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7.02.1997 Eaeoeey 1.

Oeiainu, eae noieiinoiay eaoaai?ey .

Yeiiiie/aneia niaea?aeaiea e i?eciaee eaoaai?ee oeiainia.

Ianoi e ?ieue oeiainia a nenoaia aeaiaaeiuo ?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiuo
ioiioaiee.

Ooieoeee oeiainia.

Aeeneonneiiiua aii?inu nouiinoe e ooieoeee oeiainia.

1) Oa?iei “oeiainu” iiyaeeny a Caiaaeiie Aa?iia a XVII aaea e a
ia?aaiaea ia ?onneee icia/aao “aeaiaaeiue ieaoaae”, “ieaoaae a n?ie”.
Oeiainiaua ioiioaiey aicieeee ?aiueoa e enoi?eee oi/ii ia iacuaatho
aeaoo eo ca?iaeaeaiey. Iaeie n/eoatho, /oi yoi i?iecioei, eiaaea
ainoaea?noai noaei niae?aoue iaeiae e aeaiue a aeaiaaeiie oi?ia –
Ae?aaiee ?ei, Aaaeeii, Aaeiao – aaea ii?aaeaeaiiay /anoue aeioiaeia
ainoaea?noaa oi?ie?iaaeanue can/ao iaeiaia a aeaiaaeiie oi?ia. Eiua
iieaaatho, /oi yoi i?iecioei aua ?aiueoa – i?e oieaoa iaycaoaeueiuo
aeaiaaeiuo aciinia a ?aeeaeiciua i?aaiecaoeee. A ?innee (Eeaaneay ?onue)
oeiainiaua ioiioaiey neaai ?acaeou, a iniiaiii ?ano?nu ainoaea?noaa
oi?ie?iaaeenue can/ao iaoo?aeueiuo iiaeaoae. N i?eoiaeii ia ?onue
iiiaiei-oaoa?ia i?iecioee eciaiaiey; Cieioay I?aea o?aaiaaea oieaoo
aeaie(aueoia) a oi?ia ae?aaioeaiiuo iaoaeeia – cieioa, na?aa?a, /oi a
eaeie-oi noaiaie noeioee?iaaei ?acaeoea oeiainiauo ioiioaiee.

Oeiainiaay iaoea aeeeoaeueiia a?aiy ?anniao?eaaea eaoaai?eth “oeiainia”
oi?iuaiii, eae iaeoth noiio aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa, eniieuecoaioth
ainoaea?noaii e iaeioi?uie ae?oaeie o/anoieeaie aeaiaaeiuo ioiioaiee. A
aei?aaiethoeeiiiii neiaa?a i?eaaaeaii neaaeothuaa ii?aaeaeaiea oeiainia:
oeiainu – niaieoiiinoue n?aaenoa, iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey oaeiaeaoai?aiey
iio?aaiinoae ainoaea?noaaie ?acee/iuo iauanoaaiiuo a?oii. A Niaaoneia
a?aiy: niaaoneea oeiainu – aeaiaaeiua ?ano?nu, nin?aaeioi/eaaaiua a
?anii?yaeaiee niaaoneiai ainoaea?noaa aeey inouanoaeaiey aai ooieoeee ii
oicyenoaaiii-i?aaiecaoeeiiiie e eoeueoo?ii-ainieoaoaeueiie ?aaioa,
io?aia nioeeaeenoe/aneie nianoaaiiinoe e iai?iia no?aiu.

Aeey iao/iiai ii?aaeaeaiey naaaeaiea oeiainia e aeaiaaeiui n?aaenoaai
iai?aaiia?ii, aaaeue ia naiii aeaea iiae?acoiaaathony ii?aaeaeaiiua
iia?aoeee n aeaiaaeiuie n?aaenoaaie, eo aeaeaeaiea. Ethaay oeiainiaay
iia?aoeey eiaao aaeaeo ia?aiauaiea aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa iaaeaeo
noauaeoaie oicyenoaa, iieueciaaoaeyie aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa eee
ia?aiauaiea aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa a oa eee eiua aeaiaaeiua oiiaeu. A
i?ioeanna yoiai ia?aiauaiey aicieeatho yeiiiie/aneea ioiioaiey (iai?eia?
i?e auieaoa iainee, oieaoa iaeiaia). Oaeei ia?acii, oeiainu –
yeiiiie/aneay eaoaai?ey, iia au?aaeaao /anoue yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaiee.

Ioeai/ii oaeaea iiaiea, /oi e oeiainai neaaeoao ioiineoue oieueei
athaeaeao, aai oi?ie?iaaiea, aaaeue iiieii iaeanoe ainoaea?noaaiiuo
oeiainia nouanoaoao iiiaeanoai ioiioaiee, ia naycaiiuo n oi?ie?iaaieai
ainoaea?noaaiiiai athaeaeaoa, aaaeue nouanoaotho e ioiioaiey ii
oi?ie?iaaieth oiiaeia ia i?aaei?eyoee.

Iaeiaei, ainoaea?noai ea?aao aieueooth ?ieue, o.e. :

Ainoaea?noaaiiua oeiainu – i/aiue iaoe?iay iaeanoue a nenoaia oeiainiauo
ioiioaiee.

Ainoaea?noai ?aaoee?oao, oi?aaeyao oeiainiauie ioiioaieyie i?aeoe/anee
ai anao noa?ao.

O/anoaoy a yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaieyo, oeiainu acaeiiaeaenoaotho n
?acee/iuie yeiiiie/aneeie eaoaai?eyie, iiyoiio ia iiaa?oiinoe auaeaeytho
a?aieoeu oeiainiauo ioiioaiee – o.a. eaeay iia?aoeey, eino?oiaio
yeiiiieee ioiineony e oeiainiaie noa?a. *oiau ii?aaeaeeoue a?aieoeu
oeiainiauo ioiioaiee, oeiainiaie iaoea iio?aaiaaeinue iaeoe
ioee/eoaeueiua i?eciaee oeiainia, i?enouea oeiainiaui ioiioaieyi e
io?aaeathuea eo niaoeeoeeo:

Oeiainu – aeaiaaeiay eaoaai?ey ( naycaia n aeaiaaeiuie n?aaenoaaie).
Oioy e a ia?eiae aiaiiiai eiiioiecia nouanoaiaaea
i?iae?acaa?noea,auieaoa iaeiaia i?iecaiaeeeanue a iaoo?a. E nae/an ia
?aaeiiaeueiii o?iaia oieaoa a athaeaeao /anoe i?iaeoeoeee i?aaei?eyoey,
eioi?ia ?aaioaao ca “/a?iue iae” eee ii aa?oa?o. Yoe ioiioaiey ia
ioiinyony e oeiainiaui.

Oeiainu naycaiu ia n ethauie oi?iaie aeaeaeaiey aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa.
Nouanoaotho 2 iniiaiua oi?iu – iaiai e ?ani?aaeaeaiea. Iaiai – eiaaea
i?ienoiaeeo caiai aeaiaaeiie oi?iu ia oiaa?ioth, eee iaano?a/o oiaa?iiio
yeaeaaeaioo aeaeaeaony aeaiaaeiue. I?e ?ani?aaeaeaiee i?ienoiaeeo
aeaeaeaiea oieueei aeaiaaeiiai yeaeaaeaioa, i?e/ai oieueei a
iaeiinoi?iiiai ii?yaeea, oioy e aeiioneaaony aica?ao aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa
/a?ac ii?aaeaeaiiia a?aiy. Oeiainu naycaiu oieueei n ?ani?aaeaeaieai.

Oeiainu naycaiu n ?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiui i?ioeannii, inouanoaeyaiui ia
aacyeaeaaeaioiie, aacaica?aoiie iniiaa, a e?aaeeo – ia iniiaa n?i/iinoe.
ieaoiinoe, aica?aoiinoe. E.g. a caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa Aa?iaiee iaeia
ii?aaeaeyaony eae aciin,eioi?ue ia aea/ao ii?aaeaeaiiuo ia?aoiuo
iaycaoaeuenoa ni noi?iiu ainoaea?noaa.

?ani?aaeaeaiea, inouanoaeyaiia n iiiiuueth oeiainia, naycaii n iiiyoeyie
“oeiainiaua ?ano?nu” e “aeaiaaeiua oiiaeu”. ?ani?aaeaeaiea i?ienoiaeeo
iooai oi?ie?iaaiey e eniieueciaaiey aeaiaaeiuo oiiaeia, o.a. oeiainu
eniieuecotho oiiaeiaue iaoiae ?ani?aaeaeaiey.

?acee/atho aeaa iniiaiuo naienoaa aeaiaaeiiai oiiaea :

Ii?aaeaeaiiia oeaeaaia iacia/aiea. Aeaiaaeiua n?aaenoaa, iiiaaoea a
oiiae, eniieuecothony oieueei ia onoaiiaeaiiua oeaee.

Aeaiaaeiua oiiaeu, ii?yaeie eo oi?ie?iaaiey e eniieueciaaiey
?aaeaiaioe?oaony ii?aaeaeaiiuie ii?iaoeaiuie aeoaie.

Def : Oeiainu – yeiiiie/aneay eaoaai?ey, naycaiiay n ?ani?aaeaeaieai
oeiainiauo ?ano?nia iooai oi?ie?iaaiey e eniieueciaaiey aeaiaaeiuo
oiiaeia ia aacyeaeaaeaioiie iniiaa. I?eia? : auieaoa ca?aaioiie ieaou –
iaoeiainiaua ioiioaiey, auieaoa i?aiee – oeiainiaua ioiioaiey).

Eaeoeey 2.

2) A ?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiii i?ioeanna o/anoaotho oaeaea oaeea eaoaai?ee eae
oeaia, ca?aaioiay ieaoa (oiiae iieaou o?oaea). I?e ioeeiiaiee io
noieiinoe oeaia aunooiaao a ?iee eino?oiaioa ?ani?aaeaeaiey, a ia
iaiaia. Anee oeaia ioeeiiyaony io noieiinoe aiec. oi auea?uaaao
iieoiaoaeue. Anee ioeeiiaiea a cia/eoaeueiuo ?acia?ao e aeeeoaeueiia
a?aiy, oi iaiaoiaeeiu niaoeeaeueiua oeiainiaua eino?oiaiou. Iai?eia? :

Ioeeiiaiea oeaiu io noieiinoe aaa?o aea/ao ca niaie onoaiiaeaiea
niaoeeaeueiie iaaeaaaee e oeaia a oi?ia iaeiaia: IAeN, aeoeecu e
oaiiaeaiiua iioeeiu – ana iie i?eaiaeyo e oaaee/aieth oeaiu. Iinea
inouanoaeaiey iia?aoeee eoiee-i?iaeaaee i?iaeaaaoe aeieaeai ec
ia?aciaaaoaeny au?o/ee ia?a/eneeoue ainoaea?noao i?e/eoathueany
einaaiiua iaeiae.

A neo/aa eiaaea iiiiiieeno caauoaao oeaio e iieo/aao iiiiiieueioth
naa?oi?eaueue ( ia?aie/aiea ainoaea?noaii a 90-o aiaeao oi?aiaie
iaaeaaaee o?iaiai a 25%). A 1992-93 aiaeao ainoaea?noai ecuiaei
i?aaei?eyoee- iiiiiieenoia a athaeaeao anth i?eaueue , i?aauoathuoth
ii?iaoeaioth ?aioaaaeueiinoue – aeey aieueoeinoaa io?aneae – 25% io
naaanoieiinoe – ioiaiai a 1994 aiaeo. Yoi iaeei ec aa?eaioia
acaeiiaeaenoaey oeaiu e niaoeeaeueiuo oeiainiauo ?u/aaia.

A NNN? aeey iiiu?aiey auionea iaoeiaieie i?iaeoeoeee auee
iiiu?eoaeueiua iaaeaaaee e oeaia – niaoeeaeueiua eino?oiaiou, oiiaeu
yeiiiie/aneiai noeioee?iaaiey.

I?e ioeeiiaiee oeaiu ieaea naaanoieiinoe, ainoaea?noai iaycuaaao
i?iaeaaaoue ii ieceie oeaia, aiciauay i?e yoii iioa?th, ?acieoeo a
oeaiao, iaania/eaay aeioaoeee, i?aaeinoaaeyaiua ec aiaathaeaeaoiuo
oiiaeia. A aieaa oe?ieeo ?acia?ao i?iecaiaeeony aiciauaiea ?acieoeu a
oeaiao ia iinoaaeo ieia?aeueiuo oaeia?aiee, naeueneioicyenoaaiiie
oaoieee, ainoaea?noai iaycoaony aicianoeoue 20% oeaiu ( oaeaea aeey
n?aaenoa oeie/aneie caueou).I/aiue aieueoie eaiae aeioe?iaaiey –
oaieueiay i?iiuoeaiiinoue. Ainoaea?noai, naeaeaa oeaiu ia oaieue
naiaiaeiuie (iie ieaea ?aaeueiie noieiinoe), iaycoaony eiiiaine?iaaoue
oaieueiui i?aaei?eyoeyi oauoee iooai i?aaeinoaaeaiey aeiiieieoaeueiuo
eueaio.

Ii ia oieueei oeiainiaua ?an/aou, naycaiiua n athaeaeaoii, o/anoaotho a
?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiii i?ioeanna, o.e. ia i?aaei?eyoee nicaeathony
niaoeeaeueiua ?aca?aiua oiiaeu, aiciauathuea oauoee a ?acoeueoaoa
eiiuthieoo?iiai ioeeiiaiey oeaiu io noieiinoe aiec. Iaeioi?ua
i?aaei?eyoey i?eaaaatho e no?aoiaaieth ?eneia, naycaiiuo n
aicieeiiaaieai oauoeia, naycaiiuo n eciaiaieai oeai. A ?acee/iuo
iauaaeeiaieyo, ieienoa?noaao, OIA nicaeathony niaoeeaeueiua oiiaeu aeey
ieacaiey iiaeaea?aeee.

Oeaia aeeyao ia oeiainiaia ?ani?aaeaeaiea, eae ecia?eoaeue noieiinoe.
Iauay aaee/eia oeiainiauo ?ano?nia caaeneo io iiieiaeueiiai o?iaiy oeai
a no?aia.

Oeaiu ?ani?aaeaeytho iaeioi?ua noieiinoiua i?iii?oeee ?ani?aaeaeaiey
AAI, /anoue eo eaeao ia aiciauaiea iniiaiiai i?iecaiaenoaa.

Neaaeothuay eaoaai?ey – ca?aaioiay ieaoa. Iia naycaia n oi?ie?iaaieai e
eniieueciaaieai oiiaeia ?ani?aaeaeaiey. Ca?ieaoa – aieaa oceea a?aieoeu
?ani?aaeaeaiey, /ai oeiainu, ?ani?aaeaeythuea aieueooth /anoue
iauanoaaiiiai i?iaeoeoa. ?ani?aaeaeaiea ca?aaioiie ieaou i?aaeiieaaaao
yeaeaaeaioiinoue o?oaeo, eioi?ue aue cao?a/ai. Oeiainu e c/ie oanii
acaeiiaeaenoaotho ae?oa n ae?oaii a ?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiii i?ioeanna.
Oeiainu einaaiiui ia?acii o/anoaotho a iaoaiecia ?ani?aaeaeaiey oiiaea
iieaou o?oaea. N iiiiuueth oeiainiaiai iaoaiecia ?ani?aaeaeyaony au?o/ea
ia i?aaei?eyoee. A a athaeaeaoiuo i?aaiecaoeeyo oiiae iieaou o?oaea
nicaeaaony can/ao athaeaeaoiuo n?aaenoa, ii?aaeaeythueo aai ?acia?. C/ie
iiaeao ?ani?aaeaeyoueny n iiiiuueth oeiainiauo ?ano?nia.

O i?aaei?eyoey iinoiyiii aicieeaao caaeieaeaiiinoue ii ca?aaioiie ieaoa
ia?aae ?aaioieeaie. A nayce n yoei eniieuecotho iiiyoea onoie/eaua
ianneau, eae n?aaenoaa , iinoiyiii iaoiaeyueany a oeiainiaii iai?ioa. N
ca?aaioiie ieaou i?iecaiaeyony io/eneaiey a athaeaeao, iiiaea a?aaeaeaia
inouanoaeytho aeia?iaieueiua oeiainiaua iia?aoeee, caeeth/ay aeiaiai?u
no?aoiaaiey, i?iecaiaey iia?aoeee n oeaiiuie aoiaaaie.

E?aaeeo – aua iaeia eaoaai?ey, iaeaieaa naycaiiay n oeiainaie. A
caiaaeiie eeoa?aoo?a yoe iiiyoey i/aiue /anoi iauaaeeiythony. Iaeiaei:

E?aaeeo – ia oneiaeyo ieaoiinoe, n?i/iinoe, aica?aoiinoe e
iaania/aiiinoe, oeiainu aea – iaiai?io.

?aciua enoi/ieee. Oeiainu ii?aaeaeythony ec noieiinoe iauanoaaiiiai
i?iaeoeoa e /anoe iaoeeiiaeueiiai aiaaonoaa oaea ia ia?ae/iie noaaeee
?ani?aaeaeaiey; e?aaeeoiua ?ano?nu nicaeathony can/ao a?aiaiii
naiaiaeiuo aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa.

A ?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiii i?ioeanna oeiainu e e?aaeeo iiaoo acaeiicaiaiyoue
ae?oa ae?oaa a oao eee eiuo oicyenoaaiiuo i?ioeannao. Iooe aeiaeaaiey
aeaiaa :

auione oeaiiuo aoiaa

oeaeaaia oeiaine?iaaiea

e?aaeeou a aaiea.

A ii?aaeaeaiiuo neo/ayo oeiainiaua ?ano?nu iiaoo i?aa?auaoueny a
e?aaeeoiua e, iaiai?io ( aeieain?i/iua e?aaeeou aaiea ia no?ieoaeuenoai,
aaiee ieaoyo iaeiae a athaeaeao , o.a. ia?aeea aaieianeeo n?aaenoa a
athaeaeaoiua; iieo/aiea e?aaeeoia io OeA Ieioeiii aeey iiaaoaiey
athaeaeaoiiai aeaoeoeeoa.

4) Aeeneonneiiiua aii?inu nouiinoe e ooieoeee oeiainia i?aaeaea anaai
eanathony a?aieoe oeiainiauo ioiioaiee. Auaeaeytho 2 iiiaioa, ii eioi?ui
ia niaiaaeatho oi/ee c?aiey :

– ia eaeeo noaaeeyo aicieeatho oeiainiaua ioiioaiey :

1) ?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiay eiioeaioeey ( naiaeeo oeiainiaua ioiioaiey
oieueei e noaaeee ?ani?aaeaeaiey). Oeiainu aeeytho iiin?aaenoaaiii ia
i?iecaiaenoai, iio?aaeaiea, oai o/eouaathony oieueei
iaoa?eaeueii-aauanoaaiiua oaeoi?u).

2) Aini?iecaiaenoaaiiay eiioeaioeey. Oeiainu aicieeatho ia anao noaaeeyo
aini?iecaiaenoaaiiiai i?ioeanna + iaiai. Iniiaiie eo a?aoiaio – iiuiia
aeeyiea oeiainia ia i?iecaiaenoai, iio?aaeaiea, iaiai.

– aeeth/aoue ee ee/iua ?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiua ioiioaiey :

Iaeioi?ua n/eoatho, /oi ?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiua ioiioaiey nouanoaotho
oieueei ia iauanoaaiiii o?iaia, ae?oaea – /oi neaaeoao aeeth/aoue oaeaea
e ee/iua oeiainu (athaeaeao). O ian eaeao nic?aaaiea iaiaoiaeeiinoe
aeeth/aiey oaeeo oeiainia.

Ii ioee/eoaeueiui i?eciaeai – ?anoiaeaeaiea a aii?ina i oii, neaaeoao ee
a ea/anoaa naienoa oeiainiauo ioiioaiee oeacuaaoue i?eciae
eiia?aoeaiinoe (i?io. Aicianaineee) – yoi cia/eo. /oi oeiainiaua
ioiioaiey ?aaeaiaioe?othony ainoaea?noaii /a?ac ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaua
aeieoiaiou.

20.02.1997

Eaeoeey ? 3. Oeiainiaay nenoaia.

Eiay aaeaeo oeiainiaoth nenoaio, ?anniao?eaaaony any niaieoiiinoue
oeiainiauo ioiioaiee, eae nenoaia, a eioi?ie auaeaeythony ioaeaeueiua
noa?u e caaiuey oeiainiauo ioiioaiee.

Iaeaieaa e?oiiuie iiae?acaeaeaieyie oeiainiaie nenoaiu yaeythony noa?u
oeiainiauo ioiioaiee. Aieueoeinoai auaeaeytho 3 noa?u :

ainoaea?noaaiiua oeiainu ;

no?aoiaaiea ;

oeiainu i?aaei?eyoee e i?aaiecaoeee ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa ;

Aaaeouaa ianoi a nenoaia oeiainiauo ioiioaiee caieiatho ainoaea?noaaiiua
oeiainu, o.e. iie aeeoioee?otho e ia?a?ani?aaeaeytho aieueooth /anoue
oeiainiauo ?ano?nia no?aiu. Iniai neeueiia aeeyiea ieacuaaaony e ia
inoaeueiua noa?u oeiainiauo ioiioaiee, a aeey aeey iaeioi?uo io?aneae –
yoi iniiaiie enoi/iee, iaania/eaathuee eo ooieoeeiie?iaaiea – io?anee
iai?iecaiaenoaaiiie noa?u.

Enoiaeiay noa?ie nenoaiu oeiainiauo ioiioaiee yaeythony oeiainu
i?aaei?eyoee e i?aaiecaoeee, o.e. yoa noa?a aeeaea anaai ?aniieiaeaia e
i?iecaiaenoaaiiui ioiioaieyi. Eiaiii caeanue nicaeathony ia?ae/iua
oeiainiaua ?ano?nu, eioi?ua caoai ?ani?aaeaeythony ii ?acee/iui eaiaeai
oeiainiaie nenoaiu. Yoe noa?u eiatho iaeaieueoee iioaioeeae aicaeaenoaey
ia i?iecaiaenoai.

No?aoiaaiea auaeaeaii a ioaeaeueioth a?oiio a neeo niaoeeoeee no?aoiauo
ioiioaiee, aeeth/athueo iaoaieci oi?ie?iaaiey oiiaeia no?aoiauo
i?aaiecaoeee, eo eniieueciaaiea iaoiaeaie, ioee/iuie io i?eiaiyaiuo a
ae?oaeo noa?ao oeiainiauo ioiioaiee.

Eaaeaeie noa?a oeiainiauo ioiioaiee niioaaonoaotho naie aeaiaaeiua
oiiaeu, eioi?ua oi?ie?othony e eniieuecothony n iiiiuueth yoeo
oeiainiauo ioiioaiee, a oaeaea i?aaiu, inouanoaeythuea oi?aaeaiea
oeiainiauie ioiioaieyie. Iiyoiio oeiainiaay nenoaia aeeth/aao ia oieueei
niaieoiiinoue oeiainiauo ioiioaiee, ii e aeaiaaeiua oiiaeu, e i?aaiu
oi?aaeaiey, ionthaea ii?aaeaeaiea :

Oeiainiaay nenoaia – niaieoiiinoue noa? e caaiueaa oeiainiauo ioiioaiee,
naycaiiuo n ieie aeaiaaeiuo oiiaeia e i?aaiia oi?aaeaiey oeiainaie.

Aioo?e eaaeaeie noa?u oeiainiaie nenoaiu auaeaeythony ioaeaeueiua
caaiuey. A ninoaaa ainoeiainia iau/ii auaeaeytho 3 caaia :

athaeaeaoiay nenoaia;

aiaathaeaeaoiua oiiaeu;

ainoaea?noaaiiue e?aaeeo.

Eaaeaeia ec caaiueaa a niioaaonoaee nia?aiaiiiio ain. ono?ienoao ?O
iiae?acaeaeyaony ia 3 o?iaiy, niioaaonoaothuea o?iaiyi ainoaea?noaaiiie
aeanoe.

Athaeaeaoiay nenoaia : oaaea?aeueiue athaeaeao + athaeaeaou noauaeoia
oaaea?aoeee + ianoiua athaeaeaou (naiay iiiai/eneaiiay /anoue
athaeaeaoiie nenoaiu).

Athaeaeaoiay nenoaia – naiia e?oiiia caaii ainoeiainia, a eioi?ie
aeeoioee?oaony iniiaiay /anoue iaeiaiauo iinooieaiee, /a?ac iaa
inouanoaeyaony oeiaine?iaaiea aaaeiaeoeo iai?aaeaiee ainoaea?noaaiiie
iieeoeee (?anoiaeu, naycaiiua n niaea?aeaieai ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaiia
aeanoe, iai?iio, yeiiiie/aneea e nioeeaeueiua oeaee).

Aiaathaeaeaoiua oiiaeu iiae?acaeaeythony ia 3 o?iaiy ainoaea?noaaiiie
aeanoe. Eo iniiaiia iacia/aiea a ?O a ianoiyuaa a?aiy – ?aoaiea
nioeeaeueiuo caaea/ (niaea?aeaiea iao?oaeiniiniaiuo, ieacaiea iiiiue
aac?aaioiui, oeiaine?iaaiea aeeciaiii aaaeiuo ?anoiaeiuo noaoae.
Auaeaeytho 4 caaia :

Iaineiiiue oiiae ?O;

Ainoaea?noaaiiue oiiae nioeeaeueiiai no?aoiaaiey;

Iaycaoaeueiua oiiaeu iaaeeoeeineiai ia?aciaaiey;

Oiiaeu caiyoinoe ianaeaiey.

A ioaeaeueiua aiaeu aei 2/3 anao iinooieaiee i?eoiaeeony ia yoe 4
oiiaea. Eneeth/eoaeueiay iniaaiiinoue aiaathaeaeaoiuo oiiaeia – oi, /oi
iie inouanoaeytho oeiaine?iaaiea ia?aie/aiiiai e?oaa oeaeae ii
n?aaiaieth n athaeaeaoiuie oiiaeaie.

Ainoaea?noaaiiue e?aaeeo – iauaaeeiyao a naaa niaoeeoe/aneea oeiainiaua
ioiioaiey, nouanoaothuea aeey iiaeeecaoeee ainoaea?noaii
aeiiieieoaeueiuo oeiainiauo ?ano?nia, a oaeaea i?aaeinoaaeaiey n?aaenoa
i?aaei?eyoeyi, i?aaiecaoeeyi, ae?oaei ainoaea?noaai ia oneiaeyo
n?i/iinoe, ieaoiinoe, aica?aoiinoe. A iniiaiii ainoaea?noaaiiue e?aaeeo
– yoi oeiainiaua ioiioaiey, naycaiiua n eniieueciaaieai, iiaeeecaoeeae
aeiiieieoaeueiuo oeiainiauo ?ano?nia aeey athaeaeaoiie nenoaiu.

A noa?a no?aoiaaiey(2500 no?aoiauo eiiiaiee) oeiainiaua ioiioaiey
aicieeatho ii iiaiaeo oi?ie?iaaiey no?aoiauo oiiaeia, can/ao no?aoiauo
aciinia, oiea/eaaaiuo no?aoiaaoaeth n oeaeueth aiciauaiey oua?aa,
aicieeathuaai o o/anoieeia no?aoiaaiey i?e ianooieaiee no?aoiauo
neo/aaa. No?aoiaaiea iauaaeeiyao aieueoia eiee/anoai ioiioaiee, ionthaea
?acaeaeaiea ia caaiuey :

nioeeaeueiia no?aoiaaiea ( iauaeo – iioa?y aeioiaeia e aeiiieieoaeueiua
?anoiaeu ianaeaiey a ?acoeueoaoa iioa?e o?oaeiniiniaiinoe, aac?aaioeoeu,
a oaeaea a nayce n iaoa?einoaii e ae?. auieaou)

iaaeeoeeineia no?aoiaaiea ( oeiainiaua ioiioaiey, aicieeathuea ii
iiaiaeo aiciauaiey cao?ao ia ieacaiea iaaeeoeeineie iiiiue
cano?aoiaaiiui a?aaeaeaiai – i?aaeinoaaeaiea iiiiue a iaoo?a, a
iiea/eaaao no?aoiaay eiiiaiey iaaei?aaei?eyoeth – i?iecaiaeeoaeth).

ee/iia no?aoiaaiea ( naycaii ni no?aoiaaieai aeecie e caei?iauey
a?aaeaeai – o.a. no?aooaony oieueei naia caei?iauea – o/eouaaaony oa
noiia, a eioi?oth ioeaieaaaony aaoa aeeciue).

eiouanoaaiiia no?aoiaaiea ( iauaeo – eiouanoai oece/aneeo e
th?eaee/aneeo eeoe; aeaaeue, iia?aaeaeaiea, i?iiaaea – ana yoi iiaeao
auoue iniiaaieai aeey auieaou no?aoiaiai aciina. Yoi naiia ae?aaiaa
caaii).

no?aoiaaiea i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneeo ?eneia ( iauaeo – oauoee.
iaaeiiieo/aiiay i?eaueue, aeiiieieoaeueiua ?anoiaeu, aicieeoea a
?acoeueoaoa oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe cano?aoiaaiiiai i?aaei?eyoey).

no?aoiaaiea ioaaonoaaiiinoe ( iauaeo – oua?a, iaianaiiue cano?aoiaaiiui
o?aoueei eeoeai (“oeceee e th?eeoea”) – iai?eia?, no?aoiaaiea
a?aaeaeaineie ioaaonoaaiiinoe aeaaeaeueoea o?ainii?oiuo n?-a).

