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Статистика товарной биржи

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Eiieoao ?O ii ia?aciaaieth e aunoae oeiea

Ia?ineee ainoaea?noaaiiue oaoie/aneee oieaa?neoao

Aa?acieeianeee oeeeae

Eo?niaay ?aaioa

ii eo?no noaoenoeee

Oaia : “Noaoenoeea oiaa?iie ae?aee”

Auiieiee : nooaeaio 2-iai eo?na a?oiiu I-2

Iaeeiei A.N.

I?iaa?ee : i?aiiaeaaaoaeue Noa?eia TH.A.

a. Aa?acieee, 1996

Niaea?aeaiea:

Iiiyoea e nouiinoue oiaa?iie ae?aee e ae?aeaaie
aeayoaeueiinoe………………3

Caaea/e ae?aeaaie
noaoenoeee……………………………………………………..
………….6

Nenoaia iieacaoaeae ae?aeaaie
noaoenoeee…………………………………………….6

Eioe?iaea ae?aeaauo
oeai…………………………………………………………..
………….7

Iaoiaeu ?an/aoa eiaeaenia oiaa?iie
ae?aee…………………………………………….9

Iaoiaeu aiaeeca ae?aeaaie
eiiutheoo?u……………………………………………….10

Nienie eniieuecoaiie
eeoa?aoo?u……………………………………………………..
…15 IIIssOEA E NOUIINOUe OIAA?IIE AE?AEE E AE?AEAAIE AeAssOAEUeIINOE

Oiaa?iay ae?aea eeanne/aneee einoeooo ?uii/iie yeiiiieee,
i?aaiecaoeeiiii ioi?ieaiiue, ?aaoey?ii ooieoeeiie?othuee iioiaue ?uiie
oiaa?ia n iinoiyiiui ianoii e a?aiaiai caeeth/aiey naeaeie ii
noaiaea?oai e ia?acoeai n ioeoeeaeueiie eioe?iaeie oeai.

Ae?aea – ninoaaiay /anoue ?uii/iiai iaoaiecia; iia auyaeyao ?aaeueiia
niioiioaiea ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey, oi?ie?oao ?aaiiaaniua oeaiu e
i?eaioe?oao ia ieo iioiaue ?uiie, niinianoaoao aiaea/aieth oiaa?iie
iannu a noa?o oiaa?iiai ia?auaiey. E?iia oiai, ae?aea – eino?oiaio
noaaeeecaoeee oeai /a?ac oaaeaee?iaaiea, eino?oiaio eiiia?/aneeo
niaeoeyoeee ia ?acieoea oeai e a neeo yoiai i?eoyaaoaeueiay noa?a
eiaanoe?iaaiey.

Iiae oa?ieiii “ae?aea” iiieiaaony e nai ae?aeaaie i?ioeann, e
niioaaonoaothuay eio?ano?oeoo?a, iaania/eaathuay niaa?oaiea ae?aeaauo
naeaeie, o/ao eo ?acoeueoaoia, no?aoiaua iia?aoeee, niaethaeaiea
onoaiiaeaiiuo i?aaee e o. i.

Iio?aaiinoe ?aaoee?iaaiey e eiio?iey ae?aeaaiai i?ioeanna, auyaeaiea
caeiiiia?iinoae ae?aeaaie oi?aiaee, ioeaiee ae?aeaaie eiiuthieoo?u,
i?iaiice?iaaiea ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey iaoneiaeeaatho iaiaoiaeeiinoue
noaoenoe/aneiai enneaaeiaaiey ae?aeaaie aeayoaeueiinoe.

I?aaeiaoii eco/aiey ae?aeaaie noaoenoeee yaeythony: ae?aeaaay
eiiuthieoo?a, aeaeaeaiea oiaa?iie iannu, ae?aeaaia oeaiiia?aciaaiea,
o?iaaiue e oaiaeaioeee oeai ia ae?aea, eiaanoeoeeiiiua i?ioeannu,
aeioiaeu e iioa?e i?iaeaaoeia e iieoiaoaeae, aicaeaenoaea ae?aee ia
?uiie oiaa?ia, ae?aeaaay eio?ano?oeoo?a.

Ioaeaeueiay oiaa?iay ae?aea i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ?aaoey?ii
ooieoeeiie?othuee ?uiie ii?aaeaeaiiiai oiaa?a eee eiiieaena oiaa?ia n
iinoiyiiui ianoii e a?aiaiai ?aaiou.

A ie?iaie i?aeoeea aeayoaeueiinoue oiaa?iuo ae?ae i?aeiouanoaaiii
ia?aie/eaaaony eoieae-i?iaeaaeae nu?uey e naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo oiaa?ia.
Ioa/anoaaiiay ae?aea iiea aua niaa?oaao iia?aoeee n aioiaie i?iaeoeoeeae
?acee/iuo io?aneae. Ae?aeaaua oiaa?u, eae i?aaeei, – yoi nu?uea,
ioiinyony e ia/aeo oaoiieiae/aneiai i?ioeanna i?iecaiaenoaa i?iaeoeoeee.
Iiyoiio iie ai iiiaii ii?aaeaeytho oeaiu ae?oaeo i?iecaiaeeiuo ec ieo
oiaa?ia. Eeanne/aneee ae?aeaaie oiaa? – ianniaue i?iaeoeo,
oieoeoee?iaaiiue ii ea/anoao e iauaio, iaeaaeathuee no?iai
ii?aaeaeaiiuie, eaaei eiie?aoece?oaiuie, noaaeeueiuie naienoaaie. Ii ia
aeieaeai auoiaeeoue ec iiaeu eee ii?aeueii onoa?aaaoue. Yoi icia/aao,
/oi ae?aeaaie oiaa? iiaeao ia aeinoaaeyoueny ia ae?aeo. Iieoiaoaeth
aeieaeii auoue aac?acee/ii: eoi i?iaeaaaoe, ec eaeie ia?oee acyo oiaa?,
/oi iaiaoiaeeii aeey inouanoaeaiey naeaeie ia n?ie. Iaeaieaa ecaanoiua
ae?aeaaua oiaa?u: iaooue e iaooai?iaeoeou, oeaaoiua e ae?aaioeaiiua
iaoaeeu, ean, oeiiie, eao/oe, eioa, naoa?, ca?ii. Iaeei e oio aea oiaa?
iiaeao auoue ae?aeaaui a iaeiie no?aia e ia auoue ei a ae?oaie.

Neaaeoao eiaoue a aeaeo; /oi ae?aea, eae th?eaee/aneia eeoei, ia
aunooiaao iaeiie ec noi?ii i?e niaa?oaiee naeaeie eoiee-i?iaeaaee, a
oieueei iaania/eaaao eo niaa?oaiea e niaethaeaiea i?aaee ae?aeaaie
oi?aiaee.

Ae?aea inouanoaeyao eioe?iaeo oeai, onoaiaaeeaaao noaiaea?ou ia
ae?aeaaua oiaa?u, ?ac?aaaouaaao oeiiaua eiio?aeou, oeene?oao oi?aiaua
i?ioeaaeo?u, inouanoaeyao a?aeo?aae, i?iecaiaeeo ?an/aou, caieiaaony
eioi?iaoeeiiiui ianeoaeeaaieai, ieacuaaao ?acee/iua oneoae naiei
eeeaioai. A aieueoeinoaa no?ai nouanoaotho ainoaea?noaaiiua no?oeoo?u,
inouanoaeythuea eeoeaice?iaaiea ae?ae (auaeathuea ?ac?aoaiea ia
inouanoaeaiea aeayoaeueiinoe), eiio?ieue ca ae?aeaaie oi?aiaeae e
no?aoiaaieai ae?aeaauo iia?aoeee, eiinaeoeiaiaoth aeayoaeueiinoue
(i?aaeinoaaeaiea oneoa ii eiinoeueoe?iaaieth) e noaoenoe/aneoth
aeayoaeueiinoue.

Oaaeaee?iaaiea – yoi oi?ia no?aoiaaiey eanniauo naeaeie io oeaiiauo
?eneia; iau/ii inouanoaeyaony a oi?ia iia?aoeee ii iieoiea eee i?iaeaaea
oueth/a?niiai eiio?aeoa. Oaaeaee?iaaiea iiaeao auoue ei?ioeei
(caeeth/aaony n?i/iue eiio?aeo ia i?iaeaaeo) eee aeeeiiui (caeeth/aaony
n?i/iue eiio?aeo ia iieoieo). Ei?ioeia oaaeaee?iaaiea i?aaei?eieiaaony
aeey caueou a aoaeouai iuiaoiae eanniaie oeaiu i?e i?iaeaaea, a aeeeiiia
oaaeaee?iaaiea – aeey caueou a aoaeouai iuiaoiae eanniaie oeaiu i?e
iieoiea. Oaaeaee?iaaiea iicaieyao noaaeeece?iaaoue oeaiu.

A niioaaonoaee n i?eciaeii n?i/iinoe naeaeee auaeaeythony eanniaua e
naeaeee ia n?ie. Nouanoaotho:

eanniaua naeaeee “eyo” (cash) n iaiaaeeaiiui caaa?oaieai naeaeee, o. a.
iinoaaeie oiaa?a e ?an/aoii i?iaeaaoea n iieoiaoaeai;

eanniaua naeaeee “niio” (spot) n auno?ui caaa?oaieai naeaeee, o. a.
?an/aoii i?iaeaaoea e iieoiaoaey a aeaoo- o?aoaeiaaiue n?ie.

