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Государственный кредит как экономическая категория

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1.Ainoaea?noaaiiue e?aaeeo eae yeiiiie/aneay

eaoaai?ey.

A oneiaeyo ?acaeouo oiaa?ii-aeaiaaeiuo ioiioaiee ainoaea?noai iiaeao
i?eaeaeaoue e iie?uoeth naieo ?anoiaeia naiaiaeiua oeiainiaua ?ano?nu
oicyenoaaiiuo no?oeoo? e n?aaenoaa ianaeaiey.

Aeaaiui niiniaii eo iieo/aiey yaeyaony ainoaea?noaaiiue e?aaeeo. Ii
au?aaeaao ioiioaiey iaaeaeo ainoaea?noaii e iiiai/eneaiiuie oece/aneeie
e th?eaee/aneeie eeoeaie ii iiaiaeo oi?ie?iaaiey aeiiieieoaeueiiai
aeaiaaeiiai oiiaea, ia?yaeo n athaeaeaoii, a ?oeao ainoaea?noaa. I?e
inouanoaeaiee e?aaeeoiuo iia?aoeee aioo?e no?aiu ainoaea?noai iau/ii
yaeyaony caaiueeii n?aaenoa, a ianaeaiea, i?aaei?eyoey e i?aaiecaoeee –
e?aaeeoi?aie. Oai ia iaiaa ainoaea?noai iiaeao ieacaoueny e a ?iee
e?aaeeoi?a. Oaeia yaeaiea ano?a/aaony ia oieueei a noa?a
iaaeainoaea?noaaiiuo ioiioaiee, ii e ai aioo?aiiae oeiainiaie aeecie ii
eeiee eniieueciaaiey eacia/aeneeo nnoae.

Iniaaiiinoue ainoaea?noaaiiiai e?aaeeoa ninoieo a aica?aoiinoe,
n?i/iinoe e ieaoiinoe i?aaeinoaaeaiiuo acaeiu n?aaenoa.

Acyoua acaeiu aeaiaaeiua n?aaenoaa iinooiatho a ?anii?yaeaiea i?aaiia
ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe, i?aa?auaynue a eo aeiiieieoaeueiua oeiainiaua
?ano?nu. Iie iai?aaeythony, eae i?aaeei, ia iie?uoea athaeaeaoiiai
aeaoeoeeoa. Enoi/ieeii iiaaoaiey ainoaea?noaaiiuo caeiia e auieaou
i?ioeaioia ii iei aunooiatho n?aaenoaa athaeaeaoa. Iaeiaei, iaeaaeea
ioiioaiey ii eeiee ainoaea?noaaiiiai e?aaeeoa, i?aaeoaeuenoai ia
ioeacuaaaony io aiciiaeiinoe iiaeeecaoeee aeiiieieoaeueiiai oeiainiaiai
oiiaea e a oneiaeyo naaeaine?iaaiiiai athaeaeaoa. Yoi aiieia
ii?aaaeaiiue oaa, iineieueeo ca n/ao n?aaenoa oiiaea ainoaea?noaaiiiai
e?aaeeoa iiaoo oeiaine?iaaoueny aeiiieieoaeueiua i?ia?aiiu
oicyenoaaiiiai e nioeeaeueii-eoeueoo?iiai iaiaaeeaiii aac iaeeaeaiey
iinooieaiey iau/iuo aeioiaeia.

Oai ia iaiaa a ethaii neo/aa – e i?e athaeaeaoiii aeaoeoeeoa, e i?e
naaeaine?iaaiiii athaeaeaoa – caaiiua n?aaenoaa ia iiaoo n/eoaoueny
aeioiaeaie ainoaea?noaa e io?aaeaoueny a aeioiaeiie /anoe athaeaeaoa.
N?aaenoaa oiiaea ainoaea?noaaiiiai e?aaeeoa aeieaeiu iai?aaeyoueny ia
iie?uoea aeaoeoeeoa eee aeiiieieoaeueiia oeiaine?iaaiea
i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuo ?anoiaeia, ia aeeyy ia ?acia? iau/iuo aeioiaeia
ainoaea?noaaiiiai athaeaeaoa. Ianiaethaeaiea yoiai iiaeao i?eaanoe e
na?ueaciui iaaaoeaiui iineaaenoaeyi. Aeaei a oii, /oi ono?aiaiea
a?aieoeu iaaeaeo oaeoueie athaeaeaoiuie aeioiaeaie e caaiiuie
n?aaenoaaie oiaiueoaao aaeeoaeueiinoue i?aaeoaeuenoaa, eneaaeaao
i?aaenoaaeaiea i aai ?aaeueiuo oeiainiauo aiciiaeiinoyo. I?e yoii iiaeao
i?ienoiaeeoue oeiaine?iaaiea iauanoaaiiuo iio?aaiinoae i?e oaa?aiiinoe a
iieiii oeiainiaii aeaaiiieo/ee, oioy oaeoe/anee ?acaeoea eaeao ia
aeaoeoeeoiie iniiaa e ca n/ao aoaeoueo iieieaiee. Iaecaaaeiui
?acoeueoaoii oaeie i?aeoeee aoaeao ?anno?ienoai oeiainiaie e
aeaiaaeii-e?aaeeoiie nenoaiu.

Ainoaea?noaaiiue e?aaeeo i?aaenoaaeyao ioiioaiey aoi?e/iiai
?ani?aaeaeaiey noieiinoe aaeiaiai iauanoaaiiiai i?iaeoeoa e /anoe
iaoeeiiaeueiiai aiaaonoaa. A noa?o aine?aaeeoiuo ioiioaiee iiiaaeaao
oieueei /anoue aeioiaeia e aeaiaaeiuo oiiaeia, noi?ie?iaaiiuo ia noaaeee
ia?ae/iiai ?ani?aaeaeaiey. Iau/ii eie yaeythony a?aiaiii naiaiaeiua
aeaiaaeiua n?aaenoaa ianaeaiey, i?aaei?eyoee e i?aaiecaoeee.

Oi?ie?iaaiea aeiiieieoaeueiuo oeiainiauo ?ano?nia ainoaea?noaa ca n/ao
naiaiaeiuo aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa – yoi iaeia noi?iia aine?aaeeoiuo
ioiioaiee. Aoi?ie noi?iiie aunooiatho oeiainiaua nayce, iaoneiaeaiiua
aica?aoiinoueth e ieaoiinoueth n?aaenoa, aeiiieieoaeueii iiaeeeciaaiiuo
ainoaea?noaii. Auieaoa aeioiaeia e?aaeeoi?ai iaania/eaaaony ca n/ao
athaeaeaoiuo iinooieaiee. I?e yoii e?oa iaeiaiieaoaeueueea ia niaiaaeaao
n e?oaii aea?aeaoaeae ainoaea?noaaiiuo oeaiiuo aoiaa.

Oeaeaniia?aciinoue eniieueciaaiey ainoaea?noaaiiiai e?aaeeoa aeey
oi?ie?iaaiey aeiiieieoaeueiuo oeiainiauo ?ano?nia ainoaea?noaa e
iie?uoey athaeaeaoiiai aeaoeoeeoa ii?aaeaeyaony cia/eoaeueii iaiueoeie
iaaaoeaiuie iineaaenoaeyie aeey ainoaea?noaaiiuo oeiainia e aeaiaaeiiai
ia?auaiey no?aiu ii n?aaiaieth n iiiaoa?iuie i?eaiaie (iai?eia?,
yienneae aeaiaa) aaeaine?iaaiey aeioiaeia e ?anoiaeia i?aaeoaeuenoaa.
Yoi aeinoeaaaony ia iniiaa ia?aiauaiey ni?ina io oece/aneeo e
th?eaee/aneeo eeoe e i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiui no?oeoo?ai aac oaaee/aiey
niaieoiiiai ni?ina e eiee/anoaa aeaiaa a ia?auaiee.

Aiciiaeiinoue nouanoaiaaiey ainoaea?noaaiiiai e?aaeeoa auoaeaao ec
iniaaiiinoae oi?ie?iaaiey e a?aiaie eniieueciaaiey aeioiaeia iieo/aaiuo
oece/aneeie e th?eaee/aneeie eeoeaie. O ianaeaiey iinoiyiii ia?acothony
a?aiaiii naiaiaeiua aeaiaaeiua n?aaenoaa : i?aaeaea anaai a nayce n
ia?aaiiia?iui iieo/aieai aeioiaeia, auieaoie aiii?a?ia, i?aiee,
ioioneiuo, iieo/aiea ianeaaenoaa e o.i.

Aiaeiae/iua oaiaeaioeee eiatho ianoi e a aeaeaeaiee n?aaenoa
i?aaei?eyoee e i?aaiecaoeee. Aieueoea a?aiaiiua eieaaaiey a iieo/aiee
au?o/ee io ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee e oneoa iiaoo eiaoue ianoi a nayce n
aeeeoaeueiinoueth i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai oeeeea eee naciiiinoueth
i?iecaiaenoaa. A?aiaiii naiaiaeiua oeiainiaua ?ano?nu o th?eaee/aneeo
eeoe iiaoo ia?aciauaaoueny a aeaeo ia?aaiiia?iinoe inouanoaeaiey e?oiiuo
eaieoaeueiuo aeiaeaiee a i?iecaiaenoai e nioeeaeueioth noa?o. A?aiaiii
naiaiaeiuie iiaoo auoue ?aca?aiua oiiaeu i?aaei?eyoee. N ?inoii
yooaeoeaiinoe iauanoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa oaaee/eaathony e aiciiaeiinoe
i?eaea/aiey n?aaenoa i?aaei?eyoee e i?aaiecaoeee a noa?o
ainoaea?noaaiiiai e?aaeeoa.

