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Aaaaeaiea

A oneiaeyo ?uii/iuo ioiioaiee e iniaaiii a ia?aoiaeiue e ?uieo ia?eiae
iaeiaiaay nenoaia yaeyaony iaeiei ec aaaeiaeoeo yeiiiie/aneeo
?aaoeyoi?ia, iniiaie oeiainiai-e?aaeeoiiai-iaoaiecia ainoaea?noaaiiiai
?aaoee?iaaiey yeiiiieee. Io oiai, ianeieueei i?aaeeueii iino?iaia
nenoaia iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey, caaeneo yooaeoeaiia ooieoeeiie?iaaiea anaai
ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa. Eiaiii iaeiaiaay nenoaia ia naaiaeiyoiee aeaiue
ieacaeanue, iiaeaeoe, aeaaiui i?aaeiaoii aeeneonnee i iooyo e iaoiaeao
?aoi?ie?iaaiey, ?aaii eae e ino?ie e?eoeee. Ia aeaiiue iiiaio nouanoaoao
ianna anaaiciiaeiie eeoa?aoo?u ii iaeiaiiaeiaeaieth a caiaaeiuo no?aiao,
iaeiieai ia?iiiue iiiaieaoiee iiuo ii iaeiaiiaeiaeaieth. Ii a nayce n
oai, /oi iaeiaiaay nenoaia ?innee nicaeaaony i?aeoe/anee caiiai,
naaiaeiy i/aiue iaei iiiia?aoee ioa/anoaaiiuo aaoi?ia ii
iaeiaiiaeiaeaieth, a eioi?uo iiaeii auei au iaeoe a?aiioiua, aeoaiei
i?iaeoiaiiua, i?in/eoaiiua i?aaeeiaeaiey ii nicaeaieth eiaiii ?inneeneie
iaeiaiaie nenoaiu, ioaa/athuae iaoei ?inneeneei ?aaeeyi.

A oiaea ?aaeecaoeee iaeiaiauo caeiiia aicieeaao iiiaeanoai ino?aeoeo
i?iaeai, eanathueony acaeiiioiioaiee iaeiaiieaoaeueueeia e ainoaea?noaa,
ioaaonoaaiiinoe th?eaee/aneeo e oece/aneeo eeoe ca auiieiaiea iaeiaiaiai
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa, i?aa e iaycaiiinoae iaeiaiauo i?aaiia.

Aiineiua a eo?n yeiiiie/aneie ?aoi?iu ooi/iaiey e aeiiieiaiey e
?ac?aceaoeeny oeiainiaue e?ecen, iinoaaeaoee aii?in i ia?aniio?a naiie
ia?aaeeaiu ?aoi?i, iaecaaaeii io?aaeathony ia iaiaoiaeeiinoe
ei??aeoe?iaee ioaeaeueiuo yeaiaioia nenoaiu iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey. Yoiai
o?aaotho e i?iaeieaeathueany a yeiiiieea no?aiu i?ioeannu eioeyoeee,
aaieianeee eieeain, e?ecen iaieaoaaeae, nooii? ?aaeueiiai naeoi?a,
?aceay aeeooa?aioeeaoeey a aeioiaeao. Iaiythony noaaee iaeiaia, iauaeou
iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey, ioiaiythony iaeie eueaiou e aaiaeyony iiaua,
ooi/iythony enoi/ieee oieaou iaeiaia. Iiiai/eneaiiua eciaiaiey e
aeiiieiaiey aiinyony a eino?oeoeaiue e iaoiaee/aneee iaoa?eae ii
iaeiaai. Ana yoi ?acei oaaee/eaaao iioie eioi?iaoeee ii
iaeiaiiaeiaeaieth, ca eioi?ui neiaeii oneaaeeoue. Iaciaiea caeiiia ia
inaiaiaeaeaao io ioaaonoaaiiinoe ca eo iaauiieiaiea. Iaeiaiieaoaeueuee
aeieaeai ciaoue e ia?u i?aaeoniio?aiiie caeiiii ioaaonoaaiiinoe ca
ia?ooaiea iaeiaiaiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa. A nayce n iaaeinoaoi/ii /aoeie
o?aeoiaeie ioaeaeueiuo caeiiiaeaoaeueiuo e eino?oeoeaiuo aeoia
aic?anoaao iio?aaiinoue a eiiiaoaioiii eiiiaioe?iaaiee neiaeiuo i?iaeai
iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey.

Ia?aaeei iieiaeaiea a iaoae no?aia n?aaieaatho a niieiaeaieaia Aa?iaiee
iinea ii?aaeaiey a aieia. Iau/ii oeacuaaaony, /oi nionoy o?e
aeanyoeeaoey Aa?iaiey noaiiaeony aiiaue iaeiie ec aaaeoueo aea?aeaa ie?a
n neeueiie yeiiiieeie. Eiia/ii, yoi auei aeinoeaiooi i?e yeiiiie/aneie
iiaeaea?aeea oaeeo no?ai, eae O?aioeey e Aia?eea, /oi iaeaa/eei a
cia/eoaeueiie ia?a iieiaeaiea Aa?iaiee, iaeiaei, iaeieo yoeo n?aaenoa
auei yaii iaaeinoaoi/ii aeey aaeeeiai aic?iaeaeaiey. *oiau aiiaua iiaee
ianoaoue “aiaeu yeiiiie/aneiai /oaea”, eae eo iacuaaee a iineaaiaiiia
a?aiy, ioaeii auei nicaeaoue nioeeaeueii i?eaioe?iaaiiia
oiaa?ii-aeaiaaeiie oicyenoai e niioaaonoaothuaa iaeiaiaia i?aai.

A iineaaiaiiua aiaeu auee nicaeaiu ia iniiaa ?ac?aaioaiiiai iaiaoeeiai
iaeiaiaiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ia?iiiua aiciiaeiinoe aeey yeiiiie/aneiai
i?ioeaaoaiey e aeinoeaeaiey aunieiai o?iaiy aeaaininoiyiey ioaeaeueiiai
a?aaeaeaieia. Iaiaoeeia iaeiaiaia i?aai i?aneaaeoao n naiiai ia/aea
ii?aaeaeaiiua ia?iaeiioicyenoaaiiua oeaee e iiaeao ?acaeaaoueny,
eniieuecoy aeey yoiai caeiaeaiiua a iaai oi?iu. Iii aeeth/aao a naay
ii?aaeaeaiiua iaycaiiinoe aeey a?aaeaeaieia, ii e oaeaea aai eiie?aoiua
i?aaa, eioi?ua o?aaotho io ainoaea?noaa ii?aaeaeaiiiai ioiioaiey
i?aaiaiai oa?aeoa?a. N ?anoe?aieai aioo?aiiaai aa?iiaeneiai ?uiea auee
i?eciaiu oneiaey aa?iiaeneiai aaeeiiai iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey, ia iniiaa /aai
auei au?aaioaii iaiaoeeia iaeiaiaia i?aai. Ana ia?a/eneaiiua auoa
i?aaeiinueee , o/eouaathuea iaeiaiaia i?aai, yaeythony aa?aioii
oniaoiiai yeiiiie/aneiai aoaeouaai.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy aiaeiae/iay caaea/a noieo ia?aae ?inneae, a eiaiii,
i?aia?aciaaoue naith yeiiiieeo, ia?aaanoe aa ia iiaua ?aeuenu e
i?iaeaeiooueny ia iooe yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey a iai?aaeaiee
aeinoeaeaiey aeaaininoiyiey eaaeaeiai a?aaeaeaieia. Anoanoaaiii, e
caeanue iniiaiie i?aaeiinueeie au/nooiaao yeiiiieea a oie oi?ia, a eaeie
iia, ii e?aeiae ia?a, iaeaieaa i?eaeeaeaaony e
nioeeaeueii-i?eaioe?iaaiiie oiaa?ii-aeaiaaeiie yeiiiieea. Niiniau
?aoaiey e oaiaeaioeee auyaeaiu. A oaeie aea ia?a o?aaoaony
aacioeaaaoaeueii ?ac?aaioaoue iaeiaiaia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai, eioi?ia
iicaieeei au ?inneeneie yeiiiieea ia oieueei ooaa?aeeoueny ia naiai
nianoaaiiii ?uiea, ii e oaeaea noaoue eiieo?aioiiniiniaiie ia
iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo ?uieao. Aeey yoiai a iaoae no?aia eiathony oi?ioea
aiciiaeiinoe.

Neaaeoao eiaoue a aeaeo, /oi iiuo caiaaeiuo no?ai a iaeanoe
iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey ia iineo eneeth/eoaeueii iieiaeeoaeueiue oa?aeoa?. Ai
anao aeaiie?aoe/aneeo no?aiao nouanoaoao yeiiiie/aneia eiaae, eioi?ia
caaioeony i oii, /oiau iaeoe aeey naay eacaeee a neiaeeaoaeny e
aeaenoaothuae nenoaia iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey e auaeoue aeey naay ii?aaeaeaiiua
iaeiaiaua eueaiou. Nenoaia iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey no?aaeaao a iniaie noaiaie
io aeeao/anoe a?oiiiauo eioa?ania a oneiaeyo eeaa?aeueiie aeaiie?aoee.
I?aaiaia ainoaea?noai iiaeaa?aaaony aaeaaeiaaii eniuoaieth iaeiaiaui
i?aaii ii oie i?e/eia, /oi i?aaei?eyoey e a?aaeaeaia noaeeeaathony n
ainoaea?noaii a ?aieao iaeiaiaiai i?aaa ii/oe a eaaeaeii yeiiiie/aneii
i?ioeanna e iaa noi?iiu iiciatho i?e yoii, ni?aaaaeeeainoue eaeiai ?iaea
e a eaeii iauaia iiaeao i?aaenoaaeoue ainoaea?noai. Oaea onoiyaoeany
aeaiie?aoee, ioiinyueany e i?aaiaui ainoaea?noaai, iiaoo iicaieeoue naaa
iani?aaaaeeeainoe a iaaieueoeo ii?oeeyo a noa?a iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey.
Iai?ioea, iaeiaiaay nenoaia, iinyuay ni?aaaaeeeaue oa?aeoa?, /aoei
noi?ioee?iaaiiay e iiiyoiay iiiai/eneaiiui iaeiaiieaoaeueueeai ?innee,
iiiiaeao i?ieoe oa?ienoue iooue no?oeoo?iiai e?ecena.

Nia?aiaiiay ?inneeneay iiaiai?ea aeaneo, /oi iiiaea a?aaeaeaia ?innee
aioiau ieaoeoue iaeiae, ii ia ainoaea?noaaiiie eacia, a iaoee.
?inneeneia i?aaiaia ainoaea?noai oa?yao i?e yoii i/aiue iiiaia, anee iii
ia i?ioeaiiinoaaeo oaeie neiaeeaoainy neooaoeee niioaaonoaothuaa
iaeiaiaia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai. Iiyoiio oeaeaniia?acii oaeaeeoue iniaia
aieiaiea aiaeeco ioaeaeueiuo e?eoa?eaa yeiiiie/aneie iaeiaiaie
ni?aaaaeeeainoe.

Iaeiaiaoth nenoaio ?innee neaaeoao i?aaieciaaoue a i?eioeeia oaeei
ia?acii, /oiau ana i?aaei?eyoey e a?aaeaeaia iacaaeneii io eo iiaaaeaiey
aeaeaee naie aeeaae a ainoaea?noaaiiia iauaaeeiaiea. Ii yoie i?e/eia
i?aaenoaaeyaony aiieia i?aaeeueiui iiaiea iiiaeo aaoi?ia i?eciaoue ana
o?e eiaeeeaoi?a ieaoaaeaniiniaiinoe (aeioiae, eiouanoai, iio?aaeaiea)
eae oaeiaua e i?aaeoniio?aoue niioaaonoaaiii yoiio iaeiae ia aeioiaeu,
eiouanoai e iio?aaeaiea. Oaeie iiaeoiae niioaaonoaoao oaeaea
iauai?eiyoie yeiiiie/aneie oa?ieiieiaee aeaeia iaeiaia.

Yooaeo, iaeeaeaaiie io ?inneeneie iaeiaiaie nenoaiu, caaeneo i?aaeaea
anaai io auai?a yeiiiie/aneeo eiaeeeaoi?ia ieaoaaeaniiniaiinoe. Ianiio?y
ia nouanoaothuee oacen i oii, /oi a i?eioeeia ethaie iaeia ia?aiaiyao
ethaie eiaeeeaoi? ieaoaaeaniiniaiinoe, iaeuecy ooaa?aeaeaoue , /oi auai?
iaeiiai eiaeeeaoi?a ieaoaaeaniiniaiinoe i?eaiaeeo e oiio, /oi ana
ae?oaea eiaeeeaoi?u ieaoaaeaniiniaiinoe ia ia?aiaiythony. Oae
iiaeioiaeiue iaeia ia?aiaiyao a iaiueoae noaiaie eiouanoai e
iio?aaeaiea. Auai? iaeiiai eiaeeeaoi?a ieaoaaeaniiniaiinoe ii?aaeaeyao a
aieueoae noaiaie niaeanii nia?aiaiiie yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee aeeyiey
iaeiaia oieueei a?aiaiioth oi/eo iaeiaiauo aiaoaoaeuenoa a oiaea
?aaeecaoeee yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaiee, aicieeathueo iaaeaeo i?aaei?eyoeyie
e a?aaeaeaiaie. I?aaei?eyoey e a?aaeaeaia iieo/atho a ?acoeueoaoa
inouanoaeaiiie yeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe niioaaonoaothuea aeioiaeu,
nicaeatho n iiiiuueth yoeo aeioiaeia ii?aaeaeaiiia eiouanoai e
eniieuecotho iieo/aiiua aeioiaeu ia ioaeaeu naiaai iio?aaeaiey.

Ii aeaoaeueiue aiaeec anae iaeiaiaie nenoaiu ia aiciiaeai, oae eae yoi
yaii auoiaeeo ca onoaiiaeaiiua ?aiee aeaiiie eo?niaie ?aaiou, A nayce n
yoei y oioae au oaeaeeoue aeaaiia aieiaiea oaeei i?i?aeaiai, eae
iniiaiua e?eoa?ee ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiey, nioeeaeueiie ni?aaaaeeeainoe,
enoi?ee iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey ianaeaiey, yooaeoeaiinoe iaeiaiaie nenoaiu. A
oeaeyo n?aaieoaeueiiai aiaeeca y eniieuecoth e?eoa?ee, i?eiaiyaiua a
aa?iiaeneeo ainoaea?noaao, a Aia?eea, a oaeaea a no?aiao Acee e Ao?eee.
?ac?aaioee iioeiaeueiiai ?inneeneiai iaeiaiaiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa,
eioi?ia iicaieeo ?innee caiyoue aeinoieiia aa ianoi a ie?a, oaeei
ia?acii aoaeoo naa?aiu n ie?iaui iiuoii.

Iaeiae n ianaeaiey a enoi?e/aneii ?ac?aca

Iaeiae n ianaeaiey aicieeee a ae?aaiaeoea a?aiaia e ?acaeaaeenue
iinoaiaiii ii ia?a noaiiaeaiey iiaiaa?iiaeneie oeeaeeecaoeee.
Nouanoaiaaiea no?ieiie nenoaiu iaeiaia ai iiiaii yaeyaony i?eciaeii
aunieie noaiaie ainoaea?noaaiiiai e yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey. Iaeiae a
naiai iiiaiaaeiaii ?acaeoee i?ioee iiiaeanoai yoaiia. Iie auee ecaanoiu
oaea a ?aiieo ae?aaiaainoi/iuo ainoaea?noaao. Ia e?oiiia cia/aiea
iaeiaiaiai aaaeiinoaa a ae?aaiaainoi/iii ainoaea?noaa oeacuaae E. Ia?en:
“A Acee n iacaiaiyoiuo a?aiai, eae i?aaeei, nouanoaiaaee eeoue o?e
io?anee oi?aaeaiey: oeiainiaia aaaeiinoai, eee aaaeiinoai ii ia?aaeaieth
naiaai nianoaaiiiai ia?iaea, aiaiiia aaaeiinoai, eee aaaeiinoai ii
ia?aaeaieth ae?oaeo ia?iaeia, e, iaeiiaoe, aaaeiinoai iauanoaaiiuo
?aaio”. Ni a?aiaie eoeueoiauo aea?oaii?eiioaiee e aei naaiaeiyoiaai aeiy
iaeiae iaiyeenue ea/anoaaiii e eiee/anoaaiii. Iaeiae a no?iai
nia?aiaiiii niunea aicieeee n iiyaeaieai ainoaea?noaa. Iaeiaei aua ia
?aiieo yoaiao iauanoaaiiiai ?acaeoey eiaee ianoi nai?u, i?eiioaiey eee
oneoae. Ia/aeueiie oi?iie iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey auee aea?oaii?eiioaiey,
eioi?ua aiaeaie o?ainoi?ie?iaaeenue a ?aaoey?iua nai?u. A ?yaea
ainoaea?noa, iai?eia? a Ae?aaiai ?eia, eiaee ianoi /?acau/aeii ?acaeoua
iaeiaiaua nenoaiu. Aeinoaoi/ii ioiaoeoue, /oi inouanoaeyeanue ia?aienue
ianaeaiey aeey oeaeae iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey, ioeaiea eiouanoaa. Aue
noi?ie?iaai iaoaieci ecuyoey iaeiaia a aeaea niioaaonoaothuae ea?a?oee
eeoe, ioaaonoaaiiuo ca iieiue nai? iaeiaia.

A Nayuaiiii Ienaiee oiiieiaaony ?yae iaeiaia, eaaoeo a iniiao
?ani?ino?aiaiiuo oi?i iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey. “E neacae Ainiiaeue Iienath,
aiai?y: eiaaea aoaeaoue aeaeaoue en/aneaiea nuiia Ec?aeeaauo i?e
ia?aniio?a eo, oi ionoue eaaeaeue aeano aueoi ca aeooo naith Ainiiaeo
i?e en/eneaiee , … anyeee iinooiathuee a en/eneaiea, aeieaeai aeaaaoue
iieiaeio neeey, neeey nayuaiiiai; a neeea aeaaaeoeaoue aa?: iieneeey
i?eiioaiea Ainiiaeo; anyeee iinooiathuee a en/eneaiea io aeaaaeoeaoe eao
e auoa, aeieaeai aeaaaoue i?eiioaiea Ainiiaeo: aiaaoue ia aieueoa e
aaaeiue ia iaiueoa iieneeey aeieaeiu aeaaaoue a i?eiioaiea Ainiiaeo,
aeey aueoia aeoo aaoeo; aicueie na?aa?i aueoia io nuiia Ec?aeeaauo e
oiio?aaeye aai ia neoaeaiea neeiee nia?aiey”.

I aeanyoeia aea aeaiu neaaeothuea onoaiiaeaiey: “Ioaeaeye aeanyoeio io
anaai i?iecaaaeaiey naiyi oaieo, eioi?ia i?eoiaeeo n iiey eaaeaeiaiaeii,
e aoue i?aae Ainiiaeii: Aiaii oaiei: ia oii ianoa, eioi?ia ecaa?ao Ii,
/oiau i?aauaaoue eiaaie Aai oai: i?eiine aeanyoeio oeaaa oaiaai, aeia
oaiaai e aeay oaiaai, e ia?aaioeaa e?oiiiai neioa oaiaai e iaeeiai neioa
oaiaai, aeaau ou iao/eeny aiyoueny Ainiiaea: Aiaa oaiaai: ai ana aeie.
Anee aea aeeeiia aoaeao aeey oaay aei?iaa, oae /oi ou ia iiaeaoue ianoe
naai, iioiio /oi aeaeaei io oaay oi ianoi, eioi?ia ecaa?ao Ainiiaeue,
Aia oaie, /oia iieiaeeoue oai eiy Naia, e Ainiiaeue, Aia oaie,
aeaaineiaee oaay, oi i?iiaiye yoi ia na?aath?i a ?oeo oaith e i?eoiaee
ia ianoi, eioi?ia ecaa?ao Ainiiaeue, Aia oaie; e iieoiae ia na?aa?i nea
anaai, /aai iiaeaeaao aeooa oaiy, aieia, iaaoe, aeia, neea?a e anaai,
/aai iio?aaoao io oaay aeooa oaiy; e aoue oai i?aae Ainiiaeii, Aiaii
oaiei, e aanaeenue ou e naiaenoai oaia. E eaaeoa, eioi?ue a aeeeeuao
oaieo, ia inoaaue, eai iao aio /anoe e oaeaea n oiaith. Ii i?ioanoaee
aea o?ao eao ioaeaeye ana aeanyoeiu i?iecaaaeaiee oaieo a oio aiae e
eeaaee nea a aeeeeuao oaieo; e ionoue i?eaeao eaaeo, eai iao aio /anoe e
oaeaea n oiaith, e i?eoaeaoe , e ne?ioa, e aaeiaa, eioi?ua iaoiaeyony a
aeeeeuao oaieo, e ionoue aaeyo e ianuuathony, aeaau aeaaineiaee oaay
Ainiiaeue, Aia oaie, ai anyeii aeaea ?oe oaieo, eioi?ia ou aoaeaoue
aeaeaoue”.

Yoa caiiaaaeue o?aaoao /aou?ao aeaeia aeaeia iiaea?oiaaiee io ethaie
naeueneioicyenoaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee, au?auaiiie a No?aia Ec?aeey.

“O?oia aaeiea” (aaeeeia aiciioaiea) ioaeaeyeinue a iieueco nayuaiieeia a
O?aia, ?acia? Oi?ie ia onoaiiaeai.

“Iaana? ?eoii” (ia?aay aeanyoeia) 1/10 o?iaeay, ioaeaeyaoayny a iieueco
eaaeoia, ia eiaaoeo ?iaeiauo caiaeue a No?aia Ec?aeey. Eaaeou a naith
i/a?aaeue ioaeaeyee io “iaana? ?eoii” aeanyooth /anoue (o.a., 1 % anaai
o?iaeay), iacuaaaioth “o?oiao iaana?”, a iieueco nayuaiieeia.

Iinea “ia?aie aeanyoeiu” ioaeaeyee aua 1/10 io inoaaoaainy. A iaeie
aiaeu yoa /anoue iacuaaeanue “iaana? oaie” — aoi?ay aeanyoeia; a o?aoee
e oanoie aiaeu naieeaoiaai oeeeea — “iaana? aie” — aeanyoeia aaaeiiai.
I?iaeoeou “iaana? oaie” neaaeiaaei nuanoue a Ea?onaeeia eee aea
aueoieoue aeaiueaaie e ia yoe aeaiueae eoieoue iioii i?iaeoeou a
Ea?onaeeia. “Iaana? aie” inoaaony a oao ai?iaeao, aaea niae?aeinue e
iinooiaao a ?anii?yaeaiea nioeeaeueii neaauo neiaa ianaeaiey. A aieaa
iicaeiaa a?aiy oaeioaeenou onoaiiaeee “iaana? enaoei” — “aeanyoeio
aeaiaa”, o.a., 10 % io anaai naiaai aeioiaea ia iiaeaeai?aeeo
iaeieioueo, ii yoi onoaiiaeaiea ia eiaao i?yiiai ioiioaiey e caiiaaaee i
aeanyoeia. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy yoe onoaiiaeaiey i?iaeieaeatho
niaethaeaoueny a No?aia Ec?aeey ( n o/aoii ionoonoaey O?aia).

Iaeiae n ianaeaiey oiiieiathony e a Ei?aia. Iaeiie ec iyoe iaycaiiinoe
ionoeueiaieia yaeyaony caeyo — iaeia a iieueco ioaeaeathueony
ionoeueiai. Aaiaoe/anee caeyo naycai n aeieneaineei ieaiaiiui iau/aai
?acaeaea caoaa/aiiie aeiau/e e nicaeaieai naiaia?aciiai oiiaea
acaeiiiiieue ieaiaie. Iaeiaeaiea ?aaoey?iui nai?ii a iieueco
ioaeaeathueony /eaiia iaueiu iiyaeeinue n?aco aea iinea oeaeae?u.
Ia?a/aiue eiathueo i?aai ia iiiiuue caienai ai?i/ai oieueei a iineaaeiae
ii a?aiaie no?a: “ Ieeinouiy — oieueei aeey aaaeiuo, ieueo, ?aaioathueo
iaae yoei, — oai, o eiai na?aeoea i?eaea/aiu, ia aueoi ?aaia,
aeieaeieeai, ia iooe Aeeaoa (o.a., aieoeai ca aa?o, aaceyi), iooieeai, —
ii inoaiiaeaieth Aeeaoa”.

Caeyo ieaoeee oieueei ac?ineua aeaaniiniaiua ionoeueiaia n iinaaia,
aeiia?aaeieeia e oeieeiauo iaeuei (iaeioi?ua iaueiu — n iai?iaeiuo e
aao/aauo eoeueoo?), neioa, cieioa e na?aa?a, oiaa?ia. Iaeaaaaiue ieieioi
(ienaa) i?iaeoeoeee caieaaeaeey 5 aaneia (975 ea), neioa — 5
aa?aethaeia, 20 ei?ia eee 40 iaaoe (eioaaee e ?aau iaeaaaeenue oieueei
i?e i?iaeaaea) cieioi e na?aa?i — 20 aeeia?ia eee 200 aee?oaiia, oiaa?ia
— i?e niioaaonoaothuae oeaia. Ieceii?iaiay iiiaoa i?eieiaeanue ii
niaea?aeaieth a iae ae?aaioeaiiiai iaoaeea. AEaineea oe?aoaiey, cieioay
e na?aa?yiay ioaeaeea i?oaeey a ?an/ao ia i?eieiaeenue. Nai? caeyoa n
i?iaeoeoia caieaaeaeey a ?acia?a 1/10 /anoe o?iaeay i?iecaiaeeeny n?aco
aea ii caaa?oaiee nai?a o?iaeay, a n inoaeueiiai a ?acia?a 1/40 — ii
enoa/aiee eaeaiaea?iiai aiaea. Nia?aiiua noiiu iaoiaeeeenue a
?anii?yaeaiee eaaee e aeieaeiu auee ?anoiaeiaaoueny a oa/aiee aiaea e
oieueei a oii ie?oaa, aaea iie auee nia?aiu, e?iia n?aaenoa,
i?aaeiacia/aiiuo aeey aaceaa. I?aai ia iieo/aiea iiiiue ec caeyoa eiaee
iaeiouea, aaaeiyee, nai?ueee caeyoa, eeoea, caneoaeeaathuea iiiu?aiey
(aanueia iaii?aaeaeaiiay eaoaai?ey), ioeaoaau, aacee e i?eacaeea, ia
eiaaoea n?aaenoa aeey aica?auaiey aeiiie.

N eiiaa?oeaa a ionoeueiaineeo ainoaea?noaao aceiaeanue iiaeooiay
iiaeaoue, eiaioaieay aeaeecea. Aeaeecea ?anniao?eaaeanue i?aaiaaaeaie
eae aueoi ca nio?aiaiea aeecie i?e caaiaaaiee (iaeia ia i?aai iineoue
aieiao – aoeaaeueiue ia?aaiae iiiyoey). Aeaeecea iiaeeaaeaee ana
ioae/eiu, aeinoeaoea c?aeinoe, e?iia ae?yoeuo noa?eeia, eiaaeeaeia,
?aaia e ieueo, aei ia/aea VIII aaea io iaa inaiaiaeaeaeenue oaeaea
iiiaoe. Eaiiie/aneea noaaee aeaeecee auee 12, 24, 48 aee?oaiia (a
no?aiao n cieioui ia?auaieiai — 1, 2, 4 aeeia?a) a caaeneiinoe io
eiouanoaaiiiai iieiaeaiey iaeiaiieaoaeueueea.

