.

Госбюджет, дефицит бюджета

Язык: русский
Формат: реферат
Тип документа: Word Doc
0 4082
Скачать документ

I?i?noa?noai Ina?oe Oe?a?ie

Ee?anueeee Aea?aeaaiee Oaoi?/iee Oi?aa?neoao Aoae?aieoeoaa oa
A?o?oaeoo?e

?AOA?AO

C aeenoeeie?ie «Iniiae aeiiii?/ii? oai???»

Oaia: «Aea?aeathaeaeao, athaeaeaoi? aeao?oeeoe, Aea?aeaaiee ai?a»

Aeeiiae :

Ia?aa??eea:

Neeoeaiei A.Ae.

Ee?a 1997Ieai ?aoa?aoo

O?iainiaa iie?oeea ? aeioiaee athaeaeaoo Oe?a?ie

O?iainiaa noaa?e?caoe?y ye iniiaa o?iainiai? iie?oeee

Aeioiaee athaeaeaoo a nenoai? oi?aae?iiy aeiiii?eith

Aaeineiiaeaiiy athaeaeaoiiai i?ioeano

Iniaeeaino? caaeainoaaiiy i?noeaaeo athaeaeao?a

Aiae?c i?aeathaeaeaoieo a?aeiinei a Oe?a?i?

Iiaeaoeiaa iie?oeea ? aeioiaee athaeaeao?a Oe?a?ie

Aeaye? ioe?iee i?aeoeee ianeoaiaoaaiiy aea?aeaaiiai ai?ao

I?yi? athaeaeaoi? o?ainoa?oe a nenoai? i?aeathaeaeaoieo a?aeiinei

O?neaeueia iie?oeea: iaiao?aei?noue caaeainiaaiiai athaeaeaoo

I?iaeaia aea?aeaaiiai ai?ao ia i?eeeaae? NOA

Iniiai? i?eioeeie oi?ioaaiiy caaaeaiiai athaeaeaoo Oe?a?ie a 1997 ?ioe?

Aeiaeaoee

?aeeiei oi?ioei athaeaeaoii ? caaeainiaaiee athaeaeao.

Aaeai Ni?o, 1776 ?.

Oi?ioei i?aaeeii ? oa, ui athaeaeao i?eiee ia iiaeiai aooe
caaeainiaaiei – e??i iiiaioo, eiee iaaeeeoie, ui no?eio? ?ioeyoe?th,
ci?ith?oueny ia aeao?oeeo, uia ai?ioeny c? niaaeii.

Ai??ai Ni?o, 1965 ?.

O?IAINIAA IIE?OE?EA ? AeIOIAeE OE?A?IE

Aaei?i?no?aoeaii-eiiaiaeia aeiiii?/ia iie?oeea a N?N? i?ecaaea aei
ia??aiii??iiai aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo on?o ?aa?ii?a, noai?aiiy
iano?oeoo?eciaaiiai, iaaoaeoeaiiai oa iaeiiaieiai
ia?iaeiiainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno. Ooieoe?iioaaiiy aaei?i?no?aoeaii –
eiiaiaeii? nenoaie ni?eyei ?iciiae?eo ? ia?a?iciiae?eo a?eueoa 25
a?aenioe?a aaeiaiai aioo??oiueiai i?iaeoeoo N?N?, yeee ae?iaeyany a
Oe?a?ie.

C i?iaieioaiiyi iacaeaaeiino? Oe?a?ie ii/eia?oueny iiaee aoai
aea?aeaaioai?aiiy, oi?ioaaiiy aeanii? iaoe?iiaeueii? iie?oeee ? ?icaeoeo
noni?eueii-aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei. Ii/aoeii aeiiii?/ieo ia?aoai?aiue a
Oe?a?i? noaei i?eeiyooy Caeiio O?N? “I?i aeiiii?/io naiino?ei?noue
Oe?a?inueei? ?N?” a?ae 3 na?iiy 1990 ?ieo. Ca?aeii c iei Oe?a?ia
naiino?eii aecia/a? aeiiii?/iee noaoon ? no?aoaa?th
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ?icieoeo a ?ioa?anao onueiai ia?iaeo, a oaeiae
?ic?iaey? ? oi?io? iacaeaaeio o?iainiao (athaeaeaoio, iiaeaoeiao,
aaethoio) iie?oeeo a eiioaeno? caaaeueiiaea?aeaaii? aeiiii?/ii? iie?oeee
? caeia?oueny ?? aeeiiaiiyi.

O?iainiaa iie?oeea ioiieth? oeaio?aeueio eaieo nenoaie aeiiii?/ieo
a?aeiinei ? a?ae?a?a? i?ia?aeio ?ieue o ?aae?caoe?? caaaeueiiaea?aeaaieo
ooieoe?e. I?aai?caoe?y ? ?aaoethaaiiy oeeo a?aeiinei cae?eniththoueny
a?aeiia?aeii aei ae?th/iai (o?iainiaiai i?aaiaiai iiey, aoaio oa noaio
noni?eueii-aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo e?a?ie. Aac a?aooaaiiy inoaiiueiai
iie?oeea noa? aaeueiii ?icaeoeo aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei.

O?iainiaa iie?oeea ia? aooe aei?noeith, aea ni?aaaaeeeaith ? aeoeaiith,
? iiaeiia noeioethaaoe aeiiii?/ia c?inoaiiy, caoeuaoe iaoe?iiaeuei?
?ioa?ane Oa aooe i?eaaaeeaith aeey noa’?eo?a ?iicaiieo e?a?i. Iiaoaeiaa
? oi?ioaaiiy o?iainiai? iie?oeee – oea aeineoue neeaaeiee i?ioean.

Iaiao?aeii aecia/eoe i??i?eoaoi? iai?yiee ?icaeoeo iaoe?iiaeueiiai
ainiiaea?noaa oa ca no?oeoo?iith eiai ia?aaoaeiaith noai?eoe oiiae aeey
i?aei?e?iieoeueei? ae?yeueiino?, caoenoo ?ioa?an?a aeanieo
oiaa?iae?iaiee?a oa ni?eyiiy caeo/aiith ?iicaiieo ?iaanoeoe?e.

Ia iaio neeaaeiith ? a?aeiia?aeaeueiith i?iaeaiith caeeoa?oueny
?aae?caoe?y no?aoaa?/ieo iai?yie?a, aecia/aiiy ii?i ? iaoiae?a ?o
caaacia/aiiy oiia ?icaeoeo noni?euenoaa. Aea?? ii?i ? iaoiae?a ?iaioe
ia?aaeaa/a? i?ioean oi?ioaaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? aeiiii?ee ?c a?aooaaiiyi
niaoeeo?/ieo i?e?iaeii-ee?iaoe/ieo ? aaiiie?oe/ieo oiia ainiiaea?thaaiiy
oa ?icoaooaaiiy Oe?a?ie.

?icaeoie noni?eueii-aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei a Oe?a?i? i?aeoaa?aeaeo?
iaiao?aei?noue yeiiiaa nei??oiai ae??oaiiy i?iaeaie o?iainiai?
noaa?e?caoe?? – iniiae caaaeueiiaea?aeaaii? noaa?e?caoe?? ? aeoiaeo c
aeiiii?/ii? e?ece.

C?icoi?ei, ui oea — ?iaioa ia iaeiiai ?ieo, aea aiia ia? aooe aei e?ioey
iaa?oioiaaiith, iiaeiia a?aoiaoaaoe iiaeeea? iaaaoeai? iane?aeee ?
ia?aaeaa/aoe oeea?e?ciaaia ?o onoiaiiy, aooe iaeii/anii iine?aeiaiith oa
ia?niaeoeaiith ?, ui ia iaio aaaeeeai – c?icoi?eith on?i noa’?eoai
noni?eueii-aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei.

Noaa?e?caoe?y o noni?euenoa? ? iinooiiaa aeiiii?/ia c?inoaiiy aeiaaa?
i?iaaaeaiiy aeoeaii? o?iainiai? iie?oeee ? caaacia/aiiy ooieoe?iioaaiiy
noaa?eueii? o?iainiai? nenoaie. I?e ae??oaii? cacia/aieo i?iaeai ?,
ianaiia?aae, uiaei iaea?aeaiiy aeioiae?a athaeaeaoo ? caaacia/aiiy
o?iainoaaiiy caaaeueiiaea?aeaaieo aeaeaoe?a, iaiao?aeii ai?ioeny ia c
iane?aeeaie, a c i?e/eiaie aeieeiaiiy ? ?ic?inoaiiy iaaaoeaieo yaeu o
noni?euenoa?.

Nueiaiaei? iniiaith aeey ciyooy o?iainiai? iai?oae ? a?aaoethaaiiy
aeiiii?/ieo ?ioa?an?a noa? i?eeiyooy oeac?a I?aceaeaioa. C?icoi?ei, ui
oea aeiooaiee cao?ae, ine?eueee Aa?oiaiith ?aaeith Oe?a?ie ia i?eeiyoi
oe?eee ?yae caeiiiaeaa/eo aeo?a c ieoaiue) o?iainiai? iie?oeee.

Iaiao?aeii cae?enieoe ?aoi?ioaaiiy o?iainiaeo a?aeiinei a e?a?i? oa
noi?ioaaoe iaoe?iiaeueio o?iainiao nenoaio. Oea aeeeeeaii ianaiia?aae
oei, ui a oiiaao oi?ioaaiiy ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei o?iaine iaiiaiththoueny
iiaei ci?noii, ?o ?ieue ? cia/aiiy c?inoathoue, a ooieoe?iiaeuei?
iiaeeeaino? ?icoe?ththoueny ye a /an?, oae ? a i?inoi??. O?iaine ye
ia’?eoeaia aeiiii?/ia eaoaai??y ca nai?i ci?noii a oiiaao ?eieo iathoue
aeeiioaaoe ?aaoethth/o oa noeioethth/o ooieoe??, a ia eeoa o?neaeueio,
ye aein? i?aeoeeo?oueny. Oea iniiai? ooieoe?? o?iain?a, ye? iio?aaothoue
aeaoaeueiiai aiae?co, aeineiiaeiai aea/aiiy ? ?ic?iaee iaiao?aeieo
o?iainiai-i?aaiaeo ii?i c ?aaoethaaiiy o?iainiaeo a?aeiinei ?
iiaeaeueoiai ?icaeoeo.

O?iaine iaeii/anii aeeiiothoue ? eiio?ieueio ooieoe?th. Ia i?aoaiaeoth/e
ia iiaio i?aeo?eieo nai?o iiaeyae?a, cacia/o: ooieoe?iiaeuei?
iiaeeeaino? o?iain?a o i?ioean? ?aaoethaaiiy oa noeioethaaiiy
noni?eueii-aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo aeineoue aaeee?. Iaeiae nueiaiaei? aiie
a i?aeoeoe? aeei?enoiaothoueny /anoeiai ? caeeoathoueny ia?ice?eoeie.
Oea iaeia ?c i?e/ei oiai, ui a Oe?a?i? i?iaeiaaeo? iia??ooaaoenue
o?iainiaee noai ?yaeo i?aei?e?inoa, ?aa?ii?a, aea?aeaae a oe?eiio, a
?ic?aooieiai-ieao?aeia aeenoeeie?ia aeinyaea e?eoe/iiai noaio.

Acyoee eo?n aieiaiei /eiii ia o?neaeueii – iiiaoa?i? iaoiaee
?aaoethaaiiy aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei ia caaaeaee naaa aei?aaaeiao? ?
aeineoue /anoi i?ecaiaeeoue aei caaino?aiiy aeiiii?/ieo ?ioa?an?a. A
i?aeoeoe? iaiao?aeii aeio?eioaaoenue i?eioeeio ii?aeiaiiy oa
ocaiaeaeaiino? on?o iaoiae?a aea?aeaaii – o?iainiaiai aieeao ia i?ioean
noni?eueiiai a?aeoai?aiiy. O?iaine iathoue i?eeiaoe aeoeaio o/anoue o
an?o noaae?yo noni?eueiiai a?aeoai?aiiy, a ia eeoa ia noaae??
?iciiae?eo, ye oea a?aeaoaa?oueny nueiaiaei?. Aieiaia caaaeaiiy o?iain?a
– ni?eyoe c?inoaiith aoaeoeaiino? ae?iaieoeoaa, noeioethaaoe eiai
?icaeoie oa aeiiii?th cao?ao ye aeeai?, oae ? o?a/aaeaii? i?aoe?.
O?iaine iathoue aeoeaii ?aaoethaaoe i?ioean noai?aiiy aaeiaiai
aioo??oiueiai i?iaeoeoo, a ia eeoa eiai ?iciiae?e oa ia?a?iciiae?e.
I?aeoeea aeiaaa? o?iainiaiai aieeao ia aanue i?ioean e?oaiia?ao
eai?oaeo, ni?eyoe eiai i?enei?aiith, aoaeoeaiiio ? oe?eueiaiio
aeei?enoaiith iaoa??aeueieo, o?oaeiaeo oa a?ioiaeo ?ano?n?a.

C?icoi?ei, ui nueiaiaei? o?iainiaa ?aaoethaaiiy oa neioethaaiiy
aoaeoeaiino? ae?iaieoeoaa ciaoiaeeoueny ia noaae?? ?aoi?ioaaiiy, aeiaaa?
aeineiiaeiai aiae?co, aea/aiiy, ?ic?iaee oa i?eeiyooy iaiao?aeieo
caeiiiaeaa/eo oa ii?iaoeaieo aeo?a c iaoith noai?aiiy ?aeeii? aoaeoeaii?
o?iainiai? nenoaie ?aaoethaaiiy noni?eueii-aeiiii?/ieie i?ioeanaie o
aea?aeaa?.

O?iaine – ia’?eoeaia aeiiii?/ia eaoaai??y, a iaiao?aei?noue ?o
ooieoe?iioaaiiy iineoue a?aeiia?aeii ia’?eoeaiee oa?aeoa?. Aea?aeaaa
aeei?enoiao? o?iaine ye ?ino?oiaio oi?aae?iiy noni?eueii-aeiiii?/ieie
i?ioeanaie. Ia’?eoeai?noue, iaiao?aei?noue oa aoaeoeai?noue – oea
iniiai? i?eioeeie i?aai?caoe?? o?iainiaeo a?aeiinei, ye? iaiao?aeii
a?aoiaoaaoe i?e oi?ioaaii? aeanii? iaoe?iiaeueii? o?iainiai? iie?oeee.

I?aeoeeith i?aeoaa?aeaeaii , ui o?iainiaa iie?oeea, ye ?
caaaeueiiaea?aeaaia aeiiii?/ia iie?oeea ?? oe?eiio, caeaaeeoue a?ae
noi?iiaaiiai i?aaiaiai iiey oa i?aai?a aeaaee ? oi?aae?iiy a i?ioean?
?aae?caoe?? ooieoe?e aea?aeaae ? caaacia/aiiy eaa?oeiiino? o?iainiaeo
a?aeiinei. Iaaeiaaeeiai o?iainiaa iie?oeea aenooia? ?acoeueoaoii ae?? ye
ia’?eoeaiiai, oae ? noa’?eoeaiiai oaeoi??a aieeao ia ?? oi?ioaaiiy,
?aae?caoe?th ? ?icaeoie a nenoai? ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei.

A Oe?a?i? aein? ia i?eeiyoi caeiiiaeaa/iai aeoo, yeei aoei a ie?aneaii
ae??, aca?iica’ycie, ocaiaeaeai?noue oa ?icaeoie athaeaeaoii?,
iiaeaoeiai? e aaethoii? iie?oeee ye i?aenenoai ?aeeii? o?iainiai?
iie?oeee. A?aeaoaa?oueny oi?ioaaiiy athaeaeaoii?, iiaeaoeiai? oa
aaethoii? iie?oeee ye ie?aii acyoeo i?aenenoai, a ia ?aee.ii?, oe?e?nii?
o?iainiai? nenoaie. A?aeiia?aeii aei oeueiai ?ic?iaeythoueny ie?ai?
caeiiiaeaa/? aeoe oa iaoai?cie ?o ?aae?caoe??, ye? ia??aeei noia?a/aoue
iaeei iaeiiio, a ia ni?eythoue caaaeueiiio o?iainiai-aeiiii?/iiio
?icaeoeo. ?aae?caoe??th ie?aieo i?aenenoai o?iainiai? iie?oeee
caeiathoueny i?aeoe/ii a?aeiniaeai? i?ae?icae?ee oa no?oeoo?e i?aai?a
oi?aae?iiy ae?th/i? o?iainiai? nenoaie. O no/anieo oiiaao oi?aae?iiy
o?iainiaeie, ?ano?naie ciaoiaeeoueny a aeineoue neeaaeiiio noai?,
iniaeeai ia ??ai? ?aeii?a, i?no oa iaeanoae, ? iio?aao? ?aaeeeaeueieo
ci?i o no?oeoo?? o?iainiai? nenoaie oa aea?aeaaii? o?iainiai? iie?oeee a
oe?eiio.

C iaoith onoiaiiy aieeao iaaaoeaieo oaeoi??a ia ?icaeoie o?iainiaeo
a?aeiinei oa caaacia/aiiy noaa?eueiiai ? aoaeoeaiiai aeiiii?/iiai
c?inoaiiy aaaaea?ii ca iaiao?aeia ?ic?iaeoe ? i?eeiyoe eiioeaioe?th
o?iainiai? iie?oeee ? i?ia?aio o?iainiai? noaa?e?caoe?? Oe?a?ie,
aeoiaey/e ?c ioe?iee ?aaeueieo iiaeeeainoae ? iio?aa noni?euenoaa,
?icaeoeo aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei, ni?eyiiy aeoeaiiio c?inoaiith
ae?iaieoeoaa oa caaacia/aiiy nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo ianaeaiiy.

O?iainiaa iie?oeea iiaeiia iaoe ?iia?aoeaiee, iaia’yceiaee oa?aeoa?. Oea
iaoiiaeaii ci?noii o?iain?a ye aeiiii?/ii? eaoaai???, ?o i?noeai o
nenoai? noni?eueii-aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei. Caeiiiaeaa/? oa ii?iaoeai?
aeoe c ieoaiue ?aae?caoe?? o?iainiai? iie?oeee iathoue aeeiioaaoenue
nai?/anii, ye?nii ? a iiaiiio ianyc?. A ?ioiio aeiaaeeo aeinyaoe
o?iainiai? noaa?e?caoe?? oa iinooiiaiai aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo i?inoi
iaiiaeeeai. I?aeoeea na?ae/eoue i?i oa, ui o no/anieo oiiaao aeineoue
/anoi ii?ooo?oueny “iaia’yceiaee oa?aeoa?” o i?ioean? aeeiiaiiy
o?iainiai? iie?oeee. Oea na?ae/eoue, cie?aia, i?i iaiiaia ? iaye?nia
aeeiiaiiy caeii?a Oe?a?ie i?i Aea?aeaaiee athaeaeao Oe?a?ie ia 1994 oa
1995 ?iee, a oaeiae i?aenoiee eiai aeeiiaiiy o 1 eaa?oae? 1996 ?ieo

Iniiao o?iainiai? iie?oeee noaiiaeoue athaeaeaoia iie?oeea, yea
iia’ycaia ianaiia?aae ?c oi?ioaaiiyi ? aeeiiaiiyi athaeaeao?a on?o
??ai?a, oe?eueiaeo caaaeueiiaea?aeaaieo oiiae?a. Aea?aeaaiee athaeaeao
Oe?a?ie – oea aieiaiee o?iainiaee ieai e?a?ie, /?i a?aeaeca?eaeth?
noni?eueii-aeiiii?/iee noai o aea?aeaa?. Aeiiii?/ia ianoaa?euei?noue ?
niaae ae?iaieoeoaa iaaaoeaii aieeaathoue ia oi?ioaaiiy aeioiae?a oa
o?iainoaaiiy aeaeaoe?a athaeaeaoo. Athaeaeao, eiai aeioiaeia /anoeia
i?yii iia’ycai? ?c Aea?aeaaiith i?ia?aiith nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai
?icoe?ieo Oe?a?ie ia iioi/iee o?iainiaee ??e. ? iaaiaee, aeeiiaiiy
cacia/aii? i?ia?aie caeaaeeoue a?ae ?? o?iainiaiai caaacia/aiiy. O
oeueiio iai?yieo Aea?aeaaiee athaeaeao aenooia? iniiaith o?iainoaaiiy
caaaeueiiaea?aeaaieo i?ia?ai oa ni?ey? ?o aeeiiaiith. Aea?aeaaia
i?ia?aia nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo Oe?a?ie ? Aea?aeaaiee
athaeaeao Oe?a?ie iathoue nai? iniaeeaa i?noea, ?ieue ? i?ecia/aiiy o
nenoai? noni?eueii-aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei. Iaeii/anii aiie ia?icae?euei?,
aca?iicaeaaei?, aeiiiaiththoue iaeei iaeiiai, aeiaaathoue eiiieaeniiai
i?aeoiaeo i?e ?ic?iaoe? aoaeoeaiiai iaoai?cio a i?ioean? aeeiiaiiy.

I?aeoeea ?icaeoeo o?iainiaeo a?aeiinei ua ?ac i?aeoaa?aeaeo? oea ?
aeiaaa?, ii-ia?oa, oi?ioaaoe Aea?aeaaiee athaeaeao Oe?a?ie ? Aea?aeaaio
i?ia?aio nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo Oe?a?ie ia iniia? ?aeeii?
eiioeaioe?? noni?eueii-aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo ? a eiioaeno?
caaaeueiiaea?aeaaii? o?iainiai-aeiiii?/ii? iie?oeee; ii-ae?oaa,
aeineiiaeiai aiae?co oa ioe?iee nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai noaio ?aa?ii?a
? aea?aeaae oa ?ic?iaee ?aaeueieo iae?iaeiiii?/ieo iieaciee?a ?icaeoeo
ia ieaiiaee ??e ? ia?niaeoeao; ii-o?ao?, aeeiiaiiy Aea?aeaaiiai
athaeaeaoo ? Aea?aeaaii? i?ia?aie nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo ia?
i?ioiaeeoe o ?one? ?aeeieo i?aeoiae?a, oe?e?niiai iaoai?cio, aoaeoeaieo
ii?i ? iaoiae?a i?aai?caoe?? o?iainiai-aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei;
ii-/aoaa?oa, aeiaea?aeaiiy caaaeueieo i?eioeei?a aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo
?, ianaiia?aae, i?eioeeio oi?ioaaiiy ? aeeiiaiiy aeioiae?a athaeaeaoo ca
?aooiie ieaoaae?a, ye? aeoeaii ? aoaeoeaii aieeaathoue ia ae?iaieoeoai,
aeeiiaiiy iieaciee?a aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo, a ia oeyoii ?icoe?aiiy
e?eueeino? iiaeaoe?a oa cai??a, ye nueiaiaei? a?aeaoaa?oueny, oa
aeei?enoaiiy ai?n?eieo aeaea?ae iiiiaiaiiy athaeaeaoo; ii-i’yoa,
i?iaaaeaiiy iaeaaeiiai, nai?/aniiai eiio?ieth oa i?aeianaiiy ??aiy
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ca noai aeeiiaiiy aeioiae?a athaeaeaoo oa iieaciee?a
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo ?aa?ii?a, i?i?noa?noa (a?aeiinoa),
aea?aeaae a oe?eiio.

Aea?aeaaia ?aaoethaaiiy noni?eueii-aeiiii?/ieie i?ioeanaie ia?
caiaeeoenue aei oiai, uia i?enei?eoe ia?aia?noue o?iainiaeo ?ano?n?a ?,
ianaiia?aae, oeyoii onoiaiiy iaaei?aaaeaii? i?aeoeee ?ooo cono??/ieo
iioie?a o?iainiaeo ?ano?n?a. Oea noino?oueny aca?iia?aeiinei i?ae
athaeaeaoaie ??cieo ??ai?a ?, ui ia iaio aaaeeeai, i?ae athaeaeaoaie oa
th?eaee/ieie iniaaie. Iniaeeai? aaae iaae?athoue a?aeiineie i?aei?e?inoa
c athaeaeaoii a /anoei? nieaoe iiaeaoe?a, a oaeiae iiaa?iaiiy ?
a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy caeai aianaieo noi iiaeaoe?a ? cai??a aei athaeaeaoo.

C i?eeiyooyi iiai? ?aaeaeoe?? Caeiio Oe?a?ie “I?i athaeaeaoio nenoaio
Oe?a?ie” iaae?a? iiaiai ci?noo, i?eioeei?a ? iai?yie?a ?icaeoeo
athaeaeaoia iie?oeea ye i?aenenoaia ?aeeii? o?iainiai? iie?oeee.
Cacia/aiei Caeiiii ia?aaeaa/ai? o?iainiai-i?aaia?e ii?ie, a?aeiia?aeii
aei yeeo aecia/aii athaeaeaoiee ono??e oa athaeaeaoio nenoaio Oe?a?i?.,
iiaiiaaaeaiiy, ?ieue ? caaaeaiiy i?aai?a aeaaee oa oi?aae?iiy o
athaeaeaoiiio i?ioean?. Oeei Caeiiii ie?aneaii iaae? ooieoe?iioaaiiy
on?o eaiie athaeaeaoii? nenoaie a /anoei? cae??ieaiiy aeioiae?a ?
?iciaaeoaaiiy aeaeaoe?a. Iaeii/anii ? ?aea ?yae ieoaiue, ye? aein?
caeeoathoueny iaa?aaoeueiaaieie caeiiiaeaanoaii. Ia aeiaaeeiai Aa?oiaia
?aaea Oe?a?ie ?icaeyaea? ieoaiiy uiaei aianaiiy ci?i oa aeiiiaiaiue aei
Caeiio Oe?a?ie i?i athaeaeaoio nenoaio. Aieiaiith i?iaeaiith
caeeoa?oueny aecia/aiiy iioeiaeueieo iaae ooieoe?iioaaiiy athaeaeao?a
on?o ??ai?a ? caaacia/aiiy ?? ye?niiai ? ?eoi?/iiai aeeiiaiiy i?e
caa?aaeaii? i?ia?aeii? ?ie? Aea?aeaaiiai athaeaeaoo Oe?a?ie. I?aeoeea
oi?ioaaiiy athaeaeao?a noaaeoue ieoaiiy uiaei ia?aaea/? /anoeie
caaaeueiiaea?aeaaieo iiaiiaaaeaiue c o?iainoaaiiy ie?aieo aeae?a
aeaeaoe?a ? caeeoaiiy ca Aea?aeaaiei athaeaeaoii aeaeaoe?a oa
aneaioaaiue, ye? iathoue caaaeueiiaea?aeaaia cia/aiiy oa i?ia?aeio ?ieue
o noni?eueii-aeiiii?/iiio i?ioean?. C?icoi?ei, ui oa /anoea
athaeaeaoiiai o?iainoaaiiy, yea iieeaaeaia nueiaiaei? ia Aea?aeaaiee
athaeaeao (iiiaae 70%), ia? iinooiiai nei?i/oaaoenue ? noaia, ia iao
iiaeyae, a iaaeao 50 a?aenioe?a aeaeaoe?a caaaeaiiai athaeaeaoo.
Cacia/aia aeua iio?aao? aianaiiy ci?i aei nenoaie cae??ieaieo oa
?aaoethth/eo aeioiae?a, ?o ia?ae?eo, ci?noo oa oi?i ?aae?caoe??. Ana
/ano?oa iinoa? ieoaiiy uiaei noaoono i?noeaaeo iiaeaoe?a oa cai??a. O
athaeaeaoi?e eeaneo?eaoe?? aoei a aeioe?eueii aeae?eeoe o?e ? ?oie
aeioiae?a: ?aaoethth/?, cae??ieai? oa i?ioeai? ieaoaae? ? cai?e. Ci?no ?
?ieue cacia/aieo aeioiae?a ia? a?aeiia?aeaoe aeiiii?/iei ia?aoai?aiiyi
oa noeioethaaoe ?icaeoie noni?eueii-aeiiii?/ieo ?ioa?an?a, ianaiia?aae
?ioa?an?a i?aei?e?inoa oa ie?aieo oa?eoi??e. Eiaeia oa?eoi??y ian aooe
iinoaaeaia a oiiae caoe?eaaeaiino? oa iiooeo ?aca?i?i, ca?eueoaiiy
aeioiae?a ?, ianaiia?aae, ca ?aooiie i?noeaaeo ?aca?a?a.

I?eeiyoee ioieo 9 Iinoaiiae Aa?oiaii? ?aaee Oe?a?ie i?i aaaaeaiiy a
ae?th Caeiio Oe?a?ie «I?i Aea?aeaaiee athaeaeao Oe?a?ie ia 1996 ??e»
na?ae/eoue i?i aeooaeuei?noue aeaii? i?iaeaie, yeo iaiao?aeii
ae??ooaaoe. Iaeii/anii ne?ae caoaaaeeoe – cai?iiiiiaai? i?aeoiaee ?
?ic?aooiee uiaei caoe?eaaeaiino? i?noeaaeo ?aae oeyoii caeeoaiiy 50
a?aenioe?a noie iaaeoiaeaeaiue iiaeaoeo ia aeiaeaio aa?o?noue,
aeoeeciiai cai?o oa iiaeaoeo ia i?eaooie i?aei?e?inoa, ye? ia?aaoaathoue
o caaaeueiiaea?aeaai?e aeaniino?, iiiaae ?ici??e eiioeiaaio?a,
a?aoiaaieo o ii?iaoeaao a?ae?aooaaiue a?ae caaaeueiiaea?aeaaieo
iiaeaoe?a ? cai??a, aeineoue neeaaei? ? ia caaaeaee ni?eyoeiooue iiooeo
aeiaeaoeiaeo iaaeoiaeaeaiue aei athaeaeaoo. Oea iia’ycaii ianaiia?aae c
oei, ui c iaoith caaacia/aiiy aeeiiaiiy aeioiae?a athaeaeaoo iaiao?aeii
noeioethaaoe ae?iaieoeoai, i?aei?e?inoaa oa i?aai?caoe??, ye?
aeeiiothoue ciaia’ycaiiy oa nai?/anii niea/othoue ieaoaae? aei
athaeaeaoo ? oe?eueiaeo oiiae?a.

O oeueiio iai?yieo c?iaeaii aaaeeeaee e?ie. Iinoaiiaith Eaa?iaoo
I?i?no??a Oe?a?ie a?ae 16 o?aaiy 1996 ?. “I?i i?e/eie iaaeeiiaiiy
aeioiaeii? /anoeie athaeaeaoo oa caoiaee oaeineiiaeaiiy caeiiiaeaanoaa ?
i?aeaeuaiiy a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ea??aiee?a on?o ??ai?a ca aeio?eiaiiy
athaeaeaoii? aeenoeeie?ie” aei?o/aii I?i?noa?noao aeiiii?ee ?
I?i?noa?noao o?iain?a aei 1 aeiaoiy 1996 ?ieo iiaeaoe Eaa?iaoia?
I?i?no??a Oe?a?ie i?iaeo ii?yaeeo ?ic?iaeaiiy noa’?eoaie
i?aei?e?iieoeueei? ae?yeueiino? aea?aeaaii? oi?ie aeaniino? o?iainiaeo
ieai?a, ia?aaeaa/eaoe iaia’yceia?noue ieaioaaiiy i?eaooeo, eiai
?iciiae?eo ? ieaoaae?a aei athaeaeaoo oa i?iiiceoe?? i?i aianaiiy ci?i ?
aeiiiaiaiue aei caeiiiaeaanoaa c oeueiai ieoaiiy.

I?aeaioiaea i?iiiceoe?e ? aeieoiaio?a Eaa?iaoo I?i?no??a ?c cacia/aieo
ieoaiue oa aaaaeaiiy iiaeo iieaciee?a ioe?iee i?aei?e?iieoeueei?
ae?yeueiino? ni?eyoeia iie?auaiith o?iainiai-aeiiii?/ii? ?iaioe, a
oaeiae iaeaaiaeaeaiith ae??aiai eiio?ieth ca noaiii aeeiiaiiy aeioiae?a
athaeaeaoo. Cacia/aiith Iinoaiiaith Eaa?iaoo I?i?no??a ?noioii
iineeth?oueny a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca aeeiiaiiy aeioiae?a athaeaeaoo
Oe?a?ie.

Aaaeeeaei ?acoeueoaoii o?iainiai? iie?oeee oa ni?aoethaaiiy
caeiiiaeaanoaa ? aeeiiaiiy aeioiaeii? /anoeie athaeaeao?a on?o ??ai?a.

I?ioyaii 1995 ?ieo aei caaaeaiiai athaeaeaoo Oe?a?ie iaae?eoei 2092,8
o?ei.e?a. on?o iiaeaoe?a, cai??a, a?ae?aooaaiue aei oe?eueiaeo oiiae?a
(oaae. 1), ui noaiiaeoue 90,1 a?aenioe?a aei caieaiiaaieo. Oaeei /eiii o
no?oeoo?? aaeiaiai aioo??oiueiai i?iaeoeoo aeioiaee athaeaeaoo
noaiiaeyoue iaeaea 40 a?aenioe?a. Aea?aeaaiee athaeaeaoo Oe?a?ie o
/anoei? aeioiae?a aeeiiaii a noi? 1243,3 o?ei.e?a., aai ia 86,3
a?aenioe?a aei caoaa?aeaeaieo iaaeoiaeaeaiue.

sse na?ae/aoue aeai? oaae. 1, aieiaieie aeaea?aeaie iaaeoiaeaeaiue
caeeoathoueny iiaeaoie ia aeiaeaio aa?o?noue, iiaeaoie ia i?eaooie
i?aei?e?inoa ? i?eaooeiaee iiaeaoie c a?iiaaeyi. Ia ?o /anoeo i?eiaaea?
52,3 a?aenioea, aai a?aeiia?aeii 21,6; 23,1; 7,6 aei caaaeueii? noie
aeioiae?a caaaeaiiai athaeaeaoo Oe?a?ie. sseui a?aoiaoaaoe, ui
iaaeoiaeaeaiiy o oiiae aeey cae?eniaiiy caoiae?a uiaei e?ea?aeaoe??
iane?aee?a *i?iiaeeuenueei? eaoano?ioe oa nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo
ianaeaiiy ? Iain?eiee oiiae neeaaeathoue 518,6 o?ei.e?a., aai 24.8
a?aenioe?a, oi cacia/ai? aeua ieaoaae? noaiiaeyoue 1613,8 o?ei.e?a., aai
77,1 a?aenioe?a o no?oeoo??-caaaeaiiai athaeaeaoo Oe?a?ie.

