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Основы теории финансов

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Niaea?aeaiea :

TOC \o “1-3”

Iniiau oai?ee oeiainia. GOTOBUTTON _Toc357000870 PAGEREF
_Toc357000870 1

1. Nouiinoue e iaiaoiaeeiinoue oeiainia. GOTOBUTTON _Toc357000871
PAGEREF _Toc357000871 2

2. Ooieoeee oeiainia e aeeneonneiiiua aii?inu nouiinoe e ooieoeee
oeiainia. GOTOBUTTON _Toc357000872 PAGEREF _Toc357000872 4

3. Oeiainiaay nenoaia, aa caaiuey. GOTOBUTTON _Toc357000873 PAGEREF
_Toc357000873 8

4. Oeiainiaue eiio?ieue. Oi?aaeaiea oeiainaie. GOTOBUTTON
_Toc357000874 PAGEREF _Toc357000874 10

3. Eeoa?aoo?a. GOTOBUTTON _Toc357000875 PAGEREF _Toc357000875 15

Iniiau oai?ee oeiainia.

1. Nouiinoue e iaiaoiaeeiinoue oeiainia.

Oeiainu yaeythony iaeiie ec aaaeiaeoeo yeiiiie/aneeo eaoaai?ee,
io?aaeathuae yeiiiie/aneea ioiioaiey a i?ioeanna nicaeaiey e
eniieueciaaiey aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa. Eo aicieeiiaaiea i?iecioei a
oneiaeyo ia?aoiaea io iaoo?aeueiiai oicyenoaa e ?aaoey?iiio
oiaa?ii-aeaiaaeiiio iaiaio e auei oanii naycaii n ?acaeoeai ainoaea?noaa
e aai iio?aaiinoae a ?ano?nao.

Iaeiei ec aeaaiuo i?eciaeia oeiainia yaeyaony eo aeaiaaeiay oi?ia
au?aaeaiey e io?aaeaiea oeiainiauo ioiioaiee ?aaeueiui aeaeaeaieai
aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa.

?aaeueiia aeaeaeaiea aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa i?ienoiaeeo ia aoi?ie e
o?aoueae noaaeeyo aini?iecaiaenoaaiiiai i?ioeanna – a ?ani?aaeaeaiee e
iaiaia.

Ia aoi?ie noaaeee aeaeaeaiea noieiinoe a aeaiaaeiie oi?ia i?ienoiaeeo
iainiaeaiii io aeaeaeaiey oiaa?ia e oa?aeoa?ecoaony aa io/oaeaeaieai
(ia?aoiaeii ec ?oe iaeieo aeaaeaeueoeaa a ?oee ae?oaeo) eee oeaeaaui
iainiaeaieai (a ?aieao iaeiiai aeaaeaeueoea) eaaeaeie /anoe noieiinoe.
Ia o?aoueae noaaeee ?ani?aaeaeaiiay noieiinoue (a aeaiaaeiie oi?ia)
iaiaieaaaony ia oiaa?ioth oi?io. Io/oaeaeaiey naiie noieiinoe caeanue ia
i?ienoiaeeo.

Oaeei ia?acii, ia aoi?ie noaaeee aini?iecaiaenoaa eiaao ianoi
iaeiinoi?iiiaa aeaeaeaiea aeaiaaeiie oi?iu noieiinoe, a ia o?aoueae –
aeaonoi?iiiaa aeaeaeaiea noieiinoae, iaeia ec eioi?uo iaoiaeeony a
aeaiaaeiie oi?ia, a ae?oaay – a oiaa?iie.

Oae eae ia o?aoueae noaaeee aini?iecaiaenoaaiiiai i?ioeanna i?ienoiaeyo
iinoiyiii niaa?oaaiua iaiaiiua iia?aoeee, ia o?aaothuea eaeiai-eeai
iauanoaaiiiai eino?oiaioa, oi oeiainai caeanue iao ianoa.

Iaeanoueth aicieeiiaaiey e ooieoeeiie?iaaiey oeiainia yaeyaony aoi?ay
noaaeey aini?iecaiaenoaaiiiai i?ioeanna, ia eioi?ie i?ienoiaeeo
?ani?aaeaeaiea noieiinoe iauanoaaiiiai i?iaeoeoa ii oeaeaaiio
iacia/aieth e noauaeoai oicyenoaiaaiey, eaaeaeue ec eioi?uo aeieaeai
iieo/eoue naith aeieth a i?iecaaaeaiiii i?iaeoeoa. Iiyoiio, aaaeiui
i?eciaeii oeiainia eae yeiiiie/aneie eaoaai?ee yaeyaony
?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiue oa?aeoa? oeiainiauo ioiioaiee.

Oeiainu nouanoaaiii ioee/athony io ae?oaeo yeiiiie/aneeo eaoaai?ee,
ooieoeeiie?othueo ia noaaeee noieiinoiiai ?ani?aaeaeaiey: e?aaeeoa,
ca?aaioiie ieaou e oeaiu.

Ia?aiia/aeueiie noa?ie aicieeiiaaiey oeiainiauo ioiioaiee yaeythony
i?ioeannu ia?ae/iiai ?ani?aaeaeaiey noieiinoe iauanoaaiiiai i?iaeoeoa,
eiaaea yoa noieiinoue ?aniaaeaaony ia ninoaaeythuea aa yeaiaiou e
i?ienoiaeeo ia?aciaaiea ?acee/iuo oi?i aeaiaaeiuo aeioiaeia e
iaeiieaiee. Aeaeueiaeoaa ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiea noieiinoe iaaeaeo noauaeoaie
oicyenoaiaaiey e eiie?aoecaoeey oeaeaaiai aa eniieueciaaiey oiaea
i?ienoiaeeo ia iniiaa oeiainia.

?ani?aaeaeaiea e ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiea noieiinoe n iiiiuueth oeiainia
iaycaoaeueii nii?iaiaeaeaaony aeaeaeaieai aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa,
i?eieiathueo niaoeeoe/aneoth oi?io oeiainiauo ?ano?nia. Iie oi?ie?othony
o noauaeoia oicyenoaiaaiey e ainoaea?noaa ca n/ao ?acee/iuo aeaeia
aeaiaaeiuo aeioiaeia, io/eneaiee e iinooieaiee, a eniieuecothony ia
?anoe?aiiia aini?iecaiaenoai, iaoa?eaeueiia noeioee?iaaiea ?aaioathueo,
oaeiaeaoai?aiea nioeeaeueiuo e ae?oaeo iio?aaiinoae iauanoaa. Oeiainiaua
?ano?nu aunooiatho iaoa?eaeueiuie iineoaeyie oeiainiauo ioiioaiee, /oi
iicaieyao auaeaeeoue oeiainu ec iauae niaieoiiinoe eaoaai?ee,
o/anoaothueo a noieiinoiii ?ani?aaeaeaiee. Yoi i?ienoiaeeo aia
caaeneiinoe io iauanoaaiii-yeiiiie/aneie oi?iaoeee, oioy oi?iu e
iaoiaeu, n iiiiuueth eioi?uo ia?acothony e eniieuecothony oeiainiaua
?ano?nu, iaiyeenue a caaeneiinoe io eciaiaiey nioeeaeueiie i?e?iaeu
iauanoaa.