Aeaeecea aia?aua oiiieiaaony a Ei?aia: “N?aaeaeoanue n oaie, eoi ia
aa?oao a Aeeaoa e a iineaaeiee aeaiue, ia cai?auaao oiai, /oi cai?aoee
Aeeao e Aai iineaiiee, ia iiae/eiyaony ?aeeaee enoeiu — ec oao, eioi?ui
ieniineaiii ienaiea, iiea iie ia aeaaeoo ioeoia naiae ?oeie, aoaeo/e
oieaeaiiuie”. Iaeiaei n?aaeiaaaeiaua i?aaiaaaeu niiiaaaeenue, /oi
caeanue eiaaony a aeaeo iniaue iaeia, a ia i?inoi aaeeiia?aiaiiue ioeoi.
Auaeaeaiea aeaeecee a iniaue iaeia n eiaeeaeaeoaeueiie
ioaaonoaaiiinoueth auei caaa?oaii a ia/aea VIII aaea e nii?iaiaeaeaeinue
oooaeoaieai iieiaeaiey iiaeaoiiai ianaeaiey, oae eae oaaee/eeanue iauay
noiia iaeiaia ii iiaeaoiui ie?oaai e en/acea iiiiuue e?oaiaie ii?oee. A
ea/anoaa iaeiie ec ia? i?ioea oeeiiaiey io oieaou auei i?eiaiaiea
naeioeiauo ae?ie-eaeoaioeee ia oieaoa iaeiaa, eioi?ua iineee ia oaa.

Oai?aoe/anee aeaeecea aeieaeia auea oiea/eaaoueny aaeeiia?aiaiii ii
enoa/aiee iaeiaiaiai aiaea, ii ia i?aeoeea iia aceiaeanue /anoyie.
Noaaee aa nio?aiyeenue iaeciaiiuie e oieueei a Iniaineie Oo?oeee a nayce
n iinoiyiiui iaaeaieai aeinoieinoaa iiiaou ainoaea?noai a?aiy io a?aiaie
niaoeeaeueiui aeae?aoii onoaiiaaeeaaei ?acia? aeaeecee a oiaey/ae
iiiaoa. Iiaiaaaeaieai auei e iaeiaeaiea aeaiuei, iieo/eaoeo a
ianeaaenoai caieth.

Iiieii aeaeecee nouanoaiaae e iicaiaeueiue iaeia, iacuaaaiue oa?aaeae.
Ia?aiia/aeueii yoei iiiyoeai iaicia/aeny anyeee iaeia e aeaiue n
iiei?aiiuo e oiio?aaeyeny eae neiiiei aeaeecee., iniaaiii a oao neo/ayo,
eiaaea aeaei eanaeinue ia iaeiaia, niae?aaiuo a oeaio?a Oaeeoaoa, a
aeaiae, iinooiaaoeo ii aeiaiai?ai e nai? eioi?uo i?iecaiaeeeny
aannaeueiuie i?aaeoaeyie, eiaaea aeaenoaeoaeueii iaeuecy auei ioee/eoue
iicaiaeueiue iaeia io iiaeooiie iiaeaoe. Nia/aea n/eoaeinue, /oi
oa?aaeae ieaoyo oieueei eiiaa?oeu, a ionoeueiaia oo? (/anoue caeyoa n
i?iaeoeoia caieaaeaeey, a oaeaea oi?aiaua nai?u n ionoeueiai). Iaeiaei
oaaee/aiea /enea iiaiia?auaiuo a?iceei na?ueaciui nie?auaieai
iinooieaiee, iiyoiio ooaa?aeeeinue i?aaenoaaeaiea, /oi noaoon
oa?aaeaeaeueiuo caiaeue iaeciaiai e ia caaeneo io ?aeeaee
caieaaeaaeaeueoea eee a?aiaeaoi?a. Eneaineea caeiiiaaaeu (oaeeoe)
oieeiaaee oa?aaeae eae ieaoo, aceiaaioth ionoeueiaineei ainoaea?noaii n
aeeoaeae caaiaaaiiuo iaeanoae ca iieueciaaiea aai caieyie.

Ia?iaue caiaeueiue eaaeano? a E?aea e Ne?eo aue i?iiaaaeai i?e Ioaaee, a
Aaeioa — a 725 aiaeo. A Aaeioa oa?aaeae aue eiaeeaeaeoaeueiui iaeiaii
oaea a XI aaea, a a E?aea e a E?aia — eieeaeoeaiui, eaaeauei ia
caieaaeaeueoeao eaaeaeiai naeaiey, naycaiiuo e?oaiaie ii?oeie. Oa?aaeae
aceiaeny eae iaoo?ie, oae e aeaiueaaie, a eiiaaea e a niaioaiiie oi?ia.
Aeey Aaeioa, iai?eia?, auei oa?aeoa?ii iaeiaeaiiea oaoie/aneeo eoeueoo?
oa?aaeaeai a aeaiaaeiie oi?ia. Aao Eonoo n/eoae niaoaiioth oi?io
iaeaieaa ni?aaaaeeeaie, oae eae i?e eciaiaiee oeai ia i?iaeoeou iiaeao
iiianoe oua?a eeai ainoaea?noai, eeai iaeiaiieaoaeueuee.

Nouanoaiaaee o?e iniiaiua oi?iu en/eneaiey oa?aaeaea — ienaoa, ioeaoa(a
e ioeanaia. A i?aaii neo/aa iaeia aceiaeny a oaa?aeuo noaaeao n
aaeeieoeu ia?aaioaiiie ieiuaaee, ai aoi?ii (iau/ii n aieueoeo caiaeueiuo
aeaaeaiee) ii?aaeaeyeanue ia iiiai eao aia?aae oaa?aeay noiia ((ea?a), a
o?aoueai — aceiaeanue aeiey o?iaeay. Yoa oi?ia auea aaaaeaia a E?aea i?e
ae-Iaino?a. Aia caaeneiinoe io niiniaa en/eneaiey oa?aaeaea ?acia? aai
eieaaaeny ieiei 1/3 o?iaeay, iiaeieiaynue a?aiaiaie (E?ae, ia/aei IX
aaea) aei 2/5. Nai? oa?aaeaea ioeanaia iaoo?ie i?iaiaeeeny i?e oai?ea
o?iaeay, aeaiaaeiue iaeia niae?aeny a oa/aiee anaai aiaea, eiiaaea
aeaaea iany/iuie aeieyie.

A ionoeueiaineeo no?aiao a niioaaonoaee n caeiiaie oa?eaoa e a ianoiyuaa
a?aiy aeaenoaoao neiaeiay nenoaia eneaineeo iaeiaia, eioi?ua iiaeii
ioa?aeoa?eciaaoue eae ?aeeaeiciua, aceiathueany a oeaeyo iaania/aiey
ioaeae ionoeueiaineie iaueiu. N?aaee eneaineeo iaeiaia cia/eoaeueiia
ianoi caieiaao iaeia n nianoaaiiinoe, ii aa?aony a iaoo?aeueiie e
aeaiaaeiie oi?ia n naie aeaeia nianoaaiiinoe e i?eauee:

ca?aaioiie ieaou;

?oaeieeia;

aeeaaeia;

eiouanoaa, i?eia?ao±iiiai caeiiiui ioo±i;

ae?aaioeaiiinoae, aeiauouo ni aeia ii?y;

aiaiiuo o?ioaaa;

caiee, eoieaiiie o ionoeueiaieia.

Iniaia ianoi a nenoaia eneaineeo iaeiaia caieiaao caeyo, ieaoaeueueeaie
eioi?iai yaeythony oieueei ionoeueiaia. A ?yaea no?ai ii noae
i?aeoe/anee iau/iui ainoaea?noaaiiui iaeiaii, oiea/eaaaiui aeaaie naiuee
(Iaeenoai, Aaiaeaaeao). Ii aceiaaony eeoue n eioueo ionoeueiai,
aeaaeaeueoeaa neioa, ae?aaioeaiiinoae, eiathueo oi?aiaoth i?eaueue, e
oiea/eaaaony ec ?an/aoa 2,5% io aiaeiaiai aeioiaea.

A Naoaeianeie A?aaee iauaeoii iaeiaeaiey caeyoii yaeyaony eaieoae, ia
aeiaeaiiue a i?iecaiaenoai, /enoue aeioiae e caii?iaeaiiua enoi/ieee.
Anee ionoeueiaiei neii/aeny, ia auieaoea caeyoa, oi i?aaeaea anaai ec
aai n?aaenoa ieaoeony iaeia, a caoai oaea auiieiythony ana ae?oaea
iaycaoaeuenoaa.

Aeey ?anniio?aiey ioaeaeueiuo yoaiia noaiiaeaiey iaeiaia, yaiethoeee
oai?ee iaeiaia, iaiaoiaeeii eiaoue /aoeia i?aaenoaaeaiea i nouiinoe e
ooieoeee iaeiaia. Ianiio?y ia oi, /oi iaeiae eiatho iiiaiaaeiaoth
enoi?eth, ia/aeueiua iniiau iaeiaiaie oai?ee noaee nicaeaaaoueny oieueei
a OVII aaea. Caeanue iaeuecy ia ioiaoeoue o?oaeu Aeeueyia Iaooe e
i?aaeaea anaai aai “O?aeoao i iaeiaao e nai?ao” — ia?aue
ooiaeaiaioaeueiue o?oae, aaea i?eaeiaeueii ?anniio?aiu i?iaeaiu,
eiathuea aeooaeueiinoue e naaiaeiy: eaeei ia?acii ineaaeoue
iaaeiaieuenoai iaeiaiieaoaeueueeia, i niiniaao ?ani?aaeaeaiey iaeiaia, i
i?ioeaioa, i oaiiaeaiiuo iioeeiao e aieueiuo aaaaiyo, i iiaeooiii
iaeiaa, i eioa?ayo, aeia?iaieueiuo aciinao e iaeacaieyo.

Iaooe auaeaeee oeaeoth aeaao ia ?anniio?aiea oaeiai aeaea iaeiaa n
ianaeaiey eae iiaeooiie iaeia. “Iiaeooiue iaeia – yoi iaeia ia ethaeae,
iaeaaaaiue eeai i?inoi ia anao aac eneeth/aiey, eeai a niioaaonoaee n
iaeioi?uie i?enaiaiiuie ei ii?aaeaeaiiuie oeooeaie eee i?eciaeaie
ioee/ey, o.a. eeai a nayce n i?inoui ii/aoii, eeai a nayce n iaeioi?uie
aeieaeiinoyie, eioi?uo aeiaeaathony eee eioi?ua ianoo ii iacia/aieth,
eeai a niioaaonoaee n caiyoeai iaeioi?uie i?iiuneaie e i?ioanneyie,
iacaaeneii io oiai, i?eiinyo ee yoe oeooeu, aeieaeiinoe eee i?ioannee
Aiaaonoai eee aaaeiinoue, aeioiae eee ?anoiae, aa?uo eee oauoie”.
E?eoeeoy neiaeioth nenoaio iiaeooiiai iaeiaa, aaaaeaiioth a eiioea 1660
a. a Aiaeee e ieacaaoothny n?aco aea ianinoiyoaeueiie, Iaooe i?aaeeaaaao
neaaeothuea aeaeu yoiai iaeiaa:

I?inoie iiaeooiie iaeeiaa, iaeeaaeuaaaiue ia eaaeaeiai /aeiaaea a
iaeeiaeiauo ?acia?ao. “I?e yoii i?eoiae oiea/eaaao ca oao, eoi aeeaao
iiaeayieai, ?iaeeoaee – ca naieo iaeieaoieo aeaoae e oicyaaa – ca naieo
o/aieeia e ae?oaeo eeoe, ia iieo/athueo ca?aaioiie ieaou”. E iaaeinoaoeo
yoiai iaoiaea Iaooe ioiineo aai ia?aaiiia?iinoue — “eeoea, eiathuea
iaiaeeiaeiaua n?aaenoaa, ieaoyo ana iaeeiaeiai, e oa, eioi?ui
i?eoiaeeony ianoe iaeaieueoia ?anoiaeu ia aeaoae, ieaoyo aieueoa anaai”,
a e i?aeiouanoao — oi, /oi yoio iaeia iiaeao auoue nia?ai i/aiue auno?i
e n iaaieueoeie ecaea?aeeaie; e?iia oiai, noiia nai?a eaaei
i?iaiice?oaony, iineieueeo ecaanoii /enei aeeoaeae; “a-o?aoueeo, ii,
ii-aeaeeiiio, aoaeao i?eoii?eaaoue anao ethaeae e oiio, /oiau iie
canoaaeyee naieo aeaoae caiyoueny eaeei-iiaoaeue auaiaeiui caiyoeai,
aaeaa oieueei iie au?anooo”.

Iaeiaeaiea iiaeooiui iaeiaii eaaeaeiai /aeiaaea n ?acee/eai
ieaoaeueueeia “ii eo /enoi ii/aoiui oeooeai, iacaaeneii io eaeie au oi
ie auei aeieaeiinoe eee i?ioannee”. Yoio niinia, ii iiaieth Iaooe,
aaaeao e ai?acaei aieueoae ?aaiiia?iinoe, /ai i?aaeuaeouae, iineieueeo
oeooeiaaiiua eeoea iau/ii aiaaou.

Eioa?anii iiaiea Iaooe i eioa?ayo: “I?e eioa?a ethaee, eae i?aaeei,
oaeaea iaeaaatho naay iaeiaii, oioy e iaaeaynue iieo/eoue niaoeeaeueioth
auaiaeo. Eioa?ay iiyoiio anoue, nianoaaiii aiai?y, iaeia ia ian/anoiuo
naiiiaaeayiiuo aeoioeia, ethaeae, aa?yueo a naia n/anouea eee iiaa?eaoeo
?aciui i?aaeneacaoaeyi, iaauaaoei ei, /oi iie aoaeoo eiaoue aieueoie
oniao i?eaeeceoaeueii ai a?aiy e a ianoa ?icua?uoa eioa?ae, eaaeauai,
aiciiaeii, e thai-caiaaeo io oiai ianoa, aaea i?aaeneacuaaeanue
noaeueaa. Iaeiaei iineieueeo ie? eciaeeoao oaeiai ?iaea aeo?aeaie, oi
iaoaeiaii, /oiau anyeee, eoi caoi/ao, iaiaiuaae au anyeiai, eoi caoi/ao
auoue iaiaiooui; iai?ioea, i?aaeeueii aoaeao, anee ainoaea?ue aicueiao
iiae naith iiaeo yoeo aeo?aeia, eae yoi eiaao ianoi n eoiaoeeaie eee
eaeeioaie”.

Aeeueyi Iaooe iiae?iaii ?anniao?eaaao ?aciua aeaeu iicaiaeueiiai iaeiaa,
aeanyoeio, aeoeecu, ?aciua niiniau nai?a aeaiaa, nouanoaiaaaoea a
aa?iiaeneeo ainoaea?noaao oiai a?aiaie, ii?/o iiiaou, athaeaeaoiua
?anoiaeu. Iniaaiiia aieiaiea ii oaeaeyao i?iaeaia acaeiiioiiioaiee
ainoaea?noaa e iaeiaiieaoaeueueeia.

Noieaoeai iicaea Aaeai Nieo noi?ioee?iaae “caeiiu ioiineoaeueoei anyeiai
iaeiaa aiiaua” a naiai “Enneaaeiaaiee i i?e?iaea e i?e/eiao aiaaonoaa
ia?iaeia”. Ii aueuaeye /aou?a caeiia:

“Ia?aue caeii. Iiaeaeaiiua anyeiai ainoaea?noaa iaycaiu i?eieiaoue
o/anoea a iiaeaea?aeaiee i?aaeoaeuenoaa, eaaeaeue ii ia?a nianoaaiiuo
naieo n?aaenoa, oi anoue a ?acia?ao aeioiaeia, iieo/aaiuo eie iiae
iie?iaeoaeuenoaii ainoaea?noaa… Niaethaeaiea coiai caeiia eee
i?aiaa?aaeaiea e iaio ninoaaeyao oi, /oi iacuaatho ?aaiiia?iui eee
ia?aaiiia?iui ?ani?aaeaeaieai iaeiaa.

Aoi?ie caeii. Iiaeaoue eee /anoue iaeiaa, oiea/eaaaiay eaaeaeui
iiaeaeaiiui, aeieaeia auoue ii?aaeaeaia, a ia i?iecaieueia. A?aiy aa
oieaou, niinia aceiaiey e eiee/anoai aciina aeieaeiu auoue oi/ii e
no?iai ii?aaeaeaiu eae aeey eeoea, ieaoyuaai iaeia, oae e aeey anaai
iauanoaa. A i?ioeaiii neo/aa eaaeaeue a?aaeaeaiei ioaeaaony aieaa eee
iaiaa ia i?iecaie nai?ueea, eioi?ue iiaeao a oaeii neo/aa eee oaaee/eoue
iioeeio ii iai?eycie e ieaoaeueueeo, eee aea iiae aeeyieai oa?icu
/?acau/aeiuo iiai?ia auioaeeoue o iaai iiaea?ie eee eaeoth-ieaoaeue
oneoao… Ec iiuoa anao ia?iaeia, ie/oi ia i?e/eiyao oaeiai ia?iiiiai
cea, eae naiay iacia/eoaeueiay iaii?aaeaeaiiinoue a iaeiaa.

O?aoee caeii. Eaaeaeue iaeia aeieaeai aceiaoueny a oaeia a?aiy e oaeei
niiniaii, eaeea i?aaenoaaeytho iaeaieueoa oaeianoa aeey ieaoaeueueea.

*aoaa?oue caeii. Iaeia aeieaeai aceiaoueny oaeei ia?acii, /oiau ii
ecaeaeae ec ia?iaea eae iiaeii iaiaa aeaiaa, naa?o oiai, /oi iinooiaao a
ainoaea?noaaiiia eacia/aenoai, e a oi aea naiia a?aiy /oiau nia?aiiua
aeaiueae inoaaaeenue aiciiaeii iaeia a?aiy a ?oeao nai?ueeia. Iaeia
iiaeao ecaeaeaoue ec ia?iaea aieueoaa eiee/anoai aeaiaa, /ai oaeia
o?aaoaony ioaeaeaie eaciu, eee inoaaeeiue yoe aeaiueae aia ?anii?yaeaiey
eacia/aenoaa, /aou?ueiy ?acee/iuie niiniaaie. 1) Aceiaiea iaeiaa iiaeao
o?aaiaaoue aieueoiai /enea /eiiaieeia, niaea?aeaiea eioi?uo iiaeioeo
aieueooth /anoue iaeiaa, a ee/iia eeoieinoai eo i?aaeinoaaeo iiaue
i?eaaai/iue i?iaeoea ia ia?iae. 2) Iaeia iiaeao noanieoue
i?iiuoeaiiinoue ia?iaea e iono?aieoue aa io iaeioi?uo io?aneae o?oaea e
oi?aiaee, eioi?ua aeinoaaeee au caiyoea e n?aaenoaa nouanoaiaaiey
aieueoiio /eneo eeoe. Iiyoiio, iaaeaeo oai eae n iaeiie noi?iiu ii
i?eioaeaeaao ia?iae e oieaoa, n ae?oaie -ii oiaiueoaao, eee, iiaeao
auoue, oie/oiaeaao iaeioi?ua enoi/ieee, eioi?ua au aeinoaaeee ia?iaeo
n?aaenoaa aianoe iaeia. 3) Eiioeneaoeee, iaie e ae?oaea iaeacaiey,
eioi?ui iiaeaa?aathony ian/anoiua, iieooathueany oaa?ioouny io iaeiaa,
eaaei iiaoo ?aci?eoue eo e oie/oiaeeoue oaeei ia?acii iieueco, eioi?oth
iieo/eei au iauanoai io oiio?aaeaiey eo eaieoaeia. *?acia?iue iaeia
neoaeeo aaeeeei eneooaieai e iaiaio; ii iaeacaiey ca oeeiiaiea
anoanoaaiii oaaee/eaathony n oneeaieai eneooaiey e iaiaio… 4)
Iiaeaa?aay ia?iae aani?a?uaiui iinauaieyi e iaiaaenoiui iniio?ai
nai?ueeia, iaeia iiaeao aucaaoue iiiaeanoai aaniieaciuo aaniieienoa,
i?eaeeiie e i?eoaniaiee; e oioy au, no?iai aiai?y, i?eoaniaiea e ia
nii?iaiaeaeaeinue iaoa?eaeueiui oua?aii; iii, ?acoiaaony, ?aaiioeaiii
ecaea?aeeie, eioi?ith /aeiaae ioioii au ioeoieeny io iaai. Aneaaenoaea
coeo /aou?ao ianoiyoaeuenoa, iaeia /anoi ieacuaaaony ian?aaiaiii aieaa
oyainoiui aeey ia?iaea, /ai auaiaeiui aeey ainoaea?y”.

Oaeei ia?acii, Nieo auaae neaaeothuea ooiaeaiaioaeueiua i?eioeeiu
iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey:

anaiauiinoue iaeiaia e eo i?iii?oeeiiaeueiinoue aeioiaeo;

ii?aaeaeaiiinoue;

i?inoioa e oaeianoai;

iaeiae aeieaeiu aceiaoueny n iaiueoeie ecaea?aeeaie, ia eiaeanue oyaeeei
a?aiaiai ia iaeiaiieaoaeueueeia.

Ia?a/eneaiiua i?eioeeiu iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey ia oo?aoeee naiaai cia/aiey e a
nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo. E iei iiaeii aeiaaaeoue oaeea i?eioeeiu, eae
iaeiie?aoiinoue iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey, noaaeeueiinoue, iaycaoaeueiinoue e
ni?eaaaeeeainoue. Ainoaea?noaa ia eaaeaeii ioaeaeueiii yoaia n o/aoii
yeiiiie/aneiai ninoiyiey e i?ia?aiiiuo caaea/ no?iyo naie iaeiaiaua
nenoaiu n i?ei?eoaoii a ioai?a oao i?eioeeeia, eioi?ua yaeythony
iaeaieaa aeooaeueiuie.

Iaeiae e iaeiaiiaeiaeaiea

Oeiainiaay aeayoaeueiinoue ainoaea?noaa – yoi aeayoaeueiinoue
ainoaea?noaa ii ia?aciaaieth, ?ani?aaeaeaieth e eniieueciaaieth
oeaio?aeeciaaiiuo e aeaoeaio?aeeciaaiiuo oiiaeia aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa,
iaania/eaathueo aai aania?aaieiia ooieoeeiie?iaaiea. Oeiainu
ainoaea?noaa yaeythony nenoaiie niiauathueony ninoaeia. Iaaeiai? eee
ia?aecauoie n?aaenoa a eaeii-eeai caaia oeiainiaie nenoaiu i?eaiaeeo e
oiio, /oi nenoaio ia/eiaao eeoi?aaeeoue a oeaeii. Oae a nia?iaiiuo
oneiaeyo noaiiaeaiey ?uiea a ?innee i?e nouanoaothuai aieueoii
athaeaeaoiii aeaoeoeeoa nie?auaaony athaeaeaoiia oeiaine?iaaiea, ?anooo
iaieaoaaee, ?anoao eioeyoeey, iaaeaao eo?n ?oaey. A nayce n ia?aoiaeii e
?uii/iie yeiiiieea i/aiue aaaeii iiiyoue ?ieue ainoaea?noaa a
?aaoee?iaaiee, aeeoioeyoeee , ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiee e eniieueciaaiee
oeaio?aeeciaaiiuo e aeaoeaio?aeeciaaiiuo oiiaeia aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa.
Iaeiae e iaeiaiaay iieeoeea iauaeoeaii aeeth/aiu a nenoaio yeiiiie/aneie
aaciianiinoe, ai-ia?auo, eae iiuiue ?ano?niue oaeoi?, iaoiaeyueeny a
?oeao ainoaea?noaa, a cia/eo, e eino?oiaio aicaeaenoaey ia yeiiiieeo.
Ai-aoi?uo, – eae iaoaieci ia?aoiie nayce e caaeneiinoe ainoaea?noaa io
noauaeoia yeiiiieee (oece/aneeo e th?eaee/aneeo eeoe, oa??eoi?ee e
o.i.). Oaeei ia?acii, iaeiaiaue iaoaieci ii’aeao aunooiaoue a ea/anoaa
n?aaenoaa iaania/aiey aaciianiinoe eee, iaiai?io, auoue eino?oiaioii
oneeaiey oa?ic e ?eneia. Yoi caaeneo io eiie?aoiie neooaoeee,
iniaaiiinoae ia?aaeeaaaiiai no?aiie yoaia yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey,
oa?aeoa?a i?iaiaeeiie oicyenoaaiiie iieeoeee e noaaeeueiinoe
ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe.

Iiiyoea iaeiaa

?anoe?ythueeny a iineaaeiea aiaeu a iaoae no?aia i?ioeann i?eaaoecaoeee
ainoaea?noaaiiie nianoaaiiinoe e noaiiaeaiea ?uiea eciaiytho
niaea?aeaiea ?aiaa nouanoaiaaaoeo ioiioaiee ii iaania/aieth ainoaea?noaa
oeiainiauie ?ano?naie: ana aieueoaa cia/aiea i?eia?aoatho iaeiaiaua
iaoiaeu eo aeeoioeyoeee.

Iaeiae – anoanoaaiiue ao?eaoo ethaiai iauanoaa, a eioi?ii ioaee/iay
aeanoue io/oaeaeaia io nianoaaiiinoe eee ia ?aniieaaaao nianoaaiiuie
enoi/ieeaie aeioiaeia a ?acia?a, iaania/eaathuai eniieiaiea aiceiaeaiiuo
ia iaa iauanoaii ooieoeee.

Iaeiae – yoi oi?ia i?eioaeeoaeueiiai ecuyoey ainoaea?noaii a naith
nianoaaiiinoue /anoe eiouanoaa (a aeaiaaeiie oi?ia – n ?acaeoeai
aeaiaaeiiai ia?auaiey), i?eiaaeeaaeauaai ianaeaieth. Iie – iaeanoue
noieeiiaaiey ?aciiiai?aaeaiiuo eioa?ania, iieo/athueo io?aaeaiea a
?acee/iuo oi?iao iieeoe/aneie ai?ueau, eiathuae ia?aiia/aeueiie oeaeueth
oii?yaei/aiea, o?aaoee?iaaiea, ia?aie/aiea iaeiaiauo i?eoycaiee aeanoe.
(Iaeiae aaiaeyony oieueei n niaeaney iaoeee – caienaii a «Aaeeeie oa?oee
aieueiinoae» Aiaeee 1215 a.). Ii A. Nieoo, iaeia – yoi a?aiy,
iaeeaaeuaaaiia ainoaea?noaii a oi?ia caeiia, eioi?ue i?aaeoniao?eaaao e
aai ?acia? e ii?yaeie oieaou. I?aai ainoaea?noaa aceiaoue iaeiae e
iaycaiiinoue ianaeaiey eo ieaoeoue auoaeatho ec iaiaoiaeeiinoe
nouanoaiaaiey ainoaea?noaa e aai o/?aaeaeaiee a eioa?anao anaai iauanoaa
e ioaeaeueiuo eeoe. I?e yoii ainoaea?noai aeieaeii ?oeiaiaenoaiaaoueny
ii?aaeaeaiiuie i?eioeeiaie: anaiauiinoe (eaaeaeue aeieaeai o/anoaiaaoue
a iiaeaea?aeea ainoaea?noaa ni?acia?ii naiae ieaoaaeiie niiniaiinoe,
o.a. i?iii?oeeiiaeueii aeioiaeo, eioi?ui ii iieuecoaony iiae
iie?iaeoaeuenoaii ainoaea?noaa); ii?aaeaeaiiinoe (iaeiaiieaoaeueueeo
aeieaeiu auoue ecaanoiu a?aiy, ianoi, niinia e ?acia? ieaoaaea);
oaeianoaa aceiaaiiai iaeiaa aeey ieaoaeueueea (oaeiaiui niiniaii, a
oaeiaiia a?aiy, eiaaea ieaoaeueuee ?aniieaaaao iaeneioiii n?aaenoa);
aeaoeaeciu aceiaiey (aaiaeeoue iaeiae, nai? eioi?uo ieieiece?oao
ecaea?aeee); auai?a iauaeoia iaeiaeaiey, eioi?ua a iaeaieueoae noaiaie
niinianoaotho ?acaeoeth oicyenoaa (eee a iaeiaiueoae noaiaie aai
noaniytho); ni?aaaaeeeainoe iaeiaeaiey (iai?eia?, a no. 24 eiinoeoooeee
Eeooaiooaeia yoio i?eioeei noi?ioee?iaai oae: “Ainoaea?noai
i?aaeoniao?eaaao ni?aaaaeeeaia iaeiaiiaeiaeaiea, inaiaiaeaeay io
iaeiaeaiey ieieioi aeey nouanoaiaaiey e iaeaaay aieaa aunieeie noaaeaie
aieaa e?oiiua eiouanoaa e aeioiaeu”; yaeiiiaeaoaeueeie oi?iu
o/?aaeaeaiey iaeiaa (eae aa?aioee iaania/aiey aeaniinoe,
ninoycaoaeueiinoe e niaeaney ia i?eioaeeoaeueiia ecuyoea /anoiie
nianoaaiiinoe).