Oeiainu i?aaei?eyoee e i?aaiecaoeee – i/aiue aieueoay noa?a oeiainiauo
ioiioaiee(a ?O – ie. 3 iei. i?aaei?eyoee). Oi/ii nenoaiaoece?iaaoue yoo
niaieoiiinoue aeinoaoi/ii neiaeii. Eeanneoeeaoeey i?iecaiaeeony ii ?yaeo
i?eciaeia :

Ioaeaeueiua caaiuey oeiainiauo ioiioaiee a caaeneiinoe io oi?i
nianoaaiiinoe e IIO oic-aa. Auaeaeytho oeiainu oiaa?euanoa,iauanoa,
aini?aaei?eyoee, o/?aaeaeaiee, iauanoaaiiuo i?aaiecaoeee, iauanoaaiiuo
oiiaeia.

A caaeneiinoe io noaiaie oeaio?aeecaoeee :

oeiainu i?aaei?eyoee;

oeiainu iauaaeeiaiee, ei?ii?aoeee, oieaeeiaia, OIA;

oeiainu ieienoa?noa e aaaeiinoa ( caeanue ?a/ue eaeao i oaeoe/aneeo
ioiioaieyo, naycaiiuo n oi?ie?iaaieai e eniieueciaaieai ia iniiaa
oeaio?aeeciaaiiiai ?ani?aaeaeaiey oeiainiauo ?ano?nia ii oiiaeai).

oeiainu oeeeaeia, aei/a?ieo i?aaei?eyoee.

Io?aneaaie i?eciae : oeiainu i?iiuoeaiiuo, n/o, o?ainii?oiuo
i?aaei?eyoee. Io?aneaaua iniaaiiinoe – aieueoia aeeyiea (a.g.,
iaycaoaeueii nicaeaiea ?aca?aiiai oiiaea a oaeeo io?aneyo, eae n/o e
ae?. naciiiua ?aaiou).

A caaeneiinoe io oa?aeoa?a oic. aeayoaeueiinoe auaeaeytho iaeiiia?/aneea
e eiiia?/aneea (1. Aeaaiay oeaeue – i?eaueue 2. Iia ?ani?aaeaeyaony
iaaeaeo o/?aaeeoaeyie) oeiainu i?aaei?eyoee e i?aaiecaoeee.

Iaaeaeo ioaeaeueiuie caaiueyie nouanoaotho oaniua acaeiinayce.

Ainoeiainu e oeiainu i?aaei?eyoee e i?aaiecaoeee – i?e oieaoa iaeiaia,
auieaoa io/eneaiee ai aiaathaeaeaoiua oiiaeu, iieoiea ainoaea?noaaiiuo
OeaAo, aeathueo aeiiieieoaeueiua iinooieaiey oeiainiauo ?ano?nia a
ainnoa?o ec noa?u i?aaei?eyoee e i?aaiecaoeee. N ae?oaie noi?iiu –
auaeaeaiea n?aaenoa ia niaea?aeaiea iaeiiia?/aneeo i?aaiecaoeee; a
ia?aie/aiiuo ?acia?ao athaeaeaoiua n?aaenoaa i?aaeinoaaeythony
eiiia?/aneei i?aaiecaoeeyi, i?aaeaea anaai ainoaea?noaaiiui, ia
?acaeoea, eaiaeiaeaiey, ia iie?uoea oauoeia iaeioi?uo ainoaea?noaaiiuo
eiiia?/aneeo i?aaiecaoeee (oaieueiay i?-noue, AE-E oicyenoai); oaeaea
iiaaoaiea aincaeiia, ?aciauaiiuo n?aaee i?aaei?eyoee e i?aaiecaoeee –
aeiiieieoaeueiua enoi/ieee n?aaenoa aeey ?acaeoey iineaaeieo.

Ainoeiainu e no?aoiaaiea – oieaoa a athaeaeao iaeiaia no?aoiauie
eiiiaieyie.

No?aoiaaiea e oeiainu i?aaei?eyoee – oieaoa no?aoiauo aciinia
i?aaei?eyoeyie e i?aaiecaoeeyie e oieaoa no?aoiauo aiciauaiee.

Aioo?e eaaeaeie noa?u oaeaea nouanoaotho oeiainiaua ioiioaiey. Iai?eia?,
aioo?e athaeaeaoiie noa?u inouanoaeyaony i?aaeinoaaeaiea n?aaenoa ec
iaeieo athaeaeaoia a ae?oaea aeey naaeaine?iaaiey athaeaeaoia,
i?aaeinoaaeaiey oeiainiaie iiiiue aieaa yeiiiie/anee neaaui athaeaeaoai.
?aaeueii i?iniio?aoue e naycue athaeaeaoa n aiaathaeaeaoiuie oiiaeaie –
IO iieo/aao ec athaeaeaoa aeaiueae aeey auieaou iainee aiaiiineoaeauei,
a iiiaea aiaathaeaeaoiua oiiaeu ?aciauatho naie naiaiaeiua ?ano?nu a
ainoaea?noaaiiua OeaAo – i?eaea/aiea /anoe oiiaeia. Aioo?e oeiainia
i?aaei?eyoee – iieoiea OeaAo iaeiiai i?aaei?eyoey o ae?oaiai, o/anoea a
ia?aciaaiee i?aaei?eyoey a ea/anoaa o/?aaeeoaey. auieaoa iaonoiae,
ia?aciaaaoeony a ?acoeueoaoa acaeiiuo ?an/aoia.

??? – I?eaanoe naie i?eia?u acaeiiioiioaiee aioo?e e iaaeaeo noa?aie.

Iaaeaeo eiiia?/aneeie e iaeiiia?/aneeie i?aaiecaoeeyie – i/aiue iiiai
nioeeaeueii-eoeueoo?iuo o/?aaeaeaiee ninoiyo ia aaeaina e?oiiuo
i?aaei?eyoee, a a iaaeaaiai i?ioeii auee oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiaiu e
a?aaeiia?acothuea i?aaei?eyoey(iniaaiii a AIE). Yoe o/?aaeaeaiey
ooieoeeiie?otho can/ao i?eauee i?aaei?eyoee-aeaaioia, can/ao eo
eiiia?/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe. Oeiainiaua ioiioaiey – ieaoa ca a?aiaeo
eiouanoaa e iai?oaeiaaiea.

21.02.1997

Eaeoeey ? 4. Eniieueciaaiea oeiainia a oneiaeyo ?uii/iiai oicyenoaa.

I?aaeiinueee eniieueciaaiey oeiainia a iauanoaaiiii aini?iecaiaenoaa.

Oeiainiaua ?ano?nu, eo ninoaa, enoi/ieee e iniiaiua iai?aaeaiey
eniieueciaaiey oeiainiauo ?ano?nia.

Oeiainiaue ?uiie, eae eino?oiaio oeiainiaiai ?ani?aaeaeaiey.

Oeiainiaia iaania/aiea aini?iecaiaenoaaiiuo cao?ao.

Oeiainu eae eino?oiaio ?aaoee?iaaiey yeiiiieee e yeiiiie/aneiai
noeioee?iaaiey.

2) Oeiainiaua ?ano?nu – iaoa?eaeueii-aauanoaaiiue iineoaeue oeiainiauo
ioiioaiee. Oeiainiaia ?ani?aaeaeaiea ioaaouaaao iauanoaaiiue i?iaeoeo e
/anoue noieiinoe IA, iiyoiio e oeiainiaui ?ano?nai ioiinei oo /anoue
noieiinoe iauanoaaiiiai i?iaeoeoa e IA, eioi?ay ?ani?aaeaeyaony e
ia?a?ani?aaeaeyaony n iiiiuueth oeiainia. Oeiainiaua ?ano?nu –
aeaiaaeiua aeioiaeu e iaeiieaiey, oi?ie?oaiua a ?oeao noauaeoia
oicyenoaiaaiey e ainoaea?noaa e i?aaeiacia/aiiua aeey oeaeae
?anoe?aiiiai aini?iecaiaenoaa, iaoa?eaeueiiai noeioee?iaaiey,
oaeiaeaoai?aiey nioeeaeueiuo iio?aaiinoae, ioaeae iai?iiu e
ainoi?aaeaiey.

Oeiainiaua ?ano?nu yaeythony iaeiie ec ninoaaiuo /anoae anao aeaiaaeiuo
?ano?nia, ia?auathueony a no?aia, eioi?ua e?iia ieo aeeth/atho oaeaea
e?aaeeoiua ?ano?nu, aeaiaaeiua aeioiaeu ianaeaiey, iai?ioiua n?aaenoaa
i?aaei?eyoee. I?iaanoe a?aiue iaaeaeo oeiainiauie ?ano?naie e
aeaiaaeiuie aeioiaeaie iao?oaeii. o.e. oeiainiaua ?ano?nu iaoiaeyony a
?anii?yaeaiee ainoaea?noaa e noauaeoia oicyenoaiaaiey, a aoi?ua – a
?oeao a?aaeaeai e eniieuecothony aeey iaania/aiey aeeciaiiuo
iio?aaiinoae.

E?aaeeoiua e oeiainiaua ?ano?nu eiatho ?aciua enoi/ieee, a ai II, –
e?aaeeoiua eniieuecothony ia oneiaeyo n?i/iinoe, ieaoiinoe,
aica?aoiinoe.

Iai?ioiua n?aaenoaa oaeaea ia aeeth/athony a ninoaa oeiainiauo ?ano?nia,
o.e. iniaaiiinoe eniieueciaaiey iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa ia i?aaei?eyoee
i?aaeiieaaatho iinoiyiiia, ia?ac?uaiia eo ia?auaiea a oi?ia
iaoo?aeueii-aauanoaaiiiai neaaaaiiai. I?aaei?eyoea ia iiaeao iai?ioiua
n?aaenoaa aeaaea a?aiaiii iai?aaeoue ia ae?oaea oeaee, o.e. IN anaaaea
aeieaeiu no?iai eniieueciaaoueny ia ianeoaeeaaiea e?oaiiai?ioa
i?aaeiaoia o?oaea ia i?aaei?eyoee. Oeiainiaua ?ano?nu ia iaeaaeatho
aieueoae iacaaeneiinoueth io iaoo?aeueii-aauanoaaiiie oi?iu noieiinoe
nicaeaaaaiiai i?iaeoeoa. Iie iiaoo ?ani?aaeaeyoueny e
ia?a?ani?aaeaeyoueny ii ?acee/iui eaiaeai e aeaiaaeiui oiiaeai, iiyoiio
niaoeeaeenou ia aeeth/atho iai?ioiua n?aaenoaa a ninoaa oeiainiauo
?ano?nia.

Ninoaa oeiainiauo ?ano?nia : iniiao ninoaaeyao NII (ia iee?io?iaia –
au?o/ea). Ii iiae?acaeaeyaony ia AII e aiciauaiea oiiaea iai?ioiuo
n?aaenoa.

Aiciauaiea oiiaea iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa – caeoiea oiaa?ii – iaoa?eaeueiuo
oeaiiinoae, i?aaeiaoia o?oaea aeey aiciaiiaeaiey i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai
i?ioeanna, caeanue oeiainiaua ?ano?nu oi?ie?othony can/ao eceeoea
iniiaiuo n?aaenoa.

A ninoaa AII ia noaaeee ia?ae/iiai ?ani?aaeaeaiey aeeth/athony :
aiciauaiea iniiaiuo n?aaenoa, oiiae iieaou o?oaea e /enoue aeioiae
iauanoaa.

Aiciauaiea iniiaiuo n?aaenoa i?ienoiaeeo can/ao aii?oecaoeeiiiiai oiiaea
(oieueei ?aiiaaoeey), ?aiiioiiai oiiaea e iaiaoa?eaeueiuo aeoeaia; – ana
yoe 3 yeaiaioa yaeythony ioaeaeueiuie aeaeaie oeiainiauo ?ano?nia)

Oiiae iieaou o?oaea ia ioiineony e oeiainiaui ?ano?nai, ii ec c/ie
oaea?aeeaathony iaeiae(o.a. /anoue OIO /a?ac aoi?e/iia ?ani?aaeaeaiea
i?aa?auaaony a oeiainiaua ?ano?nu) e aeia?iaieueiua ieaoaaee (no?aoiaua
aciinu, iieoiea OeaAo).

*enoue aeioiae iauanoaa aeeth/aao 3 eaoaai?ee :

Einaaiiua iaeiae (IAeN, aeoeecu, oaiiaeaiiua iioeeiu).

Io/eneaiey ai aiaathaeaeaoiua oiiaeu e ae?oaea ieaoaaee, aeeth/aaiua a
naaanoieiinoue i?iaeoeoeee.

I?eaueue. E ana yoe 3 yeaiaioa aoiaeyo a ninoaa oeiainiauo ?ano?nia.

O.a. e oeiainiaui ?ano?nai ioiineony aieueoay /anoue nicaeaiiiai
iauanoaii i?iaeoeoa. Ii aeaiiui Ieioeia, a 1996 aiaeo iauai oeiainiauo
?ano?nia ninoaaee 1624 o?ei. ?oaeae, a AAI – 2300 o?ei. ?oaeae; i?iaiic
ia 1997 aiae – 2100 e 2720 o?ei. ?oa. niioaaonoaaiii. No?oeoo?a
oeiainiauo ?ano?nia :

27 % – aii?oecaoeeiiiua io/eneaiey (ec-ca ia?aioeaiee);

24% – i?eaueue;

18% – einaaiiua iaeiae;

15% – ai aiaathaeaeaoiua oiiaeu.

Iooe oaaee/aiey oeiainiauo ?ano?nia :

Aiaoiea caeiu – i?eaea/aiea oeiainiauo ?ano?nia ae?oaeo ainoaea?noa.

Naiaia?aciue enoi/iee oeiainiauo ?ano?nia – aeaiaaeiay yienney.
Ia?auaynue e ia/aoiiio noaieo, ainoaea?noai iaeaaaao ian iac?eiui
einaaiiui iaeiaii.

Aua iaeei iooue – iaoeeiiaeueiia eiouanoai, ioeaieaaaiia a $3,5 o?ei.,
eioi?ia eeoue /anoe/ii aoiaeeo a ninoaa oeiainiauo ?ano?nia /a?ac
au?o/eo io ?aaeecaoeee ainoaea?noaaiiiai eiouanoaa e i?eaaoecaoeee, io
i?iaeaaee iaioaeiiai eiouanoaa th?eaee/aneeo eeoe, inoaoeia
iaeniieueciaaiiuo oeiainiauo oiiaeia, nicaeaiiuo a i?ioeua
aiaeu(athaeaeaoiua, aiaathaeaeaoiua, ?aca?aiua, yeiiiie/aneiai
noeioee?iaaiey), au?o/ea io ?aaeecaoeee aanoiciiai, eiioeneiaaiiiai
eiouanoaa, aica?ao e?aaeeoia iaeioi?uie no?aiaie- aeieaeieeaie. Ii
i?iaiicai ia 1997 aiae, aeioiaeu io i?iaeaaee eiouanoaa – 14 o?ei ?oaeae
– ieiei 0,5%.

Enoi/ieee oeiainiauo ?ano?nia noieiinoue iauanoaaiiiai i?iaeoeoa e IA :

Aeaeu – eiie?aoiua oi?iu, a eioi?uo inouanoaeyaony oeiainiaia
?ani?aaeaeaiea yoeo enoi/ieeia (eiie?aoiua ieaoaaee, io/eneaiey,
aeioiaeu, iaeiieaiey, eioi?ua iu ioiinei e oeiainiaui ?ano?nai.

Iauai oeiainiauo ?ano?nia a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue caaeneo io iauaia AAI,
nicaeaaaaiiai a no?aia, eo iiieiaeueiay aaee/eia oaeaea caaeneo e io
ianooaaa oeai, a oaeaea io niioiioaiey ioaeaeueiuo /anoae iauanoaaiiiai
i?iaeoeoa, e i?aaeaea anaai iaiaoiaeeiiai e i?eaaai/iiai i?iaeoeoa( /ai
aieueoa i?eaaai/iue, oai aieueoa aaee/eia oeiainiauo ?ano?nia.
Oaaee/aiea oeiainiauo ?ano?nia oaeaea iiaeao i?ienoiaeeoue can/ao
oaaee/aiey noieiinoe iniiaiuo oiiaeia a ?acoeueoaoa eciaiaiey ii?iu
aii?oecaoeee eee ia?aioeaiee iniiaiuo oiiaeia.

Oaeoi?u, aeeythuea ia aaee/eio ioaeaeueiuo aeaeia oeiainiauo ?ano?nia :

Ia aaee/eio aii?oecaoeee aeeytho : o?iaaiue aii?oecaoeeiiiuo ii?i,
aaeainiaay noieiinoue iniiaiuo oiiaeia, niioiioaiea iaaeaeo ioaeaeueiuie
yeaiaioaie iniiaiuo oiiaeia.

Io/eneaiey ai aiaathaeaeaoiua oiiaeu, o.e. iie onoaiiaeaiu a % io OIO,
oi caaenyo io aaee/eiu OIO, noaaie no?aoiauo aciinia, o?iaiy
niae?aaiinoe.

I?eaueue caaeneo io o?iaiy ?aioaaaeueiinoe(ecaea?aeae), iauaia
i?iecaiaenoaa e ?aaeecaoeee, no?oeoo?iuo naeaeaia e oeaiu – eae
iniiaiiai oaeoi?a.

Einaaiiua iaeiae caaenyo io iauaia iaeaaaaiiai iai?ioa, o?iaiy noaaie
einaaiiuo iaeiaia, niae?aaiinoe(iaeiaiaie aeenoeeieeiu) e o?iaiy
iaeiaiauo eueaio.

Iaoaaoea oeiainiauo ?ano?nia, n 1 noi?iiu a ?acoeueoaoa i?yiiai
nie?auaiey eo ?aaeueiiai iauaia ec-ca niaaea i?iecaiaenoaa, a n ae?oaie
noi?iiu – ?aceia oaaee/aiea iio?aaiinoe a oeiainiauo ?ano?nao anao noa?
oeiainiauo ioiioaiee, aucaaiiuo iaiaoiaeeiinoueth eiaanoe?iaaiey
no?oeoo?iie ia?ano?ieee yeiiiieee (aeaieeeoa?ecaoeey,
aeaiiiiiieecaoeey); aeacuioaa?aoeey i?iecaiaenoaa e nioeeaeueiay caueoa
iaeieioueo, e?iia oiai oaaee/aiea cao?ao a ?acoeueoaoa iaieuaiey
aieueoie a?oiiu ianaeaiey.

Aeiiieieoaeueiua enoi/ieee oeiainiauo ?ano?nia, ec-ca /aai iaaeiiieo/aai
– ianiaa?oainoai caeiiia; – ioeaee i?eiyoey oi?aaeai/aneeo ?aoaiee
(ooiae ca ?oaaae ia?iiiuo eaieoaeia, a aieueoeo ianooaaao ieacuaaaony
yeiiiie/aneay iiiiuue ae?oaei no?aiai.

Iioa?y oeiainiauo ?ano?nia i?ienoiaeeo a ?acoeueoaoa i?iaeaaee e?oiiuo
i?aaei?eyoee ca ieca?iua oeaiu ai a?aiaia aao/a?ecaoeee ( e.g. Aiaeey a
naia a?aiy io yoiai iieo/eea $100 ie?ae., a ?inney – ieiei $2-3 ie?ae.

Ia?iiiue enoi/iee oeiainiauo ?ano?nia caeeth/ai a iieaciuo eneiiaaiuo,
eioi?ua ii ?aciui aeaiiui ioeaieaathony a $29 o?ei.

E?iia oiai, ia?iiiue oeiainiaue iioaioeeae caeeth/aaony a
aunieieaaeeoeoee?iaaiiie ?aai/ae neea, iaeiaei ainoaea?noai ia nicaeaao
aeaaii?eyoiuo oneiaee aeey aa yenii?oa, a oi a?aiy eae ai iiiaeo ae?oaeo
no?aiao a?aiioii iinoaaeaiiue yenii?o ?aai/ae neeu cia/eoaeueii
iiiieiyao ainoaea?noaaiioth eacio. O ian aea a no?aia a 1995 aiaeo ca
?oaaae auaoaei11000 /ae.

Eaeoeey ? 5. (bad).

I?iaeieaeaiea:

?aca?au oaaee/aiey oeiainiauo ?ano?nia : oaaee/aiea eo ?aaeueiiai iauaia
e ?aoeeiiaeueiia eo eniieueciaaiea. Iiieii ooa/ee aieueoie /anoe
eaieoaea ca ?oaaae, ?inney ieacuaaao aanueia nieeaeioth iiiiuue ae?oaei
no?aiai, ia?iiiua iioa?e – ieiei $10 ie?ae. – i?eianea aieia a *a/ia.
E?iia oiai, caieaie?iaaiu i/aiue aieueoea cao?aou ia i?aaenoiyuea
e?oiiua i?iaeou (ae/ae iaaeno?aeue N.-Iaoa?ao?a – Iineaa; Ieeiieeneea
ea?u a N.-Iaoa?ao?aa).

Iniiaiua iai?aaeaiey eniieueciaaiey oeiainiauo ?ano?nia :

?anoiaeu (eniieueciaaiea oeiainiauo ?ano?nia ia iaania/aiea
aini?iecaiaenoaaiiiai i?ioeanna – n?aaenoaa eiiia?/aneeo i?aaei?eyoee.
Nthaea ioiinyony : ?anoiaeu ia oeiaine?iaaiea eaiaeiaeaiee, cao?aou ia
?aiiio, ia i?eia?aoaiea iaiaoa?eaeueiuo aeoeaia, ainiieiaiea iaaeinoaoea
e oeiaine?iaaiea i?e?inoa iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa; auieaoa i?aiee ?aaioieeai
aeey noeioee?iaaiey o?oaea; i?aaeinoaaeaiea aeioaoeee oauoi/iui
i?aaei?eyoeyi; oi?ie?iaaiea ?aca?aiiai oiiaea; auieaoa no?aoiaiai
aiciauaiey i?aaei?eyoeyi e i?aaiecaoeeyi, oeiaine?iaaiea IEIE?.

Oeiaine?iaaiea nioeeaeueii-eoeueoo?iuo ?anoiaeia. Auieaou
iao?oaeiniiniaiui, iaeieiouei, oeiaine?iaaiea nioeeaeueii-eoeueoo?iuo
o/?aaeaeaiee iaeiiia?/aneiai oeia; no?aoiaua aiciauaiey ii ee/iiio
no?aoiaaieth, auiea/eaaaiua a?aaeaeaiai no?aoiauie i?aaiaie, ieacaiea
iaoa?eaeueiie iiiiue, ?acee/iua nioeeaeueiua eueaiou.

Eniieueciaaiea oeiainiauo ?ano?nia ia ioaeaeu iai?iiu ,
i?aaiio?aieoaeueiuo i?aaiia, i?aaiia ainaeanoe.

?anoiaeu ia auiieiaiea oeiainiauo iaycaoaeuenoa ia?aae o/?aaeeoaeyie,
eiaanoi?aie ( ?anoiaeu ii ianeoaeeaaieth ainoaea?noaaiiiai aiaoiaai e
aioo?aiiaai aeieaa); auieaoa aeeaeaeaiaeia aeoeeiia?ai; % ii aeoeeyi
i?iiuoeaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee).

3) Nia?aiaiiue oeiainiaue ?uiie aeeth/aao 2 /anoe : ?uiie nnoaeiuo
eaieoaeia e ?uiie oeaiiuo aoiaa. Oaeia aeaeaiea oeiainiaiai ?uiea ia 2
/anoe aucaaii aeaeaieai i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai eaieoaea ia iai?ioiue, aeey
ianeoaeeaaiey eioi?iai a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue, nouanoaoao ?uiie nnoaeiuo
eaieoaeia, e iniiaiie eaieoae, aeey eioi?iai o?aaoaony aeieaia?aiaiiia
eiaanoe?iaaiea oeiainiauo ?ano?nia e eniieueciaaiea niaoeeaeueiuo
eino?oiaioia – OeaAo.

Ii AE oeaiiie aoiaaie yaeyaony aeieoiaio, oaeinoiaa?ythuee n
niaethaeaieai onoaiiaeaiiie oi?iu iaycaoaeueiuo ?aeaeceoia eiouanoaaiiua
i?aaa, inouanoaeaiea e ia?aaea/a eioi?uo aiciiaeiu oieueei i?e aai
i?aaeuyaeaiee. E oeaiiui aoiaaai ioiinyony : ainoaea?noaaiiay
iaeeaaoeey, iaeeaaoeey, aaenaeue, /ae, aeaiiceoiue e naa?aaaoaeueiue
na?oeoeeaou, aaieianeay naa?aaaoaeueiay eieaeea ia i?aaeuyaeoaey,
eiiinaiaio, aeoeey, i?eaaoecaoeeiiiua oeaiiua aoiaae e ae?oaea
aeieoiaiou, eioi?ua caeiiaie i oeaiiuo aoiaaao eee a onoaiiaeaiiii eie
ii?yaeea ioianaiu e /eneo oeaiiuo aoiaa.

Iaeiaei, n oi/ee c?aiey oeiainia iiae OeaAo iiieiathony eeoue
eiaanoeoeeiiiua OeaAo – aeaiaaeiua aeieoiaiou, naeaeaoaeuenoaothuea i
i?aaeinoaaeaiee caeia eee i?eia?aoaiee aeaaeaeueoeai OeaAo i?aaa ia
/anoue eiouanoaa (aeieaiaua e aeieaaua OeaAo). Iniiaiua i?aaenoaaeoaee
aeieaauo – aeoeee, aeieaiauo – iaeeaaoeee (aaenaeue ?anniao?eaaaony eae
no??iaao aeaiaa, aeieaiaia iaycaoaeuenoai; /ae – ia iieo/ee a ?O
oe?ieiai ?ani?ino?aiaiey, a oi a?aiy eae ia Caiaaea aei 90% anao
aeaiaaeiuo ?an/aoia i?iecaiaeeony n iiiiuueth /aeia); ana inoaeueiua –
eeoue i?iecaiaeiua io yoeo iniiaiuo oeiia.

Iniiaiua ioee/ey aeieaiauo io aeieaauo :

Aeieaiaay OeaAo ia aeaao i?aai ia oi?aaeaiea i?aaei?eyoeai, aeieaaay aea
i?aaeinoaaeyao yoi i?aai.

Aeieaiaay iaycuaaao yieoaioa iiaaneoue aa a onoaiiaeaiiue n?ie.

Aeieaiaay aa?aioe?oao iieo/aiea aeioiaea (? a i?eioeeia e aeieaaay oiaea
– iai?eia?, i?eaeeaae?iaaiiay aeoeey).

Iiieii ioia/aiiuo OeaAo a ia?auaiee oaeaea iaoiaeeeenue e niaoeeoe/aneea
aoiaae – oaeea eae aao/a?u (ioiinyony e aeieaaui).

Ii aeaenoaothuaio ?inneeneiio caeiiiaeaoaeuenoao ana aeoeee – eiaiiua,
iie iiae?acaeaeythony ia iau/iua e i?eaeeaae?iaaiiua(ia > 25 % io
oeene?iaaiiiai aeioiaea onoaaiiai eaieoaea);?ac?aoaaony eiiaa?oaoeey ec
iaeiiai aeaea a ae?oaie.

Iniiaiie yieoaio iaeeaaoeee – ainoaea?noai. I?e auionea i?aaei?eyoeai,
iiieiaeueiay noieiinoue anao auiouaiiuo iaeeaaoeee ia aeieaeia
i?aauoaoue ?acia?a onoaaiiai eaieoaea, eia/a, i?e i?aauoaiee aeieaeii
auoue iaania/aiea eiouanoaii e eaieoaeii o?aoueeo eeoe. Iaeeaaoeee – yoi
eino?oiaio, aa?aioe?othuee auieaoo iaycaoaeuenoa ia?aae e?aaeeoi?aie,
o.a i?aaei?eyoea i?aaeinoaaeyao oaeei ia?acii aeaiaaeiua aa?aioee
e?aaeeoi?ai.

Iaeeaaoeee auaatho eiaiiua e ia i?aaeuyaeoaey. Auione iaeeaaoeee
inouanoaeyaony iinea iieiie iieaou onoaaiiai eaieoaea AI, iaania/eaaynue
caeiaii. Auione aac iaania/aiey iiaeao i?iecaiaeeoueny ia ?aiaa
o?aoueaai aiaea nouanoaiaaiey AI. Ii niiniao ?aciauaiey OeaAo (IAI –
n?aaee o/?aaeeoaeae; CAI – iiieii nio?oaeieeia i?aaei?eyoey e inoaeueiui
aeaeathuei ).

