaaiey. Eae oieueei oaei iieiinoueth
caoaa?aeaaaao, aai oaiia?aoo?a

ia/eiaao iiieaeaoueny.

A ioee/ea io ae?oaeo aa?aaaoiuo ninoiyiee aauanoaa ieacia i?aaenoaaeyao
niaie aac ca?yaeaiiuo /anoeoe (eiiia, yeaeo?iiia), eioi?ua yeaeo?e/anee
acaeiiaeaenoaotho ae?oa n ae?oaii ia aieueoeo ?annoiyieyo. Yoi
ii?aaeaeyao ?yae naiaia?aciuo naienoa ieaciu.

Ia?aoiaeu ec aieaa oii?yaei/aiiiai ii no?oeoo?a aa?aaaoiiai ninoiyiey a
iaiaa oii?yaei/aiiia iiaoo i?ienoiaeeoue ia oieueei i?e ii?aaeae?iiuo
oaiia?aoo?a e aeaaeaiee, ii e iai?a?uaii. Aiciiaeiinoue iai?a?uaiuo
ia?aoiaeia oeacuaaao ia iaeioi?oth oneiaiinoue auaeaeaiey aa?aaaoiuo
ninoiyiee aauanoaa. Yoi iiaeoaa?aeaeaaony nouanoaiaaieai aii?oiuo
oa??aeuo oae, nio?aiythueo no?oeoo?o aeeaeeinoe, ianeieueei aeaeia
e?enoaeee/aneiai ninoiyiey o iaeioi?uo aauanoa, nouanoaiaaiea aeeaeeeo
e?enoaeeia, nouanoaiaaieai o iieeia?ia iniaiai aunieiyeanoe/iiai
ninoiyiey, i?iiaaeooi/iiai iaaeaeo noaeeiia?aciui e aeeaeeei, e ae?oaia.

A nayce n yoei a nia?aiaiiie oeceea aianoi iiiyoey aa?aaaoiiai ninoiyiey
iieuecothony aieaa oe?ieei iiiyoeai — oacu.

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