Iaeiaiaia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee aei iineaaeiaai
a?aiaie ia niaea?aeaei iaeiicia/iiai ii?aaeaeaiey iaeiaa. Yoi neiai
oiio?aaeyaony a iai, n iaeiie noi?iiu, a iaeiii ?yaeo n iioeeiaie,
nai?aie (no. no. 57, 71, 132 Eiinoeoooeee ?O; no.no, 2, 19-21 Caeiia ?O
«Ia iniiaao iaeiaiaie nenoaiu a ?O», a n ae?oaie – eae iiiyoea,
aee/athuaa a naay e nai?u, e iioeeiu, e ae?oaea iaycaoaeueiua ieaoaaee
(no. 2 /. 2, no. 18 iacaaiiiai auoa Caeiia). Yoi aeaao iniiaaiea
aiai?eoue i iaeiaa a oceii, aoeaaeueiii niunea, n /a?oaie, auaeaeythueie
aai ec iauaai ?yaea niioaaonoaothuu ieaoaaeae, e i iaeiaa a oe?ieii
niunea, n i?eciaeaie, iaueie aeey anao iaycaoaeueiuo ieaoaaeae.

E iauei i?eciaeai caeiiiaeaoaeue ioiineo: caeiiii onoaiiaeaiioth oi?io
ii?aaeaeaiey ii?yaeea e oneiaee eo aceiaiee; iaycaoaeueiinoue oieaou;
i?eioaeeoaeueiue oa?aeoa? ecuyoey; naycue ieaoaaea n athaeaeaoii eee
aiaathaeaeaoiui oiiaeii (no. 2 Caeiia). Iiaeii ioiaoeoue aua iaeio
iauoth anai ei /a?oo – aacyeaeaaeaioiinoue ieaoaaea.

Aianoa n oai, oioy iaeiae, iioeeiu, nai?u – eaoaai?ee iaeiiai ?yaea,
iaaeaeo ieie eiathony nouanoaaiiua ?acee/ey. Nai?u e iioeeiu aceiathony
ainoaea?noaaiiuie e ianoiuie i?aaiaie (eee o/?aaeaeaieyie) ca ieacaiea
caeiiii onoaiiaeaiiuo oneoa eee i?aaeinoaaeaiea ii?aaeaeaiiiai i?aaa. Ii
iie – ia oeaia oneoae (oioy eo aaee/eia ii?aaeaeyaony aeaeii oneoae, aa
ea/anoaii e o.i.), ia iaycaoaeueiay i?eiaaeeaaeiinoue aeaiiiai i?aaia
(o/?aaeaeaiey). Nai? eee iioeeia iiaoo auoue ioiaiaiu, a i?aai aoaeao
i?iaeieaeaoue naith iniiaioth aeayoaeueiinoue. Iie – ia yeaiaio oneoae,
oioy oiea/eaathony a nayce n aa ieacaieai. *anoe/iay aiciacaeiinoue
iioeei e nai?ia ioee/aao eo io iaeiaa. Aoi?ia ioee/ea ninoieo a oii, /oi
aceiathony iie oieueei n oao, eoi anooiaao a ioiioaiey n
niioaaonoaothuei i?aaiii (eee o/?aaeaeaieai) ii iiaiaeo iieo/aiey
ioaeiuo aio oneoa, o.a. iaycaoaeueiinoue oieaou iioeeiu eee nai?a
ianooiaao a ?acoeueoaoa naiaiaeiiai auai?a ieaoaeueueea a ioee/ea io
oneiaee aicieeiiaaiey iaeiaiaie iaycaiiinoe.

A ia?aie /anoe Iaeiaiaiai eiaeaena ?O, anooieaoaai a neeo n 1 yiaa?y
1999 aiaea, oi/ii onoaiiaeaii yoe ioee/ey e aeaaony oaeia ii?aaeaeaiea
iaeiaa: “Iiae iaeiaii iiieiaaony iaycaoaeueiue, eiaeeaeaeoaeueii
aacaiciacaeiue ieaoaae, aceiaaiue n i?aaiecaoeee e oece/aneeo eeoe a
oi?ia io/oaeaeaiey i?eiaaeeaaeaueo ei ia i?aaa nianoaaiiinoe,
oicyenoaaiiiai aaaeaiey eee iia?aoeaiiai oi?aaeaiey aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa,
a oeaeyo oeiainiaiai iaania/aiey aeayoaeueiinoe ainoaea?noaa e (eee)
ioieoeeiaeueiuo ia?aciaaiee. Iiae nai?ii iiieiaaony iaycaoaeueiue aciin,
aceiaaiue n i?aaiecaoeee e oece/aneeo eeoe, oieaoa eioi?iai yaeyaony
iaeiei ec oneiaee niaa?oaiey a eioa?anao ieaoaeueueeia nai?ia
ainoaea?noaaiiuie i?aaiaie, i?aaiaie ianoiiai naiioi?aaeaiey, eiuie
oiieiiii/aiiuie i?aaiaie e aeieaeiinoiuie eeoeaie th?eaee/anee cia/eiuo
aeaenoaee, aeeth/ay i?aaeinoaaeaiea ii?aaeaeaiiuo i?aa eee auaea/o
?ac?aoaiee (eeoeaicee)”.

Iaeiao a aai eneiiiii niunea i?enou iniaue iaoaieci aai aceiaiey,
yeaiaiou eioi?iai onoaiaaeeaathony caeiiii ia yoii iaeiaa e ii?aaeaeytho
no?oeoo?o iineaaeiaai. Yoi: e?oa ieaoaeueueeia, iauaeo iaeiaeaiey,
aaeeieoea iaeiaeaiey, noaaea iaeiaa n?iee e niiniau aai oieaou.

Iaeiae – yoi iaycaoaeueiua eiaeeaeaeoaeueii-aacaiciacaeiua aeaiaaeiua
ieaoaaee a athaeaeaou e ainoaea?noaaiiua aiaathaeaeaoiua oiiaeu,
aceiaaiua n iaeiaiieaoaeueueeia a caeiiii onoaiiaeaiiuo ei?yaeea e
?acia?ao. Caeanue oianoii oiiiyiooue eaeath aceiaiey oieueei iaeiiai
aaeeinoaaiiiai iaeiaa.

Eaeay inouanoaeaiey nai?a iaeiaiauo iinooieaiee n iiiiuueth iaeiiai
iaeiaa aucuaaea iinoiyiii ino?oth iieaieeo a iaoea iaeiaiauo oai?ee.
Eaeay nai?a iaeiaiauo iinooieaiee n iiiiuueth iaeiiai aaeeinoaaiiiai
iaeiaa i?inoi caai?aaeeaaao, a niioaaonoaaiii yoie eaeaa neaaeoao
oaycuaaoue yeiiiie/aneia iaeiaiiaeiaeaiea oieueei n i?aaeiaoii
iaeiaiaiai iaeiaeaiey, eioi?ue iiaeaeaaony eo/oa anaai ii?aaeaeaieth i?e
?ani?aaeaeaiee iaeiaiaiai a?aiaie. A aeaayoiaaeoeaoii noieaoee auea
?ac?aaioaia eaeaaeueiay iiaeaeue iaeiiai iaeiaa a neeo oiai
ianoiyoaeuenoaa, /oi aeioiae, eioi?ue ii?aaeaeyeny i?e?inoii eiouanoaa,
i?eciaaaeny a ea/anoaa iioeiaeueiiai eiaeeeaoi?a iaeiaiaie
ieaoaaeaniiniaiinoe. A aeaaaeoeaoii noieaoee ?acaa?ouaaaony aeeneonney i
aeaiiie eaeae i?aaeaea anaai a nayce n ee/iui iaeiaii ia ?anoiaeu, oae
eae caueoieee oaeie eaeae enoiaeeee ec oiai, /oi i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai oicyenoaa io?aaeaaony, a eiioea eiioeia, a
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiii iio?aaeaiea.

Enoi?ey eaeae iaeiiai iaeiaa naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i oii, /oi i?aaenoaaeaiea
i oii, /oi nouanoaoao iioeiaeueii ii?aaeaeyaiue i?aaeiao
iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey, yaeyaony ecia/aeueii a oai?aoe/aneii ieaia ioeai/iui.
Iai?ioea, ioaeaeueiua i?aaeiaou, iiiaaeathuea iiae iaeiaiiaeiaeaiea,
eiatho naie i?aeiouanoaa, ii e oaeaea ii?aaeaeaiiua iaaeinoaoee, iiyoiio
?aaeueiinoue a iaeanoe iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey i?eaioe?iaaia ia ?ani?aaeaeaiea
iaeiaiaiai a?aiaie ii ianeieueeei i?aaeiaoai, oai aieaa /oi ie a iaeiie
no?aia iao iaeiaiaie nenoaiu n iaeiei aaeeinoaaiiui iaeiaia, iai?ioea ai
anao no?aiao ie?a nouanoaoao iiiaii?aaeiaoiay iaeiaiaay nenoaia.

Iiiaiiaeiaiaay nenoaia oa?aeoa?ecoaony oai i?aeiouanoaii, /oi aeaaiaea?y
eiiaeiaoeee ?acee/iuo iaeiaiauo i?aaeiaoia iiaeii iioeiece?iaaoue
i?eciaee, i?enouea ioa/anoaaiiie iaeiaiaie nenoaia. Ni?aaaaeeeainoue
iiaeioiaeiuo iaeiaia aeiiieiyaony iacaiaoiinoueth einaaiiuo iaeiaia n
i?aaeiaoia iio?aaeaiey. Iaeiaiaua iinooieaiey iiaeii ?ani?aaeaeeoue ii
ioaeaeueiui aeaeai iaeiaia oaeei ia?acii, /oi ie iaeie iaeia ia aoaeao
aini?eieiaoueny eae yeiiiie/anee iiaeaaeythuee oaeoi?. A iaeiaeaiea ii
?acee/iui iaeiaiaui i?aaeiaoai aeaao naioth eo/ooth aa?aioeth a oii, /oi
iaeiaiaia a?aiy aoaeao ?ani?aaeaeyoueny ?aaiiia?ii, oae eae i?e yoii
ieeoi ia niiaeao ecaaaeaoue ii?aaeaeaiiiai iaeiaa. A oneiaeyo ?aaeueiie
iaeiaiaie iieeoeee ?a/ue eaeao ia i oii, eoi ca eee i?ioea iaeiiiaeiaaie
nenoaiu, a ia yeiiiie/aneii ia?aie/aiee oaea ai?iae?iaaiiuo
iiiaiiaeiaiauo nenoai, i nieaeaiee ?aceiai iiaeuaia iaeiaiaiai a?aiaie.
Oae, iai?eia?, a Aa?iaiee caaeathony aii?inai i oii, aeinoaoi/ii ee
aceiaoue aieaa 50 aeaeia iaeiaia aeey iie?uoey ainoaea?noaaiiuo
iio?aaiinoae a oeiainao. A 1992 aiaeo iaeiaiaua aeioiaeu iaiaoeeeo
th?eaee/aneeo eeoe, aeayoaeueiinoue eioi?uo ia?aie/aia no?iai
ii?aaeaeaiiie oa??eoi?eae, ninoaaeee 732 ie?ae iaiaoeeeo ia?ie. 90 %
aeaiiiai aeioiaea iieo/aii aeaaiaea?y oieueei ainueie iaeiaai. I?e yoii
iie?uaathony 66 % iaeiaiauo iinooieaiee oieueei ca n/ao iiaeioiaeiiai
iaeiaa e iaeiaa n iai?ioa.

Eiinoeoooeeae ?O e ia?aie /anoueth Iaeiaiaiai Eiaeaena, a oaeaea Caeiiii
«Ia iniiaao iaeiaiaie nenoaiu a ?O» (aeaiiue caeii n 1.01.1999 a.
i?eciai oo?aoeaoei naith neeo, ca eneeth/aieai /.2 no.18 e no.no.19-21)
cae?aieythony ioaeaeueiua i?eioeeiu iaeiaia:

anaiauiinoue (eaaeaeue iaycai ieaoeoue caeiiii onoaiiaeaiiua iaeiae e
nai?u – no. 57 Eiinoeoooeee; /.1 no.3 IE );

aa?oiaainoai i?aaenoaaeoaeueiie aeanoe a eo onoaiiaeaiee (no.no. 57, 71,
76, 105, 106 Eiinoeoooeee, no. 1 Caeiia);

i?yiia aeaenoaea ai a?aiaie caeiiia, onoaiaaeeaathueo iiaua iaeiae eee
oooaeoathueo iieiaeaiea iaeiaiieaoaeueueeia (no. 57 Eiinoeoooeee);

iaeiie?aoiinoue iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey (iaeei e oio aea iauaeo ia iiaeao
iaeaaaoueny iaeiaaie iaeiiai aeaea (o?iaiy) aeaa ?aca ca iaeei ia?eiae
iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey – no. 6 Caeiia);

i/a?aaeiinoue aceiaiey iaeiaia ec iaeiiai enoi/ieea (a oeaeyo
oiaiueoaiey iaeiaiaiai a?aiaie – no. 22 Caeiia);

i?ei?eoao ?aoeoeoee?iaaiiuo ?O iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo ii?i e i?aaee
iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey a neo/aa ?anoiaeaeaiey eo n iaoeeiiaeueiui i?aaii (no.
7 IE, no. 23 Caeiia).

Iniiaiay ooieoeey iaeiaia a iauanoaa – oeneaeueiay, eanathuayny
eioa?ania ainoaea?noaaiiie eaciu (Io eao. fiscus – ainoaea?noaaiiay
eacia). Ainoaea?noai, onoaiaaeeaay iaeiae, no?aieony i?aaeaea anaai
iaania/eoue naaa iaiaoiaeeioth iaoa?eaeueioth aaco aeey inouanoaeaiey
naieo ooieoeee e aiceiaeaiiuo caaea/.

A ia?eiae noaiiaeaiey iiaiaa?iiaeneiai ao?aeoaciiai ainoaea?noaa yoa
iai?aaeaiiinoue iaeiaia i?eciaaaeanue aaeeinoaaiiie. Iaeiaei aeeaea e
eiioeo OIX a. a yiioo aieueoeo nioeeaeueiuo iio?ynaiee oi?ie?oaony iiaay
oaiaeaioeey oai?ee iaeiaia, ?anniao?eaathuay eo eae nioeeaeueiue
?aaoeyoi?, i?oaeea nioeeaeueiuo ?aoi?i, iai?aaeaiiuo ia iinoaiaiiia
au?aaieaaiea o?iaiy aeioiaeia ianaeaiey. Ai aoi?ie iieiaeia o?eaeoeaouo
aiaeia OO aaea iiyaeyaony eiioeaioeey eniieueciaaiey iaeiaia a ea/anoaa
n?aaenoaa ?aaoee?iaaiey yeiiiieee e iaania/aiey noaaeeueiiai
yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa. N na?aaeeiu OX a. ?aaoee?othuay ooieoeey iaeiaia
iieo/aao anaiauaa i?eciaiea e oe?ieia i?eiaiaiea.

Ie?iaie iiuo naeaeaoaeuenoaoao, /oi ooieoeee iaeiaia iaoiaeyony a
iinoiyiiii ?acaeoee e yaiethoeeiie?otho aianoa n ?acaeoeai ainoaea?noaa.
Ieoay athaeaeao, iaeiae yaeythony iaeiei ec iniiaiuo enoi/ieeia
oeiaine?iaaiey anao iai?aaeaiee aeayoaeueiinoe ainoaea?noaa e
yeiiiie/aneei eino?oiaioii ?aaeecaoeee ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?ei?eoaoia.
Aeaa iniiaiua ooieoeee iaeiaia – oeneaeueiay e ?aaoee?othuay –
acaeiinaycaiu e acaeiicaaeneiu, ii aoi?ay ia iiaeao ?acaeaaoueny a oua?a
ia?aie.

Niaieoiiinoue iaeiaia, nai?ia, iioeei e ae?oaeo iaycaoaeueiuo ieaoaaeae
a athaeaeaou ?aciuo o?iaiae e ainoaea?noaaiiua aiaathaeaeaoiua oiiaeu,
onoaiiaeaiiuo ia i?eioeeiao e a ii?aaeaeaiiii oaaea?aeueiuie caeiiaie ?O
ii?yaeea e aceiaaiuo ia oa??eoi?ee ?O, ninoaaeyao iaeiaiaoth nenoaio
?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee. A ianoiyoaa a?aiy iniiao iaeiaiaie nenoaiu ?O
ninoaaeytho oaeea iaeiae, eae iaeia ia i?eaueue n th?eaee/aneeo eeoe,
iiaeioiaeiue n a?aaeaeai, e aeaa einaaiiuo iaeiaa – ia aeiaaaeaiioth
noieiinoue e aeoeecu. Iauay noaia iaeiaiaie nenoaiu ?O ii ninoiyieth ia
1 yiaa?y 1998 a i?eaaaeaia ia ?en. 1.

Aanue ninoaa iaeiaia e nai?ia ioa/anoaaiiie nenoaiu iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey
?aniaaeaaony ia aeaa acaeiiaeaenoaothuea iiaenenoaiu: i?yiiai
iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey e einaaiiiai iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey.

Yoe iiaenenoaiu oanii acaeiiaeaenoaotho ia oieueei i?e iaania/aiee
iio?aaiinoae athaeaeaoa a aeioiaeiuo enoi/ieeao, ii e a i?ioeannao
eiie?aoiiai en/eneaiey iaeiaiiaeaaaaiie aacu. Aceiaiea iaeieo iaeiaia
iiaeao nieaeaoue eee oaaee/eaaoue noieiinoioth aaco en/eneaiey ae?oaeo.
Yaiethoeey iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey a ?innee e ca ?oaaaeii naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i
iinoiyiiii iienea niiniaia ?ac?aoaiey nii?ia – eaeay ec iiaenenoai
aeieaeia auoue i?aiaeaaeathuae: i?yiia eee einaaiiia iaeiaeaiea. A
?aciuo no?aiao ?ac?aoaiea yoeo nii?ia auei iaiaeiicia/iui. Enoiae nii?ia
ii?aaeaeyea a aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa ainoaea?noaaiiay iieeoeea. N eiioea
XVIII a. i?e ii?aaeaeaiee aaeaina iaaeaeo i?yiui e einaaiiui iaeiaeaieai
ca enoiaeiia iieiaeaiea a?aeinue iauaa yeiiiie/aneia iieiaeaiea no?aiu,
o. a. noiia?iue ei?ii?aoeaiue aeioiae e n?aaeiaaeooaaie aeioiae
a?aaeaeai. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy ca?oaaaeiua iaeiaiaua nenoaiu iniiauaathony
ia iiaenenoaia i?yiiai iaeiaeaiey, n/eoay aai noeioee?othuei oaeoi?ii
?acaeoey aeciana.

Iauaa eiee/anoai iaeiaia, nai?ia, iioeei e ae?oaeo iaycaoaeueiuo
ieaoaaeae, iauaaeeiaiiuo a iaeiaiaie nenoaia ?O, a ianoiyuee iiiaio
iacaaoue iaaiciiaeii: iinea i?aaeinoaaeaiey Oeacii I?aceaeaioa ?O io 22
aeaeaa?y 1993 a. ? 22681 i?aaiai aeanoe noauaeoia ?O e ianoiiai
naiioi?aaeaiey i?aaa aaiaeeoue iaeiae e nai?u naa?o i?aaeoniio?aiiuo
no.no. 20 e 21 Caeiia ?O “0a iniiaao iaeiaiaie nenoaiu a ?O” i?ioeann
onoaiiaeaiey eie iaeiaia aua ia caaa?oeeny.

Iaeiaiaay nenoaia iaoae no?aiu i/aiue iieiaea. Eiioeaioeey aa iino?iaiey
aace?iaaeanue ia ioeaca io eaeae ioiaiu iaeiaia, ia oi?ie?iaaiee
oeaeinoiie nenoaiu, ioaaouaathuae iaeiaeaiea aeioiaeia, eiouanoaa e
iio?aaeaiey e niinianoaothuae noaiiaeaiei ?uii/iiai oicyenoaa. Aianoa n
oai iia aace?iaaeanue a iniiaiii ia ca?oaaaeiii iiuoa, oae eae a ia?eiae
aa nicaeaiey ioa/anoaaiiiai iiuoa iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey a oneiaeyo ia?aoiaea
io ainoaea?noaaiiie yeiiiieee e ?uii/iie ia auei.

«Iaeaoeo» nenoaia i?ioiaeeo a neiaeiuo oneiaeyo niaaea i?iecaiaenoaa,
oeiainiaiai e?ecena, ineaaeaiey oeaio?aeueiie aeanoe, auno?iai
?anneiaiey ianaeaiey e i?i/eo oaeoi?ia, eioi?ua iiaeaa?aatho aa
iianiinoe aiceiaeaiey ia iaeiae ia naienoaaiiuo ei ooieoeee, ?acaaea aa
oeaeinoiinoe. Iiuo ooieoeeiie?iaaiey iaeiaiaie nenoaiu ane?ue
nouanoaaiiua aa iaaeinoaoee: iiiai/eneaiiinoue iaeiaia, iaaeoiaiiinoue
ioaeaeueiuo iaeiaia (nai? ca ianoioth neiaieeeo, o?e nai?a n
eiiiae?iiia, nai? ca eeiinuaieo e ae?.), ianoaaeeueiinoue iaeiaiaiai
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa. Iaeiaiaay nenoaia ioaeaeaony a iinoaiaiiii, n
iaeiieaieai iiuoa, niaa?oainoaiaaiee, ii ia ?aoi?ie?iaaiee. Ana
onoaiaaeeaaaiua a no?aia iaeiae eiatho aaeeioth oeaeue — oi?ie?iaaiea
athaeaeaoia, iaania/eaathueo eaaeaeiio a?aaeaeaieio ?innee, iacaaeneii
io oiai, ia oa??eoi?ee eaeiai noauaeoa ?O eee ioieoeeiaeueiiai
ia?aciaaiey ii i?iaeeaaao, aa?aioe?iaaiiue Eiinoeoooeeae ?O ieieioi
nioeeaeueiuo aeaa, e aaeeioth aaco – aeioiaeu oece/aneeo e th?eaee/aneeo
eeoe, ecuyoea eioi?uo ia iiaeao i?aauoaoue «iaeiaiaiai i?aaeaea», oie
aeiee AII, ia?a?ani?aaeaeyaiie a oi?ia iaeiaia, i?aauoaiea eioi?ie
aea/ao ca niaie ?aceia iaino?aiea yeiiiie/aneeo e nioeeaeueiuo
i?ioeai?a/ee. Aaeeinoai oeaee e aaeeinoai aacu ii?aaeaeytho acaeiinaycue
e acaeiicaaeneiinoue anao aceiaaiuo a no?aia iaeiaia e iaiaoiaeeiinoue
oeaio?aeeciaaiiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey iniiaiuo aii?inia, i?eioeeiia eo
aceiaiey (a oii /enea ia?aie/aiea eo ia?a/iy, aaee/eiu noaaie, aii?inu
aeaieiiai (aioo?aiiaai) iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey e i?.).

Iauaaeeiaiea iaeiaia a nenoaio i?aaeiieaaaao aiciiaeiinoue eo
eeanneoeeaoeee ii ?aciui iniiaaieyi, /oi iicaieyao aiaeece?iaaoue
nenoaio n ?aciuo iiceoeee. Iaeiaiaui eiaeaenii ?O ana iaeiae
iiae?acaeaeythony ia o?e aeaea, enoiaey ec ainoaea?noaaiiiai ono?ienoaa
?O: oaaea?aeueiua, iaeiae noauaeoia ?O (?aaeiiaeueiua) e ianoiua. Oaeia
aeaeaiea iicaieyao ii?aaeaeeoue aeieth iaeiaia eaaeaeiai aeaea a iauae
noiia iaeiaiauo iinooieaiee e niioianoe aa /a?ac ?anoiaeu n iauaiii
ooieoeee i?aaiia aeanoe eaaeaeiai o?iaiy, a oaeaea noaiaiue
oeaio?aeecaoeee oi?aaeaiey a no?aia.

Iniaaiiinoueth oaaea?aeueiui iaeiaia yaeyaony oi, /oi iie
onoaiaaeeaathony oieueei oaaea?aeueiuie caeiiaie e iaycaoaeueiu e
aceiaieth ia oa??eoi?ee anae no?aiu. E /eneo oaaea?aeueiuo ioiinyony:
iaeia ia aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue, aeoeecu ia ioaeaeueiua aeaeu oiaa?ia
(oneoa) e ioaeaeueiua aeaeu ieia?aeueiiai nu?uey, iaeia ia i?eaueue
i?aaei?eyoee e i?aaiecaoeee, iaeia ia aeioiaeu io eaieoaea, iiaeioiaeiue
iaeia n oece/aneeo eeoe, aciinu a ainoaea?noaaiiua nioeeaeueiua
aiaathaeaeaoiua oiiaeu, ainoaea?noaaiiay iioeeia, oaiiaeaiiay iioeeia e
oaiiaeaiiua nai?u, iaeia ia iieueciaaiea iaae?aie, iaeia ia
aini?iecaiaenoai ieia?aeueii-nu?ueaaie aacu, iaeia ia aeiiieieoaeueiue
aeioiae io aeiau/e oaeaaiaei?iaeia, nai? ca i?aai iieueciaaiey iauaeoaie
aeeaioiiai ie?a e aiaeiuie aeieiae/aneeie ?ano?naie, eaniie iaeia,
aiaeiue iaeia, yeieiae/aneee iaeia , oaaea?aeueiua eeoeaiceiiiua nai?u.

?aaeiiaeueiua iaeiae aeeth/atho a naay ieaoaaee o?ao a?oii:

1) Onoaiiaeaiiua oaaea?aeueiuie caeiiaie (n ii?aaeaeaieai iniiaiuo
yeaiaioia iaeiaa: e?oaa ieaoaeueueeia, iauaeoa iaeiaa e iaeneiaeueii
aiciiaeiie noaaee iaeiaa), aceiaiea eioi?uo iaycaoaeueii ia oa??eoi?ee
anao noauaeoia ?O (iai?eia?, iaeia ia eiouanoai i?aaei?eyoee, ieaoa ca
aiaeo). Eiie?aoiue ii?yaeie aceiaiey yoeo iaeiaia ia oa??eoi?ee
?acee/iuo noauaeoia iiaeao ioee/aoueny, oae eae eo i?aaiu
i?aaenoaaeoaeueiie aeanoe naiinoiyoaeueii ii?aaeaeytho noaaeo iaeiaa,
ii?yaeie aai oieaou, iaeiaiaua eueaiou.