Ioiioaiey ii eeiee ainoaea?noaaiiiai e?aaeeoa iaeuecy niaoeaaoue n
aaieianeei e?aaeeoii. Nnoaeiue oiiae, aunooiathuee iaoa?eaeueiie iniiaie
aaieianeiai e?aaeeoiaaiey, eniieuecoaony aeey i?aaeinoaaeaiey caaiiuo
n?aaenoa i?aaei?eyoeyi e o/?aaeaeaieyi a oeaeyo iaania/aiey
aania?aaieiinoe e iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe i?ioeanna ?anoe?aiiiai
aini?iecaiaenoaa. E?aaeeou iiaoo iieo/aoue e /anoiua eeoea. I?e
ainoaea?noaaiiii e?aaeeoa i?ienoiaeeo oi?ie?iaaiea aeiiieieoaeueiuo
oeiainiauo ?ano?nia a ?oeao iieeoe/aneie iaaeno?ieee. Iiyoiio
ainoaea?noaaiiue e?aaeeo au?aaeaao /anoue oeiainiauo ioiioaiee iauanoaa.
Yoi ianoiyoaeuenoai ia aeiioneaao aieueiiai ia?auaiey n nnoaeiui oiiaeii
no?aiu e aani?aiyonoaaiiiai i?eaea/aiey /anoe aaieianeeo ?ano?nia e
oeiaine?iaaieth i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuo ?anoiaeia.

Ainoaea?noaaiiue e?aaeeo iiaeao auoue aiaoiei e aioo?aiiei. Iniiaiay
aeiey ainoaea?noaaiiuo ?anoiaeia inouanoaeyaony a iaoeeiiaeueiie
aaethoa, iiyoiio i?aeiouanoaaiiia ?acaeoea iieo/aao aioo?aiiee
ainoaea?noaaiiue e?aaeeo. Ii oe?ieia iaaeaeoia?iaeiia ?acaeaeaiea
o?oaea, iaiai oaoiieiaeyie e iao/ii-oaoie/aneeie eaeayie, ieacaiea
oeiainiaie iiiiue eiino?aiiui ainoaea?noaai – an? yoi iaoneaaeeaaao
eioaineaiia ?acaeoea iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai ainoaea?noaaiiiai e?aaeeoa. A
nenoaio aine?aaeeoiuo ioiioaiee aeeth/aaony oae aea oneiaiue
ainoaea?noaaiiue e?aaeeo, eiaaea ainoaea?noai aunooiaao a ?iee aa?aioa
ii e?aaeeoai, i?aaeinoaaeyaiui eiino?aiiui caaiueeai, ianoiui i?aaiai
aeanoe, ainoaea?noaaiiui iauaaeeiaieyi e o.i.

Ooieoeeiie?iaaiea ainoaea?noaaiiiai e?aaeeoa aaaeao e ia?aciaaieth
ainoaea?noaaiiiai aeieaa. Eaieoaeueiue ainoaea?noaaiiue aeiea
i?aaenoaaeyao anth noiio auiouaiiuo e iaiiaaoaiiuo aeieaiauo
iaycaoaeuenoa ainoaea?noaa, aeeth/ay ia/eneaiiua i?ioeaiou, eioi?ua
aeieaeiu auoue auiea/aiu ii yoei iaycaoaeuenoaai. Oaeouee
ainoaea?noaaiiue aeiea ninoaaeytho ?anoiaeu ii auieaoa aeioiaeia
e?aaeeoi?ai ii anai aeieaiaui iaycaoaeuenoaai ainoaea?noaa e ii
iiaaoaieth iaycaoaeuenoa, n?ie iieaou eioi?uo oaea ianooiee.

Ainoaea?noai, oe?iei eniieuecoy naie aiciiaeiinoe aeey i?eaea/aiey
aeiiieieoaeueiuo oeiainiauo ?ano?nia a oeaeyo naiaa?aiaiiiai
oeiaine?iaaiey athaeaeaoiuo ?anoiaeia, iinoaiaiii iaeaieeaaao
caaeieaeaiiinoue eae aioo?aiithth, oae e eiino?aiiui e?aaeeoi?ai. Yoi
aaaeao e ?inoo ainoaea?noaaiiiai aeieaa – aioo?aiiaai e aiaoiaai.

Ainoaea?noaaiiue aeiea yaeyaony oa?aeoa?enoeeie ?acoeueoaoeaiinoe anao
niaa?o?iiuo aine?aaeeoiuo iia?aoeee . Aai aaniethoiay aaee/eia,
aeeiaieea e oaiiu eciaiaiey io?aaeatho ninoiyiea yeiiiieee e oeiainia
no?aiu, yooaeoeaiinoue ooieoeeiie?iaaiey ainoaea?noaaiiuo no?oeoo?. Ia
ninoiyiea ainoaea?noaaiiiai aeieaa nouanoaaiii aeeytho aaeaaiaeiua
iia?aoeee a noa?a ainoaea?noaaiiiai e?aaeeoa : iieo/aiea iiauo caeiia e
oneiaey eo i?aaeinoaaeaiey, n iaeiie noi?iiu, e ?acia?u iiaaoaiee e
auiea/eaaaiuo i?ioeaioia, n ae?oaie.

Iacia/aiea ainoaea?noaaiiiai e?aaeeoa i?iyaeyaony a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue a
oii, /oi ii yaeyaony n?aaenoaii iiaeeecaoeee a ?oeao ainoaea?noaa
aeiiieieoaeueiuo oeiainiauo ?ano?nia. A neo/aa aeaoeoeeoiinoe
ainoaea?noaaiiiai athaeaeaoa aeiiieieoaeueii iiaeeecoaiua oeiainiaua
?ano?nu iai?aaeythony ia iie?uoea ?acieoeu iaaeaeo athaeaeaoiuie
?anoiaeaie e aeioiaeaie. I?e iieiaeeoaeueiii athaeaeaoiii naeueaei
iiaeeecoaiua n iiiiuueth ainoaea?noaaiiiai e?aaeeoa n?aaenoaa i?yii
eniieuecothony aeey oeiaine?iaaiey yeiiiie/aneeo e nioeeaeueiuo
i?ia?aii. Yoi icia/aao, /oi ainoaea?noaaiiue e?aaeeo, yaeyynue
n?aaenoaii oaaee/aiey oeiainiauo aiciiaeiinoae ainoaea?noaa, iiaeao
aunooiaoue aaaeiui oaeoi?ii onei?aiey nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneiai
?acaeoey no?aiu.

Ainoaea?noaaiiue e?aaeeo yaeyaony enoi/ieeii oaaee/aiey aeaiaaeiuo
aeioiaeia o aea?aeaoaeae oeaiiuo aoiaa e aeeaae/eeia naa?aaieia. Yoi
aeinoeaaaony iin?aaenoaii auieaou i?ioeaioia e auea?uoae ii
ainoaea?noaaiiui caeiai e aeeaaeai a naa?aaaoaeueiuo o/?aaeaeaieyo. Yoi
a iieiie ia?a ioiineony e e o?oaeiaui eieeaeoeaai. Aeeaaeuaay n?aaenoaa
a oeaiiua aoiaae ainoaea?noaa, o?oaeiaua eieeaeoeau ia oieueei
i?aaiecotho iaeiieaiea n?aaenoa aeey i?iaaaeaiey e?oiiuo aeiaeaiee a
i?iecaiaenoai e nioeeaeueioth noa?o, ii e iiaoo ?ann/eouaaoue ia
cia/eoaeueioth i?eaaaeo e aeiaeaiiui a caeiu n?aaenoaai aaeaaiaeii eee
ai a?aiy iiaaoaiee iaeeaaoeee caeiia.

Ii ioeaieaay oeiainiaia cia/aiea ainoaea?noaaiiiai e?aaeeoa, ia neaaeoao
caauaaoue, /oi iiaeeecoaiua n aai iiiiuueth ainoaea?noaii n?aaenoaa
yaeythony aioeoeeie?iaaiiuie, o.a. acyouie aia?aae iaeiaaie.
Iaiaoiaeeiinoue iiaaoaiey ainoaea?noaaiiiai aeieaa o?aaoao ecuneaiey
aeiiieieoaeueiuo ?ano?niuo iinooieaiee a athaeaeao, a iie iiaoo auoue
iieo/aiu ( anee ia n/eoaoue iiauo caeiia ) oieueei n iiiiuueth iaeiaia.
E oiio aea iiaaoaiey aeieaiauo iaycaoaeuenoa e oieaoa i?ioeaioia ii iei
ioaeaeatho /anoue athaeaeaoiuo aeioiaeia io i?iecaiaeeoaeueiiai
eniieueciaaiey, nie?auaao aiciiaeiinoe ia?aueaaiey i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai e
eioaeeaeooaeueiiai iioaioeeaea iauanoaa.