I?aeoeea ni?aaeyiiy iiaeaoe?a ? aeeiiaiiy aeioiae?a caaaeaiiai
athaeaeaoo cana?ae/o? i?iaeiaaeaiiy e?eciaeo yaeu o noni?euenoa?, a
?acoeueoao? /iai iiaeaoie ia aeiaeaio aa?o?noue aeeiiaii ia 95,0
a?aenioe?a oa aeoeeciee ca?? — ia 87,8 a?aenioe?a. Ao?aoe athaeaeaoo ca
oeeie iai?yieie iiaeaoeaie neeaee 201,2 o?ei.e?a., a oiio /ene? ca
?aooiie cieaeaiiy ianya?a ae?iaieoeoaa -81,9 o?ei.e?a., cao?eiee
i?eeiyooy caeiiii?iaeoo c ieoaiue ni?aaeyiiy iiaeaoeo ia aeiaeaio
aa?o?noue — 95.0 o?ei.e?a., iia??oaiiy ??aiy ieao?aeii? aeenoeeie?ie
ieaoiee?a iiaeaoe?a – 24.3 o?ei. ea?aiaaioe?a.

Oaaeeoey 1 No?oeoo?e aeioiae?a caaaeaiiai athaeaeaoo Oe?a?ie ca 1995 ??e

(ie?ae.e?a.)

? i/i Iaeiaioaaiiy ieaoaae?a Ii i?iaiico Oaeoe/ii iaae?eoei % aei
I?iaiico

Noia %

1 Iiaeaoie ia aeiaeaio aa?o?noue 475407,9 451732,7 21, 95,0

2 Iiaeaoie ia i?eaooie i?aei?e?inoaa ? i?aai?caoe?e 452488,2 483395,1
23, 106,8

3 Aeoeeciee ca?? 45662,9 40100,6 1,9 87,8

4 Ieaoa ca caieth 69483,7 63460 3,0 91,3

5 Ieaoa ca niaoe?aeueia aeei?enoaiiy iaae? 2011,3 1741,6 0,1 86,6

6 Ieaoa ca niaoe?aeueia aeei?enoaiiy i??nieo aiaeieo ?ano?n?a 2587,7
2224.5 0,1 86,0

7 ?aioia ieaoa ca iaooo ? i?e?iaeiee aac oa ??cieoey a oe?iao ia aac
122148,0 71851,6 3,4 58,8

8 I?eaooeiaee iiaeaoie c a?iiaaeyi 154281,1 160071,3 7,7 103,8

9 Iiaeaoie c aeaniee?a o?ainii?oieo cania?a 6353,7 5379,9 0,3 84,7

Oaaeeoey 1

(i?iaeiaaeaiiy)

Oaeoe/ii

? i/i Iaeiaioaaiiy ieaoaae?a Ii i?iaiico iaae?eoei % aei i?iaiico

Noia %

10 Ieaoa ca niaoe?aeueia aeei?enoaiiy 707 5 636,8 0,0 90,0

e?niaeo ?ano?n?a

11 Aea?aeaaia ieoi 14643 8534,4 0,4 58,3

12 Iaaeoiaeaeaiiy a?ae ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ii? ae?yeueiino? 55205,8
42937,9 2,1 77,8

?C A?ae?aooaaiiy ia aaieiai?ica?aeoaaeuei? ?iaioe 20395,3 10218,1 0,5
50,1

14 Iiaeaoie ia i?iienae 336,5 253 0,0 75,2

Iaaeoiaeaeaiiy eioo?a a?ae

15 i?eaaoecaoe?? iaeia aea?aeaaieo 91199,4 7467,1 0,4 8,2

i?aei?e?inoa

16 Aianee aei athaeaeaoo noi i?ae ia?aaeuaiiy oiiaeo niiaeeaaiiy 25000,0
1370,2 0,1 5,5

Ieaoa ca na?oeo?eaoe ia i?aai

17 cae?eniaiiy oi?a?ae? aeeiaieueieie 5000,0 4091,3 0,2 81,8

iaiiyie oa othothiiaeie ae?iaaie

Aianee i?aei?e?inoa oa

ainiiaea?nueeeo i?aai?caoe?e aei

18 Oiiaeo aeey cae?eniaiiy caoiae?a ii 117481,9 102^,7 4,9 87,3

e?ea?aeaoe?? iane?aee?a *i?iiaeeuenueei?

eaoano?ioe

Iaaeoiaeaeaiiy a?ae?aooaaiue a?e

19 ia?aaeuaiiy iioi/ieo aeioiae?a iaae 60802,5

0,0 0,0

aeaeaoeaie Iaoe?iiaeueiiai aaieo

Iaaeoiaeaeaiiy eioo?a i?ae

20 Aea?aeaaiiai eii?oaoo ii 56300,0 18925,1 0,9 33,6

iaoa??aeueieo ?aca?aao

I?noeaa? iiaeaoee ? cai?e, ui

21 anoaiiaeththoueny i?noene??ie ?a.^?i?- 11000 12501,7 0,6 113,7

ia?iaeieo aeaiooao?a

Iaaeoiaeaeaiiy a?ae ?aae?caoe??

22 aei?iaioe?iieo iaoae?a c Aea?aeaaiiai oiiaeo iaoae?a ?
aei?iaioe?iiiai 700,0 219,9 0,0 31,4

eai?iiy

23 Iaaeoiaeaeaiiy a?eueieo caeeoe?a iicaathaeaeaoieo oiiae?a 10000
15041,1 0,7 150,4

Oaaeeoey 1

(i?iaeiaaeaiiy)

?

i/i Iaeiaioaaiiy ieaoaae?a Ii i?iaiico Oaeoe/ii iaae?eoei % aei
I?iaiico

Noia %

24 Cai?e oa ?io? iaiiaeaoeia? aeioiaee 58989,6 78210 3,5 123,4

25 Iaaeoiaeaeaiiy aei Iain?eiiai oiiaeo 434347,0 415987,5 19, 95,8

26 Iaaeoiaeaeaiiy aei ?iiiaaoe?eiiai oiiaeo 4044,1 4209,2 0,2 104,1

27 Oiiaeo ?icaeoeo iaeeaii-aia?aaoe/iiai eiiieaeno 16700,0 1916,7 0,1
11,5

28 Iaaeoiaeaeaiiy eioo?a a?ae ?aae?caoe?? a?enueeiaiai iaeia 2500,0
2766,0 0,1 110,6

29 Caeeoee athaeaeaoieo iice/ie ia ii/aoie ?ieo

3153,4 0,2

30 Iiaa?iaiiy athaeaeaoieo iice/ie

41827,1 2,0

31 ?io? iaaeoiaeaeaiiy 5627,5 44785,1 2,1 795.8

ANUeIAI 2321404,6 2092210 10 90,1

Ne?ae cacia/eoe, ui iniiai? ao?aoe athaeaeaoo ca ?aooiie cieaeaiiy
ae?iaieoeoaa ooai?eeenue ia i?aei?e?inoaao i?ia?aeieo i?i?noa?noa ?
a?aeiinoa. I?aei?e?inoaa I?iiaoi?iio aeiionoeee cieaeaiiy ianyao
ae?iaieoeoaa ia 27,4 a?aenioe?a aei iiia?aaeiueiai ?ieo, a ?acoeueoao?
/iai aei athaeaeaoo ia iaae?eoei 24,7 o?ei. ea?aiaaioe?a. Ia
i?aei?e?inoaao I?iaoaeai?iio a?aeiia?aeii – 14,3 ? 4,5; ei?ii?aoe??
“Oe?aoae” – 34,1 ? 7,5; ei?ii?aoe?? “Oe?oeaiaio” -29,2 ? 3,4;
ei?ii?aoe?? “Oe?aoaeiaoa??aee” – 23,3 ? 3,6.

Aiane?aeie a?aenooiino? iaeaaeiiai eiio?ieth ea??aiee?a ie?aieo
i?i?noa?noa ? a?aeiinoa ca aeiaea?aeaiiyi iiaeaoeiaiai caeiiiaeaanoaa,
aeeiiaiiy Oeac?a I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie “I?i caoiaee uiaei ci?oeiaiiy
o?iainiai? aeenoeeie?ie i?e aeeiiaii? Aea?aeaaiiai athaeaeaoo Oe?a?ie”,
“I?i iineeaiiy eiio?ieth ca iaaeoiaeaeaiiyi iiaeaoe?a oa ?ioeo
iaia’yceiaeo ieaoaae?a aei Aea?aeaaiiai athaeaeaoo ? aiane?a aei
aea?aeaaieo oe?eueiaeo oiiae?a” noaiii ia 1 n?/iy 1996 ?ieo
i?aei?e?inoaa 8 i?i?noa?noa caai?aoaaee aea?aeaa? 33 o?ei.e?a., aai 60
a?aenioe?a caaaeueii? iaaei?iee ii Oe?a?i?, c ieo i?aei?e?inoaa I?ii?iio
– 12,7 o?ei.e?a., aai 23,4 a?aenioe?a caaaeueii? noie ianiea/aieo
athaeaeaoo ii Oe?a?i?, I?in?eueainii?iaeo — a?aeiia?aeii 6,4 ? 11,8.
I?iiaoi?iio 3,9 ? 7,3, I?iaoaeai?iio 2,9 ? 5,3 oa Aeaia?oaiaioo
ii?nueeiai ? ??/eiaiai o?ainii?oo — 2 o?ei.e?a., aai 3,7 a?aenioe?a.

Aeeiiaiiy aeioiae?a i?noeaaeo athaeaeao?a (aeea. oaae. 2) oaeiae
cae?enithaaeiny a neeaaeieo nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo oiiaao iiaeeaeaiiy
e?eciaeo yaeu o noni?euenoa?. A oe?eiio aeioiaee i?noeaaeo athaeaeao?a
aeeiiaii ia 122,0 a?aenioee. I?aenoiee 1995 ?ieo na?ae/aoue, ui i’youe
iaeanoae aeiionoeee iaaeeiiaiiy aeioiae?a athaeaeaoo, ia?aaeaa/aieo ia
??e. Oae, Oa?niinueea iaeanoue aeeiiaea aeioiaeio /anoeio athaeaeaoo ia
87,0 a?aenioe?a, oei naiei iaaeiiaea?aeaii 2,1 o?ei.e?a., *a?i?aaoeueea
iaeanoue — a?aeiia?aeii 88,2 ? 1,3. Iaaeiaeeiiaiiy aeioiae?a i?noeaaeo
athaeaeao?a aeiiouaii o A?iieoeuee?e (97,1%), E??iaia?aaenuee?e (96,2%)
oa Oa?iii?euenuee?e (96,0%) iaeanoyo.

Oaaeeoey 2 Oaeoe/ia aeeiiaiiy aeioiae?a i?noeaaeo athaeaeao?a ca

1995 ??e (ie?ae.e?a.)

Iaeano? Ieai ia ??e Aeeiiaiiy % aeeiiaiiy

?anioae?ea E?ei 43602 47992 110.1

A?iieoeueea 23326 22643 97.1

Aieeinueea 9508 11040 116.1

Aei?i?iiao?ianueea 57481 73012 127.0

Aeiiaoeueea 73235 91152 124.5

AEeoiie?nueea 14934 19306 129.3

Caea?iaonueea 8498 10679 125.7

Caii??cueea 31648 36380 115.0

?aaii-O?aie?anueea 18035 24161 134.0

Ee?anueea 22915 30033 131.1

E??iaia?aaenueea 15741 15142 96.2

Eoaainueea 38748 37824 102.9

Euea?anueea 39641 58530 147.6

Ieeiea?anueea ?8175 21165 116.5

Iaeanueea 31431 38080 121.2

Iieoaanueea 23140 28652 123.8

??aiainueea 13012 15319 177.7

Noinueea 17084 22895 134.0

Oa?iii?euenueea 13121 12592 96.0

Oa?e?anueea 44377 65714 148.1

Oa?niinueea 16459 14320 87.0

Oiaeueieoeueea 14998 19705 131.4

*a?eanueea 17543 26894 153.3

*a?i?aaoeueea 11125 9817 88.2

*a?i?a?anueea 17416 21396 122.9

i. Ee?a 66653 78104 117.2

i. Naaanoiiieue 5921 8194 138.4

ANUeIAI

75777

860754

122.0

Ia?aaeaa/a?oueny, ui caaaeueiee ianya i?iieneiai? i?iaeoeoe??
ca?eueoeoueny o 1996-iio ii??aiyii c ? 995 ?ieii ia 0,5 a?aenioea,
iaeiae oaeoe/ii a ? eaa?oae? noaeiny cieaeaiiy ae?iaieoeoaa ia 3,6
a?aenioea. Aiaeia?/ii c aeioneo oiaa??a ia?iaeiiai niiaeeaaiiy, ye? ?
iniiaiei aeaea?aeii oi?ioaaiiy aeioiaeii? /anoeie athaeaeaoo,
i?iaiicoaaany ??no ia 1,8 a?aenioea, a oaeoe/ii oeae iieaciee i?ioe
a?aeiia?aeiiai ia??iaeo ieioeiai ?ieo nei?ioeany ia 20,8 a?aenioea.

Ca oaeeo oiia aei athaeaeao?a on?o ??ai?a iia?e?ciaaii 650,5 o?ei.e?a.,
ui noaiiaeoue aei aecia/aieo ?ici???a ia ??e 18,9 a?aenioea, a aei
aecia/aieo ia ? eaa?oae — 94,8 a?aenioea. Aei Aea?aeaaiiai athaeaeaoo ca
oeae ia??iae iaae?eoei 422,3 o?ei.e?a., aai a?aeiia?aeii 17,7 ? 92,7
a?aenioe?a. Aeioiaee i?noeaaeo athaeaeao?a noaiiaeyoue 21,0 a?aenioea
aei ?ic?aooieiaeo noi ia ??e.

Ca iniiaieie aeioiaeieie aeaea?aeaie iaae?eoei: iiaeaoeo ia aeiaeaio
aa?o?noue 90,9 a?aenioe?a aei ?ic?aooieo ia eaa?oae, aai iaioa ia 12,9
o?ei.e?a., iiaeaoeo ia i?eaooie — a?aeiia?aeii 97,5 a?aenioea ? 3,3
o?ei.e?a., aeoeeciiai cai?o — 59,9 a?aenioea ? 6,2 o?ei.e?a.,
i?eaooeiaiai iiaeaoeo c a?iiaaeyi — 94,9 a?aenioea ? 2,9 o?ei.
ea?aiaaioe?a. O ca’yceo c oei, ui athaeaeao aoei caoaa?aeaeaii a e?ioe?
aa?aciy, cian?i ia aoei iaaeoiaeaeaiue /anoeie ieaoe ca o?aiceo
i?e?iaeiiai aaco /a?ac oa?eoi??th Oe?a?ie, yeeo ia ??e ia?aaeaa/aii
iaea?aeaoe 103,1 o?ei. ea?aiaaioe?a

A oe?eiio noai aeeiiaiiy aeioiaeii? /anoeie athaeaeaoo o 1 i?a??//? 1996
?ieo neeaaeiee, ui iio?aao? ?ic?iaee ? i?eeiyooy aeiaeaoeiaeo caoiae?a o
i?ioean? ?aae?caoe?? Caeiio Oe?a?ie “I?i Aea?aeaaiee athaeaeao Oe?a?ie
ia 1996 ??e”, a oaeiae aianaiiy iaiao?aeieo ci?i aei /eiiiai
caeiiiaeaanoaa.

O?iainiaa eoeueoo?a ? ai?ea a?ciano a Oe?a?i? — ia aeineoue iecueeiio
??ai? ? aeiaaa? aea?aeaaiiai aieeao oa ?aaoethaaiiy. Iane?aeeii oeueiai
? c?inoaiiy caai?aiaaiino? o Aea?aeaa? oa caaino?aiiy iaieaoaae?a.

C iaoith iie?auaiiy o?iainiaiai noaio i?aei?e?inoa, i?enei?aiiy
e?oaiia?ao o?iainiaeo ?ano?n?a i?eeiyoi ??oaiiy i?i iaaeaiiy a?aeno?i/ee
aeey iiaaoaiiy caai?aiaaiino? i?aei?e?inoa ia?aae athaeaeaoii, yea aoea
noaiii ia 1 n?/iy 1996 ?. ? caa??aa?oueny ii aeaiee /an. A?aeno?i/ea
iaaea?oueny aei 1 a?oaeiy i. ?. Ia aeeiiaiiy noaoo? 28 Caeiio Oe?a?ie
“I?i Aea?aeaaiee athaeaeao Oe?a?ie ia 1996 ??e” I?i?noa?noaii o?iain?a
?ic?iaeaii ii?yaeie iaaeaiiy a?aeno?i/ee i?aei?e?inoaai ? i?aai?caoe?yi
?c caai?aiaaiino? ia?aae athaeaeaoii.

I?ae?yae c oeei i?eeiyoi Oeac i?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie a?ae 5 ea?oiy 1996
?ieo “I?i caoiaee uiaei noaa?e?caoe?? o?iainiaiai noaio i?aei?e?inoa”,
a?aeiia?aeii aei yeith iaiaaeaii ?ici?? iai? 50 a?aenioeaie a?ae
anoaiiaeaii? caai?aiaaiino? iiaeaoeiaeie oa eiio?iethth/eie i?aaiaie, a
oaeiae ?ic?iaeaii ? i?eeiyoi Eaa?iaoii I?i?no??a ? Iaoe?iiaeueiei aaieii
Oe?a?ie iiaee ii?yaeie /a?aiaino? aeeiiaiiy onoaiiaaie aaie?a aei?o/aiue
i?aei?e?inoa uiaei ia?a?aooaaiiy ieaoaae?a. Ca?eueoaiiy ii?ie ieaoaae?a
a?ae ae?o/ee ia iaa?aeeeaaei? iio?aae i?aei?e?inoa c 10 aei ? 5% iiaea
oneeaaeieoe neooaoe?th ?ic?aooie?a c athaeaeaoii.

C iaoith caaacia/aiiy aeeiiaiiy aeioiaeii? /anoeie athaeaeaoo
I?i?noa?noaii o?iain?a aaeeoi ?yae caoiae?a. Ieoaiiy i?i i?e/eie
iaaeeiiaiiy aeioiaeii? /anoeie athaeaeaoo aoee ?icaeyioo? ia can?aeaii?
Eaa?iaoo I?i?no??a Oe?a?ie, a?aeiia?aeii aei /iai i?eeiyoi iinoaiiao
a?ae 16 o?aaiy 1996 ?ieo “I?i i?e/eie iaaeeiiaiiy aeioiaeii? /anoeie
athaeaeaoo oa caoiaee uiaei oaeineiiaeaiiy caeiiiaeaanoaa ? aeio?eiaiiy
athaeaeaoii? aeenoeeie?ie”.

I?iaaaeaiith aoaeoeaieo aeiiii?/ieo ia?aoai?aiue cia/iith i??ith
oeiaeeoue iaiine?aeiai?noue o ?aoi?ioaaii? iiaeaoeiai? nenoaie, ??
ianoaa?euei?noue. Aeei?enoaiiy iaeiaoaeoeaieo iaoiae?a ? aaaeae?a
aea?aeaaiiai aieeao i?ae?eaa? ?? aaoi?eoao? a??o o iaeaooi?.

Ia?o? e?iee ?aoi?ioaaiiy iiaeaoeiai? nenoaie c?iaeai?. Aea iacaaoe ?o
aaeaeeie iaa?yae /e iiaeia. ?iaioa c oi?ioaaiiy iiaeaoeiai? iie?oeee ua
iiia?aaeo, ?? iaiao?aeii caaa?oeoe yeiiiaa oaeaeoa.

Iiaeaoeiaa iie?oeea ia? ni?yiiaoaaoeny ia ?ica’ycaiiy oaeeo aeaio
aca?iiiia’ycaieo caaaeaiue, ye caaacia/aiiy caaeainiaaiino? (athaeaeaoo
? coieiaiiy ?ioeyoe??, iiaeaaaeaiiy ae?eaii? aeoeaiino? ? i?aeo?eiee
ae?iaieoeoaa. Ii?yae c oeei caaaeueiee ??aaiue iiiaeaoeoaaiiy, ?ici??e
noaaie iiaeaoe?a, e?euee?noue aeae?a ? aaca aeey ia?aooaaiiy iiaeaoe?a
iathoue aooe noaa?eueieie ia o?eueee i?ioyaii athaeaeaoiiai ?ieo, a e
ia??iaeo ?aoi?ioaaiiy aeiiii?ee.

C iaoith iii’yeoaiiy iiaeaoeiai? iie?oeee – Iinoaiiaith Aa?oiaii? ?aaee
Oe?a?ie a?ae ?C a?oaeiy 1995 ?ieo “I?i iniiai? iieiaeaiiy iiaeaoeiai?
iie?oeee ? iiaeaoeiao ?aoi?io a Oe?a?i?” ia?aaeaa/aii iaiaaeeoe
iaaei?aaaeaio aeeoa?aioe?aoe?th noaiie ieeoe ca caieth, ciaioaiiy
a?ae?aooaaiue aei ?yaeo oe?eueiaeo iicaathaeaeaoieo oiiae?a.

C 1 n?/iy 1996 ?ieo ia iniiaiee ?aooiie Aea?aeaaiiai athaeaeaoo Oe?a?ie
a oaeiae i?noeaaeo athaeaeao?a on?o ??ai?a ca?aoiaothoueny eiooe
oe?eueiaeo athaeaeaoieo (e??i Iain?eiiai oiiaeo Oe?a?ie oa eioo?a
nioe?aeueiiai no?aooaaiiy), a oaeiae aoaeue-yeeo iicaathaeaeaoieo
oiiae?a, noai?aieo ca?aeii ?c Caeiiaie Oe?a?ie ? ii?iaoeaieie aeoaie
i?aai?a aeeiiaa/i? aeaaee Oe?a?ie. Aieiaiei Oi?aae?iiyi aea?aeaaiiai
eacia/aenoaa i?iaiaeeoueny ?iaioa c ?iaaioa?ecaoe?? ? acyooy ia iae?e
on?o oe?eueiaeo iicaathaeaeaoieo oiiae?a, ia?aa??y?oueny ?o caeiii?noue
? aeioe?euei?noue ooieoe?iioaaiiy.

Ia?a?iciiae?e aaeiaiai aioo??oiueiai i?iaeoeoo /a?ac caaaeaiee
athaeaeao, aeeth/ath/e a?ae?aooaaiiy aei Iain?eiiai oiiaeo Oe?a?ie ?
aea?aeaaieo iicaathaeaeaoieo oiiae?a, iaiaaeaiee 47 a?aenioeaie. Ca
ieaiii ia 1997 ??e /a?ac caaaeaiee athaeaeao aoaea ia?a?iciiae?eaii 46
a?aenioe?a AAI. ?aoi?ioaaiiy iiaeaoeiai? nenoaie ia? i?ioiaeeoe o
iai?yieo caa?aaeaiiy aeioiaeii? aace athaeaeaoo, caaacia/aiiy
iaia’yceiaino? ? ??aiiiai?oaeaiino? o nieao? iiaeaoe?a on?ia
th?eaee/ieie ? o?ce/ieie iniaaie, iaaeiiouaiiy aoaeue-yeeo i?iya?a
aeene?ei?iaoe?? aei ie?aieo ieaoiee?a iiaeaoe?a.

I?eeiyoi Caeii Oe?a?ie “I?i ieaoo ca caieth” o iia?e ?aaeaeoe??,
a?aeiia?aeii aei yeiai cai?iaaaeaeaii ?aeeiee iiaeaoie o n?euenueeiio
ainiiaea?noa?. Ii?aoeueiaothoueny ieoaiiy uiaei ??aiy ieaoe ca caieth
i?iieneiaeie i?aei?e?inoaaie a caeaaeiino? a?ae oiai, a yeiio ianaeaiiio
ioieo? aiie ?icoaoiaai?, oa c o?aooaaiiyi o?eaaeino? ?iaanoeoe?eiiai
oeeeeo.

I?ioyaii 1995-1996 ?ie?a i?iaiaeeoueny ?iaioa c ?aeaioeo?eaoe??
o?ce/ieo. in?a-ieaoiee?a iiaeaoe?a ? eiii’thoa?ecaoe?? iiaeaoeiai?
neoaeae c oei, uia c 1997 ?ieo cae?enieoe ia?ao?ae ia iiiaeaoeoaaiiy
aeioiae?a ? iaeia o?ce/ieo in?a ia iniia? iiaeaoeiaeo aeaeea?aoe?e, ye?
iathoue iiaeaaaoeny an?ia a?iiaaeyiaie – ieaoieeaie iiaeaoe?a.

Eaa?iaoo I?i?no??a Oe?a?ie oa Aa?oiai?e ?aae? Oe?a?ie i?aeaioiaeai? ?
iai?aaeai? iaoa??aee uiaei ?icoe?aiiy aace ? i?aa i?noeaaeo i?aai?a
aeaaee a /anoei? oi?ioaaiiy aeioiae?a i?noeaaeo athaeaeao?a ca ?aooiie
i?noeaaeo iiaeaoe?a ? cai??a. C oe??th iaoith ne?ae ia?aaeyiooe
caeiiiaeaanoai i?i i?noeaa? iiaeaoee ? cai?e, ?icoe?eoe eiei ia’?eo?a
iiiaeaoeoaaiiy, anoaiiaeoe ?aaeueiee ia?ae?e i?noeaaeo iiaeaoe?a,
iaia’yceiaeo aei nieaoe ia an?e oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie. Iaeii/anii iaaeaoe
i?aai i?noeaaei i?aaiai aeaaee i?eeiaoe ??oaiiy i?i ii?aaeaiiy ie?aieo,
niaoeeo?/ieo aeey aeaii? oa?eoi??? i?noeaaeo iiaeaoe?a, ye? ia
ia?aaeaa/ai? caeiiiaeaanoaii. I?e oeueiio iaiao?aeii anoaiiaeoe
iaiaaeaiiy i?e canoinoaaii? i?noeaaeo iiaeaoe?a. Aeey i?eeeaaeo: ianya
i?noeaaeo iiaeaoe?a ? cai??a ia iiaeiai ia?aaeuoaaoe CI a?aenioe?a
cae??ieaieo aeioiae?» athaeaeaoo oa?eoi???. Oea onoia i?aeoeeo
iaiaa?oioiaaiiai canoinoaaiiy i?noeaaeo iiaeaoe?a, ?o noaaie ? ?ici???a.

Iaa?ae’?iiith /anoeiith iiaeaoeiaiai caeiiiaeaanoaa ia? noaoe i?aaiaa
caaacia/aiiy i?aa ieaoiee?a iiaeaoe?a. C oe??th iaoith iathoue aooe
i?aeaioiaeai? caeiiii?iaeoe i?i i?aaa ? iaia’ycee ieaoiee?a iiaeaoe?a.
Ii?yae c oeei iaiao?aeii cae?enithaaoe noeioethaaiiy i?aei?e?iieoeueei?
oa ?iaanoeoe?eii? ae?yeueiino? o noa?ao, ia?aaeaa/aieo i?ia?aiaie
no?oeoo?ii? ia?aaoaeiae ? i?iieneiai? iie?oeee. Iaeii/anii ia aeiioneaoe
iaaeaiiy i?euea o i?ioean? iiiaeaoeoaaiiy ie?aiei noa’?eoai
i?aei?e?iieoeueei? ae?yeueiino?.

Caeiiii Oe?a?ie “I?i aianaiiy ci?i ? aeiiiaiaiue aei Aeae?aoo Eaa?iaoo
I?i?no??a Oe?a?ie “I?i ii?yaeie aeei?enoaiiy i?eaooeo aea?aeaaieo
i?aei?e?inoa, onoaiia ? i?aai?caoe?e” ia?aaeaa/aii ni?yiiaoaaoe ia
iiiiaiaiiy aeanieo iai?ioieo eioo?a 10% aaeainiaiai i?eaooeo ? ia iaio
10% noie i?eaooeo, ui caeeoa?oueny o ?icii?yaeaeaii? i?aei?e?inoa i?ney
nieaoe ieie iaia’yceiaeo ieaoaae?a. Ii?yae c oeei I?iaeiiii?ee
i?aeaioiaeaii i?iiiceoe?? uiaei canoinoaaiiy aeaiiai ii?yaeeo aeey
i?aei?e?inoa on?o oi?i aeaniino?.

Aeey aoaeoeaiiai iiiaeaoeoaaiiy i?aei?e?iieoeueei? ae?yeueiino?
iaaaeueiith iio?aaith ? aecia/aiiy aace iiiaeaoeoaaiiy aeey ni?aaeyiiy
iiaeaoeo ia i?eaooie. Ia?aaeaa/a?oueny ?ic?iaeoe ii?ie ? i?aaeea
aaaeaiiy iae?eo ? oi?i ca?oiino? aeey oe?eae iiiaeaoeoaaiiy c
aeei?enoaiiyi a?aeiia?aeieo i?aeia?iaeieo noaiaea?o?a.

O no/anieo oiiaao aaaeeeaa ?iaioa i?iaiaeeoueny a iai?yieo i?aeaioiaee
i?iaeo?a caeiiiaeaa/eo oa ?ioeo ii?iaoeaieo aeo?a a?aeiia?aeii aei
Iinoaiiae Aa?oiaii? ?aaee Oe?a?ie a?ae ?C a?oaeiy 1995 ?ieo “I?i iniiai?
iieiaeaiiy iiaeaoeiai? iie?oeee ? iiaeaoeiao ?aoi?io a Oe?a?i?” oa
ia?ae?eo i?iaeo?a caeiiiaeaa/eo oa ?ioeo ii?iaoeaieo aeo?a,
caoaa?aeaeaiiio Iinoaiiaith Eaa?iaoo I?i?no??a Oe?a?ie a?ae 15
eenoiiaaea 1995 ?. “I?i ia?oi/a?aia? caoiaee uiaei ?aae?caoe?? I?ia?aie
ae?yeueiino? Eaa?iaoo I?i?no??a Oe?a?ie ia 1995-1996 ?iee”.

?aoi?ioaaiiy iiaeaoeiai? nenoaie ? ?ic?iaea iiaiai aoaeoeaiiai
iiaeaoeiaiai caeiiiaeaanoaa – ii ia?oa, ui iaiao?aeii c?iaeoe oaea
iaeaeeae/ei /anii. Iiaeaoeiaa ?aoi?ia ian i?ioiaeeoe o iai?yieo:

– noai?aiiy i?aaio a I?io?i?, yeee ae caeiaany ?ic?iaeith iiaeaoeiai?
iie?oeee, ia c?acie “Aeaia?oaiaioo iiaeaoeiai? iie?oeee”;

– e?aa?ae?caoe?? iiaeaoeiai? iie?oeee c iaoith noeioethaaiiy
ae?iaieoeoaa oa i?aeaeuaiiy eiai aoaeoeaiino?. A i?aeoeoe? iaiao?aeii
ni?inoeoe ? cia/ii nei?ioeoe nenoaio iiaeaoe?a, ieaoaae?a, cai??a ?
a?ae?aooaaiue aei athaeaeaoo oa oe?eueiaeo iicaathaeaeaoieo oiiae?a.
Iiaeaoee iathoue aeeiioaaoe ianaiia?aae noeioethth/o oa ?aaoethth/o
ooieoe??, ui caaacia/eoue noaa?euei?noue iaaeoiaeaeaiue aei athaeaeao?a
on?o ??ai?a

– ia?aaeyaeo ?iciaaeoaaiiy ? cae??ieaiiy iiaeaoe?a ca eiie?aoieie
eaieaie athaeaeaoii? nenoaie. Aeioe?eueii aoei a ni?inoeoe nenoaio
ca?aooaaiiy ieaoaae?a aei athaeaeaoo on?o ??ai?a /a?ac e?ea?aeaoe?th
cono??/ieo iioie?a o?iainiaeo ?ano?n?a. I?aeoeea ?iciaaeoaaiiy i?ae
eaieaie athaeaeaoii? nenoaie Oe?a?ie iiiaae 10 aeae?a iiaeaoe?a oa
cai??a naaa ia ii?aaaeiao?, a noai?th? oiiae aeey ii?ooaiiy
o?iainiai-ieao?aeii? oa ?ic?aooieiai? aeenoeeie?ie;

– e?ea?aeaoe?? on?o i?euea ieaoieeai iiaeaoe?a ? i?eeiyooy ie?aiiai
caeiiiaeaa/iai aeoo i?i i?eueae;

– i?iaaaeaiiy iiai? ?iaaioa?ecaoe?? iicaathaeaeaoieo oiiae?a ??cieo
??ai?a, aea/aiiy ?o aeioe?eueiino? ? ye?niiai aeei?enoaiiy. Iaiao?aeii
i?eeiyoe caeii i?i oe?eueia? iicaathaeaeaoi? oiiaee;

– i?enei?eoe ?ic?iaeo ? i?eeiyooy “Iiaeaoeiaiai eiaeaeno”. Iaeii/anii
ne?ae i?eeiyoe ?aeeiee caeiiiaeaa/ee aeo, yeee ae i?a ioiieoe ona eiei
o?iainiai? iie?oeee (athaeaeaoii?, iiaeaoeiai?, aaethoii?), aea iiaeia
aoei a ie?aneeoe ae??, iiaiiaaaeaiiy oa a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue i?aai?a,
ye? caeiathoueny ?aae?caoe??th o?iainiai? iie?oeee. Ca?aeii c inoaii?i
iiaeia aoaea aecia/eoe noaoon, ooieoe?iiaeuei? iaia’ycee, i?aaa ?
a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue o?iainiaeo i?aai?a o i?ioean? oi?ioaaiiy ?
aeeiiaiiy o?iainiai? (athaeaeaoii?, iiaeaoeiai?, aaethoii?) iie?oeee.
Oaeee aieiaiee caeiiiaeaa/ee aeo iaiao?aeiee iniaeeai o no/anieo oiiaao,
eiee a?aeaoaathoueny ?aoi?ioaaiiy nenoaie oi?aae?iiy o?iainiaeie
?ano?naie, iaoe?iiaeueiei ainiiaea?noaii a oe?eiio ? noai?aiiy ?eieiaiai
na?aaeiaeua. Oeth iio?aao iniaeeai a?ae/oaathoue ?aa?iie. A?aeiia?aeii
aei aieiaiiai o?iainiaiai caeiio iiaeia aoaea ?ic?iaeyoe ?
ai?iaaaeaeoaaoe athaeaeaoio, iiaeaoeiao ? aaethoio iie?oeeo o eiioaeno?
?aeeii? caaaeueiiaea?aeaaii? o?iainiai? iie?oeee.