2) Oae iacuaaaiua oaeoeueoaoeaiua iaeiae, eioi?ua oiaea onoaiaaeeaathony
oaaea?aeueiuie caeiiaie (n ii?aaeaeaieai e?oaa ieaoaeueueeia,
iaeneiaeueiie noaaee, iauaeoa iaeiaa), ii aaiaeyony i?aaiii
i?aaenoaaeoaeueiie aeanoe noauaeoa ?O ii aai oniio?aieth e oieueei
oiaaea i?eia?aoatho iaycaoaeueioth neeo (iai?eia?, nai? ia ioaeaeu
ia?aciaaoaeueiuo o/?aaeaeaiee).

3) Iaeiae, onoaiaaeeaaaiua i?aaiaie i?aaenoaaeoaeueiie aeanoe noauaeoia
?O ii nianoaaiiiio oniio?aieth.

Ianoiua iaeiae – yoi iaeiae, eioi?ua a iniiaiii iinooiatho a ianoiua
athaeaeaou. Ia?a/aiue yoeo iaeiaia, i?aaeoniio?aiiuo no. 15 Iaeiaiaiai
Eiaeaena, aeeth/aao a naay caiaeueiue iaeia, iaeia ia eiouanoai
oece/aneeo eeoe, iaeia ia ?aeeaio, iaeia ia ianeaaeiaaiea eee aea?aiea,
ianoiua eeoeaiceiiiua nai?u. No. 21 Caeiia ia iniiaao iaeiaiaie nenoaiu
?O i?aaeoniao?eaaea aieaa 24 iaeiaia e nai?ia. O?e ec ieo – iaeia ia
eiouanoai oece/aneeo eeoe, caiaeueiue iaeia e ?aaeno?aoeeiiiue nai?
oece/aneeo eeoe, caieiathueony i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoueth,
– onoaiiaeaiu caeiiaie ?O e aceiathony a iaycaoaeueiii ii?yaeea ia
oa??eoi?ee anae no?aiu. Inoaeueiua (nai? ca i?aai oi?aiaee, iaeia ia
niaea?aeaiea aeeeeuiiai oiiaea e iauaeoia nioeeaeueii-eoeueoo?iie noa?u,
nai? ni naeaeie, niaa?oaaiuo ia ae?aeao, e ae?.) – oaeoeueoaoeaiu.
Noaouey 21 Caeiia onoaiaaeeaaea iaeneiaeueiua noaaee ii aieueoeinoao ec
ieo, iauaeou iaeiaeaiey e e?oa ieaoaeueueeia. Ii iaycaoaeueioth neeo iie
iieo/atho oieueei iinea i?eiyoey niioaaonoaothuaai ?aoaiey
i?aaenoaaeoaeueiuie i?aaiaie aeanoe ianoiiai naiioi?aaeaiey.

O?aoueth a?oiio ianoiuo iaeiaia ninoaaeytho iaeiae e nai?u,
onoaiaaeeaaaiua yoeie i?aaiaie aeanoe ii nianoaaiiiio oniio?aieth.
Iaeiaei i. 5 no. 12 IE ?O cai?auaao onoaiaaeeaaoue ?aaeiiaeueiua eee
ianoiua iaeiae eee nai?u, ia i?aaeoniio?aiiua Iaeiaiaui eiaeaenii.
I?iecaieo ianoiuo aeanoae caeanue iieiaeaii ia?aie/aiea.

A caaeneiinoe io ieaoaeueueeia iaeiae iiaeii aeaeeoue ia iaeiae n
oece/aneeo eeoe (iiaeioiaeiue, ia eiouanoai oece/aneeo eeoe; ia
eiouanoai, ia?aoiaeyuaa a ii?yaeea ianeaaeiaaiey e aea?aiey, e ae?.); n
th?eaee/aneeo eeu e eo oeeeaeia, iiae?acaeaeaiee, eiathueo ioaeaeueiue
aaeain e n/ao (iaeia ia i?eaueue, iaeia ia aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue
(IAeN), nai? ia ioaeaeu ia?aciaaoaeueiuo o/?aaeaeaiee, o?ainii?oiue
iaeia e ae?.); niaoaiiiai ninoaaa, o.a. aceiaaiua e n oece/aneeo e n
th?eaee/aneeo eeoe (oaiiaeaiiay iioeeia, ainiioeeia, caiaeueiue iaeia e
ae?.).

A caaeneiinoe io oiai, yaeyaony ee th?eaee/aneee ieaoaeueuee
iaeiia?aiaiii oaeoe/aneei ieaoaeueueeii, iaeiae iiae?acaeaeytho ia
i?yiua, ninoaaeythuea iniiaioth a?oiio iaeiaia ?O, e einaaiiua. E /eneo
iineaaeieo ioiinyony aeoeecu, aceiaaiua n ia?aie/aiiiai e?oaa oiaa?ia
(eeea?i-aiaei/iua ecaeaeey, oaaa/iua ecaeaeey, eaaeiaua aaoiiiaeee,
oeiu, thaaee?iua ecaeaeey e ae?.), iaeia ia aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue
(aceiaaony n iniiaiie iannu oiaa?ia, oneoa, ?aaio) e ae?. Einaaiiua
iaeiae, aeeth/aaiua a oeaio oiaa?a, oaeoe/anee oiea/eaathony eiia/iui
iio?aaeoaeai yoeo oiaa?ia, oioy th?eaee/anee ieaoaeueueeii yaeyaony eo
i?iaeaaaoe.

Iaeiaiaia i?aai ?innee

Iiae iaeiaiaui i?aaii ?innee iiieiaaony niaieoiiinoue oeiainiai-i?aaiauo
ii?i, ?aaoee?othueo iauanoaaiiia ioiioaiea ii onoaiiaeaieth e aceiaieth
a athaeaeaou ?aciuo o?iaiae e ainoaea?noaaiiua aiaathaeaeaoiua oiiaeu
iaycaoaeueiuo, eiaeeaeaeoaeueii aacyeaeaaeaioiuo aeaiaaeiuo ieaoaaeae.
Noa?a i?eiaiaiey iaeiaiaiai i?aaa ia?aie/eaaaony aeayoaeueiinoueth
ainoaea?noaa a iaeanoe iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey. A iaa ia aeeth/athony ioiioaiey
ii aeeoioeyoeee iaiaeiaiauo ieaoaaeae.

Ii?iu iaeiaiaiai i?aaa ii?aaeaeytho i?eioeeiu onoaiiaeaiey iaeiaia,
ii?yaeie eo onoaiiaeaiey; ninoaa iaeiaiaie nenoaiu ?O; ii?yaeie
en/eneaiey e oieaou eaaeaeiai iaeiaa, nai?a, iioeeiu, ae?oaiai
iaycaoaeueiiai ieaoaaea yoie nenoaiu; i?aaeoniao?eaatho ia?u,
iaania/eaathuea eniieiaiea yoiai ii?yaeea.

Ao?iia ?acaeoea iaeiaiaiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa a iineaaeiea aiaeu,
?anoe?aiea noa?u iaeiaiauo i?aaiioiioaiee, iaiaoiaeeiinoue iaania/aiey
naaeaine?iaaiiinoe eioa?ania o/anoieeia yoeo ioiioaiee nicaeatho
i?aaeiinueee e iaiaoiaeeiinoue nenoaiaoecaoeee ii?i iaeiaiaiai i?aaa.
I?ineaaeeaaaony, ana aieaa ii?aaeaeaiii, oaiaeaioeey ?acaeaeaiey aai
ii?i ia iauoth e iniaaiioth /anoe. A iauoth /anoue aeeth/athony ii?iu,
ii?aaeaeythuea iiiyoey iaeiaa e iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey; cae?aieythuea
i?eioeeiu e ooieoeee iaeiaia, iieiiii/ey ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee,
noauaeoia ?O e ianoiiai naiioi?aaeaiey ii eo onoaiiaeaieth;
ii?aaeaeythuea iiiyoea e ninoaa iaeiaiaie nenoaiu ?O; iniiaiua i?aaa e
iayyaiiinoe noi?ii iaeiaiauo i?aaiioiioaiee; onoaiaaeeaathuea ninoaa
iaeiaiauo i?aaiia?ooaiee, iaeiaiaua naieoeee e iniiau ii?yaeea eo
i?eiaiaiey.

Iniaaiiay /anoue aeeth/aao ii?iu, ?aaeaiaioe?othuea ii?yaeie aceiaiey
iaeiaiauo ieaoaaeae, – e?oa ieaoaeueueeia ii eaaeaeiio iaeiao, iauaeou
iaeiaeaiey, ii?yaeie en/eneaiey e oieaou.

Iaeiaiaia i?aai, yaeyynue ninoaaiie /anoueth iaeiiai ec ?acaeaeia
oeiainiaiai i?aaa – i?aaiaui ?aaoee?iaaieai ainoaea?noaaiiuo aeioiaeia,
i/aiue oanii naycaii n ainoaea?noaaiiui e aaeieieno?aoeaiui i?aaii ?O, a
oaeaea n aaaeouei einoeoooii iniaaiiie /anoe oeiainiaiai i?aaa –
athaeaeaoiui i?aaii ?O Ainoaea?noaaiii-i?aaiaua ii?iu, cae?aieythuea
i?eioeeiu aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaiia ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe e i?aaiia
ianoiiai naiioi?aaeaiey, ?aca?aie/aiea i?aaeiaoia aaaeaiee iaaeaeo ?O e
noauaeoaie ?O a iaeanoe iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey, iieiiii/ey i?aaiia
ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe e i?aaiia ianoiiai naiioi?aaeaiey a yoie
iaeanoe, ii?aaeaeythuea i?aaiaua oi?iu onoaiiaeaiey iaeiaia, yaeythony
aacie ?acaeoey iaeiaiaiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa e aoiaeyo a ninoaa
iaeiaiaiai i?aaa. I?aaiaua aeou, ?aaeaiaioe?othuea aeayoaeueiinoue oaeeo
ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaiia eniieieoaeueiie aeanoe, eae Ainoaea?noaaiiay
iaeiaiaay neoaeaa ?O, Ieienoa?noai oeiainia ?O, Ainoaea?noaaiiue
oaiiaeaiiue eiieoao ?O, Oaaea?aeueiay neoaeaa iaeiaiaie iieeoeee ?O,
yaeyynue enoi/ieeaie aaeieieno?aoeaiiai i?aaa ?O, niaea?aeao i?aaiaua
ii?iu, ii?aaeaythuea eo iieiiii/ey a iaeanoe aceiaiey iaeiaia. Oaniay
naycue n aaeieieno?aoeaiui i?aaii iaoneiaeeaaaony oaeaea e oai, /oi ia?u
aaeieieno?aoeaiie ioaaonoaaiiinoe aunooiatho iaeiei ec niiniaia
iaania/aiey eniieiaiey iaeiaiieaoaeueueeaie eo iaycaiiinoae. Naycue n
athaeaeaoiui i?aaii i?ineaaeeaaaony a niaea?aeaiee e no?oeoo?a
aeioiaeiie /anoe athaeaeaoiie eeanneoeeaoeee, oanii oaycaiiuo n ninoaaii
iaeiaiaie nenoaiu ?O, a caaeneiinoe eniieiaiey aeioiaeiie /anoe
athaeaeaia anao o?iaiae io ?aaeecaoeee ii?i iaeiaiaiai i?aaa ii
aceiaieth iaeiaia.

Iieiiii/ey a iaeanoe iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey ?aca?aie/aiu iaaeaeo ainoaea?noaii
a oeaeii, noauaeoaie ?O, ioieoeeiaeueiuie ia?aciaaieyie, n iaeiie
noi?iiu, a n ae?oaie noi?iiu, – iaaeaeo i?aaiaie i?aaenoaaeoaeueiie e
eniieieoaeueiie aeanoe eaaeaeiai o?iaiy. I?eieiaaiua iineaaeieie a
?acia?a onoaiiaeaiiuo ei iieiiii/ee aeou, niaea?aeauea ii?iu iaeiaiaiai
i?aaa, yaeythony enoi/ieeaie iaeiaiaiai i?aaa. Iie – aanueia
iiiai/eneaiiu, ?aciiia?aciu ii i?aaiaie oi?ia, ii acaeiinaycaiiu,
ninoaaeyy ii?aaeaeaiioth nenoaio. Enoi/ieee iaeiaiaiai i?aaa
eeanneoeoee?othony ii oai aea iniiaaieyi, /oi e enoi/ieee oeiainiaiai
i?aaa.

Aaaeouaa ianoi n?aaee ieo caieiaao Eiinoeoooeey ?O, cae?aieythuay
enoiaeiua iieiaeaiey iaeiaiaiai i?aaa ?innee: i?aaeiaou aaaeaiey ?O
(eneeth/eoaeueiua e niaianoiua n ?aaeiiaie) a iaeanoe iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey
(no.no. 71, 72); iieiiii/ey a yoie iaeanoe Oaaea?aeueiiai Nia?aiey ?O,
I?aceaeaioa ?O, I?aaeoaeuenoaa ?O (no.no. 71, 72, 74, 75, 76, 103, 105,
106; 80, 84, 85, 90, 107; 114; 104, 125) e i?aaiia ianoiiai
naiioi?aaeaiey (no. 132); iniiaiua i?eioeeiu yoie aeayoaeueiinoe e
iniiau iaeiaiaiai noaoona a?aaeaeae ?O (no.no. 25, 35, 40, 41, 43, 46,
52),

A ?innee a ianoiyuaa a?aiy ana aua iao eiaeaena iaeiaiaiai
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa, ioaaouaathuaai ana iaeiaiaia i?aai, eaeie eiaaony ai
O?aioeee eee a Niaaeeiaiiuo Ooaoao Aia?eee (a aeaenoaea aaaaeaia oieueei
ia?aay /anoue IE ia a iieiii iauaia). A Aa?iaiee eiathony ioaeaeueiua
iaeiaiaua caeiiu e Iieiaeaiea i iaeiaao e ieaoaaeao, eioi?ia ?aaoee?oao
oa ii?iu, aeaenoaothuea ii/oe /oi aeey anao aeaeia iaeiaia. Eaeay
eiaeeoeoee?iaaiey iaeanoe i?aaa a iaeiii eiaeaena Caeiiia aeiaeeanue
i?eciaiey a i?ioeii aaea, iaeiaei a oa/aiea aeaaaeoeaoiai noieaoey ana
aua iiaeaa?aaeanue niiiaieth, oae eae eiaeeoeeaoeey a ninoiyiee i?eiyoue
yeiiiie/aneoth aeeiaieeo nioeeaeueii-ioi?ieaiiiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa
eeoue ia?aie/aiii.

Yoi aic?aaeaiea i?ioea aiciiaeiie eaeae eiaeeoeeaoeee ia?auaaony e
a?aoiaioo aeey eiaeeoeeaoeee ?inneeneiai iaeiaiaiai i?aaa, anee
?anniio?aoue aeoeeciia iaeiaiaia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai a caiaaeiuo no?aiao.
A Aa?iaiee eaaeaeue aiae i?ienoiaeyo ianeieueei nioai eciaiaiee
iaeiaiauo caeiiia. Iai?eia?, caeii ia eciaiaiee iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey 1992
aiaea io 25.2.1992 a. niaea?aeeo 125 ioaeaeueiuo eciaiaiee iaeiiai
aaeeinoaaiiiai aeaea iaeiaa. Yoi i?eaaaeao e aua aieueoaio oaino
iaeiaiaia i?aai, a eioi?ii aeaaea naiei yenia?oai ii iaeiaiaiio i?aao
aoaeao o?oaeii ?acia?aoueny.

Niaeanii nia?aiaiiie oece/aneie oai?ee oain iauyniyaony eiiieaeniui, a
ioaeaeueiinoe aaeaa ee ii?aaeaeyaiui acaeiiaeaenoaeai iiiaeanoaa
aeaoa?ieiaioia. Aiai?yo i aeaoa?ieie?iaaiiii oaina. ?acaeoea iaeiaiaiai
i?aaa naycaii ni iiiaeanoaii iauanoaaiiuo eioa?ania, eioi?ua aeeytho ia
iaeiaiaia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai. Iaii?aaeaeaiii e iai?aiaeieeii, eaeea
eioa?anu eaeie iauanoaaiiie a?oiiu eiaaea e n eaeie eioaineaiinoueth
aeeytho ia eaeia eciaiaiea iaeiaiaiai caeiia. Auoaeathuaa ionthaea
oaioe/aneia ?acaeoea iaeiaiaiai i?aaa iniiauaaaony, ai-ia?auo, ia
yeiiiie/aneeo neeao a?oiiiauo eioa?ania. Ai-aoi?uo, oaioe/aneia ?acaeoea
iaeiaiaiai i?aaa aaeaa ee aiciiaeii a ?acoeueoaoa oiai, /oi iaeiaiaia
i?aai ia iiaeao aeinoaoi/ii noaaeeece?iaaoueny a ioiineoaeueii ei?ioeee
i?aaiaie o?aaeeoeee. Aneaaenoaea yoiai yeiiiie/aneea i?aaeea
iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey ioiinyony ii-?aciiio e aeeniiceoeee. Yoi iaaeiionoeii
ia oieueei n yeiiiie/aneie, ii oaeaea e n th?eaee/aneie oi/ee c?aiey.
Yeiiiieea o?aaoao ieaiiaie iaaeaaeiinoe, o?aaoao iai?a?uaiinoe iaeiaiaie
iaa?ocee, /oiau iiaeii auei eaeueeoee?iaaoue ?aoaiey, eioi?ua iiaoo
iiiaaeiaeoueny nionoy iiiaea aiaeu.

Oaioe/iia ?acaeoea iaeiaiaiai i?aaa oaia?ue ia neeiieoue e aeiioaca i
ianiiniaiinoe e oii?yaei/aieth e no?oeoo?a; ec-ca naiae ?aciinoi?iiiae
iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneie aeooaeueiinoe iii iiaeaa?aeaii oece/aneiio
caeiio aeaoa?ieie?iaaiiiai oaina e iiyoiio aai i?aaeea ioi?ieythony
ii-?aciiio. A i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue yoiio oaioe/iia ?acaeoea iaeiaiaiai
i?aaa iiaeaiaeeo ana aeeaea e oi/ea iaoa?ieiinoe, aaea o?aaiaaiea ia
oii?yaei/aiee iaeiaiaiai i?aaa noaiiaeony iaii?iaa?aeeiui. Oaeia
oii?yaei/aiea, ?acaeaathuaany yeiiiie/anee e i?aaeeaaaaiia a i?aaiaii
ainoaea?noaa, iienae Eeaon Oeiea a naiae eieaa “Iaeiaiaue
i?aaiii?yaeie”. Yoa eieaa iieacuaaao, /oi iaeiaiaia i?aai, ianiio?y ia
ana aiaoaoaeuenoaa nioeeaeueii-aeaenoaothuaai caeiiiaeaoaey, nic?aei
aeey eiaeeoeeaoeee, eiaeeoeeaoeey aeaaea iaioeaaaoaeueii iaiaoiaeeia,
/oiau ia?aaeeoue i?aaiaua no?oeoo?u iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey io oaioe/iiai
?acaeoey. Oae Eeaon Oeiea ai iiiaeo ianoao naiaai i?iecaaaeaiey ?aooao
ca aaeeiue eiaeaen iaeiaiauo caeiiia, oaeaea eae e ae?oaie ?ac?aaio/ee
iaeiaiaiai i?aaa, noaeuey iaiaoeeiai oaaea?aeueiiai eiinoeoooeeiiiiai
noaea Iaoeue Ee?ooio. Iaa aaoi?a aeaeyo iieueco a nicaeaiee eiaeaena
iaeiaiauo caeiiia ii aeaoi i?e/eiai. Ai-ia?auo, eiaeaen iaeiaiauo
caeiiia iieacuaaao ia?yaeo n yeiiiie/aneie oaeaea e th?eaee/aneoth
oii?yaei/aiioth no?oeoo?o, iaania/eaaao aaeeioth oa?ieiieiaeth e aeaao
iaeiaiieaoaeueueeo i?aaenoaaeaiea ia iauiinoe aai yeiiiie/aneie
iaa?ocee, aeaeay oai naiui iaeiaiiaeiaeaiea th?eaee/anee yniui.
Ai-aoi?uo, iaoiae eiaeeoeeaoeee i?eianao iaei iieuecu, anee ii aoaeao
i?eiaiyoueny eeoue aeey oiai, /oiau oeo/oeoue i?aai
oi?iaeueii-nenoaiaoe/anee e oa?ieiieiae/anee. Naiia aeaaiia —
oiaiueoeoue iiiaeanoai iiaiaeia e eciaiaieth iaeiaiaiai i?aaa. Eia/a
oi?iaeueii oii?yaei/aiiay no?oeoo?a iaaeieai aoaeao i?i/iie. Iia aoaeao
?aoaoueny aeaaiaea?y aaaaeaieth oae iacuaaaiuo aoeaaiiuo ia?aa?aoia e
ia?aaiaea ?aaoee?iaaiee a niaoeeaeueiua caeiiu.

Eiia/ii ethaay eiaeeoeeaoeey anooiaao a aa oiiae aeaaiaea?y oiio, /oi
i?aai iiaeaa?aeaiii iinoiyiiiio ia?aiauaieth iauanoaaiiuo oeaiiinoae.
Ciaiea oiai, /oi ia i?aai iinoiyiii aicaeaenoaotho ia?aiauaiey
iauanoaaiiuo oeaiiinoae, ia iicaieyao naeaeaoue auaiae, /oi a i?aaa ana
eciaiyaony. *oiau inoaoueny a ea?oeia Aa?aeeeoa, aiaea oa/ao a iioie, ii
ana ?aaii inoaaony aiaeie. Niioaaonoaaiii yoiio, eae o/eo eeanne/aneia
a?aaeaeaineia i?aai, eiaaony iiiaeanoai o/?aaeaeaiee i?aaa, eioi?ua
nio?aiytho naith eiinenoaioeeth a iioiea iauanoaaiiuo oeaiiinoae.
Iinoiyinoai i?aaiauo ii?i iieo/aaony ec nioeeaeueii-iieeoe/aneie
iacaaeneiinoe eo ii?aaaeaiee, eioi?ua ecaeaeatho eo ec iinoiyiiiai
ia?aiauaiey iauanoaaiiuo oeaiiinoae.

Ianeieueei ii?iu iaeiaiaiai i?aaa noaaeeueii eee ianoaaeeueii
iiaeaa?aeaiu nioeeaeueii i?ienoiaeyuei eciaiaieyi, yaeyaony
ooiaeaiaioaeueiui aii?inii. A ?acoeueoaoa iaeiaei onoaiiaeaii, /oi
iaeiaiaia i?aai noeioee?oao a?oiiiaie yaieci ai iiiaeo ianoao. Ai iiiaeo
no?aiao iaeaaaaiue iaeiaaie aeioiae iiae?acaeaeyaony a eaoaeiaa aeaeia
aeioiaeia, /oi aaaeao e oiio, /oi eeoea, caieiathueany eaeei-eeai
i?iiuneii, ?aai/ea, aeiiiaeaaeaeueoeu, iaeiiaeaoaee e o.i. iaeaaathony
iaeiaii niaa?oaiii ii-?aciiio. Iaeiaiaia i?aai i?eia?aoaao ea?oeio
eeanniaiai iauanoaa e, neaaeiaaoaeueii, iiiaaeaao a aiaeiai?io
nioeeaeueii-iieeoe/aneeo noieeiiaaiee, eioi?ua nicaeatho iinoiyiioth
iio?aaiinoue e eciaiaieth iaeiaiauo caeiiia.

Iiyoiio iaeiaiaia i?aai iiaeao noaaeeece?iaaoueny oieueei ia iniiaa
a?oiiiiaeo?aeueiiai iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey e auoue caueuaii io oaioe/iiai
?acaeoey, eioi?ia auoaeaao ec ai?ueau ?acee/iuo iauanoaaiiuo a?oii.
Neaaeiaaoaeueii, aicieeaao iaiaoiaeeiinoue iainiiaaoue iaeiaiaua caeiiu
eo iniiaiuie no?oeoo?aie. Ia ia?aue ieai auaeaeaaaony caaea/a
?aca?oceoue th?eaee/aneoth nenoaio io anao ii?i, iinoaaeoue a
iaauaiaeiia iieiaeaiea eee aea ioaeaoue i?aaeii/oaiea ii?aaeaeaiiui
nioeeaeueiui a?oiiai. Yeiiiie/aneay e th?eaee/aneay nenoaia iaeiaiaiai
i?aaa, aeoaiei ?ac?aaioaiiay i?e o/aoa iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai iiuoa Eeaonii
Oeiea, yaeyaony a?oiiiiaeo?aeueiie. Iia i?aneaaeoao ynioth oeaeue
iaeiaiaiai caeiia – ?ani?aaeaeeoue iaeiaiaua iaa?ocee ?aaiiia?ii ii
e?eoa?eyi yeiiiie/aneiai ieaoaaeaniiniaiinoe. Niioaaonoaaiii yoiio
i?eiaaeeaaeiinoue e ii?aaeaeaiiie nioeeaeueiie a?oiia ia eiaao cia/aiey
aeey ?ani?aaeaeaiey iaeiaiaie iaa?ocee.

Aani?anoaiii ?acaeaathueany iaeiaiaia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai aucuaaao a
iaeiaiieaoaeueueea /oanoai, /oi ainoaea?noai yaeyaony i?iaei?eeaui
eaaeaoaiii, io eioi?iai neaaeoao caueuaoueny. Aiciouaiea oaeei
iieiaeaieai a 1978 aiaeo aucaaei “I?aaeeiaeaiea 13”, ciaiaieoue
eaeeoi?ieeneee aoio. “I?aaeeiaeaiea 13” o?aaiaaei, /oiau iniiaa
ii?aaeaeaiey ?acia?ia e iaeneiaeueiie aaee/eiu iaeiaa auea ii?aaeaeaia
eiinoeoooeeiiii.

Eaeeoi?ieeneea iaeiaiaua ?aaiethoeeiia?u ia oieueei iiaeaee naie
iiioeenoneee aiein i?ioea iaeiaiauo ieaoaaeae. Iie iieacaee, /oi a
i?aaiaii ainoaea?noaa iaeiaiaay nenoaia aeieaeia cae?aieyoueny
eiinoeoooeeiiii. Yoi iio?aaiaaei “Eiinoeoooeeiiioth oai?eth
iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey”, oaaaeeoaeueii iainiiaaiioth Iiaaeaaneei eao?aaoii
Aeaeaeinii Auetheaiaiii. A Aa?iaiee i?aaeaea anaai Eeaon Oiaaeue e Nithc
iaeiaiieaoaeueueeia aunooieee ca eiinoeoooeeiiiia ia?aie/aiea i?aaa
iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey. Oaeea aunooieaiey auee oa?aeoa?iu aeey iiiaeo no?ai a
ia?eiae iaieeaa?aeueiiai aoioa i?ioea ainoaea?noaaiiiai aiaoaoaeuenoaa a
yeiiiieeo.