Noauaeou ?uiea OeaAo : yieoaio, auioneathuee OeaAo e eiaanoi?, eo
i?eia?aoathuee. A ea/anoaa iin?aaeieeia aunooiatho a?iea?u, aeeea?u.
A?iea?u naiaeyo i?iaeaaoeia e iieoiaoaeae OeaAo ca eiienneiiiia
aiciaa?aaeaeaiea can/ao eiaanoi?ia. Aeeea? i?eia?aoaao OeaAo ca naie
n/ao aeey iineaaeothuae i?iaeaaee, a yoie ?iee /anoi aunooiatho
eiiia?/aneea aaiee. E?iia oiai, a ea/anoaa aeeea?a iiaoo aunooiaoue e
eiaanoeoeeiiiua oiiaeu ( aaea 30% onoaaiiai eaieoaea ninoaaeytho
i?eaea/aiiua OeaAo). Noieo oiiiyiooue i /aeiauo eiaanoeoeeiiiuo oiiaeao
(*EO), niaoeeaeece?iaaaoeony ia i?eia?aoaiee aao/a?ia (now – ie. 350). A
iaaauo eiaanoeoeeiiiuo oiiaeao iaeuee iiaeao iieo/eoue a IEO naith
aeieth, aeeaeaeaiaeu ia auiea/eaathony. caoi iinoiyiii i?iaiaeyony
iia?aoeee ii oaaee/aieth onoaaiiai oiiaea.

Iniaoth ?ieue ia ?uiea OeaAo ea?atho oiiaeiaua ae?aee, i?eieiathuea
iau/ii ia ana OeaAo, a eeoue ioaa/athuea ii?aaeaeaiiui o?aaiaaieyi – oa,
eioi?ua n/eoathony iaeaieaa aeia?iea/anoaaiiuie. E?iia oiai, oiiaeiaay
ae?aea i?aaeinoaaeyao aaaeioth eioi?iaoeeth i oii, eae eciaiyaony a
oeaeii neooaoeey ia ?uiea oeaiiuo aoiaa. A ioee/ea io NOA, aaea
aeaenoaotho 7 oiiaeiauo ae?ae (i?e/ai iniiaiie iauai iia?aoeee i?ioiaeeo
ia o?ao e?oiiaeoeo), a ?innee oiiaeiaua ae?aee i/aiue
aeaoeaio?aeeciaaiiu.

Ia naiii aeaea, ?uiie OeaAo – i/aiue aaaeiue eino?oiaio, n iiiiuueth
eioi?iai inouanoaeyaony aeaeia ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiea oeiainiauo ?ano?nia,
?aaoee?iaaiea eo ecauoea, i?e yoii, nii?iaiaeaeathuaany auno?ui
?acaeoeai.

Eanaoaeueii niaoeeoeee ?innee noieo ioiaoeoue, /oi ii iauaiai i?iaeaae a
ianoiyuaa a?aiy eeaee?oao ?uiie ainoaea?noaaiiuo oeaiiuo aoiaa, a oi
a?aiy eae ei?ii?aoeaiue i?eaeaeaoaeai naieie aunieeie aeioiaeaie.

Eaeoeey 6. 6.03.1997.

NII – yoi noieiinoue iauanoaaiiiai i?iaeoeoa, nicaeaiiiai anaie
i?aaei?eyoeyie e i?aaiecaoeeyie, aeeth/athuay iiaoi?iue n/ao.

NII ninoieo ec :

iaoa?eaeueiua cao?aou ( noieiinoue nu?uey, iaoa?eaeia, iieoiiuo i/o,
eiiieaeoothueo. aiciauaiea oiiaea iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa)

AII (a ?O= AAI), ninoiyuee ec aii?oecaoeeiiiuo io/eneaiee ia ?aiiio e
aii?oecaoeey iaiaoa?eaeueiuo aeoeaia (N) e IAe= oiiae iieaou o?oaea (V)
+ /enoue aeioiae(M)..

Ia Caiaaea ec IAe oaeaea au/eoatho einaaiiua iaeiae. Anoue oi/ea c?aiey,
eiaaea iiae iaoa?eaeueiuie cao?aoaie iiieiatho e aiciauaiea iai?ioiuo
n?aaenoa, e aiciauaiea iniiaiuo n?aaenoa.

I. A ?O ?uiie oeaiiuo aoiaa nin?aaeioa/eaaaony ia oaaea?aeueiuo OeaAo.

Ia?iiiia eiee/anoai oeiainiauo ?ano?nia aianoi oiai, /oiau auoue
iai?aaeaiiuie ia i?iecaiaenoai, eaeao ia ianeoaeeaaiea athaeaeaoa,o.a.
ia iai?iecaiaenoaaiiia iio?aaeaiea. Iiyoiio ainoaea?noai nae/an noaaeo
caaea/o ia?ai?eaioe?iaaoue eiaanoi?ia ia ei?ii?aoeaiua OeaAo iooai
nieaeaiey aeioiaeiinoe ainoaea?noaaiiuo OeaAo, ioiaiaiu eueaiou ii
iaeiao ia i?eaueue io ainoaea?noaaiiuo OeaAo. Oioy. n ae?oaie noi?iiu,
ainoaea?noao iaiaoiaeeii i?eaeaeaoue aeiiieieoaeueiua oeiainiaua
?ano?nu. Yoo i?iaeaio iiaeii ?aoeoue oieueei iooai oe?aieaiey
athaeaeaoa, o.a. iooai nie?auaiey iio?aaiinoae athaeaeaoa ai a?aiaiii
naiaiaeiuo oeiainiauo ?ano?nao.

II. I?iaeaia caueou eioa?ania eiaanoi?ia. Ia?aua aiaeu ?acaeoey ?uiea
OeaAo iieacaee, /oi aeaenoaothuay caeiiiaeaoaeueiay aaca aeaao i/aiue
iiiai eacaae aeey ?acee/iuo iaoeiaoeee oeiainiauo eiiiaiee, iin?aaeieeia
ia ?uiea OeaAo. Yoi yaeyaony nioeeaeueiie i?iaeaiie, o.e. aieueoay
/anoue ian noaea aea?oaaie yoeo iaoeiaoeee, neaaeiaaoaeueii iioa?y
aeiaa?ey e ?uieo OeaAo ni noi?iiu eae ?inneeneeo, oae e eiino?aiiuo
eiaanoi?ia.

*oiau oii?yaei/eoue oeiainiaua ioiioaiey ia ?uiea OeaAo :

N i?eiyoeai caeiia ia AI ooi/iaiu caeiiiaeaoaeueiua ii?iu,
ii?aaeaeythuea oneiaey auionea OeaAo. AI a /anoiinoe i?aaeoniio?aii
oaaee/aiea min aaee/eiu onoaaiiai eaieoaea CAI aei 100 min ieeaaeia, a
IAI – >=1000. Aei yoiai caeiia aeaenoaiaaei i?aaeei : min onoaaiie
eaieoae IAI – 10000 ?oa,, CAI – 100000 ?oa.

E?iia oiai, ii Oeaco I?aceaeaioa io 1994 aiaea “I caueoa i?aa
eiaanoi?ia” aeey AI, inouanoaeythueo ioaee/iia ?aciauaiea OeaAo, e?iia
i?eaaoece?iaaiiuo, iiea/aiiue eaieoae aeieaeai auoue ia iaiaa 10000 min
ieeaaeia. Cai?auaaony auioneaoue OeaaO e?iia aeoeee, iaeeaaoeee e eo
i?iecaiaeiuo.

A 1995 aiaeo ii Oeaco I?aceaeaioa nicaeai Oaaea?aeueiue
iauanoaaiii-ainoaea?noaaiiue oiiae ii caueoa i?aa aeeaae/eeia e
aeoeeiia?ia : yoi iaeiiia?/aneay i?aaiecaoeey. Ii aeieaeai inouanoaeyoue
eiiiainaoeeiiiua auieaou eeoeai, eioi?ui iaianai oua?a ia oeiainiaii
?uiea, aaaeao o/ao iino?aaeaaoeo aeeaae/eeia e aeoeeiia?ia, inouanoaeyao
oi?aaeaiea eiouanoaii ianinoiyoaeueiuo i?aaei?eyoee aeey oaeiaeaoai?aiey
eneia iino?aaeaaoeo. Inouanoaeyao aeayoaeueiinoue can/ao aciinia
o/?aaeeoaeae (Aineiieiouanoai).

A oiiae iai?aaeythony aeioiaeu io i?eaaoecaoeee a ?acia?a 2% +
aeia?iaieueiua aciinu. Aeey ?aaoee?iaaiey ioiioaiee ia ?uiea OeaAo ii
Oeaco I?aceaeaioa auea nicaeaia Oaaea?aeueiay eiienney ii OeaAo e
oiiaeiaiio ?uieo (1994 a.).Iniiaiua caaea/e :

?ac?aaioea iai?aaeaiee ?acaeoey ?uiea OeaAo.

Ooaa?aeaeaiea noaiaea?oia yiennee OeaAo, o?aaiaaiee ii eenoeiao.

Eeoeaice?iaaiea aeayoaeueiinoe i?ioanneiiaeueiuo o/noieeia ?uiea OeaAo (
aeeea?u, a?iea?u, oiiaeiaua ae?aee).

Iacia/aao einiaeoi?ia aeey i?iaa?ee oiiaeiauo ae?ae, eiaanoeoeeiiiuo
oiiaeia e ae?oaeo i?ioanneiiaeueiuo o/anoieeia ?uiea. A neo/aa ia?ooaiee
iocuaaao eeoeaicee.

Nicaeaao ?aaeiiaeueiua eiiennee ii OeaAo e oiiaeiaui ?uieai.

A?aiaiiia iieiaeaiea i o?aaiaaieyo .i?aaeuyaeyaiuo e i?aaiecaoi?ai
oi?aiaee ia ?uiea OeaAo. I?aaiecaoi?u oi?aiaee :

oiiaeiaay ae?aea – i?aaiecaoi? oi?aiaee, eiathuee eeoeaiceth e
nicaeaiiue a oi?ia iaeiiia?/aneiai ia?oia?noaa.

i?aaiecaoi?u aiaae?aeaaie oi?aiaee – ?acee/iua a?iea?u e aeeea?neea
no?oeoo?u, eiathuea eeoeaiceth Oaaea?aeueiie eiiennee , ii
inouanoaeythuea oi?aiaeth aia ae?aee.

Niaiauaoue ae?aeaaoth e aiaae?aeaaoth oi?aiaeth iaeuecy. Min ?acia?
onoaaiiai eaieoaea aeey oiiaeiaie ae?aee >= 600000 YETH, aiaae?aeaaie
oi?aiaee – >=200000. Iniiaiua o?aaiaaiey ii eenoeiao OeaAo
(iaycaoaeueiua). Aiiaua, eenoeia – yoi niaieoiiinoue i?ioeaaeo? ii
aeiioneo OeaAo e ia?auaieth, onoaiiaeaiiuo i?aaiecaoi?ii oi?aiaee.

Oeaiiua aoiaae, i?ioaaeoea eenoeia, aeeth/athony a eioe?iai/iue eeno.
?acee/atho 2 eaoaai?ee eioe?iai/iuo eenoia :

Oeaiiua aoiaae, iaeaieaa ea/anoaaiiua, i?ioeaaeo?o eenoeiaa eioi?uo
inouanoaeye nai yieoaio (i?aaeinoaaeyao ana aeieoiaiou oiiaeiaie ae?aea
aeey iieo/aiey ?ac?aoaiey ia i?iaeaaeo, OeaAo i?ioiaeyo yenia?oeco e
aeey iieo/aiey ia?aiai o?iaiy iaiaoiaeeii ?ane?uoue eioi?iaoeeth i naiae
aeayoaeueiinoe, yiennee OeaAo, ?acia? onoaaiiai eaieoaea aeieaeai
ninoaaeyoue >=10 iei. YETH, n?ie nouanoaiaaiey yieoaioa OeaAo >= 3
aiaea, OeaAo aeieaeiu auoue naiaiaeii ia?auaaiuie a ?oeao
caeioa?aniaaiiiai eeoea (AI), aeieaeii auoue ia aieaa 60 % aieinothueo
aeoeee i?aaei?eyoey, eiee/anoai aeoeeiia?ia aeieaeii auoue >=1000).

OeaAo, eioi?iaoeey i eioi?uo i?aaeinoaaeyao ia nai yieoaio, a o/anoiee
?uiea OeaAo, e aoiaae, eioi?ua ia iiaoo iiianoue (aoi?e/iue ?uiie). Ii
eaeei-eeai i?e/eiai a 1 nienie ioiinyony :

?acia? nianoaaiiiai eaieoaea yieoaioa>=6 iei. YETH

n?ie nouanoaiaaiey yieoaioa >= 2 aiaea

/enei aeoeeiia?ia >=500

OeaAo aeieaeiu auoue naiaiaeii ia?auaaiuie

a ?oeao caeioa?aniaaiiiai eeoea
I?iaeoiaiiay oeiainiaay iieeoeea, i?aaeoniao?eaathuay eueaioiia
iaeiaiiaeiaeaiea, ieceea aiaiiua ?anoiaeu, aeaaii?eyoiue oeiainiaue
iaoaieci aeey i?eaea/aiey eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeee, iai?eia? a Aiieiiaa
AAI ia aeooo ianaeaiey aieueoa /ai a Aiaeee.

Aieueoia aeeyiea ia oeiainiaoth iieeoeeo ieacuaaao oeiainiaia i?aai.
Oniaoiay ?aaeecaoeey ia?ii?eyoee, i?aaeoniao?eaaaiay ainoaea?noaii a
iaeanoe oeiainia. oniaoia eeoue i?e i?eiyoee niioaaonoaothueo
ii?iaoeaiuo aeieoiaioia. Oeiainiaia i?aai iiaeao ieacuaaoue eae
iieiaeeoaeueiia, oae e io?eoeaoaeueiia aeeyiea ia oeiainiaoth iieeoeeo.
Oeiainiaia i?aai ?aaoee?oao oeiainiaua ioiioaiey iaaeaeo ainoaea?noaii n
1 noi?iiu, noauaeoaie oicyenoaiaaiey e ianaeaieai n ae?oaie noi?iiu.
Ae?oaea oeiainiaua ioiioaiey, a /anoiinoe, acaeiiioiioaiey iaaeaeo
i?aaei?eyoeyie, aioo?e i?aaei?eyoee, ?aaoee?othony aaeieieno?aoeaiui e
a?aaeaeaineei i?aaii. Aeey yooaeoeaiiai i?iaaaeaiey oeiainiaie iieeoeee
aaaeiia cia/aiea eiaao iaoaieci aa oeiainiaiai ?aaoee?iaaiey. Yoi
?aaoee?iaaiea inouanoaeyao eniieieoaeueiay aeanoue , o.e. iia eiaao
?acaa?iooue aiia?ao aeey i?iaaaeaiey yoie iieeoeee. Iaeiaei, iniiaiay
/anoue ii?iaoeaiuo aeieoiaioia a aeaiie?aoe/aneii iauanoaa i?eieiaaony
Ia?eaiaioii, cia/eo oeiainiaay iieeoeea eniieieoaeueiie aeanoe
ei??aeoe?oaony caeiiiaeaoaeueiie iin?aaenoaii ii?iaoeaiuo aeoia.

A aeaiie?aoe/aneii iauanoaa eniieieoaeueiay aeanoue iiaeao aeaeaoue
oieueei oi, /oi iaienaii a caeiia, iiyoiio a caiaaeiie i?aeoeea
Ia?eaiaio iioouaaao eniieieoaeueioth aeanoue naoueth caeiiia (NOA – 7000
caeiiia, Aaeueaey – 3000). Aei ia/aea ?aoi?i Ai?aa/aaa a ?innee auei
i?eiyoi ieiei 100 caeiiia ca aiae, ai a?aiy aai i?aaeaiey – 200, nae/an,
ieiei 100 ca aiae. Oi, /oi ia ioaa/aii caeiiii, ?aaoee?oaony
aeieoiaioaie, i?eiyouie eniieieoaeueiie aeanoueth( Oeacu I?aceaeaioa,
Iinoaiiaeaiey I?aaeoaeuenoaa, aaaeiinoaaiiua eino?oeoeee). Ie?iaay
i?aeoeea iieacuaaao, /oi yooaeoeaiue ia?eaiaioneee eiio?ieue
i?aaeoi?aaeaeaao iai?aaeeueiua ?aoaiey. i?eieiaaiua eniieieoaeueiie
aeanoueth, o.e. ia iaa neeueiaa aicaeaenoaotho ?acee/iua eiaaenoneea
a?oiie?iaee.

II. Nia?aiaiiay oeiainiaay iieeoeea ?inneeneiai ainoaea?noaa ioaaouaaao
i/aiue aieueoie e?oa ia?ii?eyoee, o.e. n 1991 aiaea i?iaiaeeony ei?aiiay
yeiiiie/aneay ?aoi?ia. 3 iniiaiuo iai?aaeaiee oeiainiaie iieeoeee ain-aa
:

Eiiieaen ia?ii?eyoee. iaania/eaathueo ia?aoiae e ?uii/iie yeiiiieea.

Eiiieaen ia?ii?eyoee, naycaiiuo n yeiiiie/aneie noaaeeecaoeeae.

Nioeeaeueiay iiaeaea?aeea ianaeaiey.

Niioiioaiea iaaeaeo yoeie iai?aaeaieyie oeiainiaie iieeoeee ia
en/a?iuaatho anao caaea/ ( nouanoaotho caaea/e niaa?oainoaiaaiey
athaeaeaoiie nenoaiu e o.ae.). A 1991 aiaeo ia 1 ianoa noiyee caaea/e
ia?aoiaea e ?uieo, a 1992 – e?ecen yeiiiieee, ?aceia iiauoaiea oeai,
anoae aii?in oaea ia i ?uii/iuo i?aia?aciaaieyo, a ia inoaiiaeaiee
niaaea i?iecaiaenoaa e eioeyoeee, o.a. ?2. Iaeaioia auai?ia e
?aoa?aiaeoiia ia ia?aii ianoa noiyo nioeeaeueiua aii?inu.

Oeiainiaay iieeoeea iai?aaeaiiay ia nicaeaiea ?uii/iie yeiiiieee.
Iniiaiua neaaaaiua ?inneeneeo ?aoi?i, iaania/eaathuea ia?aoiae e ?uieo :

i?eaaoecaoeey

?acaeoea oeiainiaiai e no?aoiaiai ?uiea. Aeey naiaiaeiiai ia?aeeaaiey
eaieoaeia ec iaeiie iaeanoe a ae?oaoth aeieaeai auoue ?acaeoue ?uiie
OeaAo, aeey caueou i?aaei?eieiaoaeae aeieaeai auoue ?acaeoue no?aoiaie
?uiie.

oaiiaeaiiay iieeoeea. A ?O , o.e. yeiiiieea i/aiue iiiiiieece?iaaia, yoi
aaeeinoaaiiue niinia i?aaieciaaoue ii?iaeueioth eiieo?aioeeth

iieeoeea ainoaea?noaa a ioiioaiee ianinoiyoaeueiuo i?aaei?eyoee.

(2) Oeiainiaay iieeoeea, iai?aaeaiiay ia yeiiiie/aneoth noaaeeecaoeeth.
I?aeoe/anee ieaaea e?iia no?ai, a eioi?uo oea aieia ia auei niaaea
i?iecaiaenoaa, eae a ?O. ?O : iaaeaiea i?iecaiaenoaa ia 6 %, Oe?aeia –
0,1 % io AAI.

ai?ueaa n eioeyoeeae ( a ?O auiieiaia), e.g. eneonnoaaiiia naea?aeeaaiea
aeaiaaeiie iannu a ia?auaiee e o.ae.

eiaanoeoeeiiiay iieeoeea ainoaea?noaa. Aaaeiie caaea/ae a ianoiyuaa
a?aiy yaeyaony i?eiyoea Iaeiaiaiai Eiaeaena, eioi?ue aeieaeai oi?inoeoue
iaeiaiaoth nenoaio, ioiaieoue eueaiou e nieceoue iauaa iaeiaiaia a?aiy n
th?eaee/aneeo eeoe.

nie?auaiea aeioaoeee i?aaei?eyoeyi e i?aaiecaoeeyi ( aeeeeuii –
eiiioiaeueiue eiiieaen ioieiaao 4% AAI ?O), neaaeiaaoaeueii,
ia?aeiaeaiea a?aiaie ia ianaeaiea, ii yoi iicaieeo aunaiaiaeeoue
aieueooth /anoue athaeaeaoiuo ?ano?nia ( aeeeeuii-eiiioiaeueiue eiiieaen
– 100 o?ei. ?oa, oioy a iniiaiii iie i?ioiaeyo ii ianoiui e
?aaeiiaeueiui athaeaeaoai). A 1997 aiaeo i?aaeoniao?eaaaony i?eia?ii 25
o?ei.

iieeoeea a ioiioaiee oauoi/iuo i?aaei?eyoee.

(3)

iiaay iaineiiiay ?aoi?ia aoaeao i?aaeoniao?eaaoue iiauoaiea iainee, ii a
iniiaiii can/ao iiauoaiey aeeaaeia ?aaioieeia (Caiaae : 1/2 aciinia a IO
– i?aaei?eyoey, inoaeueiia – ?aaioieee)

eiaeaenaoeey n?aaenoa e iiniaee

niaa?oainoaiaaiea oeiainiaiai iaoaiecia a io?aneyo
nioeeaeueii-eoeueoo?iie noa?u n oai, /oiau ia?aie/aiiua n?aaenoaa
iaania/eaaee oaeiaeaoai?aiea iio?aaiinoae, eiio?ieue ca nai?ii iaeiaia e
niaa?oainoaiaaiea ?ani?aaeaeaiey athaeaeaoiuo n?aaenoa, yooaeoeaiia
acaeiiaeaenoaea oaaea?aeueiiai e ?aaeiiaeueiiai athaeaeaoa

auaeaeaiea athaeaeaoiuo n?aaenoa aeey auieaou ca?aaioiie ieaou
?aaioieeai ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee.

Eaeoeey ? 8. 7. 03. 1997.

Oaia : “Oi?aaeaiea oeiainaie”

Iauaa iiiyoea oi?aaeaiey oeiainaie (naiino.)

I?aaiu oi?aaeaiey oeiainaie.

Aaoiiaoecaoeey oi?aaeaiey oeiainaie.

2. Iauaa oi?aaeaiea oeiainaie inouanoaeyaony i?aaiaie ainoaea?noaaiiie
aeanoe, a eiaiii, a oi?aaeaiee o/anoaotho : I?aceaeaio ?O,
Aaeieieno?aoeey I?aceaeaioa ?O, I?aaeoaeuenoai ?O, Oaaea?aeueiia
Nia?aiea; oa??eoi?eaeueiua i?aaiu i?aaenoaaeoaeueiie e eniieieoaeueiie
aeanoe, i?aaiu ianoiiai naiioi?aaeaiey.

A eiiiaoaioeeth Oaaea?aeueiuo i?aaiia eniieieoaeueiie e
caeiiiaeaoaeueiie aeanoe aoiaeeo ?anniio?aiea e ooaa?aeaeaiea
Oaaea?aeueiiai athaeaeaoa e aiaathaeaeaoiuo oiiaeia, io/aoa i aai
eniieiaiee, onoaiiaeaiea iiauo iaeiaiauo e iaiaeiaiauo ieaoaaeae,
ii?aaeaeaiea ?acia?ia e oneiaee auieaou iainee e iiniaee, ?ac?aaioea
oeiainiaiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa, ii?aaeaeaiea iniiaiuo iai?aaeaiee
oeiainiaie iieeoeee ?inneeeneiai ainoaea?noaa. Oa??eoi?eaeueiua e
ianoiua i?aaiu aeanoe ?anniao?eaatho e ooaa?aeaeatho niioaaonoaothuea
athaeaeaou e ?ani?aaeaeaiea ai aiaathaeaeaoiua oiiaeu, iiieii yoiai,
?ac?aaioea oa??eoi?eaeueiiai e ianoiiai oeiainiaiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa a
?aieao, ooaa?aeaeaiiuo Oaaea?aeueiui caeiiii, aaaaeaiea e eciaiaiea
oa??eoi?eaeueiuo e ianoiuo iaeiaia e iaiaeiaiauo ieaoaaeae.

I?aaiu ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe e oi?aaeaiey. inouanoaeythuea iauaa
?oeiaiaenoai no?aiie, auiieiytho iiiai ae?oaeo yeiiiie/aneeo,
nioeeaeueiuo, iieeoe/aneeo ooieoeee, e a neeo yoiai ianoiyoaeuenoaa ia
iiaoo inouanoaeyoue aeaoaeueiiai oi?aaeaiey oeiainiaie nenoaiie. Aeey
yoiai iaiaoiaeei neaaeothuee oeiainiaue aiia?ao, inouanoaeythuee
iaiin?aaenoaaiiia oi?aaeaiea oeiainaie. No?oeoo?o oi?aaeaiey oeiainaie
i?aaenoaaei niioaaonoaaiii oeiainiaie nenoaia. Iaeaieueoaa cia/aiea
eiatho i?aaiu oi?aaeaiey ainoeiainaie :

Nenoaia Ieioeia ?O

Ieioei ?O

Oa??eoi?eaeueiua oeiainiaua i?aaiu Ieioeiu ?anioaeee; iaeanoiua,
e?aaaua , ie?oaeiua oeiainiaua oi?aaeaiey – Aeaia?oaiaiou Oeiainia.

Ai?iaeneea e ?aeiiiua oeiainiaua oi?aaeaiey ( Aeaia?oaiaiou) Ieciaie
o?iaaiue

Oaaea?aeueiua Eacia/aenoaa N oa??eoi?eaeueiuie iiae?acaeaeaieyie,
?acaa?ioouie ai iiiaeo ai?iaeao, ?aeiiao.

Naii Ieienoa?noai Oeiainia auei nicaeaii a 1802 aiaeo i?e Aeaenaiae?a I.

Aai iniiaiua caaea/e :

?ac?aaioea e ?aaeecaoeey no?aoaae/aneeo iai?aaeaiee aaeeiie
ainoaea?noaaiiie oeiainiaie iieeoeee(ecia/aeueiay eiioeaioeey).

Ninoaaeaiea i?iaeoa e eniieiaiea Oaaea?aeueiiai athaeaeaoa.

Iaania/aiea onoie/eainoe ainoeiainia e aeoeaiia aicaeaenoaea ia
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneia ?acaeoea no?aiu,neaaeeoue ca aaee/eiie
athaeaeaoiiai aeaoeoeeoa

Eiioeaio?aoeey oeiainiauo ?ano?nia ia i?ei?eoaoiuo iai?aaeaieyo.

Inouanoaeaiea oeiainiaiai eiio?iey ca ?aoeeiiaeueiui e oeaeaaui
?anoiaeiaaieai athaeaeaoiuo n?aaenoa e n?aaenoa aiaathaeaeaoiuo oiiaeia.

Ia?ii?eyoey a iaeanoe ainoaea?noaaiiuo e?aaeeoia, i?eaea/aiea aeaiaaeiuo
caaiiuo n?aaenoa a ?innee e ca ?oaaaeii, i?aaeinoaaeaiea e?aaeeoia
noauaeoai oicyenoaiaaiey, oi?aaeaiea ainaeieaii – ana yoe aeaenoaey
inouanoaeythony iiae eiio?ieai I?aaeoaeuenoaa ?O.

A ninoaaa aiia?aoa Ieioeia auaeaeytho neaaeothuea iiae?acaeaeaiey :

Athaeaeaoiue Aeaia?oaiaio – ionthaea enoiaeeo i?iaeo Oaaea?aeueiiai
athaeaeaoa;

Aeaaiia Oi?aaeaiea Oaaea?aeueiiai Eacia/aenoaa;

Aeaia?oaiaio iaeiaiauo ?aoi?i (?ac?aaioea i?iaeoia ii?iaoeaiuo
aeieoiaioia, naycaiiuo n iaeiaiiaeiaeaieai, ia?ii?eyoey a iaeanoe
ainoaea?noaaiiie iieeoeee);

Aeaia?oaiaio OeaAo e oeiainiaiai ?uiea;

Aeaia?oaiaiou, caieiathueany oeiaine?iaaieai ioaeaeueiuo io?aneae (
eiiieaenia) IO (aeaia?oaiaio iai?iiiiai eiiieaena, o?ainii?oa e nayce,
n/o e ieuai?iia, nioe. noa?u e iaoee, oeiaine?iaaiey ainaiia?aoa,
eiino?aiiuo e?aaeeoia e aiaoieo aeieaia, e?aaeeoa e aeaiaaeiiai
ia?auaiey;

eiio?ieueii-?aaeceiiiia oi?aaeaiea (E?O) – eiio?ieue ca eniieueciaaieai
n?aaenoa athaeaeaoiuo i?aaiecaoeee.

Ooieoeee 1-ie iiaenenoaiu – aeaieiia iiae/eiaiea (Ieioei ( a ?iee
iaoiaeenoa) + eniieieoaeueiua i?aaiu aeanoe niioaaonoaothuaai o?iaiy a
ea/anoaa iniiaiiai yeaiaioa) :

ninoaaeaiea i?iaeoa e eniieiaiea athaeaeaoa niioaaonoaothuae oa??eoi?ee;

?ac?aaioea i?iaeoia ii?iaoeaiuo aeieoiaioia, eioi?ua i?eieiathony
eniieieoaeueiie aeanoueth oa??eoi?eaeueiiai o?iaiy;

i?aaiecaoeey auionea oa??eoi?eaeueiuo caeiia.

Aaaeiue aniaeo ?aaiou – eiio?ieue ca eniieueciaaieai n?aaenoa
oa??eoi?eaeueiiai athaeaeaoa athaeaeaoiuie i?aaiecaoeeyie e
eiiia?/aneeie no?oeoo?aie, iieo/eaoeie aeaiueae ec ainathaeaeaoa.