O?IAINIAA NOAA?E?CAOe?ss ssE INIIAA O?IAINIAI? IIE?OEEE

Ieioeee 1996 ??e noaa ua iaeiei aaaiiei e?ieii o iiaeaeueoiio
noaiiaeaii? iiai? o?iainiai? nenoaie Oe?a?ie, aei?iaoaaiiyi ?? ia
i?oei?noue ? aoaeoeai?noue ?iaioe. Oaia? ianoaa /an i?aeaeoe i?aenoiee,
c?iaeoe aeniiaee, aecia/eoe caaaeaiiy oa oeyoe ? iaoiaee ?o ae??oaiiy.

Ianaiia?aae ne?ae a?aecia/eoe, ui i?iaaaeaia ?iaioa ni?eyea ia?aeiio
iaaaoeaii? oaiaeaioe?? o o?iainia?e noa??, ca ei?ioeee ia??iae aaeaeiny
aeinyaoe o?iainiai? noaa?e?caoe?? a?aeiia?aeii aei eo?no ?eieiaeo
?aoi?i, i?iaieioaiiai I?aceaeaioii Oe?a?ie E.Ae.Eo/iith. Oea ia?aaeon?i
cieaeaiiy oaii?a ?ioeyoe??, ci?oeiaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? a?ioiai?
iaeeieoe?, aaeueioaaiiy oaii?a niaaeo i?iieneiaiai ae?iaieoeoaa.
Aaeaeiny o?ioe icaei?iaeoe athaeaeao, ia ia?aaeueoe onoaiiaeaieo
?ici???a aeao?oeeoo aea?aeaaiiai athaeaeaoo.

Iaeiae aeinyaoe ?noioieo c?ooaiue o ae??oaii? aieiaiiai caaaeaiiy —
iaeeaeoe ae?iaieoeoai, noaa?e?coaaoe aeiiii?eo — ia aaeaeiny.
Ia?ica’ycaieo i?iaeai caeeoeeiny aaaaoi. I?ioyaii 1996 ?.
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iee noai a Oe?a?i? caeeoaany neeaaeiei, ia
iie?ioeeany neooaoe?y ? a ia?oiio eaa?oae? 1997 ?.

I?iaiici? iieacieee aeiiii?/iiai ? nioe?aeueiiai ?icaeoeo, iieeaaeai? a
iniiao oi?ioaaiiy aea?aeaaiiai athaeaeaoo Oe?a?ie ia 1996 ??e,
ia?aaeaa/aee cieaeaiiy ?aaeueiiai ianyao aaeiaiai aioo??oiueiai
i?iaeoeoo ia 1,8% oa c?inoaiiy ianya?a i?iieneiai? i?iaeoeoe?? ia 0,5%.

Oaeoe/ii ae ieioeiai ?ieo ianya aaeiaiai aioo??oiueiai i?iaeoeoo
nei?ioeany ia 10%, iii?iaeueia a?i ioe?ith?oueny o 80,5 ie?ae. a?i.
A?eueo ye ia 5% cieceeiny ae?iaieoeoai i?iieneiai? i?iaeoeoe?? oa ia 9%—
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei?. I?e oeueiio ia 20,2% cieceany ianya
ae?iaieoeoaa oiaa??a ia?iaeiiai niiaeeaaiiy.

Ca oaeeo oiia iinoa? caieoaiiy: /e aeinoaoi?ie aoee coneeey i?aai?a
o?iainiai? nenoaie on?o ??ai?a, cae?enithaaia ieie eiio?ieueia e
aeiiii?/ia ?iaioa, ni?yiiaaia ia iii’yeoaiiy aieeao iaieio/eo iaaaoeaieo
oaeoi??a i?iaaaeaiiy ?aoi?i ia nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/io neooaoe?th a
aea?aeaa?, ye?noue aeeiiaiiy athaeaeao?a? sse ia i?ee?i, iae?aco oi/o
eiinoaooaaoe: c ??cieo i?e/ei oeueiai iiee ui ia noaeiny. ? ia
inoaiiueith c i?e/ei ? a?ae ?i?oe?aoeae e aeoeaiino?, Ia??aeei naia
i?iyae eiina?aaoecio, canoa??e? i?aeoiaee ? iaoiaee noiyoue ia caaaae? o
ae??oaii? iinoaaeaieo caaaeaiue. Oea ? oa?aeoa?iei aeey aaaaoueio
ea??aiee?a on?o no?oeoo?ieo i?ae?icae?e?a ye i?noeaaeo, oae ?
oeaio?aeueieo i?aai?a o?iainiai? nenoaie.

Ioiae o oe?eiio ca 1996 ?. aei caaaeaiiai athaeaeaoo iaae?eoei 30,1
ie?ae. a?i. iiaeaoe?a, cai??a oa ?ioeo iaia’yceiaeo ieaoaae?a, aai 87,6%
aei ?ic?aooieiaeo ??/ieo i?ecia/aiue, oiaoi iaaeiiaea?aeaii 4,2 ie?ae.
a?i. Ia caaacia/aii aeeiiaiiy i?ecia/aiue ii 20 aeaeao ieaoaae?a ?c 27.

Ieioeee ??e cia/iith i??ith iiaeia iacaaoe ?ieii oo?a/aieo iiaeeeainoae.
Eeoa a?ae nei?i/aiiy ianya?a i?iieneiaiai ae?iaieoeoaa oa ia?aaacaiue ia
iia?e?ciaaii 800 iei. a?i. iiaeaoeo ia aeiaeaio aa?o?noue, iiaeaoeo ia
i?eaooie oa aeoeeciiai cai?o. Iaea?eueoa oaeeo ao?ao aeiiouaii a
Aaoiiiii?e ?anioae?oe? E?ei, Aeiiaoeuee?e, ?aaii-O?aie?anuee?e,
Euea?anuee?e, Oa?niinuee?e, Oa?e?anuee?e iaeanoyo oa a i?no? Ee?a?.

Iiaeaoeo ia aeiaeaio aa?o?noue ca 1996 ?. iaae?eoei 6,3 ie?ae. a?i., aai
95,3% aei ??/iiai ieaio. C oeueiai iiaeaoeo ia caaacia/aii aeeiiaiiy
ieaio a 21 iaeano?, c yeeo iaea?eueoa a?aenoaaaiiy aeiiouaia o
Aieeinuee?e, Caii??cuee?e, Ieeiea?anuee?e, Euea?anuee?e ?
Oiaeueieoeuee?e iaeanoyo.

Aei caaaeaiiai athaeaeaoo Oe?a?ie ca 1996 ?. iaae?eoei 5,5 ie?ae. a?i.
iiaeaoeo ia i?eaooie, ui noaiiaeoue 90,2% aei caoaa?aeaeaiiai i?iaiico,
cie?aia aei aea?aeaaiiai athaeaeaoo — a?aeiia?aeii 1,6 ie?ae. a?i., aai
93,3%. Ni?iaiiciaaieo iieaciee?a iiaeaoeo ia i?eaooie aeio?eiaee eeoa 7
iaeanoae (Caea?iaonueea, ?aaii-O?aie?anueea, Ee?anueea, Iieoaanueea,
Noinueea, Oa?e?anueea ? Oiaeueieoeueea) oa i. Naaanoiiieue. Iaea?eueoa
a?aenoaaaiiy aeiiouaia o Aei?i?iiao?ianuee?e, Euea?anuee?e,
*a?i?aaoeuee?e, Oa?iii?euenuee?e iaeanoyo, a oaeiae a Aaoiiiii?e
?anioae?oe? E?ei.

Iaeaea 70 iei. a?i. iaaeiio?eiaii aeoeeciiai cai?o. O ?ic??c? ie?aieo
iaeanoae eiai ia iaae?eoei o noi? 149 iei. a?i.

Oaiaeaioe?y c?inoaiiy caai?aiaaiino? ia?aae athaeaeaoii caa??aaeany ? a
ca?oiiio ?ioe?. A oe?eiio ca ??e ?ici?? iaaei?iee, ?acii ?c aianeaie aei
Iain?eiiai oiiaeo, c??n ia 1,8 ie?ae. a?i., aai a 2,6 ?aca. Iaea?eueo?
noie caai?aiaaiino? ia?aae athaeaeaoii iathoue i?noea a
Aei?i?iiao?ianuee?e iaeano? — 369,2 iei. a?i., Aeiiaoeuee?e — 123,8 iei.
a?i., Iieoaanuee?e — 108,3, Caii??cuee?e — 75,6, Eoaainuee?e — 68,9 iei.
a?i.

*a?ac aeiiouaiiy caai?aiaaiino? c iiaeaoe?a oi??e athaeaeao
iaaeiiaea?aeaa 3,5 ie?ae. a?i., aai 12% a?ae caaaeueieo iaaeoiaeaeaiue.
Aacoiiaii, ui iaaia /anoea aeie a oeueiio eaaeeoue ? ia eieaeoeaao
o?iainiaeo i?aai?a, ye? ia i?iyaeee aeinoaoiuei? aeoeaiino? e
?i?oe?aoeae.

Na?aaeiueii?ny/iee oaii c?inoaiiy iaaei?iee c ieaoaae?a aei athaeaeaoo
aeinya o 1996 ?. 25% ? cia/ii aeia?aaeaea? oaiie c?inoaiiy
caai?aiaaiino? i?ae i?aei?e?inoaaie Oe?a?ie. Ia noai aeeiiaiiy aeioiae?a
athaeaeaoo aieeioei iaaeaiiy Aa?oiaiith ?aaeith a?aeno?i/ee oa
?icno?i/ee o nieao? ieaoaae?a i?aei?e?inoaaie e i?aai?caoe?yie aei
athaeaeaoo a noi? iiiaae 2 ie?ae. a?i., aai 7% aei caaaeueieo
iaaeoiaeaeaiue. Iaeiae ne?ae cacia/eoe, ui i?aei?e?inoaa, i?aai?caoe??
ia nei?enoaeeny iiaiith i??ith iaaeaiith aea?aeaaith iiaeeea?noth
iie?ioeoe ?oi?e o?iainiaee noai oeyoii ?ano?oeoo?ecaoe?? caai?aiaaiino?
c iaeaaeieo athaeaeaoo ieaoaae?a oa ?icaeieoaaiiy ?aooie?a a onoaiiaao
aaie?a.

Iiaeaeueoee niaae ae?iaieoeoaa o a?eueoino? aaeocae ia?iaeiiai
ainiiaea?noaa, iia??oaiiy o?iainiaiai noaio i?aei?e?inoa ? i?aai?caoe?e
coiiaeee caaino?aiiy e?ece ieaoaae?a ye i?ae i?aei?e?inoaaie, oae ? c
athaeaeaoii.

*a?ac a?ae iaeaaeiiai eiio?ieth c aieo ie?aieo i?i?noa?noa ? a?aeiinoa
ca noaiii ?ic?aooie?a ?c athaeaeaoii i?aei?e?inoaa nenoaie I?ii?iio
caai?aoaaee 368,5 iei. a?i., aai 27,3% caaaeueii? noie,
Aea?aeiaooiaaci?iio — a?aeiia?aeii 108 iei. a?i. ? 8%, I?iiaoi?iio —
102,8 iei. a?i. ? 7,8% oa I?in?eueainii?iaeo — 93,2 iei. a?i. ? 6,9%.
*a?ac c?inoaiiy ianya?a aeaa?oi?nueei? oa e?aaeeoi?nueei? caai?aiaaiino?
i?ae i?aei?e?inoaaie ao?a/aii iiiaae ? ie?ae. a?i. aeioiae?a athaeaeaoo.

Ne?ae caa?iooe oaaao ia oa, ui cia/io /anoeo athaeaeaoieo iaaeoiaeaeaiue
noaiiaeyoue aca?iicae?ee aeioiae?a o ?aooiie o?iainoaaiiy aeaeaoe?a,
ia?aaeaa/aieo athaeaeaoii. Onueiai i?iaaaeaii iiiaae 6000 aca?iicae?e?a
ia noio iaeaea 6 ie?ae. a?i., ui noaiiaeoue 20% aei caaaeueiiai ianyao
aeioiae?a ? 17,8% aei aeaeaoe?a caaaeaiiai athaeaeaoo Oe?a?ie ieioeiai
?ieo.

Oaeee cao?ae, ye a?aeiii, a?ae?a?aa iaaio ?ieue o iiaeieaii? ieao?aeii?
e?ece, iii’yeoea neooaoe?th c aeeiiaiiyi athaeaeao?a. I?ioa iiaeeeaino?
uiaei ?aaeueii? iaiiaiaiino? athaeaeaoo aeioiaeaie ? o?iainoaaiiy
aeaeaoe?a a?ae oaei? aeoe?? ia c?inee, o ca’yceo c /ei ?? aoei neaniaaii
o?yaeii. Oiio a neooaoe??, ui neeaeany a aea?aeaa? oeueiai ?ieo, ia
o?aaa ?ic?aoiaoaaoe ia oae? iaoiaee aeeiiaiiy athaeaeaoo, a iaeneiaeueii
cina?aaeeoe oaanue na?e aeina?ae ? ciaiiy ia aeeiiaii? caaaeaiue ?
aei?o/aiue, iinoaaeaieo ia?aae o?iainiaith nenoaiith.

O?yae, I?i?noa?noai o?iain?a ?iaeyoue ona iiaeeeaa aeey ci?oeiaiiy
o?iainiai? aace i?noeaaeo ?aae. I?e an?o aeiiii?/ii-nioe?aeueieo
o?oaeiiuao o ?C iaeanoyo, i?noao Ee?a? e Naaanoiiie? aeeiiaii ?
ia?aaeeiiaii athaeaeaoe c aeioiae?a. I?e oeueiio iaaeieaiia? caeeoee
eioo?a ii i?noeaaeo athaeaeaoao ia ? n?/iy 1997 ?. noaiiaeyoue iiiaae ?C
iei. a?i.

Ii athaeaeaoao Caea?iaonueei? iaeano?, iai?eeeaae, iaaeieaiia? caeeoee
eioo?a a?eueo ye o 7 ?ac?a ia?aaeuothoue ieaiia?, i?e/iio /a?ac
iai?aaeeueia ieaioaaiiy aeioiae?a aiie cina?aaeaeai? iaeaea ia 80% a
iaeaniiio athaeaeao?. Ii Ee?anuee?e iaeano? iaaeieaiia? caeeoee
athaeaeaoieo eioo?a ia?aaeuothoue ieaiia? a?eueo ye o 3 ?ace, ii
Oa?iii?euenuee?e — iaeaea a 17 ?ac?a, ? an? ciaoiaeyoueny a iaeaniiio
athaeaeao?. sse ?acoeueoao, a ie?aieo ?aeiiao ca?ieaoa ia aeiea/o?oueny
ii 5—6 i?nyoe?a, a a iaeanieo onoaiiaao aiia cia/ii iaioa.

Aiaeii/an ieioeee ??e iieacaa iai on?i, ui iaiaa?oioiaai? ?ic?aooiee,
aaeee? niiae?aaiiy i?ecaiaeyoue aei caaeuaieo ciaia’ycaiue, yeeo ia
iiaeia aeeiiaoe. A oea ni?e/eiy? nioe?aeueia iai?oaeaiiy. I?aeoe/ii a
a?eueoino? iaeanoae athaeaeaoe aoee caoaa?aeaeai? i?noeaaeie ?aaeaie a
ianyaao, ye? cia/ii ia?aaeuoaaee ?ic?aooiee I?io?io, ia caaaeueio noio
iiiaae 1,5 ie?ae. a?i. Oea a?aeiia?aea? iaaeaiei ?i i?aaai, aea o?eueee
oiae?, eiee oae? ieaie aeeiiothoueny.

Ia caaacia/aii aeeiiaiiy athaeaeao?a a Aaoiiiii?e ?anioae?oe? E?ei,
Ieeiea?anuee?e, Ee?anuee?e, Oa?iii?euenuee?e, *a?i?aaoeuee?e oa ?ioeo
iaeanoyo. Oeueiai ?ieo ie ia iiaeii? oaeiai aeiionoeoe, eii?aeeioth/e e
oi?aaeyth/e i?ioeanii caoaa?aeaeaiiy athaeaeao?a, ? ca oea ianoeiooue
a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ea??aieee o?iainiaeo i?aai?caoe?e.

Iaiao?aeii ooeaoe iia? iao?aaeeoe?ei? oi?ie ?iaioe aeoiaey/e ?c
neooaoe??, ui neeaeany. I?eeeaaeii iiaea aooe aaaaeaiiy uii?ny/ii?
ca?oiino? uiaei caai?aiaaiino? ieaoaae?a aei athaeaeaoo ii i?i?noa?noaao
? a?aeiinoaao. Oea aeanoue ciiao i?aeaeueoe ia?niiaeueio
a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ea??aiee?a ye oeaio?aeueieo i?aai?a, oae ?
i?aei?e?inoa oa i?aai?caoe?e.

Aaaeeeai oaeiae aeoeai?oa aieeaaoe ia caaacia/aiiy iaoai?cio ?ic??aaiiy
eiio?aeo?a ?c ea??aieeaie i?aei?e?inoa, ui ia aeeiiothoue ciaia’ycaiue
ia?aae athaeaeaoii, oa iaieioaiiy oaeeo i?aei?e?inoa aaie?ooaie.

O?eaa? oeaia i?aeoeea ca?aooaaiiy ia i?noeaa? iio?aae cia/ieo noi
aeioiae?a, ui iaeaaeaoue aea?aeaaiiio athaeaeaoo, oeyoii ii?ooaiiy
ii?iaoea?a a?ae?aooaaiue. Oi??e ?c 20 iaeanoae aei aea?aeaaiiai
athaeaeaoo ia iaae?eoei 30% iaaeoiaeaeaiue ieaoe ca caieth ia noio
iiiaae 28 iei. a?i. C ieo ii athaeaeaoao Aaoiiiiii? ?anioae?ee E?ei — 7
iei. a?i., Aeiiaoeueei? iaeano? — iiiaae 4 iei. a?i., Eoaainueei? —
iaeaea 4 iei. a?i., Oiaeueieoeueei? iaeano? — 3 iei. a?i.

O?iainiaei i?aaiai oeeo iaeanoae ?acii ?c i?noeaaeie i?aaiaie aeaaee
o?aaa i?aoethaaoe iaae ia?iuoaaiiyi aeiiii?/iiai iioaioe?aeo iaeanoae,
ciaoiaeeoe aeani? aeaea?aea oi?ioaaiiy aeio?aeii? /anoeie nai?o
athaeaeao?a, ciaiooaaoe caeaaei?noue a?ae oeaio?ae?ciaaieo aeaea?ae
aea?aeaae.

Noaiii ia 1 n?/iy 1997 ?. caai?aiaai?noue i?noeaaeo athaeaeao?a ia?aae
aea?aeaaiei noaiiaeea iaeaea 484 iei. a?i., ?c ieo ii Aaoiiiii?e
?anioae?oe? E?ei — 138,2 iei. a?i., aeaeaoeiaa /anoeia athaeaeaoo yei?
aeeiiaia iaeaea ia 114%, a aeio?aeia — eeoa ia 92, ii Eoaainuee?e
iaeano? — 60,8 iei. a?i. ? a?aeiia?aeii 106 ? 95%, Aeiiaoeuee?e — 60,6
iei. a?i., 99 ? 97%, Aei?i?iiao?ianuee?e — 43,0 iei. a?i., 100 ? 92% oa
ii Ee?anuee?e iaeano? — 27,9 iei. a?i. ? a?aeiia?aeii 112 ? 104 %.

E??i oiai, a Aaoiiiii?e ?anioae?oe? E?ei i?e iayaiino? cia/ii?
caai?aiaaiino? c aeieaoe ca?ia?oii? ieaoe i?aoe?aieeai athaeaeaoieo
i?aai?caoe?e oa ?ioeo nioe?aeueieo aeieao ?icii?yaeaeaiiyie ?aaee
I?i?no??a Aaoiiiiii? ?anioae?ee E?ei o 1996 ?. aeae?eyeeny i?eueaia?
e?aaeeoe eiia?oe?eiei i?aai?caoe?yi.

O?yae Aaoiiiiii? ?anioae?ee E?ei oaeiae iaaeaa a?aeno?i/ee
i?aei?e?inoaai ? i?aai?caoe?yi ?c iioi/ieo ieaoaae?a aei athaeaeaoo ia
caaaeueio noio 3841 oen. a?i., o oiio /ene?: AAO “N?ioa?iiieuenueeee
caaiae ieanoian” — ia 15 oen. a?i., Oaiaein?enueeiio iioe/iiio caaiaeo —
ia 76 oen. a?i., E?einueeiio a?aeae?eaiith I?eaei?i?ianueei? cae?cieoe?
— ia 3750 oen. a?i.

Onueiai aaci?aenoaaii aeo?a/aii iaeaea 5 iei. a?i. athaeaeaoieo eioo?a.
Ia aeiaaeeiai, ui athaeaeao Aaoiiiiii? ?anioae?ee E?ei iaaeiaeeiiaiith
aeioiae?a ia 8,4%, caoa c aeaeaoe?a ia?aaeeiiaii ia 14%.

Oeueiio o?aaa iieeanoe e?ae. Naia aiae?oe/ia ?iaioa o?iaineno?a iaoi?
nenoaie aaciina?aaeiuei a ainiiaea?nueeeo no?oeoo?ao iiaeiia aooe iaeiei
c iniiaieo iaoai?ci?a aieeao ia aeiiii?eo, caa?aaeaiiy aea?aeaaieo
o?iainiaeo ?ano?n?a. Oea iaeiicia/ii cao?eniaaii a ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaeo
caaaeueiiaea?aeaaieo ? a?aeii/eo aeieoiaioao, oeueiai aeiaaathoue a?ae
ian i?aceaeaionuee? oa o?yaeia? ??oaiiy ? oea o?aaa ?iaeoe ii/eiath/e c
oeaio?aeueiiai aia?aoo, ia?aaeon?i ?c aieiaieo oi?aae?iue i?i?noa?noaa.

Ne?ae cacia/eoe, ui a ?yae? iaeanoae iacaaeia?eueii i?iaiaeeeanue ?iaioa
uiaei noyaiaiiy o?iainiaeo naieoe?e. Oae, i?aaiaie Aea?aeaaiiai
eacia/aenoaa a Aeiiaoeuee?e iaeano? ia?aoiaaii o?iainiaeo naieoe?e ia
21,3 iei. a?i., a noyaiooi eeoa 7,4 oen. a?i. (0,03%), A?iieoeuee?e
iaeano? — ia?aoiaaii 1,8 iei. a?i., noyaiooi 24,4 oen. a?i. (1,3%). O
iaaeao 6—8% noyaiooi o?iainia? naieoe?? i?aaiaie Aea?aeaaiiai
eacia/aenoaa a Caii??cuee?e iaeano? (6,1%), ?aaii-O?aie?anuee?e (7,6%),
Oa?niinuee?e (6,7%), *a?eanuee?e (8,1%), o i?noao Ee?a? oa Naaanoiiie?
(7,7 ? 7,2%).

A oiiaao aeao?oeeoo athaeaeaoo o?iainoaaiiy aeo?ao cae?enithaaeiny a
iaaeao iaaeoiaeaeaiiy aeioiae?a a?aeiia?aeii aei aeaeaoe?a,
caoaa?aeaeaieo Caeiiii Oe?a?ie “I?i Aea?aeaaiee athaeaeao Oe?a?ie ia
1996 ??e”, c o?aooaaiiyi caaacia/aiiy ia?oi/a?aiaeo iio?aa nioe?aeueiiai
caoenoo ianaeaiiy oa nioe?aeueii-eoeueoo?ii? noa?e.

Aeaeaoee aea?aeaaiiai athaeaeaoo ca 1996 ?. i?io?iainiaai? ia 81,5%
??/ieo i?ecia/aiue, iaaeio?iainiaaii aeaeaoe?a ia 5,9 ie?ae. a?i.

Ia i?ioeaaao oeueiio i?noeaa? athaeaeaoe aeeiiaii iaeaea ia 103%.
??aaiue o?iainoaaiiy aeaeaoe?a ii nioe?aeueii-eoeueoo?ieo onoaiiaao
noaiiaeoue 113,1%.

Aeao?oeeo, o?aoiaaiee o ?ic?aooieao i?e caoaa?aeaeaii? aea?aeaaiiai
athaeaeaoo a noi? 4,6 iei. a?i., i?io?iainiaaii a noi? 3,6 iei. a?i.,
aai ia 78,5%. Ca ?aooiie aioo??oi?o aea?aeaaieo iicee i?io?iainiaaii 1,6
ie?ae. a?i., aai 104,7%.

Iaaeoi iaei oa?eoi??aeueieo i?aai?a Aea?aeaaiiai eacia/aenoaa
i?iaiaeyoue ?iaioo uiaei ooi/iaiiy niene?a ieaoiee?a
caaaeueiiaea?aeaaieo iiaeaoe?a ? cai??a, ui iiaeathoueny onoaiiaai
aaie?a iiaeaoeiaeie aaei?i?no?aoe?yie ? o?iainiaeie i?aaiaie. Oei /anii
iathoue i?noea oaeoe, eiee a nieneao ieaoiee?a iiaeaoe?a, ui ?
ii?ooaiiyi /eiiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa, i?aei?e?inoaa eieaeoeaii?, i?eaaoii?
oa aea?aeaaii? oi?ie aeaniino? aeeth/aeeny aei eiioiaeueii? aeaniino? e
ieaoaae? niea/oaaeeny aei i?noeaaeo athaeaeao?a. O?eueee o i?no? Iao?oei
Oiaeueieoeueei? iaeano? ieaoaae? 157 oaeeo i?aei?e?inoa iaiaa?oioiaaii
aoee ca?aoiaai? aei i?noeaaiai athaeaeaoo ia caaaeueio noio 22,7 oen.
a?i. Aiaeia?/ii a Caii??cuee?e iaeano? ieaoaae? c i?eaooeo 86
i?aei?e?inoa iaiaa?oioiaaii ca?aoiaai? aei i?noeaaeo athaeaeao?a o noi?
1,2 iei. a?i.

A?aeiii, ui iaeiei ?c aeaea?ae iaiiaiaiiy aeio?aeii? /anoeie athaeaeao?a
? ieaoa ca aeaea/o e?oeaic?e, na?oeo?eao?a, iaoaio?a ia i?aai
?aae?caoe?? ie?aieo aeae?a oiaa??a.

I?iaaaeaieie ia?aa??eaie anoaiiaeaii, ui ia 6 oeny/ao i?aei?e?inoa
oi?a?ae? iaia? niaoe?aeueieo aeicaie?a ia oi?a?aeth ie?aieie aeaeaie
(a?oiaie) oiaa??a. Iaia? oeeo aeicaie?a ? ia oa?eoi??? Iieoaanueei?
iaeano? o 1257 th?eaee/ieo oa o?ce/ieo in?a, i. Ee?aa — o 708,
Aei?i?iiao?ianueei? iaeano? — o 543 noa’?eo?a i?aei?e?iieoeueei?
ae?yeueiino?.

Iaea?eueoo e?euee?noue ii?ooaiue aeio?eiaiiy aeiia /eiiiai
caeiiiaeaanoaa i?ae /an ?aae?caoe?? aeeiaieueieo iaii?a oa othothiiaeo
ae?ia?a aeiiouaii o Oa?e?anuee?e, Iaeanuee?e iaeanoyo oa Aaoiiiii?e
?anioae?oe? E?ei.

Oaeeooy a?aeiia?aeieo caoiae?a aei ii?ooiee?a caeiiiaeaanoaa iaaiei
/eiii noeioethaaei noa’?eo?a i?aei?e?iieoeueei? ae?yeueiino? i?eaeaaoe
niaoeaeicaiee. sseui ca ca?oii Aieiaiiai oi?aae?iiy Aea?aeaaiiai
eacia/aenoaa Oe?a?ie caaaeueia noia ieaoaae?a ca aeaea/o an?o aeae?a
e?oeaic?e oa na?oeo?eao?a, ui iaae?eoea aei aea?aeaaiiai athaeaeaoo ca
n?/aiue — na?iaiue ieioeiai ?ieo, noaiiaeea 8,7 iei. a?i., oi o?eueee ca
aa?anaiue — a?oaeaiue — 16 iei. a?i.

O/anoue o?iainiaeo i?aai?a o i?iaaaeaii? aeacaieo ?ia?o iiaeiia o?eaaoe
e aeae?. Aiae?c ?acoeueoao?a ia?aa??ie ia? aooe aeaea?aeii ?ioi?iaoe??
aeey i?aai?a i?noeaai? aeaaee uiaei i?aeaioiaee i?iiiceoe?e ? aaeeooy
eiie?aoieo caoiae?a, ni?yiiaaieo ia iiia?aaeaeaiiy oa aee?eooy oea o
oi?a?ae?, e?ea?aeaoe?th iai?aai?ciaaieo ?? oi?i, aeaaaeaiiy c o?iueiaiai
iai?ioo ae?yeueiino? ie?aieo noa’?eo?a i?aei?e?inoaa.

A?aenooi?noth aoaeue-yei? i?aai?caoe?? ?iaioe, iiaiith ao?aoith
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? e eiio?ieth iiaeia aaaaeaoe ae?? Aeiiaoeueeiai
iaeo?ioi?aae?iiy.

Iauiaeaaii i?iaaaeaiith I?i?noa?noaii o?iain?a Oe?a?ie ia?aa??eith
i?aaeeueiino? aeei?enoaiiy athaeaeaoieo, iicaathaeaeaoieo ? aaethoieo
eioo?a o Aeiiaoeuee?e iaeano? anoaiiaeaii, ui c iia/acii? caiaee
iaeo?ioi?aae?iiy, oae ae iiaeoe, ia i/ao o eiio?ieueii-?aa?c?eieo,
eacia/aenueeeo i?aai?a, ye i?noeaaeo, oae ? oeaio?aeueieo, o 1994—1996
??. aeanyoee i?eueeii?a a?eaaiue, o oiio /ene? oeo, ui iaeaaeaee
aea?aeaaiiio athaeaeaoo, aeei?enoiaoaaeeny ia ca oe?eueiaei
i?ecia/aiiyi, ia iacaeiii? aeieaoe ca?ia?oii? ieaoe, i?eueaia? (o ?yae?
aeiaaee?a aaciiai?ioi?) e?aaeeoe ??ciei eiia?oe?eiei no?oeoo?ai.

? oea a oie /an, eiee caai?aiaai?noue ii nioe?aeueii-eoeueoo?ieo
onoaiiaao iaeano? noaiiaeea ia 01.01.96 iiiaae 92 iei. a?i., c ieo ?c
ca?ia?oii? ieaoe — iaeaea 21 iei. a?i. Aea?aeaaiiio athaeaeaoo iaeanoue
aeiia nueiaiaei? 60 iei. a?i. Ia aeeaii, ui a ?aa?ii? ?nio? aino?a
nioe?aeueia iai?oaeaiiy.

Aea iaea?eueoa aeeao? aaci?eioeeiia iiceoe?y ea??aieoeoaa
Aieiao?ioi?aae?iiy. Iaa?oue oaea i?ney i?iaaaeaiiy ?aa?c?? iei ia aoei
aaeeoi ae?eiaeo caoiae?a uiaei aei?aaeaiiy oaei? neooaoe??. Eieaa?y
aeaea i?eioeeiiao ioe?ieo ae?yi ea??aieoeoaa Aeiiaoeueeiai
iaeo?ioi?aae?iiy, aeaeaii a?aeiia?aeiee iaeac ?c oeueiai i?eaiaeo.

Ea??aieee a?aeiia?aeieo o?iainiaeo no?oeoo? ianooue ia?niiaeueio
a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca noai ni?aa ?c aeei?enoaiiyi ca i?ecia/aiiyi ?
caa?aaeaiiyi athaeaeaoieo ? iicaathaeaeaoieo eioo?a ia i?aeeiio?ieueieo
oa?eoi??yo. I?ioyaii ? eaa?oaeo iioi/iiai ?ieo ne?ae caaacia/eoe
i?iaaaeaiiy niaoe?aeueieo ia?aa??ie uiaei iayaiino? oaeo?a ?ici?uaiiy
athaeaeaoieo eioo?a ia aeaiiceoieo ?aooieao a onoaiiaao aaie?a ?
no?aoiaeo i?aaiao.

Aeanyoee i?eueeii?a a?eaaiue ao?a/athoueny athaeaeaoii /a?ac a?ae
eiio?ieth ca noaiii iaaeoiaeaeaiiy ieaoaae?a ca i?aiaeo aea?aeaaiiai
iaeia. Ii/eiath/e c 1992 ?., a?aeiia?aeii aei Caeiio Oe?a?ie “I?i
i?aiaeo aea?aeaaiiai iaeia”, i?eeiyoiai 10.04.92, cia/ia e?euee?noue
aea?aeaaieo i?aei?e?inoa (oe?e?nieo iaeiiaeo eiiieaen?a) ??cieo aaeocae
ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa Oe?a?ie io?eiaee iiaeeea?noue ia?aeoe ia
i?aiaeo. Iinoaiiaaie Eaa?iaoo I?i?no??a Oe?a?ie a?ae 12.11.93 ? 23 oa
04.10.95 ? 786 caoaa?aeaeai? iaoiaeeea ?ic?aooieo ? ii?yaeie
aeei?enoaiiy ieaoe ca i?aiaeo aea?aeaaiiai iaeia, ca?aeii c yeeie aei
a?aeiia?aeieo athaeaeao?a ia niaoe?aeuei? ?aooiee iiaeii? iaaeoiaeeoe
cia/i? eiooe. Aea oey ?iaioa ia ciaeoea iaaii? i?aeo?eiee ia i?noeyo.

I?i?noa?noai o?iain?a iaiaeii?aciai io?eio? aei?o/aiiy Eaa?iaoo
I?i?no??a Oe?a?ie uiaei iiaeeeaino? a?aooaaiiy ai?a?a ia?aae athaeaeaoii
(i?aiaeia ieaoa, *i?iiaeeuenueeee oiiae, iiaeaoie ia aeiaeaio aa?o?noue
oa ?io? ieaoaae?) ca ?aooiie ciaioaiiy /anoee iaeia i?aiaea?y, yea aoea
i?eaeaaia ca ia??iae i?aiaee, oa a?aeiia?aeiiai ca?eueoaiiy aea?aeaaii?
/anoee iaeia ia oeth noio.