*ai auoa onoaiaaeeaaaony aa?uea? aeey eciaiaiey iaeiaiauo caeiiia, oai
neeueiaa noaiiaeony iio?aaiinoue a aeaeinoe iaeiaiaiai caeiia /a?ac
i?aaiaua ?anii?yaeaiey. I?aaiaua ?anii?yaeaiey eiatho neeo caeiia. Iie
ecaeathony ia caeiiiaeaoaeueiuie i?aaiaie, a eniieieoaeueiie aeanoueth.
Aeey yoiai i?aaeoaeuenoao ioaeiu /aoeea iieiiii/ey io ia?eaiaioa.
Ia?eaiaio aeieaeai eiioeaio?e?iaaoue naia aieiaiea ia yeiiiie/aneeo
?aoaieyo, eioi?ua i?eaeatho iaeiaiaiio i?aao ii?iaoeaioth no?oeoo?o
oii?yaei/aiey e noaeii?iecaiaenoaa, e eniieieoaeueiay aeanoue a
ninoiyiee i?aaeeueii e iineaaeiaaoaeueii i?eiaiyoue iaeiaiaia i?aai e
?acaeaaoue aai aeaeueoa. Iauanoaaiiay caaea/a ia?eaiaioa — ii
aiciiaeiinoe oi/iia onoaiiaeaiea oeaiiinoae, eioi?ua iieiaeaiu a iniiao
no?oeoo?u oii?yaei/aiey. Ii anoue aii?inu, eioi?ua ii naiae nooe eiatho
eniieieoaeueiue oa?aeoa? e ioiinyony e ?aai/ae iaeanoe i?aaeoaeuenoaa e
ieienoa?noaa oeiainia. I?e yoii iiaoo ?acee/aoueny neaaeothuea aeaeu
i?aaiauo ?anii?yaeaiee.

Eniieieoaeueiua ?anii?yaeaiey neoaeao oiio, /oiau ii?io, iaeia?aiioth
ia?eaiaioii, eaaeoeiii auiieieoue. Ii?iiaeaoaeue ia i?eieiaao iiaiai
?aoaiey. Ii eeoue aeaeaae?oao ia?eaiaioneia ?aoaiea ioiineoaeueii
yiie?e/aneiai iiuoa n i?aeoe/aneei eniieueciaaieai i?aaa. Yiie?e/aneia
iiea ii?iu i?e ia?eaiaioneii ?aoaiee a aeaoaeyo iaiaic?eii, oae eae iii
iinoiyiii eciaiyaony. I?aaeoaeuenoai noaiiaeony oiieiiii/aiiui ii
yeiiiieei-th?eaee/aneiio eniieiaieth ia?eaiaioneiai ?aoaiey a iaeaeaiiii
yiie?e/aneii iiea. Aeey yoiai iieiiii/ey a Aa?iaiee iie?athony ia
neaaeothuea o?e e?eoa?ey: ?aaiiia?iinoue iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey, ono?aiaiea
iani?aaaaeeeainoe a aeanoeeo neo/ayo e oi?iuaiea niiniaa
iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey.

Niaeanothuea ?anii?yaeaiey neoaeao aeey oiai, /oiau ia?eaiaioneoth ii?io
i?eniiniaeoue e oneiaeyi, eioi?ua iinoiyiii iaiythony eee eioi?ua auee
caaeaiu, iaieaey iaeia. I?eia?aie a Aa?iaiee yaeythony iinoaiiaeaiea i
aeeciaiiuo iio?aaiinoyo e iinoaiiaeaiea i iaoa?eaeueiie iiiiue.
Aeaaiaea?y yoei iinoaiiaeaieyi i?aaeoaeuenoai i?eieiaao ai aieiaiea
eciaiaiey i?iaeeoi/iiai ieieioia e ?aaoee?iaaiey ii?i i?aaa,
?aaoee?othueo aii?in ia ieacaiee iaoa?eaeueiie iiiiue. Aeey no?ai n
aunieei o?iaiai eioeyoeee iniaia cia/aiea eiatho oa i?aaiaua
i?aaeienaiey, eioi?ua i?eniinaaeeaatho i?eciaee iaeiaiaiai oaeoe/aneiai
ianoiyoaeuenoaa aeaea e niioaaonoaothuaio eo?no aeaiaa. Noiia
i?iaeeoi/iiai ieieioia, oa?eo iiaeioiaeiiai iaeiaa n iai?ioa
iin?aaenoaii i?aaiauo ?anii?yaeaiee oae aeieaeiu i?eniinaaeeaaoueny e
eciaiaieth eo?na aeaiaa, /oi i?iaeeoi/iue ieieioi inaiaiaeaeaaony io
iiaeioiaeiiai iaeiaa e iaeiaa n iai?ioa e iaeaaaaony i?ia?anneaii
iaeiaii ia aieaa /ai aeaaaeoeaoue i?ioeaioia aeieaeieea iiaeioiaeiiai
iaeiaa.

?anii?yaeaiey, aeiiieiythuea caeii, ia?aie/eaathony ia anaaaea oai, /oi
ia?eaiaioneia ii?iioai?/anoai inouanoaeyaony iooai ?anii?yaeaiee ia
eniieiaiee e niaeanothueo ?anii?yaeaiee. E yoiio “pouvoir reglementaire
complementaire” eeoea, aeathuaai ?anii?yaeaiey, ai iiiaeo no?aiao
“pouvoir reglementaire autonome” aeiaaaeyaony aaoiiiiiia i?aaiii/ea ia
ecaeaiea i?aaiauo ii?i i?aaeoaeuenoaa, eioi?ia aeieaeii o/?aaeaeaoueny
iooai niioaaonoaothuaai iieiiii/ey a caeiia. Noaouey 34 o?aioeocneie
eiinoeoooeee eneeth/aao ec “pouvoir reglementaire autonome” iniiao
iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey, ?acia?u iaeiaa e niinia en/eneaiey iaeiaia. Yoei naiui
i?aaeeueii ii?aaeaeyaony oi?iaeueiue e iaoa?eaeueiue iniiaiie oiiae
iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey eneeth/eoaeueiie eiiiaoaioeee ia?eaiaioa. Eae o?oaeii
ii?aaeaeeoue niioaaonoaothuea ia?aie/aiey, iieacuaaao iaiaoiaeeiinoue
i?eniiniaeoue oa?eoiua ?aoaiey e eioeyoeee. Yoi aeieaeai aeaeaoue
iaiaycaoaeueii ia?eaiaio. Yoi aeaaea a?aaeeo “i?ic?a/iinoe” iaeiaiaie
nenoaiu, anee ia?eaiaio ni?y/ao iaino?aiea iaeiaiaiai oa?eoa a
iaaeinoaoi/iia oa?eoiia niaeaniaaiea. Oaea iiyoiio oa?eoiia niaeaniaaiea
aeieaeii aeaeaae?iaaoueny e eniieieoaeueiie aeanoe, eae yoi e
i?aaeeaaaaony. Ioi?ieaiea oa?eoia iaeiaa noaiiaeony nouanoaaiiui
oaeoi?ii aeey niaeaniaaiey aeioiaea io iaeiaia n iieeoeeie ?anoiaeia e
aeieaia ainoaea?noaa, iioiio /oi iniiau ii?aaeaeaiey ?acia?ia iaeiaa
oii?yaei/eaathony e inaiaiaeaeathony io ii?iea, naycaiiiai n ?acee/iuie
eciaiaieyie.

I?aaiaua ?anii?yaeaiey iiaoo eaaeeoeoee?iaaoueny eae eniieieoaeueiua
?anii?yaeaiey eee niaeanothuea ?anii?yaeaiey, eiia/ii, ni naiaiaeie
ioi?ieaiey, iaiaoiaeeiie aeey niioaaonoaothuaai eniieiaiey eee
niaeaniaaiey ia?eaiaioneie ii?iu. I/aaeaeii, iai?eia?, /oi iieiiii/ey
aeey ii?aaeaeaiey ieieioia, ia iaeaaaaiiai iaeiaii i?e auieaoa
i?ioeaioia, aeieaeai eiaoue ioiineoaeueii aieueooth naiaiaeo aeey
ioi?ieaiey nouanoaaiiiai yeaiaioa iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey i?aaei?eyoey.

Iiaeiaiue i?inoi? aeaenoaee, ianiio?y ia ana ?aciuoeaiey i?ioea
aaoiiiiiiai i?aaiii/ey ia ecaeaiey i?aaiauo aeoia eniieieoaeueiie
aeanoe, iaiaoiaeei, /oiau iiaeii auei nio?aieoue ?aaiiaanea
o?aaoee?iaaiey i?ioeaioia i?e iaeiaiiaeiaeaiee i?aaei?eyoee e
o?aaoee?iaaiea naa?aaeaiee i?e iiaeioiaeiii iaeiaa. I?ioea
ia?aniieiaeaiey aeiaa?youe i?aaeoaeuenoaai iieiiii/ey ia ecaeaiea
i?aaiauo aeoia, neaaeoao aic?aceoue, /oi oae iacuaaaiue “delegated
powers” ai anao i?aaiauo ainoaea?noaao i?eciaaony eae aaconeiaii
iaiaoiaeeiia n?aaenoai aeey aeaeinoe i?aaiii?yaeea. Iai?eia?,
inouanoaeaiea aeaiie?aoe/aneiai i?eioeeia iiaeao nouanoaaiii ia?ooeoue
aeooaeueiia inouanoaeaiea i?aaa, anee iieiiii/ey aeey i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuo
?anii?yaeaiee ia?aie/eaathony aeeeoaeueiinoueth iaeiiai aiaea, eae yoi
iienaii a noaouea 88 oi?aaoneie eiinoeoooeee. Nouanoaaiiui oneiaeai aeey
caeiiiinoe “delegated powers” yaeyaony ea/anoai iieiiii/ey n oi/ee
c?aiey niaea?aeaiey. Aeey yoiai iaiaoeeee iniiaiie caeii ii?aaeaeyao,
/oi a caeiia aeieaeiu auoue ii?aaeaeaiu niaea?aeaiea, oeaeue e ?acia?
iieiiii/ey.

A oneiaeyo noaiiaeaiey iaeiaiaie nenoaiu ?O a?yae ee aiciiaeii
eiaeeoeoee?iaaoue ana iaeiaiaua ii?iu a iaeiii aeieoiaioa, ii
ianoiyoaeueii iaiaoiaeeii i?eiyoue oaaea?aeueiue caeii, eioi?ue aeeth/ee
au a naay iniiaiua iieiaeaiey iauae /anoe iaeiaiaiai i?aaa ?innee. Yoi
iaiaoiaeeii aeey nicaeaiey aaeeiiia?aciie ?aoeeiiaeueiie iaeiaiaie
nenoaiu.

Iaeiae n ianaeaiey

N o/aoii enoi?e/aneeo iniaaiiinoae ia?aciaaiey nia?aiaiiie iaeiaiaie
nenoaiu e iio?aaiinoae iaeiaiaiai ieaie?iaaiey ana nouanoaothuea nae/an
iaeiae iiaeii eeanneoeoee?iaaoue a aeaea neaaeothuae noaiu:

IAEIAE

n iaoo?aeueiie aacie iaeiaeaiey:

iiaeiiiaua iaeiae;

iiaeooaaua iaeiae;

niaoeeoe/aneea oaiiaeaiiua iioeeiu;

ni noieiinoiie aacie iaeiaeaiey:

a) iaeiae ia aaca aaeiaiai aeioiaea:

aeoeecu;

iaeiae n iai?ioa;

oaiiaeaiiua iioeeiu;

iaeiae ia eiouanoai, eaieoaeu e o.ae.;

iaeiae ia i?ioeaiou, aeeaeaeaiaeu e o.ae.;

a) iaeiae ia aaca i/euaiiiai aeioiaea:

ei?ii?aoeeiiiue iaeia;

iaeia ia eiaeeaeaeoaeueiua aeioiaeu;

iaeia ia aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue;

iaeia ia ianeaaenoaa.

Ia?aoiae e nenoaia iaeiaeaiey ia iniiaa i?e?inoa oieueei ninoiyiey
iaeiaiieaoaeueueea iio?aaiaae nicaeaiey oneiaee aeey oiai, /oiau iauay
noiia aceiaaiuo n iaai iaeiaia ia i?aauneea i?aaeaeia yoiai aeioiaea. A
i?ioeii yoiio ia- ?aie/aieth ia i?eaeaaaeinue cia/aiey, ?aciua aeaeu
iaeiaia aaiaeeeenue naie ii naaa, aeaenoaiaaee iainiaeaiii ae?oa io
ae?oaa, iiyoiio noiie?iaaiea aiaoia iaaunieeo noaaie ?aciuo iaeiaia, ii
onoaiaaeeaaaiuo ia aaca aaeiaiai, a ia /enoiai aeioiaea, ia?aaeei
i?eaiaeeei aeey iaeioi?uo eaoaai?ee ianaeaiey e iaeiaeaieth,
i?aauoathuaio aanue iauai ?aaeecoaiuie aeioiaeia e, niioaaonoaaiii, e eo
?aci?aieth e i?ia?anne?othuaio iaieuaieth. Nae/an yoiio oneiaeth
i?aaeaaony aanueia aaaeiia cia/aiea, iniaaiii anee o/anoue, /oi a
iaeioi?uo no?aiao /a?ac iaeiae ia?a?ani?aaeaeyaony aei o?ao iyouo anae
noiiu iaoeeiiaeueiiai aeioiaea. Iiyoiio aeey iaania/aiey yoiai oneiaey
i?eoeinue nicaeaoue iiaua oi?iu acaeiiiai o/aoa ?acee/iuo aeaeia
iaeiaia, e n?aaee ieo iaeaieaa aaaeiia cia/aiea eiaao nenoaia
iiaeioiaeiuo iaeiaia. Yoa nenoaia aeeth/aao a naay ?yae
i?aaeaa?eoaeueiuo, aaainiauo iaeiaia (withholding taxes) e
ieii/aoaeueiue iaeia, a eioi?ii yoe iaeiae noiie?othony iooai oae
iacuaaaiiai iaeiaiaiai e?aaeeoa. A iauai aeaea yoa nenoaia iiaeao auoue
i?aaenoaaeaia neaaeothuei ia?acii:

IAEIAE IA EIAeEAEAeOAEUeIUA AeIOIAeU

Iaeiae ia i?e?ino eaieoaea:

Aeioiaeu io eaieoaea e ae?oaea oeene?iaaiiua aeioiaeu (?aiou e ae?.).

Iaeiae “o enoi/ieea”:

Aeioiaeu io eaieoaea e ae?oaea oeene?iaaiiua aeioiaeu (?aiou e ae?.).

Iaeiae ia i?eauee a ei?ii?aoeaiii naeoi?a aeciana:

Ei?ii?aoeeiiiue iaeia.

Iaeia “o enoi/ieea” ia aeeaeaeaiaeu.

Iaeiae ia ia?ani?aaeaeaiioth /anoue i?eauee.

Iaeiae ia i?eauee iaei?ii?aoeaiiai aeciana e aeioiaeu io o?oaea ca naie
n/ao.

Iaeiae “o enoi/ieea” n ca?aaioiie ieaou:

Ca?aaioiay ieaoa e ae?oaea aeioiaeu io ?aaiou ii iaeio.

Oaeay nenoaia iiaeioiaeiuo iaeiaia, n ecaanoiuie iiaeeoeeaoeeyie,
nouanoaoao ai anao ?acaeouo eaieoaeenoe/aneeo no?aiao. Aaaeouoth ?ieue a
iae ea?aao iaeia ia eiaeeaeaeoaeueiua aeioiaeu (individual income tax),
eioi?ui iaeaaaaony any noiia aeioiaeia eaaeaeiai ioaeaeueiiai
iaeiaiieaoaeueueea (a iaeioi?uo no?aiao aeiioneaaony noiie?iaaiea
aeioiaeia aeey noi?oaeaneeo ia?). Iaeia ia eiaeeaeaeoaeueiua aeioiaeu
aceiaaony ii i?ia?anneaii ?anoouei noaaeai, eioi?ua aeey iaeaieaa
aunieeo aeioiaeia iiaoo aeinoeaaoue 75-80%. Aaainiaua eee
i?aaeaa?eoaeueiua iaeiae aceiathony n ii?aaeaeaiiuo aeaeia aeioiaeia ii
ia?a eo iieo/aiey, o.a. “o enoi/ieea”. Aeey yoeo iaeiaia onoaiiaeaiu
oaa?aeua, oeene?iaaiiua noaaee: aeey i?ioeaioia e aeeaeaeaiaeia iau/ii
25-30%, aeey eeoeaiceiiiuo ieaoaaeae e auieao ii aaoi?neei i?aaai –
10-12% e o.ae. Aeey oaea?aeaiey iaeiaia ec ca?aaioiie ieaou iau/ii
i?eiaiythony niaoeeaeueii ?ac?aaioaiiua oeaeu iaeiaiauo noaaie.

Iiaeioiaeiue iaeia

Iiaeioiaeiue iaeia — iaeei ec naiuo ?ani?ino?aiaiiuo a ie?iaie i?aeoeea
iaeiaia, oiea/eaaaiuo ec ee/iuo aeioiaeia ianaeaiey. A iaoae no?aia ii
yaeyaueny iniiaiui i?yiui iaeiaii, aceiaaiui n oece/aneeo eeoe.
Iinooieaiey iiaeioiaeiiai iaeiaa ninoaaeytho aieaa 10 % anao niae?aaiuo
a no?aia athaeaeaoiuo aeioiaeia e neoaeao en/i/ieeii oi?ie?iaaiey
athaeaeaoia anao o?iaiae.

Ii?yaeie aceiaiey iaeiaa onoaiiaeai Caeiiii ?O io 7 aeaeaa?y 1991 a. «0
iiaeioiaeiii iaeiaa n oece/aneeo eeoe», aeaenoaothuee n eciaiaieyie e
aeiiieiaieyie.

Iaeia aceiaaony n iieo/athueo aeioiae oece/aneeo eeoe (a?aaeaeae ?O,
eeoe aac a?aaeaeainoaa, eiino?aiiuo a?aaeaeai) eae eiathueo iinoiyiiia
ianoi aeeoaeuenoaa a ?innee (o.a. i?iaeeaathueo a ?innee ia iaiaa 183
aeiae a eaeaiaea?iii aiaeo), oae e ia eiathueo aai.

Iieo/aiea aeioiaea yaeyaony iniiaiui i?eciaeii ieaoaeueueea yoiai iaeiaa
e iniiaaieai ?ani?ino?aiaiey ia oece/aneia eeoei aeaenoaey Caeiia ?O io
07.12.91 a.

Iauaeo iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey – niaieoiiue aeioiae, iieo/aiiue oece/aneei
eeoeii a eaeaiaea?iii aiaeo io anao aeaeia aeayoaeueiinoe, ec ?aciuo
enoi/ieeia, eae a aeaiaaeiie, oae e a iaoo?aiueiie oi?ia. Aeioiaeu a
eiino?aiiie aaethoa e a iaoo?aiueiie oi?ia ia?an/eouaathony a ?oaee a
onoaiiaeaiiii caeiiiaeaoaeai ii?yaeea.

O oece/aneeo eeoe, eiathueo a ?O iinoiyiiia ianoi aeeoaeuenoaa, a
niaieoiiue aiaeiaie aeioiae aeeth/athony aeioiaeu, iieo/aiiua eie ec
enoi/ieeia, ?aniieiaeaiiuo e a ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee, e ca aa
i?aaeaeaie, a o oece/aneeo eeoe, ia eiathueo iinoiyiiiai ianoa
aeeoaeuenoaa a ?O, — oieueei ec enoi/ieeia a ?O.

A niaieoiiii aiaeiaii aeioiaea o/eouaathony ia ana n?aaenoaa, iieo/aiiua
oece/anieie eeoeaie a oa/aiea aiaea. Ioaeaeueiua aeioiaeu e iinooieaiey,
ia?a/aiue eioi?uo onoaiiaeai Caeiiii, ia aeeth/athony a niaieoiiue
aeioiae. Yoi: ainoaea?noaaiiua iiniaey (ca eneeth/aieai iiniaee ii
a?aiaiiie iao?oaeiniiniaiinoe), ?acee/iiai ?iaea eiiiainaoeeiiiua
auieaou (i?e oaieueiaiee, ia?aacaea ia ?aaioo a ae?oaoth ianoiinoue,
?iaeeoaeyi e aeaiai iiaeaoeo aiaiiineoaeaueo e ae?.) e ana aeaeu iainee,
ia/eneaiiua e auiea/eaaaiua a niioaaonoaee n caeiiiaeaoaeuenoueii ?O;
iieo/aiiua aeeiaiou; i?ioeaiou e auea?uoe ii aeeaaeai a e?aaeeoiuo
i?aaiecaoeeyo a ?O, ii ainoaea?noaaiiui eacia/aeneei iaycaoaeuenoaai,
iaeeaaoeeyi e ae?oaei ainoaea?noaaiiui oeaiiui aoiaaai ?O, ?aaeiiia, a
oaeaea iaeeaaoeeyi e oeaiiui aoiaaai, auiouaiiui i?aaiaie ianoiiai
naiioi?aaeaiey; eiouanoai, iieo/aiiia io oece/aneio eeoea a ii?yaeea
ianeaaeiaaiey eee aea?aiey; noiiu, iieo/aiiua io i?iaeaaee nianoaaiieeii
aai eiouanoaa: eaa?oe?, aeeeuo aeiiia, aea/, naaeiauo aeiieeia,
caiaeueiuo o/anoeia e caiaeueiuo iaaa (aeieae) a /anoe, ia i?aaueoathuae
5000-e?aooe ieieiaeueiue ?acia? iieaou o?oaea; e inaaeueiiai eiouanoaa –
a /anoe, ia i?aaueoaathuae 1000-e?aoiue ieieiaeueiue ?acia? iieaou
o?oaea; aeioiaeu /eaiia e?anoueyineiai oicyenoaa, iieo/aaiua a oii
oicyenoaa io naeueneioicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe, – a oa/aiea 5 eao,
ia/eiay n aiaea ia?aciaaiey oicyenoaa; noeiaiaeee nooaeaioia, anie?aioia
ainoaea?noaaiiuo aocia, o/aueony n?aaeieo niaoeeaeueiuo e
i?ioanneiiaeueii-oaoie/aneeo o/aaiuo caaaaeaiee, neooaoaeae aeooiaiuo
o/aaiuo caaaaeaiee, auiea/eaaaiua ei yoeie caaaaeaieyie eee
o/?aaeaeaaiua aeaaioai?eoaeueiuie oiiaeaie; noeiaiaeee eeoe,
iao/athueony ii iai?aaeaieth i?aaiia neoaeau caiyoinoe, auiea/eaaaiua ec
Ainoaea?noaaiiiai oiiaea caiyoinoe ianaeaiey ?O; aeioiaeu o/aueony
aeiaaiie oi?iu iao/aiey aunoeo, n?aaeieo niaoeeaeueiuo,
i?ioanneiiaeueii-oaoie/aneeo, iauaia?aciaaoaeueiuo o/aaiuo caaaaeaiee,
neooaoaeae aeooiaiuo o/aaiuo caaaaeaiee, anie?aioia, o/aaiuo
i?aeeiaoi?ia, eioa?iia, iieo/aiiua a nayce n: a)
o/aaii-i?iecaiaenoaaiiui i?ioeannii; a) ca ?aaiou ii oai?ea
naeueoiceoeueoo? e caaioiaea ei?iia; a) ca ?aaiou, auiieiyaiua a ia?eiae
eaieeoe (ia aieaa 3 ianyoeaa a aiaeo), a /anoe, ia i?aauoathuae
10-e?aoiiai ieieiaeueiiai ?acia?a iieaou o?oaea ca eaaeaeue eaeaiaea?iue
ianyoe, a eioi?ii iieo/ai aeioiae, e ae?.

Iiaeioiaeiue iaeia en/eneyaony n iieo/aiiiai a eaeaiaea?iii aiaeo
iaeaaaaiiai niaieoiiiai aeioiaea. Iaeaaaaiue niaieoiiue aeioiae yaeyaony
/anoueth, ia?acothuaeny iinea oiaiueoaiey niaieoiiiai aiaeiaiai aeioiaea
ia aeioiaeu, ia?a/aiue eioi?uo onoaiiaeai Caeiiii. Yoe noiiu oaycaiu a
iniiaiii n oaeoi?aie nioeeaeueiie iai?aaeaiiinoe, iai?eia?, caneoae
ia?aae iauanoaii, eiaaeeaeiinoue, iaee/ea eaeaeeaaioeaa e ae?oaea; e a
yoie /anoe iinyo oa?aeoa? iaeiaiauo eueaio.

Aeey en/eneaiey iaeaaaaiiai niaieoiiiai aiaeiaiai aeioiaea iieo/aiiue a
eaeaiaea?iii aiaeo niaieoiiue aeioiae oiaiueoaaony ia:

1. Noiio iaiaeaaaaiiai ieieioia aeioiaeia. Aaee/eia iaiaeaaaaiiai
ieieioia aeeooa?aioee?oaony caeiiiaeaoaeai ii eaoaai?eyi ieaoaeueueeia e
onoaiaaeeaaaony ia o?iaia:

a) iaeneiaeuiiai ?acia?a iaeaaaaiiai aiaeiaiai aeioiaea, n eioi?iai
iaeia en/eneyaony ii ieieiaeueiie noaaea — aeey eeoe, iieo/eaoeo eee
ia?aianoeo eo/aaoth aieaciue, ae?oaea caaieaaaiey, naycaiiua n
?aaeeaoeeiiiui aicaeaenoaeai, noaaoeo ei- aaeeaeaie e ae?oaeo eeoe,
oeacaiiuo a Caeiia, eioi?ua iiaeaa?aeenue aicaeaenoaeth ?aaeeaoeee
aneaaenoaea eaoano?iou ia *a?iiaueueneie AYN; aaa?ee ia II «Iaye» a 1957
a. e na?inia ?aaeeiaeoeaiuo iooiaeia a ?aeo Oa/a; aeey eeoe,
iaiin?aaenoaaiii o/anoaiaaaoeo: a eniuoaieyo yaea?iiai i?oaeey a
aoiinoa?a e iiae caieae, a ?aaioao ii nai?ea yaea?iuo ca?yaeia aei
31.12.61 a.; a eeeaeaeaoeee ?aaeeiaeoeaiuo aaa?ee ia aiaiiuo iauaeoao e
ae?.;

a) iyoe ieieiaeueiueth ?acia?ia iieaou o?oaea ca eaaeaeue iieiue ianyoe,
a oa/aiea eioi?iai iieo/ai aeioiae — aeey Aa?iaa Niaaoneiai Nithca e
Aa?iaa ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee, eeoe, iaa?aaeaeaiiuo i?aeaiii Neaau o?ao
noaiaiae; eiaaeeaeia e o/ano- ieeia Aaeeeie Ioa/anoaaiiie e
a?aaeaeaineie aiei; eeoe, iaoiaeeaoeony a Eaieia?aaea a ia?eiae
aeieaaeu; eiaaeeaeia n aeaonoaa, a oathea eiaaeeaeia 1 e I a?oii; eeoe,
ioaeaaoeo nieiiie iica aeey nianaiey aeecie ethaeae, iino?aaeaaoeo
aneaaenoaea /a?iiaueueneie e ae?oaeo yaea?iuo eaoano?io, e ae?.;

a) o?ao ieieiaeuiuo ?acia?ia iieaou o?oaea ca eaaeaeue iieiue ianyu, a
oa/aiea eioi?iai iieo/ai aeioiae — aeey ?iaeeoaeae e noi?oaia
aiaiiineoaeaueo, iiaeaoeo aneaaenoaea ?aiaiey, eiioocee eee oaa/uey,
iieo/aiiuo i?e caueoa NNN?, ?O eee i?e eniieiaiee eiuo iaycaiiinoae
aiaiiie neoaeau; aeey ?iaeeoaeae e noi?oaia ainoaea?noaaiiuo neoaeaueo,
iiaeaoeo i?e eniieiaiee neoaeaaiuo iaycaiiinoae; aeey iaeiiai ec
?iaeeoaeae (ii auai?o), noi?oaa, iiaeoia eee iiia/eoaey, ia niaea?aeaiee
eioi?iai iaoiaeeony i?iaeeaathuee n iei eiaaeeae n aeaonoaa eee eiaaeeae
1 a?oiiu; eiaaeeaeia O a?oiiu, eiathueo ia eaeaeeaaiee i?anoa?aeuo
?iaeeoaeae eee ianiaa?oaiiieaoieo aeaoae;

a) ieieiaeueiiai ?acia?a iieaou o?oaea ca eaaeaeue iieiue ianyoe, a
oa/aiea eioi?iai iieo/ai aeioiae — aeey iniiaiie iannu
iaeiaiieaoaeueueeia, ia aoiaeyueo a auoaia?a/eneaiiua eaoaai?ee.