Neaaeoao eiaoue a aeaeo, /oi iieiaeaiea ia aioeoeeiaoeee athaeaeaoiuo
aeioiaeia eiaao ia?aie/aiiia aeaenoaea. I?e aeaaiiieo/iii oeiainiaii
iieiaeaiee ainoaea?noai n iiiiuueth e?aaeeoiuo ioiioaiee iiaeeecoao
n?aaenoaa aeey i?iecaiaeeoaeueiiai eo eniieueciaaiey eee ?aoaiey
ii?aaeaeaiiuo nioeeaeueiuo caaea/. A neo/aa aeiaeaiey n?aaenoa a
eiie?aoiua i?iecaiaenoaaiiua iauaeou eaaeaeue caaiiue ?oaeue aoaeao
nouanoaiaaoue a aeaea ?aaeueiuo i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo oiiaeia e
niinianoaiaaoue nicaeaieth n?aaenoa aeey iiaaoaiey ia?aciaaaoaainy
ainoaea?noaaiiiai aeieaa, ia ioaeaeay aeey yoie iaeiaiaua ieaoaaee
ianaeaiey e i?aaei?eyoee.

2.Ainoaea?noaaiiue e?aaeeo a nenoai e?aaeeoiuo

ioiioaiee.

A nenoaia e?aaeeoiuo ioiioaiee ainoaea?noaaiiue e?aaeeo aunooiaao a
neaaeothueo oi?iao :

1. ainoaea?noaaiiua caeiu ;

2. ia?auaiea /anoe aeeaaeia ianaeaiey a ainoaea?noaaiiua caeiu ;

3. caeinoaiaaiea n?aaenoa iauaainoaea?noaaiiiai nnoaeiiai oiiaea ;

4. eacia/aeneea nnoaeu ;

5. aa?aioe?iaaiiua caeiu .

Ainoaea?noaaiiua caeiu oa?aeoa?ecothony oai, /oi a?aiaiii naiaiaeiua
aeaiaaeiua n?aaenoaa oece/aneeo e th?eaee/aneeo eeoe i?eaeaeathony ia
oeiaine?iaaiea iauanoaaiiuo iio?aaiinoae iooai auionea ainoaea?noaaiiuo
oeaiiuo aoiaa : iaeeaaoeee, eacia/aeneeo iaycaoaeuenoa e ae?. Iaeeaaoeey
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie oeaiioth aoiaao, neiaieece?othuoth ainoaea?noaaiiia
aeieaiaia iaycaoaeuenoai e aeathuoth i?aai aa aeaaeaeueoeo ii enoa/aieth
ii?aaeaeaiiiai n?iea iieo/eoue ia?aoii noiio aeieaa e i?ioeaiou.
I?iaeaaay iaeeaaoeeth, ainoaea?noai iaycoaony aa?iooue noiio aeieaa a
ii?aaeaeaiiue n?ie n i?ioeaioaie eee auiea/eaaoue e?aaeeoi?ai aeioiae a
oa/aiea anaai n?iea iieueciaaiey caaiiuie n?aaenoaaie, a ii enoa/aiee
n?iea aa?iooue e noiio aeieaa.

Ainoaea?noai onoaiaaeeaaao ia?eoeaoaeueioth noieiinoue ( iiieiaeueioth
oeaio ) iaeeaaoeee. Iia iaicia/aaony ia iaeeaaoeee e au?aaeaao
aeaiaaeioth noiio, i?aaeinoaaeaiioth aea?aeaoaeai iaeeaaoeee
ainoaea?noao ai a?aiaiiia iieueciaaiea. Eiaiii yoa noiia auiea/eaaaony
aeaaeaeueoeo iaeeaaoeee a iiiaio aa iiaaoaiey e ia iaa ia/eneythony
i?ioeaiou. Iaeiaei ?aaeueiay aeioiaeiinoue iaeeaaoeee aeey eo
aea?aeaoaeae iiaeao auoue auoa eee ieaea onoaiiaeaiiiai iiieiaeueiiai
i?ioeaioa. Yoi iaoneiaeaiii oai, /oi iaeeaaoeee i?iaeathony ii eo?niaie
oeaia, eioi?ay ioeeiiyaony io ia?eoeaoaeueiie noieiinoe. Aeaiiia
ioeeiiaiea iacuaaaony eo?niaie ?acieoeae e caaeneo io ?yaea oaeoi?ia. E
eo /eneo, a /anoiinoe, ioiinyony aaee/eia aeioiaea, auiea/eaaaiiai ii
caeio, o?iaaiue nnoaeiiai i?ioeaioa, a?aiy iieoiee iaeeaaoeee, noaiaiue
ianuuaiiinoe oiiaeiaiai ?uiea ainoaea?noaaiiuie oeaiiuie aoiaae,
i?eaeaeaoaeueiinoue oneiaee auionea /anoiuo oeaiiuo aoiaa, ninoiyiea
oicyenoaaiiie eiiuethieoo?u, noaiaiue aeiaa?ey ianaeaiey i?aaeoaeuenoao.

Naiaiaeiay eioe?iaea iaeeaaoeee ainoaea?noaaiiuo caeiia ia oiiaeiaie
ae?aea yaeyaony iaoaieciii o/aoa anao oaeoi?ia, io?aaeathueony ia
eo?niaie oeaia i?ioeaioiuo aoiaa. Ooieoeeiie?iaaiea iieiioeaiiiai
oiiaeiaiai ?uiea, eioi?ue iaaiciiaeai aac aunieie noaiaie eeeaeaeiinoe
aeioiaeiuo aoiaa, niinianoaoao i?aiaeieaieth iaaaoeaiiai
ineoieiae/aneiai oaeoi?a. Iineaaeiee ninoieo a ianoi?iaeaiiii ioiioaiee
caeiiaeaoaeae e ainoaea?noaaiiui e?aaeeoiui iia?aoeeyi; ii ii?iaeaeai
iooiaeii io o?aaiaaiee caeiiia ?acaeoey oiiaeiaiai ?uiea e ia?ooaiey
ainoaea?noaii naieo iaycaoaeuenoa; i?eioaeeoaeueiui ?ani?aaeaeaieai
caeiia, ?aceei ia?aie/aieai eeeaeaeiinoe oeaiiuo aoiaa ainoaea?noaa,
caii?aaeeaaieai ainoaea?noaaiiiai aeieaa e o.i.

Ono?aiaieth ecaanoiiai iaaeiaa?ey caeiiaeaoaeae e e?aaeeoiui iia?aoeeyi
ainoaea?noaa niinianoaoao ?aciiia?acea oneiaee auionea caeiia ii n?ieai.
Anee ainoaea?noai i?eaioe?oaony oieueei ia aeeeoaeueiua e?aaeeoiua
iia?aoeee, oi yoi cao?oaeiyao aiaea/aiea a iieoieo iaeeaaoeee naiaiaeiuo
aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa e?aoein?i/iiai e n?aaeian?i/iiai oa?aeoa?a, a oaeaea
canoaaeyao iiaeoiaoue iioaioeeaeueiiai e?aaeeoi?a i oeaeaniia?aciinoe
aeiaeaiey e aeieain?i/iuo naa?aaeaiee.

Ae?oaei aeaeii ainoaea?noaaiiuo caeiia yaeythony eacia/aeneea
iaycaoaeuenoaa, eioi?ua ioee/athony io iaeeaaoeee oeaeyie auionea,
oi?iie auieaou aeioiaea e naiaiaeie ia?auaiey. N?aaenoaa io i?iaeaaee
iaeeaaoeee iai?aaeythony a athaeaeao, aiaathaeaeaoiua oiiaeu eee ia
niaoeeaeueiua oeaee. N?aaenoaa io ?aaeecaoeee eacia/aeneeo iaycaoaeuenoa
iai?aaeythony oieueei ia iiiieiaiea athaeaeaoa. Aeioiae io iaeeaaoeee
iiaeao auoue auiea/ai a aeaea i?ioeaioia, auea?uoae eee ia
auiea/eaaoueny aiiaua. Ii eacia/aeneei iaycaoaeuenoaai aeioiae
auiea/eaaaony a aeaea i?ioeaioia. Iaeeaaoeee iiaoo auoue eeai naiaiaeii
ia?auaaiua eee n ia?aie/aiiui e?oaii ia?auaiey. Eacia/aeneea
iaycaoaeuenoaa eiatho oieueei ia?aie/aiiue e?oa ia?auaiey e ?aaeecaoeee
oieueei n?aaee ianaeaiey.

a) oeaio?aeueiui i?aaeoaeuenoaii;

a) ?anioaeeeaineeie i?aaeoaeuenoaaie;

a) ianoiuie i?aaiaie aeanoe.

Oe?ieia ?aniino?aiaiea iieo/eea i?aeoeea auionea ainoaea?noaaiiuo caeiia
oeaio?aeueiui i?aaeoaeuenoaii. Caaeieaeaiiinoue ?anioaeeeaineeo e
ianoiuo i?aaiia aeanoe yaeyaony eae i?aaeei, iacia/eoaeueiie.