Naeaeee ia n?ie (n?i/iua) ioee/athony oai, /oi iiiaio eniieiaiey
naeaeee (iieaoa e ia?aaea/a oiaa?a) ioaeaeai io iiiaioa caeeth/aiey
naeaeee ia cia/eoaeueiia a?aiy (aei 24 ianyoeaa). Oeaia onoaiaaeeaaaony
a iiiaio caeeth/aiey naeaeee. N?iee eniieiaiey naeaeie (iiceoeee)
noaiaea?oeciaaiu.

Naeaeee ia n?ie ?anoe?eee aiciiaeiinoe ae?aeaaie niaeoeyoeee, o. a.
ea?u ia ?acieoea oeai. Ia eanniaii ?uiea auea aiciiaeia oieueei ea?a ia
iiauoaiea oeaiu, eiaaea ae?aeaaeee, ea?athuea ia iiauoaiea (ia ae?aeaaii
aea?aiia iie iacuaathony “auee”), i?eia?aoaee oiaa? a iaaeaaeaea aai
aeaeueiaeoae i?iaeaaee ii aieaa aunieie oeaia. Ia n?i/iii ?uiea
iiyaeeanue aiciiaeiinoue ea?u ia iiieaeaiea. Ae?aeaaeee, ea?athuea ia
iiieaeaiea oeaiu, iacuaathony “iaaeaaaeyie”. Iie caeeth/atho naeaeeo, ia
eiay oiaa?a, e iaaeathony, /oi e iiiaioo eniieiaiey naeaeee ei oaeanony
eoieoue oiaa? ii aieaa ieceie oeaia, /ai onoaiiaeaii a eiio?aeoa, /oiau
ecaea/ue auaiaeo.

Iiaeii oeacaoue neaaeothuea iniiaiua naeaeee ia oiaa?iie ae?aea:

naeaeee n ?aaeueiui oiaa?ii;

oi?aa?aeiua naeaeee;

oueth/a?niua naeaeee;

naeaeee eoiee-i?iaeaaee iioeeiiia;

oaaeaee?iaaiea;

ni?aaeeia.

Naeaeea n ?aaeueiui oiaa?ii i?aaeoniao?eaaao iinoaaeo oiaa?a
iieoiaoaeth (iaeioi?ua ae?aee eiatho neeaaeneea iiiauaiey). Iaeiaei
?aaeueiua iinoaaee ia ae?aeao ia i?aauoatho, eae i?aaeei, 5 – 10 %
ie?iaie oi?aiaee niioaaonoaothueie oiaa?aie. Oi?aa?aeiay naeaeea – yoi
n?i/iay naeaeea n ?aaeueiui oiaa?ii n ion?i/aiiie oieaoie ii oeaiai, eae
i?aaeei, onoaiiaeaiiui ia iiiaio caeeth/aiey naeaeee. Oi?aa?aeiay
naeaeea aeiioneaao ea?o ia ?acieoea oeai.

Oueth/a?niay naeaeea – n?i/iay naeaeea, eioi?ay ia i?aaeoniao?eaaao
oaeoe/aneie iinoaaee oiaa?a e i?aaenoaaeyao niaie oi?aiaeth eiio?aeoii
ia iieoieo eee i?iaeaaeo oiaa?a. Oaeay naeaeea iacuaaaony aoiaaeiie, aa
oeaeueth yaeyaony iieo/aiea ?acieoeu iaaeaeo oeaiie oiaa?a ia aeaoo
caeeth/aiey eiio?aeoa e oeaiie ia aeaoo eniieiaiey eiio?aeoa.

Iioeeii – n?i/iay naeaeea n oneiaeai ia iniiaaiee aeiaiai?a, a
niioaaonoaee n eioi?ui iaeei ec o/anoieeia i?eia?aoaao i?aai iieoiee eee
i?iaeaaee oiaa?a ii oeene?iaaiiie oeaia a oa/aiea iaeioi?iai ia?eiaea
a?aiaie, auiea/eaay ae?oaiio o/anoieeo aeaiaaeioth i?aieth ca
iaycaoaeuenoai iaania/aiey i?e iaiaoiaeeiinoe ?aaeecaoeee yoiai i?aaa.
Eeoei, i?eia?aoathuaa i?aai, iacuaaaony aea?aeaoaeai iioeeiia, a eeoei,
i?eieiathuaa iaycaoaeuenoaa, – iaaeienaoaeai iioeeiia. Iioeeii – aeae
naeaeie n ia?aie/aiiui ?eneii aeey aai aeaaeaeueoea. Aeaaeaeaoe
iioeeiiiiai eiio?aeoa iiaeao eee eniieieoue, eee ia eniieieoue, eee
ia?aaeaoue aai ae?oaiio eeoeo.

Ni?aaeeia (spreding) – iniaay oi?ia naeaeie, eioi?ay iicaieyao ecaea/ue
auaiaeo ec ?aciuo oueth/a?niuo eiio?aeoia. Ni?aaeeia iiaeaa?aeai
iaiueoaio ?eneo, /ai i?inoay oueth/a?niay naeaeea. Nouanoaotho o?e oeia
ni?aaeeiaa:

aioo?e?uii/iua naeaeee: iaeei oiaa? i?aaeeaaaaony ii ?aciui n?ieai
iinoaaee;

iaaeoiaa?iua naeaeee: aeaa acaeiinaycaiiuo ?uiea oiaa?ia (iai?eia?,
?uiee ioaieoeu e eoeo?ocu), ii iaeei n?ie;

iaae?uii/iua: iaeei oiaa?, iaeei n?ie, ii ia ianeieueeeo ?aciuo
ae?aeao.

Ae?aeaaie oiaa? noaiaea?oece?oaony ia oieueei ii ea/anoao, ii e ii
eiee/anoao. Ieieiaeueiia eiee/anoai, eioi?ia iiaeao auoue i?iaeaii,
iacuaaaony ae?aeaaie aaeeieoeae eee oaniaeie. Iia niioaaonoaoao, eae
i?aaeei, aianoeiinoe iaeiiai o?ainii?oiiai n?aaenoaa eee ianoa.
Noaiaea?oiie aaee/eiie oaeoe/aneiai iauaia iinoaaee oiaa?a yaeyaony eio,
o. a. ii?aaeaeaiiia eiee/anoai oiaa?a, e?aoiia aaeeieoea (iai?eia?,
ouny/a aaeeieoe eee oiiia, eee 100 oiaeiaie e o. ae.) .

Ae?aea oieoeoee?oao (ia?aie/eaaao /enei, aiciiaeiuo aa?eaioia) ianoi e
a?aiy iinoaaee. Oieoeeaoeey a?aiaie iinoaaee caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi
oiaa? iinoaaeyaony eeoue a ii?aaeaeaiiua ia?eiaeu, iacuaaaiua
iiceoeeyie. Aeey eaaeaeiai oiaa?a oa?aeoa?iu naie ia?eiaeu iinoaaee. A
/anoiinoe, ia ?uiea naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo i?iaeoeoia ia?eiaeu iinoaaee
ii?aaeaeythony naciiiinoueth i?iecaiaenoaa.

Oieoeeaoeey ianoa iinoaaee ii?aaeaeyaony ii niioaaonoaothuaio ia?a/ith
neeaaeia, o?aieeeu, yeaaaoi?ia. Eiiaaea ?ac?aoaaony iinoaaeyoue oiaa?
aaaiiaie ia aeaeaciiaei?iaeioth noaioeeth. Oieoeeaoeey iaiaoiaeeia aeey
iaania/aiey niiinoaaeiinoe oeai ia oiaa?, eioi?ay caaeneo io ianoa
iinoaaee. Ae?aea eee oiieiiii/aiiay ath oe?ia auaeaao i?iaeaaoeo
neeaaeneia naeaeaoaeuenoai – aa??aio. I?iaeaaaoe ia?aaeaao aai
iieoiaoaeth a iaiai ia /ae.

Ae?aeaaua iia?aoeee inouanoaeythony ia naieie iieoiaoaeyie e
i?iaeaaoeaie, a ae?aeaauie iin?aaeieeaie – a?iea?aie e aeeea?aie.
A?iea?u a iniiaiii niaa?oatho naeaeee io eiaie eeeaioa e ca aai n/ao,
iieo/ay eiienneiiiia aiciaa?aaeaeaiea. Aeeea?u niaa?oatho naeaeee ii
ii?o/aieth eeeaioia, ii io naiaai eiaie e ca naie n/ao. Aeeea?u
i?eia?aoatho oiaa? a nianoaaiiinoue e caeioa?aniaaiu i?iaeaoue aai
aei?iaea, /ai eoieee. Iin?aaeiee (a?iea? eee aeeea?) iieo/aao ii?o/aiea
(i?eeac) eeeaioa ia i?iaeaaeo eee iieoieo, eioi?ia aeeth/aao o?e
ia?aiao?a: eiee/anoai oiaa?a (/enei oeiiauo eiio?aeoia), n?ie iinoaaee,
oeaio. ?an/ao n eeeaioii inouanoaeyaony iaiin?aaenoaaiii eee /a?ac
?an/aoioth iaeaoo ae?aee. A?iea?u e ae?oaea iin?aaeieee oiea/eaatho
ae?aea ii?aaeaeaiiue i?ioeaio n eaaeaeie naeaeee.

Naia ae?aea – iaeiiia?/aneia o/?aaeaeaiea, ii aa /eaiu iiaoo
caieiaoueny eiiia?oeeae. Eae i?aaeei, ae?aea – aeoeeiia?iia iauanoai,
aicaeaaeyaiia ae?aeaaui niaaoii (niaaoii aee?aeoi?ia), ioaaonoaaiiui
ia?aae nia?aieai aeoeeiia?ia. ?acee/athony aeaa eaoaai?ee /eaiia ae?aee:
iieiua e iaiieiua. Iieiua /eaiu eiatho i?aai ia o/anoea a ae?aeaauo
oi?aao ai anao naeoeeyo (ioaeaeao, ioaeaeaieyo) ae?aee aac ia?aie/aiey.
*eai ae?aee eiaao ianoi a iia?aoeeiiiii caea, aeathuaa i?aai
naiinoiyoaeueii caeeth/aoue naeaeee aac o/anoey iin?aaeieeia. *eai
ae?aee eiaao i?aai naeaaaoue naia ianoi a a?aiaeo a niioaaonoaee n
onoaiiaeaiiuie i?aaeeaie.