3 ioaeaea ?aaeiiaeueiie no?oeoo?u :

– ioaeae ainoaea?noaaiiuo aeioiaeia (iiene ?aca?aa ?inoa aeioiaeia
oa??eoi?eaeueiiai athaeaeaoa, iiaeaioiaeoaeueiay ?aaioa ii ?aciauaieth
caeiia, iaiaeiaiauo iinooieaiee;

– athaeaeaoiue (iniiaiie) ioaeae (ninoaaeaiea i?iaeoa e eniieiaiea
athaeaeaoa + eiio?ieue ca eniieueciaaieai n?aaenoa athaeaeaoiuo
i?aaiecaoeee);

– ioaeae oeiaine?iaaiey ianoiiai oicyenoaa (ii?aaeaeaiea ?acia?ia
aeioaoeee, oeiainiaie iiiiue, AEEO, i?aaei?eyoey ianoiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe.
oi?aiaee, auoiaiai ianeoaeeaaiey, iaoiaeyueany a ainnianoaaiiinoe).

Nenoaia Oaaea?aeueiiai Eacia/aenoaa.

Nicaeaia a 1993 aiaeo e n ia?aoiaeii e ?uieo aicieeatho aieueoea
i?iaeaiu n eniieiaieai athaeaeaoa, iniaaiii iinea aaaaeaiey Oaaea?aeecia
:

Nenoaia n i?yiui iiae/eiaieai ia Ieioeio, a oa??eoi?eaeueiui i?aaiai.

Eanniaia eniieiaiea athaeaeaoa a ?oeao EA – ionthaea caaea?aeea n
ia?aaea/ae n?aaenoa, iaoeaeaaia eo eniieueciaaiea.

Oaeei ia?acii, eniieiaiea athaeaeaoa – iniiaiay caaea/a Oaaea?aeueiiai
Eacia/aenoaa. Process : Oi?aaeaiea Oaaea?aeueiiai Eacia/aenoaa ioe?uaaao
n/ao a oiieiiii/aiiii aaiea. Ana oaaea?aeueiua iaeiae iinooiatho ia n/ao
Eacia/aenoaa e iinooieaoea aeaiueae ei ?ani?aaeaeythony, ii?aaeaeaiiay
/anoue ia?a/eneyaony a oa??eoi?eaeueiue athaeaeao, ae?oaay /anoue – ia
n/aoa oeiaine?oaiuo ec athaeaeaoa i?aaei?eyoee. Iaeiia?aiaiii
Eacia/aenoai inouanoaeyao ouaoaeueiue eiio?ieue ca eniieueciaaieai
n?aaenoa Oaaea?aeueiiai athaeaeaoa i?aaei?eyoeyie e i?aaiecaoeeyie.

E?iia oiai, OE eiio?iee?oao aaiee, ianeieueei naiaa?aiaiii e ii
iacia/aieth ee ia?a/eneythony n?aaenoaa ec Oaaea?aeueiiai athaeaeaoa,
eiatho i?aai iaeaaaoue ia aaiee oo?aou ca ianaiaa?aiaiiia ia?a/eneaiea
n?aaenoa.

I?iaeaiu OE : 1. Iaoiaeeony a noaaeee oi?ie?iaaiey.

2. Ia ana n?aaenoaa Oaaea?aeueiiai athaeaeaoa i?ioiaeyo /a?ac OE, o.e.
anoue Ieiiai?iiu, ONE.

Ainoaea?noaaiiay iaeiaiaay neoaeaa (AIN).

Ninoieo ec Aeaaiiai Oi?aaeaiey AIN e ?anioaeeeaineeo, iaeanoiuo, e?aaauo
oi?aaeaiee ia ianoao (AIE). Yoi naiay ianniaay no?oeoo?a – 200 oun./ae.
(a NOA – 100). Iniiaiia iacia/aiea – inouanoaeaiea eiio?iey ca
niaethaeaieai , nieioiui e naiaa?aiaiiui ianaieai iaeiaiauo ieaoaaeae a
athaeaeao e iaeioi?ua aiaathaeaeaoiua oiiaeu.

Iaeiaiaay iieeoeey.

A ooaoa – ieiei 40000 /aeiaae, eiaao ioaeaeueiua oi?aaeaiey a ?aaeiiao,
e?oiiuo ai?iaeao. 3 iniiaiua caaea/e :

?anneaaeiaaiea iaeiaiauo i?anooieaiee e ia?ooaiee a iniai e?oiiuo
?acia?ao.

Caueoa ?aaioieeia AIN,

Ai?ueaa n ceioiio?aaeaieyie e ia?ooaieyie aioo?e AIN (acyoi/ie/anoai).

Oaiiaeaiiay neoaeaa.

Ian/eouaaao 40.000 /aeiaae. Aeeth/aao AOE – Ainoaea?noaaiiue Oaiiaeaiiue
Eiieoao e oaiiaeaiiua iinou e oa?ieiaeu (a?aieoeu, ay?iii?ou).
Iacia/aiea oaiiaeaiiie neoaeau :

– eiio?ieue ca ia?aiauaieai oiaa?ia /a?ac ainoaea?noaaiioth. a?aieoeo,
ca naiaa?aiaiioth oieaoo oaiiaeaiiuo iioeei;

– aaethoiue eiio?ieue.

Ioaeaeueiuo i?aaiia oi?aaeaiey o?aaotho e ainoaea?noaaiiua
aiaathaeaeaoiua oiiaeu(IO,OC,IIN).

No?aoiaaiea.

1. No?aoiaua eiiiaiee. (ie. 2000 )

2. Iaainoaea?noaaiiua iaineiiiua oiiaeu eae ?aciiaeaeiinoue no?aoiauo
i?aaiecaoeee.

?inno?aoiaaeci? – inouanoaeyao eiio?ieue ca aeayoaeueiinoueth no?aoiauo
i?aaiecaoeee – aei na?aaeeiu 1996 aiaea – aaoiiiiiue, caoai
i?aia?aciaaeny e aioae a ninoaa Ieioeia.

Oeiainu i?aaei?eyoee e i?aaiecaoeee.

Nouanoaotho 2 a?oiiu i?aaiia :

oeiainiaua eiiiaiee (i?ioanneiiaeueiua o/anoieee ?uiea OeaAo –
oiiaeiaua ae?aee, a?iea?neea e aeeea?neea eiiiaiee, eiaanoeoeeiiiua
oiiaeu, IEOu) – iie oi?aaeytho oeiainiauie ioiioaieyie ae?oaeo
i?aaei?eyoee /a?ac iia?aoeee n OeaAo.

i?aaiu oi?aaeaiey oeiainaie a io?aneyo eiiia?/aneiai e iaeiiia?/aneiai
oeia. Aeey nio?aieaoeony ieienoa?noa , aaaeiinoa aeaenoaotho
niioaaonoaothuea oeiainiaua oi?aaeaiey, a oaeaea anoue oi?aaeaiey aeey
OIA, eiioea?iia. Iie caieiathony oi?aaeaieai oeaio?aeeciaaiiuie
oiiaeaie, inouanoaeytho eiio?ieue ca i?aaei?eyoeyie e i?aaiecaoeeyie,
aoiaeyueie a ninoaa aaaeiinoaa eee iiae?acaeaeaiey.

Eaeoeey 9. I?iaeieaeaiea 2-ai aii?ina.

Iniiaiia iacia/aiea – ia?a?ani?aaeaeeoue oeiainiaua ?ano?nu /a?ac
nicaeaiea oeaio?aeeciaaiiuo aeaiaaeiuo oiiaeia.

I?e oi?aaeaiee oeiainaie ia i?aaei?eyoee oeiainiaue ioaeae auiieiyao
neaaeothuea ooieoeee :

1. Oeiainiaia ieaie?iaaiea ia i?aaei?eyoee (oaeouea e ia?niaeoeaiua
ieaiu, aiaeec eo auiieiaiey).

2. Aiaeec oeiainiaiai ninoiyiey i?aaei?eyoey (ninoiyiea iai?ioiuo
n?aaenoa, ieaoaaeaniiniaiinoue i?aaei?eyoey, ii?aaeaeaiea
?aioaaaeueiinoe).

I?iaiaeyony ?ac?aaioee oeiainiaiai ioaeaea ii auyaeaieth ?aca?aia ?inoa
i?eauee, ?aioaaaeueiinoe, nieaeaieth ecaea?aeae i?iecaiaenoaa,
oe?aieaieth oeiainiaiai iieiaeaiey i?aaei?eyoey.

3. I?aaiecaoeey ?aaiou ii i?eaea/aieth aeiiieieoaeueiuo aiaoieo
oeiainiauo ?ano?nia. Oeiainiaue ioaeae ?ann/eouaaao ieoiaaiinoue
n?aaenoa ia i?aaei?eyoee.

4. I?aaiecaoeey auionea OeaAo (iiaeaioiaea i?iniaeoia yiennee,
ii?aaeaeaiea e?oaa iioaioeeaeueiuo iieoiaoaeae OeaAo).

5. ?aaioa, naycaiiay n ?aciauaieai a?aiaiii naiaiaeiuo oeiainiauo
?ano?nia i?aaei?eyoey (aeiaeaiey a ?acee/iua OeaAo, iauaeou
iaaeaeaeeiinoe, ae?oaea i?aaei?eyoey).

6. Oeiainiaue ioaeae inouanoaeyao anth ?aaioo, naycaiioth n iieo/aieai e
iiaaoaieai aaieianeiai e?aaeeoa, eae i?aaeei- iiaeoaa?aeaeaiea oeaeaaiai
eniieueciaaiey e?aaeeoa.

7. Oeiainiaue eiio?ieue ia naiii i?aaei?eyoee ca caeiiiinoueth
eniieueciaaiey oeiainiauo ?ano?nia.

Ia iaaieueoeo e n?aaeieo i?aaei?eyoeyo ooieoeee oeiainiaiai ioaeaea
auiieiyao aooaaeoa?ey.

Iiiaea ?aiueoa no?aieeenue nyeiiiieoue, eeeaeaee?iaaoue oeiainiaue
ioaeae. Ii aooaaeoa?ey ia niiniaia yooaeoeaii auiieiyoue oeiainiaua
aii?inu – o iaa naiy o/aoiay, ?an/aoiay aeayoaeueiinoue, e oeiainiaue
ioaeae a oneiaeyo ?uiea i?ecaai caieiaoueny no?aoaae/aneeie oeiainiauie
aii?inaie. Ca ?oaaaeii ia i?aaei?eyoeyo nicaeaaony oeiainiaay
aee?aeoeey, a eioi?oth aoiaeyo ?acee/iua iiae?acaeaeaiey(aooaaeoa?ey
e.o.ae).

Iaeiiia?/aneea i?aaiecaoeee.

Ia o?iaia ieienoa?noa e aaaeiinoa io?anee ia iaeiiia?/aneeo ia/aeao
eiatho oeiainiaua oi?aaeaiey (inouanoaeaiea aioo?eio?aneaaiai
ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiey oeiainiauo ?ano?nia (athaeaeaoiuo) iaaeaeo
iiaeaaaeiinoaaiiuie i?aaiecaoeeyie, iai?eia?, Ieiiai?iiu.

Oai, aaea i?aaiecaoeey auaeaeaia ia naiinoiyoaeueiue aaeain, yaeyaony
naiinoiyoaeueiui th?eaee/neei eeoeii eiaao naie ?an/aoiue eee oaeouee
n/ao, oi?ie?oaony naiy aooaaeoa?ey, eioi?ay inouanoaeyao oi?aaeaiea
oeiainaie yoie i?aaiecaoeee, a /anoe/iia oi?aaeaiea inouanoaeyaony
io?aneaaui oi?aaeaieai (aeaia?oaiaioii) niioaaonoaothueo i?aaiia aeanoe.
Iai?eia? : oeiea oeiaine?oaony ec ai?iaeneiai athaeaeaoa (oi?aaeaiea
ia?iaeiiai ia?aciaaiey). Eiio?ieue ca eniieueciaaieai n?aaenoa oeieu,
oaeaea aeaia?oaiaio o/anoaoao a ninoaaeaiee niaou ?anoiaeia,
oeiaine?iaaiea inouanoaeyaony oi?aaeaieai ia?iaeiiai ia?aciaaiey.

Anee i?aaiecaoeey ia auaeaeaia ia naiinoiyoaeueiue aaeain, ia yaeyaony
th?eaee/aneei eeoeii, oi?aaeaiea oeiainaie inouanoaeyao io?aneaaia
oi?aaeaiea (ianoiue eee ?aaeiiaeueiue o?iaaiue) eee aeaia?oaiaio
niioaaonoaothuaai eniieieoaeueiiai i?aaia aeanoe (ianoiiai,
?aaeiiaeueiiai eee oaaea?aeueiiai).

Iooe ?acaeoey nenoaiu oi?aaeaiey oeiainaie.

I?aaiu oi?aaeaiey ainoaea?noaaiiuie oeiainaie aoaeoo aieueoa anaai
cao?iioou.

Oa??eoi?eaeueiua oi?aaeaiey iinyo /enoi neiaiee/aneee oa?aeoa? (iie
aeieaeiu auoue iacaaeneiu io Ieioeia). A ianoiyuaa a?aiy iie iaoiaeyony
a aeaieiii iiae/eiaiee.

Ioaeaeaiea nenoaiu eacia/aenoaa io Ieioeia. Eae nae/an ?aaioaao
iaeiaiaay iieeoeey => ?acaeaeaiea i?ioeanna ?ac?aaioee Oaaea?aeueiiai
athaeaeaoa e aai eniieiaiey (inouanoaeaiea aoaeao i?iecaiaeeony aeaoiy
?aciuie no?oeoo?aie).

3. Aaoiiaoecaoeey oi?aaeaiey oeiainaie.

Iu aeeaai a ia?eiae iiaie IO?(eiiiuethoa?ecaoeey). Ethaia i?aaei?eyoea
iniauaao eaaeaeia ?aai/aa ianoi eiiiuethoa?aie, ionthaea eciaiaiea
oa?aeoa?a ?aaiou a oeiainiaie noa?a.

Ia?aiia/aeueii aiaae?aiea aaoiiaoecaoeee auei naycaii n nicaeaieai ANO
oeiainaie (a oi?aaeaiee oeiainaie).

ANO oeiainia – yoi niaieoiiinoue aaeieieno?aoeaiuo, yeiiiie/aneeo,
iaoaiaoe/aneeo iaoiaeia au/eneeoaeueiie e i?aaiecaoeeiiiie oaoieee,
n?aaenoa nayce, iicaieythueo yooaeoeaii oi?aaeyoue oeiainiaie nenoaiie.

Yoa eaeay iiyaeeanue a 70-a aiaeu, eiaaea iiae?acoiaaaeinue ANO anae
no?aiu ii oi?aaeaieth oeiainaie. Iaiaoiaeeiinoue a iiuiuo no?oeoo?ao ii
oi?aaeaieth oeiainaie ioiaea i/aiue nei?i, o.e. aee?aeoeaa oi?aaeaiey ia
ono?aeaaea ana i?aaei?eyoey no?aiu.

Eiioeaioeey ANO?(aaoiiaoece?iaaiiie nenoaiu oeiainiauo ?an/aoia) – yoi
eiiieaeniay nenoaia inouanoaeaiey oeiainiauo ?an/aoia ii ninoaaeaieth e
eniieiaieth athaeaeaoia a oneiaeyo oe?ieiai eniieueciaaiey yeiiiieei –
iaoaiaoe/aneeo iaoiaeia. I?ia?ann aea i?eaae e oiio, /oi iniiaiia
aieiaiea oaia?ue oaeaeyaony nicaeaieth A?Iia, a ia au/eneeoaeueiuo
oeaio?ia.

Iniiaiua ia?niaeoeau aiaae?aiey aaoiiaoece?iaaiiuo no?oeoo? a iaeanoe
oeiainia :

1. Eiiiuethoa?ecaoeey aooaaeoa?ee e ae?oaeo yeiiiie/aneeo neoaea
i?aaei?eyoey iicaieyao ia?aeoe ia aacaeieoiaioaeueiue yeaeo?iiiue
aooaaeoa?neee e oeiainiaue o/ao (aaiaeyony a eiiiuethoa? ?aeaeceou
noaeiioi, neaie?iaaiea aeieoiaioia, ia?anueea ii oaeno, iiaeaio).

2. Aeiaaeueiay eiiiuethoa?ecaoeey a aeaea nicaeaiey oe?ieie nenoaiu
A?Iia iicaieeo inouanoaeoue nicaeaiea iieiinoueth caeii/aiiie nenoaiu
ANO? Oaaea?aeueiiai eacia/aenoaa => iieo/aiea naiaeee i no?oeoo?a
?anoiaeia e eiioeo eaaeaeiai ?aai/aai aeiy, o.a iiauoaaony
yooaeoeaiinoue oeiainiaiai eiio?iey.

3. Oeiainiaia ieaie?iaaiea ia IE iicaieyao oe?iei i?eiaiyoue
iaoaiaoe/aneia iiaeaee?iaaiea(e.g. eeiaeiia i?ia?aiie?iaaiea), cia/eo,
ea/anoai oeiainiauo ieaiia iiaeieiaony ia ii?yaeie auoa.

Auno?i ?aoaaony n iiiiuueth IE e i?iaeaia iaoaaoee ?aaioieeia ii
i?iaa?ea iaeiaiauo io/aoiuo aeieoiaioia, oaeaea iiyaeyaony aiciiaeiinoue
ioi?ieaiey ia auoiaey ec aeiia aeiaiai?ia eoiee-i?iaeaaee OeaAo, aaaeue
a ianoiyuaa a?aiy oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiaiu ain. OeaAo – AEI, ia eiathuea
?aaeueiie oec. oi?iu.

Iineaaenoaey aaoiiaoecaoeee :

1. Nie?auaiea ooaoa oeiainiauo ?aaioieeia ia iaeeaeaaony.

2. Eciaiaiey a iaeanoe ea/anoaa ?aaiou oeiainenoia.

3. ?aoaiey a iaeanoe oeiainia aoaeoo aieaa iainiiaaiiuie.

4. Aiciiaeiinoue auiieiaiey oeiainenoaie oai?/aneie ?aaiou ia auoiaey ec
aeiia.

OAIA : Oeiainiaia ieaie?iaaiea.

Oeiainiaia ieaie?iaaiea – iaeei ec yeaiaioia oi?aaeaiey oeiainaie,
iauaeoii eioi?iai yaeyaony ?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiue i?ioeann.

Iii ioaaouaaao oi?ie?iaaiea e ?ani?aaeaeaiea oeiainiauo ?ano?nia,
ia?aciaaiey e eniieueciaaiea ia eo iniiaa ?acee/iuo aeaiaaeiuo oiiaeia e
inouanoaeyaony ia iniiaa i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo e oeiainiauo iieacaoaeae.

A i?ioeanna oeiainiaiai ieaie?iaaiey ii?aaeaeythony :

enoi/ieee e ?acia?u oeiainiauo ?ano?nia ia ieaie?oaiue ia?eiae ;

iauaiu aeaiaaeiuo oiiaeia, nicaeaaaaiuo ia eo iniiaa;

?ann/eouaathony iai?aaeaiey e no?oeoo?a eniieueciaaiey n?aaenoa
aeaiaaeiuo oiiaeia. I?e yoii ?aoathony caaea/e auai?a iaeaieaa
yooaeoeaiiai eniieueciaaiey oeiainiauo ?ano?nia e aeaiaaeiuo oiiaeia,
nicaeaaaaiuo ia eo iniiaa.

A i?ioeanna ninoaaeaiey oeiieaiia ecuneeaathony iaoa?eaeueiua,
o?oaeiaua, oeiainiaua ?aca?au aeey ?inoa oeiainiauo ?ano?nia e
nie?auaiey iai?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo ?anoiaeia.

Ia?aaia n oeiieaiaie a oneiaeyo ?uii/iie yeiiiieee oe?iei eniieuecothony
oeiainiaua i?iaiicu.

Oeiainiaue i?iaiic – ioeaiea iaeeaeaaiuo eciaiaiee oao eee eiuo
oeiainiauo iieacaoaeae a aoaeouai.

Oeiieai – caaeaiea ia eciaiaiey a aeaeaaiii iai?aaeaiee oao eee eiuo
oeiainiauo iieacaoaeae ?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiuo i?ioeannia.

Oeiainiaua i?iaiicu e oeiieaiu oanii naycaiu iaaeaeo niaie (oeiainiaua
i?iaiicu ninoaaeythony, eae i?aaeei, ia?aae oai, eae ninoaaeoue
oeiieai).

Anee n?aaieaaoue i?ia?aiio e ieai, oi aeaaiia ioee/ea i?ia?aiiu aeaaea
ia a ianooaaao, a a no?iai oeaeaaie i?eaioaoeee ia ?aoaiea eiie?aoiuo
caaea/, iia aunooiaao a ea/anoaa ?aciiaeaeiinoe oeiieaia.

Yoaiu ninoaaeaiey oeiieaia :

Aiaeec eniieiaiey oeiainiaiai ieaia ca oaeouee ia?eiae (iaaei
?ann/eoaoue iaeeaeaaiia eniieiaiea ieaia). Eae i?aaeei, iii
?ann/eouaaaony ca iieaiaea, caoai ii ieii/aieth 3-o eaa?oaeia.

?an/ao ii eiie?aoiui aeaeai aeioiaeia e ?anoiaeia oeiieaia.

Naaaeaiea e auaaaeaiea eoiaiauo iieacaoaeae e ninoaaeaiea
aaeaina.(aeioiaeu = ?anoiaeu). Ia yoii aea yoaia aaaeaony ia?an/ao
iieacaoaeae, ioeaiea enoi/ieeia aeioiaea.

Eaeoeey 10. I?iaeieaeaiea.

A i?ioeanna ieaie?iaaiey ia anao 3 yoaiao i?eiaiythony ?acee/iua
iaoiaeu, iaeaieaa nouanoaaiiuie ec eioi?uo yaeythony 3 :

Iaoiae eiyooeoeeaioia (yeno?aiieyoeee)

Ii?iaoeaiue iaoiae

Aaeainiaue iaoiae

1. Ieaie?oaiue iieacaoaeue oeiainiaiai ieaia ?ann/eouaaaony ia iniiaa
iieacaoaey oaeouaai aiaea, eciaiaiiiai ia aaee/eio eiyooeoeeaioa. Yoio
eiyooeoeeaio ?ann/eouaaaony eeai ia iniiaa aeeiaieee i?aaeuaeoueo eao,
eeai nioneaaony ieaie?othuei oeiainiaui i?aaiii, eae caaeaiea.
Aeinoieinoaa : i?inoioa. Iaaeinoaoee: ia o/eouaaao a iieiie ia?a
eciaiythueany iio?aaiinoe a oeiainiauo ?ano?nao ii oai eee eiui aeaeai
?anoiaeia, aiciiaeiu ?aca?au ?inoa iieacaoaeae, naycaiiuo n aeioiaeaie.

2. Oeiainiaue iieacaoaeue ii?aaeaeyaony ia iniiaa ii?iu eee ii?iaoeaa e
aaee/eiu oicyenoaaiiiai iieacaoaey, e eioi?iio onoaiiaeaiu yoe
ii?iaoeau. “+” – aieaa oi/iia ii?aaeaeaiea oeiainiaiai iieacaoaey ii
ioiioaieth e iio?aaiinoyi. Iai?eia?, i?iaiiciay aaee/eia IAeN = (AAI ia
ieaie?oaiue aiae – iaiaeaaaaiue AAI) o n?aaeiyy noaaea IAeN/100 e
iieo/aai ieaie?oaiue IAeN. Aeinoieinoaa : aieaa oi/iay ioeaiea aaee/eiu
ieaie?oaiuo oeiainiauo iieacaoaeae n oi/ee c?aiey eiie?aoiuo iieoiaoaeae
e n oi/ee c?aiey aieaa iieiiai auyaeaiey ?aca?aia ?inoa aeioiaea.
Iaaeinoaoee : 1) Aieaa neiaeiue e aieueoie iauai au/eneaiee; 2) Iiiai
iioa?ue; 3) Ii?iaoeaiue iaoiae, eniieuecoaiue e ?anoiaeiie /anoe
oeiainiaiai ieaia, ia o/eouaaao eciaiaiee aeioiaeiie aacu oeiainiaiai
ieaia.

3. Oeiieai aeieaeai auoue naaeaine?iaai. Aeaaea anee anoue aeaoeoeeo, oi
aeieaeiu auoue ?ac?aaioaiu enoi/ieee iie?uoey yoiai aeaoeoeeoa. A
nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo aaaeiia cia/aiea i?e ?an/aoa oeiainiauo ieaiia
eiaao i?eiaiaiea aeaoeyoi?a – eiyooeoeeaioa iaeeaeaaiiai n?aaeiaai ?inoa
oeai a ieaie?oaiii aiaeo. Aaaeiia cia/aiea aeey ieaia eiaao ?an/ao
aeaoeyoi?a(o ian ?aciua aaaeiinoaa- naie ?an/aou, iieacaoaeue Ieioeia
caieaeai ii n?aaiaieth n Ieiyeiiiieee). Caieaeaiea aeaoeyoi?a i?eaaaeao
e oiio,/oi e ii ?anoiaeai, e ii aeioiaeai Oaaea?aeueiue athaeaeao
ieaie?iaaeny a iaiueoeo ?acia?ao, iiyoiio iieo/aeenue eceeoee aeioiaeia,
eioi?uie Ieioei iia naiaiaeii iaiaa?e?iaaoue iiieii Caeiia “I OA”.
Iiyoiio ii?aaeaeaiea ?aaeueiiai ?acia?a aeaoeyoi?a oae aaaeii e
ianoaeaeaaony Aeoiie i?e i?eiyoee oaaea?aeueiiai athaeaeaoa. Iaiaoiaeei
aeaoeyoi? e aeey oe?iu, inouanoaeythuae ieaie?iaaiea ia neaaeothuee
aiae.

A ?O ninoaaeythony ?aciiia?aciua oeiainiaua ieaiu, eioi?ua iiaeii
na?oiie?iaaoue. I?aaeaea anaai auaeaeyaony nenoaia athaeaeaoia.
Aaeaaiaeii ooaa?aeaeathony aieaa 29000 athaeaeaoia ia anao o?iaiyo
ainaeanoe. Eaaeaeue athaeaeao i?eieiaaony eae caeii e iaycaoaeai e
eniieiaieth. E?iia oiai a nenoaia ainoeiainia ooaa?aeaeaaony e
?ac?aaaouaaaony ieai ii eaaeaeiio aiaathaeaeaoiiio oiiaeo. Ii e?oiiui
nioeeaeueiui aiaathaeaeaoiui oiiaeai oaeaea i?eiaiyaony caeii (i IO, i
nioeno?aoa).Eiiaaea yoe ieaiu iacuaathony athaeaeaoaie, ii iie ia
ainoaea?noaaiiua.

A io?aneyo IO iniiaiia ?acee/ea a oeiieaiao naycaii n aeaeii
oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaiecaoeee(anee eiiia?/aneay, oi
ninoaaeyaony oeiieai – aaeain ?anoiaeia e aeioiaeia). Yoio oeiieai
aeeth/aao 4 ?acaeaea :

Aeioiaeu e i?i/ea iinooieaiey.

?anoiaeu e io/eneaiey

Acaeiiioiioaiey n e?aaeeoiie nenoaiie.

Acaeiiioiioaiey n athaeaeaoii e aiaathaeaeaoiuie oiiaeaie.

Iniaaiiinoe yoiai oeiieaia a oii, /oi io?aaeathony ia ana aeaiaaeiua
?ano?nu i?aaei?eyoey, a oieueei oeiainiaua (iai?eia?, a 1 ?acaeaea –
ninoaaiua /anoe /enoiai aeioiaea, i?eaueue, einaaiiua iaeiae,
aii?oecaoeey, io/eneaiey, aeeth/aaiua a n/n i?iaeoeoeee, iaeeaeaaiay
yienney OeaAo; ai 2- iai?aaeaiea eniieueciaaiey i?eauee, ae?oa.
oeiainiaua ?ano?nu i?aaei?eyoey; a 3- oieaoa %, iiaaoaiea, iieo/aiea
aeieain?i/iuo e?aaeeoia; a 4 – einaaiiua iaeiae, iaeia ia i?eaueue – a
?anoiaea, a a aeioiaea – anneaiiaaiey).

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy oeiainiaia ieaie?iaaiea ia i?aaei?eyoee – i?a?iaaoeaa
naiiai i?aaei?eyoey, noaia ieaie?iaaiey aeia?iaieueiay e iiiaea
i?aaei?eyoey iooiaeyo io iaa, ninoaaeyy oi?iuaiiue aaeain aeioiaeia e
?anoiaeia.

Iaeiiia?/aneea i?aaiecaoeee ninoaaeytho oeiieai, iacuaathueeny niaoie
(?anoiaeia – anee anoue athaeaeaoiua n?aaenoaa eee aeioiaeia e ?anoiaeia
– anee anoue eiua iinooieaiey, i?e/ai yoe iaathaeaeaoiua iinooieaiey
io?aaeathony a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue). Iacaaeneii io aeaea oeiieaia a ethaie
niaoa aeaeaaony aeaoaeueiay ?anoeo?iaea anao aeaiaaeiuo aeioiaeia
i?aaiecaoeee ii noaoueyi niaou (ca?ieaoa, iieoiea OIOe, o/aaiua ?anoiaeu
e o.ae.).

