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Aicieeiiaaiea e ?acaeoea iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey

Iaeiae (ii?.) – iaycaoaeueiua nai?u ,aceiaaiua ainoaea?noaii n
oicyenoaaiiuo noauaeoia e a?aaeaeai ii noaaea, onoaiiaeaiiie a
caeiiiaeaoaeueiii ii?yaeea.

Iaeiae yaeythony iaiaoiaeeiui caaiii yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaiee a iauanoaa
n iiiaioa aicieeiiaaiey ainoaea?noaa. ?acaeoea e eciaiaiey oi?i eioi?iai
iaeciaiii nii?iaiaeaeaaony i?aia?aciaaieai iaeiaiaie nenoaiu. A
nia?aiaiiii iauanoaa iaeiae – iniiaiie enoi/iee aeioiaeia ainoaea?noaa.
E?iia yoie /enoi oeiainiaie o-oeee iaeiae eniieuecothony aeey
yeiiiie/aneiai aicaeaenoaey ainoaea?noaa ia iauanoaaiiia i?iecaiaenoai,
aai aeeiaieeo e no?oeoo?o, ia ?acaeoea iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai i?ia?anna.

I?iaeaiu iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey iinoiyiii caieiaee oiu yeiiiienoia,
oeeinioia, ain. aeayoaeae naiuo ?aciuo yiio. O. Aeaeineee (1225 eee 1226
– 1274) ii?aaeaeye iaeiae eae aeicaieaiioth oi?io a?aaaaea. O.
Iiioaneuea (1689-1755) iieaaae, /oi ie/oi ia o?aaoao noieueei ioae?inoe
e oia, eae ii?aaeaeaiea oie /anoe, eioi?oth o iiaeaeaiiuo caae?atho, e
oie, eioi?oth inoaaeytho ei. A iaeei ec iniiaiiieiaeieeia oai?ee
iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey A. Nieo (1723 – 1790) aiai?ee i oii, /oi iaeiae aeey
oao, eoi eo auiea/eaaao, – i?eciae ia ?aanoaa, a naiaiaeu.

Eoae, eae oaea aiai?eeinue auoa, iaeiaiaay nenoaia aicieeea e
?acaeaaeanue aianoa n ainoaea?noaii. Ia naiuo ?aiieo noaaeeyo ain.
i?aaiecaoeee oi?iie iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey iiaeii n/eoaoue aea?oaii?eiioaiea,
eioi?ia aeaeaei ia anaaaea auei aeia?iaieueiui , a yaeyeinue iaeei
iaienaiui caeiiii. Aua a Iyoeeieaeee Iienay neacaii : «… e anyeay
aeanyoeia ia caiea ec naiaie caiee e ec ieiaeia i?eiaaeeaaeeo Ainiiaeo».
Aeaeii, /oi i?ioeaioiay noaaea aeaiiiai «iaeiaa» /aoei ii?aaeaeaia.

Ii ia?a ?acaeoey ainoaea?noaa aicieeea «naaoneay» aeanyoeia, eioi?ay
aceiaeanue a iieueco aeeyoaeueiuo eiycae ia?yaeo n oea?eiaiie
aeanyoeiie. Aeaiiay i?aeoeea nouanoaiaaea a oa/aiee iiiaeo noieaoee : io
Ae?aaiaai Aaeioa aei n?aaeiaaaeiaie Aa?iiu. Oae a Ae?. A?aoeee a VII-VI
aa. aei i.y. i?aaenoaaeoaeyie ciaoe auee aaaaeaiu iaeiae ia aeioiaeu a
?acia?a 1/10 eee 1/20 /anoe aeioiaeia. Yoi iicaieyei eiioeaio?e?iaaoue e
?anoiaeiaaoue n?aaenoaa ia niaea?aeaiea iaaiiuo a?iee, no?ieoaeuenoai
o?aiia, oe?aieaiee e o.ae.

A oi aea a?aiy a ae?. ie?a eiaeinue e na?ueaciia i?ioeaiaeaenoaea
i?yiiio iaeiaiiaeiaeaieth. A Aoeiao, iai?eia?, n/eoaeinue, /oi
naiaiaeiue a?aaeaeaiei ia aeieaeai ieaoeoue i?yiuo iaeiaia. Ae?oaia
aeaei – aeia?iaieueiua iiaea?oaiaaiey. Ii eiaaea i?aaenoiyee e?oiiua
?anoiaeu, oi niaao eee ia?iaeiia nia?aiea ai?iaea onoaiaaeeaaee
i?ioeaioiua io/eneaiey io aeioiaeia.