Ii i?eciaeo aea?aeaoaeae oeaiiuo aoiaa caeiu iiaoo iiae?acaeaeyoueny ia
?aaeecoaiua oieueei n?aaee ianaeaiey ( iai?eia?, Ainoaea?noaaiiue
aioo?aiiee auea?uoiue caai 1982 aiaea ), n?aaee th?eaee/aneeo eeoe (
ainoaea?noaaiiue aioo?aiiee 5%-iue caai 1990 aiaea ) e oieaa?naeueiua,
o.a. i?aaeiacia/aiiua aeey ?aciauaiey n?aaee oece/aneeo e th?eaee/aneeo
eeoe.

A caaeneiinoe io oi?iu auieaou aeioiaeia auaeaeytho:

a) i?ioeaioiua caeiu;

a) auea?uoiua caeiu;

a) i?ioeaioii-auea?uoiua caeiu;

a) aani?iea?uoiua caeiu;

ae) aani?ioeaioiua (oeaeaaua ) caeiu.

Aeaaeaeueoeu aeieaiauo iaycaoaeuenoa i?ioeaioiiai caeia iieo/atho
oaa?aeue aeioiae aaeaaiaeii iooai iieaou eoiiiia eee iaeei ?ac i?e
iiaaoaiee caeia iooai ia/eneaiey i?ioeaioia e iiieiaeo oeaiiuo aoiaa (
aac aaeaaiaeiuo auieao ). I?eia?ii i?ioeaioiuo aeieaiauo iaycaoaeuenoa
yaeythony eacia/aeneea iaycaoaeuenoaa ainoaea?noaa e iaeeaaoeee 5%-iiai
caeia 1990 aiaea. Ii auea?uoiui caeiai aanue aeioiae aea?aeaoaee
iaeeaaoeee iieo/atho a oi?ia auea?uoae a iiiaio iiaaoaiey iaeeaaoeee.
Aeioiae auiea/eaaaony ia ii anai iaeeaaoeeyi, a oieueei ii oai, eioi?ua
iiiaee a oe?aaee auea?uoae. I?eia?ii auea?uoiiai caeia yaeyaony
Ainoaea?noaaiiue caai 1982 aiaea. Oneiaeyie auionea
i?ioeaioii-auea?uoiuo caeiia i?aaeoniao?eaaaony auieaoa /anoe aeioiaea
ii eoiiiai, a ae?oaie /anoe – a oi?ia auea?uoae. Aani?iea?uoiua auionee
caeiia aa?aioe?otho, /oi a oa/aiea n?iea aeaenoaey caeia auea?uo oiaaeao
ia eaaeaeoth iaeeaaoeeth. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy i?ioeaioii-auea?uoiua e
aani?iea?uoiua caeiu a iaoae no?aia ia auioneathony. Aani?ioeaioiua (
oeaeaaua ) caeiu ia i?aaeoniao?eaatho auieaoo aeioiaeia aea?aeaoaeyi
iaeeaaoeee, ii aa?aioe?otho iieo/aiea niioaaonoaothuaai oiaa?a, ni?in ia
eioi?ue iiea iieiinoueth ia oaeiaeaoai?yaony. I?eia?ii aani?ioeaioiie
ainoaea?noaaiiie e?aaeeoiie iia?aoeee yaeyaony ainoaea?noaaiiue oeaeaaie
caai 1990 aiaea. Ianoiua i?aaiu aeanoe iiaoo i?iaiaeeoue oeaeaaua caeiu
ia no?ieoaeuenoai aei?ia, inouanoaeaiea ?aaio ii io?aia ie?oaeathuae
n?aaeu, oeiaine?iaaiea ae?oaeo ia?ii?eyoee, a eioi?uo caeioa?aniaaii
ianaeaiea aaeieieno?aoeaii-oa??eoi?eaeueiie aaeeieoeu.

Ii n?ieai iiaaoaiey caeiu aeaeyony ia:

a) e?aoein?i/iua caeiu – n?ie iiaaoaiey aei 1 aiaea;

a) n?aaeian?i/iua caeiu – n?ie iiaaoaiey aei 5 eao;

a) aeieain?i/iua caeiu – n?ie iiaaoaiey aieaa 5 eao.

Ii iaoiaeo ?aciauaiey caeiu iiae?acaeaeytho ia:

a) aeia?iaieueiua caeiu;

a) caeiu ?aciauaiiua ii iiaeienea;

a) i?eioaeeoaeueiua caeiu.

Eaaeaeiio iaoiaeo ?aciauaiey caeiia niioaaonoaoao naie niinia
?aaeecaoeee. Iaeeaaoeee aeia?iaieueiuo caeiia naiaiaeii i?iaeathony e
iieoiathony aaieianeeie o/?aaeaeaieyie. I?eioaeeoaeueiua caeiu
?ani?ino?aiythony n?aaee e?aaeeoi?ia a neeo iinoaiiaeaiey
i?aaeoaeuenoaa, i?aaeoniao?eaathuaai no?iaoth ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca
oeeiiaiea io iieoiee iaeeaaoeee. Caeiu, ?aciauaaiua n?aaee ianaeaiey ii
iiaeienea n ?ann?i/eie ieaoaaea, oi?iaeueii yaeythony aeia?iaieueiuie.
Iaeiaei eo ?aaeecaoeey nii?iaiaeaeaaony oaeie ianniai-iieeoe/aneie
eiiiaieae, eioi?ay aeaeaao eo ii nouanoao iaycaoaeueiuie. Yoi aiciiaeii
a oneiaeyo oioaeeoa?iiai ?aaeeia. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy a iaoae no?aia
aeaenoaotho oieueei aeia?iaieueiua caeiu.

Ainoaea?noaaiiua caeiu iiaoo auoue iaeeaaoeeiiiuie e aaciaeeaaoeeiiiuie.
Iaeeaaoeeiiiua caeiu nii?iaiaeaeathony yienneae oeaiiuo aoiaa
ainoaea?noaa. Aaciaeeaaoeeiiiua caeiu ioi?ieythony iiaeienaieai
niaeaoaiee, aeiaiai?ia, a oaeaea iooai caienae a aeieaiauo eieaao e
auaea/ae iniauo naeaeaoaeuenoa. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy aaciaeeaaoeeiiiua
caeiu eniieuecothony ia iaaei?aaeoaeuenoaaiiii o?iaia.

A oaniie nayce n ainoaea?noaaiiuie caeiaie iaoiaeeony aoi?ay oi?ia
ainoaea?noaaiiiai e?aaeeoa, ooieoeeiie?iaaiea eioi?ie iiin?aaeoaony
nenoaiie naa?aaaoaeueiuo o/?aaeaeaiee ( aaieia, eann e o.i. ) e yaeyaony
aaaeiui eaiaeii oi?ie?iaaiey oeiainiauo ?ano?nia ainoaea?noaa –
ia?auaiea /anoe aeeaaeia ianaeaiey a ainoaea?noaaiiua caeiu. A ioee/ea
io ia?aie oi?iu ainoaea?noaaiiiai e?aaeeoa, eiaaea oece/aneea e
th?eaee/aneea eeoea iieoiatho oeaiiua aoiaae ca n/ao nianoaaiiuo
a?aiaiii naiaiaeiuo aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa, naa?aaaoaeueiua o/?aaeaeaiey
i?aaeinoaaeytho e?aaeeo ainoaea?noao ca n/ao caaiiuo aeaiaaeiuo
n?aaenoa. Iaee/ea iin?aaeieea iaaeaeo ainoaea?noaii e ianaeaieai a eeoea
naa?aaaoaeueiuo o/?aaeaeaiee e i?aaeinoaaeaiea caeia iineaaeieie
ainoaea?noao ca n/ao caaiiuo n?aaenoa aac aaaeiia eo ?aaeueiiai
aeaaeaeueoea ( ianaeaiey ) iicaieyao auaeaeeoue yoe ioiioaiey a ea/anoaa
iniaie oi?iu ainoaea?noaaiiiai e?aaeeoa. Yoa oi?ia e?aaeeoiaaiey
inouanoaeyaony /a?ac iieoieo iniauo oeaiiuo aoiaa ( iai?eia?,
eacia/aeneeo naa?aaaoaeueiuo na?oeoeeaoia ) eee ?uii/iuo oeaiiuo aoiaa (
iaeeaaoeee, eacia/aeneeo iaycaoaeuenoa ), a oaeaea ioi?ieaiea
aaciaeeaaoeeiiiuo caeiia. Aaciaeeaaoeeiiiua caeiu yaeythony, ii
nouanoao, aann?i/iuie. Iie ioi?ieythony ainoaea?noaii ia auioneii
oeaiiuo aoiaa, a iooai iaiin?aaenoaaiiiai o/aoa noii ia n/aoao
niioaaonoaothueo o/?aaeaeaiee e a eieaa ainoaea?noaaiiiai aeieaa. N?iee
iiaaoaiey oaeeo caeiia ca?aiaa ia iaiaa?eaathony, ii ainoaea?noai
inoaaeyao ca niaie i?aai aueoia caeia e iaycoaony auiea/eaaoue i?ioeaiou
ca aanue ia?eiae aai aeaenoaey. I/aaeaeii, /oi i?ioeaio ii aeeaaeai,
o?aiyueiny a naa?aaaoaeueiuo o/?aaeaeaieyo, ia iiaeao auoue ieaea
ioeoeeaeueiiai o?iaiy eioeyoeee. Aeey aieueoae aeoeaecaoeee
naa?aaaoaeueiiai aeaea ia/eneyaiue i?ioeaio aeieaeai i?aauoaoue yoio
o?iaaiue a oeaeyo iaania/aiey iieo/aiey aeeaae/eeii oioy au
ieieiaeueiiai aeioiaea. A iaoae no?aia nae/an yoi aeinoeaaaony ia iniiaa
iieoiee Naa?aaieii aeieaiauo iaycaoaeuenoa ainoaea?noaa.