Eniieueciaaiea oeiainiauo ?ano?nia inouanoaeyaony a iniiaiii /a?ac
aeaiaaeiua oiiaeu niaoeeaeueiiai oeaeaaiai iacia/aiey, oioy aiciiaeia e
iaoiiaeiaay oi?ia eo eniieueciaaiey. E i?aeiouanoaai oiiaeiaie oi?iu
ioiinyony: aiciiaeiinoue oaniaa oaycaoue oaeiaeaoai?aiea ethaie
iio?aaiinoe n yeiiiie/aneeie aiciiaeiinoyie, iaania/aiea eiioeaio?aoeee
?ano?nia ia iniiaiuo iai?aaeaieyo ?acaeoey iauanoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa,
aiciiaeiinoue iieiaa oaycaoue iauanoaaiiua, eieeaeoeaiua e ee/iua
eioa?anu.

Ia iniiaaiee anaai auoaeceiaeaiiiai iiaeii aeaoue neaaeothuaa
ii?aaeaeaiea: oeiainu – yoi aeaiaaeiua ioiioaiey, aicieeathuea a
i?ioeanna ?ani?aaeaeaiey e ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiey noieiinoe aaeiaiai
iauanoaaiiiai i?iaeoeoa e /anoe iaoeeiiaeueiiai aiaaonoaa a nayce n
oi?ie?iaaieai aeaiaaeiuo aeioiaeia e iaeiieaiee o noauaeoia
oicyenoaiaaiey e ainoaea?noaa, a oaeaea eniieueciaaieai eo ia
?anoe?aiiia aini?iecaiaenoai, iaoa?eaeueiia noeioee?iaaiea ?aaioathueo,
oaeiaeaoai?aiea nioeeaeueiuo e ae?oaeo iio?aaiinoae iauanoaa.

Oneiaeai ooieoeeiie?iaaiey oeiainia yaeyaony iaee/ea aeaiaa, a i?e/eiie
iiyaeaiey oeiainia neoaeeo iio?aaiinoue noauaeoia oicyenoaiaaiey e
ainoaea?noaa a ?ano?nao, iaania/eaathueo eo aeayoaeueiinoue.

Oeiainu iacaiaieiu iioiio, /oi iicaieytho i?eniiniaeoue i?iii?oeee
i?iecaiaenoaa e ioaeaeai iio?aaeaiey, iaania/eaay a noa?a oicyenoaiaaiey
oaeiaeaoai?aiea iinoiyiii iaiythueony aini?iecaiaenoaaiiuo iio?aaiinoae.
Yoi i?ienoiaeeo n iiiiuueth oi?ie?iaaiey aeaiaaeiuo oiiaeia oeaeaaiai
iacia/aiey. ?acaeoea iauanoaaiiuo iio?aaiinoae i?eaiaeeo e eciaiaieth
ninoaaa e no?oeoo?u aeaiaaeiuo (oeiainiauo) oiiaeia, nicaeaaaaiuo a
?anii?yaeaiee noauaeoia oicyenoaiaaiey.

N iiiiuueth ainoaea?noaaiiuo oeiainia i?ienoiaeeo ?aaoee?iaaiea
ianooaaia iauanoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa a io?aneaaii e oa??eoi?eaeueiii
aniaeoao, caueoa ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu e oaeiaeaoai?aiea ae?oaeo
iauanoaaiiuo iio?aaiinoae.

Oeiainu iauaeoeaii iaiaoiaeeiu, oae eae iaoneiaeaiu iio?aaiinoyie
iauanoaaiiiai ?acaeoey. Ainoaea?noai aea iiaeao, o/eouaay iauaeoeaioth
iaiaoiaeeiinoue oeiainiauo ioiioaiee, ?ac?aaaouaaoue ?acee/iua oi?iu eo
eniieueciaaiey: aaiaeeoue eee ioiaiyoue ?acee/iua aeaeu ieaoaaeae,
eciaiyoue oi?iu eniieueciaaiey oeiainiauo ?ano?nia e o. ae.
Ainoaea?noai ia iiaeao nicaeaaaoue oi, /oi iauaeoeaii ia iiaeaioiaeaii
oiaeii iauanoaaiiiai ?acaeoey. Iii onoaiaaeeaaao oieueei oi?iu
i?iyaeaiey iauaeoeaii iac?aaoeo yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaiee.

Aac oeiainia iaaiciiaeii iaania/eoue eiaeeaeaeoaeueiue e iauanoaaiiue
e?oaiiai?io i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo oiiaeia ia ?anoe?aiiie iniiaa,
?aaoee?iaaoue io?aneaaoth e oa??eoi?eaeueioth no?oeoo?o yeiiiieee,
noeioee?iaaoue auno?aeoaa aiaae?aiea iao/ii-oaoie/aneeo aeinoeaeaiee,
oaeiaeaoai?youe ae?oaea iauanoaaiiua iio?aaiinoe.

2. Ooieoeee oeiainia e aeeneonneiiiua aii?inu nouiinoe e ooieoeee
oeiainia.

Nouiinoue oeiainia eae iniaie noa?u ?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiuo ioiioaiee
i?iyaeyaony i?aaeaea anaai n iiiiuueth ?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiie ooieoeee.
Eiaiii /a?ac yoo ooieoeeth ?aaeecoaony iauanoaaiiia iacia/aiea oeiainia
– iaania/aiea eaaeaeiai noauaeoa oicyenoaiaaiey iaiaoiaeeiuie aio
oeiainiauie ?ano?naie, eniieuecoaiuie a oi?ia aeaiaaeiuo oiiaeia
niaoeeaeueiiai oeaeaaiai iacia/aiey.

Iauaeoaie aeaenoaey ?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiie ooieoeee oeiainia aunooiatho
noieiinoue aaeiaiai iauanoaaiiiai i?iaeoeoa (a aa aeaiaaeiie oi?ia), a
oaeaea /anoue iaoeeiiaeueiiai aiaaonoaa (i?eiyaoay aeaiaaeioth oi?io).

Noauaeoaie i?e oeiainiaii iaoiaea ?ani?aaeaeaiey aunooiatho
th?eaee/aneea e oece/aneea eeoea (ainoaea?noai, i?aaei?eyoey,
iauaaeeiaiey, i?aaiecaoeee, o/?aaeaeaiey, a?aaeaeaia), yaeythueany
o/anoieeaie aini?iecaiaenoaaiiiai i?ioeanna, a ?anii?yaeaiee eioi?uo
oi?ie?othony oiiaeu oeaeaaiai iacia/aiey.