Iiiaea aea noi?iiu nia?aiaiiiai ainoaea?noaa ca?iaeeeenue a Ae?. ?eia.
Ia?aiia/aeueii ana ainoaea?noai ninoiyei ec ai?iaea ?eia e i?eeaaathuae
e iaio ianoiinoe. A ie?iia a?aiy a?aaeaeaia ia ieaoeee aeaiaaeiuo
iiaeaoae. ?anoiaeu ii oi?aaeaieth ai?iaeii e ainoaea?noaii auee
ieieiaeueiu; eca?aiiua iaaeno?aou eniieiyee naie iaycaiiinoe
aacaiciacaeii, ii?ie aeeaaeuaay nianoaaiiua n?aaenoaa, o.e. yoi auei
ii/aoii. Aeuaioth noaoueth ?anoiaeia ninoaaeyei no?ieoaeuenoai
iauanoaaiiuo caeaiee, a yoe ?anoiaeu iau/ii iie?uaaeenue naea/ae a
a?aiaeo iauanoaaiiuo caiaeue. Ii a aiaiiia a?aiy a?aaeaeaia ?eia
iaeaaaeenue iaeiaaie a niioaaonoaee ni naieie aeioiaeaie.

Ii?aaeaeaiea noiiu iaeiaa ii?aaeaeyeanue eaaeaeua iyoue eao eca?aiiuie
/eiiaieeaie-oeaici?aie. A?aaeaeaia ?eia aeaeaee oeaici?ai cayaeaiea i
naiai eiouanoaaiiii ninoiyiee e naiaeiii iieiaeaiee. Oaeei ia?acii,
caeeaaeuaaeenue iniiau aeaeea?aoeee i aeioiaeao.

A IV-III aa. aei i.y. ?eineia ainoaea?noai ?ac?anoaeinue, iniiauaaeenue
e caaiaauaaeenue ana iiaua ai?iaea-eieiiee. I?ienoiaeeee eciaiaiey e
aiaeiaiaii i?aaa.A eieiieyo aaiaeeeenue eiiioiaeueiua iaeiae e
iiaeiiinoe. Eae e a ?eia, eo aaee/eia caaenaea io ?acia?ia ninoiyiey
a?aaeaeai, e eo ii?aaeaeaiea i?ienoiaeeei eaaeaeua 5 eao. ?eineea
a?aaeaeaia, i?iaeeaaaoea ca i?aaeaeaie ?eia ieaoeee eae
ainoaea?noaaiiua, oae e ianoiua iaeiae.

A neo/aa iiaaaeiiiniuo aiei iaeiae oiaiueoaeenue, a ii?ie nianai
ioiaiyeenue. Iaiaoiaeeiua n?aaenoaa aea iaania/eaaeenue eiio?eaooeeae
caaiaaaiiuo caiaeue. Eiiioiaeueiua aea iaeiae n oao, eoi i?iaeeaae aia
?eia aceiaeenue iinoiyiii.

?ei i?aa?auaeny a eiia?eth, a ninoaa eioi?ie aoiaeeee i?iaeioeee,
aeeoaee eioi?uo auee iiaeaeaiiuie eiia?ee, ii ia iieueciaaeenue i?aaaie
a?aaeaeainoaa. Iie auee iaycaiu ieaoeoue iaeiae, /oi auei
naeaeaoaeuenoaii eo caaeneiiai iieieaeaiey. I?e yoii aaeeiie iaeiaiaie
nenoaiu ia nouanoaiaaei. Oa ai?iaea e caiee,eioi?ua ieacuaaee iaeaieaa
oii?iia nii?ioeaeaiea ?eineei eaaeiiai, iaeaaaeenue aieaa aunieeie
iaeiaaie. E?iia oiai, ?eineay aaeieieno?aoeey /anoi nio?aiyea ianoioth
nenoaio iaeiaia. Eciaiyeinue eeoue aa iai?aaeaiea e eniieueciaaiea.

Aeeeoaeueiia a?aiy a ?ei. i?iaeioeeyo ia nouanoaiaaei ainoaea?noaaiiuo

oeiainiauo i?aaiia,eioi?ua iiaee au i?oanneiiaeueii onoaiaaeeaaoue e
aceiaoue iaeiae. ?eineay aaeieieno?aoeey i?eaaaaea e iiiiue ioeoiueeia,
aeayoaeueiinoue eioi?uo iia ia iiaea aeieaeiui ia?acii eiio?iee?iaaoue.
?acoeueoaoii auea ei??oioeey,ceioiio?aaeaiea aeanoueth, a caoai e
yeiiiie/aneee e?ecen, ?ac?aceaoeeny a I a. aei i.y.