E?iia eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo, ninoaaeythony e naiaeiua oeiieaiu.

eiinieeaee?iaaiiua athaeaeaou, aeeth/athuea a naay ana ieaeanoiyuea
athaeaeaou (iaeanoiua, ai?iaeneea, ?aeiiiua, naeueneea, iinaeeiaua). A
ioee/ea io eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo, iie ia eniieuecothony eae caeii, eo iiaeii
ninoaaeoue ia iniiaa ooaa?aeaeaiiuo athaeaeaoia.

a io?aneyo ninoaaeyaony naiaeiue oeiieai aoiaeyueo i?aaei?eyoee.

e?iia oiai, nouanoaoao naiaeiue oeiainiaue aaeain no?aiu, ninoaaeyaiue
aianoa n i?iaeoii Oaaea?aeueiiai athaeaeaoa Ieioeiii. Ii yaeyaony ia
ieaiii, a i?iaiicii. A iai ieaie?othony iaeeaeaaiua iinooieaiey n?aaenoa
a oaeouai aiaeo. Ninoieo ec aeioiaeiie e ?anoiaeiie /anoae :

Aeioiaeu : i?eaueue, IAeN, aeoeecu, iiaeioiaeiue iaeia n a?aaeaeai,
iaeiae ia eiouanoai, io/eneaiey ai aiaathaeaeaoiua oiiaeu, ieaoaaee ca
i?e?iaeiua ?ano?nu. aii?oecaoeeiiiua io/eneaiey, aeioiaeu io
ainnianoaaiiinoe e aeayoaeueiinoe, iaeiae ia aiaoithth oi?aiaeth e
i?i/ea aeioiaeu io AYAe.

?anoiaeu : cao?aou ia aineiaanoeoeee, ainaeioaoeee, ain?anoiaeu ia
nioeeaeueii-eoeueoo?iua ia?ii?eyoey, ?anoiaeu i?aaei?eyoee can/ao
i?eauee e aii?oecaoeee, ain?anoiaeu ia iaoeo, iai?iio e
i?aaiio?aieoaeueiua i?aaiu, ia i?aaiu ainaeanoe, ?anoiaeu ia AYAe,
nicaeaiea ?aca?aia e i?i/ea.

Iacia/aiea naiaeiiai aaeaina i?aaei?eyoey – aeaoue iaiaoiaeeioth
eioi?iaoeeth ia iniiaiuo oeiainiauo iioieao e iauaeoao ?ani?aaeaeyaiuo
oeiainiauo ?ano?nia.

I?iaeaiu e iooe i?aiaeieaiey, oaiaeaioeee ?acaeoey oeiainiaiai
ieaie?iaaiey :

N ia?aoiaeii io eiiaiaeii-aaeieieno?aoeaiie yeiiiieee ia 1 yoaia
?uii/iuo ?aoi?i i?iecioae ia?aoiae a ioiioaiee e ieaie?iaaieth. Iiiaea
i?aaei?eyoey ioeacaeenue io oeiainiaiai ieaie?iaaiey. Oaaea?aeueiue
athaeaeao a 1992 e 1993 aiaeao i?eieiaeenue oaea a eiioea io/aoiiai
aiaea.

Nae/an i?ienoiaeeo aica?ao e oeiainiaiio ieaie?iaaieth, e
eniieueciaaieth ieaie?iaaiey a iieiii ianooaaa. Iaiythony oi?iu
ieaie?iaaiey, oii? aeaeaaony ia eiaeeeaoeaiia ieaie?iaaiea, a ia ia
aee?aeoeaiia.

A noa?a i?aaei?eyoee IO nicaeathony ieaiu ?aeiiaiaeaoaeueiiai oa?aeoa?a,
i?eaioe?u aeayoaeueiinoe ia aoaeouee aiae.

Aiai?y i noaiaie eiaeeeaoeaiinoe athaeaeaoa, oi noieo ioiaoeoue, /oi
aeaaea a naiuo ?acaeouo no?aiao neaaeyo ca /aoeei eniieiaieai
athaeaeaoiuo noaoae. Iaeiaei, ?uiie aiineo naie ei??aeoeau, e iniiaioth
/anoue aeioiaeia ninoaaeytho iaeiae.

Inoaaeyao aeaeaoue eo/oaai e oi/iinoue ?an/aoia oeiainiauo ieaiia, n?iee
oeiainiaiai ieaie?iaaiey (athaeaeao ia ieioi auei au i?eieiaoue oioy au
ca ianyoe aei ia/aea io/aoiiai aiaea); noaaeeueiinoue oeiainiaiai ieaia.

Oeiainiaue eiio?ieue.

Oeiainiaue eiio?ieue, eae e ieaie?iaaiea, yaeyaony aaaeiaeoei
iieacaoaeai oi?aaeaiey oeiainaie. Ii yaeyaony i?iyaeaieai eiio?ieueiie
ooieoeee oeiainia e i?aaenoaaeyao niaie i?aeoe/aneoth aeayoaeueiinoue
niaoeeaeueiuo i?aaiia eee niaoeeaeenoia ii i?iaa?ea caeiiiinoe
niaa?oaiey oeiainiauo iia?aoeee.

Noa?a aeayoaeueiinoe oeiainiaiai eiio?iey – i?ioeann oi?ie?iaaiey e
eniieueciaaiey oeiainiauo ?ano?nia e aeaiaaeiuo oiiaeia ia eo iniiaa.
Iauaeo oeiainiaiai eiio?iey – ?acee/iua noi?iiu aeayoaeueiinoe
o/anoieeia ?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiiai i?ioeanna, o.a. iauaeo oe?a noa?u
aeayoaeueiinoe.

Nouanoaotho ?acee/iua aeaeu oeiainiaiai eiio?iey a caaeneiinoe io
i?aaiia, aai inouanoaeythueo :

I. Ainoaea?noaaiiue oeiainiaue eiio?ieue

aiaaaaeiinoaaiiue (iauaainoaea?noaaiiue)

aaaeiinoaaiiue( iaainoaea?noaaiiue)

II. Iaainoaea?noaaiiue oeiainiaue eiio?ieue.

aioo?eoicyenoaaiiue

iauanoaaiiue

aoaeeoi?neee

no?aoiaie

Eaeoeey 11.

Iauaainoaea?noaaiiue (aiaaaaeiinoaaiiue) eiio?ieue inouanoaeytho aunoea
i?aaiu ainaeanoe, a oaeaea niaoeeaeueiua i?aaiu. Iniaaiiinoe yoiai
eiio?iey – oi, /oi ii i?iaiaeeony eiio?iee?othueie i?aaiecaoeeyie ia
eaaeaeii i?aaei?eyoee e i?aaiecaoeee iacaaeneii io IIO.

Aaaeiaeoea no?oeoo?u, inouanoaeythuea aiaaaaeiinoaaiiue eiio?ieue: n
caeiiiaeaoaeueiie noi?iiu – /a?ac niaoeeaeueii nicaeaiiue i?aai –
N/aoioth Iaeaoo ?O. Aiaeiae/iua no?oeoo?u nicaeaiu ia ?aaeiiaeueiii e
ianoiii o?iaiyo (iacuaathony – N/aoiay eee Eiio?ieueiay; iai?eia?, anoue
N/aoiay iaeaoa i?e Iineianeie Aeoia). N/aoiay Iaeaoa – th?eaee/aneia
eeoei, iiaeio/aoiia Ia?eaiaioo ?O, ninoieo ec I?aaenaaeaoaey, caiia,
aoaeeoi?ia e aiia?aoa, inouanoaeythuaai eniieieoaeueioth ?ieue. Iniiaiua
caaea/e N/aoiie Iaeaou :

Inouanoaeyao oeiainiaoth yenia?oeco i?iaeoia OC e i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuo
aeoia, oaaea?aeueiuo i?aaiia ainaeanoe, i?aaeoniao?eaathuea
aeiiieieoaeueiua ?anoiaeu ec oaaea?aeueiiai athaeaeaoa eee aeeythueo ia
aai eniieiaiea.

Ioeaiea iainiiaaiiinoe i?iaeoia Oaaea?aeueiiai athaeaeaoa e
aiaathaeaeaoiuo oiiaeia.

Ii?aaeaeaiea yooaeoeaiinoe e oeaeaniia?aciinoe ?anoiaeiaaiey
ainoaea?noaaiiuo n?aaenoa, a oaeaea eniieueciaaiey ainnianoaaiiinoe.

Eiio?ieue ca naiaa?aiaiiui eniieiaieai aeioiaeia e ?anoiaeia
Oaaea?aeueiiai athaeaeaoa e aiaathaeaeaoiuo oiiaeia.

Aiaeec ioeeiiaiee io eniieiaiey athaeaeaoa, i?aaeeiaeaiey ii eo
ono?aiaieth.

Eiio?ieue caeiiiinoe aeaeaeaiey oaaea?aeueiuo n?aaenoa e n?aaenoa
aiaathaeaeaoiuo oiiaeia /a?ac aaieianeoth nenoaio.

Aoaeeoi?u aicaeaaeytho ioaeaeueiua iai?aaeaiey eiio?ieueiie ?aaiou
n/aoiuo iaeao, ethaie aoaeeoi? eiaao naie aiia?ao ?aaeci?ia,
eiio?iea?ia. Eiio?ieueiua iieiiii/ey N/aoiie iaeaou ?ani?ino?aiythony ia
ana i?aaiu ainaeanoe, o/?aaeaeaiey, i?aaei?eyoey, i?aaiu ianoiiai
naiioi?aaeaiey, eioi?ua oeiaine?othony ec athaeaeaoa e aiaathaeaeaoiuo
oiiaeia.

N/aoiay iaeaoa eiaao i?aai aeaoue i?aaeienaiea i?iaa?yaiie i?aaiecaoeee,
iaycaoaeueiia e eniieiaieth. I?e iaeniieiaiee i?aaeienaiey eieeaaey
N/aoiie iaeaou iiaeao i?einoaiiaeoue ana aeaeu oeiainiauo ?an/aoia ii
n/aoai i?iaa?yaiuo i?aaei?eyoee. ?aoaiey i?eieiathony n niaeaney i?aaiia
eniieieoaeueiie aeanoe.

N/aoiay iaeaoa – aoeaaeueii aaeeinoaaiiue ia oaaea?aeueiii o?iaia i?aai
caeiiiaeaoaeueiie aeanoe, eiio?iee?othuee eniieieoaeueioth. Oe?aieaiea
oeiainiaiai eiio?iey – caeia oaaee/aiey ?iee iieiiii/ee N/aoiie iaeaou.

Eiio?ieueioth aeayoaeueiinoue a Aaeieieno?aoeee I?aceaeaioa inouanoaeyao
Aeaaiia eiio?ieueiia oi?aaeaiea, caieiathuaany ia oieueei oeiainiaui
eiio?ieai, ii e aeaiaaeiui, a oaeaea neaaeeo ca eniieiaieai Oeacia
I?aceaeaioa.

Iaiin?aaenoaaiii oeiainiaui eiio?ieai caieiaaony nenoaia Ieioeia ?O
(Eiio?ieueiay ?ieue – E?O, a nenoaia oaaea?aeueiuo eacia/aenoa ia ianoao
inouanoaeyao aiaaaaeiinoaaiiue eiio?ieue).

Eiio?ieue ca ?anoiaeiaaieai ?aaeiiaeueiuo e ianoiuo athaeaeaoia
i?iecaiaeyo Ieioeiu ?anioaeee, oeiainiaua oi?aaeaiey e Aeaia?oaiaiou
iaeanoae, e?aaa, ie?oaia, – ia ieaeiai o?iaia – ai?iaeia e ?aeiiia –
inouanoaeyaony aiaaaaeiinoaaiiue eiio?ieue).

Eiio?ieai ca naiaa?aiaiiinoueth e iieiioie iinooieaiey n?aaenoa a
athaeaeaoioth nenoaio e aiaathaeaeaoiua oiiaeu caieiathony AIN,
iaeiaiaay iieeoeey, oaiiaeaiiay neoaeaa. Ei i?aaeinoaaeaiu oe?ieea
i?aaa, /oiau inouanoaeyoue yooaeoeaiue oeiainiaue eiio?ieue. AIN
i?eiaiytho oo?aoiua naieoeee, ia?aaeatho aeaea i nie?uoee e?oiiuo
iaeiaiauo noii a II, ecuiatho o i?aaei?eyoey aeieoiaiou i nie?uoee e
caieaeaiee ?anoiaeia, ianeaaeotho ethaua iiiauaiey iaeiaiieaoaeueueea n
oeaeueth auyaeaiey ia?ooaiee caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa, i?einoaiaaeeaatho
iia?aoeee ii n/aoai a aaieao a neo/aa na?ueaciuo ia?ooaiee.

I?aaa II: inouanoaeaiea iiaoi?iuo i?iaa?ie, aaeieieno?aoeaiia
caaea?aeaiea e a?ano eiouanoaa; i?aai ia iioaiea e eniieueciaaiea a
yeno?aiiuo neo/ayo i?oaeey; aiaae?aiea naieo ?aaioieeia a no?oeoo?o
i?aaei?eyoey, iieo/aiea eioi?iaoeee io a?aaeaeai i ia?ooaieyo e
iaeiaiauo i?anooieaieyo n auieaoie aiciaa?aaeaeaiey aei 10% io
auyaeaiiuo noii.

A 1996 aiaeo aue nicaeai iiuiue i?aai aiaaaaeiinoaaiiiai eiio?iey,
iai?aaeaiiue ia oe?aieaiea iaeiaiaie aeenoeeieeiu – A*E. Iaeiie ec
i?e/ei nicaeaiey noae aieueoie % iaaeinai?a iaeiaia, i?eoiaeyueeny ia
e?oiiaeoea i?aaei?eyoey, caieiathuea aeaaainoaothuaa iieiaeaiea, e
?oeiaiaeeoaee oaeeo i?aaei?eyoee iaeaaeatho iaaeaoneeie i?aaaie e
iieiiii/eyie (E.g. “Ii?eeueneee ieeaeue”). I?aaenaaeaoaeue A*E –
A.N.*a?iiiu?aeei. Iniiaiua caaea/e :

eiio?ieue ca naiaa?aiaiiinoueth e iieiioie oieaou iaeiaia;

?ac?aaioea ia? ii aceiaieth iaeiaia a iieiii iauaia;

iaania/aiea yooaeoeaiie ?aaiou iaeiaiauo e oaiiaeaiiuo i?aaiia, a o./. n
iiiiuueth i?iaa?ie yoeo i?aaiia;

eiio?ieue ca naiaa?aiaiiui e oeaeaaui eniieiaieai n?aaenoa
Oaaea?aeueiiai athaeaeaoa e aiaathaeaeaoiuo oiiaeia (oaaea?aeueiuo).

I?aaa A*E : i?iaa?ee ethauo i?aaei?eyoee e i?aaiecaoeee, eco/aiea
io/aoia ?oeiaiaeeoaeae eniieieoaeueiie aeanoe, i?eaea/aiea e
ioaaonoaaiiinoe ca ia?ooaiea iaeiaiaiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa. Aeey
oneeaiey ?iee A*E a aai ninoaa aeeth/aiu ?oeiaiaeeoaee Ieioeia, AIN,II,
Oaiiaeaiiie neoaeau.

E?iia iacaaiiuo iauaainoaea?noaaiiuo nouanoaotho e ae?oaea i?aaiu -OeA.

Aei iineaaeiaai a?aiaie aiaaaaeiinoaaiiue oeiainiaue eiio?ieue aue
iaeaieaa yooaeoeaiui, yoi iauyniyeinue aunieei i?ioanneiiaeeciii
nio?oaeieeia e iacaaeneiinoueth eioa?ania i?iaa?ythueo no?oeoo? io
eioa?ania i?iaa?yaiie i?aaiecaoeee.

Aaaeiinoaaiiue – inouanoaeyeny aini?aaiaie ioaeaeueiuo aaaeiinoa,
ieienoa?noa, io?aneae a ioiioaiee iiaeaaaeiinoaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee e
i?aaiecaoeee. Iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiiua no?oeoo?u –
eiio?ieueii-?aaeceiiiua ioaeaeu Oeaio?aeueiiai aiia?aoa io?aneaauo
ieienoa?noa e aaaeiinoa.

A noa?a iaoa?eaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa nouanoaoao iiuiue aiia?ao
oeaio?aeueiuo aaaeiinoa, iniiaiay caaea/a eioi?uo – eiio?ieue ca
oeaeaaui eniieueciaaieai n?aaenoa ec athaeaeaoia ?aciuo o?iaiae.

Ae?oaay ?ani?ino?aiaiiay nenoaia oeiainiaiai eiio?iey – io?aneaaua
ioaeaeu ?aaeiiaeueiuo e ianoiuo i?aaiia aeanoe – Aeaia?oaiaiou
ia?aciaaiey, cae?aaiio?aiaiey – io?aneaaua oi?aaeaiey, caieiathueany
oi?aaeaieai i?aaiecaoeee yoiai aaaeiinoaa, oeiainiaui eiio?ieai n?aaenoa
i?aaiecaoeee ec athaeaeaoa yoiai o?iaiy.

Aaaeiinoaaiiue eiio?ieue inouanoaeyao e ?inno?aoiaaeci? – ca
aeayoaeueiinoueth no?aoiauo eiiiaiee(nae/an aeeth/ai a ninoaa Ieioeia
?O), e Oaaea?aeueiay eiienney ii oiiaeiaiio ?uieo e oeaiiui aoiaaai.

Aioo?eoicyenoaaiiue oeiainiaue eiio?ieue inouanoaeyaony ia naieo
i?aaei?eyoeyo e i?aaiecaoeeyo oeiainiauie ioaeaeaie, iaeaieaa yooaeoeaii
oio, o eiai aieueoa iieiiii/ee – Aeaaaoo – ii a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue
inouanoaeyao oeiainiaue eiio?ieue i?e iiiiue ae?oaeo ?aaioieeia
aooaaeoa?ee.

I?aeiouanoai aioo?eoicyenoaaiiiai oeiainiaiai eiio?iey – oi, /oi ii
inouanoaeyaony ?aaioieeaie i?aaei?eyoey – oaie, eoi eo/oa anaai ciaao
ninoiyiea naiiai i?aaei?eyoey, iaeiaei eioa?anu i?iaa?ythueo ia anaaaea
iaoeaeaiu ia i?iyaeaiea anao oeiainiauo ia?ooaiee. ?a/ue eaeao ia
oieueei i aii?ina oieaou iaeiaia, a oaeaea e i eiio?iea ca
aeayoaeueiinoueth ?oeiaiaenoaa i?aaei?eyoey a AI, aaea aeaaeaeueoeu ia
anaaaea o/anoaotho a oi?aaeaiee.

Iiyoiio ia?aeeaeueii n aioo?eoicyenoaaiiui nouanoaoao e aoaeeoi?neee
(iacaaeneiue) eiio?ieue. Enoi?e/anee ii iiyaeeny eae ioaao ia
iio?aaiinoue ei?ii?aoeee iaania/eoue yooaeoeaiue eiio?ieue ca
aaeieieno?aoeeae, aeey /aai caeeth/aeny aeiaiai? n aoaeeoi?neie oe?iie
aeey i?iaa?ee oeiainiai-oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey.
Aoaeeoi?neee eiio?ieue inouanoaeyaony eiioi?aie, eiathueie ia yoi
niaoeeaeueioth eeoeaiceth.

Aoaeeoi?neee eiio?ieue iiaeao auoue aiaoiei(niaoe. oe?iu, aoaeeoi?u) e
aioo?aiiei. ?acee/atho 3 aeaea aiaoiaai aoaeeoa : iauee(?acee/iua
noi?iiu OOAe i?aaei?eyoey); aaieianeee, no?aoiaie. A iaycaoaeueiii
ii?yaeea aiaoiee aoaeeo i?iaiaeyo aaiee, no?aoiaua eiiiaiee,AI,
eiaanoeoeeiiiua oiiaeu.

Aioo?aiiee inouanoaeyaony ia e?oiiuo i?aaei?eyoeyo n oeeeaeaie, aeey
/aai nicaeaaony ia i?aaei?eyoee niaoeeaeueiay aoaeeoi?neay neoaeaa. Yoio
aeae aoaeeoa iaoiaeeony ia noaaeee oi?ie?iaaiey.

Iaeaieaa na?ueaciua i?iaeaiu :

– ia anaaaea aoaeeoi?neea i?iaa?ee ia aeieaeiii i?ioanneiiaeueiii
o?iaia;

– ia anaaaea i?iaa?ee aeinoaoi/ii iauaeoeaiu;

– aoaeeoi?u ia ianoo iaoa?eaeueiie ioaaonoaaiiinoe ca ea/anoai i?iaa?ee.

Iauanoaaiiue eiio?ieue – eiaaea-oi naiue ianniaue aeae oeiainiaiai
eiio?iey. Ii aeeth/ae Ia?oeeiua i?aaiu e eiieoao iauanoaaiiiai eiio?iey
(>10 iei. /aeiaae), ?aaioathuee ia iauanoaaiiuo ia/aeao aac io?uaa io
i?iecaiaenoaa (iieacooa). Iaeiaei, iai?ioanneiiaeueiue o?iaaiue,
ionoonoaea caeioa?aniaaiiinoe, ei?i/a, i/eiaoe?aoaeuenoai. Oioy ii ia
aoaeao auiieiyoue ?aoathuae ?iee, ii yaeyaony aaaeiui caaiii, e a
ianoiyuaa a?aiy aai inouanoaeytho i?ionithcu(neaaeyo ca auiieiaieai
oneiaee o?oaeiaiai aeiaiai?a) e NIE (mass media).

No?aoiaie eiio?ieue inouanoaeytho no?aoiaua eiiiaiee :

Eiio?ieue i?e caeeth/aiee aeiaiai?a no?aoiaaiey.

A oiaea aeaenoaey aeiaiai?a – neaaeyo ca eciaiaieai oneiaee no?aoiaaiey.

Eiio?ieue i?e ianooieaiee no?aoiaiai neo/ay (o/eouaathony ana
ianoiyoaeuenoaa – ionthaea ecaea?aeee no?aoiaie eiiiaiee).

Eaeoeey 12. 3.04.97.

A i?ioeanna inouanoaeaiey oeiainiaiai eiio?iey iacaaeneii io i?aaiia e
aeaeia i?eiaiythony neaaeothuea iaoiaeu :

I?iaa?ea. I?iaa?ythony ioaeaeueiua aii?inu OOAe i?aaei?eyoey,
i?aaiecaoeee ia iniiaa io/aoiuo e ae?oaeo aeieoiaioia – yoi naiue
ianniaue iaoiae oeiainiaiai eiio?iey (AIE – oaiaoe/aneay i?iaa?ea
en/eneaiey iaeiaa ia i?eaueue).

Ianeaaeiaaiea. Ioaaouaaao aieaa oe?ieee e?oa iieacaoaeae eee aii?inia.
I?e yoii iiaeao i?iaiaeeony ii?in, aieaoe?iaaiea, iiaeao inouanoaeyoueny
iaaethaeaiea ca OOAe i?aaei?eyoey.

Aiaeec. Nooue aiaeeca – eco/aiea ioaeaeueiuo aii?inia aeey onoaiiaeaiey
i?e/eiii-neaaenoaaiiuo naycae n i?eiaiaieai niaoeeaeueiuo yeiiiieei-
iaoaiaoe/aneeo iaoiaeia. Ia ana yeiiiienou auaeaeytho aai eae
ioaeaeueiue iaoiae, o.e. ii i?eiaiyaony ia oieueei i?e eiio?iea, ii e
i?e ieaie?iaaiee e ia ?aciuo yoaiao oei. oi?aaeaiey.

?aaecey – iaeaieaa iieiue e ianoiyoaeueiue iaoiae eiio?iey ca OOAe
i?aaei?eyoey ii ia?ae/iui e aooaaeoa?neei aeieoiaioai. A ioee/ea io
i?iaa?ie ?aaecey – aieaa eiiieaeniue iaoiae. Iaeiaei, ia anyeay ?aaecey
ioaaouaaao anth OOAe, anoue e oaiaoe/aneea, ii eiee/anoao ianeaaeoaiuo
aii?inia iaoe?iaa, /ai i?iaa?ee. Aeaeu : ieaiiaua e iaieaiiaua;
nieioiua, oaiaoe/aneea e auai?i/iua. I?iaiaeeony aiaoieie
i?aaiecaoeeyie. Ia?aia aeaenoaea – niyoue aeaiaaeioth iaee/iinoue a
eanna. Ninoaaeyaony aeo i iieoith?iii iaee/ee aeaiaa a eanna, iinea /aai
iia iia/aouaaaony. Auaiaeyony e inoaoee a eieaao aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa ia
aeaoo ia/aea ?aaecee. Caoai nee/athony aeieoiaiou n aeaiiuie aooo/aoa.

A i?ioeanna i?iaa?ee, ?aaecee eniieuecothony ?acee/iua i?eaiu
oeiainiaiai eiio?iey – i?eaiu aeieoiaioaeueiiai e oaeoe/aneiai eiio?iey.
Aeieoiaioaeueiue – i?iaa?ea aeieoiaioia. Nia/aea inouanoaeyaony
oi?iaeueiay i?iaa?ea – iaee/ea ?aeaeceoia, iiaeienae, ia/aoae,
ionoonoaea eni?aaeaiee, iiae/enoie. Caoai i?iaiaeeony th?eaee/aneay
i?iaa?ea – niioaaonoaea aeieoiaioa eee niaa?oaiiie iia?aoeee
aeaenoaothuaai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoao.Iiaeao i?iaiaeeoueny a?eoiaoe/aneay
i?iaa?ea, eiiaaea – eiae/aneay (iai?eia?, eiaaea n?aaeiyy c/ie
?aaioieeia aaiea ninoaaeyao 650.000 ?oaeae – iaeiae/ii). Ano?a/iay
i?iaa?ea – i/aiue yooaeoeaiue, ii o?oaeiaieee iaoiae. I?iaiaeeony
niiinoaaeaiea aeaiiuo i?iaa?yaiiai i?aaei?eyoey n aeaiiuie aai
eiio?aaaioia (i?iaa?ea ii n/aoai-oaeoo?ai). Oaeoe/aneee – naycai n
i?iaa?eie iaoa?eaeueiuo oeaiiinoae, aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa. Iaeaieaa
?ani?ino?aiaiiue niinia – eiaaioa?ecaoeey – naiaeeony e niiinoaaeaieth
oaeoe/aneeo oeaiiinoae aeieoiaioaeueiui aeaiiui aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa.
Ae?oaea niiniau – ianeaaeiaaiea,iaia?, acaaoeaaiea iaoa?eaeueiuo
oeaiiinoae, yenia?oiay ioeaiea ea/anoaa, eaai?aoi?iue aiaeec(i?eai).
Oi?iu oeiainiaiai eiio?iey (a caaeneiinoe io a?aiai i?iaaaeaiey):

i?aaeaa?eoaeueiue (ia?aae niaa?oaieai oeiainiaie iia?aoeee eee ia?aae
ia/aeii auiieiaiey oeiainiauo ieaiia);

oaeouee (a oiaea ?aaeecaoeee oeiainiauo ieaiia, i?ia?aii);

iineaaeothuee (ii ?acoeueoaoai auiieiaiey ieaiia e niaa?oaiey oeiainiauo
iia?aoeee). Eae ?aciiaeaeiinoue yoiai eiio?iey – ?aaecey.

Nia?aiaiiue oeiainiaue eiio?ieue ?O ioaeaeaaony a na?ueaciii
niaa?oainoaiaaiee. Ia?aoiae e ?uieo aucaae na?ueaciia oaaee/aiea
eiee/anoaa oeiainiauo ia?ooaiee e ianooaaia iioa?ue io yoeo ia?ooaiee (a
ia/aea 90-o – /a/aineea aaeci – e?oiiay aaieianeay aoa?a. Ec eaiaeia
aeaiaaeiiai ia?auaiey auei ecuyoi $3,75 ie?ae, a oi a?aiy eae e?oiiaeoay
aoa?a ca ?oaaaeii – $150 iei. – a Oaaeoea?ee. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy iaeaieaa
na?ueaciu 3 iaeanoe oeiainiauo ia?ooaiee :

ia?ooaiea iaeiaiaiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa e ooiae io oieaou iaeiaia
(iaaeiai? 30-40% iaeiaia);

iacaeiiiia (iaoeaeaaia) eniieueciaaiea athaeaeaoiuo n?aaenoa
(eiaae?iaaiea, ee/iua oeiainiaua ioiioaiey);

aieueoia eiee/anoai oeiainiauo ia?ooaiee, ouaieythueo i?aaa aeoeeiia?ia,
iaeeeo eiaanoi?ia eae oe?iaie, inouanoaeythueie iacaeiiiia i?eaea/aiea
oeiainiauo n?aaenoa, oae e i?aaei?eyoeyie, aaea
?oeiaiaenoai(aaeieieno?aoeey) inouanoaeyao aaneiio?ieueii OOAe.