N iiiiuueth oeiainia ?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiue i?ioeann i?ioaeaao ai anao
noa?ao iauanoaaiiie aeecie – a iaoa?eaeueiii i?iecaiaenoaa, a noa?ao
ia?auaiey e iio?aaeaiey. Oeiainiaue iaoiae ?ani?aaeaeaiey ioaaouaaao
?aciua o?iaie oi?aaeaiey yeiiiieeie: oaaea?aeueiue, oa??eoi?eaeueiue,
ianoiue. Oeiainiaiio ?ani?aaeaeaieth i?enoua iiiainooiai/aoinoue,
ii?iaeaeathuay ?aciua aeaeu ?ani?aaeaeaiey – aioo?eoicyenoaaiiia,
aioo?eio?aneaaia, iaaeio?aneaaia, iaaeoa??eoi?eaeueiia.

Oeiainu, naycaiiua n aeaeaeaieai noieiinoe iauanoaaiiiai i?iaeoeoa,
au?aaeaiiie a aeaiaaeiie oi?ia, iaeaaeatho naienoaii eiee/anoaaiii
(/a?ac oeiainiaua ?ano?nu e oiiaeu) ioia?aaeaoue aini?iecaiaenoaaiiue
i?ioeann a oeaeii e ?acee/iua aai oacu. Aeaeaeaiea oeiainiauo ?ano?nia,
i?ienoiaeyuaa eae a oiiaeiaie, oae e a iaoiiaeiaie oi?iao, ninoaaeyao
iniiao eiio?ieueiie ooieoeee oeiainia. Iineieueeo oeiainu ”i?iiecuaatho”
ana iauanoaaiiia i?iecaiaenoai, ana aai noa?u e iiae?acaeaeaiey, ana
o?iaie oicyenoaiaaiey, iie aunooiatho oieaa?naeueiui i?oaeeai eiio?iey
ni noi?iiu iauanoaa ca i?iecaiaenoaii, ?ani?aaeaeaieai e ia?auaieai
niaieoiiiai iauanoaaiiiai i?iaeoeoa. Aeaaiaea?y eiio?ieueiie ooieoeee
oeiainia, iauanoai ciaao i oii, eae neeaaeuaathony i?iii?oeee a
?ani?aaeaeaiee aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa, ianeieueei naiaa?aiaiii oeiainiaua
?ano?nu iinooiatho a ?anii?yaeaiea ?aciuo noauaeoia oicyenoaiaaiey,
yeiiiiii e yooaeoeaii ee iie eie eniieuecothony e o. ae.

?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiay e eiio?ieueiay ooieoeee – yoi aeaa noi?iiu iaeiiai e
oiai aea yeiiiie/aneiai i?ioeanna. Oieueei a eo aaeeinoaa e oaniii
acaeiiaeaenoaee oeiainu iiaoo i?iyaeoue naay a ea/anoaa eaoaai?ee
noieiinoiiai ?ani?aaeaeaiey.

Eino?oiaioii ?aaeecaoeee eiio?ieueiie ooieoeee oeiainia aunooiaao
oeiainiaay eioi?iaoeey. Iia caeeth/aia a oeiainiauo iieacaoaeyo,
eiathueony a aooaaeoa?neie, noaoenoe/aneie e iia?aoeaiie io/aoiinoe.
Oeiainiaua iieacaoaee iicaieytho oaeaeaoue ?acee/iua noi?iiu ?aaiou
i?aaei?eyoee e ioeaieoue ?acoeueoaou oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe. Ia eo
iniiaa i?eieiathony ia?u, iai?aaeaiiua ia ono?aiaiea auyaeaiiuo
iaaaoeaiuo iiiaioia.

Eiio?ieueiay ooieoeey, iauaeoeaii i?enouay oeiainai, iiaeao
?aaeeciaaoueny n aieueoae eee iaiueoae iieiioie, eioi?ay ai iiiaii
ii?aaeaeyaony ninoiyieai oeiainiaie aeenoeeieeiu a ia?iaeiii oicyenoaa.
Oeiainiaay aeenoeeieeia – yoi iaycaoaeueiue aeey anao i?aaei?eyoee,
i?aaiecaoeee, o/?aaeaeaiee e aeieaeiinoiuo eeoe ii?yaeie aaaeaiey
oeiainiaiai oicyenoaa, niaethaeaiey onoaiiaeaiiuo ii?i e i?aaee,
auiieiaiey oeiainiauo iaycaoaeuenoa.

A oeiainiaie iaoea nouanoaoao ?yae aeeneonneiiiuo aii?inia e i?aaeaea
anaai aii?in ia yeiiiie/aneie i?e?iaea e a?aieoeao oeiainiauo ioiioaiee.
Iaeie o/aiua n/eoatho, /oi oeiainu aicieeatho ia aoi?ie noaaeee
aini?iecaiaenoaaiiiai i?ioeanna – i?e ?ani?aaeaeaiee e
ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiee noieiinoe iauanoaaiiiai i?iaeoeoa; ae?oaea
?anniao?eaatho oeiainu eae eaoaai?eth aini?iecaiaenoaa a oeaeii,
aeeth/ay a ninoaa oeiainia oaeaea aeaiaaeiua ioiioaiey ia noaaeee
iaiaia.

Iaeiaei ?ani?aaeaeaiea e iaiai – yoi ?aciua noaaeee aini?iecaiaenoaa,
eiathuea naie, iniaua yeiiiie/aneea oi?iu au?aaeaiey. Iiyoiio aieaa
i?aaiia?ii n/eoaoue, /oi ?aciua aeaeu aeaiaaeiuo ioiioaiee au?aaeathony
a ?acee/iuo yeiiiie/aneeo oi?iao: ioiioaiey, naycaiiua n ?ani?aaeaeaieai
aeaiaaeiie oi?iu noieiinoe iauanoaaiiiai i?iaeoeoa, ninoaaeytho
niaea?aeaiea eaoaai?ee oeiainia, a ioiioaiey, aicieeathuea a i?ioeanna
oiaa?iiai ia?auaiey ia iniiaa nenoaiaoe/anee niaa?oaaiuo aeoia
eoiee-i?iaeaaee, i?eieiatho oi?io ?an/aoia, inouanoaeyaiuo iin?aaenoaii
aeaiaa eae anaiauaai yeaeaaeaioa e oeaiu eae aeaiaaeiiai au?aaeaiey
noieiinoe.

Oai ia iaiaa oeiainiaua ioiioaiey, aoaeo/e ?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiuie ii
oa?aeoa?o, iaeiia?aiaiii yaeythony iaiouaieaiie ninoaaiie /anoueth anae
nenoaiu i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo ioiioaiee, i?aaie/anee acaeiinaycaiu ni anaie
noaaeeyie aini?iecaiaenoaaiiiai i?ioeanna e iiaoo ieacuaaoue
aicaeaenoaea ia ieo.