Caeinoaiaaiea n?aaenoa iauaainoaea?noaaiiiai nnoaeiiai oiiaea, eae oi?ia
ainoaea?noaaiiiai e?aaeeoa oa?aeoa?ecoaony oai, /oi ainoaea?noaaiiua
e?aaeeoiua o/?aaeaeaiey iaiin?aaenoaaiii ( ia iiin?aaeoy yoe iia?aoeee
iieoieie ainoaea?noaaiiuo oeaiiuo aoiaa ) ia?aaeatho /anoue e?aaeeoiuo
?ano?nia ia iie?uoea ?anoiaeia i?aaeoaeuenoaa. Yoa oi?ia
ainoaea?noaaiiiai e?aaeeoa ooieoeeiie?oao a oioaeeoa?iii iauanoaa. Iia
niinianoaoao ?acaeoeth eioeyoeeiiiuo i?ioeannia, /oi iniaaiii iianii a
oneiaeyo aeanoeiai eiio?iey ca yienneae aeaiaaeiuo ciaeia ni noi?iiu
aeaiie?aoe/anee eca?aiiuo i?aaiia. Iiyoiio iieiay ii?iaeecaoeey
ioiioaiee iaaeaeo ainoaea?noaii e e?aaeeoiie nenoaiie eaaeeo ia iooe
i?eciaiey iaaiciiaeiinoe i?yiiai iicaeinoaiaaiey nnoaeiuo n?aaenoa aeey
iie?uoey athaeaeaoiiai aeaoeoeeoa.

Eacia/aeneea nnoaeu au?aaeatho ioiioaiey ieacaiey oeiainiaie iiiiue
i?aaei?eyoeyi e i?aaiecaoeeyi i?aaiaie ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe e
oi?aaeaiey ca n/ao athaeaeaoiuo n?aaenoa ia oneiaeyo aica?aoiinoe,
n?i/iinoe e ieaoiinoe. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy a iaoae no?aia yoa oi?ia
aeoeaii ia eniieuecoaony. Iaeiaei i?e ei?aiiie ?aoi?ia ioiioaiee
nianoaaiiinoe nii?iaiaeaeaaiie ?acainoaea?noaeaieai e i?eaaoecaoeeae
oicyenoaaiiuo no?oeoo?, ainoaea?noai ia iiaeao ianoe ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca
oeiainiaua ?acoeueoaou aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoee e i?aaiecaoeee aianoi
eo i?aaiii/iuo aeaaeaeueoeaa. Ii i?e iaiaoiaeeiinoe ainoaea?noaaiiua
i?aaiu iiaoo ieacuaaoue oeiainiaoth iiiiuue oicyenoaaiiui noauaeoai, a
noaaeeueiie ?aaioa eioi?uo iie caeioa?aniaaiu, ii ia oneiaeyo
aica?aoiinoe, n?i/iinoe, ieaoiinoe.

Ioiioaiey ii eeiee eacia/aeneeo nnoae ia yaeythony aiaeiaii aaieianeiai
e?aaeeoiaaiey, iineieueeo a ioee/ea io oic?an/aoiuo aaieianeeo no?oeoo?
i?aaiu ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe e oi?aaeaiey ieacuaatho oeiainiaoth
iiiiuue ia ae?oaeo oneiaeyo, ii ae?oaei i?e/eiai e a eiuo oeaeyo.
Eacia/aeneea nnoaeu auaeathony ia eueaioiuo oneiaeyo ii n?ieai e ii?ia
i?ioeaioa, iie aiciiaeiu a neo/aa oeiainiauo cao?oaeiaiee i?aaei?eyoee e
oicyenoaaiiuo i?aaiecaoeee a aeaeo eo iniaiai iieiaeaiey ia ?uiea, ia
eiatho eiiia?/aneie oeaee, a yaeythony n?aaenoaii iiaeaea?aeee aeeciaiii
aaaeiuo aeey ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa yeiiiie/aneeo no?oeoo?.

Eniieueciaaiea eacia/aeneeo nnoae ia icia/aao, /oi aacaiciacaeiia
athaeaeaoiia oeiaine?iaaiea a ioiioaiee ainoaea?noaaiiuo oic?an/aoiuo
i?aaei?eyoee iieiinoueth naay ecaeeei. Iii nio?aiyao i?aai ia
nouanoaiaaiea, ii eae eneeth/eoaeueiay ia?a a ii?yaeea ieacaiey
oeiainiaie iiiiue oici?aaiai, ieacaaoeiny a cao?oaeieoaeueiii iieiaeaiee
aaeaeo iniaaiiinoae ?aaeecaoeee i?iecaiaeeiie a eioa?anao iauanoaa
i?iaeoeoeee, iaaeaaii?eyoiie oicyenoaaiiie eiiuthieoo?u, e?eceniuo
yaeaiee a yeiiiieea e o. i.

Ii aa?aioe?iaaiiui caeiai i?aaeoaeuenoai ?aaeueii ianao oeiainiaoth
ioaaonoaaiiinoue oieueei a neo/aa iaieaoaaeaniiniaiinoe ieaoaeueueea. A
iaoae no?aia nicaeaiu oneiaey aeey aic?iaeaeaiey aa?aioe?iaaiiuo caeiia
a nayce n i?aaeinoaaeaieai ianoiui i?aaiai aeanoe, a oae aea ioaeaeueiui
oicyenoaaiiui no?oeoo?ai i?aaa i?iaiaeeoue iia?aoeee ii caeeth/aieth
caeiia.

3.Iaaeaeoia?iaeiue ainoaea?noaaiiue e?aaeeo.

Iaaeaeoia?iaeiue e?aaeeo o?aaeeoeeiiii ea?ae ?ieue oaeoi?a, eioi?ue
aeaaiui ia?acii ianeoaeeaae aiaoiaoi?aiaua nayce iaaeaeo ioaeaeueiuie
no?aiaie. Ai aoi?ie iieiaeia iaoaai noieaoey iieiaeaiea noaei ana aieaa
iaiyony, e e ianoiyuaio a?aiaie oaeoe/anee oaea noi?ie?iaaeny
iaaeaeoia?iaeiue ?uii/iue iaoaieci e?aaeeoa, eioi?ue iiin?aaeoao ia
oieueei noa?o iaaeaeoia?iaeiie oi?aiaee oiaa?aie e oneoaaie, ii e
i?ioeannu ?aaeueiuo eiaanoeoeee, ?aaoee?iaaiea ieaoaaeiuo aaeainia,
ianeoaeeaaiea aiaoiaai aeieaa no?ai-aeaaeoi?ia.

O?aaeeoeeiiii iaaeaeoia?iaeiue e?aaeeo i?aaenoaaeye niaie
i?aaeinoaaeaiea aaethoiuo e oiaa?iuo ?ano?nia i?aaei?eyoeyi e oeiainiaui
einoeoooai iaeiie no?aiu i?aaei?eyoeyi, oeiainiaui einoeoooai e
i?aaeoaeuenoao ae?oaie no?aiu ia oneiaeyo aica?aoiinoe, n?i/iinoe e
ieaoiinoe. E?aaeeoi?aie e caaiueeaie auee i?aaenoaaeoaee aeaoo ?aciuo
no?ai. Enoi/ieeii oeiaine?iaaiey oiaa?iiai e?aaeeoa e ia?aaiaea
aaethoiuo ?ano?nia a yoii neo/aa anaaaea yaeyeny iaoeeiiaeueiue ?uiie
eaieoaeia. A nia?aiaiiuo aea oneiaeyo iiieii iaoeeiiaeueiuo ?uieia
eaieoaeia aaaeiaeoei enoi/ieeii e?aaeeoiuo ?ano?nia noae nianoaaiii
iaaeaeoia?iaeiue ?uiie eaieoaeia, ia eiathuee iaiin?aaenoaaiii eaeie
eeai iaoeeiiaeueiie i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe.

Iaaeaeoia?iaeiua e?aaeeou, anee iie i?aaeiacia/aiu aeey
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo oeaeae: i?eia?aoaiea ca a?aieoeae iiaiai
iai?oaeiaaiey eee aaaeiiai aeaea nu?uey aeey iaiin?aaenoaaiiiai
inouanoaeaiey eiaanoeoeee a i?iecaiaenoai, a eiia/iii eoiaa oaaee/eaatho
ianooaau i?iecaiaenoaa aaeiaiai aioo?aiiaai i?iaeoeoa a no?aia-caaiueea
e, neaaeiaaoaeueii, naie nicaeatho yeaeaaeaio oie noiiu n?aaenoa,
eioi?ay aeieaeia iieoe ia aiciauaiea iieo/aiiie ca ?oaaaeii nnoaeu e
oieaou i?ioeaioia ii iae. Anee aea iaaeaeoia?iaeiua e?aaeeou
i?aaeiacia/aiu aeey ae?oaeo, ia i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo oeaeae: i?eia?aoaiea
i?iaeiaieuenoaey ca a?aieoeae, i?iiuoeaiiuo oiaa?ia iio?aaeoaeueneiai
oa?aeoa?a, niaea?aeaiea ainoaea?noaaiiiai aiia?aoa, i?aiaeieaiea
aeaoeoeeoa ainoaea?noaaiiiai athaeaeaoa eee ieaoaaeiiai aaeaina, oi yoi
aaaeao e oiio, /oi aica?ao iniiaiie noiiu aeieaa e oieaoa i?ioeaioia ii
iaio inouanoaeyaony ia ca n/ao nicaeaiiiai n eniieueciaaieai eo
yeaeaaeaioa e a eiia/iii eoiaa neacuaaaony ia nie?auaiee aaeiaiai
aioo?aiiaai i?iaeoeoa no?aiu.