Iooe niaa?oainoaiaaiey oeiainiaiai eiio?iey :

o?aaoaony niaa?oainoaiaaiea aeaenoaothuaai oeiainiaiai
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa, o.e. iiiaea ia?ooaiey i?ienoiaeyo a neeo eacaae a
aeaenoaothueo caeiiao;

iaiaoiaeeia e noaaeeueiinoue caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa, o.e. ia?aaeee eciaiaiey
oneiaee oieaou iaeiaia, aeayoaeueiinoe ia ?uiea OeaAo aneaaenoaea /aai
niaa?oathony oeiainiaua ia?ooaiey ec-ca ianaiaa?aiaiiinoe i?eiaiaiey
eciaiaiee.

o ainoaea?noaa aeeeaiia : iaeanoi/aoue eee ineaaeyoue naieoeee ii
ioiioaieth e ia?ooeoaeyi iaeiaiaie aeenoeeieeiu. Caeanue ?a/ue eaeao i
ceinoiuo ia?ooeoaeyo, e eioi?ui iiaeao auoue i?eiaieia e oaieiaiay
ioaaonoaaiiinoue;

n ae?oaie noi?iiu, aeey oao i?aaei?eyoee e i?aaiecaoeee, aaea ioeaee
ec-ca iai?ioanneiiaeueiinoe – caeanue o?aaoaony aieaa i?aaiaoe/iay
iiceoeey, iiyoiio i?iaiaeyony iaeiaiaua aiienoee(oaaee/aiea n?iea, aei
eioi?iai iiaeii aianoe iaeiaiaua ieaoaaee), ?acuynieoaeueiua ?aaiou AIN.
Aeieaeia iiyaeoueny caeioa?aniaaiiinoue a ?acoeueoaoao yeiiiie/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoe o i?iaa?ythueo (o.a /anoue n?aaenoa io nia?aiiuo oo?aoia
e auyaeaiiuo aeiiieieoaeueiuo aeioiaeia eaeao a oiiaeu e
?ani?aaeaeyaony a iaeiaiauo neoaeaao).

II oiaea ioaeaeaaony a niaa?oainoaiaaiee. Anoue i?aaeeiaeaiea ia?aaeaoue
ae i?aai ia i?iaaaeaiea i?aaeaa?eoaeueiuo neaaenoaee (eae nae/an, a
aeaeueoa – a neaaenoaaiiua i?aaiu), ii aanue i?ioeann ?acae?aoaeuenoaa n
nicaeaieai aioo?e II iaeiaiauo noaeia;

eiiiuethoa?ecaoeey ?aaiou eiio?iee?othueo i?aaiia (aaaeue nae/an
3.000.000 iaeiaiieaoaeueueeia – th?.eeoe, ieaoyo 2.400.000). A aio a
no?aoiaaiee io/aou eiiiaiee naeatho auiieiaiiuie ia aeeneaoao.

aeey iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe aoaeeoi?neiai eiio?iey – i?eaea/aiea
eiino?aiiuo oe?i n aani?eno?anoiui eiio?ieai .

anoue e i?eia?u aeoaee?iaaiey oeiainiaiai eiio?iey, iiyoiio ioaeia
eii?aeeiaoeey aeayoaeueiinoe;

yooaeoeaiinoue eniieueciaaiey athaeaeaoiuo n?aaenoa cia/eoaeueii
iiauneony, anee i?eaeaoue aeaniinoe ?anoiaeiua noaouee athaeaeaoa.
Ia?eaiaio iaeaaeaao aieueoeie aiciiaeiinoyie ii inouanoaeaieth eiio?iey
ca athaeaeaoii, iaiaoiaeeii iiauoaoue ?ieue N/aoiie iaeaou e anaai
Oaaea?aeueiiai Nia?aiey.

Eaeoeey 13. 4.04.97.

?acaeae: “Ainoaea?noaaiiua oeiainu”

Oaia 8. Ainoaea?noaaiiue athaeaeao

Nouiinoue e ?ieue ainathaeaeaoa a nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneii ?acaeoee
iauanoaa.

Aeioiaeu athaeaeaoa.

Iaeiaiaay iieeoeea ainoaea?noaa

?anoiaeu athaeaeaoa

Athaeaeaoiay iieeoeea a iaeanoe ?anoiaeia.

Athaeaeaoiue aeaoeoeeo, oi?aaeaiea ei.

1. Aua i?e ?anniio?aiee oeiainiaie nenoaiu iu ?anniao?eaaee ainathaeaeao
eae aaaeouaa caaii. Ainathaeaeao naycai aeaiaaeiuie ioiioaieyie ,
eiathueie iauaeoeaiue oa?aeoa?, o.a. nouanoaiaaiea athaeaeaoa iauaeoeaii
iaoneiaeaii, ii nouanoaoao e ai anao iauanoaaiii-yeiiiie/aneeo
oi?iaoeeyo, aaea nouanoaiaaee oeiainiaua ioiioaiey, o.a. athaeaeao –
yeiiiie/aneay eaoaai?ey, oanii naycaiiay n nouanoaiaaieai ainoaea?noaa.

Ainathaeaeao aeieaeai ianeoaeeaaoue ooieoeee ainoaea?noaa e aai iniiaiia
iacia/aiea – oaeiaeaoai?aiea ainoaea?noaaiiuo iio?aaiinoae. Ainathaeaeao
au?aaeaao aeaiaaeiua ioiioaiey, aicieeathuea iaaeaeo ainoaea?noaii e
ae?oaeie o/anoieeaie iauanoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa a i?ioeanna
?ani?aaeaeaiey e ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiey noieiinoe iauanoaaiiiai i?iaeoeoa e
/anoe iaoeeiiaeueiiai aiaaonoaa iooai ia?aciaaiey oeaio?aeeciaaiiuo
oiiaeia ainoaea?noaa e eo eniieueciaaiey ia oeaee ?anoe?aiiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa, oaeiaeaoai?aiey nioeeaeueiuo e ae?oaeo iauanoaaiiuo
iio?aaiinoae. Ainathaeaeaoo, eae /anoe oeiainiauo ioiioaiee i?enoue oa
aea i?eciaee e ooieoeee, /oi e o oeiainia eae o yeiiiie/aneie eaoaai?ee.

Iaoa?eaeueii-aauanoaaiiay oi?ia athaeaeaoiuo ioiioaiee –
oeaio?aeeciaaiiua oiiaeu ainoaea?noaa, eioi?ua oaeaea iieo/eee iacaaiea
“athaeaeao”, o.a. iiae iaeiei oa?ieiii “ainathaeaeao” iiae?acoiaaathony
?aciua iiiyoey :

Eae yeiiiie/aneay eaoaai?ey – niaieoiiinoue yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaiee.

Oeaio?aeeciaaiiue oiiae ainoaea?noaa e ?acee/iuo ainno?oeoo?.

Oeiainiaue ieai, ninoaaeyaiue e i?eieiaaiue aaeaaiaeii eae caeii.

Oioy athaeaeaoo i?enoue ana i?eciaee oeiainia, yoa eaoaai?ey eiaao naith
niaoeeoeeo :

Ii anaaaea naycai n ainoaea?noaii – iaeiei ec o/anoieeia
?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiuo ioiioaiee.

O athaeaeaoa eiie iauaeo ?ani?aaeaeaiey. N iiiiuueth oeiainia
?ani?aaeaeyaony AAI e aai neaaaaiua, a athaeaeao – eeoue /anoue AAI eee
IAe. *a?ac athaeaeao ia ?ani?aaeaeyaony aii?oecaoeey, eceeoae iai?ioiuo
n?aaenoa – C. Aeeth/aaony eeoue i?eaaai/iue e iaiaoiaeeiue i?iaeoeo.
Iniiaiay /anoue – /enoue aeioiae. A ii?aaeaeaiiuo oneiaeyo athaeaeao
o/anoaoao a ?ani?aaeaeaiee IA (i?eaaoecaoeey, eiioeneaoeey, au?o/ea io
i?iaeaaee cieioiai caiana).

A iniiaiii – ia?a?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiue eino?oiaio (oeiainu – e ia 1 e ia
2 noaaeee), oioy ano?a/aaony e ia 1 noaaeee (i?aaei?eyoea ieaoeo ec
au?o/ee einaaiiua iaeiae).

?ieue athaeaeaoa.

Ii ianeoaeeaaao ana iniiaiua ooieoeee ainoaea?noaa :

yeiiiie/aneay (iaania/eaaao oeiaine?iaaiea aaaeiaeoeo IO iauaeoia –
i?aaei?eyoey e i?iecaiaenoaa ia noaneaee?iaaiee, eiathuea aieueoia IO
cia/aiea). Aio iiiaii ?ieue ii?aaeaeyaony eiie?aoiie yeiiiie/aneie
neooaoeeae (iai?eia?, aaieianeee e?ecen a THaeiie Ei?aa, eiaaea
e?oiiaeoei iaieaoaaeaniiniaiui aaieai auei ?aoaii auaeaeeoue $7 ie?ae;
NOA a aiaeu WWII – ioaeii oaaee/aiea auionea aiaiiie i?iaeoeoeee – auee
aineaiaeiaeaiey, aicaaaeaiea can/ao aineiuaeoeee aoiiiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe;
eiie i?eia? – eiaeono?eaeecaoeey).

aaaeiue eino?oiaio iaaeio?aneaaiai e iaaeoa??eoi?eaeueiiai
?ani?aaeaeaiey ?ano?nia. N iiiiuueth iaeiaia e noaneaeee ia?aie/eaathony
iaeie io?anee, a noaneaee?othony ae?oaea e ai iiiaeo no?aiao ie?a
athaeaeao – aeaaiue eino?oiaio iiaeaea?aeee ?acaeoey neaauo ?aeiiia –
neeueiia iaaeoa??eoi?eaeueiia ?ani?aaeaeaiea );

nioeeaeueiay (ainoaea?noai iaania/eaaao aanieaoiia ia?aciaaiea, ea/aiea
– /anoe/iia eee iieiia oeiaine?iaaiea ec athaeaeaoa). Aeaaea nae/an i?e
nie?auaiee ?anoiaeia, athaeaeao – aeaaiue eino?oiaio iiaeaea?aeee
iaeieioueo a?aaeaeai, /a?ac iiaeioiaeiue iaeia eaeao au?aaieaaiea
ianaeaiey. A caiaaeiuo no?aiao aeiey nioeeaeueiuo ?anoiaeia
(cae?aaiio?aiaiea , ia?aciaaiea, iiiiuue iaeieiouei)- ii/oe 60% io
athaeaeaoa – NOA. O.a athaeaeao – aeaaiue ?u/aa au?aaieaaiey a
nioeeaeueiii niunea, /oiau ia aeiionoeoue a no?aia nioeeaeueiuo
eiioeeeoia);

iieeoe/aneay (oeiaine?iaaiea a?iee, i?aaiio?aieoaeueiuo i?aaiia). Aei
na?aaeeiu XIX aaea aiaiiua ?anoiaeu auee iniiaiui yeaiaioii ?anoiaeia
(XVIII aae – ?inney – 90%). Nae/an iooiaeeo ia aoi?ie ieai,o.e. anoue
aieaa aaaeiua iai?aaeaiey;

IOI (oeiaine?iaaiea ooiaeaiaioaeueiuo iaoe, ainoaea?noaaiiuo
iao/ii-oaoie/aneeo i?iaeoia);

oeiaine?iaaiea aini?aaiia aeanoe.

Iaeaieaa y?eee iieacaoaeue ?iee athaeaeaoa – ioiioaiea aeioiaeia
(?anoiaeia( ainathaeaeaoa e aaee/eia AAI. Anoue iiaiea, /oi ?anoiaeu
eo/oa, o.e. eiaiii iie, a ia caieaeaiiue aeioiae ii?aaeaeytho noaiaiue
o/anoey a ?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiii i?ioeanna.

Yoio iieacaoaeue a ianoiyuaa a?aiy eiaao oaiaeaioeeth e aic?anoaieth
(Aa?iaiey – 1972 a – 24%, nae/an – 29%). Yoi naycaii n iiauoaieai
?iee(aeiee) ainoaea?noaa a ?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiii i?ioeanna, oioy e i?e
ainiiaenoaa ?uii/iie yeiiiieee. A ?innee yoio iieacaoaeue – 39! (650
o?ei. /1659 o?ei.), NOA – 36%. A Ieaea?eaiaeao aea a 1989 aiaeo oieueei
ii oeaio?aeueiui i?aaiai aeanoe – 54 %. Iaeiaei, yoe ?an/aou i/aiue
niiieoaeueiu, o.e. ii aeaiiui Aineiinoaoa 28% io AAI eaeao ia
iaeiieaiea, a yoi iaiiaeaiea iniiaiuo e iai?ioiuo oiiaeia).

*?acia?iay oeaio?aeecaoeey – oiaea iaaaoeaiay /a?oa, o.e. aeaayony
noeioeu e ?acaeoeth i?iecaiaenoaa. A oi a?aiy eae ?ino i?ioeaioa ia
Caiaaea icia/aao ?ino eo aeaaininoiyiey, o ian /?acia?iay
oeaio?aeecaoeey iiaeao aeaoue ia?aoiue oiae. A aeiiieiaiea
?aeiiaiaeoaony niio?aoue o/aaiee.

2. Aeioiaeu ainathaeaeaoa au?aaeatho yeiiiie/aneea ioiioaiey,
aicieeathuea o ainoaea?noaa n i?aaei?eyoeyie, i?aaiecaoeeyie,
a?aaeaeaiaie a i?ioeanna oi?ie?iaaiey athaeaeaoiuo oiiaeia.

Oi?ia i?iyaeaiey yoeo ioiioaiee – ?acee/iua aeaeu ieaoaaeae, a eo
iaoa?eaeueii-aauanoaaiiia aiieiuaiea – aeaiaaeiua n?aaenoaa,
iinooiathuea ainoaea?noao io noauaeoia YI. Ana aeioiaeu ainoaea?noaa io
niiniaa ec ecaea/aiey iiaoo auoue iauaaeeiaiu a 2 a?oiiu :

iaeiae e ae?oaea iaycaoaeueiua ieaoaaee;

i?i/ea aeioiaeu.

90 % anao aeioiaeia ainathaeaeaoa ninoaaeytho iaeiaiaua iinooieaiey,
e?iia oiai, 5% – iaiaeiaiaua iinooieaiey, 5% – oeaeaaua athaeaeaoiua
oiiaeu (Aei?iaeiue). Oaeei ia?acii iaeiae – 95%, ia o/eouaay aine?aaeeou
aeey aaeaina ?anoiaeiie e aeioiaeiie /anoae.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy a ?innee – ana iaycaoaeueiua iinooieaiey – iaeiae, a a
Niaaoneia a?aiy – aieueoay /anoue aeioiaeia – iaiaeiaiaua iaycaoaeueiua
ieaoaaee. ?acieoea caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi iaeia – iaycaoaeueiue
ieaoaae, ?acia? e oneiaey aceiaiey eioi?iai ii?aaeaeaiu caeiiii. O.a.
aeey anao iaeiaiieaoaeueueeia onoaiaaeeaathony aaeeiiia?aciua oneiaey,
eiaiii iiyoiio iie eniieuecothony a ?uii/iie yeiiiieea.

A Niaaoneia a?aiy – nouanoaiaaea ieaoa ca i?iecaiaenoaaiiua oiiaeu,
io/eneaiey io i?eauee – ana noaaee e oneiaey ii?aaeaeyeenue ia caeiiii,
a nouanoaiaaee ii?aaeaeaiiua aaaeiinoaa aeey iiae/eiaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee.
Ia auei caeioa?aniaaiiinoe a iiauoaiee yooaeoeaiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa. Yoi
auei ?ac?ooaii a 1991 aiaeo, e n 1992 aiaea iiyaeeenue iaeiae. Iie
,anoanoaaiii, nouanoaiaaee e ?aiueoa – aeey oece/aneeo eeoe e eieoicia,
a aini?aaei?eyoey n/eoaeenue nianoaaiiinoueth ainoaea?noaa – iaoe!
Nae/an yoi aeaenoaoao a nenoaia OeA.

Iaeiae – oaeaea iiuiue nioeeaeueiue oaeoi? (iai?eia?, aieiaiey a NOA –
XVIII aae, eiaaea Aiaeeeneee Ia?eaiaio ?aoee aaanoe aa?aiaue nai? –
oeia ainiioeeiu, o.a. nai? ca iinoaiiaeo ia/aoe. Yoio iaeia aucaae
aiciouaiea a naaa?iaia?eeaineeo eieiieyo ec-ca iaaeaeaiey ieaoeoue
iaeia, aea e aiiaua. – ca/ai ei aiaee/aia).

Iaeiae o?aaotho iao/iiai iiaeoiaea e eo onoaiiaeaieth. Ia?aua iao/iua
i?eioeeiu iaeiaia ii?aaeaeee A.Nieo, eioi?ue noi?ioee?iaae 4 i?eioeeia :

Iiiyoiinoue oneiaee aceiaiey iaeiaia.

Aceiaoueny aeieaeiu a n?iee, oaeiaiua aeey iaeiaiieaoaeueueea.

I?iii?oeeiiaeueiinoue iaeiaa aeioiaeai.

Aeieaeiu acuiaoueny n ieieiaeueiuie ecaea?aeeaie.

Niaieoiiinoue aceiaaiuo iaeiaia ia?acotho iaeiaiaoth nenoaio, eioi?ay
aeieaeia ioaa/aoue neaaeothuei i?eioeeiai e o?aaiaaieyi :

?aaoey?iinoue e iieiioa iinooieaiey n?aaenoa a athaeaeao.

Iaeeiaeiaua(ii aiciiaeiinoe) aeey anao ieaoaeueueeia oneiaey
iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey.

Aeieaeai auoue iioeiaeueiue ninoaa iaeiaiauo eueaio.

Iaeiie?aoiinoue iaeiaeaiey (1 iauaeo iaeaaaaony 1 iaeiaii oieueei 1
?ac).

Noaaeeueiinoue, onoie/eainoue iaeiaiaie nenoaiu e oneiaee aceiaiey.

*aoeia ?acaeaeaiea ii o?iaiyi ainoi?aaeaiey.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy aeaenoaoao iiiaeanoai iaeiaia, eioi?ua iiaeii
iiae?acaeaeeoue ia :

i?yiua (onoaiaaeeaathony ia aeioiae eee eiouanoai iaeiaiieaoaeueueea);

einaaiiua ( a aeaea iaaeaaaee a oeaio oiaa?a e oiea/eaaaony
iio?aaeoaeai).

Anoue ?yae iiaiee i ?acoiiuo i?iii?oeeyo yoeo iaeiaia. Iaeii ec ieo
caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi ia nouanoaoao ?acoiiuo i?iii?oeee, o.e. anoue
ie?iaay i?aeoeea i?eiaiaiey a ?acaeouo no?aiao e oieueei i?yiuo iaeiaia,
e aaea einaaiiua ninoaaeytho 50%(NOA).

A Caiaaeiie Aa?iia – e?oiiaeoee iaeiaiaue enoi/iee – IAeN. Iaeiaei,
einaaiiua aceiaoue eaa/a(i?aeiouanoai). Iaaeinoaoie – iaiueoa o/eouaatho
oeiainiai-oicyenoaaiiia iieiaeaiea iaeiaiieaoaeueueea, i?e naiae
oieaa?naeueiinoe i?aaenoaaeytho oyaeaeue iaeiaiaue i?ann, iaeiaei, anee
eae a aeoeecao – aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiay noaaea, oi iii yaii niya/aaony.
E?iia oiai, yoi oyaeeia a?aiy aeey ianaeaiey.

Eaeoeey 14.

Niaieoiiinoue i?eiaiyaiuo a no?aia iaeiaia ia?acotho iaeiaiaoth nenoaio.
A ianoiyuaa a?aiy iia aeeth/aao a naay oaaea?aeueiua iaeiae, iaeiae
noauaeoia oaaea?aoeee, ianoiua iaeiae. Iauaa eiee/anoai iaeiaia
i?eaeeaeaaony e 50. Aeaeaiea iaoneiaeaii oai, eoi aceiaao yoe iaeiae, a
iai?aaeyoueny iie iiaoo a ?aciua ianoa.

Iaeaieaa e?oiiua oaaea?aeueiua iaeiae :

IAeN

aeoeecu

oaiiaeaiiua iioeeiu

iaeia ia i?eaueue i?aaei?eyoee e i?aaiecaoeee

iiaeioiaeiue iaeia n oece/aneeo eeoe

iaeiae a aei?iaeiua oiiaeu ( ia iieueciaaoaeae aaoiaei?ia, ia
?aaeecaoeeth ANI, n aeaaeaeueoeaa aaoio?ainii?oiuo n?aaenoa)

io/eneaiey ia i?iecaiaenoai ieia?aeueii-nu?ueaaie aacu(oeaeaaie
athaeaeaoiue oiiae)

ieaoaaee ca iieueciaaiea i?e?iaeiuie ?ano?naie

ainiioeeia

o?ainii?oiue iaeia

nai? ca ia?anueeo, ia?aaaeeo a?ocia e iaeeaeo iaooe

nai? ca ioioneaaioth y/yia?aeth i?iecaiaenoaaiiui i?aaei?eyoeyi

Iaeiae noauaeoia oaaea?aoeee :

iaeia ia eiouanoai i?aaei?eyoee

eaniie aeioiae(iaeia)

ieaoa ca aiaeo (i?iiuoeaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee)

nai? ia ioaeaeu ia?aciaaoaeueiuo o/?aaeaeaiee

nai? ca ?aaeno?aoeeth i?aaei?eyoee

Ianoiua iaeiae (eo aieueoa 20) – ii ia cia/eo, /oi ana aaiaeyony ia
aeaiiie oa??eoi?ee :

iaeia ia niaea?aeaiea aeeeeuiiai oiiaea e iauaeoia
nioeeaeueii-eoeueoo?iie noa?u (ia aieaa 1,5% io iauaia ?aaeecaoeee)

caiaeueiue iaeia (a caaeneiinoe io aeaaeaiey caieae)

iaeia ia eiouanoai oece/aneeo eeoe (ni no?iaiee, eaa?oe?) -aei 0,1% io
eiaaioa?iie noieiinoe

oeaeaaie nai? ia niaea?aeaiea ieeeoeee, aeaaiono?ienoai ai?iaea,
ia?aciaaiea e ae?oaea oeaee (1% io OIO).

iaeia ia ?aeeaio (aei 5 % noieiinoe ?aeeaiiuo oneoa)

nai? ca i?aai oi?aiaee

eeoeaiceiiiue nai? ca i?aai oi?aiaee nie?oiuie iaieoeaie

I?yiua iaeiae iiae?acaeaeythony ia iaeiae ia aeioiaeu(iiaeioiaeiue,
iaeia ia i?eaueue, ia eiouanoai, i?e?iaeiua ?ano?nu) e i?i/ea iaeiae e
nai?u.

No?oeoo?a nai?a : IAeN e aeoeecu (einaaiiua) – 43% Oaaea?aeueiiai
athaeaeaoa; i?yiua iaeiae ia eiouanoai e aeioiaeu – 36%; iaeiae ia
eiouanoai – 9%. Oa?aeoa?ia i/aiue aunieay eiioeaio?aoeey iinooieaiee ia
ianeieueei iaeiaia.

Oneiaey e ii?yaeie aceiaiey IAeN, aeoeecia, iaeiaa ia i?eaueue e
iiaeioiaeiiai iaeiaa.

1. IAeN. Iiyaeeny ai O?aioeee a 50-a aiaeu . O ian aaaaeai a 1991 aiaeo
e caiaiee niaie iaeia n i?iaeaae(iai?ioa). Iaaeinoaoeii iaeiaa n iai?ioa
auei oi, /oi, yaeyynue einaaiiui, ii acuiaeny n ia?aie/aiiiai e?oaa
oiaa?ia ia ia?aie aeeciaiiie iio?aaiinoe e iioiaeee ia nenoaio aeoeecia,
iaeaaaaiay aaca – ?acieoea iaaeaeo ?icie/iie oeaiie e oeaiie ?aaeecaoeee
ecaioiaeoaey. Ionthaea ia?aaiua oneiaey iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey –
iaeiaiiaeiaeaiea aaoiiiaeey noiiie a 2-3 ?aca aieueoa aai n/n. IAeN aea
ii oeene?iaaiiui noaaeai iaeaaaao anth i?iaeoeoeeth, ionthaea
?aaiiia?iia iinooieaiea n?aaenoa a athaeaeao. Noiia iiea/eaaaiiai IAeN
ii?aaeaeyaony eae ?acieoea iaaeaeo IAeN, ia/eneaiiui ia ?aaeeciaaiioth
i?iaeoeoeeth (?aaiou, oneoae) e noiiie IAeN, ia/eneaiiie ia
i?eia?aoaiiua iaoa?eaeueiua oeaiiinoe. Ieaoaeueueee iaeiaa ia
aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue – oieueei th?eaee/aneea eeoea; 20 % – iniiaiay
noaaea IAeN (aeey ?yaea i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiuo e aeaoneeo oiaa?ia – 10%).
Ia iaeaaathony IAeN aioo?ecaaiaeneie iai?io, yenii?oe?oaiua oiaa?u,
oneoae ai?iaeneiai iannaaee?neiai o?ainii?oa, eaa?oieaoa, noieiinoue
i?eaaoece?iaaiiiai eiouanoaa, iia?aoeee ii no?aoiaaieth, e?aaeeoiaaieth,
aeaiiceoai, ii ?/n e oaeouei n/aoai, iia?aoeee n OeaAo, oneoae a noa?a
ia?aciaaiey, eoeueoo?u, eneonnoaa, ieaoiua iaaeeoeeineea oneoae,
eaea?noaa.

2. Aeoeec – einaaiiue iaeia n aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiuie noaaeaie,
onoaiiaeaiiuie ia ioaeaeueiua aeaeu oiaa?ia. Nae/an iie onoaiiaeaiu ia
aeii-aiaei/iua ecaeaeey, ieai, oaaa/iua ecaeaeey, thaaee?iua, iaoiaua,
eia?iaua ecaeaeey, ?uaiua aeaeeeaoanu, oa?oi?, o?onoaeue, eaaeiaua
aaoiiiaeee, aaicei, iaooue, aac. Noaaee aeoeecia – io 5% aei 90%io
i?iaeaaeiie noieiinoe, iie iiaoo oaeaea onoaiaaeeaaoueny a aaniethoiuo
?acia?ao ia iaoo?aeueioth aaeeieoeo (iai?. a ?oaeyo ia 1 e i?iaeoeoeee).

3. Iaeia ia i?eaueue. Iauaeo iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey – aaeiaay i?eaueue
i?aaei?eyoey = i?eaueue io ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee(?aaio,oneoa)+i?eaueue
io i?i/ae ?aaeecaoeee (eiouanoai)+aia?aaeecaoeeiiiay i?eaueue (a?aiaea,
% ii aeaiiceoai, aeoeeyi ae?oaeo i?aaei?eyoee, oo?aou, iaie). Ec aaeiaie
i?eauee au/eoatho ?aioiua ieaoaaee e aeioiaeu, ia aeeth/aaiua a
iaeaaaaioth i?eaueue (?aiueoa – ?aca?aiue oiiae i?aaei?eyoey, nae/an: io
n/o i?iecaiaenoaa, i?eaueue ii iniaui noaaeai – aeioiae io OeaAo, io
aeieaaiai o/anoey a ae?oaeo i?aaei?eyoeyo. Noaaee iaeiaa :

aei 35% – aeey iniiaiie iannu i?aaei?eyoee (ec ieo 13% – Oaaea?aeueiue
athaeaeao, aei 22% – athaeaeao noauaeoia Oaaea?aoeee);

aei 43% – aeey aaieia, no?aoiauo eiiiaiee

aei 38 % – a Iineaa aeey iin?aaeieeia

15% – aeioiae ii aeeaeaeaiaeai oeaiiuo aoiaa

aei 70% – aeioiae aeaeainaeiiia

aei 90% – aeioiae eaceii e eai?iuo aeiiia.

Nouanoaotho ?acee/iua eueaiou ii iaeiao ia i?eaueue

( eioi?ua iiaoo a iauae neiaeiinoe oiaiueoeoue aai ia aieaa, /ai ia 50%
):

eueaioa ia i?eaueue, eaeouae ia i?iecaiaenoaaiiua eaiaeiaeaiey e
aeeeeuiia no?ieoaeuenoai (i?e iieiii eniieueciaaiee i?aaiecaoeee);

eniieueciaaiea ia IEIE? (ia aieaa 10% iaeaaaaiie i?eauee);

?anoiaeu ia niaea?aeaiea nioeeaeueii-eoeueoo?iuo iauaeoia e aeeeeuiiai
oiiaea, iaoiaeyueany ia aaeaina i?aaei?eyoey a i?aaeaeao ii?i cao?ao
aiaeiae/iuo ioieoeeiaeueiuo iauaeoia;

i?eaueue, eaeouay ia iie?uoea oauoeia i?aaeuaeoueo eao i?e iieiii
en/a?iaiee ?aca?aiiai oiiaea;

aeaaioai?eoaeueiua aciinu(aei 3%), *a?iiaueue aei 5%;

o/?aaeaeaiey ia?aciaaiey, eneonnoaa, eoeueoo?u, eniieuecothuea i?eaueue
ia ?anoe?aiea onoaaiie aeayoaeueiinoe;

aeey iaeuo i?aaei?eyoee(aiiaue nicaeaiiuo) a iaeanoe n/o,
no?ieoaeuenoaa, i?iecaiaenoaa oiaa?ia ia?iaeiiai iio?aaeaiey – iaeia ia
i?eaueue ia oiea/eaaaony ia?aua 2 aiaea, 3-e aiae – 25% noaaee, 4-e aiae
– 50% noaaee.

Aiiaua, iaeia ia i?eaueue iiyaeeny a 1991 aiaeo, ii oioaee aaanoe
iiaeioiaeiue iaeia n th?eaee/aneeo eeoe n aaeiaiai aeioiaea
i?aaei?eyoey, o.e. aai eaa/a nia?aoue ainoaea?noao, ii ii oa?iaeaao
oeiainiaiio iieiaeaieth i?aaei?eyoey ( ieaoeony i?e oauoeao).