Aieueoeinoai yeiiiienoia, ?acaeaeythueo ?ani?aaeaeeoaeueioth o?aeoiaeo
nouiinoe oeiainia, aic?aaeatho i?ioea ia?aie/aiey oeiainia oieueei
ia?a?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiuie ioiioaieyie, iineieueeo eiaiii aeaaiaea?y
oeiainai inouanoaeyaony i?ioeann ia?ae/iiai ?ani?aaeaeaiey noieiinoe ia
ioaeaeueiua ninoaaiua /anoe, eaaeaeay ec eioi?uo iieo/aao ii?aaeaeaiiia
oeaeaaia iacia/aiea.

E /eneo aeeneonneiiiuo ioiineony aii?in i ea/anoaaiiuo i?eciaeao,
ii?aaeaeythueo niaoeeoeeo oeiainia eae yeiiiie/aneie eaoaai?ee. Nii?u
eaeoo a iniiaiii i oii, aeeth/aoue eee ia aeeth/aoue a ii?aaeaeaiea
oeiainia oaeie eo i?eciae eae eiia?aoeaiinoue. I?e/ai oa?iei
”eiia?aoeaiinoue” o?aeooaony o/aiuie ii-?aciiio: iaeie aeaeyo a iai
aeoeaioth ?ieue ainoaea?noaa ii i?aaiecaoeee oeiainiauo ioiioaiee,
ae?oaea i?e/eio, ii?iaeaeathuoth ooieoeeiie?iaaiea oeiainia.

Anee iiae eiia?aoeaiinoueth iiieiaaony i?aeoe/aneay aeayoaeueiinoue
ainoaea?noaa, iai?aaeaiiay ia i?aaiecaoeeth oeiainiauo ioiioaiee,
au?aaioeo oi?i eo i?iyaeaiey e eniieueciaaiey, oi oaeia oiio?aaeaiea
oa?ieia ia aucuaaao aic?aaeaiee, ii ie/aai ia aeiaaaeyao e
oa?aeoa?enoeea nouiinoe oeiainia.

Iaeiaei a iaeioi?uo ioaeeeaoeeyo eiia?aoeaiinoue o?aeooaony eae
nouiinoiay /a?oa oeiainiauo ioiioaiee. Iiae/a?eeaaaony, /oi i?e
oa?aeoa?enoeea eaoaai?ee oeiainia aac aeaiiie /a?ou ia iaieoenue,
iineieueeo eiaiii ainoaea?noai nicaeaao iiaua ?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiua
oeiainiaua ioiioaiey, /oi iaiin?aaenoaaiiie i?e/eiie aicieeiiaaiey e
?acaeoey oeiainia yaeyaony aeayoaeueiinoue ainoaea?noaa e aai i?aaiia.
Iiaeiaiua ooaa?aeaeaiey iai?aaiia?iu, eai ia naia aeayoaeueiinoue
ainoaea?noaa, a iauaeoeaiua iio?aaiinoe iauanoaaiiiai ?acaeoey aucuaatho
nouanoaiaaiea oeiainia.

E /eneo aeeneonneiiiuo ioiineony oaeaea aii?in i ooieoeeyo oeiainia.
Iiiaea yeiiiienou n/eoatho, /oi oeiainu auiieiytho aeaa ooieoeee –
?ani?aaeaeeoaeueioth e eiio?ieueioth. Oioy a eeoa?aoo?a iiaeii iaeoe
ooaa?aeaeaiey, /oi oeiainai, iiieii yoeo aeaoo ooieoeee, i?enoue e
ae?oaea: i?iecaiaenoaaiiay (?aciua aaoi?u iacuaatho aa ii-?aciiio),
noeioee?othuay, ?aaoee?othuay e o. ae. Ii i?e yoii i?ienoiaeeo iiaeiaia
aii?ina i ooieoeeyo oeiainia aii?inii ia eo ?iee a iauanoaaiiii
aini?iecaiaenoaa, oae eae yoi ?aciua, oioy e acaeiinaycaiiua aii?inu.
Eiia/ii, oeiainu ea?atho aaaeioth ?ieue a iauanoaaiiii aini?iecaiaenoaa,
n eo iiiiuueth iiaeao noeioee?iaaoueny yooaeoeaiia eniieueciaaiea
oaeoi?ia i?iecaiaenoaa, ?aaoee?iaaoueny noieiinoiua i?iii?oeee,
iaania/eaaoueny oneiaey aeey i?iaaaeaiey ?aaeeia yeiiiiee e o. ae.
Iaeiaei ioiaeaeanoaeyoue yoe ?acoeueoaou, aeinoeaaaiua aeaaiaea?y
ooieoeeiie?iaaieth oeiainia, n eo ooieoeeyie iai?aaiia?ii.

Iaeioi?ua aaoi?u ia i?eciatho ?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiie ooieoeee oeiainia,
n/eoay, /oi iia ia au?aaeaao eo niaoeeoeeo, iineieueeo i?ioeannu
noieiinoiiai ?ani?aaeaeaiey ianeoaeeaathony ?aciuie yeiiiie/aneeie
eaoaai?eyie. Ii noi?iiieee ?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiie ooieoeee ioithaeue ia
n/eoatho, /oi iia ii?iaeaeaia naiei oaeoii ooieoeeiie?iaaiey oeiainia ia
aoi?ie noaaeee aini?iecaiaenoaaiiiai i?ioeanna, a iaiai?io, iie
naycuaatho aa ni niaoeeoe/aneei iauanoaaiiui iacia/aieai oeiainia,
iiae/a?eeaay, /oi ie iaeia ae?oaay eaoaai?ey, aeaenoaothuay ia noaaeee
noieiinoiiai ?ani?aaeaeaiey, ia yaeyaony noieue ”?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiie”,
eae oeiainu.

Iaeioi?ua yeiiiienou n/eoatho, /oi oeiainai i?enoue o?e ooieoeee:
oi?ie?iaaiea aeaiaaeiuo oiiaeia (aeioiaeia), eniieueciaaiea aeaiaaeiuo
oiiaeia (aeioiaeia) e eiio?ieueiay. Iaeiaei ia?aua aeaa, oioy ?aaeueii
nouanoaotho, ii iie aieueoa iaiiieiatho iaoaieci ?aaeecaoeee
?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiie ooieoeee, /ai naiinoiyoaeueiue niinia aeaenoaey
eaoaai?ee oeiainia.

Iaee/ea aeeneonneiiiuo aii?inia iaoneaaeeaaao iaiaoiaeeiinoue
aeaeueiaeoae ?ac?aaioee oai?aoe/aneeo i?iaeai nouiinoe e ooieoeee
oeiainia. Aieaa aeoaieia ciaiea yeiiiie/aneie i?e?iaeu oeiainia e
i?enoueo ei naienoa iicaieeo aeoeaiaa ?ac?aaaouaaoue iooe eo/oaai
eniieueciaaiey aeaiiie eaoaai?ee a i?aeoeea oicyenoaiaaiey, iao/ii
iainiiauaaoue ia?u, iai?aaeaiiua ia oeiainiaia icaei?iaeaiea yeiiiieee e
niaa?oainoaiaaiea nenoaiu oeiainiauo acaeiinaycae.