O?aaeeoeeiiiie oi?iie iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai e?aaeeoa yaeyaony aiaoiaoi?aiaue
e?aaeeo. Iineaaeiee i?aaenoaaeyao niaie aaaeiue oaeoi? iiauoaiey
eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoe oiaa?ia iinoaaeyaiuo ia aiaoiee ?uiie. Naaiaeiy
iiaeaaeythuay /anoue iaoei e iai?oaeiaaiey ia ie?iaii ?uiea i?iaeaaony
eae i?aaeei a e?aaeeo. Oneiaey yoiai e?aaeeoa – n?iee, i?ioeaioiay
noaaea, noiia eiienneiiiuo, oneiaey iiaaoaiey, iaoiaeu no?aoiaaiey
?eneia – nouanoaaiii aeeytho ia eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoue oiaa?a. *ai
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiaa n?ie e?aaeeoa, /ai ieaea aai noieiinoue ( i?ioeaiou
iethn eiienneiiiua ), /ai aieueoa eueaio i?aaeinoaaeyao i?e yoii
e?aaeeoi?, oai i?e i?i/eo ?aaiuo oneiaeyo, auoa eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoue
oiaa?a ia ie?iaii ?uiea.

Noa?aeoay oi?ia aiaoiaoi?aiaiai e?aaeeoa – oe?iaiiua e?aaeeou.
I?aeiouanoaaiii yoi nnoaeu, i?aaeinoaaeyaiua yenii?oa?ii iaeiie no?aiu
eiii?oa?o ae?oaie a aeaea ion?i/ee ieaoaaea eee eiiia?/aneee e?aaeeo ai
aiaoiae oi?aiaea. Oe?iaiiue e?aaeeo, n?iee eioi?iai, eae i?aaeei,
eieaaethony a i?aaeaeao io 1 aei 7 eao, eiaao ?yae ?aciiaeaeiinoae:
iieoiaoaeueneee aaain, e?aaeeo ii ioe?uoiio n/aoo. Oe?iaiiue e?aaeeo
/aua anaai ?aaeecoaony iin?aaenoaii ioe?uoiai n/aoa.

E?aaeeo ii ioe?uoiio n/aoo inouanoaeyaony /a?ac aaiee eiii?oa?a e
yenii?oa?a. Iaaeaeo yenii?oa?ii e eiii?oa?ii caeeth/aaony aeieaiaia
niaeaoaiea, ii eioi?iio ia?aue caienuaaao ia n/ao iineaaeiaai a ea/anoaa
aai aeieaa iauoth noieiinoue ioa?oaeaiiuo oiaa?ia n o/aoii ia/eneyaiuo
i?ioeaioia, a eiii?oa?, a naith i/a?aaeue, iaycoaony a onoaiiaeaiiue
n?ie iiaaneoue noiio e?aaeeoa e auieaoeoue i?ioeaiou. I?e oe?iaiiii
e?aaeeoa eiii?oa? /anoi aiineo oae iacuaaaiue iieoiaoaeueneee aaain a
?acia?a, /aua anaai, 10-20% noieiinoe iinoaaee a e?aaeeo, /oi
i?aaenoaaeyao naiaai ?iaea iaycaoaeuenoaa i?eiyoue iinoaaeyaiua a
e?aaeeo oiaa?u.

Aieioue aei ia/aea 60-o aiaeia iaoaai aaea oe?iaiiua e?aaeeou auee
i?aiaeaaeathuae oi?iie aiaoiaoi?aiaiai e?aaeeoa e ii naiaio noieiinoiiio
iauaio aieaa /ai a aeaa ?aca i?aauoaee aaieianeee yenii?oiue e?aaeeo.
Iaeiaei auno?ue ?ino iaaeaeoia?iaeiie oi?aiaee, iaiaoiaeeiinoue eiii?oa
acaeiinaycaiiie i?iaeoeoeee n?aco o ianeieueeeo iinoaaueeia, oaaee/aiea
n?ieia e?aaeeoa i?iaeaiiino?e?iaaee, /oi o oe?iaiiiai e?aaeeoa anoue
naie iaaeinoaoee. N?aaee ieo, n oi/ee c?aiey eiii?oa?a, iaeaieaa
nouanoaaiiuie yaeythony: ia?aie/aiiua n?iee e?aaeeoa, n?aaieoaeueii
iaaieueoea iauaiu e?aaeeoiaaiey, aeanoeay i?eaycaiiinoue eiii?oa?a e
i?iaeoeoeee oe?iu iinoaaueea. Iiyoiio n ?inoii ianooaaia e
aeeaa?neoeeaoeeae iaaeaeoia?iaeiie oi?aiaee aeiey oe?iaiiuo e?aaeeoia a
iauae noiia aiaoiaoi?aiaiai e?aaeeoiaaiey ia/aea nieaeaoueny, ana aieaa
onooiay ianoi aaieianeiio aiaoiaoi?aiaiio e?aaeeoiaaieth.

Aaieianeee aiaoiaoi?aiaue e?aaeeo eiaao n iiceoeee eiii?oa?a
ii?aaeaeaiiua i?aeiouanoaa ia?aae oe?iaiiui e?aaeeoii: aiciiaeiinoue
iaeioi?iai iaiaa?a a auai?a oe?iu iinoaaueea ii?aaeaeaiiie i?iaeoeoeee;
aieaa aeeeoaeueiua n?iee e?aaeeoa; aieueoea iauaiu iinoaaie ii e?aaeeoo;
n?aaieoaeueii iaiueoay noieiinoue e?aaeeoa.

Ia?aiia/aeueii aaiee auoee a noa?o aiaoiae oi?aiaee eae e?aaeeoi?u oe?i
yenii?oa?ia. Iiyoiio oaeea aiaoiaoi?aiaua e?aaeeou eiaiothony e?aaeeoaie
iinoaaueeo.

Ni a?aiaiai iaoeeiiaeueiua aaiee no?aiu oe?iu yenii?oa?a noaee
inouanoaeyoue aieaa aeaeoth iieeoeeo aiaoiaoi?aiaiai e?aaeeoiaaiey: iie
noaee i?aaeinoaaeyoue e?aaeeou iaiin?aaenoaaiii eiii?oa?o. Ca n/ao
iieo/aiiuo io aaiea n?aaenoa eiii?oa? iiea/eaaao iinoaaee yenii?oa?a.
Oaeie iaoiae aaieianeiai aiaoiaoi?aiaiai e?aaeeoiaaiey iieo/ee
iaeiaiiaaiea e?aaeeou iieoiaoaeth. Iie aeey eiii?oa?a aieaa auaiaeiu.
Iiyaeyaony aiciiaeiinoue auai?a oe?iu iinoaaueea, iaeiaei iiea /oi
oieueei a aeaiiie no?aia. N?iee e?aaeeoa oaeeeiythony, a aai noieiinoue
ianeieueei nieaeaaony. I?e yoii oe?iu iinoaaueee, ono?aiaiiua io
iaiin?aaenoaaiiiai o/anoey a e?aaeeoiaaiey yenii?oa, ia iiaoo caauneoue
oeaiu e?aaeeoa, /oi aanueia oeie/ii i?e oe?iaiiii e?aaeeoa e aeaaea i?e
e?aaeeoa iinoaaueeo.

Iiieii aiaoiaoi?aiaiai e?aaeeoa aaiee i?aaeinoaaeytho naiei eiio?aaaioai
ec ae?oaeo no?ai oeiainiaua e aaethoiua e?aaeeou. Oeiainiaua e?aaeeou
iicaieytho nnoaeiiieo/aoaeth ( /anoiiio eee ainoaea?noaaiiiio )
eniieueciaaoue eo a ai?acaei oe?ieii niaeo?a, iaaeaee /enoi
aiaoiaoi?aiaua e?aaeeou. Ii iiaeao inouanoaeyoue ca n/ao yoiai e?aaeeoa
caeoiee oiaa?ia e oneoa a ethaie no?aia, aaea ea/anoai e oeaia ieaaeoony
aeey iaai iaeaieaa iiaeoiaeyueie. Aaethoiua aea e?aaeeou
i?aaeinoaaeythony caaiueeo a iaeaieaa noaaeeueiie naiaiaeii
eiiaa?oe?oaiie aaethoa a oeaeyo auieaou aiaoiaai aeieaa, oieaou
i?ioeaioia ii iaio, iiiieiaiey n/aoia a naiaiaeii eiiaa?oe?oaiie
aaethoa. Anee caaiueeii aunooiaao eiino?aiiia ainoaea?noai, oi iiieii
oeacaiiuo auoa oeaeae aaethoiua e?aaeeou eniieuecothony i?e
inouanoaeaiee aaethoiie eioa?aaioeee a oeaeyo ?aaoee?iaaiee aaethoiiai
eo?na.