4. Iiaeioiaeiue iaeia n oece/aneeo eeoe. Iiyaeeny a Aiaeee ai a?aiy
ai?ueau n Iaiieaiiii. Aei ?aaiethoeee a ?innee nouanoaiaaee eeanniaua
noaaee : 12% aeey ?aai/eo, ae?oaea (?aianeaiieee) – 65-75%. A ianoiyuaa
a?aiy – aaeeiua i?eioeeiu iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey. Iaeaaaaony niaieoiiue
aeioiae a?aaeaeai : c/ie (iniiaiay + aeiiieieoaeueiay); i?aiee; aeioiaeu
io i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe. Ia aeeth/athony a iaeaaaaioth
aaco : ain. iiniaey, e?iia iiniaey ii a?aiaiiie iao?oaeiniiniaiinoe,
noeiaiaeey, iainee, noiiu iaoa?eaeueiie iiiiue, i?aaenoaaeyaiie
aini?aaiaie a nayce n *N, aeioiaeu io ee/iiai i?eonaaeaaiiai oicyenoaa,
no?aoiaua aiciauaiey(anee no?aoiaua aciinu oiea/eaae a?aaeaeaiei),
aeiaieuenoaea aiaiiineoaeaueo. Au/eoathony ec aeioiaea cao?aou ia
i?eia?aoaiea eee no?ieoaeuenoai aeeeuey aei 5000 min ieeaaeia; /anoue
aeioiaea io i?iaeaaee eiouanoaa.

Nouanoaoao iaiaeaaaaiue ieieioi = 1 min ieeaae a ianyoe ia a?aaeaeaieia
e ia eaaeaeiai eaeaeeaaioea.

Eaeoeey 15. 17.04.97

Noaaee iiaeioiaeiiai iaeiaa :

I?e iaeaaaaiie aaca aei 12 iei 12 %

io 12 iei aei 24 iei 20%

io 24 iei aei 36 iei 25%

io 36 iei aei 48 iei 30%

nauoa 48 iei 35%

Iiaeioiaeiue iaeia oaea?aeeaaaony ii ianoo ?aaiou. Anee eiathony aua
enoi/ieee aeioiaea e niaieoiiue aeioiae aieueoa 12 iei, oi iaiaoiaeeii
i?aaenoaaeoue a AIE aeaeea?aoeeth i aeioiaeao; iacaaeneii io noiiu
aeioiaeia iaycaiu i?aaenoaaeoue aeaeea?aoeeth i aeioiaeao /anoiua
i?aaei?eieiaoaee. Ca iai?aaeinoaaeaiea eee eneaaeaiea aeioiaeia
iaeaaathony aaeieieno?aoeaiua naieoeee. I?e iai?aaeinoaaeaiee – 2-5 min
?acia?ia iieaou o?oaea + c noii iaoiea/aiiuo iaeiaia acuiathony oo?aou.

A yoii aiaeo i?iecioee nouanoaaiiua eciaiaiey a iaoaiecia aceiaiey
iiaeioiaeiiai iaeiaa. Iaeiaeaieth iiaeeaaeeo i?ioeaio ii aaieianeei
aeaiiceoai, anee yoio i?ioeaio i?aauoaao noaaeo ?aoeiaine?iaaiey
OeA(42%), ii aaethoiui n/aoai – iaiaeaaaaiue o?iaaiue -15%, n noiiu
i?aauoaiey ieaoeony iiaeioiaeiue iaeia. Anee a?aaeaeaiei iieo/aao nnoaeo
a aaiea iiae i/aiue ieceee %, oi n yoiai aiaea yoi n/eoaaony
iaoa?eaeueiie auaiaeie. Aeey ?oaeaaie nnoaeu – anee iaiueoa 2/3 io
noaaee ?aoeiaine?iaaiey (28%), oi ?acieoea iiaeeaaeeo iaeiaeaieth. Oi
aea naiia ioiineony e no?aoiaui auieaoai – anee iie i?aauoatho ?acia?
no?aoiauo aciinia.

10% aeioiaeia ainathaeaeaoa ninoaaeytho iaiaeiaiaua iinooieaiey. Eo
ninoaa :

aeioiaeu io ainnianoaaiiinoe e ainaeayoaeueiinoe (aeeaeaeaiaeu ii
aeoeeyi, i?eiaaeeaaeauei ainoaea?noao, aeioiaeu io naea/e a a?aiaeo
aineiouanoaa, % ca ?aciauaiea a aaieao a?aiaiii naiaiaeiuo athaeaeaoiuo
n?aaenoa;% ca i?aaeinoaaeaiea athaeaeaoiuo nnoae aioo?e no?aiu;

i?eaueue OeA, ia?a/eneyaiay a Oaaea?aeueiue athaeaeao

aeioiaeu io i?iaeaaee i?eiaaeeaaeauaai ainoaea?noao eiouanoaa

aeioiaeu io i?eaaoecaoeee i?aaei?eyoee

aeioiaeu io i?iaeaaee aeoeee, i?eiaaeeaaeaueo ainoaea?noao

aeioiaeu io ?aaeecaoeee aincaiania (i?iaeaaea Au caiana, caiana
ae?aaiaoaeeia e eaiiae

i?iaeaaea Ieioeiii cieioiai caiana OeA

aeioiaeu io i?iaeaaee caiee e iaiaoa?eaeueiuo aeoeaia(iaoaiou,
ecia?aoaiey)

aaeieieno?aoeaiua ieaoaaee e oo?aoiua naieoeee (ieaoa AAE – oaoiniio?,
oo?aou)

aeioiaeu io ?aaeecaoeee eiioeneiaaiiiai e aanoiciiai eiouanoaa

aeioiaeu io ?aaeecaoeee eeaaeia

aeioiaeu io AYAe (1/3 anao iaiaeiaiauo aeioiaeia – iaeiaei yoa noaouey
ia eiaao ?anoeo?iaee; nthaea ia aoiaeyo oaiiaeaiiua ieaoaaee) e aeioiaeu
io oeaio?aeeciaaiiiai yenii?oa (iieo/aiiua a ea/anoaa ieaoaaeae
iaoo?aeueiie oi?iie – yia?aiiineoaee, oeaaoiua iaoaeeu).

3. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy eeth/aaie i?iaeaiie iaeiaiaie iieeoeee yaeyaony
iioeiaeueiia iaeiaiaia a?aiy, o?iaaiue iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey. Ia Caiaaea
iaeaieaa ecaanoia eiioeaioeey Eaooa?a aeey ii?aaeaeaiey iioeiaeueiiai
o?iaiy iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey. I?e oaaee/aiee io 0 noaaee iaeiaa aeioiae
i?aaei?eyoee ia/eiaao iaaeeaiii nie?auaoueny ii ia?a aic?anoaiey
iaeiaiauo iinooieaiee, iaeiaei, caoai ianooiaao oiea ia?aaeaa, eiaaea
i?ienoiaeeo iaaeaiea ioeoeeaeueiie i?eauee e, niioaaonoaaiii, iaeiaiauo
iinooieaiee. Iioeiaeueiue o?iaaiue iaeiaiauo noaaie – 35%(eae a NOA), o
ian – 39%. Iaeiaei, aeaaea anee o ian o?iaaiue iaauniei, ii i/aiue
aeeooa?aioee?iaai ii i?aaei?eyoeyi. Ia 1 eaa?oae – nia?aii 60% io
iaeiaia. Ec 2.800.000 iaeiaiieaoaeueueeia – i?eia?ii 800.000 – “ia?oaua
aeooe”, inoaeueiua aiinyo ieaoaaee oaeaea ia?aaoey?ii. Aieaa iieiaeiu
anao aeieaia nin?aaeioa/eaaaony ia ianeieueeeo e?oiiuo i?aaei?eyoeyo
(AAC, AACI?II), iiyoiio aue nicaeai A*E. Iniiaiie nai? iaeiaia
inouanoaeyaony a Iineaa, Iineianeie iaeanoe e Oaiou-Iaineeneii
Iaoeeiiaeueiii ie?oaa – 40 % iaeiaia.

Iniiaiua eciaiaiey, iaeeaeaaiua a aeeaeaeoaa a?aiy a iaeiaiaie
iieeoeea, naycaiu n i?eiyoeai iaeiaiaiai Eiaeaena, eioi?ue iiaea/ao ca
niaie :

Nouanoaaiiia nie?auaiea /enea iaeiaia, ia aeathueo ie/aai a oeneaeueiii
ieaia(aieueoa ?anoiaeia ia aceiaiea.

Nie?auaiea /enea iaeiaiauo eueaio, ia?aeeaaeuaathueo iaeiaiaia a?aiy ia
“iaeueaioieeia”,ia?ooay i?eioeei ni?aaaaeeeainoe.

I?aaeiieaaaaony niya/aiea oo?aoiuo naieoeee aeey ia?ooaiee, ia naycaiiuo
ni ceui oiuneii.

Aeey II i?aaeoniao?eaaaony aiciiaeiinoue ia?aoiaea ia oi?iuaiioth
nenoaio iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey – i?aaei?eyoey aianoi nouanoaothuaai eiee/anoaa
iaeiaia iiaoo ia?aeoe ia aaeeiue iaeia ia aeioiae, aceiaaiue ii noaaea
30% n niaieoiiiai aeioiaea(/enoue aeioiae + OIO), aaea iin/eoaoue
neiaeii, oi n au?o/ee i?aaei?eyoey(10%) – aeey i?aaei?eyoee n
/eneaiiinoueth 300 min ?acia?ia iieaou
o?oaea), iaiaoiaeeii niiauaoue ia enoi/ieeao aeaiiie noiiu. N yoie aea
oeaeueth noaaeony aaaaeaiea iaeiaa ia iaaeaeaeeiinoue, eioi?ue aeieaeai
iauaaeeieoue iaeia ia caieth e iaeia ia eiouanoai.

Oaeei ia?acii, a ia?niaeoeaa iaeiaiaie iieeoeee iaieioi au oaeaeaoue
ia?aoiae e noaaeeueiiio, onoie/eaiio iaeiaiaiio caeiiiaeaoaeuenoao.

Eaeoeey 16.

4. ?anoiaeu ainathaeaeaoa – yoi yeiiiie/aneea ioiioaiey, naycaiiua n
?ani?aaeaeaieai e eniieueciaaieai oeaio?aeeciaaiiuo aeaiaaeiuo oiiaeia
ainoaea?noaa ii io?aneaaiio, oeaeaaiio e oa??eoi?eaeueiiio iacia/aieth.

?anoiaeu athaeaeaoa oanii naycaiu n ooieoeeyie ainoaea?noaa. O eaaeaeiai
ainoaea?noaa anoue 4 ia?aii/a?aaeiua ooieoeee : yeiiiie/aneay,
nioeeaeueiay, oi?aaeaiey, aiaiiay. Iiyoiio e a ?anoiaeao athaeaeaoa
iniiaiia ianoi caieiatho 4 a?oiiu : yeiiiie/aneiai iacia/aiey (ia
oeiaine?iaaiea IO), ?anoiaeu ia nioeeaeueii-eoeueoo?iua ia?ii?eyoey –
oeiaine?iaaiea io?aneae, ianeoaeeaathueo ianaeaiea , a iniiaiii, iooai
i?aaeinoaaeaiey aanieaoiuo oneoa (cae?aaiio?aiaiea , ia?aciaaiea,
?anoiaeu ia i?aaeinoaaeaiea nioeeaeueiie iiiiue ioaeaeueiui neiyi e
eaoaai?eyi ianaeaiey; ?anoiaeu ia oi?aaeaiea – naycaiu n oeiaine?iaaieai
i?aaiia eniieieoaeueiie e caeiiiaeaoaeueiie aeanoe, inouanoaeythueo
oi?aaeaiea no?aiie. A oneiaeyo aine?aaeeoa anoue e ?anoiaeu ia
ianeoaeeaaiea ainoaea?noaaiiiai aeieaa; aiaiiua ?anoiaeu.

Nouanoaothuay eeanneoeeaoeey niaea?aeeo e ?acaeaeaiea ii io?aneaaiio
i?eciaeo (no?ieoaeuenoai, n/o); ii oeaeaaiio iacia/aieth (?anoiaeu ia
eaiaeiaeaiey, a athaeaeaoiuo – ?anoiaeu ia c/ie, eai?aiiio, i?eia?aoaiea
eiaaioa?y); ii o?iaiyi caaiueaa athaeaeaoiie nenoaiu eee o?iaiyi
oi?aaeaiey (oaaea?aeueiua ?anoiaeu, ?anoiaeu noauaeoia oaaea?aoeee,
ianoiuo athaeaeaoia).

A nayce n ia?aoiaeii 2 aiaea iacaae ia iiaoth athaeaeaoioth
eeanneoeeaoeeth, aaaeiia cia/aiea i?eia?aea eeanneoeeaoeey ?anoiaeia ii
ooieoeeiiaeueiiio i?eciaeo (iauaaeeiyao ianeieueei i?eciaeia). Noaouee
?anoiaeia (ec ?an/aoa cao?ao ii eiinieeaee?iaaiiiio athaeaeaoo = 947
o?ei. ?oa.) :

Ainoi?aaeaiea – 1,9% (1/3 – oaaea?aeueiue athaeaeao) – oeiaine?iaaiea
Ia?eaiaioa, aaeieieno?aoeee I?aceaeaioa, I?aaeoaeuenoaa, ae?oaeo i?aaiia
eniieieoaeueiie aeanoe aac io?aneaauo ieienoa?noa e aaaeiinoa, N/aoiie
iaeaou – 20-25%, inoaeueiia – oeneaeueiua i?aaiu – ieeeoeey, oaiiaeiy,
AIN

Iaaeaeoia?iaeiay aeayoaeueiinoue – 2,6% (iieiinoueth – oaaea?aeueiue
athaeaeao) – ?anoiaeu ia ?aaeecaoeeth iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo aeiaiai?ia,
iaaeaeoia?iaeiia nio?oaeie/anoai(i?aaeinoaaeaiea e?aaeeoia ae?oaei
no?aiai, eeieo a ianoiyuaa a?aiy – 2,7 o?ei. ?oa); ?anoiaeu ia
niaea?aeaiea aeeieiiaoe/aneeo i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoa, iinieuenoa ca
?oaaaeii(1 o?ei); aciinu a iaaeaeoia?iaeiua i?aaiecaoeee (III, THIANEI –
3,3 o?ei); i?aaeinoaaeaiea i?aaei?eyoeyi e?aaeeoiuo ?ano?nia, iieo/aiiuo
io eiino?aiiuo i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoa, aaieia, i?aaiecaoeee – 14 o?ei. ?oa;
auaeaeaiea aaethoiuo n?aaenoa ii ?aoaieth I?aaeoaeuenoaa – 3 o?ei,
iaoi?aiaua iia?aoeee – 2,6 o?ei.

Iaoeeiiaeueiay iai?iia – 10,6% (ca n/ao oaaea?aeueiiai athaeaeaoa) –
niaea?aeaiea iiuiie a?iee -1,7 iei./ae., i?eia?ii 1/2 – ia oaeouaa
niaea?aeaiea AN(aeaiaaeiia aeiaieuenoaea); 20% – iieoiea aii?oaeaiey e
oaoieee; aiaiiua IEIE? – ieiei 7%; eai. no?ieoaeuenoai – 8%; iainee
aiaiiineoaeauei – 14%(Oaaea?aeueiue athaeaeao eo ia?a/eneyao a IO).
Iaoaaoea ?anoeo?iaee iieacaoaeae – anaai 7 a ?innee, a oi a?aiy eae a
NOA – ieiei 1200 iieacaoaeae.

?anoiaeu ia i?aaiio?aieoaeueiua i?aaiu – 6,2% (80% – Oaaea?aeueiue
athaeaeao; 20% – noauaeoia oaaea?aoeee ia niaea?aeaiea ioieoeeiaeueiie
ieeeoeee). O?aoue anao ?anoiaeia – ia niaea?aeaiea IAAe, 10%- ia
aioo?aiiea aienea; 20% – ia oaieiaii-eni?aaeoaeueiua o/?aaeaeaiey, 1,5
o?ei. – ia niaea?aeaiea II; 20% – ainaaciianiinoue, oaeaea ?anoiaeu ia
iia?aie/iua e i?ioeaiiiaea?iua neoaeau.

Oaaea?aeueiay noaeaaiay nenoaia – 0,3% (ca n/ao Oaaea?aeueiiai
athaeaeaoa)

Ooiaeaiaioaeueiua enneaaeiaaiey e niaeaenoaea IOI – 1,6% (95% ca n/ao
Oaaea?aeueiiai athaeaeaoa) – oeiaine?iaaiea ?AI, ainoaea?noaaiiuo
iao/ii-oaoie/aneeo i?ia?aii.

Oeiaine?iaaiea i?iiuoeaiiinoe, yia?aaoeee, no?ieoaeuenoaa – 6,1% (2/3 –
Oaaea?aeueiue athaeaeao) – aeioaoeee, oaaea?aeueiay iiiiuue aaaeiaeoei
io?aneyi yoeo noa? (iniiaiay /anoue – oaieueiay i?iiuoeaiiinoue – 15%
anao ?anoiaeia – 6 o?ei.); 15% – ia aini?iecaiaenoai
ieia?aeueii-nu?ueaaie aacu (i?iaeaia – nie?aoeeanue aaieiai?acaaaeea);
inoaeueiia – aineiaanoeoeee ec oaaea?aeueiiai athaeaeaoa – 25 o?ei.(ec
eioi?uo 40% – nioeeaeueiua eiaanoeoeee ia aeeeeuiia no?ieoaeuenoai,
aiaiiineoaeauei, i?ia?aiiu “Naie aeii”, Iao?ino?ie – 3 o?ei, eiiaa?ney
iai?iiiuo io?aneae; caaeieaeaiiinoue i?ioeuo eao ia?aae no?ieoaeyie; 5,5
o?ei. ?oa. – ?aaeueii ia i?iecaiaenoai)

Oeiaine?iaaiea n/o – 3,7% (1/3 – Oaaea?aeueiue athaeaeao) – eueaioiia
e?aaeeoiaaiea can/ao athaeaeaoa n/o i?aaei?eyoee – caeoiea naiyi,
oiieeaa, cai/anoae; ia caieaono?ienoai (io?aia, ?aeoeueoeaaoeey,
iaeei?aoeey); oeaeaaua aeioaoeee n/o i?aaei?eyoeyi (a aeaea eiiiainaoeee
?acieoeu a oeaiao eee i?aaeinoaaeaiey ?acee/iuo iaaeaaaie e oeaiai ia
eiiaeei?ia, oiieeai, naiaia, aeioaoeee, ia ieaiaiiia aeeaioiiaiaenoai,
eiiiainaoeey /anoe no?aoiauo aciinia; caeoiea can/ao ainoaea?noaa n/o
oaoieee, ia?aaea/a a a?aiaeo n iineaaeothuei aueoiii; oeiainiaue eeceia
– caeoiea n/o oaoieee.

Io?aia ie?oaeathuae N?aaeu – 0,4% (1/2 – Oaaea?aeueiue athaeaeao)

Oeiaine?iaaiea o?ainii?oa, nayce, eioi?iaoeee – 1,5% (> 90% –
athaeaeaou noauaeoia oaaea?aoeee e ianoiua athaeaeaou) – ?a/iie
o?ainii?o.

AEEO – 11,1% – ana 100% can/ao noauaeoia oaaea?aoeee e ianoiuo
athaeaeaoia. Aeeth/aao aeioaoeee , o.e. ianaeaiea iiea/eaaao eeoue 27%
oneoa.

Oeiaine?iaaiea ?uii/iie eio?ano?oeoo?u – 400 ie?ae – 0,05%

I?aaeoi?aaeaeaiea e eeeaeaeaoeey noeoeeiuo aaaenoaee e *N – 1% anao
?anoiaeia (99% – Oaaea?aeueiue athaeaeao).

?anoiaeu ia ia?aciaaiea – 11,2% (15% – ec oaaea?aeueiiai athaeaeaoa –
oeiaine?iaaiea AOCia a oaaea?aeueiie nianoaaiiinoe, IOO; ec athaeaeaoia
?aaeiiia – inoaeueiua AOCu e IOO, ianoiua athaeaeaou –
iauaia?aciaaoaeueiua oeieu e aeioeieueiua o/?aaeaeaiey)

Eoeueoo?a e eneonnoai; NIE – 6,8% (2/3 – ca n/ao noauaeoia oaaea?aoeee
e ianoiuo athaeaeaoia). Oaaea?aeueiue athaeaeao i?aaeinoaaeyao n?aaenoaa
a iniiaiii ia NIE – oaeaaeaeaiea, ?aaeei, iaeioi?ua oeaio?aeueiua
ia/aoiua ecaeaiey; ianoiua athaeaeaou – AeE, eeoau, aeaeeioaee
(ai?iaeneea).

Cae?aaiio?aiaiea e oece/aneay eoeueoo?a – 6,8% (15% – oaaea?aeueiue
athaeaeao). Oioy e anoue nenoaia IIN , ii ec athaeaeaoa ana ?aaii
auaeaeythony aieueoea n?aaenoaa, o.e. o ian athaeaeaoii-no?aoiaay
iaaeeoeeia. Oeiaine?othony enneaaeiaaoaeueneea oeaio?u, ?AII, NYN
(Oaaea?aeueiue athaeaeao), eiiaaea nei?ay iiiiuue.

Nioeeaeueiay iieeoeea -5,1%, ec ieo 1/3 – oaaea?aeueiue athaeaeao –
?anoiaeu ia nioe. iaania/aiea, i?aaeinoaaeaiea iiiiue, iiniaee,
eiiiainaoeee ?acee/iui neiyi ianaeaiey(iiieii aiaathaeaeaoiie nenoaiu);
iiniaey aaaeaioeai; i?ia?aiia “Aeaoe ?innee, nioeeaeueiay iiiiuue
iaoa?yi, aeaoneei aeiiai, i?aaeinoaaeaiea nioeeaeueiuo iainee (aeaiueae
aeey IO ec Oaaea?aeueiiai athaeaeaoa); aeiieaou e iaineyi ainneoaeaueo.

Ianeoaeeaaiea ainoaea?noaaiiiai aeieaa – ?anoao a % ioiioaiee ec aiaea
a aiae – ninoaaeyao 8,6% – ana 100% ec Oaaea?aeueiiai athaeaeaoa –
oieaoa % ii aiaoiaio e aioo?aiiaio ainaeieaai, iiaaoaiea iniiaiie noiiu
aeieaa.

Iiiieiaiea ainoaea?noaaiiuo caiania e ?aca?aia – caeoiea cieioa -1,3% –
any noiia ec Oaaea?aeueiiai athaeaeaoa.

I?i/ea ?anoiaeu – 14,9% (1/2 – Oaaea?aeueiue athaeaeao). 70% –
oeiainiaay iiiiuue noauaeoai oaaea?aoeee e ieaeanoiyuei athaeaeaoai,
Oiiae o?ainoa?oia; iauaeou nioeeaeueii-eoeueoo?iie noa?u, ia?aaeaiiua ia
aaeain(ianoiua athaeaeaou); ?aca?aiue oiiae (I?aceaeaioa,
I?aaeoaeuenoaa) – 1,5 o?ei. ?oa, ainoaea?noaaiiay iiaeaea?aeea E?aeiaai
Naaa?a.

* – Anoue aua ?anoiaeu oeaeaauo athaeaeaoiuo oiiaeia – 3,4% (
ia?aciaaaoeany a ?acoeueoaoa eiinieeaeaoeee /anoe aiaathaeaeaoiuo
oiiaeia – aei?iaeiue oiiae, oiiae yeiiiie/aneiai noeioee?iaaiey).

Eaeoeey 17. 25.04.1997.

5. ?anoiaeu ainathaeaeaoa a ianoiyuaa a?aiy ia iie?uaathony aeioiaeaie,
ionthaea aaaeiaeoaa iai?aaeaiee iieeoeee a iaeanoe ?anoiaeia – eo
anaia?iia nie?auaiea e ?aoeeiiaeecaoeey, au?aaioea iiauo oi?i
athaeaeaoiiai oeiaine?iaaiey, iaania/eaathueo yooaeoeaiia eniieueciaaiea
n?aaenoa e iiauoaiea aeaenoaaiiinoe eiio?iey ca eniieueciaaieai
athaeaeaoiuo n?aaenoa.

A ea/anoaa ia?ii?eyoee aeey iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe oaaea?aeueiiai
athaeaeaoa iiaeii i?aaeeiaeeoue anaia?iia ?anoe?aiea i?aaeinoaaeaiey
athaeaeaoiuo n?aaenoa ia aica?aoiie iniiaa. Aacaica?aoiia oeiaine?iaaiea
iaainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaiecaoeee n 1997 aiaea inouanoaeyaony ia
no?ieoaeuenoai, ?aeiino?oeoeeth oieueei i?e oneiaee iieo/aiey
ainoaea?noaii aeiiieieoaeueiiai iaeaoa aeoeee eee aeiee a onoaaiii
eaieoaea i?aaei?eyoey.

Ia aica?aoiie iniiaa i?aaeinoaaeythony athaeaeaoiua n?aaenoaa a ?aieao
oeiainiaiai eeceiaa; i?e naciiiii e?aaeeoiaaiee n/o i?aaei?eyoee
(caeoiea naiyi, oaeia?aiee); eiaanoeoeeiiiua i?ia?aiiu eiiaa?nee AIE;
?anoiaeu ii oeiainiaiio icaei?iaeaieth oauoi/iuo i?iecaiaenoa;
oeiaine?iaaiea ?anoiaeia ii aunieiyooaeoeaiui eiiia?/aneei
eiaanoeoeeiiiui i?iaeoai. Iau/ii athaeaeaoiua nnoaeu ia yoe oeaee
i?aaeinoaaeythony iiae oieaoo % a ?acia?a 1/2 o/aoiie noaaee OeA.

I/aiue na?ueaciay i?iaeaia athaeaeaoa – oi, /oi ii aieueoie,
a?iiicaeeee. Iaeiaei,i?e iaee/ee aeaoeoeeoa ainathaeaeaoa, ainoaea?noai
noa?aaony n iaeaieueoae ioaea/ae aeiaeeoue n?aaenoaa (a iniaaiiinoe,
eaeouea ia eiaanoeoeee). ?aaeueii ia eiaanoeoeee eaeao 25 o?ei. ?oa, a
oi a?aiy eae yoi yaeyaony aaaeiaeoei oneiaeai iiaeuaia iaoae yeiiiieee.
Ionthaea auoaeaao aii?in – eae aeaoue max yooaeo, noeioee?iaaoue /anoiua
eiaanoeoeee.

Ia?aue eino?oiaio ?aaoee?iaaiey – oeiaine?iaaiea aunieiyooaeoeaiuo
oaoie/aneeo i?iaeoia :

Auae?athony aunieiyooaeoeaiua i?iaeou ia eiieo?aioiie iniiaa, i?e/ai
ethaia i?aaei?eyoea iiaeao aunoaaeoue naie i?iaeo.

Auaeaaony e?aaeeo n?ieii ia 2 aiaea ia aeieaauo ia/aeao n oneiaeai, /oi
nai eiaanoi? aeiaeeo ia iaiaa 20%.

A caaeneiinoe io eaoaai?ee cia/eiinoe (anaai eo 4) ainoaea?noai
auaeaeyao ec oaaea?aeueiiai athaeaeaoa io 20% aei 50%, iaeiaei noiia a
?anii?yaeaiee i/aiue ia?aie/aia – ii?yaeea 1-2 o?ei. ?oa.

A 1997 aiaeo iiyaeeny iiaue eino?oiaio – i?aaeinoaaeaiea ainaa?aioee
iiae eiaanoeoeeiiiua i?iaeou. A yoii neo/aa ainoaea?noai ?aaeueiuo
aeaiaa ia aeaao, ii i?e ianooieaiee niauoee, iaoathueo auiieiaieth
i?iaeoa, ainoaea?noai iaycoaony iiaaneoue aeiea eiaanoi?a ia?aae aaieii
eee ae?oaie i?aaiecaoeeae-e?aaeeoi?ii :

Ainoaea?noai iaycoaony aicianoeoue aei 60% aeieaa

I?e caeeth/aiee aeiaiai?a i ainaa?aioee i?aaei?eyoea aeieaeii eiaoue
caeia n ?uii/iie noieiinoueth ia 25% aieueoa noiiu caeinoaiaaiiuo
n?aaenoa

Oneiaey aiciauaiey – ianoiyoaeuenoaa iai?aiaeieeiie neeu; oaeoi?u
yeiiiie/aneiai ?enea a ?an/ao ia i?eieiathony.

Aa?aioee i?aaeinoaaeythony ia eiieo?niie iniiaa. I e?eoa?ee ioai?a –
iaee/ea iieiaeeoaeueiiai *AeAe (anee ?aiueoa yooaeoeaiinoue i?iaeoa
ioeaieaaeanue /a?ac ?aioaaaeueiinoue = ioiioaiea i?eauee e cao?aoai, oi
nae/an n/eoaaony noiia ieaoaaeae, iaeiaia, aciinia a athaeaeao, e a
oa/aiea 1997-2005 noiia aciinia a athaeaeao aeieaeia i?aauneoue cao?aou
ainoaea?noaa ia i?iaeo, i?e/ai i?e ?an/aoa ca eaaeaeue aiae aoaeao
i?iecaiaeeoueny aeaeaiea ia eiyooeoeeaio aeaoeyoi?a(ei??aeoe?iaea ia
eioeyoeeth).