3. Oeiainiaay nenoaia, aa caaiuey.

Ii ii?aaeaeaieth, oeiainiaay nenoaia – yoi niaieoiiinoue oeiainiauo
ioiioaiee. Ii i?e?iaea naiae oeiainiaua ioiioaiey yaeythony
?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiuie, i?e/ai ?ani?aaeaeaiea noieiinoe inouanoaeyaony
i?aaeaea anaai ii noauaeoai. Noauaeou oi?ie?otho aeaiaaeiua oiiaeu
oeaeaaiai iacia/aiey a caaeneiinoe io oiai, eaeoth ?ieue iie ea?atho a
iauanoaaiiii i?iecaiaenoaa: yaeythony ee iaiin?aaenoaaiiuie aai
o/anoieeaie, i?aaiecotho ee no?aoiaoth caueoo eee inouanoaeytho
ainoaea?noaaiiia ?aaoee?iaaiea. Eiaiii ?ieue noauaeoa a iauanoaaiiii
i?iecaiaenoaa aunooiaao a ea/anoaa ia?aiai iauaeoeaiiai e?eoa?ey
eeanneoeeaoeee oeiainiauo ioiioaiee. A niioaaonoaee n iei a iauae
niaieoiiinoe oeiainiauo ioiioaiee iiaoo auoue auaeaeaiu o?e e?oiiua
noa?u: oeiainu i?aaei?eyoee, o/?aaeaeaiee e i?aaiecaoeee; no?aoiaaiea;
ainoaea?noaaiiua oeiainu.

Aioo?e eaaeaeie ec iacaaiiuo noa? auaeaeythony caaiuey, i?e/ai
a?oiie?iaea oeiainiauo ioiioaiee inouanoaeyaony a caaeneiinoe io
oa?aeoa?a aeayoaeueiinoe noauaeoa, ieacuaathuae ii?aaeaeythuaa aeeyiea
ia ninoaa e iacia/aiea oeaeaauo aeaiaaeiuo oiiaeia. Yoio e?eoa?ee
iicaieyao auaeaeeoue a noa?a oeiainia i?aaei?eyoee (o/?aaeaeaiee,
i?aaiecaoeee) oaeea caaiuey, eae oeiainu i?aaei?eyoee, ooieoeeiie?othueo
ia eiiia?/aneeo ia/aeao; oeiainu o/?aaeaeaiee e i?aaiecaoeee,
inouanoaeythueo iaeiiia?/aneoth aeayoaeueiinoue; oeiainu iauanoaaiiuo
iauaaeeiaiee. A no?aoiaie noa?a, aaea oa?aeoa? aeayoaeueiinoe noauaeoa
i?aaeii?aaeaeyao niaoeeoeeo iauaeoa no?aoiaaiey, a ea/anoaa caaiueaa
aunooiatho: nioeeaeueiia no?aoiaaiea, eiouanoaaiiia e ee/iia
no?aoiaaiea, no?aoiaaiea ioaaonoaaiiinoe, no?aoiaaiea
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneeo ?eneia. A noa?a ainoaea?noaaiiuo oeiainia –
niioaaonoaaiii, ainoaea?noaaiiue athaeaeao, aiaathaeaeaoiua oiiaeu,
ainoaea?noaaiiue e?aaeeo.

Noa?u e caaiuey oeiainiauo ioiioaiee acaeiinaycaiu, ia?acoy a
niaieoiiinoe aaeeioth oeiainiaoth nenoaio.

?aciua caaiuey oeiainiaie nenoaiu ianeoaeeaatho ?aciua aeaeu oeiainiaiai
?ani?aaeaeaiey: aioo?eoicyenoaaiiia – oeiainaie i?aaei?eyoee,
aioo?eio?aneaaia – oeiainaie i?aaei?eyoee, eiiieaenia, annioeeaoeee,
iaaeio?aneaaia e iaaeoa??eoi?eaeueiia – ainoaea?noaaiiui athaeaeaoii,
aiaathaeaeaoiuie oiiaeaie.

Eaaeaeia caaii oeiainiaie nenoaiu a naith i/a?aaeue iiae?acaeaeyaony ia
iiaecaaiuey a niioaaonoaee n aioo?aiiae no?oeoo?ie niaea?aeaueony a iai
oeiainiauo acaeiinaycae. Oae, a ninoaaa oeiainia i?aaei?eyoee,
ooieoeeiie?othueo ia eiiia?/aneeo ia/aeao, a caaeneiinoe io io?aneaaie
iai?aaeaiiinoe, iiaoo auoue au/eaiaiu oeiainu i?iiuoeaiiuo,
naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo, oi?aiauo, o?ainii?oiuo i?aaei?eyoee e o. ae., a a
caaeneiinoe io oi?iu nianoaaiiinoe – oeiainu ainoaea?noaaiiuo
i?aaei?eyoee, eiiia?aoeaiuo, aeoeeiia?iuo, /anoiuo e ae?. Io?aneaaua e
yeiiiie/aneea iniaaiiinoe i?aaei?eyoee, ooieoeeiie?othueo ia
eiiia?/aneeo ia/aeao, ieacuaatho nouanoaaiiia aeeyiea ia i?aaiecaoeeth
oeiainiauo ioiioaiee, ninoaa oi?ie?oaiuo aeaiaaeiuo oiiaeia oeaeaaiai
iacia/aiey, ii?yaeie eo ia?aciaaiey e eniieueciaaiey.

A noa?a no?aoiauo ioiioaiee eaaeaeia ec caaiueaa, i?aaenoaaeaiiia iniaie
io?aneueth no?aoiaaiey, iiae?acaeaeyaony ii aeaeai no?aoiaaiey. A
ninoaaa ainoaea?noaaiiuo oeiainia a?oiie?iaea oeiainiauo ioiioaiee
aioo?e caaiueaa inouanoaeyaony a niioaaonoaee n o?iaiai
ainoaea?noaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey (oaaea?aeueiue, noauaeoia oaaea?aoeee,
ianoiue).

Iaeiei ec aeaaiuo caaiueaa oeiainiaie nenoaiu yaeyaony ainoaea?noaaiiue
athaeaeao. N aai iiiiuueth i?aaeoaeuenoai eiioeaio?e?oao a naieo ?oeao
cia/eoaeueioth /anoue iaoeeiiaeueiiai aeioiaea, ia?a?ani?aaeaeyaiiai
oeiainiauie iaoiaeaie. A yoii caaia nin?aaeioa/eaathony e?oiiaeoea
aeioiaeu e iaeaieaa aaaeiua a iieeoe/aneii e yeiiiie/aneii ioiioaiee
?anoiaeu. Athaeaeao oanii naycai n ae?oaeie caaiueyie oeiainiaie
nenoaiu, aunooiaao eii?aeeie?othuei oeaio?ii e ieacuaaao ei
iaiaoiaeeioth iiiiuue a oi?ia athaeaeaoiuo aeioaoeee, noaneaeee,
noaaaioeee, aa?aioee, iaania/eaay aieaa eee iaiaa ii?iaeueiia
ooieoeeiie?iaaiea inoaeueiuo caaiueaa oeiainiaie nenoaiu.