Iia?aoeeiiiue cae ae?aee iai?oaeoaony eioi?iaoeeiiiuie e o/aoiuie
n?aaenoaaie, niaoeeaeueiie naycueth. Ianoi aeey caeeth/aiey naeaeie
eiaioaony ae?aeaaui eieueoeii (iieii), a oaeaea ?eiaii, yiie (ieoii),
iineieueeo iie iaoiaeeony ia o?iaia 1 – 1,5 i ieaea o?iaiy caea. Ianoi
/eaia ae?aee – yoi noieee, eaaeia, “iiaeeiaa” (oeia i?eeaaea),
iai?oaeiaaiiua oaeaoiiiie, oaeaeniie e oaeaoaeniie naycueth e
eiiiuethoa?ii n auoiaeii ia yeaeo?iiii-eioi?iaoeeiiiia oaaei ae?aee.
Eaaeaeia ianoi eiaao naie iiia?.

Ia?aue eeeaio, i?eiyaoee i?aaeeiaeaiea a?iea?a, n/eoaaony niaa?oeaoei
naeaeeo aia caaeneiinoe io iineaaeothueo i?aaeeiaeaiee. Anee ia
i?eia?aoaiea oiaa?a i?aoaiaeotho ianeieueei iieoiaoaeae, oi iaaeaeo ieie
i?iaiaeeony oi?aiaey ia aoeoeeiiiii i?eioeeia “ia iiauoaiea”. Anee oeaia
i?iaeaaoea auoa oeaiu iieoiaoaey, oi i?e ionoonoaee ae?oaeo
i?aaeeiaeaiee naeaeea iiaeao ninoiyoueny, anee oeaiu i?iaeaaoea e
iieoiaoaey n?aaiythony ia iniiaa acaeiiuo onooiie.

Ioi?ieaiea eiio?aeoia inouanoaeyaony oaea a eiioea aeiy eee ia iicaeiaa
oo?a neaaeothuaai aeiy. Iia?aoi?u ae?aee iinea caeeth/aiey naeaeee a
onoiie oi?ia iaycaiu a oa/aiea 30 iei eioi?ie?iaaoue i iae ?an/aoioth
iaeaoo. A?iea? iaycai ia?aaeaoue eeeaioo

eioi?iaoeeth i caeeth/aiee naeaeee.

Iaeioi?ua eiieoaou (iaeaou) ae?aee eiatho iaiin?aaenoaaiiia ioiioaiea e
oi?ie?iaaieth eioi?iaoeee i ae?aeaaie aeayoaeueiinoe. A /anoiinoe,
?an/aoiay iaeaoa (a iaeioi?uo ae?aeao – eee?eiaiaay iaeaoa) ?aaeno?e?oao
ana naeaeee, a oii /enea n?i/iua, inouanoaeyao ?an/aou n eeeaioaie e
iia?aoi?aie ae?aee, ieaoaaee anyeiai ?iaea. Eiio?ieueiue eiieoao aaaeao
iaaethaeaiea aeaeiaie aeoeaiinoe ia ae?aea. Ii eiio?iee?oao oiae
iinoaaee ?aaeueiiai oiaa?a, neaaeeo ca eiioeaio?aoeeae ae?aeaauo
eiio?aeoia a ?oeao ioaeaeueiuo oe?i, ai?aony n eneonnoaaiiui aeaoeoeeoii
e iaieioee?iaaieai oeaiaie. Eioe?iaaeueiue eiieoao inouanoaeyao
oeenaoeeth oeai, eo aiaeec e i?iaiice?iaaiea, a oaeaea ioaeeeaoeeth
oeai. ?yae ae?ae eiaao noaoenoe/aneee eiieoao, eioi?ue iaania/eaaao
eioi?iaoeeiiiia ianeoaeeaaiea ae?aee, aaaeao o/ao e noaoenoe/aneea
?an/aou, a /anoiinoe eiaeaenia.

CAAeA*E AE?AEAAIE NOAOENOEEE

Eioi?iaoeeiiii-aiaeeoe/aneia iaania/aiea noauaeoia e iauaeoia ae?aeaaie
aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaenoaaeyao aaaeioth caaea/o noaoenoeee e iaiaoiaeeiia
oneiaea ?aaoee?iaaiey e no?aoiaaiey ae?aeaaie oi?aiaee. Ainoaea?noaaiiay
noaoenoeea e i?aaiu, i?ecaaiiua eiio?iee?iaaoue e eeoeaice?iaaoue
ae?aee, ioaeaeathony a naaaeaieyo i ianooaaao e ninoiyiee ae?aeaaiai
?uiea, aai eio?ano?oeoo?a, aeioiaeao e ?anoiaeao o/anoieeia ae?aeaaiai
i?ioeanna. Aecian-noaoenoeea eniuouaaao ioaeaeo a aeaiiuo i iioaioeeaea
ae?aeaaiai ?uiea, caeiiiia?iinoyo aai ?acaeoey, i?iaiicao i?iaeaaee e
oeai, eiaanoeoeeyo ia ae?aeaaii ?uiea. Oaeei ia?acii, caaea/e ae?aeaaie
noaoenoeee naiaeyony e nai?o e aiaeeco eioi?iaoeee i ae?aeaaie
eiiuthieoo?a, oaiaeaioeeyo ae?aeaaiai oiaa?iiai?ioa e oeai, ?iee ae?ae
ia oiaa?iii ?uiea, iaoa?eaeueiii iaania/aiee ae?aeaaiai i?ioeanna.
Eiie?aoiua caaea/e ae?aeaaie noaoenoeee naiaeyony e neaaeothuaio:

nai? e ia?aaioea eioi?iaoeee i iaee/ee ae?ae e ae?aeaaie
aeayoaeueiinoe;

ioeaiea ninoiyiey ae?aeaaiai ?uiea ia eiie?aoioth aeaoo eee ca ia?eiae;

auyaeaiea iioaioeeaea ae?aeaaie oi?aiaee, ioeaiee ni?ina e
i?aaeeiaeaiey, eo niioiioaiey;

ioeaiea aeaeiaie aeoeaiinoe ia ae?aea;

ioeaiee e aiaeec ae?aeaaiai oiaa?iiai?ioa, aai iauaia, no?oeoo?u e
aeeiaieee, oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iee oiaa?iuo ae?ae ia iioiaii ?uiea oiaa?ia;

aiaeec niioiioaiee naeaeie n ?aaeueiui oiaa?ii e naeaeie ia n?ie;

aiaeec o?iaiy, eieaaeaiinoe e aeeiaieee ae?aeaauo oeai, eo naciiiie
oeeeee/iinoe, i?iaiice?iaaiea ae?aeaauo oeai;

ioeaiea e aiaeec eiiia?/aneeo ?acoeueoaoia ae?aeaaie oi?aiaee;

oa?aeoa?enoeea ninoiyiey e ?acaeoey eio?ano?oeoo?u ae?aeaaie oi?aiaee.

NENOAIA IIEACAOAEAE AE?AEAAIE NOAOENOEEE

Caaea/e noaoenoe/aneiai enneaaeiaaiey ae?aeaaie aeayoaeueiinoe
?aaeecothony n iiiiuueth niioaaonoaothuae nenoaiu iieacaoaeae, iauay
noaia eioi?ie i?eaiaeeony ieaea:

1. *enei, ninoaa e ?acia? ae?ae

1.1. iauaa /enei ae?ae;

1.2. ?ani?aaeaeaiea ae?ae ii aeaeai e oiaa?iie niaoeeaeecaoeee;

1.3. ?ani?aaeaeaiea ae?ae ii ?acia?o onoaaiiai eaieoaea e ii /eneo
/eaiia-iaeueeia.

2. Ni?in e i?aaeeiaeaiea ia ae?aea

2.1 /enei e iauai cayaie ia i?iaeaaeo e iieoieo oiaa?ia;

2.2 niioiioaiea cayaie ia i?iaeaaeo e iieoieo oiaa?ia (ii /eneo e
iauaio cayaie);

2.3 eiaeaen /enea cayaie;

2.4 eiaeaen n?aaeiaai iauaia cayaie.

3. Oiaa?iiai?io ae?ae

3.1 iauee iauai oiaa?iiai?ioa, a oii /enea iinoaaea ?aaeueiiai oiaa?a;

3.2 oaeaeueiue aan iinoaaee ?aaeueiiai oiaa?a a iauai iauaia iioiaiai
oiaa?iiai?ioa;

3.3 oiaa?iay no?oeoo?a (anni?oeiaio) oiaa?iiai?ioa, ?acia? i?iaeaaee
ioaeaeueiiai oiaa?a (a iaoo?aeueiuo e noieiinoiuo aaeeieoeao e a
i?ioeaioao e iauaio iauaio oiaa?iiai?ioa);

3.4 n?aaeiee ?acia? oiaa?iiai?ioa iaeiie ae?aee;

3.5 caaiiinoue oiaa?iiai?ioa (/enei ia?ai?iaeaae);

3.6 eiaeaenu oiaa?iiai?ioa;

3.7 eiaeaen anni?oeiaioiuo naeaeaia.