Caai?aiaai?noue aei athaeaeaoo ia iiaeiia iie?eaaoeny ca ?aooiie
ca?eueoaiiy aea?aeaaii? /anoee aeoe?e. Ne?ae o?aooaaoe, ui no?iee
aeoe?iioaaiiy i?aei?e?inoa oa i?eaaoecaoe?? aea?aeaaii? /anoee aeoe?e,
yea cae?enith?oueny oeyoii ?o i?iaeaaeo ca?aeii c ieaiii ?ici?uaiiy
aeoe?e, ye i?aaeei, ia aecia/ai?, a i?iaeaae aeoe?e ia aoeoe?ii? ca
eiooe ia? aeoaea iaeo ieoiio aaao (i?eaeecii 5% a?ae on?o aeoe?e).
I?aei?e?inoaa, ye? ?aioaaaeuei? aai iathoue ??aaiue ?aioaaaeueiino?
iiiaae 25% a?ae ianyao ae?iaieoeoaa, iiaeii? iaia’yceiai ia?aae ci?iith
oi?ie aeaniino? iiai?noth ?ic?aooaaoeny c athaeaeaoii. I?aiaei?
i?aei?e?inoaa c aaeeeei niaaeii ae?iaieoeoaa, aacia?niaeoeai?, caeoeia?
iiaeii? ia?aaeaaaoeny ia ?icaeyae Aaaionoaa c aaie?oonoaa ?c iiaeaeueoei
?icaeyaeii ca anoaiiaeaiei ii?yaeeii.

Iaaeinoaoiuei aoei aaeeoi caoiae?a uiaei onoiaiiy iaaaoeaieo oaiaeaioe?e
c?inoaiiy caai?aiaaiino? ?c ?ic?aooie?a ca iaaeai? eiioiaeuei? iineoae
i?aei?e?inoaai, i?aai?caoe?yi ? ianaeaiith. Ia i?iaiaeyoueny
nenoaiaoe/iee aiae?c ? ia?aa??ee noaio ni?aa ?c oeueiai ieoaiiy, ia
aiae?cothoueny i?e/eie aeiiouaiiy caai?aiaaiino?, ia aiinyoueny
i?iiiceoe?? uiaei iie?ioaiiy ?ic?aooie?a.

Ca ieioeee ??e caaaeueia noia e?aaeeoi?nueei? caai?aiaaiino?
i?aei?e?inoa ? i?aai?caoe?e nenoaie Aea?aeaeeoeieiioiainio, ui
iaeaaeaoue aei eiioiaeueii? aeaniino?, c?inea o 2,5 ?aca ? noaiiaeea 3,1
ie?ae. a?i., o oiio /ene? ca aia?aiiin?? — o 2,1 ?aca ? noaiiaeea 1,6
ie?ae. a?i., ?c ieo ca aac— 1,2 ie?ae. a?i., aeaeo?iaia?a?th — 0,4
ie?ae. a?i.

Caaaeueia noia aeaa?oi?nueei? caai?aiaaiino? ca oeae aea ia??iae c?inea
o 2,8 ?aca ? noaiiaeea 3 ie?ae. a?i., ?c ieo ii aini?ic?aooieiaeo
i?aei?e?inoaao — 1,1 ie?ae. a?i., athaeaeaoieo onoaiiaao — 0,8 ie?ae.
a?i.

Noaiii ia 1 n?/iy 1997 ?. iniaeeai aaeeeeo ?ici???a aeinyaea
e?aaeeoi?nueea caai?aiaai?noue o Aei?i?iiao?ianuee?e iae. — 456,3 iei.
a?i., Oa?e?anuee?e — 369 iei. a?i., Aeiiaoeuee?e — 386,7 iei. a?i.,
Eoaainuee?e — 260 iei. a?i., Caii??cuee?e — 216,6 iei. a?i. Oe? iaeano?
iathoue ? iaea?eueo? noie aeaa?oi?nueei? caai?aiaaiino?, cie?aia a
Aei?i?iiao?ianuee?e — 333,6 iei. a?i., Oa?e?anuee?e — 316,3 iei. a?i.,
Aeiiaoeuee?e —355 iei. a?i.

Caai?aiaai?noue ianaeaiiy c iieaoe ca aeeoeiai-eiioiaeuei? iineoae, ui
ia 10 a?oaeiy 1996 ?. o ii??aiyii? c 10 eeiiy 1996 ?. ca?eueoeeany c 0,5
ie?ae. a?i. aei 1,8 ie?ae. a?i., noaiiaeoue 43% aei ia?aoiaaieo noi.
Cia/ii c?inea aiia o Oa?e?anuee?e iaeano? — 206,5 iei. a?i.,
Aeiiaoeuee?e — 236,1 iei. a?i., Aei?i?iiao?ianuee?e — 193 iei. a?i.,
Eoaainuee?e — 144,4 iei. a?i. oa ?ioeo iaeanoyo.

A Oe?a?i? iiiaae 52% eaa?oe?iiaeia/?a — iaieaoieee. Oeae ??aaiue
ia?aaeueee 11 iaeanoae ? i?noi Ee?a, cie?aia ii Ee?ao a?i noaiiaeoue
60%, ii Oa?e?anuee?e iaeano? — 59, Eoaainuee?e — 60, ?aaii-O?aie?anuee?e
— 69%.

Iniiaia i?e/eia c?inoaiiy caai?aiaaiino? — i?aeaeuaiiy oa?eo?a ia
aeeoeiai-eiioiaeuei? iineoae aeey ianaeaiiy c 1 na?iiy aei 80% ?o
aa?oino?.

Iniaeeao oaaao c aieo iaeaea?aeaaei?i?no?aoe?e iaiao?aeii caa?iooe ia
noai ?ic?aooie?a ca niiaeeoee i?aei?e?inoaaie, i?aai?caoe?yie oa
ianaeaiiyi i?e?iaeiee aac, caai?aiaai?noue yeeo noaiii ia 1 n?/iy 1997
?. noaiiaeoue 1,7 ie?ae. a?i., ?c ieo i?aei?e?inoa eiioiaeueiiai iiaooo
— 564,8 iei. a?i., athaeaeaoieo onoaiia ? i?aai?caoe?e — 55,2 iei. a?i.,
ianaeaiiy — 553 iei. a?i.

Iaea?eueoeo ?ici???a caai?aiaai?noue aeinyaea o Eoaainuee?e iaeano? —
123,9 iei. a?i., Aei?i?iiao?ianuee?e — 256,7 iei. a?i., Iieoaanuee?e —
121,3 iei. a?i., Caii??cuee?e — 123,7 iei. a?i., Euea?anuee?e iaeano? —
165,8 iei. a?i.

On?i a?aeiii, ye aino?i iei? noi?oue ieoaiiy nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo
ianaeaiiy, aeieaoe ca?ia?oii? ieaoe. I?ioa aieea ia iie?ioaiiy neooaoe??
c iaoiai aieo /a?ac oaeeooy caoiae?a o i?ioean? o?iainoaaiiy oa
oe?eueiaiai aeei?enoaiiy eioo?a o noa?? aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueiiai
ainiiaea?noaa ? iaaeaiiy iineoa th?eaee/iei ? o?ce/iei iniaai
iaaeinoaoi?e.

I?iaaaeai? a eenoiiaae?—a?oaei? ieioeiai ?ieo ia?aa??ee aeei?enoaiiy
eioo?a ia iaaeaiiy ianaeaiith aeeoeiaeo noaneae?e na?ae/aoue, ui a
ia?aooaaii? noaneae?e ? oe?eueiaiio aeei?enoaii? eioo?a ia oeth iaoo ?
nooo?a? oeae.

Oae, o Ee?anuee?e iaeano? a 1996 ?. aeae?eai? ia iaaeaiiy noaneae?e
eiooe a noi? 13,5 oen. a?i. aeei?enoaee a ie?aieo ?aeiiao ia ca?ia?oio
ieaoo i?aoe?aieeai oa oo?eiaiiy neoaeae c iaaeaiiy noaneae?e. O
Noinuee?e iaeano? c oeeo eioo?a ia aeieaoo ca?ia?oii? ieaoe
i?aoe?aieeaie aeaii? neoaeae aeei?enoaii 2,3 oen. a?eaaiue. Iaee i?noea
oeae o ia?aooaaii? noaneae?e ianaeaiith, oi?ioaaii? oa canoinoaaii?
oa?eo?a ia aeeoeiai-eiioiaeuei? iineoae oiui. O?iainiaei ?
eacia/aenueeei i?aaiai ne?ae iineeeoe aiae?oe/io ?iaioo, cai?iaaaeeoe
nenoaiaoe/iee eiio?ieue ca i?aaeeueiei ? oe?eueiaei aeei?enoaiiyi
athaeaeaoieo eioo?a ia iaaeaiiy aeeoeiaeo noaneae?e ianaeaiith.

I?iaaaeaieie a /a?ai?—eeii? 1996 ?. ia?aa??eaie i?aaeeueiino? oa
aoaeoeaiino? aeo?a/aiiy eioo?a Aea?aeaaiiai oiiaeo ni?eyiiy caeiyoino?
ianaeaiiy anoaiiaeaii, ui ea??aieee oeaio??a caeiyoino? ia caaacia/eee
/?oeiai aeeiiaiiy aeiia /eiiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa uiaei aeei?enoaiiy
aea?aeaaieo eioo?a. Oe? aaaeeea? ieoaiiy nai?/anii e ?aoaeueii ia
aea/aeeny, iaaeinoaoiuei cae?enithaaeenue caoiaee uiaei iiia?aaeaeaiiy
ceiaaeeaaiue, noai?iai aeio?eiaiiy noaoooieo aeiia.

I?e aeei?enoaii? eioo?a oiiaeo iaee i?noea /eneaii? ii?ooaiiy o?iainiai?
aeenoeeie?ie, oaeoe ianai?/aniiai iiaa?iaiiy aai iaiiaa?iaiiy iaaeaieo
aeaiiceoieo ? e?aaeeoieo ?ano?n?a, a oaeiae i?ioeaio?a ca ?o
ei?enooaaiiy.

Ea??aieee onoaiia ? i?aai?caoe?e aeo?a/athoue eiooe ia aeaniee ?icnoae,
ei?enooth/enue aacae?yeuei?noth o?iainiaeo, eacia/aenueeeo ?
eiio?ieueii-?aa?c?eieo i?aai?a. Oae, ?aa?c??th iaeaniiai oi?aae?iiy
nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo ianaeaiiy A?iieoeueei? iaeaea?aeaaei?i?no?aoe??
anoaiiaeaii, ui i?ioyaii 1995— 1996 ??. athaeaeaoi? eiooe a noi? 202,3
oen. a?i., ni?yiiaai? ia nioe?aeueiee caoeno ianaeaiiy, aeei?enoai? ia
?aiiio aaei?i?no?aoeaiiai i?ei?uaiiy oa i?eaeaaiiy iaae?a. Ia/aeueieea
oi?aae?iiy ca?eueiaii c ?iaioe, i?ioe iueiai ii?ooaii e?ei?iaeueio
ni?aao.

Aiaeii/an aeiionea?oueny caai?aiaai?noue ?c aeieaoe iain?e a?ae aeaio
aei o?ueio i?nyoe?a.

O 1997 ?. iaiao?aeii caaacia/eoe iino?eiee eiio?ieue ca oe?eueiaei ?
aoaeoeaiei aeo?a/aiiyi aea?aeaaieo eioo?a, i?ecia/aieo ia nioe?aeueia
caaacia/aiiy a?iiaaeyi. Caaeey oeueiai iathoue aooe i?aai?ciaai?
ia?aa??ee aeo?a/aiiy athaeaeaoieo aneaioaaiue o aoaeeieao-?ioa?iaoao oa
aaciina?aaeiuei a Iain?eiiio oiiae?. Ia?aa??ie ia iiaeiia oieeaoe e
eiio?ieueii-?aa?c?eia neoaeaa.

I?e iaiaaeaiino? ieaoaae?a *i?iiaeeuenueeiai oiiaeo oi??e iino?eii ia
niaoe?aeueieo ?aooieao oeueiai oiiaeo a oa?eoi??aeueieo oi?aae?iiyo
Aea?aeaaiiai eacia/aenoaa Aieeinueei?, *a?i?aaoeueei? ? Oa?e?anueei?
iaeanoae aoee cia/i? caeeoee eioo?a o ?ici??? a?ae 10 aei 30% a?ae
ia?a?aoiaaieo ia cacia/ai? ?aooiee eioo?a oiiaeo. A ?acoeueoao?
ianai?/anii aoee i?iaaaeai? ?ic?aooiee c i?aei?e?inoaaie, onoaiiaaie oa
i?aai?caoe?yie uiaei a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy ?i aeo?ao, iia’ycaieo ?c iaaeaiiyi
i?euea, aeieaoith eiiiainaoe?e ? aeiiiiiae i?aoe?aieeai, yeei iaaeaii
noaoon oaeeo, ui iino?aaeaeaee a?ae *i?iiaeeuenueei? eaoano?ioe. Ia ia
iaeaaeiiio ??ai? i?iaiaeeoueny i?aai?caoe?eia ?
eiio?ieueii-iaoiaeieia?/ia ?iaioa uiaei caaacia/aiiy aeeiiaiiy aeiia
Caeiio Oe?a?ie “I?i Aea?aeaaiee athaeaeao Oe?a?ie ia 1996 ??e” o /anoei?
i?eaaaeaiiy ooao?a, eiioeiaaio?a ? ia?aae? onoaiia o a?aeiia?aei?noue ?c
caoaa?aeaeaieie ianyaaie aneaioaaiue oa iinoaiiaith Eaa?iaoo I?i?no??a
Oe?a?ie ? Iaoe?iiaeueiiai aaieo a?ae C? na?iiy 1996 ?. ? 1033 “I?i
caoiaee uiaei caeo/aiiy aeiaeaoeiaeo iaaeoiaeaeaiue aei athaeaeaoo oa
i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? aeo?a/aiiy athaeaeaoieo eioo?a aeey
caaacia/aiiy o?iainoaaiiy nioe?aeueieo aeieao ianaeaiith”.

sse na?ae/aoue iiia?aaei? ?ic?aooiee, ca 1996 ?. i/?eothoueny
ia?aaeo?aoe e?i?oo oiiaeo ca?ia?oii? ieaoe, caoaa?aeaeaiiai i?noeaaeie
?aaeaie ii onoaiiaao ina?oe, ia noio aeecueei 280 iei. a?i., aai 20,7%
aei ??/iiai ieaio. A ii aea?aeaaiiio athaeaeaoo i/?eothoueny ia?aaeo?aoe
a noi? III iei. a?i., aai 23,1%.

Ii caeeaaeao ioi?iie caei?ia’y i?noeaaiai i?aeii?yaeeoaaiiy oae?
ia?aaeo?aoe noaiiaeoeiooue 148 iei. a?i., aai 11% aei ??/ieo
i?ecia/aiue.

I?iaaaeaiith ?aa?c??th iaaeeei-naiaoi?ii? /anoeie ae?iaie/iai
ia’?aeiaiiy a?aee?eoiai aeoe?iia?iiai oiaa?enoaa “*aCa?a” *a?i?a?anueei?
iaeano? anoaiiaeaii, ui a ?? ooaoiiio ?icien? ia 1996 ?. caoaa?aeaeaii
?C caeaeo ooaoieo iaeeieoeue ?c i?ny/iei oiiaeii ca?ieaoe 6 oen. a?i.,
yeei ca 1995—1996 ??. aeiea/aii ca?ia?oii? ieaoe a noi? 49 oen. a?i.
E??i oiai, ia ii?ooaiiy ?icii?yaeaeaiiy ia/aeueieea iaeaniiai oi?aae?iiy
ioi?iie caei?ia’y i?i e?ea?aeaoe?th a?eaaaeii? oi?ie iieaoe i?aoe? ua
aeiaai ?nioaaea oaea oi?ia, aiane?aeie /iai c ea?oiy aei /a?aiy 1996 ?.
aaci?aenoaaii aeiea/aii ca?ieaoe o noi? 14 oen. a?i.

Iaea?eueo? ia?aaeo?aoe oiiaeo ca?ia?oii? ieaoe a onoaiiaao ina?oe
i/?eothoueny ii athaeaeaoo *a?eanueei? iaeano? — 67,9%, Iieoaanueei? —
53,3, A?iieoeueei? — 40% ??/ieo noi. Aiaeii/an o *a?eanuee?e ?
Iieoaanuee?e iaeanoyo oeae iieaciee aoei ciaioaii i?noeaaeie ?aaeaie
i?ae /an caoaa?aeaeaiiy athaeaeaoo.

Ia ocaiaeaeai? iio?aae a eiooao ia nioe?aeuei? aeieaoe ?c
caoaa?aeaeaieie athaeaeaoaie aneaioaaiiyie ? ii onoaiiaao eoeueoo?e, aea
caai?aiaai?noue ?c ca?ia?oii? ieaoe ca 1996 ?. noaiiaeea iiiaae 56 iei.
a?i.

Iacaaaeath/e ia oea, ia i?noeyo ca o/anoth, a ?ieiee e c iiaea/?
o?ii?aai?a i?iaaaeyoueny nayoeoaaiiy tha?eaeieo aeao i?no, ??ci?
eiieo?ne oa oe?ieiianooaai? oaao?ae?ciaai? caoiaee.

Oi/o iaaieineoe, ui Eaa?iao I?i?no??a Oe?a?ie iinoaiiaith a?ae CI n?/iy
1997 ?. ? 90 “I?i noai aeeiiaiiy iinoaiiae Eaa?iaoo I?i?no??a Oe?a?ie ?
Iaoe?iiaeueiiai aaieo Oe?a?ie a?ae C? na?iiy 1996 ?. ? 1033” aeciaa
?iaioo i?i?noa?noa, ?ioeo oeaio?aeueieo i?aai?a aeeiiaa/i? aeaaee, ?aaee
I?i?no??a Aaoiiiiii? ?anioae?ee E?ei, i?noeaaeo i?aai?a aeeiiaa/i?
aeaaee a oeueiio iai?yieo iaaeinoaoiueith.

sse a?aeiii, Aa?oiaia ?aaea Oe?a?ie i?eeiyea Caeii Oe?a?ie “I?i ii?yaeie
o?iainoaaiiy aeaeaoe?a c Aea?aeaaiiai athaeaeaoo o 1997 ?ioe? aei
i?eeiyooy Caeiio Oe?a?ie “I?i Aea?aeaaiee athaeaeao Oe?a?ie ia 1997
??e”. Aeoeaio c?iaeaii ia iaiao?aeiino? caaacia/aiiy ia?oi/a?aiaiai
o?iainoaaiiy aeaeaoe?a ia nioe?aeueiee caoeno ianaeaiiy, ca?ia?oio
ieaoo, iain??, noeiaiae??, a?ioiaa caaacia/aiiy, i?eaeaaiiy
iaaeeeaiaio?a oa aia?ai?ano?n?a.

Naia c oaeeo aeiia ne?ae aeoiaeeoe i?ae /an i?eeiyooy ??oaiue i?i
ii?yaeie o?iainoaaiiy aeaeaoe?a ca ?aooiie i?noeaaeo athaeaeao?a o
iioi/iiio ?ioe?.

Iaeaeeae/ei /anii o?yae caoaa?aeeoue Ii?yaeie neeaaeaiiy ?aeeiiai
eiooi?eno athaeaeaoii? onoaiiae, yeee ia?aaeaa/a? ii?aeiaiiy a
iioeiaeuei?e oi?i? aeanieo ? athaeaeaoieo eioo?a o iaaeao onoaiiaeaieo
caeiiiaeaanoaii ii?iaoea?a ? o?iainiaeo iiaeeeainoae aea?aeaae ? aoaea
iniiaiei ea??aiei aeieoiaioii aeey cae?eniaiiy o?iainiai-ainiiaea?nueei?
ae?yeueiino? onoaiiae. C iaoith iaeneiaeueiiai caeo/aiiy aeanieo eioo?a
aeey o?iainoaaiiy ia?oi/a?aiaeo iio?aa onoaiia o?yaeii caoaa?aeaeaii
ia?ae?e ieaoieo iineoa, ui iiaeooue iaaeaaaoeny onoaiiaaie. Oaia? o?aaa,
uia iai?/ai? caoiaee aoee i?aee??ieai? iaeaaeiith i?aai?caoi?nueeith
?iaioith.

Oi??e i?iaaaeaieie ?aa?c?yie ? ia?aa??eaie iaeaea a 25 oeny/ao
i?aei?e?inoa, onoaiia ? i?aai?caoe?e (aai a eiaeiiio o?aoueiio c
ia?aa??aieo) onoaiiaeaii oaeoe iacaeiiiiai aeo?a/aiiy, iaaeinoa/,
?ice?aaeaiue eioo?a ? iaoa??aeueieo oe?iiinoae, a oaeiae caieaeaiiy oa
i?eoiaoaaiiy iaeaaeieo athaeaeaoo ieaoaae?a ia caaaeueio noio 1,2 ie?ae.
a?i., ui a 4,4 ?aca a?eueoa, i?ae aoei aeyaeaii o 1995 ?.

Iaeiei ?c i??i?eoaoieo iai?yie?a uiaei caaacia/aiiy o?iainiaeie ?
iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/ieie ?ano?naie ieioeiai ?ieo aoa aa?ii?iieneiaee
eiiieaen. Ia aeeiiaiiy caoiae?a ?c aeiei??iii? ia?aaoaeiae ae?iaie/eo
a?aeiinei a AIE, i?iaaaeaiiy caiaeueii? ?aoi?ie, caaacia/aiiy
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy naea oa i?aeo?eiee ae?iaiee?a
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? i?iaeoeoe?? a 1996 ?. ia?aaeaa/aeiny
ni?yioaaoe c athaeaeaoo 1,7 ie?ae. a?i., aai 44,1% caaaeueii? noie
aeaeaoe?a ia ia?iaeia ainiiaea?noai. Ia?aaeaa/ai? aeaeaoee ia ?icaeoie
aa?ii?iieneiaiai eiiieaeno i?io?iainiaaii ia 70,5%.

Iaeiae athaeaeaoi? eiooe, ui ia?aaeaa/athoueny ia ?icaeoie
aa?ii?iieneiaiai eiiieaeno, aeei?enoiaothoueny ia caaaeaee aoaeoeaii, a
a ie?aieo aeiaaeeao ? c ii?ooaiiyi caeiiiaeaanoaa. Cie?aia /a?ac
iaaeinoaoith ?iaioo i?aai?a Aea?aeaaiiai eacia/aenoaa uiaei ni?ai?aoe? c
i?aaiaie n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa i?e ?ici?uaii? aea?aeaaiiai
caiiaeaiiy ia a?aoiaoaaeeny iiaeeeaino? oiaa?iae?iaiee?a. sse iane?aeie,
ie?ai? oiaa?iae?iaieee noaiii ia 12.02.97 ?. caai?aoaaee ca io?eiai?
aaaine oa iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/i? ?ano?ne 68 iei. a?i., o oiio /ene?
Caii??cueei? iaeano? — 8,9 iei. a?i., Aei?i?iiao?ianueei? — 8,
E??iaia?aaenueei? — 6,4, A?iieoeueei? — 4,1 iei. a?i.

?c ia?aa??aieo 6767 i?aei?e?inoa, aai 47,7% caaaeueii? e?eueeino?, ui
oeeaee aeiaiai?e ia iinoaaeo ca?ia aei aea?ae?ano?n?a, 544 (8%)
aeiiouaii ii?ooaiiy caeiiiaeaanoaa. Cie?aia aeyaeaii aeiaaeee iaaeaiiy
aaain?a aai iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/ieo ?ano?n?a (iniaeeai oa?ia?ai) i?e
a?aenooiino? aeiaiai??a ia iinoaaeo ca?ia aei aea?aeaaieo ?ano?n?a. Oae,
a Aaoiiiii?e ?anioae?oe? E?ei II ainiiaea?noaai aac aeiaiai??a aeaeaii
aaain?a ia noio 421,3 oen. a?i. Oae? oaeoe aeiioneathoueny ? a ?ioeo
iaeanoyo.

Aeyaeai? oaeoe ii?ooaiue o aeei?enoaii? athaeaeaoieo eioo?a ia
o?iainoaaiiy caoiae?a a aa?ii?iieneiaiio eiiieaen? oa athaeaeaoii?
iice/ee i?ae caaio?aeth n?eueainii?iaeoeoe?? a aea?aeaai? ?ano?ne
na?ae/aoue i?i iaiao?aei?noue nenoaiaoe/iiai eiio?ieth c aieo o?iainiaeo
i?aai?a, i?aai?a Aea?aeaaiiai eacia/aenoaa oa eiio?ieueii-?aa?c?eieo
neoaea ca oe?eueiaei ? aoaeoeaiei aeei?enoaiiyi athaeaeaoieo
aneaioaaiue.

Ca ieioeee ??e ia oo?eiaiiy i?aai?a aeeiiaa/i? aeaaee a oe?eiio ii
Oe?a?i? aeo?a/aii eioo?a o noi? 0,2 ie?ae. a?i., aai a 2,8 ?aca a?eueoa
aneaioaaiue, o?aoiaaieo ia oeth iaoo a caaaeaiiio athaeaeao? Oe?a?ie.
Cie?aia a?eueo ye oo?e/? ia?aaeuaii oe? aneaioaaiiy a i?no? Ee?a?, a
Aeiiaoeuee?e, Caii??cuee?e, Ee?anuee?e, Eoaainuee?e, Iaeanuee?e,
Iieoaanuee?e oa Oa?e?anuee?e iaeanoyo, o 2 ?ace — o Aieeinuee?e,
Euea?anuee?e, Noinuee?e, *a?eanuee?e oa *a?i?a?anuee?e iaeanoyo.

Aiaeia?/ii aeo?aoe ia oo?eiaiiy i?noeaaeo aea?aeaaieo aaei?i?no?aoe?e a
ie?aieo aaei?i?no?aoeaii-oa?eoi??aeueieo iaeeieoeyo oaeiae ia?aaeueee
??/i? aneaioaaiiy ia ?o oo?eiaiiy, a?aoiaai? o caaaeaiiio athaeaeao?
Oe?a?ie, a oiio /ene? o i?no? Ee?a? ia 59,6%, i?no? Naaanoiiie? — ia
18,7, o Oa?e?anuee?e iaeano? — ia 15, Euea?anuee?e — ia 7,9,
Iieoaanuee?e — ia 5,9, Aeiiaoeuee?e — ia 3,9%.

Ieioeiai ?ieo aeiiouaii c?inoaiiy /enaeueiino? i?aoe?aiee?a aeeiieii?a
n?euenueeeo ? naeeuieo ?aae o Iaeanuee?e, Oa?e?anuee?e, Oiaeueieoeuee?e
oa *a?eanuee?e iaeanoyo.

O iei?oi?o oiiaao c?inoaiiy aeao?oeeoo athaeaeaoo oaeee noai ni?aa ?c
aeo?a/aiiyi eioo?a ia oo?eiaiiy i?aai?a aeeiiaa/i? aeaaee ? i?aai?a
i?noeaaiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy ia iiaea aooe aei?aaaeaiei. Oae, o
Naa?aeeianueeiio i?nueeaeeiieii? Eoaainueei? iaeano? oe?eee ??e (?c 1
o?aaiy 1995 ?ieo aei 1 o?aaiy 1996 ?ieo) aeiea/oaaeanue iaaeaaaea, ia
ia?aaeaa/aia caeiiiaeaanoaii, aei ca?ia?oii? ieaoe aea?aeaaiei
neoaeaiaoeyi. Iacaeiii? aeieaoe noaiiaeee 101,3 oen. a?i.

O?aaa aaeeoe an?o iiaeeeaeo caoiae?a uiaei nei?i/aiiy /enaeueiino? ?
aeaeaoe?a ia oo?eiaiiy i?aai?a aeeiiaa/i? aeaaee e naiia?yaeoaaiiy, a
oaeiae cia/ii iineeeoe iiia?aaei?e ? iioi/iee eiio?ieue c aieo
o?iainiaeo, eacia/aenueeeo oa eiio?ieueii-?aa?c?eieo i?aai?a ca
aeiiiiiei ? oe?eueiaei aeo?a/aiiyi eioo?a ia oeth iaoo.

Oea eii/a iio??aii aeey ae??oaiiy iaeiiai c iaeaieiai?oeo caaaeaiue
nueiaiaeaiiy, yea iinoaei ia?aae on?ia i?aaiaie aeeiiaa/i? aeaaee,
ea??aieeaie i?aei?e?inoa, onoaiia ? i?aai?caoe?e, o?iainiaeie e
eacia/aenueeeie i?aaiaie, a naia: caaacia/eoe aeeiiaiiy Oeaco
I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie a?ae 12 o?aaiy 1996 ?ieo “I?i iaa?aeeeaaei? caoiaee
uiaei caaacia/aiiy nai?/anii? aeieaoe ca?ia?oii? ieaoe, iain?e,
noeiaiae?e oa ?ioeo nioe?aeueieo aeieao” ? Oeaco, yeee aoaea aeaeaii c
oeeo ieoaiue iaeaeeae/ei /anii.

I?i?noa?noaii o?iain?a, eiai i?noeaaeie i?aaiaie, oa?eoi??aeueieie
i?aaiaie Aea?aeaaiiai eacia/aenoaa, eiio?ieueii-?aa?c?eiith neoaeaith oa
iiaeaoeiaith aaei?i?no?aoe??th cae?eniaii ??oioiaio ia?aa??eo ?c
cacia/aiiai aeieo ieoaiue. Ca ?? ?acoeueoaoaie I?io?iii iiaeaii
?ioi?iaoe?th oa i?iaeo iinoaiiae Eaa?iaoo I?i?no??a Oe?a?ie c
i?iiiceoe?yie uiaei i?eoyaiaiiy aei ia?niiaeueii? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?
ea??aiee?a oeaio?aeueieo ? i?noeaaeo i?aai?a aeeiiaa/i? aeaaee, c aeie
yeeo iacaaeia?eueii aai iaiaeaaeia aeeiiaii aeiiae Oeaco oa iinoaiiae
Eaa?iaoo I?i?no??a Oe?a?ie ? Iaoe?iiaeueiiai aaieo Oe?a?ie a?ae C?
na?iiy 1996 ?. ? 1033 “I?i caeo/aiiy aeiaeaoeiaeo iaaeoiaeaeaiue aei
athaeaeaoo oa i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? aeo?a/aiiy athaeaeaoieo eioo?a
aeey caaacia/aiiy o?iainoaaiiy nioe?aeueieo aeieao ianaeaiith”, yeo
i?eeiyoi a?aeiia?aeii aei Oeaco I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie. I?iaaaeaii ?iaioo ?
uiaei caeo/aiiy ciai?oi?o o?iainiaeo ?ano?n?a, iaiao?aeieo aeey iie?eooy
aeao?oeeoo athaeaeaoo. Noaiii ia 10 n?/iy 1997 ?. aea?aeaaiei
athaeaeaoii Oe?a?ie iaea?aeaii eiooe ia caaaeueio noio 680 iei. aeie.
NOA oa cae?eniaii oe?eee ?yae ?ioeo caoiae?a.

Aiaeii/an aiae?c iiaaoaiiy caai?aiaaiino? ?c ca?ia?oii? ieaoe, iain?e,
noeiaiae?e oa ?ioeo nioe?aeueieo aeieao ca i?aenoieaie ?iaioe o 1996 ?.
na?ae/eoue, ui caoiaee, ye? aaeeaathoueny oeaio?aeueieie ? i?noeaaeie
i?aaiaie aeeiiaa/i? aeaaee, o?iainiaeie e eacia/aenueeeie i?aaiaie,
ea??aieeaie i?aei?e?inoa, onoaiia ? i?aai?caoe?e, ? iaaeinoaoi?ie ?
aeiei??iii ia iie?ioeee noaio ni?aa o oe?e aaaeeea?e ae?eyioe? ?iaioe.

Ca ae?oaa i?a??//y 1996 ?. caai?aiaai?noue i?noeaaeo athaeaeao?a ?c
ca?ia?oii? ieaoe oa ?ioeo nioe?aeueieo aeieao c?inea a
?aaii-O?aie?anuee?e iaeano? — ia 121%, ??aiainuee?e — 70, Aeiiaoeuee?e —
60, Caii??cuee?e — ia 41%, a o Aieeinuee?e, Aeiiaoeuee?e, Caii??cuee?e,
?aaii-O?aie?anuee?e, Ieeiea?anuee?e, Iaeanuee?e, ??aiainuee?e oa
Oa?iii?euenuee?e iaeanoyo noaiii ia 1 n?/iy 1997 ?. — iaeaeuee ii
Oe?a?i? iieaciee caai?aiaaiino? i?noeaaeo athaeaeao?a ?c nioe?aeueieo
aeieao ia iaeiiai aeeoaey ?aa?iio.

Ui noino?oueny aecia/aiiy iai?yie?a ?iaioe ia 1997 ?. uiaei e?ea?aeaoe??
caai?aiaaiino? ?c nioe?aeueieo aeieao, oi oey ?iaioa ia? aooe ni?yiiaaia
ia iiaeieaiiy oeo iaaaoeaieo i?iya?a o nioe?aeuei?e, aeiiii?/i?e,
o?iainia?e noa?ao, ye? a ia?oo /a?ao aieeioee ia aeieeiaiiy
caai?aiaaiino? ?c ca?ia?oii? ieaoe oa ?ioeo nioe?aeueieo aeieao.

Oaeo caai?aiaai?noue ?c nioe?aeueieo aeieao ni?e/eieei oa, ui o
athaeaeao? ia 1996 ?. aoee aeaeaoee, ye? iathoue cae?enithaaoenue a
iaia’yceiaiio ii?yaeeo, aea aiie ia caaacia/oaaeenue ia?ioeyoe?eieie
aeaea?aeaie o?iainoaaiiy. I?i?noa?noaa ? a?aeiinoaa, i?noeaa? i?aaie
aeeiiaa/i? aeaaee, ea??aieee athaeaeaoieo onoaiia aoee ciaia’ycai?
Caeiiii Oe?a?ie “I?i Aea?aeaaiee athaeaeao Oe?a?ie ia 1996 ??e” oaeeoe
caoiae?a uiaei i?eaaaeaiiy ia?aae? ooao?a oa eiioeiaaio?a i?aea?aeii/eo
onoaiia ? caeeaae?a o a?aeiia?aei?noue ?c ?ici??aie eioo?a,
ia?aaeaa/aieie o aea?aeaaiiio ? i?noeaaiio athaeaeaoao ia ?oi? oo?eiaiiy
o 1996 ?. Aea oaea ?iaioa cacia/aieie i?aaiaie i?iaiaeeoueny aeoaea
iia?eueii.