Aua iaeiei aaaeiui caaiii yaeythony ianoiua oeiainu, ?ieue e aeeyiea
eioi?uo iiauoaaony. Oeaio?aeueioth ?ieue a yoii caaia ea?atho ianoiua
athaeaeaou, eioi?ua ia aoiaeyo a ninoaa ainoaea?noaaiiiai athaeaeaoa e
eiatho ii?aaeaeaiioth naiinoiyoaeueiinoue. Ianoiua athaeaeaou neoaeao
i?iaiaeieeii nioeeaeueiie iieeoeee oeaio?aeueiuo aeanoae.

Aiaathaeaeaoiua oiiaeu oi?aaeythony iaiin?aaenoaaiii oeaio?aeueiuie, a a
ioaeaeueiuo neo/ayo ianoiuie aeanoyie. Iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiiuie
enoi/ieeaie oi?ie?iaaiey yoeo oiiaeia yaeythony iaeiae, io/eneaiey ec
athaeaeaoa, niaoeeaeueiua aciinu.

4. Oeiainiaue eiio?ieue. Oi?aaeaiea oeiainaie.

Oeiainiaue eiio?ieue.

Iacia/aiea oeiainiaiai eiio?iey caeeth/aaony a niaeaenoaee oniaoiie
?aaeecaoeee oeiainiaie iieeoeee ainoaea?noaa, iaania/aiee i?ioeanna
oi?ie?iaaiey e yooaeoeaiiai eniieueciaaiey oeiainiauo ?ano?nia ai anao
noa?ao e caaiueyo ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa. Oeiainiaue eiio?ieue yaeyaony
oi?iie ?aaeecaoeee eiio?ieueiie ooieoeee oeiainia.

Ii ii?aaeaeaieth, oeiainiaue eiio?ieue – yoi niaieoiiinoue aeaenoaee e
iia?aoeee ii i?iaa?ea oeiainiauo e naycaiiuo n ieie aii?inia
aeayoaeueiinoe noauaeoia oicyenoaiaaiey e oi?aaeaiey n i?eiaiaieai
niaoeeoe/aneeo oi?i e iaoiaeia aai i?aaiecaoeee.

Aeey inouanoaeaiey oeiainiaiai eiio?iey nicaeathony iniaua eiio?ieueiua
i?aaiu, oeiiieaeoiaaiiua aunieieaaeeoeoee?iaaiiuie niaoeeaeenoaie. Eo
i?aaa, iaycaiiinoe e ioaaonoaaiiinoue no?iai ?aaeaiaioe?iaaiu, a oii
/enea e a caeiiiaeaoaeueiii ii?yaeea.

Iauaeoii oeiainiaiai eiio?iey yaeythony aeaiaaeiua, ?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiua
i?ioeannu i?e oi?ie?iaaiee e eniieueciaaiee oeiainiauo ?ano?nia, a oii
/enea a oi?ia oiiaeia aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa, ia anao o?iaiyo e caaiueyo
ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa.

Iaiin?aaenoaaiiui i?aaeiaoii i?iaa?ie aunooiatho oaeea oeiainiaua
(noieiinoiua) iieacaoaee, eae i?eaueue, aeioiaeu, iaeia ia aeiaaaeaiioth
noieiinoue, ?aioaaaeueiinoue, naaanoieiinoue, ecaea?aeee ia?auaiey,
io/eneaiey ia ?acee/iua oeaee e a oiiaeu. Yoe iieacaoaee eiatho
neioaoe/aneee oa?aeoa?, iiyoiio eiio?ieue ca eo auiieiaieai, aeeiaieeie,
oaiaeaioeeyie ioaaouaaao ana noi?iiu i?iecaiaenoaaiiie, oicyenoaaiiie e
eiiia?/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe iauaaeeiaiee, i?aaei?eyoee, o/?aaeaeaiee, a
oaeaea iaoaieci oeiainiai-e?aaeeoiuo acaeiinaycae.

Noa?ie oeiainiaiai eiio?iey yaeythony i?aeoe/anee ana iia?aoeee,
niaa?oaaiua n eniieueciaaieai aeaiaa, a a iaeioi?uo neo/ayo e aac
ieo (aa?oa?iua naeaeee e o. i.).

Eiio?ieth iiaeeaaeao ia oieueei ieioi ?aaioathuea i?aaei?eyoey e
i?aaiecaoeee, ii e eiathuea ii?iaeueiua ?acoeueoaou aeayoaeueiinoe.

Oeiainiaue eiio?ieue aeeth/aao i?iaa?eo: niaethaeaiey o?aaiaaiee
yeiiiie/aneeo caeiiia, iioeiaeueiinoe i?iii?oeee ?ani?aaeaeaiey e
ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiey noieiinoe aaeiaiai iauanoaaiiiai i?iaeoeoa e
iaoeeiiaeueiiai aeioiaea; ninoaaeaiey e eniieiaiey athaeaeaoa
(athaeaeaoiue eiio?ieue); oeiainiaiai ninoiyiey e yooaeoeaiiai
eniieueciaaiey o?oaeiauo, iaoa?eaeueiuo e oeiainiauo ?ano?nia
i?aaei?eyoee e i?aaiecaoeee, athaeaeaoiuo o/?aaeaeaiee, a oaeaea
iaeiaiaue eiio?ieue; ae?oaea iai?aaeaiey.

Ia?aae oeiainiaui eiio?ieai noiyo neaaeothuea caaea/e: niaeaenoaea
naaeaine?iaaiiinoe iaaeaeo iio?aaiinoueth a oeiainiauo ?ano?nao e
?acia?aie aeaiaaeiuo aeioiaeia e oiiaeia ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa;
iaania/aiea naiaa?aiaiiinoe e iieiiou auiieiaiey oeiainiauo
iaycaoaeuenoa ia?aae ainoaea?noaaiiui athaeaeaoii; auyaeaiea
aioo?ei?iecaiaenoaaiiuo ?aca?aia ?inoa oeiainiauo ?ano?nia, a oii /enea
ii nieaeaieth naaanoieiinoe e iiauoaieth ?aioaaaeueiinoe; niaeaenoaea
?aoeeiiaeueiiio ?anoiaeiaaieth iaoa?eaeueiuo oeaiiinoae e aeaiaaeiuo
?ano?nia ia i?aaei?eyoeyo, a i?aaiecaoeeyo e athaeaeaoiuo o/?aaeaeaieyo,
a oaeaea i?aaeeueiiio aaaeaieth aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa e io/aoiinoe;
iaania/aiea niaethaeaiey caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa e ii?iaoeaiuo aeoia, a oii
/enea a iaeanoe iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey i?aaei?eyoee, ioiinyueony e ?acee/iui
i?aaiecaoeeiiii-i?aaiaui oi?iai; niaeaenoaea aunieie ioaea/a
aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoee, a oii /enea ii
aaethoiui iia?aoeeyi e ae?.