Iaaeaeoia?iaeiue e?aaeeo i?aaeaea anaai i?aaeiieaaaao ii?aaeaeaiea noiiu
e?aaeeoa, aai n?ieia e oneiaee iiaaoaiey, ecaea?aeae caaiueea ii
e?aaeeoo, a oaeaea iaoiaeia no?aoiaaiey e?aaeeoiiai ?enea.

Iiieii yoiai caeanue iiyaeythony aeaa aaaeiuo iiauo yeaiaioa e?aaeeoa:
aaethoa caeia e aaethoa ieaoaaea. I?e iieo/aiee e?aaeeoa e e?aaeeoi?, e
caaiuee caeioa?aniaaiu a oii, /oiau aaethoa caeia oa?aeoa?eciaaeanue
aunieie noaiaiueth onoie/eainoe. Iiyoiio, eae i?aaeei, e?aaeeou
i?aaeinoaaeythony a aeieea?ao, iaiaoeeeo ia?eao, yiiineeo eaiao,
oaaeoea?neeo o?aieao e ae?oaeo naiaiaeii eiiaa?oe?oaiuo aaethoao.
Iiaaoaiea e?aaeeoa inouanoaeyaony ia iaycaoaeueii a oie aea aaethoa, a
eioi?ie aue auaeai e?aaeeo. Iai?eia?, ?inney iieo/aao e?aaeeou a ?aciuo
aaethoao, ii aaethoie ieaoaaea, eae i?aaeei, inoaaony aeieea?.

Noiia e?aaeeoa ii?aaeaeyaony eeai a eiiia?/aneii eiio?aeoa, eeai a
yienneiiiii i?iniaeoa i?e auionea iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo iaeeaaoeee. N?ie
iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai e?aaeeoa caaeneo io oeaeiai ?yaea oaeoi?ia, e eioi?ui
ioiinyony: oeaee e ianooaau e?aaeeoa; aiaeiae/iay i?aeoeea a
i?aaeinoaaeaiee i?aaeuaeoueo e?aaeeoia ia yoe aea oeaee; o?aaeeoeee;
iaoeeiiaeueiia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai; iaaeainoaea?noaaiiua niaeaoaiey.

A nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo iaino?aiey eiieo?aioeee a iaaeaeoia?iaeiie
oi?aiaea eaaeaeia ainoaea?noai no?aieony nicaeaoue oneiaey aeey
iiauoaiey eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoe ioa/anoaaiiuo yenii?oa?ia. A yoeo oeaeyo
ainoaea?noai ai iiiaeo no?aiao n ?acaeoie ?uii/iie yeiiiieeie
inouanoaeyao iia?aoeee ii ?aoaiaine?iaaieth naeaeie i?iiuoeaiiuo
eiiiaiee e aaieia, aiaea/aiiuo a yenii?oiia e?aaeeoiaaiea. I?ienoiaeeo
yoi a ?aciiia?aciuo oi?iao. A iaeieo no?aiao nicaeaiu niaoeeaeueiua
ainoaea?noaaiiua e iieoainoaea?noaaiiua ( niaoaiiua n o/anoeai
/anoiiai eaieoaea ) aaieianeea einoeooou aiaoiaoi?aiaiai e?aaeeoiaaiey,
a ae?oaeo – aaieianeea eiini?oeeoiu, ia?aae eioi?uie noaiiaeony caaea/a
nicaeaiey aeaaii?eyoiuo oneiaee ?aoaiaine?iaaiey aiaoiae?aaeeoiuo
iia?aoeee eiiia?/aneeo aaieia a oeaio?aeueiii aaiea.

Oeie/iui i?eia?ii iaoeeiiaeueiiai ainoaea?noaaiiiai einoeoooa ii
noeioee?iaaieth yenii?oa yaeyaony Yenii?oii-eiii?oiue aaie NOA (
Yeneiaaie ), eioi?ue aue iniiaai aua a 1934 aiaeo a oeaeyo
i?aaeinoaaeaiey i?yiuo e?aaeeoia eiino?aiiui iieoiaoaeyi aia?eeaineeo
oiaa?ia. Iuia ii i?aaeinoaaeyao i?aeiouanoaaiii aa?aioee aia?eeaineei
i?iiuoeaiiui e aaieianeei eiiiaieyi i?ioea eiiia?/aneiai e iieeoe/aneiai
?enea.

Iiaeiaiua einoeooou ooieoeeiie?otho e a ?yaea ae?oaeo no?ai, a
/anoiinoe, a ssiiiee e ai O?aioeee. O/?aaeaeaiiue a 1951 aiaeo
Yenii?oii-eiii?oiue aaie ssiiiee a ioee/ee io niioaaonoaothuaai a NOA
eiaao aieaa oe?ieea aiciiaeiinoe e?aaeeoiaaiey: ii e?aaeeooao e
yenii?oiua, e eiii?oiua, a oaeaea iia?aoeee ii eiino?aiiui
eaieoaeiaeiaeiaeaieyi yiiineeo eiiiaiee. I?e/ai ii e?aaeeooao
i?aeiouanoaaiii ia eiino?aiiuo eiii?oa?ia, a yiiineeo yenii?oa?ia.

Ai O?aioeee ainoaea?noaaiiue e?aaeeoiue iaoaieci aeey iiaeaea?aeaiey
yenii?oa ia/ae ooieoeeiie?iaaoue aua a 1946 aiaeo. A iaeioi?uo no?aiao –
Aaeueaee, Aieeaiaeee, O?A, Oaaoeee – ainoaea?noai o/anoaoao a
e?aaeeoiaaiee yenii?oiuo iia?aoeee /a?ac aiaoiaoi?aiaua aaiee,
nicaeaiiua n eiini?oeeoiaie eiiia?/aneeo aaieia.

Iiieii o/anoey a e?aaeeoiaaiee yenii?oa?ia ainoaea?noai a no?aiao n
?uii/iie yeiiiieeie i?iaiaeeo aeoeaioth iieeoeeo ii no?aoiaaieth
aiaoiaoi?aiauo e?aaeeoia io eciaiaiee eo?nia aaetho, iieeoe/aneie
iaonoie/eainoe, eioi?ua nouanoaaiii oaaee/eaatho ?ene inouanoaeaiey
iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai e?aaeeoa. A yoeo oeaeyo a Aaeeeia?eoaiee, ai O?aioeee,
a O?A, a NOA e a ae?oaeo no?aiao neiaeeeanue oeaeay nenoaia no?aoiaaiey
e aa?aioe?iaaiiey yenii?oiuo iia?aoeee.

Aic?anoathuoth ?ieue a noa?a iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai e?aaeeoa ea?atho
iaaeaeoia?iaeiua e ?aaeiiaeueiua oeiainiai-e?aaeeoiua einoeooou:
Iaaeaeoia?iaeiue aaie ?aeiino?oeoeee e ?acaeoey ( Ie?iaie aaie ),
Iaaeaia?eeaineee aaie ?acaeoey, Aceaoneee e Ao?eeaineee aaiee ?acaeoey,
Aa?iiaeneee aaie ?acaeoey. N?aaee ieo aeaaiui yaeyaony Ie?iaie aaie n
aai aeaoiy oeeeaeaie – Iaaeaeoia?iaeiie oeiainiaie ei?ii?aoeeae ( IOE )
e Iaaeaeoia?iaeiie annioeeaoeeae ?acaeoey ( IA? ). Ana yoe aaiee
?acaeoey nouanoaaiioth /anoue naieo eeeaeaeiuo ?ano?nia oi?ie?otho ia
?uieao eaieoaea: eae ia iaaeaeoia?iaeiii, oae e ia iaoeeiiaeueiuo.
Iaeioi?ay aea /anoue io/eneyaony ec athaeaeaoia no?ai-/eaiia aaieia.
Aeoeaiua iia?aoeee aaieia ?acaeoey ?aaeecoaony eae e?aaeeou ?acee/iui,
i?aaeaea anaai ?acaeaathueiny no?aiai. Iniaaiiinoueth e?aaeeoiaaiey IA??
yaeyaony oae iacuaaaiue i?iaeoiue iiaeoiae e i?aaeinoaaeaieth e?aaeeoa.
Yoi icia/aao, /oi e?aaeeou aaiea aeathony oie eee eiie no?aia ia iiae
iaii?aaeaeaiiua i?ia?aiiu aa ?acaeoey, a iiae eiie?aoiua eiaanoeoeeiiiua
i?iaeou, eiathuea oaoieei-yeiiiie/aneia iainiiaaiea e i?eciaiiua
yenia?oaie IA?? oeaeaniia?aciuie. I?e yoii Ie?iaie aaie i?aaeinoaaeyao
e?aaeeou aeaoo aeaeia: e?aaeeou A e e?aaeeou B. E?aaeeou A iieiinoueth
inouanoaeythony ca n/ao ?ano?nia aaiea. E?aaeeou B i?aaeinoaaeythony
aaieii eae o/anoieeii iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai aaieianeiai eiini?oeeoia,
nicaeaaaaiiai niaianoii n e?oiiaeoeie eiiia?/aneeie aaieaie. Aeiey
n?aaenoa IA?? a iaueo ?ano?nao eiini?oeeoia iiaeao eieaaaoueny a
i?aaeaeao 10-25%.