I?e iaee/ee i?aaa ia oiaiueoaiea aeioiaea ii ianeieueeei
auoaiaicia/aiiui iniiaaieyi au/aou i?iecaiaeyony ii iniiaaieth,
i?aaeoniao?eaathuaio aieaa aunieoth noiio iaiaeaaaaiiai ieieioia.

2. Noiio ?anoiaeia ia niaea?aeaiea aeaoae e eaeaeeaaioeaa, ?aaioth
ieieiaeueiiio ?acia?o iieaou o?oaea ca eaaeaeue ianyoe, a oa/aiea
eioi?iai iieo/ai aeioiae, ia eaaeaeiai ?aaaiea e eaeaeeaaioea — aeey
noi?oaia, aaeiau, aaeiaoea, iaeeiieiai ?iaeeoaey, iiaeoia, iiia/eoaey.

3. Noiio aeioiaeia, ia?a/eneaiioth oece/aneeie eeoeaie ia
aeaaioai?eoaeueiua oeaee i?aaei?eyoeyi, o/?aaeaeaieyi e i?aaiecaoeeyi
eoeueoo?u, ia?aciaaiey, cae?aaiio?aiaiey e nioeeaeueiiai iaania/aiey.

4. Noiiu, oaea?aeaiiua a Iaineiiiue oiiae ?O.

5. Noiiu, iai?aaeaiiua oece/aneeie eeoeaie a oa/aiea io/aoiiai
eaeaiaea?iiai aiaea, ii ia aieaa /ai a oa/aiea o?ao eao, ec eo ee/iuo
aeioiaeia ia iiaia no?ieoaeuenoai eee i?eia?aoaiea aeeeiai aeiia eee
eaa?oe?u, eee aea/e, eee naaeiaiai aeiieea ia oa??eoi?ee ?O a i?aaeaeao
5000-e?aoiiai I?IO, o/eouaaaiiai ca aiae, aeeth/ay noiiu, iai?aaeaiiua
ia iiaaoaiea iieo/aiiuo ia yoe oeaee e?aaeeoia e i?ioeaioia ii iei. Yoe
noiiu ia iiaoo i?aauoaoue ?acia?a niaieoiiiai aeioiaea oece/aneeo yeoe
ca io/aoiue eaeaiaea?iue aiae.

6. Noiiu aeia?iaieueiuo iiaea?oaiaaiee a ecae?aoaeueiua oiiaeu
eaiaeeaeaoia a aeaiooaou i?aaiia ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe ?O, noauaeoia
?O e i?aaiia ianoiiai naiioi?aaeaiey, aia?aua oi?ie?oaiuei iinea
i?eiyoey Eiinoeoooeee ?O 1993 a., a i?aaeaeao, onoaiiaeaiiuo Caeiiii.

7. Noiiu aeieoiaioaeueii iiaeoaa?aeaeaiiuo oece/aneuie eeoeaie ca
eneeth/aieai ia eiathueo iinoiyiiiai ianoa aeeoaeuenoaa a ?O ?anoiaeia,
iaiin?aaenoaaiii naycaiiuo n ecaea/aieai aeioiaea io auiieiaiey ?aaio ii
a?aaeaeainei-i?aaiaui aeiaiai?ai e aeioiaea io i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie
aeayoaeueiinoe.

Noaaee iaeiaa aeeooa?aioee?othony a caaeneiinoe io ?acia?a iaeaaaaiiai
niaieoiiiai aiaeiaiai aeioiaea oece/aneeo eeoe. N iiiaioa i?eiyoey
Caeiia iie iiiaie?aoii iaiyeenue: aue nieaeai ?acia? iaeneiaeueiie
noaaee n 60 aei 30 i?ioeaioia, nie?auaia oeaea aeeooa?aioeeaoeee noaaie
– n 7 aei 3 nooiaiae, oaaee/ai a 238 ?ac ?acia? aeioiaea, n eioi?iai
iaeia aceiaaony ii ieieiaeueiie noaaea.

Niaeanii i?eeaco Ainiaeianeoaeau io 26 aeaeaa?y 1998 a. i?eiaiythony
neaaeothuea noaaee iaeiaa: aei 20000 ?oaeae — 12 %; io 20001 ?oa. aei
40000 ?oa. — 2400 + 15 % n noiiu i?aauoathuae 20000 ?oa.; io 40001 ?oa.
aei 60000 ?oa. — 5400 ?oa.+ 20 % n noiiu, i?aauoathuae 40000 ?oa.; n
60001 ?oa. aei 80000 ?oa. — 9400 ?oa. + 25 % n noiiu, i?aauoathuae 60000
?oa.; n 80001 aei 100000 ?oa. — 14400 ?oa. + 30 % n noiiu, i?aauoathuae
80000 ?oa.; io 100001 e auoa — 20400 + 35 % n noiiu, i?aauuathuae 100000
?oaeae. A i?iaeoa Iaeiaiaiai eiaeaena i?aaeoniio?aia aieaa i?inoay
oeaea. Iiaeioiaeiue iaeia n noiiu aei 60000 ?oaeae ninoaaeyao 12 %, n
noiiu aieaa 60000 ?oaeae — 7000 ?oa. + 30 % n noiiu, i?aauoathuae 60000
?oaeae.

Onoaiaaeeaay iauea i?eioeeiu iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey, aaeeiue ii?yaeie
ii?aaeaeaiey niaieoiiiai aiaeiaiai aeioiaea e iaeaaaaiie aai /anoe,
caeii a oi aea a?aiy cae?aieyao iaeioi?ua iniaaiiinoe aceiaiey iaeiaa ii
ioaeaeueiui a?oiiai aeioiaeia. Auaeaeyaony iaeiaiiaeiaeaiea aeioiaeia,
iieo/aaiuo ca auiieiaiea o?oaeiauo e eiuo i?e?aaiaiiuo e iei
iaycaiiinoae ii ianoo iniiaiie ?aaiou, neoaeau, o/aau. Caeanue
onoaiiaeaiu neaaeothuea iniaaiiinoe: en/eneaiea e oaea?aeaiea iaeiaa
aiceaaaaony ia i?aaei?eyoea, o/?aaeaeaiea, i?aaiecaoeeth; a niaieoiiue
aeioiae oece/aneiai eeoea aeeth/athony ana aeioiaeu, iieo/aiiua ei ii
ianoo iniiaiie ?aaiou, eae io auiieiaiey o?oaeiauo iaycaiiinoae, oae e
ii niaianoeoaeuenoao, e io ?aaio ii a?aaeaeainei-i?aaiaui aeiaiai?ai.
Iaeia en/eneyaony n iaeaaaaiiai niaieoiiiai aeioiaea, i?iecaiaeyony ana
i?aaeoniio?aiiua Caeiiii au/aou i?e oneiaee i?aaenoaaeaiey iaiaoiaeeiuo
aeieoiaioia. Iaeia en/eneyaony e oaea?aeeaaaony aaeaiany/ii ii aeioiaeo,
iieo/aiiiio n ia/aea eaeaiaea?iiai aiaea, n ca/aoii ?aiaa oaea?aeaiiie
noiiu iaeiaa.

Caeii auaeaeyao iaeiaiaeiaeaiea aeioiaeia, iieo/aaiuo ia ii ianoo
iniiaiie ?aaiou, neoaeau, o/aau. Nthaea ioiinyony ethaua aeioiaeu, a oii
/enea io i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe, iieo/aaiua oece/aneeie
eeoeaie io ae?oaeo i?aaei?eyoee, o/?aaeaeaiee, i?aaiecaoeee eee
oece/aneeo eeoe, ca?aaeno?e?iaaiiuo a ea/anoaa i?aaei?eieiaoaeae,
ia?yaeo n aeioiaeaie ii iniiaiiio ianoo ?aaiou. Caeanue, eae e a ia?aie
a?oiia aeioiaeia, iaycaiiinoue en/eneaiey e oaea?aeaiey iaeiaa eaaeeo ia
enoi/ieea auieaou aeioiaea; caeanue oaeaea iaeia en/eneyaony e
oaea?aeeaaaony aaeaiany/ii n iauae noiiu aeioiaea, ia/eneaiiiai n ia/aea
aiaea, ii ec iineaaeiae a ea/anoaa au/aoa, eneeth/athony oieueei noiiu,
oaea?aeaiiua a Iaineiiiue oiiae ?O.

Oaeaea auaeaeyaony iaeiaiiaeiaeaiea aeioiaeia io i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie
aeayoaeueiinoe e ae?oaeo aeioiaeia. Nthaea ioiinyony iieo/aaiua a
oa/aiea eaeaiaea?iiai aiaea: aeioiaeu oece/aneeo eeoe,
ca?aaeno?e?iaaiiuo a ea/anoaa i?aaei?eieiaoaeae aac ia?aciaaiey
th?eaee/aneiai eeoea; aeioiaeu eeoe, ia eiathueo iniiaiiai ianoa ?aaiou
(neoaeau, o/aau), io i?aaei?eyoee, o/?aaeaeaiee, i?aaiecaoeee e
oece/aneeo eeoe ni- aeanii aeiaiai?ai a?aaeaeainei-i?aaiaiai oa?aeoa?a;
aeioiaeu io naea/e aiaai eee a a?aiaeo aeaeaeeiiai e iaaeaeaeeiiai
eiouanoaa; aeioiaeu ec enoi/ieeia ca i?aaeaeaie ?O, iieo/aaiua eeoeaie,
eiathueie iinoiyiiia ianoi aeeoaeuenoaa a ?O; ae?oaea aei- oiaeu, ia
aeeth/aaiua a ia?aua aeaa a?oiiu.

A yoie a?oiia aeioiaeia i?aaeoniio?aiu neaaeothuea neooaoeee.
TH?eaee/aneea eeoea e oece/aneea eeoea, ca?aaeno?e?iaaiiua a ea/anoaa
i?aaei?eieiaoaeae, i?iecaiaeyo en/eneaiea e oaea?aeaiea iaeiaa i?e
auieaoa aeioiaeia eeoeai ca ?aaioo ii a?aaeaeainei-i?aaiaui aeiaiai?ai.
Iaeiae n aeioiaeia ec ae?oaeo enoi/ieeia en/eneythony ia- eiaiauie
i?aaiaie ia iniiaa i?aaenoaaeyaiuo ei iaeiaiieaoaeueueeaie aeaeea?aoeee
i i?aaeiieaaaaiuo a oaeouai aiaeo aeioiaeao e oiea/eaathony aaainiauie
ieaoaaeaie a o?e n?iea – e 15 ethey, e 15 aaaonoa e e 15 iiya?y niaeanii
ieaoaaeiui ecaauaieyi iaeiaiauo i?aaiia. Eeoea, iieo/athuea aeioiaeu
y/ie a?oiiu, iaycaiu a oa/aiea aiaea aanoe o/ao iieo/aiiuo aeioiaeia e
i?iecaaaeaiiuo ?anoiaeia, naycaiiuo n iieo/aieai yoeo aeioiaeia. Ii
ieii/aiee aiaea, iie ia iicaeiaa 1 ai?aey i?aaenoaaeytho a iaeiaiaue
i?aai aeaeea?aoeeth i oaeoe/anee iieo/aiiuo aeioiaeao e ?anoiaeao ca
aiae, enoi/ieeao eo iieo/aiey e noiiao ia/eneaiiiai e oiea/aiiiai
iaeiaa. I?e en/eneaiee iaeiaa ii oaeoe/anee iieo/aiiui aeioiaeai ec
niaieoiiiai aiaeiaiai aeioiaea iaeiaiauie i?aaiaie i?iecaiaeyony au/aou
noii aeieoiaioaeueii iiaeoaa?aeaeaiiuo ?anoiaeia i?eiaieoaeueii e
ninoaao cao?ao, aeeth/aaiuo a naaanoieiinoue i?iaeoeoeee ?aaio, oneoa,
ii?aaeaeyaiuo I?aaeoaeuenoaii ?O e ae?oaea au/aou, i?aaeoniio?aiiua
Caeiiii, anee iie ia auee o/oaiu i?e iaeiaiiaeiaeaiee ii ianoo iniiaeie
?aaiou.

?acieoea iaaeaeo noiiie iaeiaa, en/eneaiiie iaeiaiaui i?aaiii ii
aeioiaeai i?ioaaeoaai aiaea, e noiiie iaeiaa, oiea/aiiie ieaoaeueueeii a
oa/aeea aiaea, iiaeeaaeeo acuneaieth n ieaoaeueueea (eee aica?aoo aio)
ia iicaeiaa 15 ethey aiaea, neaaeothuaai ca i?ioaaeoei.

Iiaeioiaeiue iaeia ea?aao aaaeouoth ?ieue a i?yiii iaeiaiiaeiaeaiee
?acaeaathueony no?ai. Ii aceiaaony eae n a?aaeaeai, oae e n eiiiaiee. A
?aciuo no?aiao ii eiaao ?acee/iua iaeiaiiaaiey: iaeia ia
oi?aiai-i?iiuoeaiioth i?eaueue, iaeia ia ca?aaioioth ieaoo, iaeia n
eiiiaiee e oae aeaeaa. A eaaeaeie no?aia ii yoiio iaeiao i?eieiaaony
iiiaeanoai iii?aaie e eciaiaiee, iaiaeiie?aoii o?ainoi?ie?othony oneiaey
aeaenoaey aeaiiiai iaeiaa, ii iniiaiua i?eciaee aai inoathony
iaeciaiiuie. A iaeiaiaie i?aeoeea aeaenoaotho aeaa nenoaiu iino?iaiey
iiaeioiaeiiai iaeiaa: oaaeoey?iay e aeiaaeueiay. ?acee/ea yoeo nenoai
naiaeeony e neaaeothuaio. I?e oaaeoey?iie nenoaia ana aeioiaeu a
caaeneiinoe io enoi/ieeia iiae?acaeaeythony ia /anoe (oaaeoeu), i?e yoii
eaaeaeue aeae aeioiaea iaeaaaaony ioaeaeueii ii naiei noaaeai. I?e
aeiaaeueiie nenoaia iaeia en/eneyaony e aceiaaony ni anae niaieoiiinoe
aeioiaeia, iacaaeneii io eo enoi/ieea.

I?e oaaeoey?iie nenoaia ?acee/iua aeaeu aeioiaeia iiaoo iaeaaaoueny
aaeeiui iiaeioiaeiui iaeiaii eee ianeieueeeie naiinoiyoaeueiuie. A
ia?aii neo/aa aoaeao aeaenoaiaaoue aaeeiue caeii i iiaeioiaeiii iaeiaa,
ai aoi?ii – ianeieueei caeiiia ii iiaeioiaeiiio iaeiaeaieth. Oaeei
ia?acii, i?e oaaeoey?iie nenoaia ieaoaeueuee oaeoe/anee iiaeao
oiea/eaaoue ianeieueei iiaeioiaeiuo iaeiaia a caaeneiinoe io
?aciiia?acey aai aeioiaeia. Yoa nenoaia i?inoa ii o/aoo aeioiaeia e
en/eneaieth n ieo iaeiaia, a, cia/eo, aieaa aeinooiia
iaeiaiieaoaeueueeo; iia au?aaeaao nouiinoue oai?ee nioeeaeueiie
ni?aaaaeeeainoe a iaeiaiiaeiaeaiee, oae eae eaaeaeue aeae aeioiaea
iaeaaaaony aeeooa?aioee?iaaii. Ii a oi aea a?aiy oaaeoey?iay nenoaia
o?aaoao aieaa iiiai/eneaiiiai iaeiaiaiai aiia?aoa aac aunieie
eaaeeoeeaoeee.

Aeiaaeueiay nenoaia iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey ?ann/eoaia ia aieaa
eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiue aiia?ao, oae eae i?e aeaiiii en/eneaiee iaeiaia
i?iecaiaeeony iiiai iiaen/aoia, /oi o?aaoao i?eaea/aiey aieueoiai /enea
eiiiuethoa?iie oaoieee, ii caoi i?e yoie nenoaia i?ienoiaeeo
iaacee/eaaiea enoi/ieeia aeioiaeia iaeiaiieaoaeueueeia.

?acaeaathueany no?aiu a aieueoeinoaa naiai i?eiaiytho oaaeoey?ioth
nenoaio eae aieaa oeaeaniia?acioth a eo oneiaeyo. Oae, a caeiia i
iiaeioiaeiii iaeiaa Iaiaea, i?eiyoii a 1963 aiaeo ia?a/eneythony
neaaeothuea enoi/ieee aeioiaeia:

oi?aiaey;

ca?aaioiay ieaoa;

i?ioanneiiaeueiay aeayoaeueiinoue;

aeaiaaeiay eee ?aaeueiay eiaanoeoeey;

caieaaeaeea;

a?aiaea aeiiia e caiee;

no?aoiaay aeayoaeueiinoue;

iin?aaeie/anoai eae i?ioanney;

ae?oaea.

Ii eaaeaeie oaaeoea aea±ony iiae?iaiia iauyniaiea. Ia?a/eneaiiua oaaeoeu
yaeythony oeie/iuie e aeey ae?oaeo no?ai. A iaeioi?uo ainoaea?noaao
i?eiaiyaony niaoaiiay nenoaia, eiaaea ioaeaeueiua aeaeu aeioiaeia
iaeaaathony naiinoiyoaeueii, a iaeioi?ua ec ieo iauaaeeiythony a iauoth
a?oiio. A yoii neo/aa iaeiaiieaoaeueueeii iaycaoaeueii ninoaaeyaony
aeaeea?aoeey.

A Aeaee?a iiaeioiaeiue iaeia aunooiaao a aeaea iaeiaa n ca?aaioiie ieaou
e aeiiieieoaeueiiai iaeiaa ia aeioiae a oeaeii. Ia?aue oiea/eaaaony
oieueei a?aaeaeaiaie, aoi?ie – oece/aneeie e th?eaee/aneeie eeoeaie.
Ieaoaeueueeaie iiaeioiaeiiai iaeiaa a Aaeioa yaeythony eeoea,
iieo/athuea aeioiaeu ia oa??eoi?ee aeaiiie no?aiu, iacaaeneii io ianoa
iinoiyiiiai i?iaeeaaiey. Noaaea iaeiaa caaeneo io ?acia?ia aeioiaea,
naiaeiiai iieiaeaiey ieaoaeueueea (oieino,aaeiaaoe eee aeaiao) e
eiee/anoaa eaeaeeaaioeaa.

Ieaoaeueueeaie iiaeioiaeiiai iaeiaa a Aoaaienoaia yaeythony oi?aiaoeu,
eonoa?e, ?aianeaiieee, /anoiua i?aaei?eieiaoaee. N eoioeia aceiaaony
iaeia ii noaaeai a ?acia?a io 4% aei 60% a caaeneiinoe io ?acia?a eo
aeioiaea e aeaea aeayoaeueiinoe.

Oeneaeueiia cia/aiea iiaeioiaeiiai iaeiaa n a?aaeaeai a ?acaeaathueony
no?aiao iaaaeeei, oaeaeueiue aan aai a athaeaeaoa iacia/eoaeai.
Iai?eia?, ana i?yiua iaeiae a athaeaeaoa Aoaaienoaia ninoaaeee a 1984/85
oeiainiaii aiaeo 11,9% io aioo?aiieo aeioiaeia. Aeaaiay i?e/eia – ieceee
o?iaaiue aeioiaeia iiaeaaeythuaai aieueoeinoaa ianaeaiey. E oiio aea a
?acaeaathueony no?aiao aeinoaoi/ii aunie iaiaeaaaaiue ieieioi. Ii
eneeth/aao ec iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey ia oieueei o?oaeiaua neie ianaeaiey n
ieceeie aeioiaeaie, ii aeaaea e n?aaeiea neie iauanoaa.

I?eia?ii oaeiai iieiaeaiey iiaeao neoaeeoue iiaeioiaeiue iaeia Eiaeee,
i?eiyoue a 1961 aiaeo. Ii yaeyaony aaeeiui iaeiaii aeey a?aaeaeai e
th?eaee/aneeo eeoe. En/eneyaony ii oaaeoey?iie nenoaia, anaai oaaeoe a
iaeiaa – 11. Aai iauaeou iaeiaeaiey iiae?acaeaeythony ia ca?aaioaiiua
aeioiaeu (ca?aaioiay ieaoa, aeioiaeu io i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie e eiie
i?ioanneiiaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe) e iaca?aaioaiiua (aeioiaeu io oeaiiuo
aoiaa). Yoio iaeia ia ioaaouaaao aieueoeinoaa ?aai/eo e neoaeaueo, aai
ieaoaeueueeaie yaeythony iaiaa 3% ianaeaiey. Ca?aaioiay ieaoa ?aai/eo e
neoaeaueo eieaaeaony io 150 aei 4000 ?oiee, a oi a?aiy, eae iaiaeaaaaiue
ieieioi a Eiaeee aeinoaoi/ii aunie e ninoaaeyao 10 000 ?oiee. Ethaie
aeioiae ieaea yoie noiiu ia iiaeeaaeeo iaeiaiiaeiaeaieth. Aeioiaeu nauoa
25 ouny/ ?oiee iaeaaathony ii noaaea a 30%. Iaeneiaeueiay noaaea a 66%
i?eiaiyaony e aeioiaeai nauoa 100 ouny/ ?oiee. I?aeoe/anee yoi icia/aao,
/oi ieaoaeueueeaie iiaeioiaeiiai iaeiaa a Eiaeee yaeythony eeoea,
caieiathueany i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoueth. Aeaenoaothuei
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii i?aaeoniao?eaaaony aeiaieueii oe?ieee ia?a/aiue
aeioiaeia, eneeth/aiiuo ec iaeiaeaiey yoei iaeiaii. E iei ioiinyony
aeioiaeu io naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa, eioa?aeiua auea?uoe ia
nauoa 1000 ?oiee, i?ioeaiou n aeeaaeia a naa?aaaoaeueiuo eannao, iainee,
noeiaiaeee, auoiaeiua e ae?oaea iiniaey. Ii eueaioiui noaaeai
iaeaaathony aeioiaeu ianaeaiey ec ?aeiiia, ioiinyueony e aaaeiui.

Iiaeooiue iaeia aeaenoaoao a iaeioi?uo inaiaiaeeaoeony no?aiao, aeaaiui
ia?acii ao?eeaineeo e a?aaneeo. Yoei iaeiaii iaeaaaaony “aeooa”, oi
anoue oece/aneia eeoei, iacaaeneii io aai aeioiaea eee eiouanoaa. A
oneiaeyo eieiieaeecia aeaiiue iaeia auioaeaeae ao?eeaioeaa o?oaeeoueny a
ea/anoaa iaaiiie ?aai/ae neeu. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneia cia/aiea iiaeooiiai iaeiaa eciaieeinue. Aai
oeneaeueiia cia/aiea oaia?ue iaaaeeei, ii aieueoa auiieiyao ooieoeee
aaeieieno?aoeaiiai oa?aeoa?a, iicaieyao o/eouaaoue ianaeaiea a ai?iaeao
e ae?oaeo ianoiinoyo, a oaeaea aai ia?aaeaeaeaiea. Eeoeo, oieaoeaoaio
iiaeooiue iaeia, a?o/aaony iaeiaiaia naeaeaoaeuenoai, aeathuaa aio i?aai
ia aeeth/aiea a ?aano? ecae?aoaeae, iieueciaaiea iaaeeoeeineeie
o/?aaeaeaieyie, aai aeaoe iieo/atho aiciiaeiinoue o/eoueny a ianoiuo
oeieao. Ieaoaeueueeaie iiaeooiiai iaeiaa yaeythony, eae i?aaeei, oieueei
ioae/eiu. En/eneyaony ii ii oa±?aeui noaaeai ec aiaeiaiai ?an/aoa aeey
?aaioathueo e aac?aaioiuo ioaeaeueii, aceiaaony ii ianoiie iieeoeeae e
iinooiaao a ianoiue athaeaeao.

Iaeiae ia eiouanoai oece/aneeo eeoe

Iaeiae ia eiouanoai oece/aneeo eeoe — aua iaeei aeae iaeiaia n
ianaeaiey. Ii?yaeie aceiaiey iaeiaia onoaiiaeai Caeiiii ?O io 9 aeaeaa?y
1991 a. «0 iaeiaao ia eiouanoai oece/aneeo eeoe», aeaenoaothuei iuia n
eciaiaieyie e aeiiieiayeyie.

Ieaoaeueueeaie iaeiaia yaeythony a?aaeaeaia ?O, eiino?aiiua a?aaeaeaia e
eeoea aac a?aaeaeainoaa, eiathuea ia oa??eoi?ee ?O a nianoaaiiinoe
eiouanoai, ioianaiiia caeiiii e iauaeoai iaeiaeaiey.

Caeii auaeaeyao eiouanoai aeaoo a?oii.

A ia?aoth a?oiio aeeth/aaony iaaeaeaeeiinoue a aeaea aeeeuo aeiiia,
eaa?oe?, aea/, aa?aaeae e eiuo no?iaiee, iiiauaiee e nii?oaeaiee; ai
aoi?oth – iaeioi?ua aeaeu o?ainii?oiuo n?aaenoa, a eiaiii: aa?oieaou,
naiieaou, oaieioiaeu, yoou, eaoa?a; iioinaie, iioi?iua eiaeee e ae?oaea
(a oii /enea ia eiathuea aeaeaaoaeae) o?ainii?oiua n?aaenoaa e?iia
aaoiiiaeeae, iioioeeeeia, ae?oaeo naiioiaeeuo iaoei e iaoaieciia ia
iiaaiioiaeo e ae?oaeo n?aaenoa, ia?a/eneaiiuo a Caeiia ?O «0 aei?iaeiuo
oiiaeao ?O».

Iaeia n eiouanoaa ia?aie a?oiiu en/eneyaony n eiaaioa?ecaoeeiiiie aai
noieiinoe eeai, anee oaeiaay ia ii?aaeaeyeanue, ii noieiinoe,
ii?aaeaeyaiie ii iaycaoaeueiiio no?aoiaaieth, iinoaaea, onoaiaaeeaaaiie
i?aaiaie i?aaenoaaeoaeueiie aeanoe noauaeoia ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee, ii
ia auoa 0,1 %.

Iaeia ia o?ainii?oiua n?aaenoaa en/eneyaony, enoiaey ec iiuiinoe eo
aeaeaaoaey, ii noaaea, onoaiiaeaiiie Caeiiii ia aaeeieoeo iiuiinoe
aeaeaaoaey a i?ioeaioa io ieieiaeueiiai ?acia?a iieaou o?oaea,
aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiiai ii aeaeai o?ainii?oiuo n?aaenoa. Ii o?ainii?oiui
n?aaenoaai, ia eiathuei aeaeaaoaey, iaeia aceiaaony a ?acia?a iyoe
i?ioeaioia ieieiaeueiiai ?acia?a iieaou o?oaea. I?e en/eneaiee iaeiaa ia
o?ainii?oiua n?aaenoaa o/eouaaaony ieieiaeueiue ?acia? iieaou o?oaea,
aeaenoaothuee ia aeaoo ia/eneaiey iaeiaa.