Oeiainiaue eiio?ieue oanii naycai n ioaaonoaaiiinoueth i?aaei?eyoee,
i?aaiecaoeee, o/?aaeaeaiee, a oaeaea ainoaea?noaaiiuo e
oeiainiai-aaieianeeo no?oeoo? ca auiieiaiea oeiainiaie aeenoeeieeiu. Yoa
ioaaonoaaiiinoue iiaeao auoue au?aaeaia eae a aaeieieno?aoeaiuo, oae e a
yeiiiie/aneeo (iaoa?eaeueiuo) ia?ao aicaeaenoaey ia ia?ooeoaey
oeiainiaie aeenoeeieeiu.

A caaeneiinoe io noauaeoia, inouanoaeythueo oeiainiaue eiio?ieue,
?acee/atho ainoaea?noaaiiue, aioo?eoicyenoaaiiue e iacaaeneiue
(aoaeeoi?neee) oeiainiaue eiio?ieue.

Ainoaea?noaaiiue oeiainiaue eiio?ieue ?aaeecoaony /a?ac
iauaainoaea?noaaiiue e aaaeiinoaaiiue. Iauaainoaea?noaaiiue oeiainiaue
eiio?ieue inouanoaeytho i?aaiu ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe e oi?aaeaiey. Ii
iai?aaeai ia iauaeou, iiaeeaaeauea eiio?ieth iacaaeneii io eo
aaaeiinoaaiiie iiae/eiaiiinoe. Aaaeiinoaaiiue oeiainiaue eiio?ieue
i?iecaiaeyo eiio?ieueii-?aaeceiiiua ioaeaeu ieienoa?noa, eiioea?iia,
niioaaonoaothuea oi?aaeaiey ianoiuo i?aaiia aeanoe e ae?. Aai iauaeoii
yaeyaony i?iecaiaenoaaiiay e oeiainiaay aeayoaeueiinoue
iiaeaaaeiinoaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee, o/?aaeaeaiee.

A ?innee auiieiaiea caaea/ i?aaiecaoeee, inouanoaeaiey e eiio?iey ca
eniieiaieai ?anioaeeeaineiai athaeaeaoa ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee
aiceiaeaii ia eacia/aenoai.

Aioo?eoicyenoaaiiue oeiainiaue eiio?ieue inouanoaeyaony yeiiiie/aneeie
neoaeaaie i?aaei?eyoee, i?aaiecaoeee e o/?aaeaeaiee (aooaaeoa?ee,
oeiainiaua ioaeaeu e o. ae.). Iauaeoii caeanue aunooiaao
i?iecaiaenoaaiiay e oeiainiaay aeayoaeueiinoue naiiai i?aaei?eyoey, a
oaeaea aai no?oeoo?iuo iiae?acaeaeaiee.

Iacaaeneiue oeiainiaue eiio?ieue inouanoaeytho niaoeeaeece?iaaiiua
aoaeeoi?neea oe?iu e neoaeau. Eiio?ieueiua e eiinoeueoaoeeiiiua oneoae
aoaeeoi?neea oe?iu ieacuaatho anai i?aaei?eyoeyi e i?aaiecaoeeyi ia
ieaoiie iniiaa. Aoaeeoi?neea oe?iu yaeythony iacaaeneiuie
i?aaiecaoeeyie, i?ecaaiiuie niinianoaiaaoue iiauoaieth ea/anoaa
eiio?iey, aai iauaeoeaiinoe.

Ii oi?iai i?iaaaeaiey oeiainiaue eiio?ieue aeaeeony ia
i?aaeaa?eoaeueiue, oaeouee e iineaaeothuee.

I?aaeaa?eoaeueiue oeiainiaue eiio?ieue inouanoaeyaony ia noaaeee
ninoaaeaiey, ?anniio?aiey e ooaa?aeaeaiey oeiainiauo ieaiia
i?aaei?eyoee, niao aeioiaeia e ?anoiaeia o/?aaeaeaiee e i?aaiecaoeee,
i?iaeoia athaeaeaoia, oaenoia aeiaiai?iuo niaeaoaiee,
o/?aaeeoaeueneeo aeieoiaioia e o. ae.

Oaeouee oeiainiaue eiio?ieue i?iaiaeeony a i?ioeanna eniieiaiey
oeiainiauo ieaiia, a oiaea inouanoaeaiey oicyenoaaiii-oeiainiauo
iia?aoeee, eiaaea i?iaa?yaony niaethaeaiea ii?i e ii?iaoeaia
?anoiaeiaaiey oiaa?ii-iaoa?eaeueiuo oeaiiinoae e aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa,
niioaaonoaea ioionea n?aaenoa auiieiaieth ieaiia ?anoiaeia,
eniieueciaaieth ?aiaa auaeaiiuo ?ano?nia.

I?aaeaa?eoaeueiue oeiainiaue eiio?ieue inouanoaeyaony iinea caaa?oaiey
io/aoiiai ia?eiaea e oeiainiaiai aiaea a oeaeii. I?iaa?yaony
oeaeaniia?aciinoue ?anoiaeiaaiey ainoaea?noaaiiuo aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa
i?e eniieiaiee athaeaeaoia, auiieiaiee oeiainiauo ieaiia i?aaei?eyoee e
i?aaiecaoeee, niao athaeaeaoiuo o/?aaeaeaiee.

Ii i?eaiai e niiniaai inouanoaeaiey oeiainiaiai eiio?iey ?acee/atho:
i?iaa?ee, ianeaaeiaaiey, aiaeec, ?aaecee.

Oi?aaeaiea oeiainaie.

Niaeanii ii?aaeaeaieth, oi?aaeaiea – yoi niaieoiiinoue i?eaiia e
iaoiaeia oeaeaiai?aaeaiiiai aicaeaenoaey ia iauaeo aeey aeinoeaeaiey
ii?aaeaeaiiiai ?acoeueoaoa.

Oi?aaeaiea oeiainaie inouanoaeyaony niaoeeaeueiui aiia?aoii n iiiiuueth
iniauo i?eaiia e iaoiaeia, a oii /enea eniieuecoy ?aciiia?aciua noeioeu
e naieoeee.