Oae, o Iieoaanuee?e iaeano? ooaoia /enaeuei?noue onoaiia ? i?aai?caoe?e,
ye? o?iainothoueny c i?noeaaeo athaeaeao?a, noaiii ia 1 n?/iy 1997 ?. ia
10,9% ia?aaeuoaaea ooaoio /enaeuei?noue, ui aoea ia 1 n?/iy 1990 ?., o
??aiainuee?e — 8,1, ?aaii-O?aie?anuee?e — 8, Oa?iii?euenuee?e — 6,6,
*a?i?aaoeuee?e — 4,3 oa a i. Naaanoiiie? — ia 16,1%.

Ca?eueoo?oueny caai?aiaai?noue ?c aeaeaoe?a ia oo?eiaiiy athaeaeaoieo
onoaiia, o oiio /ene? ia iieaoo i?aoe?, ca iiaeaiiy, aeaeo?iaia?a?th,
eiioiaeuei? iineoae, iaaeeeaiaioe oiui. Noaiii ia 1 n?/iy 1997 ?.
aeiiouaii caai?aiaai?noue athaeaeaoieo onoaiia nioe?aeueii-eoeueoo?ii?
noa?e ?c cacia/aieo aeaeaoe?a ia caaaeueio noio 4,8 ie?ae. a?i., ?c ieo
ii i?noeaaeo athaeaeaoao — 1,2 ie?ae. a?i.

Ianai?/ani? ?ic?aooiee athaeaeaoieo onoaiia ca iaaeai? iineoae iaaaoeaii
aieeaathoue ia o?iainiaee noai i?aei?e?inoa ? ? iaei??th c i?e/ei e?ece
ieaoaae?a o ia?iaeiiio ainiiaea?noa?, cao?eiee aeieao ca?ia?oii? ieaoe o
ae?iaie/?e noa??.

Iayai?noue caai?aiaaiino? ?c nioe?aeueieo aeieao iaoiiaeth?oueny ? oei,
ui a iei?oi?o aeiiii?/ieo oiiaao iaia? iiaeeeaino? caaacia/eoe
athaeaeaoieie eiooaie iaaeaiiy ? aeieaoo an?o i?euea ? eiiiainaoe?e,
ia?aaeaa/aieo caeiiiaeaa/eie aeoaie, a?eueo?noue ?c yeeo i?eeiaeeny ia
oaee? iiioe?cio a ia?o? ?iee iacaeaaeiino? Oe?a?ie, aac aeiiii?/ieo
iaa?oiooaaiue. Ca ?ic?aooieaie I?io?io, o?eueee c 16 aeae?a i?euea ?c
22, ui iaaeathoueny ca?aeii c caeiiiaeaanoaii, o 1997 ?. iaiao?aeii
ia?aaeaa/eoe athaeaeaoi? eiooe o noi? 15,3 ie?ae. a?i.

Oea a??ea i?aaaea. A oiiaao, ui neeaeeny, o?aaa eoe oeyoii aeiiiiiae oei
a?iiaaeyiai, ye? ia a ciic? caaacia/eoe nia? a?aeiia?aeiiai ??aiy
aeeooy, ? coieieoe aaci?aenoaai? aeieaoe oei, ooi iiaea naiino?eii
noai?thaaoe nai? aeaaiiieo//y.

O 1997 ?. caoiaee uiaei caiia?aaiiy ii?ooaiue o?iainiai? oa iiaeaoeiai?
aeenoeeie?ie iiaeii? ia?aaeaa/eoe ia?aaeon?i ia?niiaeueio
a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue iinaaeiaeo in?a, ye? i?eioneathoueny oeeo
ii?ooaiue, oa ae?? c aecia/aiiy ieaoini?iiiaeiino? noa’?eo?a
i?aei?e?iieoeueei? ae?yeueiino? ?, a ?ac? iaiao?aeiino?, i?eioneoe ?o
aei aaie?oonoaa.

Ia noai iiaaoaiiy caai?aiaaiino? c nioe?aeueieo aeieao ?c athaeaeao?a
on?o ??ai?a aieeaa? e oa, ui iaaeaiiy i??i?eoaoo o o?iainoaaii?
nioe?aeueieo aeieao ua ia noaei iaia’yceiaith ii?iith. Eaa?iao I?i?no??a
Oe?a?ie aanue /an noaaeoue ieoaiiy, uia ia aeieaoo ca?ia?oii? ieaoe e
?io? nioe?aeuei? aeieaoe ni?yiiaoaaoe 75—80% athaeaeaoieo eioo?a, ui
iaae?eoee. Aiaeii/an ea??aieee ie?aieo o?ii?aai?a ? eacia/aenueeeo
i?aai?a ?iaeyoue iaaiaee. Oae, ca aeaieie ia?aa??ie ?iai/eie a?oiaie c
iaeaniiai athaeaeaoo A?iieoeueei? iaeano? o eenoiiaae? 1996 ?. ia
nioe?aeuei? aeieaoe ni?yiiaaii 17%, a a a?oaei? — 14,8, Caea?iaonueei? —
a?aeiia?aeii 44 oa 34,1, Caii??cueei? — 14,2 oa 19, Ee?anueei? — 38,9 oa
27,3, Iaeanueei? — 33,5 oa 30,8, ??aiainueei? — 15,8 oa 18,9%.

Ia aeeiiaii aeiiao uiaei i??i?eoaoiiai o?iainoaaiiy nioe?aeueieo aeieao
?c ?aeiiieo athaeaeao?a o Aieeinuee?e, E??iaia?aaenuee?e, ??aiainuee?e
iaeanoyo, i. Ee?a? oa ?ioeo ?aa?iiao.

Iaaecia/ai?noue uiaei iiaeaiiai iaeaoo aeieoiaio?a aei i?iaaaeaiiy
iiaeaoeiai? ?aoi?ie ? cao?eiea o ca’yceo c oeei i?eeiyooy athaeaeaoo ia
1997 ?. caaino?th? o?iainiao neooaoe?th.

Ieaoieee iiaeaoe?a, i’yei eaaeo/e, niea/oaaoe ?o ia iini?oathoue. Oea,
aacia?a/ii, noaa?aeaeo?oueny iiia?aaei?ie i?aenoieaie iaaeoiaeaeaiue
aeioiae?a caaaeaiiai athaeaeaoo ca n?/aiue 1997 ?., ine?eueee iiaee
athaeaeaoiee ??e ii/aany aeoaea iaaaeaei. A n?/i? ??cei cieceeeny
iaaeoiaeaeaiiy iaeaea ii an?o aeio?aeieo aeaea?aeao, ui noaiiaeee eeoa
73% a?ae na?aaeiueii?ny/ieo iaaeoiaeaeaiue ieioeiai ?ieo, aai iaioa
i?iaiico ia n?/aiue ia 18%. I?ioe a?oaeiy 1996 ?. nei?i/aiiy aeioiae?a
noaiiaeei 57%.

Oaeoe/ia ieoiia aaaa n?/iy a i?iaeo? athaeaeaoo ia 1997 ?. noaiiaeea
eeoa 3%, oiae? ye ieioeiai ?ieo a n?/i? iaae?eoei 5,5% ??/ii? noie. ?
oae? oeeo?e — iaeaea ii an?o iaeanoyo.

Neooaoe?y, yea neeaeany nueiaiaei?, c?icoi?ei, ciaia’yco? o?iainia? e
eacia/aenuee? i?ae?icae?ee o o?niiio ni?a?ia?oieoeoa? c aeiiii?/ieie,
aaie?anueeeie oa iiaeaoeiaeie i?aaiaie anoaiiaeoe i?e/eie iaae?iiy
aeioiae?a, ?ic?iaeoe ? iiaeaoe eiie?aoi? i?iiiceoe?? i?noeaaei
aea?aeaaiei aaei?i?no?aoe?yi uiaei iie?ioaiiy aeeiiaiiy aeio?aeii?
/anoeie athaeaeaoo ? caaacia/aiiy o?iainoaaiiy ia?oi/a?aiaeo aeaeaoe?a.

Iniiaieie iai?yieaie o?iainiai? iie?oeee a 1997 ?. iathoue aooe: —
aei?noea aeiiii?y athaeaeaoieo aeo?ao oeyoii iineeaiiy iinoaoaeiiai
eiio?ieth ca aeo?a/aiiyi eioo?a athaeaeao?a on?o ??ai?a;

– ai?iaaaeaeaiiy oe?oiiaieo o?iainiaeo ii?i aeo?ao ia o?iainoaaiiy
ina?oe, ioi?iie caei?ia’y, eoeueoo?e, i?aeaioiaee eaae??a oa ?ioeo
aeo?ao;

— o?iainoaaiiy ?c athaeaeaoo o?eueee i?ae aea?aeaai? i?ia?aie ?
aea?aeaaia caiiaeaiiy:

— ?ic?iaea oa iaa?oiooaaiiy i?eioeei?a aea?aeaaii? iie?oeee aeioiae?a
aeey athaeaeao?a ??cieo ??ai?a;

— ?icoe?aiiy eiea o/aniee?a ?eieo aea?aeaaieo oe?iieo iaia??a ?c iaoith
ca?eueoaiiy iaai?n?eieo aeaea?ae iie?eooy aeao?oeeoo athaeaeaoo;

— ?ica’ycaiiy ieoaiiy iiaaoaiiy caai?aiaaiino? ?c ca?ia?oii? ieaoe o
athaeaeaoi?e noa?? oa ?ioeo nioe?aeueieo aeieaoao;

— caaa?oaiiy i?ioeano aeiaaaeaiiy ??aiy iieaoe aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueieo oa
?ioeo iineoa ianaeaiith aei ?o oaeoe/ii? aa?oino?;

— caaacia/aiiy iiaiiai e nai?/aniiai iiaaoaiiy ciai?oiueiai ?
aioo??oiueiai aea?aeaaiiai ai?ao oa eiai ianeoaiaoaaiiy.

AeIOIAeE ATHAeAEAOO A NENOAI? OI?AAE?IIss AEIIII?EITH

Aeina?ae e?a?i ?c ?eieiaith aeiiii?eith na?ae/eoue i?i aaeee?
iiaeeeaino? aeei?enoaiiy athaeaeaoo ye iniiaiiai ?ino?oiaioo
aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo i?ioean?a.

O ? 996 ?. c?iaeaii aaaiiee e?ie aei cai?iaaaeaeaiiy /?oei aecia/aiiai
caeiiiaeaanoaii athaeaeaoiiai i?ioeano. Canoinoaaiiy a iiaiiio ianyc?
Caeiio Oe?a?ie “I?i athaeaeaoio nenoaio Oe?a?ie” aeaei iiaeeea?noue
i?aai?caoe?eii e iaoiaee/ii aaeineiiaeeoe eiai. Aiaeii/an i?iaiic
iae?iiieaciee?a oa oiia ?icaeoeo aeiiii?ee, ui ia ni?aaaeeany oi??e,
caoeiaeea aeinyaiaiith caieaiiaaieo ia?aiao??a athaeaeaoo. Oae, o 1996
?. Caaaeaiee athaeaeao Oe?a?ie ii aeioiaeao aeeiiaii eeoa ia 87,6%, a ii
aeaeaoeao – ia 86,5%.

O i?iaiicieo ?ic?aooieao ia ??e o?aoeio an?o aeioiae?a caaaeaiiai
athaeaeaoo ia?aaeaa/aeiny caaacia/eoe ca ?aooiie iiaeaoeo ia aeiaeaio
aa?o?noue, iiaeaoeo ia i?eaooie, aeoeeciiai cai?o, ae?oao o?aoeio — ca
?aooiie i?eaooeiaiai iiaeaoeo o a?iiaaeyi, aiane?a aei *i?iiaeeuenueeiai
oiiaeo. Iain?eiiai oiiaeo ? Oiiaeo caeiyoino? ianaeaiiy, 10%
ia?aaeaa/aeinue io?eiaoe ca ?aooiie ?aioieo ieaoaae?a ca iaooo oa ca
??cieoeth a oe?iao ia aac.

C iiia?aaei?ie aeaieie, aei athaeaeaoo iaae?eoei IAeA 6293,3 iei. a?i.,
aai 95,3% aei ??/ieo i?ecia/aiue, aeoeeciiai cai?o — 652,1 iei. a?i.
(90,4%); iiaeaoeo ia i?eaooie i?aei?e?inoa 5450,8 iei. a?i. (90,2%);
i?eaooeiaiai iiaeaoeo c a?iiaaeyi — 2639,2 iei. a?i.(109,2%);
a?ae?aooaaiue aei *i?iiaeeuenueeiai oiiaeo ~ 1487,6 iei. a?i. (82,1%)
?aioii? ieaoe ca iaooo ? i?e?iaeiee aac oa ??cieoe? a oe?iao ia aac –
1873,3 iei. a?i. (70,9%); a?ae?aooaaiue aei Oiiaeo caeiyoino? ianaeaiiy
— 267.9 iei. a?i. (69,1%).

Na?aae iacaaiiai aeua ia?ae?eo aeae?eeii a?oio iai?yieo iiaeaoe?a, aai
iiaeaoe?a ia niiaeeaaiiy. Aei oaeeo cao?aeia o?iainiaa noaoenoeea
a?aeiineoue: iiaeaoee ia iieoiee, ia i?iaeaae, IAeA. aeoeece, iiaeaoee
ia aenii?o oa ?iii?o (ieoa), iiaeaoee ia ia?aaaaeaiiy aeaniino?, iaeia
/e oe?iieo iaia??a.

Iaea?eueoee na?aae iiaeaoe?a — aeoeece. Iaeiioe?ai?oa eiai oi?ia — IAeA.
Nooo?aei c?ooaiiyi o no?oeoo?? iiaeaoe?a ?icaeiooeo e?a?i ? ciaioaiiy
a?aeiinii? /anoee iiaeaoe?a ia niiaeeaaiiy. Iaeiaioa ieoiia aaaa
aeoeec?a oa?aeoa?ia aeey ssiii?? oa NOA – e?a?i, aea o?aaeeoe?eii
oaeaeoa ?icaeaaeiny ? ia?aaaaeaei i?yia iiiaeaoeoaaiiy ii??aiyii c
iai?yiei.

Aea?aeaaiee o?ne caaaeaee i?aaioa aei oi?aa?naeueiino? iiaeaoe?a ia
niiaeeaaiiy. ?icaeoie aaeocae ae?iaieoeoaa oiaa??a niiaeeaaiiy, iino?ei?
ci?ie no?oeoo?e ?oiueiai ani?oeiaioo aenoioee ia ia?oa i?noea na?aae
on?o iai?yieo iiaeaoe?a aeoeec a oi?aa?naeuei?e oi?i? . Eiai ia?aaaaa a
oiio, ui iaeiei iiaeaoeii iaeeaaeathoueny i?aeoe/ii an? oiaa?e, ye?
iaaeoiaeyoue o i?iaeaae, ie??i oiai, aeineoue oe?iei a?i canoiniao?oueny
o noa?? iineoa.

I?ioyaii o?eaaeiai ia??iaeo ieoiia aaaa aeaio iaeaaaeeea?oeo iai?yieo
iiaeaoe?a — niaoeeo?/ieo oa oi?aa?naeueieo aeoeec?a o iiaeaoeiaeo
aeioiaeao aea?aeaa iaaieiii ciaiooaaeany. Na?aaei?e iieaciee o e?a?iao
IAN? cieceany ?c 33,7% o 1965 ?. aei 27,6% o 1990 ?., \ e?a?iao ?N – ?c
35,6% aei 29,5% a?aeiia?aeii. Iaea?eueoa ciaioaiiy /anoee aeoeec?a
niinoa??aa?oueny o O?I — ?c -31,1% aei 23,4%, Eaiaae? – c 35,3% aei 26%,
?oae?? – c 36,6% aei 23,1%, Aaeuea?? — c 35,5% aei 22% ? iaa?oue o
O?aioe??, e?a?i?, aea ?noi?e/ii ia?aaaaeaee iai?yi? iiaeaoee, — c 37,6%
aei 28,3% a?aeiia?aeii.

Oaea noaiiaeua iiynith?oueny aeaiia iniiaieie i?e/eiaie, Ii-ia?oa, a
iiaeaoeiaeo iaaeoiaeaeaiiyo oaeaeeeie oaiiaie c?inoa? /anoea iiaeaoe?a
ia nioe?aeueia no?aooaaiiy; ii-ae?oaa, ?icoe?th?oueny iiaeaoeiaa aaca
aeey iniaenoiai i?eaooeiaiai iiaeaoeo. A e?a?iao ?c ?eieiaith
aeiiii?eith i?aeoe/ii any iaeiaia ?iai/a neea aeenoeeie?iiaaii niea/o?
oe? iiaeaoee, a oiio aiie noathoue ianiaeie.

Iiaeaoie ia aeiaeaio aa?o?noue oaaaeaii i?ioyaii inoaii?o ?ie?a o
Eaiaae?, ssiii??, Ei?a?, Iaeneoe?, Iia?e Caeaiae??. Ooo cai?iaaaeaeaii
?aeeio noaaeo iiaeaoeo, Iaa?oue o? e?a?ie, aea ?ai?oa canoiniaoaaeiny
e?eueea noaaie (iai?eeeaae, O?aioe?y e ?oae?y), nei?ioeee ?oi? /enei. O
NOA Oaaea?aeueia aaei?i?no?aoe?y ‘ a?aeiiaeeany a?ae oaaaeaiiy IAeA. Ca
i?ae?aooieaie o?iaineno?a, eiai aaaaeaiiy aeiaaaei a ca?eueoaiiy aia?aoo
oaaea?aeueiiai iiaeaoeiaiai a?aeiinoaa NOA ia 20 oeny/ neoaeaiaoe?a, a
aeo?aoe ia eiai oo?eiaiiy iaee 6 c?inoe ia 700 iei. aeie. ui?ieo. Aea
??/ aoea ia oae o c?inoaii? aeo?ao, ye o i?aaiaii? iaiaaeeoe aea?aeaaia
ao?o/aiiy o i?aei?e?iieoeueeo ae?yeuei?noue.

Aac noii?ao, cai?eueia oaiaeaioe?y iieyaa? o canoinoaaii? iaioiai /enea
iiaeaoeiaeo noaaie. Oae, ?a?iiaenueea Ni?aae?oaei?noue ?aeiiaiaeo?
aeei?enoiaoaaoe o?eueee aea? noaaee: noaiaea?oio — a?ae 15 aei 20% ?
cieaeaio — a?ae 4 aei 9%.

IAeA ca nai?th noooth — oea aeoeec, yeee a?iiaaeyie Oe?a?ie niea/othoue,
eoioth/e oiaa?. Ii?yaeie eiai ae?aooaaiiy ca /eiiei caeiiiaeaanoaii ia
ia? i?/iai ni?eueiiai c aeiaeaiith aa?o?noth. Ia’?eoii iiiaeaoeoaaiiy a
oeueiio ?ac? ? iai?io a?ae ?aae?caoe?? i?iaeoeoe??, ui noai?th? eiai
i?ecia/aiiy ? iineeth? iiaeaoeiaee oyaa? a aeiiii?oe? (ia?aaeon?i uiaei
oee, ooi i?aoeth?, ? iaea?eueoa uiaei ethaeae ?c o?eniaaieie
aeioiaeaie).

Cai?iaaaeeaoe aeoeeciee iiaeaoie, aea?aeaaa caaacia/o? noaa?eueiee
i?eieea aeioiae?a aei athaeaeaoo. Aea iaaiith i??ith aiia ae??
iani?aaaaeeeai. Ine?eueee oiaa?, o oe?io yeiai caeeaaeaii aeoeeciee
iiaeaoie, iaeiaeiai iio??aai ? a?aeiiio, ? aaaaoiio, oi, c?icoi?ei,
ia?oee a?aeaea? aea?aeaa? a?eueoo /anoeio naiai aeioiaeo, i?ae ae?oaee.
Iaaooue, oiio aea?aeaaa /anoi iaiaaa?oueny caanoe aei i?i?ioio nienie
oiaa??a, ui iaeeaaeathoueny aeoeeciei iiaeaoeii. Aei ?a/?, o NOA iaeaea
60% oaaea?aeueieo aeioiae?a a?ae aeoeeciiai iiiaeaoeoaaiiy aeathoue eeoa
o?e aeaee oiaa??a — aeeiaieuei? oa othothiia? ae?iae ? aaicei.
?icoe?aiiy oeueiai nieneo /e i?aeaeuaiiy noaiie aeoeecieo iiaeaoe?a, ye
i?aaeei, cae?enith?oueny o?eueee ca iaaecae/aeieo ianoaaei ? c a?aeiia
caeiiiaeaa/eo i?aai?a.

Iniiaieie i?e/eiaie iaaeeiiaiiy aeioiae?a athaeaeaoo Oe?a?ie a 1996 ?. ?
cieaeaiiy ae?iaieoeoaa (ia 5,1%) ? ciaioaiiy ianyao aaeiaiai
aioo??oiueiai i?iaeoeoo (aeecueei 10%).

Iiaeaoie ia aeiaeaio aa?o?noue oa aeoeeciee ca?? ca noiith i/?eoaaieo
aeioiae?a noaiiaeyoue iaeaaaii?oa aeaea?aei athaeaeaoieo eioo?a, a
i?ioeaioe ?oiueiai aeeiiaiiy iaei? c iaeieae/eo.

Athaeaeao caeeoa?oueny aoaeoeaiei ?ino?oiaioii ?aaoethaaiiy oaii?a ?
i?iii?oe?e ?icaeoeo ia o?eueee an??? aeiiii?ee aea?aeaae, a e ie?aieo ??
?aa?ii?a. O iaeaeeae/?e ia?niaeoea? iio?aao? aaeineiiaeaiiy athaeaeaoiee
i?ioean o oaeiio iai?yieo, ye ?ic?iaea oa iaa?oiooaaiiy i?eioeei?a
aea?aeaaii? iie?oeee aeioiae?a aeey athaeaeao?a ??cieo ??ai?a.

Aeina?ae ?icaeiooeo e?a?i ia?aeiio?, ui aieea aea?aeaae ia
oa?eoi??aeueiee ?icaeoie caeeoa?oueny iaea?ae/ooi?oei. Aiia eiio?ieth?
yaeua ? i?ioeane, ia ye? ia’?eoeaii ia iiaeooue aieeiooe
i?eaaoiiaeanieoeuee? no?oeoo?e ? iaa?oue anioe?aoe?? i?aei?e?inoa.
Aea?aeaaith ?aaoeththoueny caaaeuei? oa?eoi??aeuei? i?iii?oe??,
noeioeth?oueny ?icaeoie aeai?aneaieo ?aeii?a, cae?enith?oueny
?aoe?iiaeueiee i?aeo?ae aei ?ici?uaiiy i?iaeoeoeaieo nee, o oiio /ene?
?icina?aaeaeaiiy i?iieneiaeo i?aei?e?inoa ? iaiaaeaiiy ?oiuei?
eiioeaio?aoe?? o aaeeeeo i?noao, ?ic?iaeythoueny oa ?aae?cothoueny
aaeeeiianooaai? aea?aeaai? ?aa?iiaeuei? i?ia?aie ??ciiai ni?yioaaiiy
oiui.

3 1972 ?. a Oe?a?i? aia?oa ii/aee ieaioaaoe eiiieaeniee aeiiii?/iee
?icaeoie iaeanoae. Eiai ieai ia iaa aee?aeoeaiiai cia/aiiy ? aeaaaa
caaaeaio ?ioi?iaoe?th i?i iai??e e iiaeeeaino?, caeeaaeai? o
oa?eoi??aeueiee ?ic??c a?aeii/i-aaeocaaeo ieai?a.

I?aeia?iaeiee aeina?ae ia?aeiio?, ui ?ic?ea i?ae ?aa?iiaie o 30—50
ioieo?a uiaei na?aaeiueiaea?aeaaiiai ??aiy ? caa?iceeaei, noai?th?
iai?oaeai?noue o a?aeiineiao i?ae ?aa?iiaie, ni?e/eiy? iaea?iaai?
i?a?aoe?? ianaeaiiy ? caioi/o? aaoiiii?caoe?th e naia?aoeci. Inoaii?ie
?ieaie iaiaei c?iaeaii aeey aaeineiiaeaiiy oaeeo iiiyoue, ye “??aaiue
aeeooy” oa “ye?noue aeeooy”. I?ae aa?aeith III ae?iaeaii noaiaea?o, ui
neeaaea?oueny i?eaeecii c 10 aeie?a iieaciee?a, ye? a?aeia?aaeathoue
??aaiue nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo ?aa?iio.

Ni?aa?aeiioaiiy iaaeoiaeaeaiiy aeio?aeieo aeaea?ae aei athaeaeao?a
Aaoiiiiii? ?anioae?ee E?ei, iaeanoae, i?no Ee?aa oa Naaanoiiiey o
caaaeaiiio athaeaeao? Oe?a?ie o 1996 ?.

(iei. a?i.)

Aeioiaee Caaaea-iee athaeaeao Athaeaeaoe A?E, iaeanoae, i?no Ee?aa oa
Naaanoiiiey Ieoiia aaaa o caaaeaiiio athaeaeao? (%)

1. Iiaeaoie ia aeiaeaio aa?o?noue 6602,6 35,64 54

2. Iiaeaoie ia i?eaooie i?aei?e?inoa 6042,5 4321,3 71,5

3. aeoeeciee ca?? 721 148,6 20,6

4. I?eaooeiaee iiaeaoie ?c a?iiaaeyi 2415,8 1267,9 52,5

5. Ieaoa ca caieth 976,6 683,6 70,0

6. Iiaeaoie ia i?iienae 6,7 6,7 100

7. Iiaeaoie ?c aeaniee?a o?ainii?oieo cania?a 128,9 128,9 100

8. Ieaoa ca niaoe?aeueia aeei?enoaiiy e?niaeo ?ano?n?a 21,2 4,3 20,3

9. Ieaoa ca niaoe?aeueia aeei?enoaiiy aiaeieo ?ano?n?a 87,5 15,7 17,9

10. Ieaoa ca niaoe?aeueia aeei?enoaiiy Iaae? i?e aeaeiaoaaii? ei?enieo
eiiaeei 62,1 37,5 60,4

11. Aea?aeaaia ieoi 149,4 86,4 57,8

12. Iaaeoiaeaeaiiy a?ae ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ii? ae?yeueiino? (?iii?oia
ieoi ia oiaa?e, ui aaicyoueny noa’?eoaie i?aei?e?iieoeueei?
ae?yeueiino?) 384,8 20 5,2

?C. Iaaeoiaeaeaiiy eioo?a a?ae i?eaaoecaoe?? iaeia aea?aeaaieo
i?aei?e?inoa 120 120 100

14. I?noeaa? iiaeaoee ? cai?e, ui cai?iaaaeaeothoueny ?aaeaie 189,6
189,6 100

15. Cai?e oa ?io? iaiiaeaoeia? aeioiaee 980,6 310,8 31,7

16. Aianee aei athaeaeaoo noi a?ae ia?aaeuaiiy oiiaeo niiaeeaaiiy 50 50
100

Anueiai iaaeoiaeaeaiue 18939,3 10955,3 57,8

O 1996 ?. aeey caaeainoaaiiy aeio?aeii? oa aeaeaoeiai? /anoei
athaeaeao?a ie?aiei ?aa?iiai ia?aaeaaaeiny 100% i?ae iaaeoiaeaeaiiy
iiaeaoeo ia aeiaeaio aa?o?noue, a oaeiae eiooe (aeioaoe??) aea?aeaaiiai
athaeaeaoo Oe?a?ie.

Iaeano? Iiaeaoie ia aeiaeaio aa?o?noue Aeioaoe?y (iei. a?i.)

A?iieoeueea 100 82

Aieeinueea 100 74,7

AEeoiie?nueea 100 123,2

Caea?iaonueea 100 126,2

E??iaia?aaenueea 100 71,4

Ieeiea?anueea 100 13,1

??aiainueea 100 20,2

Oa?iii?euenueea 100 65

Oa?niinueea 100 92,6

Oiaeueieoeueea 100 70,8

*a?i?aaoeueea 100 56,3

i. Naaanoiiieue 100 15,5

Aeiiii?/ia neooaoe?y ieioeiai ?ieo ia aeaea ciiae iiaiith i??ith
caaacia/eoe o?iainiaeie ?ano?naie aa?aioiaaiee ??aaiue
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ?icieoeo aaei?i?no?aoeaii-oa?eoi??aeueieo
ooai?aiue. Iaeaea 90% a?ae caaaeueii? noie aeaeaoe?a athaeaeao?a
Aaoiiiiii? ?anioae?ee E?ei, iaeanoae, i?no Ee?aa oa Naaanoiiiey
noaiiaeee aeaeaoee ia o?iainoaaiiy nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo ianaeaiiy e
oo?eiaiiy nioe?aeueii-eoeueoo?ieo caeeaae?a ? onoaiia.

Aaaaea?ii ni?aaaaeeeaith oi/eo ‘ci?o, ui i?e ?aaoethaaii? aeioiae?a
ie?aieo ?aa?ii?a ne?ae o?aoiaoaaoe ??aaiue ?oiueiai
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo.

Aeioe?eueiith aoea a ?ic?iaea iiae?aiiai eeaneo?eaoi?a iaeanoae Oe?a?ie
ca ??aiai ?oiueiai aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo, aioo??oiy no?oeoo?a yeiai
ii?aeioaaea a /ioe?e ye?nieo ??ai?: aenieee, na?aaei?e, iecueeee,
niaoe?aeueiee. E?eoa??? a?aeianaiiy ie?aieo iaeanoae aei iaaii?
eaoaai??? iiaeii? oe?eeii aacoaaoeny ia noaiaea?oao
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo ?aa?ii?a, ?ic?iaeaieo i?ae aa?aeith
III. Aeey eiaeii? eaoaai??? a caeiiiaeaa/iio ii?yaeeo iaiao?aeii
cae??ieoe a?aeiia?aei? i?ioeaioe a?ae?aooaaiue a?ae aea?aeaaieo
iiaeaoe?a ? cai??a. O oaeiio ?ac? i?noeaa? i?aaie aeaaee iiaee a /?oei
i?iaiicoaaoe aeio?aeio aaco ? ia caeaaeaoe a?ae aieueiaeo ??oaiue
oeaio?aeueii? aeaaee.

O ?acoeueoao? i?iaaaeaii? a Oe?a?i? e?aa?ae?caoe?? oe?i aioo??oi? oe?ie
ia ? o?eniaaieie. Ciai?oi? oe?ie noaee iaio aecia/aieie /a?ac nei?i/aiiy
ianya?a oi?a?ae?, ui cae?enithaaeanue ia iniia? aeainoi?iii?o
aeiiiaeaiinoae ? ?icoe?aiiy i?/ei ia iaiaaeiaaii? oi?a?ae? ca
eiiaa?oiaaio aaethoo. Ianyae aenii?oo e ?iii?oo oaeiae noaee iaio
aecia/aieie aiane?aeie neanoaaiiy ieaioaaiiy, aeo?niaiiy (/e a?aei?ie)
iiiiiie?? ciai?oiueioi?aiaaeueieo i?aai?caoe?e ? iaaeaiiy i?aaa ??ciei
no?oeoo?ai aanoe ciai?oith oi?a?aeth. Aiie io?eiaee aaeeeo aaoiiii?th a
ieoaiiyo ?iaanooaaiiy, oe?iiooai?aiiy, ia?eaoeiao, iiaeeeaino? aeai?o
iai?yie?a oi?a?ae? ia ciai?oi?o ?eieao. Aiaeii/an iineeeeeny athaeaeaoi?
iaiaaeaiiy ? aieeaia?oith noaea i?aeia?iaeia eiieo?aioe?y.

Ne?ae aecia/eoeny, yeei /eiii iaeaaeeoue iioei?coaaoe nenoaio iei?oi?o
oa?eo?a. Nie?ath/enue ia aeina?ae na?oiai? i?aeoeee, o?aaa oi?o?eoaaoe
oeaeo iniaenoeo ? eiia?oe?eieo noaaie. Ianooiiei e?ieii iiaea aooe
o?enaoe?y a?eueo iecueei? noaaee oa?eoo ia ?iii?o oiaa??a ia?oi?
iaiao?aeiino? ? a?eueo aeniei? noaaee ia ?iii?o i?aaeiao?a ?iceio?.
Aeoiaey/e c i??eoaaiue ni?aaaaeeeaino?, aoaeoeai?oa iaaeaaaoe aae?ani?
noaneae?? iaeiaio caaacia/aiei aa?noaai ianaeaiiy ? iaeeaaeaoe aeoeecii
i?aaeiaoe ?iceio?. ??aaiue oa?eoo ia? aooe neii?aeeiiaaiee c ?ioeie
iiaeaoeaie aeey oiai, uia iiaeia aoei aecia/eoe aianie eiaeiiai iiaeaoeo
a caaaeueiee ianya iaiao?aeieo athaeaeaoieo aeioiae?a.

Eii?aeeiaoe?y i?ae iiaeaoeaie ia ciai?oith oi?a?aeth ? aioo??oi?ie
iiaeaoeaie ia? aooe ni?yiiaaia ia nei?i/aiiy /enea iiaeaoeiaeo noaaie.
Aeioe?eueiith aoea a ?aeeia noaaea iiaeaoe?a ye ia ciai?oith oi?a?aeth,
oae ? ia IAeA, ui canoiniao?oueny iaeiaeiai ? aei ?iii?oiaaieo oiaa??a,
? aei i?noeaaeo. Oaea oi?o?eiaaia noaaea /?oei aecia/a? ianooaa caoenoo,
a?aeoai?aiee o ??cieoe? nia?aa?oino? oiaa??a ?iicaiiiai e i?noeaaiai
ae?iaieoeoaa. E??i oiai, aiia caeaaeeoue a?ae e?aa?ae?caoe?? oi?a?ae?,
yea iiaeiia eii?aeeioaaoeny c e?aa?ae?caoe??th oiaa?ieo ?eie?a,
o?iainiaiai naeoi?a, eiio?ieth iaae eai?oaeii ? ?aoi?iaie aaethoieo
eo?n?a.

Iaiao?aeii ci?ieoe noaaeaiiy aei ciai?oiuei? oi?a?ae?. Oea icia/a?, ui
ia ci?io aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiei oa?eoai, iniaeeaei noeioeai (o oi?i?
iiaeaoeiaeo i?euea ? noaneae?e), e?oeaicoaaiith, eaioiaei oa ?ioei
iaoa?eoiei aa?’??ai ia? i?eeoe nenoaia i?yieo oa?eo?a. Noaaee iiaeii?
aooe aeinoaoiuei iaeiioeiieie aeey caaacia/aiiy i?ici?ino?, i?inoioe,
aoaeoeaiiai ?ici?uaiiy ?ano?n?a. E c ieeiii /ano, a i??o iioe?aiiy
oi?aiaaeueiiai ia?oia?noaa o i?inoi?? c’yaeoueny iiaeeea?noue
aeei?enoiaoaaoe i?eueaia? noaaee /e ?io? oi?ie i?euea.