Anoanoaaiii,ia ana caeiaeaiiua a athaeaeaoa a iiceoeee ainaeieaa 50
o?ei. aoaeoo auiea/aiu eae aa?aioee, ?aaeueii – eeoue 1-2 o?ei, iaeiaei,
yoe n?aaenoaa aeieaeiu auoyiooue ec /anoieeia aieueoia eiee/anoai
eiaanoeoeee.

A i?ioeanna ianoaeaeaiey athaeaeaoa aue i?aaeeiaeai aua iaeei iaoaieci
noeioee?iaaiey yeiiiieee – aue i?aaeoniio?ai athaeaeao ?acaeoey(27
o?ei.). Aai cia/aiea – aeiiieieoaeueiua eiaanoeoeee a ?acee/iua
i?iaeou. Iineieueeo ii onoaiaaeeaaaony iiaa?o iniiaiiai athaeaeaoa, oi
enoi/ieee aeey athaeaeaoa ?acaeoey auei iaeoe neiaeii, iiyoiio
eniieueciaaeenue aeiiieieoaeueii iiaeeecoaiua iniiaiua n?aaenoaa. 2
iniiaiuo enoi/ieea :

Naycaiiua e?aaeeou eiino?aiiuo ainoaea?noa, aaieia – 15 o?ei.

Auione aioo?aiieo caeiia.

Athaeaeao ?acaeoey eaeao ia i?yiua eiaanoeoeee ainoaea?noaa ia
eiieo?niie iniiaa, a iniiaiii a iaoa?eaeueiie noa?a; i?aaeinoaaeythony
eaiaeiaeaiey, naycaiiua n naiaoeeae i?aaei?eyoee, e?aaeeoiaaiea
yenii?oiuo i?aaei?eyoee, i?aaeinoaaeaiea ainaa?aioee.

Ae?oaie aaaeiue aii?in, naycaiiue n ?anoiaeaie – nicaeaiea iiaiai
iaoaiecia aincaeoiee oiaa?ia. Aei neo ii? caeeth/aiea eiio?aeoia
i?iecaiaeeeinue n i?iecaieueiuie iinoaaueeaie, iiyoiio a aieueoeinoaa
neo/aaa oeaiu auee caauoaiu. *oiau iieiaeeoue yoiio eiiaoe, ?aoeee
ia?aeoe ia eiieo?aioiue ioai? iinoaaueeia ii caeoieai. Aeaaiue e?eoa?ee
ioai?a – i?eaieaiia ea/anoai i?e ieceie oeaia.

Ae?oaay aaaeiay i?iaeaia – nie?auaiea ?anoiaeia ia AEEO, aaea aeioaoeee
ainoaea?noaa aeinoeaatho 100 o?ei. ?oa. Ianaeaiea iie?uaaao 27%
aeeeeuii-eiiioiaeueiuo oneoa. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy iac?aaaao
aeeeeuii-eiiioiaeueiay ?aoi?ia, caeeth/athuayny a eneeth/aiee aeioaoeee
i?e nio?aiaiee noaneaeee iaeieiouei. E?iia oiai, aeey nie?auaiey
ecaea?aeae AEEO i?aaeeaaathony aeueoa?iaoeaiua oi?iu ianeoaeeaaiey –
eiieo?aioeey /anoiuo i?aaei?eyoee n ainoaea?noaaiiuie ii ieacaieth
eiiioiaeueiuo oneoa.

N?aaee o?aaeeoeeiiiuo iai?aaeaiee nie?auaiey ?anoiaeia noieo ioiaoeoue
oaeea iai?aaeaiey eae cao?aou ia AIE e ainaiia?ao.

Oaia : Athaeaeaoiia ono?ienoai e athaeaeaoiue i?ioeann.

Oa?aeoa?enoeea athaeaeaoiie nenoaiu ?innee (naiinoiyoaeueii).

Iaaeathaeaeaoiia ?aaoee?iaaiea.

Athaeaeaoiue i?ioeann.

2. Iaaeathaeaeaoiia ?aaoee?iaaiea – i?aaeinoaaeaiea oeiainiaie iiiiue
iaeiei athaeaeaoii ae?oaiio a ?acee/iuo oi?iao. Iniiaiua oi?iu :

Aeioaoeee.

Noaaaioeee

Athaeaeaoiua nnoaeu

Io/eneaiey io ?aaoee?othueo iaeiaia e aeioiaeia

O?ainoa?ou.

1) – naiay i?inoay oi?ia; aeey naaeaine?iaaiey ec auoanoiyueo
athaeaeaoia i?aaeinoaaeyaony noiia(aaniethoiay) n?aaenoa. Yoa oi?ia
naiay ianiaa?oaiiay e ii?iaeaeaao eaeaeeaai/anoai.

2) – oeaeaaay aeioaoeey athaeaeaoo aeey oeiaine?iaaiey ii?aaeaeaiiuo
ia?ii?eyoee (USA,England). Yoi aieaa i?ia?anneaiay oi?ia, eioi?ay iiaeao
i?aaeinoaaeyoueny ia aeieaauo ia/aeao.

3) – i?aaeinoaaeaiea n?aaenoa ia aica?aoiie iniiaa iiae iaaieueoie
i?ioeaio.

4) – iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiiay aei iineaaeiaai a?aiaie oi?ia; eiaaea n
iaeiaia, iinooiathueo a auoanoiyuee athaeaeao, onoaiaaeeaaaony
ii?aaeaeaiiue i?ioeaio io/eneaiee a niioaaonoaothuee oa??eoi?eaeueiue
athaeaeao (?aiueoa – iaeia n iai?ioa). Yoio niinia noeioee?iaae
ecuneaiea aeiiieieoaeueiuo n?aaenoa aeey ?inoa nai?a iaeiaia.
Iaaeinoaoie – % io/eneaiee onoaiaaeeaaaony ae?ooaeueii, naie aeey
eaaeaeiai ?aaeiia, ionthaea no?aieaiea iiauneoue %, a ia eneaoue
n?aaenoaa.

5) Iiaue iaoaieci – athaeaeaoiue oaaea?aeeci, caeinoaiaaiiue o Aa?iaiee,
eiaaea ?ani?aaeaeaiea n?aaenoa i?iecaiaeeony i?e iiiiue o?ainoa?oia.
Oeiainiaay iiiiuue i?aaeinoaaeyaony ca n/ao niaoeeaeueii nicaeaaaaiiai
oiiaea oeiainiaie iiaeaea?aeee ?aaeiiia (aioo?e aai – oiiae aeey iniai
ioaeaeathueony) – a yoe oiiaeu iai?aaeyaony 15% anao niae?aaiuo iaeiaia
e nai?ia, e?iia oaiiaeaiiuo iioeei.

E?eoa?ee ioai?a ioaeaeathueony ?aaeiiia – iaeiaiaue iioaioeeae = noiia
iinooiathueo a athaeaeao aeaiiiai ?aaeiia iaeiaia e nai?ia / eiee/anoai
aeeoaeae ?aaeiia.

Oa?aeoa?ecoy noiio iinooiathueo a ?aaeiiu iaeiaia, yoi 25% IAeN,
?aaeiiaeueiue iaeia ia i?eaueue – aei 22%, aanue iiaeioiaeiue iaeia n
ianaeaiey, 50% aeoeecia ia aeeiaieueioth i?iaeoeoeeth; 100% inoaeueiuo
aeoeecia, e?iia aeoeecia ia iaooue, aac, aaicei; /anoue ieaoaaeae ca
i?e?iaeiua ?ano?nu; o?ainii?oiue iaeia; + ?aaeiiaeueiua iaeiae (iaeia ia
eiouanoai, eaniie iaeia) = iaeiaiaue iioaioeeae (aa?aony ii ca aaciaue
i?aaeuaeouee aiae) – aai n?aaieaatho ni n?aaeiei iaeiaiaui iioaioeeaeii
iaeiaia a ?innee, e auaeaeythony o?ainoa?ou, anee yoio iieacaoaeue ieaea
n?aaeiaai ii ?innee; ?acia? o?ainoa?oia ii?aaeaeyaony i?iii?oeeiiaeueii
yoie ?acieoea. Anee iieo/aiiiai o?ainoa?oa ia oaaoaao, oi ?aaeii eiaao
i?aai ia aeiiieieoaeueiue o?ainoa?o.

Anoanoaaiii, o?ainoa?ou ia ioiaiytho inoaeueiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey (
iai?eia?, Iineaa eiaao aunieee iaeiaiaue iioaioeeae, ii oai ia iaiaa
iieo/aao noaaaioeee).

Aaaeiia cia/aiea eiaao aania?aaieiia iinooieaiea n?aaenoa ec ?aaeiiia
(inoaaeytho /anoue n?aaenoa o naay). I?e ia?ooaiee ioaeaeueiuie
?aaeiiaie i?aaee oieaou iaeiaia e nai?ia a athaeaeao i?aaeoniio?aiu
naieoeee :

1) I?einoaiiaeaiea oeiaine?iaaiey ec oaaea?aeueiiai athaeaeaoa i?ia?aii
e ia?ii?eyoee, inouanoaeyaiuo ia oa??eoi?ee ?aaeiia (a o./. o?ainoa?ou,
noaaaioeee).

2) I?einoaiiaeaiea iinoaaee i?iaeoeoeee ec oeaio?aeeciaaiiuo
ainoaea?noaaiiuo ?ano?nia.

3) I?ae?auaiea auaea/e eeoeaicee ia yenii?o i?aaei?eyoeyi aeaiiiai
?aaeiia.

3. Athaeaeaoiue i?ioeann – ninoaaeaiea, ?anniio?aiea, ooaa?aeaeaiea e
eniieiaiea athaeaeaoia ?acee/iuo o?iaiae. ?anniio?ei athaeaeaoiue
i?ioeann ia i?eia?a oaaea?aeueiiai athaeaeaoa :

I?iaeo oaaea?aeueiiai athaeaeaoa aioiaeony Ieioeiii ?O aianoa n
?acee/iuie ieaiaie e i?iaiicaie, iainiiauaathueie i?iaeo athaeaeaoa.
I?iaeo Oaaea?aeueiiai athaeaeaoa ia?aaeaaony a I?aaeoaeuenoai, iinea
iaeia?aiey aeieaeai auoue auianai aei 01.09 oaeouaai aiaea ia
?anniio?aiea Ainaeoiie, /oi nii?iaiaeaeaaony aunooieaieai I?aceaeaioa.
Ia?aaeathony oaeaea i?aaeaa?eoaeueiua eoiae nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneiai
?acaeoey ia oaeouee aiae, i?iaiic ia ieaie?oaiue aiae, ninoaaeyaony
ioaeaeueiue aeieoiaio “Iniiaiua iai?aaeaiey athaeaeaoiie e iaeiaiaie
iieeoeee”; i?iaiic naiaeiiai oeiainiaiai aaeaina, i?iaiic
eiinieeaee?iaaiiiai athaeaeaoa ?O, oaaea?aeueiua oeaeaaua i?ia?aiiu,
?an/aou ii ioaeaeueiui ?acaeaeai e noaoueyi aeioiaeia e ?anoiaeia
Oaaea?aeueiiai athaeaeaoa; ?yae ae?oaeo aeieoiaioia.

Iaeiia?aiaiii aiinyony a Ainaeoio ia ?anniio?aiea i?iaeou caeiiia i
athaeaeaoao Ainoaea?noaaiiuo aiaathaeaeaoiuo oiiaeia. Anee o?aaoaony
aianoe eciaiaiey a caeiiu i aceiaiee iaeiaia – oi i?aaeinoaaeythony
i?iaeou eciaiaiee a iaeiaiaii caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa.

Nia/aea aanue iaeia iiiaaeaao a Eiieoao Ainaeoiu ii athaeaeaoo, iaeiaai,
aaieai e oeiainai. Eiieoao i?iniao?eaaao aeieoiaiou n oi/ee c?aiey
iieiiou e i?aaeeueiinoe ioi?ieaiey, e anee anoue caia/aiey, oi iaeao
iiaeao auoue aica?auai aeey ooi/iaiey e aeiiieiaiey.

Iinea iieiaeeoaeueiiai caeeth/aiey Eiieoaoa, niaao Ainoaeiu ooaa?aeaeaao
eiieoaou, ioaaonoaaiiua ca ?anniio?aiea ioaeaeueiuo ?acaeaeia athaeaeaoa
(eiieoao ii iai?iia, nioeeaeueiie iieeoeea).

Ii 1 yecaiiey?o caeiia iiiaaeaao a Niaao Oaaea?aoeee, eiieoaou Ainaeoiu
e ae?oaea i?aaiu, eiathuea i?aai caeiiiaeaoaeueiie eieoeeaoeau.

Aei ?anniio?aiey i?iaeoa Oaaea?aeueiiai athaeaeaoa a ia?aii /oaiee
aeieaeiu auoue i?eiyou caeiiu e iii?aaee e iei i aceiaiee iaeiaia,
no?aoiauo aciinia.

?anniio?aiea i?iaeoa Oaaea?aeueiiai athaeaeaoa i?ioiaeeo a 4 /oaieyo. A
1 /oaiee ( ia iicaeiaa 45 aeiae iinea i?aaeinoaaeaiey i?iaeoa
I?aaeoaeuenoaii) ?anniao?eaathony iniiaiua oa?aeoa?enoeee Oaaea?aeueiiai
athaeaeaoa – 1) aeioiaeu oaaea?aeueiiai athaeaeaoa a ?ac?aca a?oiiu
noaoae athaeaeaoiie eeanneoeeaoeee; 2) ?ani?aaeaeaiea aeioiaeia iaaeaeo
Oaaea?aeueiui athaeaeaoii e athaeaeaoaie noauaeoia oaaea?aoeee (ii IAeN,
aeoeecai, iiaeioiaeiiio iaeiao e o.ae.; 3) ?acia? athaeaeaoiiai
aeaoeoeeoa e enoi/ieee aai iie?uoey; 4) iauee iauai ?anoiaeia
athaeaeaoa.

Iaeiia?aiaiii ?anniao?eaaaony i?iaeo athaeaeaoa a eiieoaoao Ainaeoiu.
Ana eo caeeth/aiey ia?aaeathony a Eiieoao ii athaeaeaoo …, eioi?ue
caoai ia?aaeaao iaoa?eaeu iaiin?aaenoaaiii a Ainaeoio.

A 1 /oaiee athaeaeao iiaeao auoue ioeeiiai a 3-o aa?eaioao :

Ia?aaeaoue athaeaeao a niaeaneoaeueioth eiienneth aeey ooi/iaiey ( a
Eiiennee – i?aaenoaaeoaee Ainaeoiu, Niaaoa Oaaea?aoeee e I?aaeoaeuenoaa
?O).

Aa?iooue caeiiii?iaeo I?aaeoaeuenoao ia aei?aaioeo.

Iinoaaeoue aii?in i aeiaa?ee I?aaeoaeuenoao.

II /oaiea (a oa/aiea 15 aeiae ni aeiy i?eiyoey a 1-ii /oaiee) –
ooaa?aeaeathony ?anoiaeu Oaaea?aeueiiai athaeaeaoa ii ?acaeaeai
ooieoeeiiaeueiie eeanneoeeaoeee. Athaeaeao iiaeao auoue ioeeiiai e
ia?aaeai a niaeaneoaeueioth eiienneth.

III /oaiea ( ia iicaeiaa 25 aeiae iinea i?eiyoey aoi?iai) – ?anoiaeu
ooaa?aeaeathony ii ?acaeaeai ooieoeeiiaeueiie eeanneoeeaoeee, ii
aaaeiinoaaiiie eeanneoeeaoeee, oaaea?aeueiui oeaeaaui i?ia?aiiai,
i?ia?aiiai ainoaea?noaaiiuo aiaoieo caeinoaiaaiee e e?aaeeoia ae?oaei
ainoaea?noaai; + ia?a/aiue caueuaiiuo noaoae; iii?aaee, eciaiaiey ii
eaaeaeie iiceoeee ?anoiaeiie /anoe athaeaeaoa, aianaiiua io?aneaauie
eiieoaoaie, Eiieoaoii ii Athaeaeaoo.

IV /oaiea – a oa/aiea 15 aeiae iinea i?eiyoey a o?aoueai /oaiee.
I?iecaiaeeony ieii/aoaeueiia ?aoaiea aii?ina n iii?aaeaie,
?anniao?eaaaony iieaa?oaeueiia ?ani?aaeaeaiea aeioiaeia e ?anoiaeia,
noaaeony ia aieiniaaiea athaeaeao a oeaeii.

Iinea ooaa?aeaeaiey Ainaeoiie – a oa/aiea 5 aeiae ia?aaeaaony a Niaao
Oaaea?aoeee, iinea aai iaeia?aiey – ia iiaeienue I?aceaeaioo.

Eaeoeey 18. 15.05.1997.

Anee athaeaeao ia ooaa?aeaeai aei ia/aea io/aoiiai aiaea, oi
oeiaine?iaaiea aaaeaony ii iauaiai, aiaeiae/iui ii ?acaeaeai athaeaeaoa,
neiaeeaoaainy a IV ea. i?aaeuaeouaai aiaea.

Eniieiaiea athaeaeaoa.

Eniieiaiea athaeaeaoa i?ienoiaeeo a no?iaii niioaaonoaee n caeiiii i
athaeaeaoa, ii a i?ioeanna eniieiaiey iiaoo aicieeiooue neooaoeee,
eiaaea ioaeii aiineoue ei??aeoe?iaee :

1) Anee naa?oieaiiaua aeioiaeu – oi aeiiieieoaeueiua athaeaeaoiua
iinooieaiey ?ani?aaeaeythony Ieioeiii a niioaaonoaee n ?aoaieyie
I?aaeoaeuenoaa ?O, o.a. yoi aeaiueae, eioi?ua o?aoeo I?aaeoaeuenoai aac
iaiaoiaeeiinoe niaeaniaaiey n Ia?eaiaioii.

2) Aeioiaeu iaiueoa caieaie?iaaiiuo – aicieeaao aieaciaiiay neooaoeey,
naycaiiay n iaiaoiaeeiinoueth nie?auaiey athaeaeaoiuo ?anoiaeia. A
ianoiyuaa a?aiy nie?auaiea ?anoiaeia i?iecaiaeeony i?e iiiiue iaoaiecia
naeaano?ia. Naeaano? i?aaeiieaaaao i?iii?oeeiiaeueiia nie?auaiea
?anoiaeia athaeaeaoa, e?iia caueuaiiuo noaoae. Caeanue neaaeoao
ioiaoeoue 2 eeth/aauo iiiaioa : 1. I?iii?oeeiiaeueiinoue nie?auaiey
(io?aaeaaony a caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa i athaeaeaoiii i?ioeanna =>
iaaiciiaeii eiaae?iaaiea ieienoa?noaaie ?acia?a nie?auaiey), oioy i?e
naeaanoe?iaaiee o ian a no?aia – i?iecioei nie?auaiea ?anoiaeia a I
eaa?oaea ii iaeiei iiceoeeyi – ia 50%, a ii ae?oaei – ia 30%. 2. Anoue
ia?a/aiue caueuaiiuo noaoae. ia iiaeeaaeaueo naeaanoe?iaaieth, eioi?ue
onoaiaaeeaaaony aaeaaiaeii i?e i?eiyoee Oaaea?aeueiiai athaeaeaoa. Oae,
a yoii aiaeo : ca?ieaoa a athaeaeaoiuo i?aaiecaoeeyo e ia/eneaiey ia
iaa; noeiaiaeee, ainiiniaey, auiea/eaaaiua ec athaeaeaoa; ieoaiea e
i?eia?aoaiea iaaeeeaiaioia a noa?a cae?aaiio?aiaiey, aeey ioaeae
aeaonaaeia, eioa?iaoia;iiaaoaiea aioo?aiiaai aeieaa a /anoe auieao
ianaeaieth; ?anoiaeu athaeaeaoa ?acaeoey.

A i?ioeanna eniieiaiey athaeaeaoa aaaeiia cia/aiea oaeaeyaony eiio?ieth
ca oeaeaaui eniieueciaaieai i?aaeinoaaeaiiuo n?aaenoa.
I?aaeoniao?eaathony neaaeothuea naieoeee :

i?e iaoeaeaaii eniieueciaaiee n?aaenoa ec Oaaea?aeueiiai athaeaeaoa ia
aica?aoiie e aacaica?aoiie iniiaa n i?aaei?eyoee aceiaaony oo?ao a
?acia?a aeaieiie aeaenoaothuae o/aoiie noaaee OeA (nae/an 36%*2= 72%);

a neo/aa i?aaeinoaaeaiey ia aica?aoiie iniiaa e ianaiaa?aiaiiie auieaoa
% (iau/ii a ?acia?a 1/2 o/aoiie noaaee), oi acuiathony iaie a ?acia?a
1/300 aeaenoaothuae o/aoiie noaaee OeA ca eaaeaeue aeaiue i?in?i/ee.

i?e ianaiaa?aiaiiii aica?aoa – i?ae?auaiea anao oi?i ainiiaeaea?aeee.

A oeaeyo iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe eniieueciaaiey athaeaeaoiuo n?aaenoa a
yoii aiaeo inouanoaeai ia?aoiae ia caeoiee i?iaeoeoeee aeey ainioaeae
/a?ac i?iaaaeaiea oi?aia e eiieo?nia n?aaee iinoaaueeia. Aeey yoiai
auoae 8 ai?aey 1997 aiaea OEAC I?aceaeaioa ?O ? 305 “I ia?aii/a?aaeiuo
ia?ao ii i?aaeioa?auaieth ei??oioeee e nie?auaieth athaeaeaoiuo
?anoiaeia i?e i?aaiecaoeee caeoiee i?iaeoeoeee aeey ainoaea?noaaiiuo
ioaeae”.

?aiueoa aincaeoiee i?iecaiaeeeenue i?iecaieueii, o.a. caeeth/aeny
aeiaiai? n ii?aaeaeaiiui i?aaei?eyoeai ia iinoaaeo oiaa?ia, i?e yoii
iiiaea ainneoaeauea ceioiio?aaeyee naiei neoaeaaiui iieiaeaieai e i?e
caaaaeiiie aeiaiai?aiiinoe i?eia?aoaee i?iaeoeoeeth ii caauoaiiui
oeaiai, eoaea aeeth/aeny “ioeao” (i?aaenoaaeoaeueneea auieaou aeey
?oeiaiaeeoaeae i?aaiecaoeee-iinoaaueea), noieiinoue iono?iaiiuo aea/iuo
ai?iaeeia, eaa?oe?, aaoiiiaeeae ee/iiai iieueciaaiey. Oaeei ia?acii,
athaeaeao oa?ye ia?iiiua n?aaenoaa. Yoe i?iaeaiu nouanoaiaaee e a auaoai
NNN?, e ai iiiaeo ae?oaeo no?aiao.

Nae/an aea ai?aaeue aei i?eiyoey oaaea?aeueiiai caeiia ia i?aaiecaoeee
oi?aia ia caeoieo oiaa?ia, ?aaio, oneoa aeey ainoaea?noaaiiuo ioaeae,
Oeacii onoaiaaeeaaaony, /oi “…caeacu ia caeoieo oiaa?ia, ?aaio e
oneoa…aeey ainoaea?noaaiiuo ioaeae ?aciauathony ia oi?aao(eiieo?nao),
anee eiia ia i?aaeoniio?aii OC e Oeacaie I?aceaeaioa ?O”.

Aeey o/anoey a i?ioeaaeo?a ii ?aciauaieth caeacia ia caeoiee i?iaeoeoeee
aeey ainoaea?noaaiiuo ioaeae th?eaee/aneea eeoea e eiaeeaeaeoaeueiua
i?aaei?eieiaoaee aeieaeiu oaeiaeaoai?youe eaaeeoeeaoeeiiiui o?aaiaaieyi
:

aeieaeiu eiaoue iaiaoiaeeiua i?ioanneiiaeueiua ciaiey e eaaeeoeeaoeeth,
oeiainiaua n?aaenoaa, iai?oaeiaaiea e ae?oaea iaoa?eaeueiua
aiciiaeiinoe, iiuo e iieiaeeoaeueioth ?aiooaoeeth, auoue
iaaeaaeiui,iaeaaeaoue iaiaoiaeeiuie o?oaeiauie ?ano?naie aeey auiieiaiey
ainoaea?noaaiiiai eiio?aeoa, eniieiyoue iaycaoaeuenoaa ii oieaoa iaeiaia
a athaeaeaou anao o?iaiae e iaycaoaeueiuo ieaoaaeae a ainoaea?noaaiiua
aiaathaeaeaoiua oiiaeu;

ia aeieaeai auoue iaieaoaaeaniiniaiui, iaoiaeeoueny a i?ioeanna
eeeaeaeaoeee (aeey th?eaee/aneiai eeoea), auoue i?eciai ianinoiyoaeueiui
(aaie?ioii)

iinoaaueeii ia iiaeao yaeyoueny i?aaiecaoeey, ia eiouanoai eioi?ie
iaeiaeai a?ano e (eee) yeiiiie/aneay aeayoaeueiinoue eioi?ie
i?einoaiiaeaia.

I?aeiouanoaaiiue niinia caeoiee, oiaa?ia, ?aaio e oneoa aeey ainioaeae
aeieaeai auoue ioe?uoue eiieo?n. Ii inouanoaeyaony neaaeothuei ia?acii :
aaaeiinoaaiiue i?aai ioaeeeoao a ia/aoiuo NIE i?eaeaoaiea e o/anoeth a
oi?aao, a o./. e ia aiaeeeneii ycuea – /oiau o/anoaiaaee eiioe?iu –
oeacuaaaony eiee/anoai, ianoi iinoaaee, oneiaey, n?iee, e?eoa?ee ioeaiee
eaaeeoeeaoeee iinoaaueeia. Ii cai?ino iinoaaueeia ei ca ieaoo aunueaaony
eiieo?niay aeieoiaioaoeey – iiae?iaiay eino?oeoeey i oii, eae aioiaeoue
cayaee, ii eaeei e?eoa?eyi e eae aoaeao ioeaieaaoueny eaaeaeue iinoaauee
i?e ioai?a, ia eaeeo oneiaeyo caeeth/aaony aineiio?aeo, o.a. aanue
iaoaieci i?ioiaeaeaiey oi?aia.

Iinea yoiai iinoaauee iinueaao eo?uea?ia eee ioi?aaeyao ii/oie cayaeo a
caia/aoaiiii eiiaa?oa a oeacaiiue n?ie iiae ?anieneo.

Caeac/ee iiaeao iio?aaiaaoue io iinoaaueea iaania/aiey o/anoey aai a
oi?aao, o.a. iaiaoiaeeii iiaeoaa?aeeoue , /oi ii ?aniieaaaao
aeinoaoi/iuie ?ano?naie – aaieianeay aa?aioey, caeia, ii?o/eoaeuenoai,
ii iaania/aiea ia aeieaeii i?aauoaoue 3% i?aaeiieaaaaiie noieiinoe
aineiio?aeoa.

Iinea iinooieaiey cayaie iaeaou ia ane?uaathony. Caoai oi?ie?oaony
eiieo?niay eiienney – 3 i?aaenoaaeoaey io caeac/eea,e ii 1
i?aaenoaaeoaeth io eaaeaeiai iinoaaueea, eioi?ay inouanoaeyao ane?uoea
eiiaa?oia n cayaeaie ia o/anoea a oi?aao(eiieo?na) e ioeaieo yoeo cayaie
ii enoa/aiee n?iea, oeacaiiiai a eiieo?niie aeieoiaioaoeee e i?eieiaao
?aoaiea i auea?aaoae cayaea (i?aaeeiaeaiee, ioa?oa eee eioe?iaea) .
Iaeiaiiaaiea, aae?an e oeaia cayaee ia o/anoea a oi?aao eaaeaeiai
iinoaaueea iauyaeythony /eaiai eiiennee e iaiaaeeaiii caiinyony a
i?ioieie i?ioeaaeo?u caeoiie.

I?e ii?aaeaeaiee iaeaieaa i?aaeii/oeoaeueiie cayaee caeac/ee o/eouaaao
e?eoa?ee:

Oeaio cayaee n o/aoii anao i?aeiouanoa

?anoiaeu ia yenieoaoaoeeth,oaoie/aneia ianeoaeeaaiea e ?aiiio
i?iaeoeoeee, n?iee aeinoaaee oiaa?ia, caaa?oaiey ?aaio eee
i?aaeinoaaeaiey oneoa, ooieoeeiiaeueiua oa?aeoa?enoeee i?iaeoeoeee,
ii?yaeie e n?iee inouanoaeaiey ieaoaaeae e oneiaey i?aaeinoaaeaiey
aa?aioee ia i?iaeoeoeeth.

Iaania/aiea iaoeeiiaeueiie iai?iiu e aaciianiinoe.

Anee a eiieo?na iaeei iinoaauee, oi oi?ae n/eoathony ianinoiyaoeieny.
Iiaeao auoue neooaoeey ioeeiiaiey anao cayaie.

Ii ioe?uoue eiieo?n – iaeei ec niiniaia i?aaiecaoeee. Iiaoo auoue e
ae?oaea niiniau – i?iaaaeaiea cae?uouo oi?aia. Anee yoi oaoie/anee
neiaeiay i?iaeoeoeey, eioi?oth iiaoo iinoaaeoue ia?aie/aiiue e?oa
i?aaei?eyoee e anee oeaia aineiio?aeoa

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