Noiia iaeiaia ia eiouanoai oece/aneeo eeoe e iiiaio aicieeiiaaiey
iaycaiiinoe ia eo oieaoo caaenyo io iniiaaiey i?eia?aoaiey eie i?aaa
nianoaaiiinoe ia eiouanoai.

I?e ia?aoiaea i?aaa nianoaaiiinoe ia iaeaaaaiia iaiiaii eiouanoai io
iaeiiai nianoaaiieea e ae?oaiio a oa/aiea eaeaiaea?iiai aiaea iaeia
oiea/eaaaony ia?aiia/aeueiui nianoaaiieeii n 1 yiaa?y yoiai aiaea aei
ia/aea ianyoea, a eioi?ii ii oo?aoee i?aai nianoaaiiinoe ia yoi
eiouanoai, a iiaui nianoaaiieeii – ia/eiay n ianyoea, a eioi?ii o
iineaaeiaai ia iaai aicieeei i?aai nianoaaiiinoe.

I?e aicieeeiaaiee i?aaa nianoaaiiinoe, ia naycaiiiai n ia?aoiaeii aai io
iaeiiai nianoaaiieea e ae?oaiio, iaeiae oiea/eaathony n ia/aea aiaea,
neaaeothuaai ca i?eia?aoaieai nianoaaiiinoe ia eiouanoai, iaeaaaaiia
iaeiaii.

A neo/aa oie/oiaeaiey, iieiiai ?ac?ooaiey eiouanoaa aceiaiea iaeiaia
i?ae?auaaony, ia/eiay n ianyoea, a eioi?ii iii auei oie/oiaeaii eee
iieiinoueth ?ac?ooaii.

En/eneaiea iaeiaia ia eiouanoai oece/aneeo eeoe i?iecaiaeeony iaeiaiauie
i?aaiaie ia iniiaaiee aeaiiuo, aaeaaiaeii i?aaenoaaeyaiuo ei i?aaiaie
eiiioiaeueiiai oicyenoaa e i?aaiecaoeeyie, inouanoaeythueie
?aaeno?aoeeth o?ainii?oiuo n?aaenoa, ii ninoiyieth ia 1 yiaa?y oiai
aiaea, ca eioi?ue en/eneyaony iaeia.

Ieaoaeueueee oiea/eaatho iaeia ?aaiuie aeieyie a aeaa n?iea – ia
iicaeiaa 15 naioya?y e 15 iiya?y a niioaaonoaee n ieaoaaeiui ecaauaieai,
aaeaaiaeii a?o/aaiui ieaoaeueueeo iaiiaiaui i?aaiii.

Io oieaou iaeiaia ia eiouanoai iaaeo a?oii inaiaiaeaeathony Aa?ie
Niaaoneiai Nithca, Aa?ie ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee, eeoea, iaa?aaeaeaiiua
i?aeaiii Neaau o?ao noaiaiae, eiaaeeaeu 1 e I a?oii, eiaaeeaeu n
aeaonoaa; o/anoieee a?aaeaeaineie e Aaee- eie Ioa/anoaaiiie aiei e
i?e?aaiaiiua e iei eaoaai?ee a?aaeaeai; eeoea, iieo/athuea eueaiou eae
iiaeaa?aoeany aicaeaenoaeth ?aaeeaoeee aneaaenoaea eaoano?iou ia
*a?iiaueueneie AYN, a 1957 a. ia II «Iaye» e na?inia ?aaeeiaeoeaiuo
iooiaeia a ?aeo Oa/a e ae?oaea eueaioieee.

Ia oiea/eaaaony iaeia n eiouanoaa ia?aie a?oiiu iaineiia?aie,
iieo/athueie iainee a ii?yaeea, onoaiiaeaiiii iaineiiiui
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii ?O; a?aaeaeaiaie, oaieaiiuie n aiaiiie neoaeau eee
i?ecuaaaoeieny ia aiaiiua nai?u, auiieiyaoeie eioa?iaoeeiiaeueiue aeiea
a Aoaaienoaia e ae?oaeo no?aiao, a eioi?uo aaeenue aiaaua aeaenoaey;
?iaeeoaeyie e noi?oaaie (ia anooieaoeie a iiaoi?iue a?ae)
aiaiiineoaeaueo e ainoaea?noaaiiuo neoaeaueo, iiaeaoeo i?e eniieiaiee
neoaeaaiuo iaycaiiinoae; ni niaoeeaeueii iai?oaeiaaiiuo nii?oaeaiee,
no?iaiee, iiiauaiee (a oii /enea aeeeuey), i?eiaaeeaaeauoo ia i?aaa
nianoaaiiinoe aeayoaeyi eoeueoo?u, eneonnoaa e ia?iaeiui ianoa?ai, a
neo/ayo, onoaiiaeaiiuo Caeiiii.

Ia aceiaaony iaeia ia o?ainii?oiua n?aaenoaa n nianoaaiieeia iioi?iuo
eiaeie n iiuiinoueth iioi?a ia aieaa 10 e. n. (eee 7,4 eAo).

I?e aicieeiiaaiee i?aaa ia eueaioo a oa/aiea eaeaiaea?iiai aiaea
ia?a?an/ao iaeiaa i?iecaiaeeony n ianyoea, a eioi?ii aicieeei yoi i?aai.
Eeoea, eiathuea niaeanii Caeiio i?aai ia eueaiou, aeieaeiu aeey aai
?aaeecaoeee i?aaenoaaeoue a iaeiaiaue i?aai i?aaeoniio?aiiua Caeiiii
aeieoiaiou.

Iaeia n eiouanoaa, ia?aaeaaaaiiai a ii?yaeea iaeaaeiaaiey eee aea?aiey,
e ainiioeeia.

Aua iaeei aeae iaeiaia n ianaeaiey — iaeia n eiouanoaa, ia?aaeaaaaiiai a
ii?yaeea ianeaaeiaaiey eee aea?aiey. Iaeia aceiaaony a niioaaonoaee n
Caeiiii ?O io 12 aeaeaa?y 1991 a. «0 iaeiaa n eiouanoaa, ia?aoiaeyuaai a
ii?yaeea ianeaaeiaaiey eee aea?aiey», aeaenoaothuei a ianoiyuaa a?aiy n
eciaiaieyie e aeiiieiaieyie.

Ieaoaeueueeaie iaeiaa yaeythony a?aaeaeaia ?O, eeoea aac a?aaeaeainoaa e
eiino?aiiua a?aaeaeaia, eioi?ua i?eieiatho a nianoaaiiinoue a ii?yaeea
ianeaaeiaaiey eee aea?aiey eiouanoai ii?aaeaeaiiuo a Caeiia aeaeia,
yaeythuaany iauaeoii iaeiaeaiey. Yoi: aeeeua aeiia, eaa?oe?u, aea/e,
naaeiaua aeiieee a naaeiauo oiaa?euanoaao, caiaeueiua o/anoee;
iaaiaeiieaiey a aeeeeuii-no?ieoaeueiuo, aa?aaeii-no?ieoaeueiuo e
aea/ii-no?ieoaeueiuo eiiia?aoeaao; noieiinoue eiouanoaaiiuo e caiaeueiuo
aeieae (iaaa); noiiu, iaoiaeyueany ai aeeaaeao a e?aaeeoiuo
o/?aaeaeaieyo; n?aaenoaa ia eiaiiuo i?eaaoecaoeeiiiuo n/aoao oece/neeo
eeoe; oeaiiua aoiaae a eo noieiinoiii au?aaeaiee; i?aaeiaou aioeeaa?eaoa
e eneonnoaa; thaaee?iua e auoiaua ecaeaeey ec ae?aaioeaiiuo iaoaeeia e
ae?aaioeaiiuo eaiiae e eii oaeeo ecaeaeee; auiioiua oeaiiinoe;
aaoiiiaeee, iioioeeeeu, iioi?iua eiaeee, eaoa?a, yoou, ae?oaea
o?ainii?oiua n?aaenoaa.

Iaeia aceiaaony i?e oneiaee auaea/e eeoeaie, oiiaeiiii/aiiuie niaa?oaoue
iioa?eaeueiua aeaenoaey, naeaeaoaeuenoa i i?aaa ia ianeaaenoai eee
oaeinoiaa?aiey eie aeiaiai?ia aea?aiey, anee iauay noieiinoue
ia?aoiaeyuaai a nianoaaiiinoue oece/aneiai eeoea eiouanoaa i?aauoaao
onoaiiaeaiiue Caeiiii aai iaiaeaaaaiue ieieioi. I?e ianeaaeiaaiee ii
ninoaaeyao 850-e?aoiue ieieiaeueiue ?acia? iieaou o?oaea, i?e aea?aiee –
80-e?aoiue.

Noieiinoue eiouanoaa, n eioi?ie en/eneyaony iaeia, ii?aaeaeyaony ia
aeaiue ioe?uoey ianeaaenoaa (aeaiue nia?oe ianeaaeiaeaoaey eee aeaiue
anooieaiey a caeiiioth neeo ?aoaiey noaea ia iauyaeaiee aai oia?oei) eee
oaeinoiaa?aiey aeiaiai?a aea?aiey.

Anee oece/aneiio eeoeo a oa/aiea eaeaiaea?iiai aiaea iaiaeiie?aoii
ia?aoiaeeei eiouanoai a ii?yaeea aea?aiey io iaeiiai e oiai aea
oece/aneiai eeoea, iaeia iaaei en/eneyoue n iauae noieiinoe eiouanoaa ia
iniiaaiee anao iioa?eaeueii oaeinoiaa?aiiuo aeiaiai?ia. Iaeia
en/eneyaony ii onoaiiaeaiiui Caeiiii noaaeai, eioi?ua
aeeooa?aioee?othany a caaeneiiaoe io noieiinoe eiouanoaa e eaoaai?ee
eeoe, aai iieo/athueo.

Ii?yaeie en/eneaiey iaeiaa n ianeaaeoaiiai eiouanoaa e ii?yaeie
iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey eiouanoaa i?e aea?aiee ia niaiaaeatho. ?acee/ey
eanathony ?acia?a iaiaeaaaaiiai ieieioia, aaee/eiu e iniiaaiee
aeeooa?aioeeaoeee noaaie iaeiaa, eueaio.

Iaeiaiiaeiaeaiea ianeaaeoaiiai eiouanoaa aieaa uaaeyuaa. Noaaee iaeiaa n
iaai aeeooa?aioee?othony, oaaee/eaaynue a caaeneiinoe io noieiinoe
eiouanoaa e noaiaie ?iaenoaa ianeaaeieeia. N o/aoii noieiinoe ana
eiouanoai iiae?acaeaeyaony ia o?e a?oiiu.

Ia?aay a?oiia – aeeth/aao eiouanoai noieiinoueth nauoa 850-e?aoiiai
ieieiaeueiiai ?acia?a iieaou o?oaea aei 1700-e?aoiiai ieieiaeueiiai aa
?acia?a. Aoi?ay a?oiia – eiouanoai noieiinoueth io 1701- aei
2550-e?aoiiai ieieiaeueiiai ?acia?a iieaou o?oaea. O?aouey a?oiia –
eiouanoai noieiinoueth nauoa 2550-e?aoiiai ieieiaeueiiai ?acia?a iieaou
o?oaea.

Aioo?e eaaeaeie a?oiiu onoaiaaeeaathony o?e iinooiaoaeueii aic?anoathuea
a caaeneiinoe io noaiaie ?iaenoaa noaaee:

ianeaaeieeai ia?aie i/a?aaee (aeaoe, noi?oa, ?iaeeoaee ianeaaeiaeaoaey);

ianeaaeieeai aoi?ie i/a?aaee (a?aouey, nano?u ianeaaeiaeaoaey, aeaae,
aaaea iaieo ?iaeeoaeae);

ae?oaei ianeaaeieeai.

Iai?eia?, i?e oianeaaeiaaiee eiouanoaa ia?aie a?oiiu iaeia en/eneyaony n
ianeaaeieeia ia?aie i/a?aaee ii noaaea 5 %, a n «ae?oaeo ianeaaeieeia»
20 % noieiinoe ianeaaeoaiiai eiouanoaa; i?e ianeaaeiaaiee aea eiouanoaa
o?aoueae a?oiiu iaeiaiaua noaaee ninoaayo niioaaonoaaiii 127,5-e?aoiue
I?IO + 15 % noieiinoe eiouanoaa, i?aauoathuae 2550-e?aoiue ieieiaeueiue
?acia? iieaou o?oaea, e 425-e?aoiue ieieiaeueiue ?acia? + 40 % noieiinoe
eiouanoaa, i?aauoathuae 2550-e?aoiue I?IO.

Aeey en/eneaiey iaeiaa n eiouanoaa, ia?aoiaeyuaai a ii?yaeea aea?aiey,
eiouanoai a caaeneiinoe io aai noieiinoe iiae?acaeaeyaony caeiiii ia
/aou?a a?oiiu. Ia?aay a?oiia aeeth/aao eiouanoai noieiinoueth io 80- e
aei 850-e?aoiiai ieieiaeueiiai ?acia?a iieaou o?oaea. A?aieoeu
inoaeueiuo o?ao a?oii ii eiee/anoaaiiui ia?aiao?ai niioaaonoaotho
a?oiiiaie aeeooa?aioeeaoeee ianeaaeoaiiai eiouanoaa.

A eaaeaeie a?oiia onoaiaaeeaathony ii aeaa noaaee: aeey aeaoae e
?iaeeoaeae e aeey ae?oaeo oece/aneeo eeoe. Noaaee iaeiaa cia/eoaeueii
auoa noaaie, i?eiaiyaiuo i?e iaeiaiiaeiaeaiee eiouanoaa, ia?aoiaeyuai a
ii?yaeea ianeaaeiaaiey.

Iai?eia?, i?e aea?aiee aeaoyi e ?iaeeoaeyi (ianeaaeieee ia?aie i/a?aaee)
eiouanoaa noieiinoueth io 851- aei 1700-e?aoiiai ieieiaeueiiai ?acia?a
iieaou o?oaea iaeia ninoaaeo 23,1-e?aoiue ieieiaeueiue ?acia? iieaou
o?oaea + 7 % noieiinoe, i?aauoathuae 850-e?aoiue ieieiaeueiue ?acia?
iieaou o?oaea, a i?e oianeaaeiaaiee eie eiouanoaa oie aea noieiinoe –
oieueei 5 % aai noieiinoe.

Onoaiiaeaiiuie caeiiii eueaioaie i?aaeoniao?eaaaony inaiaiaeaeaiea io
iaeiaiiaeiaeaeey anaai eee ioaeaeueiuo aeaeia eiouanoaa, ia?aoiaeyuaai a
ii?yaeea ianeaaeiaaiey eee aea?aiey.

Inaiaiaeaeaaony io iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey: eiouanoai, ia?aoaaeoaa a ii?yaeea
ianeaaeiaaiey eee aea?aiey ae?oaiio noi?oao; aeeeua aeiia e o?ainii?oiua
n?aaenoaa, ia?auaaeoea a ii?yaeea oeaneaaeiaaiey eiaaeeaeai I e II
a?oii; aeeeua aeiia (eaa?oe?u) e iaaiaeiieaiey a AENE, anee ianeaaeieee
(iaea?yaiua) i?iaeeaaee a ieo niaianoii n ianeaaeiaeaoaeai (aea?eoaeai)
ia aeaiue ioe?uoey ianeaaenoaa (eee ioi?ieaiey aeiaiai?a aea?aiey);
eiouanoai eeoe, iiaeaoeo i?e eniieiaiee iaycaiiinoae ii caueoa NNN? e
?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee eee a?aaeaeaineiai aeieaa ii nianaieth
/aeiaa/aneie aeecie, io?aia i?aaiii?yaeea e ainnianoaaiiinoe;
o?ainii?oiua n?aaenoaa, ia?aoiaeyuea a ii?yaeea ianeaaeiaaiey /eaiai
naiae aiaiiineoaeaueo, iioa?yaoeo ei?ieeueoea.

Iaycaiiinoue en/eneaiey iaeiaa aiceaaaaony ia iaeiaiaua i?aaiu. Oieaoa
iaeiaa i?iecaiaeeony ieaoaeueueeaie ia iniiaaiee ieaoaaeiiai ii?o/aiey
iaeiaiaiai i?aaia a o?aoiany/iue n?ie ni aeiy aai a?o/aiey. Oece/aneea
eeoea, i?iaeeaathuea ca i?aaeaeaie ?O, iaycaeu oieaoeoue iaeia aei
iieo/aiey aeieoiaioa, oaeinoiaa?aeiuaai eo i?aai nianoaaiiinoe ia
eiouanoai.

Ianeaaeiee iaycai caieaoeoue ia oieueei iaeia ia eiouanoai, ii e
ainiioeeio. “Iiae ainoaea?noaaiiie iioeeiie iiieiaaony onoaiiaeaiiue
ianoiyuei Caeiiii iaycaoaeueiue e aeaenoaothuee ia anae oa??eoi?ee
?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee ieaoaae, aceiaaiue ca niaa?oaiea th?eaee/anee
cia/eiuo aeaenoaee eeai auaea/o aeieoiaioia oiieiiii/aiiuie ia oi
i?aaiaie eee aeieaeiinoiuie eeoeaie. Ieaoaeueueeaie ainoaea?noaaiiie
iioeeiu yaeythony a?aaeaeaia ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee, eiino?aiiua
a?aaeaeaia e eeoea aac a?aaeaeainoaa e th?eaee/aneea eeoea,
ia?auathueany ca niaa?oaieai th?eaee/anee cia/eiuo aeaenoaee eee
auaea/ae aeieoiaioia”. Ainiioeeia aceiaaony i?e ethauo iioa?eaeueiuo
aeaenoaeyo, a oaeaea i?e ioi?ieaiee noaeaaiuo aeae, auaea/e
caa?aiianii?oia. Noaaee e eueaiou ainiioeeiu ii?aaeaeyao Caeii ?O io 31
aeaeaa?y 1995 aiaea ? 226-OC “I aianaiee eciaiaiee e aeiiieiaiee a Caeii
?O (I ainoaea?noaaiiie iioeeia(“. Aeieoiaioii, iiaeoaa?aeaeathuei i?aai
ianeaaeiaaiey, yaeyaony naeaeaoaeuenoai i i?aaa ianeaaeiaaiey. Ca
auaea/o naeaeaoaeuenoaa n ianeaaeieeia ia?aie i/a?aaee aceiaaoeny
ainiioeeia a ?acia?a 1 % io noieiinoe ianeaaeoaiiai eiouanoaa, n ae?oaeo
ianeaaeieeia 2%. A neo/aa iaoiaeaeaiey ianeaaeoaiiai iouanoaa ca
i?aaeaeaie ?O ?acia? iioeeiu ninoaaeyao 1 I?IO aei ieii/aiey
ii?aaeaeaiey aai noieiinoe. Iinea ooi/iaiey noieiinoe iioeeia aceiaaony
a iau/iii ?acia?a. Ii ainiioeeia aeaenoaoao i?aeoe/aee oioaea ia?a/aiue
eueaio, /oi e ii iiaeioiaeiiio iaeiao n a?aaeaeai, iaeiao ia eiouanoai
oece/aneeo eeoe, caiaeueiiio iaeiao e ae?oaei iaeiaai, iniiaiuie
ieaoaeueueeaie eioi?uo yaeythony a?aaeaeaia ?O.

I?i/ea iaeiae n ianaeaiey

iaeiae ia i?aaeiaou iio?aaeaiey

Ainoaea?noai iiaeao onoaiaaeeaaoue niaoeeaeueiua iaeiae ia i?aaeiaou
iio?aaeaiey. Oieaeo a naiae ?aaioa ?aeiiaiaeoao iaeiae ia ieia?aeueiua
ianea, aeeiaieue, nie?oiua iaieoee e oaaa/iua ecaeaeey niioaaonoaothuea
iaeiaiaie nenoaia ia i?aaeiaou iio?aaeaiey, aeaenoaothuae a AN. I?e yoii
iniiaiuie e?eoa?eyie iaeiaia yaeythony:

i?e iaeiaiiaeiaeaiee ieia?aeueiuo ianae a ea/anoaa ianooaaa,
niioaaonoaothuaai aa?iiaeneie nenoaia, i?aaeeaaaaony i?eioeei caueou
ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu. Oai ia iaiaa iaeia ia ieia?aeueiua ianea aua ia
noaiiaeony oi?aaeai/aneei iaeiaii n oeaeueth ioeaaiai aeioiaea. Oee/iia
aeaeaeaiea ia iiaeao auoue iieiinoueth ia?aeeciaaii. Neeoeii aunieee
iaeia ia ieia?aeueiua ianea naeaeae au acaeo ia iaoeiao i?eaeeaaeae
aiaaouo ethaeae, /oi ia niaianoeii n nioeeaeueiie iaeiaiaie
ni?aaaaeeeainoueth. Iaeia ia ieia?aeueiua ianea aeieaeai auoue oaeei,
/oiau ii, n iaeiie noi?iiu, niinianoaiaae aa?aaeiiio ?anoiaeiaaieth
?ano?nia e, ai-aoi?uo, ia eiae yeiiiie/aneeo yooaeoia oaeooaiey.
Neaaeiaaoaeueii, iaeia ia ieia?aeueiua ianea eiaao aeaiyeee oa?aeoa?. Ii
yaeyaony iaeiaii n oeneaeueiie oeaeueth n aunieei aeioiaeii. E oiio aea
ii yaeyaony iaeiaii aeey caueou ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu, o.a. yeieiae/aneei
iaeiaii. I?e iaeiaiiaeiaeaiee aeeaeeiai oiieeaa neaaeoao o/eouaaoue
yeiiiie/aneee i?eioeei ieaoaaeaniiniaiinoe. Iaia?aa aeeeuo caeaiee
ioiineony e aeeciaiiui iio?aaiinoyi, iaiaoiaeeiui aeey nouanoaiaaiey.
Yeiiiie/aneia iaeiaiiaeiaeaiea aeeaeeiai oiieeaa ii?aaaeaii eeoue
oiaaea, anee i?aaei?eyoea eee a?aaeaeaiei iiaeao ia?aeoe ia aeae oiieeaa
aieaa uaaeyuee aeey ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu, iai?eia?, ia i?e?iaeiue aac.

Ai anyeeo no?aiao iaeiaiiaeiaeaiea aeeiaiey e nie?oiuo iaieoeia
no?aaeaao io oiai, /oi i?eieiay ai aieiaiea ainoaea?noaaiiue i?iecaie
o?aaeeoeeiiiua iau/ae e i?eau/ee, nie?oiua iaieoee iaeaaathony iaeiaii
i/aiue ii-?aciiio. Aaaaeaiea iiaie iaeiaiaie nenoaiu aiciiaeii iai?aaeo
yeiiiie/aneia iaeiaiiaeiaeaiea aeeiaiey e nie?oiuo iaieoeia n naiiai
ia/aea ii i?eioeeio nio?aiaiey caei?iauey. Yoi icia/aao, /oi iaeiae n
aeeiaiey ioi?ieythony eae iaeia ia aeaeeeaoanu, eioi?ue, n iaeiie
noi?iiu, iineaaeiaaoaeueii iaeaaaao iaeiaii ana yeiiiie/aneea oi?iu
aeeiaiey; i?aaeiacia/aiiiai aeey ?anieoey, iaeiaei, n ae?oaie noi?iiu,
oaeaea iineaaeiaaoaeueii ia iaeaaaao iaeiaii ana oi?iu aeeiaiey,
i?aaeiacia/aiiiai ia aeey ?anieoey. Nthaea i?aaeaea anaai ioiinyony
iaaeeoeeineee nie?o. Yeiiiie/aneay iniiaa en/eneaiey aeieaeia
i?aaenoaaeyoue oaeia eiee/anoai nie?oa, /oiau iaeei eeo? auaea?aeaiiie
aiaeee iaeaaaeny iaeiaii iaiiiai auoa, /ai iaeei eeo? ieaa. Aeaeueiaeoea
aeeooa?aioee?iaaiey aeaeia iaieoeia, n oi/ee c?aiey iieeoeee nio?aiaiey
caei?iauey, iiaoo auoaeaoue ec iniaaiii ?ani?ino?aiaiiuo e iaeiia?aiaiii
i?eiinyueo oua?a caei?iaueth i?e/ei ii ?anieoeth, nouanoaothueo a
no?aia.

Oaeaea e iaeiaiiaeiaeaiea oaaa/iuo ecaeaeee naycaii n enoi?e/aneeie
iniaaiiinoyie e i?e/eiaie — iiaeaa?aaoue iaeiaiiaeiaeaieth ii?aaeaeaiiue
i?iaeoeo, iioiio /oi aai eniieueciaaiea, naycaiiia n oaeiaeaoai?aieai
ianeaaeaeaiey, iiaeao aeaoue aieueoie yeiiiie/aneee aeioiae. Iiyoiio
oaeaea eae e i?e iaeiaiiaeiaeaiee aeeiaiey aeieaeai eniieueciaaoueny
oain iineaaeiaaoaeueiiai inouanoaeaiey i?eioeeia, iai?aaeaiiiai ia
nio?aiaiea caei?iauey. Niaeanii yoiio i?eioeeio yeiiiie/aneei ianooaaii
iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey yaeyaony eiee/anoai ieeioeia, nicaeathuaa
ianeaaeaeaiea, iaeiaei a?aaeiia aeey caei?iauey. Iiauoaiiia
iaeiaiiaeiaeaiea neaa?ao ii?aaaeaii ec-ca niaea?aeaiey a ieo niie,
a?aaeiuo aeey caei?iauey /aeiaaea.

Iaeiei ec nouanoaaiiuo iaeiaia ia iio?aaeaiea yaeyaony iaeia ia
aaoiiaoeiu, eioi?ue a Aa?iaiee caieiaao ii cia/eiinoe oanoia ianoi.
Oaeaea e iaeia ia aaoiiaoeiu ia?acoao n yeiiiie/aneie oi/ee c?aiey
iinoiyiiue enoi/iee iaeiaia. Iniaaiii a aieueoeo ainoaea?noaao, eaeei
yaeyaony ?inney n ioiineoaeueii neaai ?acaeoui iauanoaaiiui o?ainii?oii
aaoiiaoeiu yeiiiie/anee iacaiaieiu ia iaiaic?eiue ia?eiae a?aiaie.
Iaiueoaa cia/aiea eiatho iaeiae ia caa?yciaiea oeeoe, eae iaeia ia niaae
eee eioaaeae. Iaeia ia oiaeiaeo, iai?eia?, ia iinoaeo iaeii?aciaiai
iieueciaaiey, eioi?ay a ianoiyuaa a?aiy oe?iei i?eiaiyaony a Aa?iaiee,
yaeyaony eeanne/aneei oi?aaeai/aneei iaeiaii, yeiiiie/aneay oeaeue
eioi?iai – aeinoeaeaiea ioeaaiai aeioiaea. A aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe ii ia
iiaeao ?anniao?eaaoueny eae iinoiyiiue iaeiaiaue enoi/iee, oae eae
i?aaei?eyoey, a?aaeaeaia, aano?iiiiey iiaoo aeiaieueii auno?i
ia?ano?ieoueny e oeo/oeoue naia iiaaaeaiea ioiineoaeueii ie?oaeathuae
n?aaeu.