Iei? i?aoa?aioe?ei? oa?eoe (/ano?oa ioeueia?) canoiniaothoueny uiaei
?iii?oo c e?a?i, ye? ?icaeaathoueny (a?aeiia?aeii aei Anacaaaeueii?
nenoaie i?aoa?aioe?e). Ieae/a oa?eoia noaaea ?nio? aeey ?iii?oo c e?a?i,
?c yeeie Oe?a?ia ia? aeiiiaeaiino? i?i “a?eueio” oi?a?aeth (na?aaeiy
iacaaaeaia noaaea oeeo oa?eo?a noaiiaeoue 6,3%). Ie??i ?iii?oiiai ieoa
oa aeoeecieo cai??a c on??? aa?oino? ?iii?oieo oiaa??a, ?acii c
?iii?oieie oa aeoeecieie cai?aie, noyao?oueny iiaeaoie ia aeiaeaio
aa?o?noue o ?ici??? 20%. Oeai IAeI aa?aoueny c onueiai ianyao ?iii?oo,
aeeth/ath/e aa?oa?io oi?a?aeth, ca aeayeeie ianooo?aeie aeiyoeaie.

I/aaeaeii, ui a na?aaeiueino?ieiaiio ieai? oa?eoe iaiao?aeii aoaea
iinooiiai cieceoe. Oea cieaeaiiy a?aeaoaaoeiaoueny ca anoaiiaeaiei
a?ao?eii ? aeiaiaeeoeiaoueny aei oe?ieeo i?aei?e?iieoeueeeo e?e ia
ii/aoeiaiio aoai? cae?eniaiiy i?ia?aie. Ne?ae oaeiae ciyoe
ciai?oiueioi?aiaaeuei? noaneae?? — ca aeoaea iaeei aeiyoeii, yeui
aaeanoueny cai?iaaaeeoe ?aae?noe/io aaethoio iie?oeeo.

?, ia?aoo?, oni?o ?aoi?ie iiiaeaoeoaaiiy ciai?oiuei? oi?a?ae?
caeaaeaoeia a?ae iayaiino? a?aeiia?aeiiai aaei?i?no?aoeaiiai
iioaioe?aeo. A oiiaao Oe?a?ie, aea iiee ui ia caaa?oaii noai?aiiy
ae?eiai? ieoii? neoaeae, caaaeaiiy iie?ioaiiy oe??? eaiee ?
ia?oi/a?aiaei. Aiaeii/an iiaea?i?caoe?th ieoii? neoaeae, a oiio /ene?
oaaaeaiiy i?aeia?iaeieo noaiaea?o?a ?c iiiaieeaoo?e e ioe?iee oiaa??a,
ne?ae ii/aoe iaaaeii. Oea oaeiae ni?aaaaeeeai ? aeey i?iaaaeaiiy ?ioeo
caoiae?a, ui caaacia/aoue aeio?eiaiiy iiaeo caeii?a ? i?aaee
iiiaeaoeoaaiiy ciai?oiuei? oi?a?ae?.

AAeINEIIAEAIIss ATHAeAEAOIIAI I?IOeANO

?eieiaa aeiiii?ea i?e ?icia?oo? ?? iiaeaeae, a?aeiieo na?oia?e
i?aeoeoe?, oa?aeoa?eco?oueny nioe?aeueia i???ioiaaiei ainiiaea?noaii,
yea aeiiiaith?oueny aea?aeaaiei ?aaoethaaiiyi. Cia/io ?ieue ye o nai?e
no?oeoo?? ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei, oae ? a iaoai?ci? ?o ?aaoethaaiiy c aieo
aea?aeaae a?ae?a?a? Aea?aeaaiee athaeaeao. A?i – iaa?ae’?iia /anoea
?eieiaeo noinoie?a ? iaeii/anii aaaeeeaee ?ino?oiaio ?aae?caoe??
aea?aeaaii? iie?oeee. Aeoiaey/e c oeueiai, aaaeeeai aeia?a ciaoe
i?e?iaeo Aea?aeaaiiai athaeaeaoo, iniaeeaino? eiai oi?ioaaiiy ?
ooieoe?iioaaiiy, niiniae aeei?enoaiiy a ?ioa?anao aoaeoeaiiai ?icaeoeo
noni?eueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa,

Athaeaeao iaiao?aeii ciaoe ua e oiio, ui Oe?a?ia ia?aaeeaa? aeeaieo
aeiiii?/io ? o?iainiao e?eco. I?a?iaaoeaieie ca oeeo oiia ? i?aaeeuei?
a?aeiia?ae? ia caieoaiiy, ye noaa?e?coaaoe aeiiii?eo, caaacia/eoe
aoaeoeai?noue ainiiaea?thaaiiy, ye? iaoiaee ii?iae?cothoue o?iainiaee
noai e?a?ie, ye ca?eueoeoe i?eaooeiao /anoeio Aea?aeaaiiai athaeaeaoo,
cieceoe athaeaeaoiee aeao?oeeo oa ?i.

Aea?aeaaiee athaeaeao ye iaeei c eaiie o?iainiai? nenoaie Oe?a?ie ?
aeiiii?/iith eaoaai???th ? a?aeia?aaea? a?ioia? noinoiee, ye?
aeieeathoue i?ae aea?aeaaith, c iaeiiai aieo, ? i?aei?e?inoaaie,
i?aai?caoe?yie, onoaiiaaie an?o oi?i aeaniino? ? o?ce/ieie iniaaie – c
?ioiai i?eaiaeo ooai?aiiy oeaio?ae?ciaaiiai oiiaeo a?ioiaeo eioo?a
aea?aeaae ? eiai aeei?enoaiiy ia ?icoe?aia a?aeoai?aiiy, i?aeaeuaiiy
??aiy aeeooy ? caaeiaieaiiy ?ioeo noni?eueieo iio?aa. Oaeei /eiii, o
athaeaeao? oeaio?ae?co?oueny cia/ia /anoeia a?ioiaeo eioo?a, ye? ?
iaiao?aeiith oiiaith aeey aeeiiaiiy aea?aeaaith nai?o ooieoe?e. ?
o?eueee ?c ca?eueoaiiyi ianooaa?a ae?iaieoeoaa, oaeineiiaeaiiyi
ainiiaea?nueeeo ca’yce?a iiaeia ?ic?aoiaoaaoe ia ?noioia ca?eueoaiiy
oeaio?ae?ciaaiiai oiiaeo aea?aeaae. Ca oaia??oiueiai
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai noaio Oe?a?ie aeieea? iio?aaa ca?eueooaaoe
a?ioia? ?ano?ne oeaio?ae?ciaaiiai oiiaeo aeey caaacia/aiiy
aaciina?aaei?o aea?aeaaieo caoiae?a.

??aaiue oeaio?ae?caoe?? o?iainiaeo ?ano?n?a o Aea?aeaaiiio athaeaeao?
caeaaeeoue a?ae eiie?aoieo oiia ainiiaea?thaaiiy ? caaaeaiue, ye?
iaiao?aeii ae??ooaaoe ia eiie?aoiiio aoai? ?icaeoeo. Aea?aeaaiee
athaeaeao iaoi? e?a?ie oa?aeoa?eco?oueny aenieei nooiaiai
oeaio?ae?caoe?? o?iainiaeo ?ano?n?a, ui caeiiii??ii aeey e?a?i
ia?ao?aeiiai ia??iaeo. Iei? athaeaeao Oe?a?ie noaiiaeoue 55% a?ae
aaeiaiai aioo??oiueiai i?iaeoeoo. Oaea oeaio?ae?caoe?y a?ioiaeo eioo?a
ia? caaacia/eoe nai?/ania o?iainoaaiiy caaaeueiiaea?aeaaieo i?ia?ai, a
oaeiae aeiaeaoeia? caoiaee, iia’ycai? c i?aeaeuaiiyi ca?ia?oii? ieaoe oa
?ioeo nioe?aeueieo aeieao.

Iaeiae yeui i?iaiae?coaaoe athaeaeaoio iie?oeeo inoaii?o /ioe?ueio
?ie?a, oi iiaeia ia?aeiiaoeny, ui cia/ia oeaio?ae?caoe?y eioo?a o ?oeao
aea?aeaee ia caaaeaee aeaaaea iiceoeai? ?acoeueoaoe. Oae, o 1994 ?ioe?
aeaeaoee ia nioe?aeueii-eoeueoo?i? caoiaee i?io?iainiaai? o?eueee ia
76,5%, a ia ia?iaeia ainiiaea?noai, o oiio /ene? ia oae caai?
athaeaeaoi? iice/ee, oiaoi i?eueaia? e?aaeeoe ca ?aooiie athaeaeaoieo
eioo?a aocueeiio caaaeo i?ea?eaeiaaieo i?aei?e?inoa, – aae ia 115,1%.
E??i oiai, aeeaieie ? cao?aoe, ia ia?aaeaa/ai? caeiiii, ia caaaeueio
noio 30,7 o?ei. e?a., a oaeiae cao?aoe ia noio 10 o?ei.e?a., ye? aoee
i?io?iainiaai? o a?oaei? 1994 ?ieo ? iia’ycai? c i?aeaioiaeith aei
in?iiuei-ceiiaiai ia??iaeo. Aiaeia?/ia ea?oeia c aeeiiaiiyi athaeaeaoo ?
a 1995 ?ioe?.

Oe? oeeo?e aeinoaoi? aeey i?eioeeiiaeo ocaaaeueiaiue. I?aeoeea aeeiiaiiy
athaeaeaoo inoaii?ie ?ieaie ia?aeiieeai na?ae/eoue, ui caeii i?i
athaeaeao ia ? o iao?e aea?aeaa? ni?aaaei?i caeiiii, ine?eueee ?iiae?
athaeaeaoi? eiooe anoaiiaeththoueny o ci?iaieo i?iii?oe?yo a?aeiinii
athaeaeaoieo iieaciee?a) c o?aooaaiiyi nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii? iie?oeee,
caoaa?aeaeaii? Aa?oiaiith ?aaeith /a?ac caeii i?i athaeaeao ia iioi/iee
??e.

Aieiaiith i?e/eiith oaei? neooaoe?? ? ii?ooaiiy athaeaeaoii?
aeenoeeie?ie. AEiaeai athaeaeao ii/eiath/e c 1992 ?ieo, ia aoa caa/anii
iiaeaiee ia ?icaeyae ? a?aeiia?aeii ia aoa caoaa?aeaeaiee Aa?oiaiith
?aaeith Oe?a?ie. Caeiiii??ii, ui a?eueo?noue iieaciee?a Aea?aeaaiiai
athaeaeaoo oi?io?oueny ca ?acoeueoaoaie oaeoe/iiai eiai aeeiiaiiy ?
i?aeaaiy?oueny i?ae ii?iaoeae, yeeo aeiaaathoue i?aeia?iaei? o?iainia?
i?aai?caoe??, ui iaaeathoue Oe?a?i? ?aaa?e?oaoe?ei? iiceee aeey
noaa?e?caoe?? ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa.

Ioaea, aeey noaa?e?caoe?? athaeaeaoii? ‘aeenoeeie?ie, ia?aaeon?i,
iaiao?aeii, uia athaeaeaoiee i?ioean a?aeiia?aeaa Caeiiia? “I?i
athaeaeaoio nenoaio Oe?a?ie”, i?eeiyoiio o /a?ai? 1995 ?ieo. Ca?aeii ?c
Caeiiii, Aea?aeaaiee athaeaeao ia ianooiiee ??e ia? iiaeaaaoeny
I?aceaeaioii Oe?a?ie ia ?icaeyae Aa?oiai?e ?aae? aei 15 aa?aniy, a
caoaa?aeaeoaaoeny aei 2 a?oaeiy iioi/iiai ?ieo. Oiaoi an? athaeaeaoi?
i?ioeaaeo?e iiaeii? ?aae?ciaoaaoeny aei ii/aoeo iiaiai athaeaeaoiiai
?ieo. sse na?ae/eoue aeina?ae, iai?eeiyooy Aea?aeaaiiai athaeaeaoo
oaeoe/ii ia?ae?co? ?iaioo onueiai ia?iaeiiainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno.

Aeey ae??oaiiy i?iaeai, iia’ycaieo c athaeaeaoiei i?ioeanii, o?aaa
i???iooaaoeny ia ianooii? e?eoa???.

1. sse a?aeiii, Aea?aeaaiee athaeaeao Oe?a?ie oi?io?oueny ca /eiiith o
na?oia?e i?aeoeoe? iaoiaeieia??th. Oea icia/a?, ui ca iniiao aa?aoueny
?ic?aooiie ??/iiai ianyao aaeiaiai aioo??oiueiai i?iaeoeoo. Caeaaeii
a?ae oiai, ye a?i aecia/aoeiaoueny ia ianooiiee ??e, caeaaeeoue ? ?ici??
athaeaeaoiiai oiiaeo Oe?a?ie. sseui ?ai aoaea caieaeaiei, oi oea
aaeaeaaoii a?aeia?aceoueny ia aeioiaei?e /anoei? athaeaeaoo. A oeueiio
aeiaaeeo a?aeaoaeaoueny iaaeio?iainoaaiiy aaeocae ia?iaeiiai
ainiiaea?noaa, nioe?aeueii-eoeueoo?ieo onoaiia oa ?ioeo aaeocae,
ia?aaeaa/aieo athaeaeaoii. E??i oiai, ia aoaea iaeaaeii? aio?aee, ui
i?ecaaaea aei cao?eiee ?ic?aooie?a.

O aeiaaeeo, eiee ?ici?? AAI aoaea caaeuaiei, ian i/?eothoue iaaaaaoi
a?eueo? iai?e?iiino?. C?inoa a?ioiai-e?aaeeoia ai?n?y, yea i?ecaaaea aei
c?inoaiiy a?ioiai? iane, a ca?aene aei ?ioeyoe?? ? ??ceiai c?inoaiiy
oe?i; aoaeooue ia?aaeaa/ai? ia?aaeuei? aeioiaee, ui, i?e?iaeii,
ni?e/eieoue c?inoaiiy athaeaeaoieo aeo?ao, oaeoe/ii ia caaacia/aieo
a?aeiia?aeieie aeioiaeaie.

Oiio iniiaia i?iaeaia, yeo iaiao?aeii ae??oeoe, – iaeneiaeueii oi/ii
aecia/eoe ianya aaeiaiai aioo??oiueiai i?iaeoeoo, oiaoi ciaeoe “cieioo
na?aaeeio”, a?aoiaoth/e an? ?aae?? iaoi? aeiiii?ee – ?ioeyoe?th,
ae?iaieoeoai oiaa??a ? iineoa, niiaeeaaiiy, iaa?iiaaeaeaiiy.

2. Oaoiieia?y neeaaeaiiy Aea?aeaaiiai athaeaeaoo iio?aao? aeiei??iieo
ci?i. Ca?ac i?aeoeeo?oueny nenoaia, ca yei? i?eaooeiaa /anoeia
athaeaeaoo “i?aeaaiy?oueny” aei aeaeaoeiai?, oiaoi nii/aoeo ca?aeii c
aeiiaaie i?i?noa?noa ? a?aeiinoa oi?io?oueny aeaeaoeiaa /anoeia. I?ney
oeueiai ia?aaeyaeathoueny iiaeeeaino? i?eaooeiai? /anoeie ?, yeui aiie
caiae?, i?iiiio?oueny i?eeiyoe caeiie i?i iia? iiaeaoee aai ci?ieoe
iiaeaoeia? noaaee. Oaeei /eiii aeeiiaiiy athaeaeaoo “i?ea’yco?oueny” aei
iaeaooi?o ci?i.

A oiio i?e neeaaeaii? Aea?aeaaiiai athaeaeaoo iaiao?aeii ianaiia?aae
iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaii a iaaeao /eiiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa i?i iiaeaoee
?ic?aoiaoaaoe i?eaooeiao /anoeio. Oea aeanoue iiaeeea?noue aea?aeaa?
?aaeueii ioe?ieoe iiaeeeaino? athaeaeaoii? iie?oeee ia iaeaooi?e ??e.

A iniiao iiaoaeiae i?eaooeiai? /anoeie athaeaeaoo iathoue aooe
caeeaaeai? oae? i?eioeeie, ye? aeicaieythoue aea?aeaa? iaoe oi/a a
i?i?iaeueii aeinoaoi? o?iainia? ?ano?ne aeey ?? ae?yeueiino? ?
iaeii/anii aeei?enoiaoaaoe iiaeaoee ye ?ino?oiaio ?aaoethaaiiy
o?iainiaiai noaio ieaoiee?a, noeioethaaiiy c?inoaiiy ae?iaieoeoaa. Aei
aeaieo i?eioeei?a iaeaaeaoue:

– anoaiiaeaiiy oaeeo iiaeaoe?a, ye? a caaacia/oaaee ?aaoey?io
iia?e?caoe?th o?iainiaeo ?ano?n?a o ?icii?yaeaeaiiy aea?aeaae a
?ici??ao, aeinoaoi?o aeey o?iainoaaiiy caieaiiaaieo caoiae?a;

– canoinoaaiiy oaeeo aeae?a iiaeaoe?a, ye? a caaacia/oaaee
noaa?euei?noue o?iainiaiai noaiiaeua aea?aeaae, iiaiioo, noaa?euei?noue
? nai?/ani?noue oi?ioaaiiy ?? oeaio?ae?ciaaiiai oiiaeo;

– cai?iaaaeaeaiiy iiaeaoe?a, aaeaeaaoieo ?aaeueiei oiiaai
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai noaiiaeua aea?aeaae;

– aeeo/aiiy /iiaia aai /anoeiaa/ aei athaeaeaoo aeioiae?a, ia iia’ycaieo
?c o?iainiai-ainiiaea?nueeith ae?yeuei?noth i?aei?e?inoa ? i?aai?caoe?e.

3. Ieoaiiy oaeineiiaeaiiy noinoie?a i?ae eaieaie athaeaeaoii? nenoaie
caaaeaee ? aeooaeueieie. *eiiee athaeaeaoiee iaoai?ci, i?e yeiio ?aaee
aeuiai ??aiy anoaiiaeththoue ii?iaoeae a?ae?aooaaiue aeey iec?a,
i?ecaiaeeoue aei ia?ae?/o i?aai?a i?noeaaiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy. Oiio
iaiao?aeii ?iciiae?eeoe noa?e Aea?aeaaiiai athaeaeaoo ? athaeaeao?a
i?noeaaeo i?aai?a. Ia aea?aeaaiiio ??ai? aeioe?eueii o?iainoaaoe
iiaeaoee, ye? iathoue ae??oaeueia cia/aiiy aeey o?iainoaaiiy aeiiii?ee
Oe?a?ie. Ia ??ai? i?noeaaeo i?aai?a aeaaee ne?ae caeeoeoe aeaeaoee,
ni?yiiaai? ia ae??oaiiy nioe?aeueia ieoaiue ? i?aeo?eieo ?oiueiai
aeiiii?/iiai ?ic?aooieo a /anoei? eiioiaeueii? aeaniino?.

?iaeoa eaaeo/e, iaiao?aeii yeiaeoaeaeoa /?oei ?iciiae?eeoe eiiiaoaioe?th
i?ae oeaio?aeueieie i?aaiaie aeaaee e i?aaiaie i?noeaaiai
naiia?yaeoaaiiy ? caeiiiaeaa/a cae??ieoe ?? ca ieie. Caeiiiaeaanoai aaea
caeeaei i?eioeeie naiino?eiino? o neeaaeaiiy athaeaeao?a on?o ??ai?a,
aea aiie ua ia ci?oeiai? aeiiii?/iei iaoai?ciii, a oiio ia i?aoeththoue.

O ca’yceo c oeei aeey noai?aiiy /?oei? nenoaie oi?ioaaiiy athaeaeao?a
on?o ??ai?a, ia iao iiaeyae, iaiao?aeii /?oei ?iciiae?eeoe aeioiaee i?ae
on?ia eaieaie athaeaeaoii? nenoaie, oiaoi iaoe aecia/aio caeiiii
aeioiaeio aaco, a noinoiee i?ae aea?aeaaiei ? .i?noeaaeie athaeaeaoaie
aoaeoaaoe c o?aooaaiiyi oiia nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ?icieoeo ?aa?ii?a.
Oaei? iaoe iiaeia aeinyaoe, ni?yiiaoth/e 100% iiaeaoeo ia i?eaooie
i?aei?e?inoa ? i?aai?caoe?e on?o oi?i aeaniino? oa aeaye? ?io? iiaeaoee
(iai?eeeaae, iiaeaoie ia iaeii/ aei i?noeaaeo athaeaeao?a).

I?iaeaia athaeaeaoiiai ae??aithaaiiy inoaii?i /anii aeeoea ca iaae?
oai???. Oaia? aiia ia?ic?eaii? iia’ycaia ?c i?aeoe/ieie caoiaeaie uiaei
?aae?caoe?? a Oe?a?i? i?eioeeio “a?aeiinii?” naiino?eiino? athaeaeao?a
on?o ??ai?a, ?c i?aeathaeaeaoiei ia?a?iciiae?eii o?iainiaeo ?ano?n?a.
Aac iueiai iaiiaeeeai ia?eoeny, ine?eueee o?iainia? ?ano?ne aeayeeo
i?noeaaeo i?aai?a aeaaee a neeo ?noi?e/ieo oa ?ioeo i?e/ei ia iiaeooue
caaacia/eoe ?aae?caoe?th oeeie i?aaiaie aeaaeieo iiaiiaaaeaiue. Aeeoe c
oeueiai noaiiaeua iiaeia, iaaeaaoe oeei ?aa?iiai iaiao?aeii? aeiiiiiae
/a?ac ia?a?iciiae?e eioo?a, ae?iaeaoe aeey oeueiai ?aoe?iiaeuei? iniiae
? iaoai?cie.

No/ania nenoaia ?iciiae?eo athaeaeaoieo eioo?a i?ae ??cieie ??aiyie
oi?aae?iiy ia? i???iooaaoeny ia ae??oaiiy iaii?eueiiai caaaeaiiy –
aeinyaiaiiy caaeainiaaiino? athaeaeao?a ? ii “aa?oeeae?”, ? ii
“ai?eciioae?”. Ii “aa?oeeae?” o?aaa onoiooe iaa?aeiia?aeiino? i?ae
aeaeaoeaie i?noeaaeo athaeaeao?a ? iaaeoiaeaeaiiyie, cae??ieaieie ca
aeaiei athaeaeaoiei ??aiai, Oaeo iacaaeainiaai?noue iiai?noth iiaeieaoe
aac “ciai?oiuei?” ei?aeoe?? ia?aaeueii: aaniethoii iiaeaoeiaee
iioaioe?ae ? ia’?eoeai? iio?aae aeaii? oa?eoi??? i?aeoe/ii ia
ca?aathoueny. Oiio i?aaie aea?aeaaii? aeaaee, iath/e a?eueo? iiaeeeaino?
aeiiii?/iiai ?aaoethaaiiy e ianya iiaeaoeiaeo iaaeoiaeaeaiue, iiaeooue ?
iiaeii? eiiiainoaaoe aeenaaeain i?noeaaeo athaeaeao?a, ni?yiiaoth/e ia
aeioiaee yeonue /anoeio eioo?a, ui aeoioeththoueny ia ??ai? Aea?aeaaiiai
athaeaeaoo. Iaeiae ? oiae?, eiee iiaeaoeiaeo iaaeoiaeaeaiue ? noaneae?e
aeineoue aeey o?iainoaaiiy ni?eueieo aeaeaoe?a i?noeaaeo athaeaeao?a,
eeoa?oueny caaaeaiiy caaeainoaaiiy ii “ai?eciioae?”. Ni?aaa a oiio, ui a
iaaeao naieo i?noeaaeo athaeaeao?a iiaeooue aooe iaiaeiaeia? athaeaeaoi?
iiaeeeaino? aaei?i?no?aoeaieo iaeeieoeue, ye? ioiieththoue cia/iee
?aa?ii /ia?aaaaeii no?aei? iaeano? Oe?a?ie/. ?iaeoa eaaeo/e, a eiai
iaaeao oaeiae ? nai? aaaao? ? a?aei? oa?eoi???, o ca’yceo c /ei ? ia
oeueiio ??ai? /”ai?eciioaeueiiio”/ . iaiao?aeia o?iainiaa aeiiiiiaa
“cai?e”.

Iaeiae ia ne?ae caaoaaoe, ui /eiiee iaoai?ci o?iainiai? aeiiiiiae
?aaeueii noi?ioaaany ia aac? oeaio?ae?cio, yeee oa?aeoa?ecoaaa ?aeeio
athaeaeaoio nenoaio eieeoiueiai N?N?, ia?aae yeith noaaeeany iaoa
iaiaei?iiiai caaacia/aiiy caaeainoaaiiy aeioiae?a ? aeaeaoe?a eiaeii?
eaiee athaeaeaoii? nenoaie. Oey iaoa eoeueoeaoaaea ?aeath oo?eiaiiy,
i?eaeoooaaea ?i?oe?aoeao ieae/eo i?aai?a aeaaee o iiooeao aeiaeaoeiaeo
o?iainiaeo ?ano?n?a.

Ca?ac o Oe?a?i? aeei?enoiaothoueny iaoiaee, ye? caaacia/othoue
caaeainoaaiiy ieae/eo athaeaeao?a: noaaaioe?? /aaciiai?ioia oe?eueiaa
o?iainoaaiiy aeaeaoe?a ieae/eo athaeaeao?a ca ?aooiie aeueo/, aeioaoe??
/aaciiai?ioia iaaeaiiy eioo?a aeey a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy aeao?oeeoo ieae/iai
athaeaeaoo/; aca?iicae?ee /aeae?eaiiy eioo?a ieae/ei athaeaeaoai ia
a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy aeaeaoe?a, iia’ycaieo ?c ia?aaea/ath ?i aeaeaoeiaeo
ooieoe?e ca?aeii c ??oaiiyi oeaio?aeueieo i?aai?a aeaaee /; iiceee c
aeueo athaeaeao?a.

Iaena?eici?oee iaaeie?e /eiiiai iaoai?cio athaeaeaoiiai noaneaeoaaiiy a
oiio, ui canoiniaothoueny ia aca?iica’ycai?, a ??ciiiai?oi? ? aei oiai
ae ia ?aaeaiaioiaai? a?aeiia?aeieie ii?iaie oi?ie ia?a?iciiae?eo
athaeaeaoieo eioo?a. Oiio noa?a /eiiino? eiaeii? c iacaaieo /ioe?ueio
oi?i, ?o ii?aeiaiiy, eiie?aoi? ?ici??e o?iainiaeo ?ano?n?a, ye?
ia?a?iciiae?eythoueny, ui?aco aecia/athoueny ii-??ciiio,
?iaeea?aeoaeueii. A ?acoeueoao? aieea oeeo iaoiae?a i?ecaiaeeoue aei
aaei?i?no?oaaiiy ? noa’?eoea?cio i?e i?eeiyoo? eiie?aoieo ??oaiue.

Ioaea, iaiao?aeii ae?iaeoe ?aeei? e?eoa??? i?aai?caoe?? an?o aeae?a
o?iainiai? aeiiiiiae, iaeneiaeueii ?aae?coaaoe iioaioe?ae ?o
oe?eani?yiiaaiiai aieeao ia aeiiii?eo ?aa?iio. O?iainiao aeiiiiiao
?aa?iiai o?aaa iaaeaaaoe oae, uia niiioeaoe i?aaie aea?aeaaii? aeaaee ia
i?noeyo ?icoe?thaaoe aeanio aeioiaeio aaco, ?icaeaaoe ?iaanoeoe?eio
aeoeai?noue, no?oeoo?ii ia?aaoaeiaoaaoe aeiiii?eo ?aa?ii?a.

INIAEEAINO? CAAEAINOAAIIss I?NOeAAEO ATHAeAEAO?A

Caaeainoaaiiy ??/ieo athaeaeao?a iaeaaeeoue aei eeth/iaeo i?iaeai
athaeaeaoii? nenoaie. Ca?aeii ?c no.21’3aeiio Oe?a?ie “I?i athaeaeaoio
nenoaio Oe?a?ie”, “caaeainiaai?noue athaeaeao?a, ye? aoiaeyoue aei
neeaaeo athaeaeaoii? nenoaie Oe?a?ie, ? iaiao?aeiith oiiaith
o?iainiai-athaeaeaoii? iie?oeee”. A?aeiia?aei? i?aaia? ??oaiiy c oeueiai
ieoaiiy ia o?eueee caaacia/othoue /?oea e aoaeoeaia ooieoe?iioaaiiy
athaeaeaoii? nenoaie, aea e aecia/athoue oaeoe/i? iiaeeeaino?
ae?yeueiino? ??cieo i?aai?a aeaaee. A iaecaaaeuei?oeo ?enao i?ae
“caaeainoaaiiyi” iaiao?aeii ?icoi?oe caaacia/aiiy ??aiiaaae. A naith
/a?ao, oa?i?i “athaeaeaoia ??aiiaaaa” icia/a?, ui athaeaeaoi? aeaeaoee
iie?eaathoueny athaeaeaoieie aeioiaeaie. sseui athaeaeaoi? aeaeaoee
ia?aaeuothoue aeioiaee, oi oea cia/eoue, ui ?nio? athaeaeaoiee
aeao?oeeo. O oeueiio aeiaaeeo ??aiiaaae iaia?. sseui ae aeioiaee aeu?
a?ae iiaeaoe?a, ?nio? i?io?oeeo athaeaeaoo, aai athaeaeaoiee iaaeeeoie.
Iaeiae oeueiai ?aco iiaeia neacaoe, ui athaeaeao a?aecia/a?oueny
a?aenooi?noth ??aiiaaae. Ioaea, noai athaeaeaoii? ??aiiaaae ia icia/a?
o?eueee ??aiiaaao a a?eoiaoe/iiio ?icoi?ii?, oiaoi eiee aeioiaee
aei??aiththoue aeaeaoeai. Athaeaeao ciaoiaeeoueny o noai? ??aiiaaae ye
oiae?, eiee aeioiaee aei??aiththoue aeaeaoeai, oae ? oiae?, eiee
aeioiaee aeu? a?ae aeaeaoe?a. ?ioeie neiaaie, athaeaeaoii? ??aiiaaae
iaia? o?eueee oiae?, eiee aeaeaoee ia?aaeuothoue aeioiaee, oiaoi ia?
i?noea ?nioaaiiy athaeaeaoiiai aeao?oeeoo. Oea noino?oueny ? i?noeaaeo
athaeaeao?a. I?eioeei ?o caaeainiaaiino? caaaeaee iaa aaeeea cia/aiiy.
A?i a?aeia?aaea?oueny a aaaaoueio i?aaiaeo aeieoiaioao.

Aeioiaeia oa aeaeaoeiaa /anoeie i?noeaaeo athaeaeao?a aecia/athoueny a
iniiaiiio caoaa?aeaeoaaieie ia?eaiaioii ii?iaie. Oea icia/a?, ui
aea?aeaai? i?aaie noai?ththoue nenoaio i?noeaaeo athaeaeao?a, iniiaiith
oiiaith ?nioaaiiy yei? ia? aooe aa?iii?y i?ae aeioiaeiith oa
aeaeaoeiaith noi?iiaie i?noeaaeo athaeaeao?a, oiaoi ??aiiaaaa. Ia?aaea/a
iaia’yce?a ? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? i?noeaaei i?aaiai aeaaee ia?
noi?iaiaeaeoaaoeny caaacia/aiiyi oeeo i?aai?a a?aeiia?aeieie o?iainiaeie
?ano?naie. C i?aaiai? oi/ee ci?o i?i a?aeiia?aei?noue i?ae ca’yceaie oa
o?iainiaeie ?ano?naie iiaeia aiai?eoe oiae?, eiee iaia’ycee
noi?iaiaeaeothoueny i?aaaie oa eiiiaoaioe?yie ia aeei?enoaiiy aeaea?ae
aeioiae?a. Oe? eiiiaoaioe?? iiaeooue aecia/aoeny ii-??ciiio – a?ae i?aa
ia aeei?enoaiiy ?ano?n?a aei ii?iaoeaieo eiiiaoaioe?e, oiaoi i?aa uiaei
anoaiiaeaiiy iiaeaoe?a. I?noeaa? i?aaie aeaaee iiaeii? iaoe th?eaee/ia
cae??ieai? aeaea?aea aeioiae?a, aeinoaoi? aeey iie?eooy iaia’yceiaeo
aeaeaoe?a. Oea, cae/aeii, ia icia/a?, ui i?noeaa? i?aaie aeaaee iiaeooue
iaoe iiaeeea?noue aeeiioaaoe o?eueee iaia’yceia? ooieoe??. Iiaea aooe
neooaoe?y, ca yei? i?noeaa? i?aaie aeaaee iathoue ia nai?o ?aooieao
iaiao?aei? o?iainia? eiooe, aea ia iathoue a?aeiia?aeieo i?aa uiaei ?o
aeei?enoaiiy. ?nio? iaaaciaea, ui /?oeee ?iciiae?e iaia’yce?a ? ?ano?n?a
ciaioeoue naiino?ei?noue i?noeaaeo i?aai?a aeaaee. Iaeiae oaea iaaaciaea
ia icia/a? ca’yceo i?ae caaeainiaaiei athaeaeaoii oa iaaeinoaoiueith
naiino?ei?noth. Caaeainiaaia nenoaia aeioiae?a ? aeaeaoe?a ia?
caaacia/oaaoe a?aeiia?aeiee ??aaiue naiino?eiino? i?noeaaeo i?aai?a
aeaaee ye o aeaeaoeia?e, oae ? a aeioiaei?e /anoei?.