4. Aeaeiaay aeoeaiinoue ia ae?aeaaii ?uiea

4.1 /enei naeaeie, a oii /enea n ?aaeueiui oiaa?ii, e /enei n?i/iuo
naeaeie;

4.2 aeiey naeaeie n ?aaeueiui oiaa?ii e naeaeie ia n?ie;

4.3 n?aaeiaa /enei naeaeie ia iaeio ae?aeo.

5. Ae?aeaaua oeaiu

5.1 o?iaaiue oeai (eioe?iaea) ii naeaeeai n ?aaeueiui oiaa?ii e
oueth/a?niui naeaeeai;

5.2 aaciaua oeaiu, oeaiu i?aaeeiaeaiey, ni?ina e i?iaeaaee;

5.3 n?aaeiea oeaiu ca ia?eiae;

5.4 ?ac?ua oeai oueth/a?niuo naeaeie;

5.5 eiaeaen oeai;

5.6 n?aaeiaa ioeeiiaiea.

6. Oaaeaee?iaaiea

6.1 ?acia? no?aoiaee oueth/a?niuo naeaeie;

6.2 ?acia? aeaiiceoia (aa?aioeeiiai caaeaoea) i?e oueth/a?niuo
naeaeeao;

6.3 ?acia? ia?aee (noii, auiea/eaaaiuo aeey iie?uoey iaaeaaii?eyoiuo
eieaaaiee oeai).

7. eiiia?/aneay yooaeoeaiinoue ae?aeaaie aeayoaeueiinoe

7.1 ae?aeaaua ecaea?aeee (cao?aou ia ae?aeaaua iia?aoeee e niaea?aeaiea
ae?aeaaiai aiia?aoa), eo o?iaaiue e no?oeoo?a;

7.2 aeioiaeu io ae?aeaauo iia?aoeee (eiienneiiiua io ae?aeaauo
iia?aoeee, ieaoa ca ianoi ia ae?aea, i?i/ea aeioiaeu);

7.3 /enoay i?eaueue, aeeaeaeaiaeu iaeueeia;

7.4 iaeiae e ae?oaea iaycaoaeueiua ieaoaaee (io/eneaiey, no?aoiaee,
aciinu e o. i.);

7.5 ?aioaaaeueiinoue (i?eaueue a i?ioeaioao e onoaaiiio eaieoaeo,
i?eaueue a ?an/aoa ia iaeii ianoi, i?eaueue a i?ioeaioao e oiaa?iiai?ioo
ae?aee, i?eaueue a ?an/aoa ia iaeio naeaeeo).

8. Ae?aeaaay eio?ano?oeoo?a

8.1 iniiaiua oiiaeu, anaai e a n?aaeiai ia iaeio ae?aeo;

8.2 ?acia?u iia?aoeeiiiiai caea (ieiuaaeue, i2), /enei iai?oaeiaaiiuo
iano (“yi”);

8.3 iaania/aiiinoue ae?ae eioi?iaoeeiiii-au/eneeoaeueiui iai?oaeiaaieai
– a oeaeii e ae?aeaaiai eieueoea;

8.4 /eneaiiinoue e ninoaa ?aaioieeia ae?aee;

8.5 /enei a?iea?neeo (aeeea?neeo, iaeea?neeo) eiioi?, /eneaiiinoue eo
?aaioieeia;

8.6 iaee/ea, /enei e ieiuaaeue (aieinoue) neeaaeneeo iiiauaiee ae?aee.

Enoi/ieeaie eioi?iaoeee aeey ?an/aoa noaoenoe/aneeo iieacaoaeae
neoaeao: ainoaea?noaaiiay noaoenoe/aneay io/aoiinoue e aeaiiua
aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa, aeaiiua ?an/aoiie (o/aoiie) iaeaou, aeaiiua
eioe?iai/iie iaeaou (a oii /enea eioe?iai/iua atheeaoaie), io/aoiinoue
a?iea?ia (anee iia aaaaeaia ?aoaieai niaaoa ae?aee), niaoeeaeueiua
ia?eaoeiaiaua enneaaeiaaiey, auiieiaiiua ii caeaco ae?aee (a oii /enea
eiiuthieoo?iua iaci?u e i?iaiicu).

A o/aoii-noaoenoe/aneeo oeaeyo iiaoo auoue eniieueciaaiu aeaiiua
oeiiauo eiio?aeoia (iauai eoiee-i?iaeaaee, ea/anoai, n?ie e ianoi
iinoaaee aeey ?aaeueiiai e oueth/a?niiai oiaa?a), aa?aioeeiua caaeaoee,
aaciaay oeaia e eeieou aa eciaiaiey. A a?iea?neii io/aoa iau/ii
i?eaiaeyony: aaeaiany/iue io/ao i i?iaaaeaiiuo iia?aoeeyo, aeeth/athuee
ia?a/aiue naeaeie, a oii /enea n ?aaeueiui oiaa?ii, i?eauee e oauoee io
naeaeie.

EIOE?IAEA AE?AEAAUO OeAI

Eae oaea ioia/aeinue, ae?aea yaeyaony iaoaieciii o?aaiiaaoeaaiey
?acee/iuo oaiaeaioeee a aeaeaeaiee oeai e niinianoaoao naeaaeeaaieth
?aceeo eieaaaiee oeai. Yoa noaaeeece?othuay ?ieue ae?aee ?aaeecoaony
iin?aaenoaii eioe?iaee oeai – ?aciiia?aciie eioi?iaoeee i ae?aeaauo
oeaiao. Eioe?iaea inouanoaeyaony eioe?iai/iie eiienneae a ?acoeueoaoa
nenoaiaoecaoeee e iaiauaiey oeai iiiai/eneaiiuo naeaeie n iineaaeothuae
iacaiaaeeeoaeueiie ioaeeeaoeeae ?acoeueoaoia. Eioe?iaea oeai
i?aaenoaaeyao eioa?an aeey o/anoieeia ae?aeaauo oi?aia, aeey iiiaeo
i?iecaiaeeoaeae e iieoiaoaeae aia ae?aee, aeey aeayoaeueiinoe naiie
ae?aee.

Iineieueeo ae?aeaaua eioe?iaee i?aaenoaaeytho niaie aeeiaie/aneee ?yae
oeai ca aeeeoaeueiue ia?eiae, yoi iicaieyao eniieueciaaoue eo a ea/anoaa
aacu i?iaiice?iaaiey. Iniaia cia/aiea eiaao ioeoeeaeueiay eioe?iaea –
aaeeiay oeaia ii oiaa?o ca ae?aeaaie aeaiue, onoaiaaeeaaaiay a
?acoeueoaoa on?aaeiaiey oeai, caoeene?iaaiiuo ia caeeth/eoaeueiii yoaia
ae?aeaaiai aeiy, e a cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie eeoaiiay neo/aeiuo
ioeeiiaiee.

Eioe?iaea e?iia ni?aai/iiai cia/aiey eiaao aua aieueoia
ooieoeeiiaeueiia cia/aiea. Oae, ioeoeeaeueiay oueth/a?niay eioe?iaea eae
aaeeiay oeaia, onoaiaaeeaaaiay ia ae?aea aeey eaaeaeie iiceoeee (ianyoea
iinoaaee) eaaeaeue ae?aeaaie aeaiue, eniieuecoaony i?e i?iaaaeaiee
ia?a?an/aoia n eeeaioaie ?an/aoiie (eee?eiaiaie) iaeaou.

Aeey iieo/aiey aeinoiaa?iuo ?acoeueoaoia eioe?iai/iay eiienney
i?eaea?aeeaaaony ii?aaeaeaiiuo i?aaee:

eneeth/athony ioaeaeueiua ?acei auaeaeythueany cia/aiey oeai
i?iaeaaoeia, iieoiaoaeae e naeaeie;

eioe?othony ia ana, a eeoue aaaeiaeoea oiaa?u, naeaeee ii eioi?ui
niaa?oathony nenoaiaoe/anee. Naaaeaiey i oaeeo oiaa?ao iiiauathony a
oaa?aeue nienie – aaco ae?aeaaiai atheeaoaiy. I?e nenoaiaoe/aneii
iiyaeaiee iiauo oiaa?ia naaaeaiey i ieo aeeth/athony a nienie. I?e
aeeeoaeueiii ionoonoaee naeaeie ia eaeea-eeai oiaa?u eo eneeth/atho ec
nienea;

iaiaa?eaaaony ieieiaeueiia eiee/anoai oiaa?a a ia?oee, o/eouaaaiie i?e
eioe?iaea;

aeey yeeieie?iaaiey caaeneiinoe oeaiu io ?acia?a ia?oee oiaa?a
eniieuecothony aeaa iaoiaea: oeaiu aeathony aeey oeie/iiai iauaia, ii
eioi?iio niaa?oaaony iaeaieueoaa /enei naeaeie; eioe?iai/iay oeaia
ii?aaeaeyaony aeey ianeieueeeo ?acee/iuo iauaiia;

o/eouaathony ?acee/ey a oneiaeyo iinoaaee, a niioaaonoaee n eioi?uie a
noieiinoue ia?oee iiaoo aoiaeeoue eee ia aoiaeeoue ia?aaicea,
no?aoiaaiea, oiaeiaea e o. i.

Eioe?iaea niaea?aeeo neaaeothuoth eioi?iaoeeth: ioeoeeaeueioth
eioe?iaeo, iaeneiaeueiua e ieieiaeueiua oeaiu i?iaeaaoea (oeaia
i?aaeeiaeaiey) e iieoiaoaey (oeaia ni?ina); oeaiu ca aeaiue (ia?eiae);
oeaiu ia?aie e iineaaeiae naeaeee aeiy (aiciiaeii, n oeacaieai
i?iiaaeooi/iuo iniauo oi/ae ?aceiai, eciaiaiey oeai); oeaiu ia iiiaio
ioe?uoey e cae?uoey ae?aee; oeie/ioth (ni?aai/ioth) oeaio; eciaiaiea
oeaiu cae?uoey ae?aee ii n?aaiaieth n i?aaeuaeouei aeiai.