Iaiaoiaeeiinoue ?ai?aaiecaoeee oeiainiaiai oicyenoaa ?eineiai
ainoaea?noaa, a oii /enea e iaeiaiaay ?aoi?ia , auee iaeiie ec
aaaeiaeoeo caaea/, eioi?ua ?aoae eiia?aoi? Aaaono Ieoaaeai (63a. aei
i.y. -14 a. i.y.). Auea cia/eoaeueii nie?auaia i?aeoeea ioeoiia,
ia?aioeaiaia iaeiaiaay aaca i?iaeioeee, ninoaaeaiu eaaeano?u, i?iaaaeaia
i?a?aienue, aaaaeaiu iaycaoaeueiua aeaeea?aoeee, iaeiaiaay neoaeaa noaea
i?aainoaaiiie (o.a. iie?aeanue ia i?aaeoanoaothuea ?acoeueoaou)

Iniiaiui iaeiaii a Ae?. ?eia aue iicaiaeueiue e aaeeiay iiaeooiay
iiaeaoue aeey aeeoaeae i?iaeioeee.Nouanoaiaaee ee einaaiiua iaeiae (n
iai?ioa, iaeia ia ianeaaenoai e o.ae.)

Oaea a Ae?. ?eia iaeiae auiieiyee ia oieueei oeneaeueioth, ii e
noeioee?othuoth ooieoeethIineieueeo ianaeaiea aiineei iaeiae aeaiueaaie,
iii auioaeaeaii auei ?acaeaaoue ?uiie e oiaa?ii-aeaiaaeiua ioiioaiey,
oaeoaeyoue i?ioeann ?acaeaeaiey o?oaea o?aaiecaoeee.

Iiiaea oicyenoaaiiua o?aaeeoeee Ae?. ?eia ia?aoee e Aecaioee. A
?aiiaaecaioeeneoth yiioo aei VII a. aeeth/eoaeueii nouanoaiaae 21 aeae
i?yiuo iaeiaia. Oe?iei i?aeoeeiaaeenue a Aecaioee e /?acau/aeiua iaeiae
: ia no?ieoaeuenoai oeioa, niaea?aeaiea aieineeo eiioeiaaioia e i?. Ii
iaeeea iaeiaia ia i?eaaei e e oeiainiaiio i?ioeaaoaieth Aecaioeeneie
eiia?. Iaiai?io, /?acia?iia iaeiaiaia a?aiy eiaei naiei iineaaenoaeai
nie?auaiea iaeiaiaie aacu, a aeaeaa iineaaeiaaee oeiainiaua e?ecenu,
ineaaeyaoea iiuue ainoaea?noaa.

Ianeieueei iicaea noaea neeaaeuaaoueny oeiainiaay nenoaia ?one.
Iauaaeeiaiea Ae?aaia?onneiai ainoaea?noaa ia/aeinue eeoue n eiioea IX a.
Iniiaiui enoi/ieeii aeioiaeia eiyaeaneie eaciu auea aeaiue. Yoi aue ii
nooe nia/aea ia?aaoey?iue, a caoai ana aieaa nenoaiaoe/aneee i?yiie
iaeia. Eiycue Ieaa iinea naiaai ooaa?aeaeaiey a Eeaaa caiyeny
onoaiiaeaieai aeaie n iiaeaeanoiuo ieaiai. Aeaiue aceiaeanue aeaoiy
niiniaaie : «iiaicii», eiaaea iia i?eaiceeanue a Eeaa, e «iiethaeuai»,
eiaaea eiycuey eee eiyaeaneea ae?oaeeiu naie aoaee ca iath.

Einaaiiia iaeiaiiaeiaeaiea nouanoaiaaei a oi?ia oi?aiauo e noaeaaiuo
iioeei. Oae iioeeiu aceiaeenue ca ia?aaic /a?ac ?aeo, ca i?aai eiaoue
neeaaeu e i?.

Iinea oaoa?i-iiiaieueneiai iaoanoaey iniiaiui iaeiaii noae «auoiae»,
aceiaaoeeny nia/aea aaneaeaie – oiieiiii/aiiuie oaia, a caoai naieie
?onneeie eiycueyie. «Auoiae» aceiaeny n eaaeaeie ioaeneie aeooe e ni
neioa. Eaaeaeue oaeaeueiue eiycue niae?ae aeaiue a naiai oaeaea nai e
ia?aaeaaae aa iioii aaeeeiio eiycth aeey ioi?aaeaiey a I?aeo. Noiia
«auoiaea» noaea caaenaoue io niaeaoaiee aaeeeeo eiycae n oaiaie. E?iia
«auoiaea» auei aua ianeieueei i?aeuineeo oyaio.A ?acoeueoaoa , aceiaiea
i?yiuo iaeiaia a eacio naiiai ?onneiai ainoaea?noaa auei oaea
iaaiciiaeiui, iiyoiio aeaaiui enoi/ieeii aioo?aiieo ieaoaaeae noaee
iioeeiu.

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