Oeeeaeu IA?? ea?atho a iaaeaeoia?iaeiii e?aaeeoiaaiee ianeieueei eioth
?ieue. IOE naieie e?aaeeoaie i?ecaaia niinianoaiaaoue yooaeoeaiinoe
/anoiuo eiaanoeoeee a no?aiao-caaiueeao. Iia yaeyaony iaeiie ec iaiiiaeo
iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo i?aaiecaoeee, eioi?ua iiaoo inouanoaeyoue eiaanoeoeee a
aeoeee, a oae aea e?aaeeoiaaiea aac ainoaea?noaaiiuo aa?aioee. Yoi
iicaieyao IOE i?aaeinoaaeyoue e?aaeeou, iaiaoiaeeiua aeey oiai eee eiiai
i?iaeoa, e a oi aea a?aiy iaania/eoue aiciiaeiinoue aeey eaaeaeie
ianoiie oe?iu eniieueciaaoue caaiiue eaieoae ec ae?oaeo enoi/ieeia.

Ae?oaie oeeeae IA?? – IA? i?aaeinoaaeyao iaeaieaa iyaeea e?aaeeou
oieueei aeey yeiiiie/anee neaai?acaeouo no?ai n?ieii ia aeanyoeeaoey
iiae i?ioeaiou, cia/eoaeueii ieaea ?uii/iuo. N?aaenoaa aeey
i?aaeinoaaeaiey e?aaeeoia oeaeeeii oi?ie?othony ca n/ao aciinia
no?ai-aeiii?ia.

?inney a nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo aunooiaao, eae ai?i/ai e ethaia
nia?aiaiiia ainoaea?noai, iaeiia?aiaiii e iaaeaeoia?iaeiui e?aaeeoi?ii,
e iaaeaeoia?iaeiui aeieaeieeii. Yoi yaeyaony ?acoeueoaoii iiiaieaoiaai
aeeeoaeueiiai i?ioeanna caeinoaiaaiee ia o?iaia iaoeeiiaeueiuo ?uieia
?acaeouo no?ai n ?uii/iie yeiiiieeie e iaeiia?aiaiii n yoei
e?aaeeoiaaiea ?yaea no?ai. Ii iniaaiiinoue yoeo i?ioeannia ninoiyea a
oii, /oi caeinoaiaaiea iineei /enoi eiiia?/aneee oa?aeoa?, a
e?aaeeoiaaiea – i?aeiouanoaaiii aiaiiiiieeoe/aneee. A ?acoeueoaoa, e
ianoiyuaio a?aiaie, ii ioiioaieth e ?acaeoui no?aiai n ?uii/iie
yeiiiieeie ?inney aunooiaao /enoui aeieaeieeii. Ii ioiioaieth aea e
?acaeaathueiny e iaeioi?ui iinonioeeaeenoe/aneei no?aiai ?inney
aunooiaao /enoui e?aaeeoi?ii.

Oaeia ninoiyiea ia ia?aue acaeyae eaaei ?aoaaiia – iieo/eoue aeieae
no?ai aeieaeieeia e ca yoio n/ao ?ann/eoaoueny ni no?aiaie n ?acaeoie
?uii/iie yeiiiieeie e aa?iaaieaie – ia aeaea ieacuaaaony neiaeiui e
o?oaeii?ac?aoeiii oceii i?ioeai?a/ee. Aeieae ?acaeaathueony e
iinonioeeaeenoe/aneeo no?ai ?innee ii eiathueiny ioeaieai aeinoeaatho
145 ieeeea?aeia aeieea?ia. Ii aa?iooue eo o?oaeii, iineieueeo e?aaeeou
iiae i?iaeaaeo i?oaeey e /enoi iieeoe/aneea oeaee aua ieeiaaea e ieaaea
ia iiaee nicaeaoue yeaeaaeaioa aeey auieaou naiie noiiu aeieaa e oieaou
i?ioeaioia. Iai?eia?, ec 14,2 ieeeea?aeia aeieea?ia, eioi?ua aeieaeiu
auee auoue auiea/aiu ?innee a n/ao iiaaoaiee caaeieaeaiiinoe, a 1993
aiaeo auei auiea/aii 2,1 ieeeea?aea aeieea?ia eee 15%.

Aiaoiee ainoaea?noaaiiue aeiea ?innee aeinoaeny ae a ianeaaenoai io
NNN?. Ana no?aiu NIA, e?iia Oe?aeiu, aeiaa?eee ?innee ia ii?aaeaeaiiuo
oneiaeyo ianeoaeeaaiey naiaai aiaoiaai ainoaea?noaaiiiai aeieaa. Iauee
noiia?iue aeiea anao no?ai NIA eiino?aiiui e?aaeeoi?ai ( eneeth/ay
Oe?aeio ) a 1993 aiaeo ninoaaee ieiei 70 ieeeea?aeia aeieea?ia ( aiaoiee
aeiea NNN? a 1987 aiaeo ninoaaee 40 ieeeea?aeia aeieea?ia ). Auieaoeoue
yoio ainoaea?noaaiiue aeiea a n?aaieoaeueii ei?ioeea n?iee e?aeia
neiaeii, iineieueeo aaethoiay au?o/ea ?innee io aa yenii?oa ?acei
nie?aoeeanue e a aua aieueoae noaiaie nie?aoeeanue aeiey ainoaea?noaa a
yoie au?o/ea. I?aeoe/anee ?inney iiaeao aaeaaiaeii auiea/eaaoue naiei
e?aaeeoi?ai ia aieaa 2,5 ieeeea?aeia aeieea?ia a aiae, /oi
i?eaeeceoaeueii ?aaii noiia aaeaaiaeiuo i?ioeaioia ii aiaoiae
caaeieaeaiiinoe. A 1993 aiaeo Ia?eaeneee eeoa (iauaaeeiyao anao
ainoaea?noaaiiuo e?aaeeoi?ia ia iaaeaeoia?iaeiii o?iaia) e Eiiaeiineee
eeoa (iauaaeeiytho /anoiuo e?aaeeoi?ia, i?aeiouanoaaiii
o?ainiaoeeiiaeueiua aaiee ) ion?i/eee ia ianeieueei eao auieaoo iniiaie
/anoe ?inneeneiai aeieaa. Ii ioaeaaaoue aai i?eaeaony. Ia aeeaeaeooth
ia?niaeoeao iiaaoaiea i?aaeuaeouae caaeieaeaiiinoe aoaeao i?ienoiaeeoue
ca n/ao aa ?aoaiaine?iaaiey. Yoi icia/aao, /oi oo noiio caaeieaeaiiinoe,
eioi?ay aeieaeia auoue iiaaoaia a aeaiiiio aiaeo, i?eaeaony a?aoue
?aaiue ae iiaue e?aaeeo e ca aai n/ao ieaoeoue ii noa?ui aeieaai. A
eoiaa a neeo iiaeiaiiai iaoiaea iiaaoaiey caaeieaeaiiinoe aiaoiee
ainoaea?noaaiiue aeiea ?innee inoaiaony nei?aa anaai ia o?iaia 1993
aiaea. A oi aea a?aiy ?yae ?inneeneeo eiiia?/aneeo aaieia a iaoiae
ainoaea?noaaiiiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ?acianoeee ia n/aoao eiino?aiiuo
aaieia ieiei 20 ieeeea?aeia aeieea?ia e eiioeo 1993 aiaea e oae
iacuaaaiia aaanoai eaieoaeia ec ?innee ia i?ae?auaaony e a?yae ee
i?ae?aoeony aei oao ii?, iiea ia aoaeao i?aiaeieai e?ecen
e?aaeeoii-aeaiaaeiie nenoaiu no?aiu, iiaeaaeaia eioeyoeey e aaieianeea
i?ioeaioiua noaaee ec iaaaoeaiuo ia i?aa?aoyony a iiceoeaiua.

Iiuo ae?oaeo no?ai, ia?aaeeaaaoeo iaiaa /ai aeanyoeeaoea iacaae
iiaeiaiia aea ninoiyiea naieo aiaoieo oeiainia ( iai?eia?, Iaeneea e
ae?. ) naeaeaoaeuenoaoao, /oi aac ?aoaiey i?iaeaiu oii?yaei/aiey
e?aaeeoii-aeaiaaeiie nenoaiu no?aiu iiaaoaiey aiaoiaai ainoaea?noaaiiiai
aeieaa aeaaea ?anoyiooia ia iiiaea aiaeu noaiiaeony aanueia
i?iaeaiaoe/iui.

Eeoa?aoo?a.

1.Aaaeeia TH.A.,Ainoaea?noaaiiue e?aaeeo: i?ioeia e ianoiyuaa.- I.:
Oeiainu e noaoenoeea,1992 – 96 n.

2.E?aaeeou. Eiaanoeoeee. – I.: “I?ei?”, 1995 – 144 n.

3.Oeiainu / A.I. ?iaeeiiiaa, TH.ss. Aaaeeia, E.E. Aii/a?aiei e ae?.;
Iiae ?aae. A.I.?iaeeiiiaie. – I.: Oeiainu e noaoenoeea, 1993 – 400n.

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