Niioaaonoaothuay oae iacuaaaiay ioeoeeaeueiay eioe?iaea iiaen/eouaaaony
aeey eaaeaeie iiceoeee (aeaou iinoaaee) iooai on?aaeiaiey iaeneiaeueiie
e ieieiaeueiie oeai, caoeene?iaaiiuo a oa/aiea iineaaeieo 30 – 60 n
oi?aiaee.

Oeie/iay (ni?aai/iay) oeaia oiaa?a onoaiaaeeaaaony i?e ianoaaeeueiii
?uiea, eiaaea oeaiu e aeeythuea ia ieo oaeoi?u eiatho cia/eoaeueiue
?aca?in. Oeie/iay oeaia io?aaeaao noieiinoue aaeeieoeu oiaa?a i?e
oeie/iuo iauaiao i?iaeaae e oneiaeyo ?aaeecaoeee. Yoi iaeaieaa ?aaeueiay
oeaia, oae eae iia eneeth/aao aicaeaenoaea neo/aeiuo oeaiiia?acothueo
oaeoi?ia. I?e aieueoii eiee/anoaa naeaeie oeie/iay oeaia en/eneyaony eae
n?aaeiyy oeaia naeaeie, iineieueeo ii caeiio aieueoeo /enae ioeeiiaiey
acaeiii iiaaoathony. Oeie/iay oeaia ii iaeiio /eneo naeaeie aeieaeia
auaiaeeoueny n o/aoii anao oeaiiia?acothueo oaeoi?ia, (niioiioaiey
ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey, eiee/anoaa o/anoieeia, oneiaee ?an/aoa e
o?ainii?oe?iaee e o. ae.), n o/aoii niioaaonoaey oeie/iie oeaiu i?ioeiai
ae?aeaaiai aeiy (ia?eiaea) oeaiai aiiaue caeeth/aiiuo naeaeie. I?e
ionoonoaee iaiaoiaeeiie eioi?iaoeee oeie/iay oeaia ia auaiaeeony.

Ia iniiaaiee eioe?iaee ninoaaeyaony ae?aeaaie atheeaoaiue a aeaea
oaaeeoeu. Ana oeaiu aeathony ia aaeeieoeo oiaa?a. Ae?aeaaua eioe?iaee, a
oii /enea e oueth/a?niua, ?aaoey?ii ioaeeeothony niioaaonoaothueie
ae?aeaie, anaie aaaeoueie aacaoaie, i?aaeaea anaai aeaeiauie ecaeaieyie.

Iioeiaeueiay no?oeoo?a ioaeeeaoeee oaeiaa: i?eaiaeyony oueth/a?niua
eioe?iaee, oeaiu ia ?aaeueiue oiaa? e eioe?iaee iioeeiiia ia ana
iniiaiua oiaa?u. A ia?aie a?aoa ae?aeaauo eioe?iaie oeacaiu iacaaiey oao
ianyoeaa, eiaaea iiaeii aoaeao iinoaaeoue eee iieo/eoue oiaa?; ai aoi?ie
– oeaia i?e ioe?uoee ae?aee; a o?aoueae – iaeneiaeueiay
ca?aaeno?e?iaaiiay a oa/aiea aeiy eioe?iaea; a /aoaa?oie – ieieiaeueiay
eioe?iaea; a iyoie – oeaia, eniieuecoaiay aeey ?an/aoia ia ae?aea (eae
i?aaeei, oeaia i?e cae?uoee ae?aee), eciaiaiea oeaiu ca aeaiue, i?e/ai
ciae “+” oeacuaaao ia ?ino eioe?iaie, a “(” – ia eo nieaeaiea ii
n?aaiaieth n oeaiie i?aaeuaeouaai aeiy; a naaeueiie e ainueiie a?aoao
i?eaaaeaiu iieacaoaee niioaaonoaaiii iaeneiaeueiiai e ieieiaeueiiai
cia/aiey oeaiu ca a?aiy eioe?iaaiey oiaa?a n aeaiiui n?ieii iinoaaee; a
aeaayoie – /enei ioe?uouo eiio?aeoia. Iiae a?aoaie ioaeaeueiie no?ieie
i?eaaaeaiu naaaeaiey i i?eia?iii iauaia naeaeie ca aeaiue e /enei
ioe?uouo eiio?aeoia ii anai n?ieai iinoaaee a oeaeii.

E?iia eioe?iaie oeai ia ae?aea ia niaoeeaeueiii ye?aia e iiieoi?ao
iinoiyiii auaiaeeony oaeouay oeaiiaay eioi?iaoeey, ia yaeythuayny
eoiaiaie aeey aeaiiiai ae?aeaaiai aeiy. Niaea?aeaiea eioi?iaoeee iiaeao
auoue, iai?eia?, neaaeothuei: o?e iineaaeiea naeaeee ii anai eiio?aeoai
e ii eaaeaeiio aeaeo oiaa?ia; oeaiu ia iiiaio ioe?uoey ae?aee,
iaeneiaeueiua e ieieiaeueiua oeaiu oueth/a?niuo naeaeie; ?aca?in oeai
i?e ioe?uoee e cae?uoee ae?aee (anee eiathony); aeeaiaciiu oeai i?e
i?einoaiiaeaiee e aiciaiiaeaiee ae?aeaauo iia?aoeee (anee
i?einoaiiaeaiea e aiciaiiaeaiea eiaee ianoi a oiaea aeeeoaeueiuo
oi?aia); eciaiaiea ieii/aoaeueiuo oeai ii n?aaiaieth n oeaiaie
i?aaeoanoaothuaai aeiy; oaeouea aa?oiea e ieaeiea eieaaaiey oeai.

O?iaie oeai ia ae?aeao noaiaea?oece?iaaiu. Ieieiaeueiia eciaiaiea
oeaiu, iacuaaaiia ioieoii, ninoaaeyao a NOA aeey ca?iiauo 0,25 oeaioa ca
aooaeue, aeey aaiceia – 0,01 oeaioa ca aaeeii, aeey iaooe – 1 oeaio ca
aa??aeue e o. ae.

IAOIAeU ?AN*AOA EIAeAENIA OIAA?IIE AE?AEE

Ae?aeaaua eiaeaenu eniieuecothony i?e aiaeeca aeaeiaie aeoeaiinoe
ae?aee. E eiaeaenai aeaeiaie aeoeaiinoe ae?aee ioiinyony: eiaeaenu /enea
cayaie ia i?iaeaaeo e ia iieoieo, eiaeaenu n?aaeiaai iauaia cayaie,
eiaeaenu iioiaiai oiaa?iiai?ioa, eiaeaenu ae?aeaauo oeai.

Ae?aeaaua eiaeaenu iioiaiai oiaa?iiai?ioa ?ann/eouaathony: a) ii
ioaeaeueiiio oiaa?o, aeeth/ay aai anni?oeiaioiua aeaeu; a) ii anai
oiaa?ai, ?aaeeciaaiiui ia ae?aea.

Ioaeaeueii auaeaeyaony eiaeaen ?aaeueiie iinoaaee. Eiaeaen i?iaeaaee
oiaa?a ioaeaeueiiai anni?oeiaioa ?ann/eouaaaony eae ioiioaiea eiee/anoaa
i?iaeaaee aeaiiiai oiaa?a ca eco/aaiue ia?eiae (qt) e i?aaeoanoaiaaaoaio
(q() a iaoo?aeueiuo aaeeieoeao:

i =
qt / q( (1)

I?e yoii iiaeii ecia?eoue aeeiaieeo i?iaeaaee e ethaiio aaceniiio
ia?eiaeo, ia?aiiiaeay eiaeaenu ca eaaeaeue iineaaeothuee ia?eiae iinea
aaceniiai. O?aaoaony oieueei iaania/eoue niiinoaaeiinoue io?aceia
a?aiaie (ia?eiaeia). Anee en/eneythony eiaeaenu ca ia?aaiua i?iiaaeooee
a?aiaie, iiaeii ?ann/eoaoue n?aaeiee aeiaaiie (eee n?aaeiee aeaeaaeiue,
iany/iue e o. i.) eiaeaen. Aeey yoiai i?eiaiyaony oi?ioea n?aaeiae
aaiiao?e/aneie

i = i(ca n+1 ) ia?eiae (2)

Aeey oiaa?a a oeaeii, aeeth/ay ana aai aeaeu e ni?oa, no?ieony aeaa oeia
eiaeaenia:

eiee/anoaaiiue: eiee/anoai oiaa?a anao aeaeia e ni?oia noiie?oaony (a
oaeouai ia?eiaea – t; a aaceniii – ():

Iq = ( qt / ( q( (3)

noieiinoiue: ia?aae noiie?iaaieai iauai i?iaeaae oiaa?a anao ni?oia e
aeaeia acaaoeaaaony (niecia?yaony) ii iaeciaiiui oeaiai (pi). A ea/anoaa
iaeciaiiie oeaiu iau/ii i?eiaiytho oeaiu ia ia/aei ia?eiaea eee iaeaieaa
iineaaeiaaoaeueiiai, noaaeeueiiai ia?eiaea:

Iq = ( qt pi / ( q( pi (4)

Iaaeinoaoie yoiai eiaeaena a oii, /oi ii ne?uaaao eciaiaiee noieiinoe
oiaa?a ca n/ao anni?oeiaioiuo naeaeaia (iai?eia?, i?e iaeiii e oii aea
eiee/anoaa oiaa?ia oaaee/aiea aeiee aei?iaeo aeaeia aeaao ?ino
noieiinoe). Auyaeoue aeeyiea anni?oeiaioiuo naeaeaia iiaeii n iiiiuueth
eiaeaena anni?oeiaioiuo naeaeaia, io?aaeathuaai aeeyiea naeaeaia
anni?oeiaioiie no?oeoo?u ia aeeiaieeo noieiinoe:

Iacc = ((qt pi / (q( pi) / ((qt / (q() = (pi qt / (pi q( (5)

aaea q’ – aeiey eiie?aoiiai anni?oeiaioiiai aeaea ai anae anni?oeiaioiie
a?oiia.