Ioiineoaeueii iaeiaa ia aaoiiaoeiu neaaeoao caiaoeoue, /oi ii ia oieueei
auoiaeeo ca ?aiee ae?oaeo ianoiuo iaeiaia ia i?aaeiaou iio?aaeaiey n
oeneaeueiie oi/ee c?aiey, ii eeoue /anoe/ii niioaaonoaoao n
yeiiiie/aneie oi/ee c?aiey auoaoiiiyiooiio i?eioeeio, a ?aieao
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa iaeaaaoue iaeiaii oieueei /anoiia iio?aaeaiea,
i?eiinyuaa a?aae ie?oaeathuae n?aaea. *oi eanaaony aaoio?ainii?oa,
eniieuecoaiiai ia i?iecaiaenoaa, oi iaeia ia aaoiiaoeiu aeaenoaoao
oaeaea eae iaeia ia n?aaenoaa i?iecaiaenoaa. Oieaeo ?aeiiaiaeoao
i?eaycaoue iaeia ia aaoiiaoeiu e ianoiie iaeiaiaie nenoaia ii
neaaeothuei yeiiiie/aneei i?e/eiai:

ia?yaeo n ioieoeeiaeeoaoaie a ?aieao eneeth/eoaeueiiai yeiiiie/aneiai
i?aaa nai?a iaeiaia e eniieueciaaiey iaeiaiauo n?aaenoa ia?yaeo n
iaeiaaie ia caieth aeieaeai iacia/aoueny aua iaeei iaeia, aeathuee
aieueoee aeioiae, a eiaiii, i?e iacaaiiie i?aaeiinueea ainoaea?noaaiiie
no?oeoo?u ?innee, eioi?ay i?aaeinoaaeyao yeiiiie/aneiio i?aao ianoiiai
naiioi?aaeaiey ia?ainoaiaiiia cia/aiea;

Iaeia ia aaoiiaoeiu eae yeaeaaeaioiue iaeia i?eaiaeai aeey oiai, /oiau
?acuynieoue ioi?ieaiea aeaeaeaiey aaoio?ainii?oa a ai?iaeao aioo?e
no?aiu n oi/ee c?aiey caueou ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu e, iaeiiaoe
i?aaenoaaeyao aeiione aaoio?ainii?oa e yenieoaoaoeee ia iniiaa
niioaaonoaothuaai iainiiaaiey aeey yeiiiie/aneiai aceiaiey iaeiaa ia
aaoiiaoeiu a ?innee, n oi/ee c?aiey oaoieee oi?aaeaiey.

Iaeia ia aaoiiaoeiu aeaao aeioiaeu, auoiaeyuea ca i?aaeaeu aeaiiie
oa??eoi?ee, iineieueeo aaoiiaoeiu ia?aiauathony ia oieueei a i?aaeaeao
iaeiie iaeanoe e neaaeiaaoaeueii ii yeiiiie/anee oeiaine?oao oe?ieoth
naoue iaaeno?aeueiuo aei?ia, ?aniieiaeaiiuo ii anae no?aia. Auei au
ni?aaaaeeeai, anee iaaeno?aeueiua aei?iae iiaee au oeiaine?iaaoueny ec
aeioiaeia, iieo/aaiuo io iaeiaia n aaoio?ainii?oa.

I?aaeeiaeaiea, ia?aeiaeeoue iaeia n aaoiiiaeeae ia iaeia ia ieia?aeueiua
ianea yaeyaony onoa?aaoei, i?eieiay ai aieiaiea yeieiae/aneia ioi?ieaiea
iaeiaa ia aaoiiaoeiu. Oaeaea i?e iaeiaa ia aaoiiaoeiu i?aai ia ecaeaiea
caeiiia i?aaiaie ianiiai naiioi?aaeaiey aeieaeii auoue ia?aie/aii ec-ca
ioiioaiee, auoiaeyueo ca i?aaeaeu aeaiiie oa??eoi?ee.

Iicaiaeueiue iaeia

Iicaiaeueiue iaeia yaeyaony iniaui iaeiaii ia eiouanoai. A e?oao
eiouanoaaiiuo iaeiaia ii caieiaao niaoeeaeueiia ianoi, oae eae ?acia?
iicaiaeueiiai iaeiaa yeiiiie/anee aeeyao ia noieiinoue caiaeueiiai
o/anoea. Aunieea iicaiaeueiua iaeiae niioaaonoaaiii aeeytho ia ieceoth
noieiinoue i?eia?aoaiey caiaeueiuo o/anoeia. Noaoon nianoaaiieea ec-ca
iiauoaiey iicaiaeueiiai iaeiaa a yeiiiie/aneii ioiioaiee i?eaeeaeaaony e
noaoono /aeiaaea, eiathuaai ianeaaenoaaiiia i?aai cano?ieee. ?acia?
iicaiaeueiiai iaeiaa yeiiiie/anee eiiiaine?oaony oai, /oi i?aaei?eyoea e
/anoiia eeoei ca caiaeueiua aeaaeaiey aeieaeiu iaiueoa o?aoeoue e a
?acoeueoaoa yoiai iaiueoea cao?aou oeiaine?iaaiey ca n/ao i?eaea/aiey
n?aaenoa ni noi?iiu. ?acia? iicaiaeueiiai iaeiaa i?ioeaiaeaenoaoao
oaeaea niaeoeyoeaiie neeiiiinoe oaea?aeeaaoue caieth yeiiiie/anee
aani?eaueueiie.

Yooaeo iaeiaa ia eiouanoai ia aicieeaao eeoue oiaaea, anee iniiaa
en/eneaiey iicaiaeueiiai iaeiaa ia?aie/eaaaony oai, /oi caeiiiaeaoaeueii
iuia i?aaeinoaaeyaony ?inneeneiio a?aaeaeaieio: yeiiiie/aneia
iieueciaaiea caieae. Anee iicaiaeueiue iaeia ?ani?ino?aiyaony oaeaea ia
yeiiiie/aneoth noieiinoue no?iaiey, nicaeaiiiai naiei a?aaeaeaieiii eee
i?aaei?eyoeai, oiaaea yoi ?anoe?aiea aeeyao ia iaeiaeaiiia iaeiaii
eiouanoai. Iii iaeaaaao iaeiaii eiaiii yeiiiie/aneoth noanoaioeeth
eiouanoaa, nicaeaiiiai naiei a?aaeaeaieiii eee i?aaei?eyoeai. Aunieee
iicaiaeueiue iaeia iaeuecy eiiiaine?iaaoue ieceeie cao?aoaie ia
ecaioiaeaiea.

Ecia/aeueiia eaiiia ii?aaaeaiea iicaiaeueiiai iaeiaa iaia?oaeeeinue eae
ia/aei aeey iicaiaeueiiai iaeiaa aac yooaeoa iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey eiouanoaa.
*a?ac iicaiaeueiue iaeia ii?aaeaeyaony /anoue iaueiu a yeiiiie/aneie
noanoaioeee naiae oa??eoi?ee. Iiyoiio Oieaeo ?aeiiaiaeoao a ea/anoaa
yeiiiie/aneie iniiau en/eneaiey iicaiaeueiiai iaeiaa iaiiaoth noieiinoue
caiee. Yoi ia?aie/aiea yeiiiie/aneie iniiau en/eneaiey noieiinoueth
caiee caueuaao ia oieueei yeiiiie/aneoth noanoaioeeth nianoaaiiinoe, ii
i?aaenoaaeyao oaeaea nouanoaaiiia oi?iuaiea iaeiaa. Iicaiaeueiue iaeia a
iniiaiii iiaeao ecia?youeny i?eaioe?iai/iuie oeaiaie, onoaiaaeeaaaiuie
ia caiaeueiua o/anoee. Oaeea i?eaioe?iai/iua oeaiu ii?aaeaeytho a
Aa?iaiee iacaaeneiua eiiennee yenia?oia, eioi?ua ia?acothony i?e
eiiioiao.

Ecia/aeueiia eaiiia ii?aaaeaiea iicaiaeueiiai iaeiaa niioaaonoaoao
yeiiiie/aneiio ii?aaaeaieth iicaiaeueiiai iaeiaa ii i?eioeeio
yeaeaaeaioiinoe. Eio?ano?oeoo?iua e yeiiiie/aneea caieaie?iaaiiua
iiaeiiinoe i?aaiia ianoiiai naiioi?aaeaiey a ?O iaiin?aaenoaaiii
ii?aaeaeytho noieiinoue caiaeueiiai o/anoea, oae /oi iicaiaeueiue iaeia
eae ioieoeeiaeueiue yeaeaaeaioiue iaeia eiaao oi?ioaa ii?aaaeaiea.
Iicaiaeueiue iaeia oaeiaeaoai?yao oaeaea yeiiiie/aneoth iio?aaiinoue a
iinoiyiiii enoi/ieea iaeiaia. Oaeaea e caeanue iaeuecy eneeth/eoue
i?eioeei yeiiiie/aneie ieaoaaeaniiniaiinoe. Niioaaonoaaiii yoiio ?acia?
iicaiaeueiiai iaeiaa aeey eani- e naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee
aeieaeai o/eouaaoue ieceee ii ioiioaieth e ieiuaaee caiee oaeoe/aneee
aeioiae. Aeey caiaeueiuo o/anoeia n iaaieueoei yeiiiie/aneei eee nianai
iaeui oaeoe/aneei aeioiaeii ?acia? iaeiaa aeieaeai ia i?aauoaoue iaeiiai
i?ioeaioa.

Nenoaia eiouanoaaiiiai iaeiaiaeiaeaiey, neiaeeaoayny a ianoiyuaa a?aiy a
aieueoeinoaa no?ai ie?a, ioee/aaony io ?inneeneie neoaiu. Iaeiei ec
iniiaiuo ioee/ee yaeyaony aeeth/aiea a ninoaa eiouanoaaiiuo ca?oaaaeiuo
iaeiaia iicaiaeueiiai iaeiaa. A iaoae no?aia iicaiaeueiue iaeia ioianai
e ?ano?niui ieaoaaeai ?aioiiai oa?aeoa?a e aeeth/ai a nenoaio ianiiai
iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey. Niaeanii ?inneeneiio caeiiiaeaoaeuenoao cainey a
ianoiyuaa a?aiy ia yaeyaony iauaeoii naiaiaeiie eoiee-i?iaeaaee,
ieiia/aoaeueii ia i?eiyoa /anoiay oi?ia nianoaaiiinoe ia caieth, ia
i?iecaaaeaia eaaeano?iaay ioeaiea anao caiaeueiuo ieiuaaeae. Caiey oioy
e yaeyaony eiouanoaaiiui oaeoi?ii nicaeaiey noieiinoe, iia ea oaeiaay ia
aeeth/aaony a ninoaa iaaeaeaeeiinoe. Ec yoiai neaaeoao, /oi iiea ia
aoaeoo ?aoaiu i?iaeaiu i?aaiaiai ?aaoee?iaaiey caiaeueiuo ioiioaiee,
caiaeueiue iaeia ia ieaeao oa?aeoa?eciaaoueny a ea/anoaa eiouanoaaiiiai
iaeiaa. Iaeiicia/iiai iiaiey i ?aoaiee yoie i?iaeaiu iao e auoue ia
iiaeao.

Caeeth/aiea

?acaeoea yeiiiie/aneeo e iauanoaaiiuo ioiioaiee a iaoae no?aia
nii?iaiaeaeaaony i?aia?aciaaieai oeiainiai-athaeaeaoiie, iaeiaiaie,
e?aaeeoii-aeaiaaeiie e ae?oaeo aeeciaiii aaaeiuo nenoai oicyenoaiaaiey.
Niaa?oainoaiaaiea ?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiuo noieiinoiuo ioiioaiee – i?ioeann,
iinyuee i?iecaiaeiue oa?aeoa?, neaaeiaaoaeueii, a aai iniiaa aeieaeiu
iaoiaeeoueny i?aaeaea anaai auniei- oaoiieiae/iua e eiieo?aioiniiniaiua
oi?iu nicaeaiey iaoa?eaeueiuo aeaa. Iaeiaei yoi aiana ia icia/aao, /oi
nia/aea iaiaoiaeeii nicaeaoue oaeea oi?iu, a caoai niaa?oainoaiaaoue
oeiainiai-athaeaeaoioth, iaeiaiaoth e ae?oaea nenoaiu ?ani?aaeaeaiey
nicaeaiiie noieiinoe. I?iecaiaenoai e ?ani?aaeaeaiea noieiinoe a
aeaiaaeiie oi?ia ia?ac?uaiu, e aac ioeaaeaiiiai iaoaiecia
oeiaine?iaaiey, e?aaeeoiaaiey i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee iaeuecy iaania/eoue
neieueei-ieaoaeue nouanoaaiiiai i?iaeaeaeaiey e nioeeaeueii
i?eaioe?iaaiiie ?uii/iie yeiiiieea.

Iaeiaiaua ioiioaiey – ioiioaiey ia?a?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiiai oa?aeoa?a,
iiyoiio io eo ?acaeoey oaeaea caaeneo iauanoaaiiue i?ia?ann. A oi aea
a?aiy iie, iniiauaaynue ia ia?ae/iuo ?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiuo ioiioaieyo,
caaenyo io eo niaa?oainoaa. Ec yoiai neaaeoao, /oi any niaieoiiinoue
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo ioiioaiee (yeiiiie/aneeo, oeiainiauo, athaeaeaoiuo,
oeaiiauo, e?aaeeoiuo, iaeiaiauo) caaeneo io o?iaiy i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo
nee, naiui iaiin?aaenoaaiiui ia?acii ii?aaeaeyao yoio o?iaaiue. Oaeei
ia?acii, niaa?oainoaiaaiea yeiiiieee – yoi nicaeaiea i?aaie/iiai
aaeeinoaa iaaeaeo anaie oacaie aini?iecaiaenoaa: i?iecaiaenoaii,
?ani?aaeaeaieai, iaiaiii e iio?aaeaieai.

Niaa?oainoaiaaiea iaeiaiauo ioiioaiee – iaeaieaa o?oaeiay iaeanoue
aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuo e aeanoiuo i?aaiia ?O. Iaeiae – yoi
ioiioaiey nianoaaiiinoe, a iineieueeo eiaiii i?iaeaiu nianoaaiiinoe
aucuaatho a ianoiyuaa a?aiy iaeaieueoaa i?ioeainoiyiea a iauanoaa, oi e
?aoaieth /enoi yeiiiie/aneeo i?iaeai i?eiaoeaathony e iieeoe/aneea
eioa?anu. ?ac?aoaiea yeiiiieeie iieeoe/aneeo i?ioeai?a/ee o?aaoao
aeeeoaeueiiai a?aiaie e oneeee anao caeioa?aniaaiiuo eeoe, ia/eiay io
aa?oieo yoaeiiia aeanoe e caeai/eaay eaaeaeui eiie?aoiui /aeiaaeii. Ana
yoi naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i oii, /oi a ianoiyuaa a?aiy ia iiaoo auoue
nicaeaiu iaeiaiaua ioiioaiey, ioaa/athuea ie?iaui noaiaea?oai. Aieaa
oiai, iie ia iiaoo auoue eaeaioe/iu yoei noaiaea?oai, iineieueeo
eaaeaeie no?aia i?enoue naie eiaeeaeaeoaeueiua iniaaiiinoe iieeoe/aneiai
e yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey.

Ana auoaneacaiiia iaoneiaeeaaao iauaeoeaioth iaiaoiaeeiinoue
i?enoaeueiiai aieiaiey e nia?aiaiiiio ninoiyieth iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey.
Iaiaoiaeei e iaoiaeieiae/aneee, e iaoiaee/aneee ia?aniio? iniia
iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey n oeaeueth auaaaeaiey iaeiaiaie nenoaiu ia iioeiaeueiue
o?iaaiue. Iaeiae aeieaeiu noaoue ia oieueei i?oaeeai iaania/aiey
naaeaine?iaaiiiai athaeaeaoa, ii e iiuiui noeioeii ?acaeoey ia?iaeiiai
oicyenoaa no?aiu. Iie aeieaeiu niinianoaiaaoue no?oeoo?ii-
oaoiieiae/aneiio niaa?oainoaiaaieth i?iecaiaenoaa, naaeaine?iaaieth
yeiiiie/aneeo eioa?ania, oe?aieaieth ia ia?eoaoiuo ia/aeao anao oi?i
nianoaaiiinoe, nioeeaeueiie caueoa ianaeaiey.

Caaea/a ii ?aciauaieth ?inneeneiai iaeiaiaiai i?aaa a ?aieao aai
yeiiiie/aneeo iniiaiuo no?oeoo? eiaao aeey aeinoeaeaiey ii?aaeaeaiiinoe
iaeiaiaiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ?aoathuaa cia/aiea aeey aai oniaoiiai
i?eiaiaiey. Ai iiiaeo no?aiao oaenou iaeiaiauo caeiiia iaiieiytho
yeiiiie/aneoth nenoaio iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey. Iiiaeanoai niaoeeaeueiuo
iieiaeaiee aceaiuaatho i?aaiaua iniiau, yaeythueany ianouei noa?aeiai
anae iaeiaiaie nenoaiu, e ia?ooatho aaeeiiia?acea yeiiiie/aneie
oa?ieiieiaee. Aeiaiaoe/aneea oa/aiey ?acaeoey inouanoaeaiey i?aaa
ionaeathony caeiiiaeaoaeai. Ana aianoa acyoia aeaci?eaioe?oao oieeiaaiea
caeiia e aeaeaao aneaaenoaea yoiai niaea?aeaiea iaeiaiauo caeiiia ia
aiieia /aoeeie.

Ia/aoeinoue iiaeao aucuaaoueny oaeaea eniieueciaaieai a?oae/aneeo
caeiiiaeaoaeueiuo i?ioeaaeo?. Yeiiiie/aneay eacoenoeea a oi?ia
i?eia?iiai iiaen/aoa iiaeao i?eaanoe e oiio, /oi yeiiiie/aneay
th?eni?oaeaioeey iiiyoey noaiao aieaa /aoeie. Ii eacoenoeea eae no??iaao
yeiiiie/aneie th?eni?oaeaioeee iiiyoey aeaeaao caeii a iai?acaioaoeaiuo
neo/ayo, iai?ioea, iaii?aaeaeaiiui. Oae, iai?eia?, caeiiu i iiaeioiaeiuo
iaeiaao ai iiiaeo no?aiao onoaiaaeeaatho iaeiaiaoth iiaeiiinoue ii
oieaoa iaeiaa aeaiiiai aeaea, enoiaey ec aieaa eee iaiaa iaoe?iiai
eaoaeiaa aeioiaeia, ia ii?aaeaeyy i?e yoii iaueo e?eoa?eaa
?aca?aie/aiey. Neaaenoaeai yoiai yaeyaony iaii?aaeaeaiiinoe i?e
?aca?aie/aiee yeiiiie/aneeo aeioiaeia, ia/eiay n aeioiaeia io ae?aaiaai
i?iiunea e eii/ay aeioiaeaie, eioi?ua ia iiiaaeatho iiae aeaenoaea
caeiia i iiaeioiaeiii iaeiaa. Oaeay i?ioeaaeo?a aceiaiey iaeiaia ia
oieueei nie?auaao eaoaeia aeioiaeia, ii e ?anoe?yao aai ia iauea
i?eciaee, eioi?ua ?ane?uaatho nouiinoue ?inneeneeo iiaeioiaeiuo iaeiaia
a ea/anoaa ?aii/iiai iiaeioiaeiiai iaeiaa.

I?e iaoa?eaeueii-yeiiiie/aneie eaaeoeiiinoe iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey neaaeoao
?aaoee?iaaoue ana o?aaiaaiey, auoaeathuea ec ioiioaiey iaaeaeo nai?ueeii
iaeiaia e iaeiaiieaoaeueueeii, oeaeeeii n iiiiuueth aeaenoaothueo
caeiiiaeaoaeueiuo iieiaeaiee. Oae iacuaaaiia niioaaonoaea oieeiaaieth
nouiinoe iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey io?aaeaao, eaeei ia?acii neaaeoao
?aaoee?iaaoue i?aaii?eoycaiey, auoaeathuea ec ioiioaiey iaaeaeo
nai?ueeii iaeiaia e iaeiaiieaoaeueueeii. ?inneeneea oeiainiaua i?aaiu ia
?aniieaaatho a noa?a niioaaonoaey oieeiaaiey yeiiiie/aneiai
iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey a i?eioeeia ieeaeie aiciiaeiinoueth aeey oi?ie?iaaiey
i?aaa. Iie i?aaiii/iu oieueei ii?aaeaeyoue i?aaii?eoycaiea, auoaeathuaa
ec caeiia.

?inneeneea oeiainiaua i?aaiu i?eaycaiu e caeiio oaeaea ia yoaia
?aaeecaoeee iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey, yoi icia/aao, /oi eaaeaeay ia?a a ?aieao
iaeiaiaie i?ioeaaeo?u aeieaeia iie?aoueny ia i?aaiaoth ii?io. I?eioeei
oi?iaeueii-yeiiiie/aneie eaaeoeiiinoe iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey oeaeaniia?acii
caoeene?iaai a caeiia.

Nienie eniieueciaaiiie eeoa?aoo?u:

Aeaeey. I. “Ecaeaiea Iineianeie Iao?ea?oee”, 1983 a.

Ei?ai, I. “Iaoea”, 1986 a.

Eiinoeoooeey ?O. I. 1998 a.

Iaeiaiaue Eiaeaen ?O. *anoue 1. I. 1998 a.

Oaaea?aeueiue Caeii ? 2118-1 io 27.12.1991 a. “Ia iniiaao iaeiaiaie
nenoaiu a ?O”.

Oaaea?aeueiue Caeii io 07.12.1991 a. “I iiaeioiaeiii iaeiaa n oece/aneeo
eeoe”.

Oaaea?aeueiue Caeii io 09.12.1991 a. ”I iaeiaao ia eiouanoai oece/aneeo
eeoe”.

Oaaea?aeueiue Caeii io 12.12.1991 a. “I iaeiaa n eiouanoaa,
ia?aoiaeyuaai a ii?yaeea ianeaaeiaaiey eee aea?aiey”.

Oaaea?aeueiue Caeii io 31.12.95 N 226-OC “I aianaiee eciaiaiee e
aeiiieiaiee a Caeii ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee “I ainoaea?noaaiiie iioeeia”
(n eciaiaieyie io 20 aaaonoa 1996 a., 19 ethey 1997 a.)

I?eeac Ainiaeianeoaeau io 26.02.1998 a. ? AI -0-08/28.

Eiaaeia A. “Iaeiaiaay ninoaaeythuay aaciianiinoe ?innee”. “?inneeneee
yeiiiie/aneee aeo?iae” ? 4 1998 a.

Neiaeueieeia N.,E. Aieneiia, N. Aaoeeaaeia, A. Iaaeiaa, E. ?acieeia, A.
Oe?aaaea, “I?iaeaiu iaeiaiaie ?aoi?iu a ?innee: aiaeec neooaoeee e
ia?niaeoeau ?acaeoey”. I. “Aa?acey”, 1998 a.

Ai?enia A.O. “O?anoiiaoey ii yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee”. I.,“TH?enou”, 1997
a.

Iao?ia TH. “Iaeiaiaue eiaeaen ?O e ?aoi?ia oeiainiai-e?aaeeoiie nenoaiu:
oii?yaei/aiea oeneaeueiuo ioiioaiee eee ineaaeaiea iaeiaiaiai a?aiaie?”
“?inneeneee yeiiiie/aneee aeo?iae” ? 4 1998 a.

THoeeia O.O., “Iaeiae e iaeiaiiaeiaeaiea”. I. “Eio?a-I”, 1998 a.

Iaooe Aeeueyi, “O?aeoao i iaeiaao e nai?ao 1662 a.”.I. “Inue-89”, 1997
a.

Ia?en E. O. Yiaaeuen, Eca?aiiua i?iecaaaeaiey, o. I. I.
“Ainiieeoecaeao”, 1952 a.,

Nieo Aaeai, “Enneaaeiaaiea i i?e?iaea e i?e/eiao aiaaonoaa ia?iaeia”,
o.3. Ieine, “Aaea?onue”, 1994 a.

Iao?iaa A.A. “Iaeiaiaia i?aai”. I., “Eio?a-I”, 1997 a.

Oieaeo Oain-Oeue?eo “Iaeiaiiaeiaeaiea”, I., “AeAEI-Eoae”, 1996 a.

Iiae ?aaeaeoeeae I.I. Ai?aoiiaa “Oeiainiaia i?aai”. I.,“TH?enou”,1996 a.

Iiae ?aaeaeoeeae AEo?aaeaaie A. I., Ieeue/aeiaie I. I. “Oai?aoe/aneay
yeiiiieea. Iieeoyeiiiiey”. I. “THIEOE”, 1997a.

Neaeo? (Oaa?ae Ooeea). Ea?onaeei, “Iaoaiaei”, 5754 (1993) a.

“Eneai”, yioeeeeiiaaee/aneee neiaa?ue, I. “Iaoea”, 1991 a.

Aineiinoao ?innee. “?inney a oeeo?ao – 1996”. I. “Oeiainu e noaoenoeea”,
1996 a.

) E. Ia?en, , no?.305.

) “Enoiae”(‡…?™) , ae. 30, no.11-16.

?), ae.14, no.22-29.

) Neaeo?, no?. 195-197.

) No?a 9 “Iieayiea”, 60.

) noaeuey, iacia/aaiue i?aaeoaeai e inouanoaeythuee i?aainoaeea ia
iniiaa oa?eaoa

) ?aau, caeeth/eaoea ienueiaiiia niaeaoaiea i naiiaueoia, aaea iaiai?ai
?acia? aueoia, n?ie e oneiaey iieaou

) No?a 9 “Iieayiea”, 29

) Iaooe, no?.54

) Iaooe, no?. 55.

) oai aea

) oai aea

) Iaooe, no?.56-57

) Nieo A., no?. 185-190.

) “Iiae iaeiaii, nai?ii, iioeeiie e ae?oaei ieaoaaeii iiieiaaony
iaycaoaeueiue aciin a athaeaeao niioaaonoaothuaai o?iaiy eee ai
aiaathaeaeaoiue oiiae, inouanoaeyaiue ieaoaeueueeaie a ii?yaeea e ia
oneiaeyo, ii?aaeaeyaiuo caeiiiaeaoaeueiuie aeoaie.

Niaieoiiinoue iaeiaia, nai?ia, iioeei e ae?oaeo ieaoaaeae (aeaeaa –
iaeiae), aceiaaiuo a onoaiiaeaiiii ii?yaeea, ia?acoao iaeiaiaoth
nenoaio”. No 2 Caeiia ia iniiaao iaeiaiaie nenoaiu a ?O.

) no.8 Iaeiaiaiai Eiaeaena ?O

) Ea?e, no?.14.

) THoeeia, no?.75

) /.1 no.12 IE

) no.13 IE

) Ea?e, no?.24

) Ea?e, no?.25

) n?. 1987, no?. 3223

) Ea?e, no?. 78

) n?. 1975, 1980 “Eiinoeoooeeiiiay oai?ey iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey”

) Ea?e, no?.80

) n?. Kart-Br(mer — einoeooo, 1992

) Ea?e, no?.32

) oae iacuaaaiia oaeiia iiauoaiea iaeiaa

) Ea?e, no?.35.

) Ea?e, no?. 55

) oi, no?.223

) i.2 no.11 IE

)oi, no?.227

) i. 8 I?eeaca AIN io 26.02.1998 aiaea..

)THo, no?.369

) Ea?e, no?.118

) oai aea

) Ea?e, no?.119

)Oi, no?.232

) no.no.1-2 Caeiia ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee i ainoaea?noaaiiie iioeeia.

) a Aa?iaiee iaeia ia ieia?aeueiua ianea caieiaao /aoaa?oia ianoi

) Ea?e, no?. 127

) Ea?e, no?.113.

) Ea?e, no?. 151.

) Ea?e, no?.158

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