Caeeaaeaiiy a oe?a?inueeiio caeiiiaeaanoa? i?eioeei?a caaeainiaaiino?
i?noeaaeo athaeaeao?a aoei ni?e/eiaii caaaeueiith neeaaeiith o?iainiaith
neooaoe??th oa ?ioeyoe??th. I?eaiaeii oeueiai aoei oaeiae iiaithaaiiy,
ui i?e iaaooo? cia/ii? a?aeiinii? naiino?eiino? i?noeaa? i?aaie
ia?aaeuaoue aeani? aeioiaee ? oea noaia caeaei oyaa?ai aeey iaaeoi
aeao?oeeoiiai athaeaeaoo aea?aeaae. *anoeiai c oaeeie aeoieaie iiaeia
iiaiaeeoenue. Iaeiae ca a?aenooiino? i?ioyaii ?ie?a aeinoaoi?o aeanieo
i?noeaaeo aeioiae?a i?eeiyoa iieiaeaiiy oaeoe/ii iaiaaeoaaei
naiino?ei?noue ?aa?ii?a, cioooth/e ?o nei?i/oaaoe aeaeaoee. ‘Oeth
neooaoe?th ia iiaeia aaaaeaoe ca i?aaeeueio. A aaaaoueio aeiaaeeao iai??
naiino?eiino? i?noeaaeo i?aai?a aeaaee iiaea caeeoeoeny eeoa
aeaeea?aoeaiei, i?aee?anethth/e oaeiae oai?aoe/ii aeciaio ?aa?iiaeueio
naiino?ei?noue oa?eoi??aeueiiai ieaioaaiiy.

A i??o ?icaeoeo a?o/eciyii? nenoaie i?noeaai? aeaaee iaiao?aeii aeaaaoe
ioe?ieo aca?iia?aeiineiai i?ae i?aaiaie i?noeaaiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy,
?aa?iiaie oa o?yaeii. Oaea ioe?iea ia? noinoaaoeny aieeao cacia/aieo
aca?iia?aeiinei ia iiaeeeaino? o/ano? o ni?ai?aoe? ca oiia aeiaae?caoe??
na?oiai? aeiiii?ee. O neooaoe?? iaiaaeaiino? ioae?/ieo athaeaeao?a o?yae
iiaea a?aeiiaeoeny a?ae aeayeeo i?ia?ai c iaoith caaeainoaaiiy
athaeaeaoo aea?aeaae. Iinoa? ?yae ieoaiue. *e iiaeii? i?ioeai? i?aaie
aeaaee o a?aeiia?aeue ia oae? iaiaaeaiiy oaeiae i?ecoieieoe
ae?yeuei?noue o oeeo noa?ao? sseui i?, oi yeei niiniaii ia?
o?iainoaaoeny i?noeaaa noa?a iineoa” *e iia? iaia’ycee iathoue
ia?aaeaaaoeny a?ae o?yaeo i?noeaaei i?aaiai aeaaee ?acii ?c
aeiaeaoeiaith o?iainiaith i?aeo?eieith o aeaeyae? aeioaoe?? aai iiaeo
aeaea?ae aeioiae?a? Aei yeiai ??aiy o?yae ia? ao?o/aoeny o ?ica?aeiino?,
ye? aeieeathoue c iai?aaeeueiiai cae??ieaiiy eiiiaoaioe?e o aaeoc?
aeaeaoe?a ? c ??ciiai iiaeaoeiaiai iioaioe?aeo?

I?ae /an iiooeo a?aeiia?aeae ia oe? ieoaiiy iaiao?aeii iai’yoaoe i?i
iaai? canaaee, yeeie o?aaa ea?oaaoeny. Iniiaia ieoaiiy, yea aeieea? a
aeeneon?yo i?i i?noeaa? iiaeaoee oa aeioiaee i?noeaaeo athaeaeao?a, – /e
iiaeii? iniae, ye? ei?enoothoueny ioae?/ieie iineoaaie oa iaeiii a i??o
nai?o iiaeeeainoae ca ieo ieaoeoe? Eiee ethaee iiaeooue ei?enooaaoeny
iaeiii /e iineoaaie ca oe?iaie, ieae/eie a?ae ?o aa?oino?, ieie
ei?enoothoueny o a?eueoeo ianyaao, i?ae oiae?, eiee oe?ie aeu?. sseui
iniae, ye? iineoaiaothoueny ioae?/iei naeoi?ai, ia ciaia’ycai? ca ieo
ieaoeoe, oi ia oae? i?ia?aie iaiao?aeii aeae?eyoe iaaeoi aaaaoi eioo?a
ca ?aooiie ?ioeo. Oea ni?e/eiy? ia?iio?aonoai iaiaaeaieo cania?a oa
noai?th? neooaoe?th, eiee iniae, ye? ei?enoothoueny iineoaaie,
noaneaeothoueny oeie, ooi ieie iineoaiao?. Oaea neooaoe?y aeaea?oueny
iani?aaaaeeeaith. C aeiiae, uia o?, ooi ei?enoo?oueny iineoaaie, ieaoeee
ca ieo, aeieeaa? e?eueea i?aaee. Cie?aia caeaaeii a?ae ??aiy
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? i?aai?a i?noeaai? aeaaee ca iaaeaiiy iineoa aiie
iiaeii? iaoe aeinooi aei aeeoa?aioe?eiaaieo aeaea?ae aeioiae?a, uia iaoe
a?eueo? iiaeeeaino? iia’ycoaaoe i?iiiiiaai? iineoae ?c iiaeaoeaie, ui
noyaothoueny a aeaiiio ?aa?ii?.

Uiaei i?iaeo?a, aeioiaee c yeeo iaae?eaeooue o?eueee a iaeaooiueiio,
a?aeiia?aeiei niiniaii o?iainoaaiiy ? ai?aia? ciaia’ycaiiy. A ?ioiio
aeiaaeeo oaia??oi? ieaoieee iiaeaoe?a noaneaeothoue iaeaooi?o
ei?enooaa/?a iineoaaie, /a?ac ui ciaioothoueny ? aoaeoeai?noue, ?
ni?aaaaeeea?noue, ine?eueee aeioiaee iathoue aeia?aaeaeaoe aeaeaoee c
iaoith cai?o a?aeiia?aeii aaeeeeo oiiae?a aeey ii/aoeo ?iaanoeoe??. Oei
a?eueoa no?ie nieaoe ai?ao ia? a?aeiia?aeaoe, iane?eueee oea iiaeeeai,
no?ieai iaaeoiaeaeaiiy aeioiae?a c aeaii? ?iaanoeoe??. Ai?a ? oei/aniaei
? iainoaoi/iei aeaea?aeii o?iainoaaiiy ?, ia?aoo?, i?i ia? aooe
niea/aiee. Oeae i?eioeei i?i?i?co? noaneaeoaaiiy iaeaooi?o ei?enooaa/?a
oaia??oi?ie ieaoieeaie iiaeaoe?a, aeeiioth/e oei naiei iaeii/anii aeiiae
aoaeoeaiino? oa ni?aaaaeeeaino?.

Ca oiiae, ui i?noeaa? i?aaie aeaaee iiaeii? iaoe o nai?io
?icii?yaeaeaii? aa?aioiaai? caeiiii ?ano?ne aeey aeeiiaiiy nai?o
iaia’yce?a (oae? aai noiae? iaia’ycee ?niothoue a ?aa?iiao c
aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiei ??aiai aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo), o?aaa i?eeiyoe oaco
i?i iaiao?aei?noue ae??aithaaiiy o?iainiai-aeiiii?/ieo iiaeeeainoae
?aa?ii?a e?a?ie. sseui aeaeaoee a iaaeao ?aa?iio, ui iaaea? iineoae, oa
ianya aeioiae?a iaiiaeeeai a??aiiaaaeeoe, eii?aeeioth/o ?ieue iiaeooue
aeeiioaaoe a?aeiia?aei? aeioaoe??. C iaoith caaacia/aiiy aoaeoeaiino? oa
ni?aaaaeeeaino? oea iathoue aooe eiie?aoi? oa aeiiiaithth/? aeioaoe?? c
o?aooaaiiyi iiae?eo eioo?a i?ae ??aiyie aeaaee a?aeiia?aeii aei ?o
/anoie o aeioiaeao. Iaeiae caaacia/aiiy ?ano?naie aeey e?ea?aeaoe??
aeeni?iii?oe?? A aeiiii?/iiio ?icaeoeo oa ??ai? aeeooy ia iiaeiii
ciaiooaaoe i?aaiaiiy i?noeaaeo i?aai?a aeaaee aei aeiiii?? aeaeaoe?a ?
caoiae?a aei iiooeo iiaeo ? ca?eueoaiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino? ?nioth/eo
aeaea?ae aeioiae?a. Ca?eueoaiiy ?ano?n?a ye ?acoeueoao ae?yeueiino?
i?noeaaeo i?aai?a aeaaee i?eiee ia iiaeiii i?ecaiaeeoe aei aaoiiaoe/iiai
?o ia?aaeaaaiiy aeuiio ??aith aai aei ciaioaiiy aeioaoe?e /e noaaaioe?e.

Ana oea noino?oueny caaeainiaaiino? i?noeaaeo athaeaeao?a. E??i
no?oeoo?e aeioiaeii? oa aeaeaoeiai? noi??i athaeaeaoo oa i?aa i?noeaaeo
i?aai?a aeaaee o oe?e noa??, aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy iathoue ieoaiiy
i?ioeaaeo?e caaeainoaaiiy i?noeaaeo athaeaeao?a, oiio ui i?aaeea
neeaaeaiiy oa caoaa?aeaeaiiy athaeaeaoo oa ?io? nooo?a? ii?ie
aecia/athoue, ooi ? a yeiio ianyc? caoaa?aeaeoaaoeia eaioe aeioiae?a ?
aeaeaoee i?noeaaiai athaeaeaoo. E??i eiiiaoaioe??, iaaaeyea cia/aiiy ooo
ia? iine?aeiai?noue caoaa?aeaeaiiy, oiaoi ieoaiiy i?ioeaaeo?e. C iaeyaeo
ia i?eioeei naiia?yaeoaaiiy iaee?auei ? ??oaiiy, ca yeiai i?aaie
aea?aeaae cacaeaeaa?aeue caoaa?aeaeothoue ianyae aeioaoe?e ? noaaaioe?e,
a i?noeaa? i?aaie aeaaee, iath/e iaai? i?aaa o anoaiiaeaii? noaaie
ie?aieo iiaeaoe?a ? aecia/aii? ianyao aeaeaoe?a, inoaoi/ii
caoaa?aeaeothoue aeioiaeio oa aeaeaoeiao /anoeie athaeaeaoo. Oaeei
/eiii. aeo caoaa?aeaeaiiy i?noeaaiai athaeaeaoo iaaoaa? ?aaeueiiai
cia/aiiy. ?icoi?th/?: iaiao?aei?noue iaaieo iaiaaeaiue naiaiaee
ae?yeueiino? i?noeaaeo i?aai?a aeaaee, ne?ae cacia/eoe, ui cia/aiiy
caoaa?aeaeaiiy i?noeaaeo athaeaeao?a caeaaeeoue a?ae oiai, /e iathoue
i?noeaa? i?aaie aeaaee i?aaa ? ye? aiie o aecia/aii? aeioiaeii? oa
aeaeaoeiai? noi??i athaeaeaoo.

Ocaaaeueithth/e iieiaeaiiy, ui noinothoueny ??aiiaaae i?noeaaeo
athaeaeao?a, iaiao?aeii a?aecia/eoe, ui nenoaiith, a ye?e iaia’yceai
iathoue a?aeiia?aeaoe ?ano?ne, oiaoi iioaioe?eieie aeaeaoeai – aeioiaee
i?noeaaeo athaeaeao?a, iiaeii? ea?oaaoeny naia o?iainia? i?aaie
aea?aeaae. Oaea nenoaia iiaeiia ia?aaeaa/aoe eiie?aoii aecia/aiee ianya
naiino?eiino? i?noeaaeo i?aai?a aeaaee ? noeioethaaoe aoaeoeai?noue
ae?yeueiino? oeeo i?aai?a. Iaeiae i?aai inoaoi/iiai caoaa?aeaeaiiy eaio
aeioiae?a ? aeaeaoe?a ia? caeeoaoeny ia i?noeaaiio ??ai?.

AIAE?C I?AEA?IAeAEAOIEO A?AeIINEI A OE?A?I?

(IA I?EEEAAe? *A?I?AAOeUeEI? IAEANO?)

?icaeoie aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie i?ioyaii inoaii?o ?ie?a i?eca?a, cie?aia, aei
aeeaiei? ?iceaaeiaiino? nenoaie (o?iain?a, o oiio /ene? caaino?aiiy
i?iaeai athaeaeaoii? iie?oeee. Oe? i?iaeaie iineeththoueny iaa?oue /a?ac
oa, ui ?noioiei iiiaioii nioe?aeueii? iie?oeee noathoue ??
aeaoeaio?ae?caoe?y ? ?icaea?aeaaeaiiy, ye? ia?aaeaa/athoue, ui iniiaiee
ianya nioe?aeueieo aeo?ao aeaaeae? a?eueoith i??ith ia?aiineoueny ia
i?noeaaee ? ?aa?iiaeueiee ??ai?. ? oea a?aeaoaa?oueny oiae?, eiee
oaeoe/ii i?noeaa? e ?aa?iiaeuei? i?aaie naiia?yaeoaaiiy iaiaaeai? o
nai?o aeaaeieo i?aaao, iicaaaeai? iiaeeeaino? aanoe aoaeue-yeo aeanio
o?iainiao, a oiio /ene? e athaeaeaoio, iie?oeeo, ine?eueee ua ia
a?aeia?ee iaoiaee eieeoiuei? eiiaiaeii-aaei?i?no?aoeaii? nenoaie, a c
ieie ? ii?yaeie oi?ioaaiiy oa aeei?enoaiiy athaeaeao?a on?o ??ai?a.

Oeae aeniiaie i?aeoaa?aeaeo? e aiae?c aca?iia?aeiinei ??cieo eaiie
athaeaeaoii? nenoaie ia i?eeeaae? *a?i?aaoeueei? iaeano?.

Ia?aaeon?i, athaeaeaoi? aca?iia?aeiineie a?oioothoueny ia ?iciiae?e?
ca?aeii c /eiiei caeiiiaeaanoaii eiie?aoieo aeioiae?a ? aeaeaoe?a i?ae
??cieie eaieaie athaeaeaoii? nenoaie. O i?aeoe/iiio aeei?enoaii?
no?oeoo?a ?iciaaeoaaiiy aeioiae?a ? aeaeaoe?a i?ae iaeaniei oa
i?noeaaeie athaeaeaoaie e?ath aeaeyaea? ianooiiei /eiii /oaae. 5/

Oaaeeoey 5. No?oeoo?a ?iciaaeoaaiiy aeioiae?a oa aeaeaoe?a i?ae iaeaniei
oa i?noeaaeie athaeaeaoaie *a?i?aaoeueei? iaeano? i?ioyaii 1992-1995
?ie?a, %

??e Ieoiia aaaa i?noeaaeo athaeaeao?a Ieoiia aaaa iaeaniiai athaeaeaoo

o aeioiaeao o aeaeaoeao o aeioiaeao o aeaeaoeao

1 2 3 4 5

1992 43,7 61,6 56,3 38,4

1993 59,1 65,9 40,9 43,1

1994 67,3 65.6 32,7 34,4

1995 63,1 63,1 36,9 36,9

Ioaea, ii/eiath/e c 1992 ?ieo niinoa??aa?oueny iia?eueia c?inoaiiy
ieoiii? aaae ye aeioiae?a, oae ? aeaeaoe?a ?aeiiieo athaeaeao?a ?
athaeaeaoo i. *a?i?aoe?, ye? aei nueiaiaei? o?iainoaaee iaeaea aea?
o?aoeie /63,1%/ on?o athaeaeaoieo onoaiia ? caoiae?a. Oeae oaeo
iiynith?oueny i?aeaeuaiiyi ?ie? i?noeaaeo i?aai?a naiia?yaeoaaiiy, i?i
ui aeua caaaeaii. I?aeoaa?aeaeaiiyi neacaiiai ? e oa, ui ua a 1992 ?ioe?
ieoiia aaaa i?noeaaeo athaeaeao?a o aeioiaeao aei??aithaaea 43,7%, a o
aeaeaoeao – 61,6% /oiaoi aiie io?eioaaee eioo?a iaioa, i?ae
a?aeaeaaaee/, a aaea a 1994 ?ioe? ieoiia aaaa ?o aeioiaeii? /anoeie
/67,3%/ ia?aaeueea oaeo aeaeaoeiai? /65,6%/.

Aeioiaee athaeaeao?a eiaeiiai ??aiy ca?aeii c iaoiaeieia??th
athaeaeaoiiai ?aaoethaaiiy iiae?eythoueny ia ?aaoethth/? aa cae??ieai?,
?o neeaae ia ? iino?eiei, a?i ci?ith?oueny ca ?ieaie, i?ioa iiaeia
cacia/eoe, ui ia?ae?e ?aaoethth/eo aeioiae?a aeey i?noeaaeo athaeaeaoi?
iaaaeeeee ? a iniiaiiio noaa?eueiee i?ioyaii inoaii?o ?ie?a. A?i
aeeth/a? iiaeaoie ia i?eaooie /aai aeioiaee/ i?aei?e?inoa, onoaiia oa
i?aai?caoe?e, i?eaooeiaee iiaeaoie c a?iiaaeyi, iiaeaoie ia aeiaeaio
aa?o?noue, aeoeeciee ca?? /a 1993 ?ioe? ye ?aaoethth/ee aeioiae
aeei?enoiaoaaeany oaeiae ieaoa ca caieth /.

A?aeiia?aeii aei caeiiiaeaa/eo aeieoiaio?a athaeaeao *a?i?aaoeueei?
iaeano? io?eioaaa ?aaoethth/? aeioiaee /o i?ioeaioiiio ae?aaeaii?/ a
ianooiieo ?ici??ao /oaae.6/.

Oaaeeoey 6. ?ici?? a?ae?aooaaiue a?ae ?aaoethth/eo aeioiae?a aei
athaeaeaoo

*a?i?aaoeueei? iaeano? a 1992-1995 ?ieao, %

?iee

1992 1993 1994 1995

Iiaeaoie ia i?eaooie /aeioiaee/ i?aei?e?inoa, onoaiia oa i?aai?caoe?e
100 100 50 70

I?eaooeiaee iiaeaoie c a?iiaaeyi 100 100 50 50

Iiaeaoie ia aeiaeaio aa?o?noue 93,6 100 20 100

Aeoeeciee ca?? 100 100 20 20

Ieaoa ca caieth – 40 – –

C iaaaaeaieo aeaieo aeaeii, ui athaeaeao *a?i?aaoeueei? iaeano? o 1992 ?
1993 ?ieao iiiiaithaaany ?aaoethth/eie aeioiaeaie iaeaea ia 100%. Oaeee
?ici?? a?ae?aooaaiue iiynith?oueny neeaaeieie i?e?iaeieie oa
aeieia?/ieie oiiaaie, ui neeaeeny ia Aoeiaei?, a oaeiae oei, ui
a?eueo?noue i?aei?e?inoa iaeano? /cia/ia /anoeia yeeo aeiiaaeaaia
i?aoethaaea ia a?enueeiai-i?iieneiaee eiiieaen/ ia ooieoe?iio?, a ioaea,
ia cae?enith? ieaoaae?a aei athaeaeaoo. A oie naiee /an Aoeiaeia
oa?aeoa?eco?oueny ye ?aa?ii c iaaeeeoeiaeie o?oaeiaeie ?ano?naie, ui
i?ecaiaeeoue aei cia/ieo athaeaeaoieo aeo?ao /ia nioe?aeueiee caoeno
ianaeaiiy, ina?oo, ioi?iio caei?ia’y,nioe?aeueii-eoeueoo?i? caoiaee ?
o.ae/.

Aiane?aeie ia?a?iciiae?eo ?aaoethth/? aeioiaee iaaeoiaeeee aei
*a?i?aaoeueeiai i?nueeiai athaeaeaoo a ianooiieo ?ici??ao /oaae.7/

Ca?aeii c aeaieie oaaeeoe? iiaeia noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui aeioiaeia /anoeia
athaeaeaoo i. *a?i?aoe? o?eueee a 1993 ?ioe? cia/ii iiiiaieeany ca
?aooiie ?aaoethth/eo ieaoaae?a, ui iiceoeaii aieeioei ia o?iainiaee noai
i?noa /ia a?aei?io a?ae ?ioeo ?ie?a i?nueeee athaeaeao aoei
caoaa?aeaeaii ? aeeiiaii aac aeao?oeeoo, i?e oeueiio a?i oaeiae ia
io?eioaaa aeiaeieo aeiiiiia c athaeaeaoo aeuiai ??aiy /. Iecueeee
??aaiue i?ioeaioieo a?ae?aooaaiue a?ae iiaeaoeo ia i?eaooie /aeioiaee/,
IAeA oa i?eaooeiaiai iiaeaoeo c a?iiaaeyi o 1992, 1994 ? 1995 ?ieao
coiiaea oneeaaeiaiiy o o?iainoaaii? athaeaeaoieo onoaiia ? caoiae?a. Oey
ianoaaeia iineeth?oueny oei, oi i?ioyaii aeiaaiai /ano ?aaoethth/?
ieaoaae? caeiathoue aaaiio /anoeo o aeioiaeao i?nueeiai athaeaeaoo. I?e
oeueiio iiaeia c oiaaiai?noth noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui e iaaeae? aiie
a?ae?a?aaaoeiooue aaaeeeao ?ieue o oi?ioaaii? aeioiae?a i?noeaaeo
athaeaeao?a, a ioaea, a?ae ni?aaaaeeeaino?, aeaaaeaiino?, a?aooaaiiy
on?o i?noeaaeo /eiiee?a caeiiiaeaaoeyie ? Eaa?iaoii I?i?no??a Oe?a?ie
/oiaoi a?ae noa’?eoeaieo, a ia ia’?eoeaieo oaeo?a/ aaaaoi a /iio
caeaaeaoeia oa, ye o?iainoaaoeiooueny caieaiiaai? ieciaeie eaieaie
athaeaeaoii? nenoaie aeaeaoee.

Oaaeeoey 7. ?ici?? a?ae?aooaaiue a?ae ?aaoethth/eo aeioiae?a aei
athaeaeaoo

i. *a?i?aoe? a 1992-1995 ?ieao, %

. Iacaa ieaoaaeo ?iee

1992 1993 1994 1995

I?eaooeiaee iiaeaoie c a?iiaaeyi 50 50 20 50

Iiaeaoie ia i?eaooie /aeioiaee/ i?aei?e?inoa, onoaiia oa i?aai?caoe?e 60
100 10 50

Iiaeaoie ia aeiaeaio aa?o?noue 10 17 10 30

Aeoeeciee ca?? 100 90 10 20

Iaeiae aeani? ? ?aaoethth/? aeioiaee i?noeaaeo athaeaeao?a iaeano? ia
ae??ooaaee iiai?noth i?iaeaio athaeaeaoii? caaacia/aiino?. Oae,
iai?eeeaae, o 1995 ?ioe? aeiaaeiny caa?iooeny ii aeiiiiiao – caieaioaaoe
? io?eiaoe c iaeaniiai athaeaeaoo aeioaoe?th, yea, ye na?ae/eoue
ianooiia oaaeeoey, neeaaea? cia/io /anoeo a ?o aeaeaoeao /oaae. 8/.

*anoea caieaiiaaii? aeioaoe?? o caaaeuei?e noi? aeaeaoe?a i?noeaaeo
athaeaeao?a e?ath a 1995 ?ioe? eieeaaeany a?ae 6,1% o i. *a?i?aoe? aei
53,5% o Aa?oea?anueeiio ?aeii?. A na?aaeiueiio ii iaeano? aiia neeaea
22,8%, oiaoi iaeaea eiaeiee /aoaa?oee ea?aiaaiaoeue aeaeaoe?a i?noeaaeo
athaeaeao?a o?iainoaaany ca ?aooiie iaea?aeaii? c iaeaniiai athaeaeaoo
aeiiiiiae.

Iaeaea ui??/ii athaeaeao i. *a?i?aoe? aoaa? caeaaeiei a?ae iaea?aeaiiy
o?iainiai? aeiiiiiae c /a?i?aaoeueeiai iaeaniiai athaeaeaoo. Oae, o 1992
?ioe? aei iueiai iaae?eoea aeioaoe?y a noi? 183 832,0 oen.e?a., o 1994
?ioe? – noaaaioe?y a ?ici??? 147,0 oen.e?a., o 1995 ?ioe? – aeioaoe?y a
noi? 210,0 ie?ae.e?a., ye?, ca?aeii c ??oaiiyie i?nueeiai aeeiiaa/iai
eii?oaoo, aoee ni?yiiaai? ia o?iainoaaiiy caieaiiaaieo aeaeaoe?a /?ioeie
neiaaie, ia iie?eooy ??cieoe? i?ae aeaeaoeiaith ? aeioiaeiith /anoeiaie
athaeaeaoo /.

Oaaeeoey 8. Ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?ae noiith aeiiiiia ? aeaeaoe?a i?noeaaeo
athaeaeao?a *a?i?aaoeueei? iaeano? a 1995 ?ioe?

? i/i Athaeaeao ?ici?? aeiiiiiae iei. e?a. Noia aeaeaoe?a, iei. e?a.
Ieoiia aaaa aeiiiiia o caaaeuei?e noi? aeaeaoe?a, %

1 Aeaeieoeueeee 212857 499 644 42,6

? Aa?oea?anueeee 134 309 250 818 53,5

3 Aeeaioeueeee 211 900 426 271 49,7

4 Canoaai?anueeee 135910 419 786 32,4

5 Eaeueiaiaoeueeee 87 767 456 842 19,2

6 E?oeiainueeee 120 446 538 798 22,4

7 Iiainaeeoeueeee 162 880 542 776 30,0

8 Iooeeuenueeee 78 768 274 600 28,7

9 Niee?yinueeee 113 156 635 462 17,8

10 Noi?iaeeiaoeueeee 214920 579 594 37,1

11 Oioeinueeee 266 305 506 719 52,6

12 I.*a?i?aoe? 210000 3 423 748 6,1

?acii: 1949 218 8 555 058 22,8

A?ae/oaa? naith caeaaei?noue a?ae Aea?aeaaiiai athaeaeaoo Oe?a?ie ?
athaeaeao *a?i?aaoeueei? iaeano?. Oae, o 1993 ?ioe?, ca?aeii ?c Caeiiii
“I?i Aea?aeaaiee athaeaeao Oe?a?ie ia 1993 ??e”, aoea caieaiiaaia ?
iaea?aeaia noaaaioe?y a ?ici??? 7 607 900,0 oen. e?a. (1,4% o caaaeuei?e
noi? aeaeaoe?a). O 1994 ?ioe? ?ici?? noaaaioe?? aeey iaeano? c??n aei
853 133,0 iei. e?a, (35.9%, oiaoi o 1 12 ?ac?a ii??aiyii c 1993 ?ieii, a
1995 ?ioe? – aei 2 808 078 iei. e?a. (15,5%), ui o 3,3 ?aca a?eueoa,
i?ae o 1994 ?ioe?. Oaea ??cea c?inoaiiy iiynith?oueny ia o?eueee
i?enei?aiiyi ?ioeyoe?eieo i?ioean?a, a e iia??oaiiyi aeiiii?/iiai
noaiiaeua e?ath ?, ye iane?aeie, cia/iei ciaioaiiyi o i?ioeaioiiio
a?aeiioaii? a?ae?aooaaiue aei athaeaeaoo, a oaeiae iineeaiiyi
aaei?i?no?aoeaiiai ea?oaaiiy oeaio?aeueieo i?aai?a aeaaee, ui i?ecaaei
aei nei?i/aiiy iaaeoiaeaeaiue ?aaoethth/eo aeioiae?a oaae o i?ioeaioiiio
a?aeiioaii?. Ia a?aei?io a?ae iiia?aaei?o ?ie?a o 1994-io aoee
i?iaaaeai? ci?ie a athaeaeaoiiio ?aaoethaaii? ia iae?i??ii? – aaaaeaii
?aeei? aeey on?o ?aa?ii?a ii?iaoeae a?ae?aooaaiue a?ae ?aaoethth/eo
ieaoaae?a aeey ieciaeo eaiie. ?acii c oeei a?eueoino? ?aa?ii?a oaeiae
aoei ia?aaeaa/aii aeae?eaiiy noaaaioe?e aeey caaeainoaaiiy athaeaeao?a,
e??i i’youeio: Aei?i?iiao?ianueei?, Aeiiaoeueei?, Caii??cueei?,
Iieoaanueei? iaeanoae oa i. Ee?aa, aea aeioiaeia /anoeia athaeaeaoo
ia?aaeuoaaea aeaeaoeiao. C iaeiiai aieo, oaea ??oaiiy caaeiaieueiyei
aeiiae ? i?iiiceoe?? ie?aieo o?iainiaeo oai?aoee?a ? i?aeoee?a uiaei
??aiii?aaiino? o ia?a?iciiae?e? eioo?a, c ?ioiai – i?ecaaei aei
iineeaiiy iai?oae a ieciaeo eaieao athaeaeaoii? nenoaie. Aaeaea oie
naiee Caeii “I?i Aea?aeaaiee athaeaeao Oe?a?ie ia 1994 ??e” ia i?noea
aeiaeieo iiyniaiue noiniaii oiia iaaeaiiy noaaaioe?e, a oaeiae oiai,
a?aeiia?aeii aei yeeo e?eoa???a ia?a?iciiae?eai? o?iainia? ?ano?ne
?aa?ii?a. Aoei eeoa aeacaii, ui noaaaioe?? i?ecia/ai? aeey o?iainoaaiiy
aeo?ao i?noeaaeo athaeaeao?a, ye? ia iie?eaathoueny aeioiaeaie; i?ioa
i’youe aeuaaeacaieo ?aa?ii?a i?ioanooaaee i?ioe o?iainoaaiiy ca ?o
?aooiie on?o ?ioeo, a inoaii? io?eioaaee aeiiiiiao ia?aaoey?ii, ?c
cia/iei cai?ciaiiyi /o oiio /ene? e *a?i?aaoeueea iaeanoue /.
Iaaecia/ai?noue o iaaeaii? noaneae?e oaeoe/ii icia/a?, ui aeo?aoe
i?noeaaeo athaeaeao?a ?aaoeththoueny oeaio?aeueieie i?aaiaie ae?caee, a
i?aaie i?noeaaiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy, ye ? ca oiia
eiiaiaeii-aaei?i?no?aoeaii? nenoaie, caeeoathoueny a a?eueoino?
aeiaaee?a eeoa aeeiiaaoeyie oeaio?ae?ciaaieo ??oaiue.

C aeuacacia/aiiai aeieeaa?, ui oi?ie ? iaoiaee athaeaeaoiiai
?aaoethaaiiy, oniaaeeiaai? Oe?a?iith c /an?a ?nioaaiiy eieeoiueiai N?N?,
ia ? aeinoaoiuei aoaeoeaieie, ine?eueee ?aa?iiaeuei? ? i?noeaa?
athaeaeaoe caeeoeeeny iaaiith i??ith i?ioa/aie eioo?a o a?aeiia?aeieo
aeuanoiyueo athaeaeao?a, aaeaea aeanieo /cae??ieaieo/ aeioiae?a ?i
aaniethoii ia aenoa/a?. Oiaoi noa? c?icoi?ei, ui aa?oeeaeue “Aea?aeaaiee
athaeaeao Oe?a?ie – i?noeaa? athaeaeaoe” ? iaaeae? caeeoa?oueny
aeaiaioii eiiaiaeia – aaei?i?no?aoeaii? nenoaie /a?ac oa, ui
oeaio?aeuei? i?aaie aeaaee ia oi/ooue iaaeaaaoe ?aa?iiai a?eueoi?
naiino?eiino? o ae??oaii? o?iainiaeo ieoaiue; aiie aie?thoue nai?
?iciiae?eyoe ? ia?a?iciiae?eyoe a?eueo?noue c?a?aieo a Oe?a?i? eioo?a.

Ua iaeiei i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiyi iaaeineiiaeino? athaeaeaoiiai ?aaoethaaiiy ?
oa, ui, iacaaaeath/e ia an? caoiaee, i?noeaa? athaeaeaoe caiaeyoueny c
aeao?oeeoii o?iainiaeo ?ano?n?a. sse i?eeeaae – athaeaeao i. *a?i?aoe?
ca 1992 ? 1994 ?iee, eiee ia nan?yo i?nueei? ?aaee ia?iaeieo aeaiooao?a
i?e caoaa?aeaeaii? athaeaeao?a aoa caieaiiaaiee aeao?oeeo o noi? 100
841,0 oen. E?a. ? 45,0 ie?ae.e?a, a?aeiia?aeii. Ca?aeii c iaaaaeaieie
aeaieie, niinoa??aa?oueny i?yia caeaaei?noue i?ae i?ioeaioii
a?ae?aooaaiue a?ae ?aaoethth/eo iiaeaoe?a ? ?ici??ii athaeaeaoiiai
aeao?oeeoo. Aaeaea ii??aiyii c 1993 ?ieii o 1994-io iaeaniith ?aaeith
ia?iaeieo aeaiooao?a aoee ??cei cieaeai? ii?iaoeae a?ae?aooaaiue a?ae
caaaeueiiaea?aeaaieo aeioiae?a aei i?nueeiai athaeaeaoo, ui
i?aeoaa?aeaeothoue aeai? oaae.7.

Oaeei /eiii, ye na?ae/eoue i?iia/aiee aiae?c, o aca?iia?aeiineiao ??cieo
eaiie athaeaeaoii? nenoaie Oe?a?ie ?niothoue nooo?a? iaaeie?ee, ye?
iaiao?aeii iaeaeeae/ei /anii onoiooe, i?ia?aoe ea?aeeiaeuei? ci?ie a
nenoai? o?iainiaiai (cie?aia, athaeaeaoiiai) ?aaoethaaiiy, ui noaia
iaeiei c aaaeeeaeo e?ie?a o iai?yieo aeinyaiaiiy o?iainiai?
noaa?e?caoe?? o e?a?i?.

IIAeAOEIAA IIE?OEEA ? AeIOIAeE ATHAeAEAO?A OE?A?IE

C i?eeiyooyi Eiinoeoooe?? Oe?a?ie ia oa?ai? iaoi? aea?aeaae aecia/aii
i?eioeei aa?oiaainoaa i?aaa. Iaeaaaeeea?oeie ooieoe?yie aea?aeaae ?
caoeno noaa?ai?oaoo ? oa?eoi??aeueii? oe?e?niino? Oe?a?ie, a oaeiae
aa?aiooaaiiy o?iainiai-aeiiii?/ii? aaciaee. Aeiiii?eo aeciaii ye
oeaio?aeueio eaieo noni?eueiiai aeeooy, ui aea? ciiao ii-iiaiio i?ae?eoe
aei i?aai?caoe?? oa iiaoaeiae iniiaieo canaae ? i?eioeei?a
ooieoe?iioaaiiy ye aaciaeo aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei, ?ic?iaeoe ?
cai?iaaaeeoe i?ia?aneai? oi?ie ? iaoiaee ?aaoethaaiiy i?ioeano
noai?aiiy, ?iciiae?eo ? aeei?enoaiiy aaeiaiai aioo??oiueiai i?iaeoeoo
(AAI) aeey caaeainiaaiiai, aeoeaiiai ?icaeoeo aeiiii?/ieo ?ioa?an?a on?o
? eiaeiiai.