Aaaeiaeoei iieacaoaeai aeaeiaie aeoeaiinoe yaeyaony eiaeaen oeai
oiaa?iie ae?aee. Ia oiiaeiaie ae?aea oaeea eiaeaenu iieo/eee aieueoia
?ani?ino?aiaiea aeey aiaeeca aeeiaieee oeai aeoeee. Ia oiaa?iie ae?aea
oaeaea oeaeaniia?acii ?ann/eouaaoue eiaeaenu oeai. Eniieuecothony
aeaiiua eioe?iaie. Aeeth/athony oieueei oeaiu oaeoe/aneie i?iaeaaee.

Aeey ?aaeueiuo oiaa?ia no?ieony eiaeaen oeai n o/aoii ?aaeueiuo aania.
Aeey oeai oueth/a?niuo eiio?aeoia i?eiaiythony iaacaaoaiiua eiaeaenu
oeai.

Eiaeaen oeai iaeiiai aeaea oiaa?a – iau/iue eiaeeaeaeoaeueiue eiaeaen
oeai:

ip = pt / p( (6)

aaea t ioiineony e iineaaeothuaio ia?eiaeo, a ( – e i?aaeuaeouaio.

Eiaeaen oeai ii ianeieueeei aeaeai oiaa?a iaeiiai iaeiaiiaaiey
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie eiaeaen n?aaeieo oeai:

ip = pt / p( (7)

aaea ?t e ?( – n?aaeiea oeaiu ca ia?eiae.

A iauai eiaeaena oeai, o. a. a eiaeaena oeai ii aaai oiaa?ai, a
ea/anoaa aania iiaoo eniieueciaaoueny eee eiee/anoai eaaeaeiai aeaea
oiaa?a (qT) a aua?aiiii ia?eiaea, eee noieiinoiua aeiee a iauaia
?aaeecaoeee ((t eee ((). A ia?aii neo/aa eiaeaen eiaao aeae:

Ip = (pt qT / (p( qT (8)

Ai aoi?ii neo/aa aana aeieaeiu ioiineoueny eee e ia?eiaeo t, eee e
ia?eiaeo (. Eiaeaenu eiatho aeae:

Ip = (ip – (( (9)

Ip = 1 / ((t / ip (10)

aaea ip – eiaeeaeaeoaeueiua eiaeaenu n?aaeieo oeai ii eaaeaeiio aeaeo
oiaa?a ioaeaeueii.

IAOIAeU AIAEECA AE?AEAAIE EIIUTHEOO?U

Ae?aeaaay eiiuthieoo?a – neooaoeey ia ae?aeaaii ?uiea ia aeaoo eee ca
ia?eiae a?aiaie. Aa iniiaiuie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie yaeythony:
naaeaine?iaaiiinoue ?uiea (niioiioaiea ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey),
oaiaeaioeee e noaiaiue onoie/eainoe o?iaiy oeai, /enei naeaeie e iauai
i?iaeaae. ?anniao?eaathony e ae?oaea iieacaoaee.

?ieue oiaa?iie ae?aee a oi?ie?iaaiee iioiaiai ?uiea oa?aeoa?ecoaony
aeieae ae?aeaaiai iai?ioa a iauai iauaia iinoaaee iaeiieiaiiuo oiaa?ia.
Aaaeiie oa?aeoa?enoeeie oiaa?iie ae?aee iiaeii n/eoaoue aeieth naeaeie,
caeai/eaathueony iinoaaeie ?aaeueiiai oiaa?a. Eae ecaanoii, naeaeee ia
n?ie e oueth/a?niua naeaeee aeaeaei ia anaaaea caeai/eaathony iinoaaeie
oiaa?a. I?e iinoaaea ?aaeueiiai oiaa?a ae?aea auiieiyao ooieoeee
iioiaiai i?aaei?eyoey. I?e ionoonoaee iinoaaee ae?aea auiieiyao
iiaeeeiii ae?aeaaua ooieoeee, iaania/eaay noaaeeecaoeeth oeai a
?acoeueoaoa acaeiinayce oeai i?e eanniauo e n?i/iuo naeaeeao /a?ac
oaaeaee?iaaiea (no?aoiaaiea). Ia ca?oaaaeiuo ae?aeao aeiey ?aaeueiuo
iinoaaie ia i?aauoaao 1 – 2%. A iai?ioa ?inneeneeo aei?aaiethoeeiiiuo e
iyiianeeo ae?ae oaeaea i?aiaeaaeaea oueth/a?niay oi?aiaey, eae i?aaeei,
ia caeai/eaathuayny iinoaaeie oiaa?a, a caaa?oathuayny auieaoie ?acieoeu
oeai ia iiiaio caeeth/aiey e iiiaio eniieiaiey naeaeee.

Aiaeec ae?aeaaee oeai – iaeia ec iaeaieaa aaaeiuo noi?ii eiiieaeniiai
aiaeeca ae?aeaaie eiiuthieoo?u. Anee aeey oa?aeoa?enoeee eiiuthieoo?u
?uiea o?aaoaony oaeouay, aeiaieueii ia?aie/aiiay eioi?iaoeey i aeeiaieea
oeai (?ino, iaaeaiea, iinoiyinoai), oi o/anoieee ae?aeaaiai ?uiea
no?aiyony i?aaeaeaeaoue aeaeueiaeoaa iiaaaeaiea oeai aeey aiaeeca e
i?eiyoey i?aeoe/aneeo ?aoaiee. Io i?aaeeueiinoe ?aoaiee caaeneo
yooaeoeaiinoue inouanoaeyaiie eie eiiia?/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe. Iniaaiii
yoi ni?aaaaeeeai aeey ae?aeaauo ea?ieia (niaeoeyioia, ecaeaeathueo
aeioiae ec ?acieoeu oeai iieoiee e i?iaeaaee).

Aeey i?iaiice?iaaiey aeeiaieee oeai ia ?uiea oueth/a?niuo eiio?aeoia
eniieuecotho aeaa iaoiaea aiaeeca: ooiaeaiaioaeueiue e i?eeeaaeiie (eee
oaoie/aneee). O eaaeaeiai iaoiaea anoue naie noi?iiieee, ii aieueoeinoai
eiiia?naioia i?eiaiytho eo a ni/aoaiee.

Ooiaeaiaioaeueiue aiaeec iniiaai ia oe?ieii eniieueciaaiee aiaae?aeaaie
eioi?iaoeee a niioaaonoaee ni neaaeothuei i?eioeeiii: ethaie
yeiiiie/aneee oaeoi?, nieaeathuee i?aaeeiaeaiea eee oaaee/eaathuee ni?in
ia oiaa?, aaaeao e iiauoaieth oeaiu, e, iaiai?io, ethaie oaeoi?,
oaaee/eaathuee i?aaeeiaeaiea eee nieaeathuee ni?in ia oiaa?, eae
i?aaeei, i?eaiaeeo e nieaeaieth oeai. Ia yoie iniiaa i?iaiice?oaony
oeaia, eioi?ay, enoiaey ec i?ioeiai iiuoa, niioaaonoaoao aeaiiiio
niioiioaieth ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey.

Iniiaiua iieacaoaee, eniieuecoaiua a ea/anoaa oaeoi?ia i?e
i?iaiice?iaaiee oeai, iiae?acaeaeythony ia iia?aaeathuea, niioonoaothuea
e caiacaeuaathuea.

E iia?aaeathuei iieacaoaeyi, eioi?ua oa?aeoa?ecotho ninoiyiea yeiiiieee
a aeeaeaeoea ianyoeu, ioiinyony: n?aaeiyy i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue ?aai/ae
iaaeaee, caa?ocea i?iecaiaenoaa, aaee/eia iiauo caeacia ia
iio?aaeoaeueneea oiaa?u, caaea?aeee aoaeoueo iinoaaie, i?aaiecaoeey
iiaiai aeciana, i?aaeiieaaaaiue iauai no?ieoaeuenoaa aeeeuo aeiiia,
eciaiaiey oiaa?iuo caiania, eo?nu aeoeee aaaeoueo eiiiaiee, o?iaaiue
oiiaeiauo eiaeaenia, i?aaeeiaeaiea aeaiaa e ae?.

Niioonoaothuea e caiacaeuaathuea iieacaoaee iaeaaeatho iaiueoeie
i?iaiiciuie aiciiaeiinoyie ia aeeeoaeueiue ia?eiae, ii yaeythony aieaa
aeinoiaa?iuie. E niioonoaothuei e caiacaeuaathuei aaeaiany/iui
iieacaoaeyi ioiinyony: o?iaaiue aac?aaioeoeu, aiaoiaoi?aiaua naeueaei,
iauai nauoa eaaeiauo aaoiiiaeeae aioo?e no?aiu, iauai ?icie/iiai
oiaa?iiai?ioa, eiaeaen oeai i?iecaiaeeoaey (o/eouaay eciaiaiea oeai ia
nu?uea), eciaiaiea oiaa?ii-i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo caiania, iauai aeeeeuiiai
no?ieoaeuenoaa, iauai i?iiuoeaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa, ee/iua aeioiaeu,
aaeiaie iaoeeiiaeueiue i?iaeoeo, eiaeaen iio?aaeoaeueneeo oeai.