A ea/anoaa iauaeoia oi?aaeaiey aunooiatho ?aciiia?aciua aeaeu oeiainiauo
ioiioaiee, a noauaeoaie oi?aaeaiey yaeythony oa i?aaiecaoeeiiiua
no?oeoo?u, eioi?ua inouanoaeytho oi?aaeaiea. A niioaaonoaee n
eeanneoeeaoeeae oeiainiauo ioiioaiee ii eo noa?ai auaeaeytho o?e a?oiiu
iauaeoia: oeiainu i?aaei?eyoee (i?aaiecaoeee, o/?aaeaeaiee), no?aoiaua
ioiioaiey, ainoaea?noaaiiua oeiainu. Ei niioaaonoaotho neaaeothuea
noauaeou oi?aaeaiey: oeiainiaua neoaeau (ioaeaeu) i?aaei?eyoee
(i?aaiecaoeee, o/?aaeaeaiee), no?aoiaua i?aaiu, oeiainiaua i?aaiu e
iaeiaiaua einiaeoeee. Niaieoiiinoue anao i?aaiecaoeeiiiuo no?oeoo?,
inouanoaeythueo oi?aaeaiea oeiainaie, iacuaaaony oeiainiaui aiia?aoii.

A oi?aaeaiee oeiainaie auaeaeytho ianeieueei ooieoeeiiaeueiuo yeaiaioia:
ieaie?iaaiea, iia?aoeaiia oi?aaeaiea, eiio?ieue.

Iauaeoii oeiainiaiai ieaie?iaaiey yaeyaony oeiainiaay aeayoaeueiinoue
noauaeoia oicyenoaiaaiey e ainoaea?noaa, a eoiaiaui ?acoeueoaoii –
ninoaaeaiea oeiainiauo ieaiia, ia/eiay io niaou ioaeaeueiiai
o/?aaeaeaiey aei naiaeiiai oeiainiaiai aaeaina ainoaea?noaa. A eaaeaeii
ieaia ii?aaeaeythony aeioiaeu e ?anoiaeu ia ii?aaeaeaiiue ia?eiae, nayce
ni caaiueyie oeiainiaie e e?aaeeoiie nenoai (aciinu io/eneaiee ia
nioeeaeueiia no?aoiaaiea, ieaoaaee a athaeaeao, ieaoa ca aaieianeee
e?aaeeo e ae?.).

Oeiainiaua ieaiu eiatho ana caaiuey oeiainiaie nenoaiu, i?e/ai oi?ia
oeiainiaiai ieaia, ninoaa aai iieacaoaeae io?aaeatho niaoeeoeeo
niioaaonoaothuaai caaia oeiainiaie nenoaiu. Oae i?aaei?eyoey e
i?aaiecaoeee, ooieoeeiie?othuea ia eiiia?/aneeo ia/aeao, ninoaaeytho
aaeainu aeioiaeia e ?anoiaeia; o/?aaeaeaiey, inouanoaeythuea
iaeiiia?/aneoth aeayoaeueiinoue, – niaou; eiiia?aoeaiua i?aaiecaoeee,
iauanoaaiiua iauaaeeiaiey e no?aoiaua eiiiaiee – oeiainiaua ieaiu;
i?aaiu ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe – athaeaeaou ?aciuo o?iaiae.

A oiaea ieaie?iaaiey ethaie noauaeo oicyenoaiaaiey ananoi?iiia
ioeaieaaao ninoiyiea naieo oeiainia, auyaeyao aiciiaeiinoe oaaee/aiey
oeiainiauo ?ano?nia, iai?aaeaiey eo iaeaieaa yooaeoeaiiai
eniieueciaaiey. Oi?aaeai/aneea ?aoaiey a i?ioeanna ieaie?iaaiey
i?eieiathony ia iniiaa aiaeeca oeiainiaie eioi?iaoeee, eioi?ay a nayce n
yoei aeieaeia auoue aeinoaoi/ii iieiie e aeinoiaa?iie. Oeiainiaay
eioi?iaoeey aace?oaony ia aooaaeoa?neie, noaoenoe/aneie e iia?aoeaiie
io/aoiinoe.

Iia?aoeaiia oi?aaeaiea i?aaenoaaeyao niaie eiiieaen ia?, ?ac?aaaouaaaiuo
ia iniiaa iia?aoeaiiai aiaeeca neeaaeuaathuaeny oeiainiaie neooaoeee e
i?aneaaeothueo oeaeue iieo/aiey iaeneiaeueiiai yooaeoa i?e ieieioia
cao?ao n iiiiuueth ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiey oeiainiauo ?ano?nia. Iniiaiia
niaea?aeaiea iia?aoeaiiai oi?aaeaiey naiaeeony e iaiaa?e?iaaieth
oeiainiauie ?ano?naie n oeaeueth eeeaeaeaoeee ”oceeo” iano, ?aoaiey
aiiaue aicieeathueo caaea/ e o. i.

Eiio?ieue eae yeaiaio oi?aaeaiey inouanoaeyaony e a i?ioeanna
ieaie?iaaiey, e ia noaaeee iia?aoeaiiai oi?aaeaiey. Ii iicaieyao
niiinoaaeoue oaeoe/aneea ?acoeueoaou io eniieueciaaiey oeiainiauo
?ano?nia n ieaiiauie, auyaeoue ?aca?au ?inoa oeiainiauo ?ano?nia,
iaiaoeoue iooe aieaa yooaeoeaiiai oicyenoaiaaiey.

Iao/iue iiaeoiae e oi?aaeaieth oeiainaie ii?aaeaeyao iiiaiieaiiaue
oa?aeoa? e nenoaiiue iiaeoiae e oi?aaeaieth eie a eaaeaeie noa?a
oeiainiauo ioiioaiee, a eaaeaeii eo caaia. I?e au?aaioea oi?aaeai/aneeo
?aoaiee oeiainiaiai oa?aeoa?a, ioi?ieyaiuo a th?eaee/aneeo caeiiao,
oeiainiauo i?iaiicao e ieaiao, iinoaiiaeaieyo e ae?. neaaeoao
o/eouaaoue: o?aaiaaiey yeiiiie/aneeo e th?eaee/aneeo caeiiia;
?acoeueoaou yeiiiie/aneiai aiaeeca ia oieueei eoiaia i?ioeiai
oicyenoaaiiiai ia?eiaea, ii e ia?niaeoeau; yeiiiieei-iaoaiaoe/aneea
iaoiaeu e aaoiiaoece?iaaiiua nenoaiu oi?aaeaiey oeiainaie;
?aoeeiiaeueiia ni/aoaiea yeiiiie/aneeo e aaeieieno?aoeaiuo iaoiaeia
oi?aaeaiey.

3. Eeoa?aoo?a.

1. ”Oeiainu”, Iiae ?aae. A. I. ?iaeeiiiaie. O/aaiee.

– I.: Oeiainu e noaoenoeea, 1995.

2. Oeiainiai-e?aaeeoiue neiaa?ue iiae ?aae. Aa?ao-

ciaa A. O., Oeiainu e noaoenoeea, 1994.

3. Oeac I?aceaeaioa ?O ”I oaaea?aeueiii eacia/aenoaa”.

”Yeiiiieea e aeeciue” ?1, 1993.

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