I?eiaiaiea ooiaeaiaioaeueiiai aiaeeca iniiaaii ia ninoaaeaiee
yeiiiie/aneie iiaeaee. Noaiaiue neiaeiinoe yoeo yeiiiie/aneeo iiaeaeae
eciaiyaony a oe?ieeo i?aaeaeao – io i?inoiai o?aaiaiey, eioi?ia
niioiineo oeaio oiaa?a n ianeieueeeie iniiaiuie noaoenoe/aneeie
iieacaoaeyie, aei eiiieaeniuo iiaeaeae n ouny/aie ia?aiaiiuo.

I?eeeaaeiie aiaeec iniiaai ia enneaaeiaaiee aeeiaie/aneeo ?yaeia oeai e
iaeioi?uo eiuo iieacaoaeae (iai?eia?, iauaiia oi?aiaee, /enea
caeeth/aiiuo e eneeth/aiiuo naeaeie). E niiniaai i?eeeaaeiiai aiaeeca
ioiinyony a?aoe/aneea e noaoenoe/aneea.

A?aoe/aneea niiniau ioee/athony iaaeyaeiinoueth. E iaeaieaa
?ani?ino?aiaiiui a?aoeeai ioiinyony noieaeeiaua aeeaa?aiiu, /a?ou (aiae.
chart – aeeaa?aiia), a?aoeee n?aaeieo, oi/a/ii-oeao?iua aeeaa?aiiu.

I?e ecia?aaeaiee na?ee /a?oia aa?oeeaeueiay inue iieacuaaao oeaiu, a
ai?eciioaeueiay – a?aiy. Ia aaeaaeiaaiuo a?aoeeao eaaeaeue oi?aiaue
aeaiue i?aaenoaaeai aa?oeeaeueiie eeieae, niaaeeiythuae naioth aunieoth
e naioth ieceoth oeaiu yoiai aeiy. Oeaio ia iiiaio cae?uoey ae?aee aeey
aeaiiiai aeiy iieacuaaao ai?eciioaeueiay /a?oi/ea (oo?eo), eioi?ay
ia?anaeaao aa?oeeaeueiue /a?o. A caaeneiinoe io enneaaeiaaiey ia
iaeioi?uo a?aoeeao oeaiu ia /an ioe?uoey ae?aee iiia/athony oo?eoii
neaaa io /a?oa, a ia /an cae?uoey – ni?aaa. Oeaiu eaaeaeiai ec
iineaaeothueo aeiae iaiinyony ia a?aoee ai?aai io a?aoe/aneiai
io?aaeaiey oeaiu i?aaeuaeouaai aeiy. Anee ia iaaeaea i?acaeie/iue
aeaiue, oi niioaaonoaothuay eeiey ia a?aoeea iioneaaony.

Na?ey neaaeothueo ae?oa ca ae?oaii /a?oia oa?aeoa?ecoao oaiaeaioeeth.
?ani?ino?aiai aiaeec ia iniiaa n?aaiaiey /a?oia aeaoo ninaaeieo aeiae.
Eeethno?aoeey aeaia ia neaaeothuai ?enoiea.

1 2 1 2
1 2 1 2

Aeaiue

?en. 1. N?aaiaiea aeey aeaoo ninaaeieo aeiae

Aioo?aiiee aeaiue – yoi aeaiue, eiaaea aeeaiacii oeai iineaaeothuaai
aeiy iaoiaeeony a i?aaeaeao oeai i?aaeuaeouaai aeiy. Oeaia cae?uoey a
oaeie aeaiue ia ?anniao?eaaaony eae nouanoaaiiay. Neaaeoao iaaethaeaoue,
eaeei ia?acii oeaiu auoiaeyo ec oceiai aeeaiaciia. O/anoiee ?uiea aoaeao
iieoiaoue eee i?iaeaaaoue a caaeneiinoe io oiai, n eaeie noi?iiu
aeeaiaciia oeaiu aueaeoo ca aai i?aaeaeu a iineaaeothuea aeie.

Aiaoiee aeaiue i?ioeaiiieiaeai aioo?aiiaio aeith. A yoii neo/aa oeaia
ia iiiaio cae?uoey ae?aee i?eaeaaony aieueoia cia/aiea.

I?ioeaiiieiaeiay oeaia cae?uoey – yoi neooaoeey, eiaaea oeaiu
ia?aiia/aeueii eaeoo a oii aea iai?aaeaiee, /oi e a i?aaeuaeouee
oi?aiaue aeaiue, ii i?e cae?uoee ae?aee aeaeaeaiea oeai eciaiyaony.
Oaeie oei aeeiaieee oeai n/eoaaony aaaeiui neaiaeii, i?aaeoi?aaeaeathuei
i aa?iyoiii ieii/aiee oaiaeaioeee oeai.

Eeth/aaie aica?ao oeai ni/aoaao aa?eaiou aiaoiaai aeiy e
i?ioeaiiieiaeiie oeaiu cae?uoey. Iniiaiia ioee/ea io aa?eaioa
i?ioeaiiieiaeiie oeaiu caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi e oeaia ioe?uoey, e oeaia
cae?uoey i?aauoatho e?aeiea cia/aiey a aeeaiaciia oeai i?aaeuaeouaai
aeiy. Eeth/aaie aica?ao oeai, iniaaiii ia iaaeaeueiie aeeaa?aiia,
aini?eieiaaony eae aa?iyoiue i?aaeoanoaaiiee eiioea oaiaeaioeee. Iiiaea
oi?aiaoeu, iieuecothueany i?eeeaaeiui iaoiaeii, iaiytho naie iiceoeee ia
?uiea ia i?ioeaiiieiaeiua, o. a. iieoieo ia i?iaeaaeo eee iaiai?io,
aeaaea anee i?ienoiaeeo iaeei oaeie neo/ae.

Iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue a?aoeeia ia?acoao ?acee/iua oeie/iua ecia?aaeaiey
(a?aoe/aneea eiaeeeaoi?u): oeaaeie, oeaa, cae?oaeaiioth aa?oeio
(aiaaeeio), aeaieioth aa?oeio (aiaaeeio), aieiao e iea/e. Yoe iacaaiey
aiai?yo naie ca naay. A aiaeeca oaeaea eniieuecothony: eeiey
iiaeaea?aeee – ieaeiyy a?aieoea aeeiaieee eciaiaiey oeai, eeiey
nii?ioeaeaiey – aa?oiyy a?aieoea aeeiaieee eciaiaiey oeai, eeiey
iiaeaea?aeee o?aiaea e eeiey nii?ioeaeaiey o?aiaea. Nouanoaotho
ii?aaeaeaiiua ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ae?aeaaeeai ioiineoaeueii i?aeoe/aneeo
aeaenoaee ii ?acoeueoaoai auyaeaiey oiai eee eiiai aeaea a?aoe/aneiai
eiaeeeaoi?a.

Eiaeeeaoi? “Aieiaa e iea/e” iicaieyao i?aaeaeaeaoue nieaeaiea aeaiaa
iinea caaa?oaiey oaiaeaioeee iiauoaiey. O?aaoaony iyoue oi/ae (1, 2, 3,
4, 5 ia ?en. 2).

A?aiy

?en. 2. Eiaeeeaoi? “Aieiaa e iea/e”

Oi/ee eiatho iacaaiea: 1 – eaaia iea/i, 3 – aieiaa, 5 – i?aaia iea/i.
Eeiey, i?ioiaeyuay /a?ac oi/ee 2 e 4, iacuaaaony eeieae oae. I?e
iiyaeaiee oi/ee 5 iaeeaeaaony ?aceia oauaaiea, i?e/ai oaeia, /oi
?annoiyiea io oi/ee a naiia aeeaeaeoaa a?aiy aoaeao ia iaiueoa
?annoiyiey io oi/ee 3 aei eeiee oae (oi/ea a). I?aaeaeaeaoue iiauoaiea
iinea iiieaeaiey iiaeii n iiiiuueth eiaeeeaoi?a “Ia?aaa?iooua aieiaa e
iea/e”.

Oi/a/ii-oeao?iua a?aoeee eniieuecothony aeey i?ineaaeeaaiey aeeiaieee
oeai. A?aoee ninoieo ec noieaeeia, ninoiyueo ec e?anoeeia e ioeae.
e?anoee eniieuecoaony aeey eiaeeeaoeee iiauoaiey oeaiu, ioeee –
iiieaeaiey, o. a. eneeth/eoaeueii aeey iaicia/aiey iai?aaeaiey
aeaeaeaiey oeaiu, i?e/ai e?anoee ia iaiyaony ia ioeee (e iaiai?io) aei
oao ii?, iiea ia i?iecieaeao eciaiaiea aaee/eiu ia iaiaa aaeeieoeu
?aaa?nee. Aaeeieoea ?aaa?nee auae?aaony e iiaeao auoue ?acee/iie.
Aaaeii, /oi anee, iai?eia?, aaeeieoea ?aaa?nee ?aaia 2 ioieoai, oi i?e
eciaiaiee oeaiu ia 1,5 ioieoa eciaiaiea iai?aaeaiey ia a?aoeea ia
io?aaeaaony. A ea/anoaa i?eia?a aeaeaa iieacai a?aoee n aaeeieoeae
?aaa?nee a 2 ioieoa, iino?iaiiue ia iniiaa neaaeothuae
iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe oeai: 29 (ia/aeueiay oeaia); 32,7; 29,6; 33,2;
30,1; 34,6 (?en. 3).

35 ?en. 3. I?eia? oi/a/ii-oeao?iiai a?aoeea

34 o

33 o o

32 o o i o

31 o i o i

30 o i

1 2 3 4 5 Iiiaiou eciaiaiey oaiaeaioeee oeai

I/aaeaeii, /oi ecia?aaeaiea a?aoeea caaeneo io aaeeieoeu ?aaa?nee. *ai
iaiueoa aaeeieoea ?aaa?nee, oai ei?i/a a?aoee ii ai?eciioaeueiie ine.
Ae?oaay iniaaiiinoue a?aoeea – i?e iiauoaiee oeai iiaue neiaie ia
noaaeony, iiea oeaia ia i?aacieaeao niioaaonoaothuaai aeene?aoiiai
o?iaiy oeai ii aa?oeeaeueiie ine; i?e iiieaeaiee oeai oaeaea noaaeony
o?iaaiue, oaea i?ieaeaiiue i?e nieaeaiee.

Oi/a/ii-oeao?iua a?aoeee, oae aea eae e iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe /a?oia,
ia?acotho ?acee/iua aeeaa?aiiu (oeaa “iaaeaaaey”, oeaa “auea”, oeaaeie n
“iaaeaaaey”, oeaaeie “auea”, o?aiae “iaaeaaaey”, o?aiae “auea”,
aa?eaoeey aeaieiie aiaaeeiu), eioi?ua eniieuecothony i?e auai?a oaeoeee
iiaaaeaiey ia ae?aea. Oeaa eiaao oi?io ia?aeeaeia?aiia, a oeaaeie –
o?aoaieueieea.

A?aoeee a?aeo?aaea, iniiaaiiua ia noieaeeiauo aeeaa?aiiao,
eniieuecothony i?e ea?a ia niioiioaiee oeai eaeaioe/iuo oiaa?ia ia
?acee/iuo ae?aeao. Anee niioiioaiea oeai auoiaeeo ca i?aaeaeu,
iaaethaeaaoaany a i?ioeii, oi i?eieiaaony ?aoaiea i i?iaeaaea eiio?aeoia
ia aieaa aei?iaii ?uiea e iieoiea ia aieaa aeaoaaii. Yoi aeaeaaony a
iiiaiou a?aiaie 2, 4, 6, 8, 9, 12 (?en. 4).

?en. 4. A?aoee a?aeo?aaea

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

A?aiy

Aiaeiae/ii no?iyony a?aoeee ni?yaeia, ii iie oeene?otho niioiioaiea
eioe?iaie ?acee/iuo n?ieia iinoaaee ia iaeiii e oii aea ?uiea.

Noaoenoe/aneea niiniau aiaeeca ae?aeaaie eiiuthieoo?u aeeth/atho ?an/ao
n?aaeieo, neieuecyueo n?aaeieo, aeenia?nee, aa?eaoeee, eiaeaenia oeai,
o?aiaeiauo iiaeaeae e ae?.

A i?inoaeoai neo/aa n?aaeiyy ca iaeioi?ue ia?eiae oeaia (iai?eia?, ca
ianyoe) iiaeao auoue ?ann/eoaia ii oi?ioea i?inoie n?aaeiae
a?eoiaoe/aneie – ioiioaiey noiiu aaeaaeiaaiuo oeai e /eneo aeiae oi?aia.
Iaeiaei eiee/anoai ?aaeeciaaiiiai oiaa?a e /enei oiaa?iuo naeaeie iiaoo
cia/eoaeueii ?acee/aoueny ii aeiyi oi?aia. A yoii neo/aa ia o?iaaiue
onoie/eainoe oeai aeieaeai aeeyoue iauai i?iaeaae ii eaaeaeie oeaia.
Niioaaonoaaiii n?aaeiyy oeaia ?ann/eouaaaony eae acaaoaiiay n?aaeiyy
a?eoiaoe/aneay:

p = (pi qi / (qi (11)

aaea q – eiee/anoai oiaa?a (eee /enei naeaeie, anee ionoonoaotho aeaiiua
i eiee/anoaa oiaa?a) ca i-e aeaiue (i=1, n).

Aeey oa?aeoa?enoeee onoie/eainoe oeai ioaeaeueiiai oiaa?a iiaeao auoue
eniieueciaaii n?aaeiaa eaaae?aoe/aneia ioeeiiaiea

(p = ((pi – p)2 * qi / (qi (12)

eee n?aaeiaa eeiaeiia ioeeiiaiea

(p = (|pi – p| * qi / (qi (13)

eioi?ua a iauai neo/aa, eae e n?aaeiyy, ?ann/eouaathony n o/aoii aaniauo
eiyooeoeeaioia.

Aeey niiinoaaeaiey onoie/eainoe oeai ia oiaa?u, nouanoaaiii
ioee/athueany ii o?iaith oeai, iiaeao auoue eniieueciaai eiyooeoeeaio
aa?eaoeee

Vp = (p / p * 100 (14)

A niioaaonoaee n eiyooeoeeaioii aa?eaoeee aeey aieaa aunieie oeaiu
aeiioneaaony aieueoee ?aca?in oeai.

A i?aeoeea ae?aeaaiai aiaeeca iaoiaeyo i?eiaiaiea o?aiaeiaua iiaeaee,
eioi?ua iieacuaatho aiaeeoe/aneea caaeneiinoe eciaiaiey ae?aeaauo oeai
ai a?aiaie. Aeey oi?iuaiey ?an/aoia ii eeiaeiiio iaoiaeo iaeiaiueoeo
eaaae?aoia oeaeaniia?acii eniieueciaaiea eeiaeiuo o?aaiaiee eee
o?aaiaiee, eeiaa?ecoaiuo ioiineoaeueii enoiaeiuo ia?aiao?ia.

?aaiiia?iia eciaiaiea oeai io?aaeaaony eeiaeiie ioiineoaeueii a?aiaie t
caaeneiinoueth

yt = a +bt (15)

aaea yt – noaoenoe/aneay ioeaiea.

O?aaiaiea ia?aaieu

yy = a + b1t + b2t2 (16)

io?aaeaao ?aaiionei?aiiia (eee ?aaiicaiaaeeaiiia) ?acaeoea i?ioeanna.
*anoi aeey oa?aeoa?enoeee ?acaeoey i?ioeanna n caiaaeeaieai
eniieuecoaony aeia?aiee/aneay caaeneiinoue

yt = a + b/t (17)

Caaeneiinoe

yt = aoea t ; yt = aoat ; yt = ea + a1t (18)

oa?aeoa?ecotho oaiaeaioeee n iinoiyiiui oaiiii ?inoa (i?e?inoa).

Noaiaiue naaeaine?iaaiiinoe ?uiea oa?aeoa?ecoaony aeaoiy niiniaaie:
niioiioaieai /enea e iauaia cayaie ia i?iaeaaeo (I) e iieoieo (N),
ioiioaieai eiaeaenia i?iaeaaee e oeai: (iq : ip). Niioiioaiey
acaeiinaycaiu. *anoi i?iua ?ann/eoaoue eiaiii eiaeaenu ec-ca
o?oaeiiaeinooiiinoe eioi?iaoeee i ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiee. I?e I>N eiaao
ianoi ip>iq e ip>1, o. a. oeaiu ?anooo auno?aa i?iaeaaee. Oaeie ?uiie
iacuaaaony e?aieei. Aieueoie ni?in iaania/eaaao ?acaeoea ?uiea aeaiiiai
oiaa?a. Anee I=N, oi ip ( iq e ip (1. I?e n?aaieoaeueii iaaieueoii /enea
naeaeie ?uiie iacuaaaony niieieiui, i?e cia/eoaeueiii /enea naeaeie –
noaaeeueiui. Eiaaea oeaiu a aeaiiie neooaoeee nieaeathony (iq ( 1, a
ip<1), oi i?e iaaieueoii /enea naeaeie ?uiie iacuaaaony ayeui eee (anee /enei naeaeie no?aieony e ioeth) eaieaui. Eiiaaea I>N, oi eiaao ianoi ip
< iq i?e ip > 1. ?uiie n/eoaaony oyaeaeui, iaonoie/eaui e
iiieaeaoaeueiui, anee /enei naeaeie cia/eoaeueiia, ii oeaiu
i?iaeieaeatho nieaeaoueny. Anee aea nieaeaaony e /enei naeaeie, oi ?uiie
oa?aeoa?ecoaony eae neaaue.

Nienie eniieuecoaiie eeoa?aoo?u:

1. Aeenaaaa E.E.; THcaaoaa I.I. “Iauay oai?ey noaoenoeee” – I.: Oeiainu
e noaoenoeea, 1995.

2. Aaeyaaneee E.E. “Noaoenoeea ?uiea oiaa?ia e oneoa” – I.: Oeiainu e
noaoenoeea, 1995.

3. THcaaoaa I.I.; Iaiiaey A.E. “Noaoenoe/aneee aiaeec oaiaeaioeee e
eieaaeaiinoe” – I.: Oeiainu e noaoenoeea, 1983.

4. Yeiiiie/aneee neiaa?ue – I.: Yeiiiie/aneea iaoee, 2 o., 1995.

5. Iaiaae/ A. “Ooieoeee oiaa?iie ae?aee e iniiaiua iai?aaeaiey ae?aeaaie
iieeoeee a oneiaeyo ia?aoiaea e ?uieo”, ae. Aii?inu yeiiiieee ?10, 1991,
no?.8.

6. Aa?/eeiaa E. “Iaaeaeoia?iaeiua oiaa?iua ae?aee”, ae. Aii?inu
yeiiiieee ?7, 1991, no?.3.

PAGE 14

Eeth/aaie aica?ao

oeai

I?ioeaiiieiaeiay oeaia

cae?uoey

Aiaoiee aeaiue

Aioo?aiiee aeaiue

Eeiey oae

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