A 1997 ?. ia?aaeaa/a?oueny noaa?e?coaaoe ianyae aaeiaiai aioo??oiueiai
i?iaeoeoo ? cieceoe eiai ia?a?iciiae?e /a?ac athaeaeao, oo?eiaoe
athaeaeaoiee aeao?oeeo o iaaeao 5% AAI i?e ??ai? ?ioeyoe?? aei 18% ia
??e.

Ii?yae ?c aeoeaiith no?oeoo?iith, ?iaanoeoe?eiith, a?ioiai-e?aaeeoiith
oa aaethoiith iie?oeeith aieiaieie aaaeaeyie aea?aeaaiiai aieeao uiaei
aeinyaiaiiy cacia/aieo i???ioe??a caeeoathoueny athaeaeaoia oa
iiaeaoeiaa iie?oeea.

Inoaii?ie ?ieaie caaino?eeanue i?iaeaia oi?ioaaiiy ? aeeiiaiiy
athaeaeaoo. Ii/eiath/e c 1992 ?. a Oe?a?i? ii?ooothoueny on? no?iee
i?eeiyooy ? aaaaeaiiy a ae?th Caeiio Oe?a?ie “I?i Aea?aeaaiee athaeaeao
Oe?a?ie ia iioi/iee ??e” oa ui??/ii iia??oo?oueny neooaoe?y c eiai
aeeiiaiiyi. I?e/ei ooo aeae?eueea. Ii-ia?oa, iaaeineiiae?noue /eiiiai
o?iainiaiai (athaeaeaoiiai, iiaeaoeiaiai, aaethoiiai) caeiiiaeaanoaa oa
a?aenooi?noue ae?eiaeo oia?aaeaeoaaeueieo aaaeae?a, ni?yiiaaieo ia
iaaeiiouaiiy ii?ooaiue iiaeaoeiaeo ciaia’ycaiue ia?aae aea?aeaaith, ui
i?ecaiaeeoue aei i?iaeai caaeainoaaiiy aeioiae?a ? aeaeaoe?a athaeaeao?a
on?o ??ai?a. Ii-ae?oaa, caa?aaeaiiy i?eioeei?a ieioeeo ?ie?a uiaei
cae??ieaiiy aeioiae?a, ?iciaaeoaaiiy caaaeueiiaea?aeaaieo iiaeaoe?a ?
cai??a i?ae eaieaie athaeaeaoii? nenoaie oa eiio?ieue ca oe?eueiaei
aeei?enoaiiyi o?iainiaeo ?ano?n?a o noni?euenoa?. Ii-o?ao?,
a?aenooi?noue iaeaaeiiai ??aiy o?iainiai? oa aeeiiaanueei? aeenoeeie?ie,
a oaeiae i?aaiaiai caaacia/aiiy neii?aeeiiaaieo ae?e o?iainiaeo ?
eiio?iethth/eo i?aai?a o i?ioean? ?aae?caoe?? o?iainiai? iie?oeee a
Oe?a?i?. Ii-/aoaa?oa, a?aenooi?noue ?aeeiiai i?aeoiaeo o aecia/aii?
ianyao, ii?yaeeo oi?ioaaiiy AAI oa ?ioeo iae?iaeiiii?/ieo iieaciee?a
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo ia ieaiiaee athaeaeaoiee ??e.

Aeey i?eeeaaeo: aea?aeaaiee athaeaeao 1997 ?. aoa noi?iiaaiee ? iiaeaiee
aei Aa?oiaii? ?aaee aea?/? (14.09. oa 21.11.96 ?.), eiee AAI noaiiaea
106,6 ie?ae. a?i., ? oaia? — oo?ao? — a aa?aci? i. ?., eiee AAI
noaiiaeoue 104,4 ie?ae. a?i. Oio?einy a a??eoe, ui oea inoaii?
ooi/iaiiy.

Aeioe?eueii iaeaeeae/ei /anii ?ic?iaeoe ? i?eeiyoe iieiaeaiiy i?i
ii?yaeie i?iaiicoaaiiy ? oi?ioaaiiy AAI, a yeiio iaia’yceiai ooi/ieoe
eiai neeaaeia? oa iiiyooy iiainoai?aii? ca ??e aa?oino?, ui iaiao?aeii
aeey ieaioaaiiy aeioiae?a athaeaeaoo. Iaeii/anii ne?ae i?eeiyoe ??oaiiy
uiaei ?ic?iaee iieaciee?a iae?iaeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo ia ia?niaeoeao.

I?ioyaii inoaii?o i’yoe ?ie?a neooaoe?y ?c aeeiiaiiyi i?iaiicieo
iae?iaeiiii?/ieo iieaciee?a nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo
iia??oo?oueny. Oae o 1996 ?. ia?aaeaa/aeiny cieaeaiiy ianya?a AAI ia
1,8% ? c?inoaiiy i?iieneiaiai ae?iaieoeoaa ia 0,5%. Iiia?aaei? i?aenoiee
ieioeiai ?ieo na?ae/aoue i?i cieaeaiiy AAI ia 10%, ianya?a ae?iaieoeoaa
i?iieneiai? i?iaeoeoe?? — ia 5, a n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? — ia 9%.
Cieceeeny ae?iaieoeoai oiaa??a ia?iaeiiai niiaeeaaiiy ia 20,2%, ianyae
?aae?caoe?? ieaoieo iineoa ianaeaiith — ia 13,5%, a o?ainii?oieo iineoa
— ia 17,8%.

Ca ?acoeueoaoaie ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino? iaea?aeaee caeoee 38%
caaaeueii? e?eueeino? i?aei?e?inoa. O Eoaainuee?e iaeano? caeoeiaa
i?aoethaaei iiiaae iieiaeia i?aei?e?inoa, o Aieeinuee?e — 46%,
E??iaia?aaenuee?e — 43%, ?aaii-O?aie?anuee?e — 44%, Aei?i?iiao?ianuee?e
— 42% i?aei?e?inoa. Niaae ianya?a ae?iaieoeoaa i?iieneiai? i?iaeoeoe??
i?aei?e?inoa ei?ii?aoe?e “Oe?aa?ii?iiaoae” ? “Oe?aoae” noaiiaeoue
a?aeiia?aeii 42,3 ? 43,7%, eiioea?io “Oe?oeaiaio” — 34,2%,
Aea?aeaiaeainio — 39%, I?iiaoi?iio — 29,9%, I?in?eueainii?iaeo — 21,1%.

Ana oea iaaaoeaii iicia/a?oueny ia noai? aeeiiaiiy athaeaeaoo —
iniiaiiai o?iainiaiai ieaio aea?aeaae. A 1995 ?. ?c 29 aeaea?ae
iaaeoiaeaeaiue eioo?a aei athaeaeaoo ieai aeeiiaii ii 8, a a 1996 ?. —
a?aeiia?aeii ?c 29 ii 9. I?e ieai? 34,4 ie?ae. a?i. aeioiae?a ia 1996 ?.
aei caaaeaiiai athaeaeaoo oaeoe/ii iaae?eoei 30,1 ie?ae. a?i., aai
87,6%. Iaaeiiaae?eoei eioo?a o noi? 4,3 ie?ae. a?i. Aiae?c aeaea?ae
iaaeoiaeaeaiue na?ae/eoue, ui ii??aiyii c i?iaiicieie iieacieeaie
aeioiae?a ia 1996 ?. /a?ac iaaeeiiaiiy cacia/aieo caaaeaiue ii 20
ieaoaaeao aei athaeaeaoo iaaeiiaae?eoei iiiaae 5 ie?ae. a?i., o oiio
/ene?:

(a ie?ae. a?i.) (% aei ieaio iaaeoiaeaeaiiy)

— iiaeaoie ia aeiaeaio aa?o?noue 0,31 4,7

— iiaeaoie ia i?eaooie 0,59 9,8

— aeoeeciee ca?? 0,07 9,6

— ieaoa ca caieth 0,18 17,9

— a?ae?aooaaiiy ia aaieiai?ica?aeoaaeuei? ?iaioe 0,17 46,6

— ?aioia ieaoa ca iaooo ? i?e?iaeiee aac, ui aeaeiaoaathoueny a Oe?a?i?,
??cieoey a oe?iao ia aac ? ieaoa ca o?aiceo 0,77 29,1

— aianee i?aei?e?inoa oa ainiiaea?nueeeo i?aai?caoe?e aei Oiiaeo aeey
cae?eniaiiy caoiae?a uiaei e?ea?aeaoe?? iane?aee?a *i?iiaeeuenueei?
eaoano?ioe oa nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo ianaeaiiy 0,30 17,1

— iaaeoiaeaeaiiy aei Iain?eiiai oiiaeo 0,31 4,3

— iaaeoiaeaeaiiy aei oiiaeo iaeeaii-aia?aaoe/iiai eiiieaeno 0,98 90,6

— iaaeoiaeaeaiiy eioo?a a?ae Aea?aeaaiiai eii?oaoo c iaoa??aeueieo
?aca?a?a 1,18 81,8

Aeeiiaiiy aeioiae?a aea?aeaaiiai athaeaeaoo noaiiaeoue a?aeiia?aeii
82,1%. I?e ieai? 29,6 ie?ae. a?i. oaeoe/ii iaae?eoei 19,6 ie?ae. a?i. ?
iaaeiiaae?eoei 4,3 ie?ae. a?i.

Aei i?noeaaeo athaeaeao?a iaae?eoei 10,8 ie?ae. a?i. aeioiae?a, ui
noaiiaeoue 98,8% aei ??/ieo i?ecia/aiue.

Oaeei /eiii, o 1996 ?. aei athaeaeao?a on?o ??ai?a iia?e?ciaaii
iiaeaoe?a, cai??a oa iaia’yceiaeo ieaoaae?a 37,4% aei AAI. O no?oeoo??
aeioiae?a athaeaeaoo 80% caeiathoue iiaeaoie ia aeiaeaio aa?o?noue,
iiaeaoie ia i?eaooie, i?eaooeiaee iiaeaoie, ieaoa ca caieth,
iaaeoiaeaeaiiy aei Iain?eiiai oiiaeo oa aianee i?aei?e?inoa ?
ainiiaea?nueeeo i?aai?caoe?e aei Oiiaeo aeey cae?eniaiiy caoiae?a uiaei
e?ea?aeaoe?? iane?aee?a *i?iiaeeuenueei? eaoano?ioe oa nioe?aeueiiai
caoenoo ianaeaiiy, ui noaiiaeoue 30% aei AAI.

I?aeoe/ii ooieoe?iiothoue o?e aieiaieo ieaoaae?, ia /anoeo yeeo
i?eiaaea? 50% on?o iaaeoiaeaeaiue aei athaeaeaoo — iiaeaoie ia aeiaeaio
aa?o?noue, iiaeaoie ia i?eaooie ? iaaeoiaeaeaiiy aei Iain?eiiai oiiaeo.
O 1996 ?. oe? ieaoaae? aei athaeaeaoo noaiiaeee 19 ie?ae. a?i., ui
??aiicia/ii noi? iaaeoiaeaeaiue aei aea?aeaaiiai athaeaeaoo Oe?a?ie ?
noaiiaeoue iaeaea 25% aei AAI. O iaeaooiueiio c?inoaoeia ?ieue ? ieoiia
aaaa i?eaooeiaiai iiaeaoeo, caiaeueiiai iiaeaoeo, iiaeaoeo ia iaeii oa
iaaeoiaeaeaiue a?ae ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ii? ae?yeueiino?. Oea aieiai?
iiaeaoee, ia i?aenoaa? yeeo ne?ae aoaeoaaoe iiaeaoeiao iie?oeeo, aea
oi?ia ?o ?aae?caoe?? iio?aao? aaeineiiaeaiiy, aeoiaey/e ?c iiaeo
caaaeaiue a oiiaao oi?ioaaiiy ?eieiaiai na?aaeiaeua,

I?aeoeea ?aoi?ioaaiiy aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei aeiaaa? aaeineiiaeaiiy
athaeaeaoiiai ?aaoethaaiiy ia?aaeon?i /a?ac ia?aaea/o /anoeie
aea?aeaaieo ooieoe?e i?noeaaei i?aaiai aeaaee uiaei o?iainoaaiiy
aeaeaoe?a, a ioaea, cae??ieaiiy ca i?noeaaeie athaeaeaoaie iaiao?aeieo
aeioiae?a.

Aeioe?eueii aoei a ?c 1998 ?. ia?aaeaoe aei i?noeaaeo athaeaeao?a
ieaoaae? ca niaoe?aeueia aeei?enoaiiy i?e?iaeieo ?ano?n?a (caiaeueieo,
aiaeieo, e?niaeo, a oaeiae iaae?), ieaoaae? ? cai?e, ca yeeie aaaeaoueny
iae?e (?icae?e 12 “Cai?e oa ?io? iaiiaeaoeia? aeioiaee” athaeaeaoii?
eeaneo?eaoe??).

Oea, ii-ia?oa, ?ica’yaea i?iaeaio caai?aiaaiino? i?noeaaeo athaeaeao?a
ca oeeie ieaoaaeaie ia?aae aea?aeaaiei athaeaeaoii ?, ii-ae?oaa,
i?aeaeueoue ??aaiue aea?aeaaiiai eiio?ieth ca oe?eueiaei aeei?enoaiiyi
i?e?iaeieo ?ano?n?a ? nai?/aniei iaaeoiaeaeaiiyi aeaieo ieaoaae?a aei
i?noeaaeo athaeaeao?a c aieo i?aai?a i?noeaaiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy.

?c i?eeiyooyi Caeiio Oe?a?ie “I?i iiaeaoie ia aeiaeaio aa?o?noue”
iinoaia iiaa i?iaeaia — caaeainoaaiiy i?noeaaeo athaeaeao?a; ine?eueee
iiaeaoie ia aeiaeaio aa?o?noue ieaio?oueny ia 100% ca?aoiaoaaoe aei
aea?aeaaiiai athaeaeaoo Oe?a?ie.

Ia iaoo aeoieo, nenoaia athaeaeaoiiai ?aaoethaaiiy iio?aao? aeiei??iii?
ia?aaoaeiae a iai?yieo anoaiiaeaiiy noaa?eueieo ? aca?iiaea?aeieo
o?iainiaeo a?aeiinei i?ae aea?aeaaiei oa i?noeaaeie athaeaeaoaie /a?ac
cae??ieaiiy iiaeaoe?a, cai??a ? a?ae?aooaaiue ia o?eaaeee (3 ? a?eueoa
?ie?a) /an ca on?ia eaieaie athaeaeaoii? nenoaie oa a?aeiia?aeii
o?iainoaaiiy aeaeaoe?a, ui niiioeaei a i?noeaa? i?aaie aeaaee aei
iiooe?a ?aca?a?a ca?eueoaiiy aeioiae?a athaeaeaoo /a?ac ia?iuoaaiiy
oaii?a ae?iaieoeoaa oa ?icoe?aiiy noa?e iineoa.

Coieieoe niaae, noaa?e?coaaoe ae?iaieoeoai oa ni?eyoe eiai ?icoe?aiith
iaiiaeeeai aac cieaeaiiy iiaeaoeiaiai oeneo, nei?i/aiiy e?eueeino? e
cai?iaaaeaeaiiy ye?ni?oeo oa ?aaeuei?oeo iiaeaoe?a, ye? ca nai?th
i?e?iaeith aeeiioaaee a ia eeoa o?neaeueio ooieoe?th, a ianaiia?aae
noeioethaaee a ? caioi/oaaee i?aei?e?iieoeuee? no?oeoo?e o noai?aii?
aeiaeaoeiai? aa?oino? oa ?? eaaae?caoe??,

Aeey caaeainoaaiiy aeioiae?a i?noeaaeo athaeaeao?a aoei a aei?aaaeaiei
caeeoeoe iaeei-aeaa caaaeueiiaea?aeaaieo ieaoaae?. Nueiaiaei?
?aaoethth/eo iiaeaoe?a ? /ioe?e: iiaeaoie ia aeiaeaio aa?o?noue,
aeoeeciee ca??, i?eaooeiaee iiaeaoie ? iiaeaoie ia i?eaooie. Ii?yae ?c
oeei, ca ii?iaoeaaie, iiiaae 20 aeae?a iiaeaoe?a ? cai??a
?iciiae?eythoueny i?ae on?ia eaieaie athaeaeaoii? nenoaie, ui
i?ecaiaeeoue aei ?icii?ioaiiy o?iainiaeo ?ano?n?a ? cieaeaiiy ??aiy
eiio?ieth ca ?o aeei?enoaiiyi.

Iaaeeiiaiiy aeio?aeii? /anoeie on?o athaeaeao?a aeeeeeaii ?yaeii
ia’?eoeaieo oa noa’?eoeaieo i?e/ei:

— iaaeineiiae?noth o?iainiaiai oa iiaeaoeiaiai caeiiiaeaanoaa c ieoaiue
i?aai?caoe?? ni?aaeyiiy ieaoaae?a ? caaacia/aiiy iaiiaithaaiino?
athaeaeao?a on?o ??ai?a. Nueiaiaei? aeaaeae? /?oe?oa iinoa? i?iaeaia,
yeo iaiao?aeii ?ica’ycoaaoe ianaiia?aae, — eaaae?caoe?y aeioiae?a
“o?iueiaiai” naeoi?a aeiiii?ee, ianyae yeiai eieeaathoueny a iaaeao 50%
AAI, ? ia oe?e iniia? — ca?eueoaiiy iaaeoiaeaeaiue aei athaeaeaoo. C
oe??? i?e/eie athaeaeaoe on?o ??ai?a ui??/ii iaaeiio?eiothoue iiiaae 10
ie?ae. a?i.;

— i?eoiaoaaiiyi oa caieaeaiiyi e?eueeino? ia’?eo?a iiiaeaoeoaaiiy,
ii?ooaiiyi no?ie?a nieaoe iiaeaoe?a ? a?aeiia?aeii iecueeei ??aiai
eiio?ieueii-aeiiii?/ii? ?iaioe aea?aeaaieo i?aai?a uiaei caiia?aaiiy
oaeei ii?ooaiiyi;

— iaaeinoaoi?i eiio?ieai ?c aieo aea?aeaae uiaei ?ooo aio?aee oa
iayai?noth iaeiio?ieueiaaieo iioie?a aio?aee iica aaie?anueeeie
onoaiiaaie, ui i?ecaiaeeoue aei ooeeaiiy a?ae iiiaeaoeoaaiiy iiiaae
o?aoeie ieaoiee?a iiaeaoe?a;

— i?iaeiaaeaiiyi niaaeo AAI ? cieaeaiiyi ianya?a ae?iaieoeoaa
i?iaeoeoe?? (?ia?o, iineoa). Ao?aoe aeioiae?a athaeaeaoo c oe??? i?e/eie
noaiiaeyoue aeecueei 1 ie?ae. a?i.;

— iia??oaiiyi ?ic?aooieiai-ieao?aeii? aeenoeeie?ie oa c?inoaiiyi
caai?aiaaiino? i?aei?e?inoa ia?aae athaeaeaoii. Iaaeiiaaeoiaeaeaiiy aei
athaeaeaoo c oeueiai i?eaiaeo noaiiaeyoue 5 ie?ae. a?i.;

— c?inoaiiyi ianya?a aa?oa?ieo (oiaa?iiai?iieo) iia?aoe?e, ui
i?ecaiaeeoue aei ui??/ieo ao?ao aeioiae?a athaeaeaoo a ?ici??? 1,5—2
ie?ae. a?i.

Ca iaoeie i?ae?aooieaie, ?c iacaaieo oa aeayeeo ?ioeo i?e/ei athaeaeaoe
an?o ??ai?a a oe?eiio ui??/ii ao?a/athoue 15—20 ie?ae. a?i.

Coieieiiny ia aiae?c? ie?aieo i?e/ei ? oaeoi??a aieeao ia oi?ioaaiiy ?
aeeiiaiiy aeioiae?a athaeaeaoo.

*a?ac c?inoaiiy caai?aiaaiino? i?aei?e?inoa c? nieaoith iiaeaoe?a oi??e
athaeaeao iaaeiiaea?aeaa 3,0 ie?ae. a?i., aai 12% caaaeueieo
iaaeoiaeaeaiue (oaaeeoey 9).

Oaaeeoey 9. Aeeiai?ea caai?aiaaiino? ca ieaoaaeaie ia 1.01.97?.

(iei. a?i.)

Iaeiaioaaiiy ieaoaae?a Caai?aiaai?noue noaiii ia: A?aeoeeaiiy aei 1.0197

1.01.96 1.12.96 1.01.97 (+,-) %

Iiaeaoie ia aeiaeaio aa?o?noue 221,5 535,1 575,0 353,5 159,6

Aeoeeciee ca?? 21,9 30,8 34,7 12,8 158,4

Iiaeaoie ia i?eaooie 164,1 410,4 318,0 153,9 193,8

I?eaooeiaee iiaeaoie ia aeioiaee a?ae i?aei?e?iieoeueei? ae?yeueiino?
0,8 2,7 2,7 1,9 337,5

Ieaoa ca caieth 81,5 167,4 166,2 84,7 203,9

?io? iiaeaoee ? ieaoaae? 55,2 161,5 268,0 212,8 485,5

?acii ieaoaae?a aei athaeaeaoo 545,0 1307,9 1364,6 819,6 250,4

Iaaeoiaeaeaiiy aei Iain?eiiai oiiaeo 590,0 1507,1 1581,7 991,7 268,1

ANUeIAI 1135,0 2815,0 2946,3 1811,3 259,6

Na?aaeiueii?ny/iee oaii c?inoaiiy iaaei?iee c ieaoaae?a aei athaeaeaoo
noaiiaeoue o 1996 ?. 25% ? cia/ii aeia?aaeaea? oaiie c?inoaiiy
caai?aiaaiino? i?ae i?aei?e?inoaaie Oe?a?ie. Ia ??aaiue aeeiiaiiy
aeioiae?a athaeaeaoo aieeioei iaaeaiiy a?aeno?i/ee oa ?icno?i/ee a
nieao? ieaoaae?a aei athaeaeaoo i?aei?e?inoaaie ? i?aai?caoe?yie a noi?
iiiaae 2 ie?ae. a?i., aai 7% aei caaaeueieo iaaeoiaeaeaiue.

Oaeei /eiii, caai?aiaai?noue athaeaeaoo oa Iain?eiiio oiiaeo
i?aei?e?inoaaie an?o oi?i aeaniino? ia ii/aoie 1997 ?. noaiiaeea 5
ie?ae. a?i., oiaoi iiiaae 15% aei ieioei??/ieo iaaeoiaeaeaiue.

Iaeiae ne?ae cacia/eoe, ui i?aei?e?inoaa oa i?aai?caoe?? ia nei?enoaeeny
iiaiith i??ith iaaeaiith aea?aeaaith iiaeeea?noth iie?ioeoe ?oi?
o?iainiaa noaiiaeua oeyoii ?ano?oeoo?ecaoe?? caai?aiaaiino? c iaeaaeieo
athaeaeaoo ieaoaae?a oa ?icaeieoaaiiy ?aooie?a a onoaiiaao aaie?a.

Iiaeaeueoee niaae ae?iaieoeoaa o a?eueoino? aaeocae ia?iaeiiai
ainiiaea?noaa, iia??oaiiy o?iainiaiai noaio i?aei?e?inoa ? i?aai?caoe?e
coiiaeee caaino?aiiy e?ece ieaoaae?a ye i?ae i?aei?e?inoaaie, oae ? c
athaeaeaoii.

Aiane?aeie a?aenooiino? iaeaaeiiai eiio?ieth c aieo ie?aieo i?i?noa?noa
? a?aeiinoa ca noaiii ?ic?aooie?a ?c athaeaeaoii i?aei?e?inoaa nenoaie
I?ii?iio caai?aoaaee 368,5 iei. a?i., aai 27,3% caaaeueii? noie,
Aea?aeiaooiaaci?iio — a?aeiia?aeii 108 iei. a?i., aai 8%, I?iiaoi?iio —
102,8 iei. a?i., aai 7,8%, ? I?in?eueainii?iaeo — 93,2 iei. a?i., aai
6,9%.

*a?ac c?inoaiiy a 1996 ?. ianya?a aeaa?oi?nueei? a 1,9 ?aca oa
e?aaeeoi?nueei? o 2,2 ?aca caai?aiaaiino? i?ae i?aei?e?inoaaie ao?a/aii
iiiaae 1 ie?ae. a?i. aeioiae?a athaeaeaoo.

C iaoith iiaeieaiiy ieao?aeii? e?ece oa cieaeaiiy nioe?aeueiiai
iai?oaeaiiy o noni?euenoa? i?ioyaii ieioeiai ?ieo aoei i?iaaaeaii iiiaae
6000 aca?iicae?e?a ia noio iaeaea 6 ie?ae. a?i., ui noaiiaeoue 20%
caaaeueiiai ianyao aeioiae?a ? 17,8% aeaeaoe?a caaaeaiiai athaeaeaoo
Oe?a?ie.

Oeae cao?ae, ye a?aeiii, a?ae?a?aa iaaio ?ieue o iiaeieaii? ieao?aeii?
e?ece, iii’yeoea neooaoe?th ?c aeeiiaiiyi athaeaeao?a. Iaeiae oaea
?aaoethaaiiy a?aeiinei i?aei?e?inoa ? onoaiia c athaeaeaoii aeeeeeaei
ieceo iaaaoeaieo iane?aee?a, ceiaaeeaaiue ? ii?ooaiue /eiiiai
caeiiiaeaanoaa. Oiio C? a?oaeiy 1996 ?. i?eeiyoi Iinoaiiao Eaa?iaoo
I?i?no??a “I?i i?eieiaiiy aca?iicae?eo eioo?a c o?iainoaaiiy aeaeaoe?a
ia iiaaoaiiy iaaei?iee ?c iaeaaeieo aei athaeaeaoo ieaoaae?a”, a
iinoaiiaaie Eaa?iaoo I?i?no??a ? 181 a?ae 21.02.97 ?. ? ? 191 a?ae
26.02.97 ?. iaaeaii i?aai i?i?no?ia? o?iain?a Oe?a?ie, Aieia? ?aaee
I?i?no??a Aaoiiiiii? ?anioae?ee E?ei, aieiaai iaeanieo, Ee?anueei? oa
Naaanoiiieuenueei? i?nueeeo aea?aeaaieo aaei?i?no?aoe?e a iniaeeaeo
aeiaaeeao i?eeiaoe ??oaiiy i?i i?iaaaeaiiy i?yieo aacaeeneiioieo
aca?iicae?e?a eioo?a ia iiaaoaiiy iaaei?iee ?c iaeaaeieo a?aeiia?aeii
aei aea?aeaaiiai oa i?noeaaeo athaeaeao?a ieaoaae?a. I?e oeueiio
aca?iicae?e ?c caai?aiaaiino? athaeaeaoieo onoaiia ne?ae i?iaiaeeoe a
iaaeao ia?aaeaa/aieo ianya?a o?iainoaaiiy ca a?aeiia?aeiith noaooath
eiooi?eno.

I?iaeaie athaeaeaoo a?aeaeca?eaeththoue nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/io
neooaoe?th a Oe?a?i?. Nei?i/aiiy ?aaeueieo aeioiae?a athaeaeao?a on?o
??ai?a, iia??oaiiy ieao?aeii? aeenoeeie?ie ae?ae oneeaaeieei neooaoe?th
?c caaacia/aiiyi ?o caaeainiaaiino? oa o?iainoaaiiyi caieaiiaaieo
caoiae?a. Aiaeii/an iino?eia iineeaiiy nioe?aeueiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy ia
athaeaeao, cae?eniaiiy ea??aieeaie athaeaeaoieo onoaiia ? i?aai?caoe?e
aeo?ao o cia/ii a?eueoeo ?ici??ao, i?ae ia?aaeaa/aii athaeaeaoieie
i?ecia/aiiyie, iaaaoeaii iicia/a?oueny ia ?ic?aooieao o ia?iaeiiio
ainiiaea?noa?.

Ia aeiaaeeiai a oiiaao oi?ioaaiiy ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei iinoa? i?iaeaia
aecia/aiiy ?aaeueieo aeioiae?a athaeaeaoo ?c o?aooaaiiyi o?iainiaeo
iiaeeeainoae ? ia?niaeoeae ?icaeoeo i?aei?e?iieoeoaa a Oe?a?i? oa
cae?eniaiiy athaeaeaoieo aeaeaoe?a o iaaeao iayaieo o?iainiaeo ?ano?n?a
– Oiio iiaeaoeiaa nenoaia iio?aao? iaa?aeeeaaeiiai ?aoi?ioaaiiy, a
iiaeaoeiaa iie?oeea — iiaeo canaae, i?aeoiae?a ? i?eioeei?a i?aai?caoe??
a oiiaao ca?iaeaeaiiy oa ooieoe?iioaaiiy ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei. Iiaeaoeiaa
iie?oeea Oe?a?ie ye i?aenenoaia o?iainiai? iie?oeee ia?aaoaa? ia noaae??
oi?ioaaiiy, iiooe?a iai?yie?a ?? ?icaeoeo oa aaeineiiaeaiiy.

?aae?caoe?y iiaeaoeiai? iie?oeee a?aeaoaa?oueny /a?ac nenoaio
caeiiiaeaa/eo ? ii?iaoeaieo aeo?a. O?eueee ca oiia noni?eueiiai aeciaiiy
?o iaiao?aeiino?, ni?eyiiy aeoeaiiio ai?iaaaeaeaiith, iaia’yceiaiai
aeio?eiaiiy ii?i /eiiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa on?ia noa’?eoaie
noni?eueii-aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei iiaeia aeinyaoe oni?o?a. Oea
i?aeoaa?aeaeo? i?aeoeea oi?ioaaiiy oa ?icaeoeo iniiaieo canaae ?
i?eioeei?a ooieoe?iioaaiiy ?eieiaiai na?aaeiaeua.

Ia?o? e?iee ?aoi?ioaaiiy iiaeaoeiai? nenoaie a Oe?a?i? c?iaeai?. Aea
iacaaoe ?o aaeaeeie iaa?yae /e iiaeia. ?iaioa c oi?ioaaiiy iiaeaoeiai?
iie?oeee ua iiia?aaeo, ?? iaiao?aeii caaa?oeoe yeiaeoaeaeoa.

C oe??th iaoith a ia?oiio i?a??//? ieioeiai ?ieo Aa?oiaia ?aaea ca
o/anoth o?yaeo ia?aaeyioea noaaee aeoeeciiai cai?o ia an? i?aeaeoeeci?
oiaa?e ? anoaiiaeea o?eniaai? noaaee a aeth ia iaeeieoeth oiaa?o,
canoinoaaiiy yeeo coieieei iania? aeiaaeee ciaioaiiy ieoii? aa?oino?
aeey iiiaeaoeoaaiiy ?iii?oo i?aeaeoeecieo oiaa??a. C iaoith caiia?aaiiy
ooeeyiiyi a?ae nieaoe iiaeaoeo ia aeiaeaio aa?o?noue oeyoii ciaioaiiy
ieoii? aa?oino? Eaa?iao I?i?no??a anoaiiaea i?i?iaeuei? oe?ie ia
?iii?oiaai? o?ainii?oi? caniae, e?ea?i-ai??e/ai? oa othothiia? ae?iae e
aeaye? ?io? oiaa?e.

?c 1 eeiiy 1996 ?. cai?iaaaeaeaii iaoaiooaaiiy aeayeeo aeae?a
i?aei?e?iieoeueei? ae?yeueiino?, ui aeaei ciiao anoaiiaeoe o?eniaaiee
?ici?? ieaoaae?a i?aei?e?iieoeueeeo no?oeoo?, ye?, caeiath/enue
oi?aiaaeueiith ae?yeuei?noth, iia?aoe?yie c aio?aeiaeie aaethoieie
oe?iiinoyie, iaaeaiiyi iineoa, /anoi ooeeyeenue a?ae iiiaeaoeoaaiiy. Ca
ae?oaa i?a??//y oaeeo ieaoaae?a iaae?eoei 73,9 iei. a?i., ? i?aeoeea
na?ae/eoue i?i aeioe?euei?noue iiaeaeueoiai canoinoaaiiy ieaoe ca
iaoaioe oeyoii oaeineiiaeaiiy ae?th/iai iaoai?cio ia?aooaaiiy oa
noyaiaiiy.

C iaoith caaacia/aiiy aea?aeaaiiai eiio?ieth ca ae?iaieoeoaii ?
?aae?caoe??th nie?oo aoeeiaiai, aeeiaieueieo iaii?a ? othothiiaeo
ae?ia?a ?c eeiiy ii a?oaeaiue 1996 ?. aoei i?eeiyoi 46 iinoaiia ?
?icii?yaeaeaiue Eaa?iaoo I?i?no??a. Oea aeaei iiaeeea?noue iiaiith
i??ith aieeiooe ia oi?ioaaiiy ?eieo caaaeaieo oiaa??a ? ca?eueoeoe ianya
iaaeoiaeaeaiue aei athaeaeaoo a?eueo ye oo?e/?.

O 1996 ?. aaeeaaeeny caoiaee, ni?yiiaai? ia caaacia/aiiy noaa?eueiino? ?
ca?eueoaiiy iaaeoiaeaeaiue aei athaeaeaoo ieoieo cai??a oa ?ioeo
ieaoaae?a a?ae ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ii? ae?yeueiino?, ui aeaei ciiao
iaea?aeaoe oaeeo aeioiae?a a?eueoa, i?ae ia?aaeaa/aii, ia 59,5 iei. a?i.
O aaeoc? ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ii? ae?yeueiino? ia?oi/a?aiaiai ?ica’ycaiiy
iio?aaothoue oae? i?iaeaie, ye a?aaoethaaiiy iia?aoe?e c
aeaaaeueieoeueeith ne?iaeiith noiniaii iaooe, ui ia?a?iaey?oueny ia
a?o/eciyieo caaiaeao, aii?yaeeoaaiiy iiaeaoeiaeo i?euea ca ?iii?o, ye?
i?ecaiaeyoue aei ciaioaiiy eiieo?aioini?iiiaeiino? a?o/eciyii?
i?iaeoeoe??, cai?iaaaeaeaiiy aeiiii?/ieo aaaeae?a aieeao ia ?ioaineai?oa
nei?i/aiiy “aa?oa?ecaoe??” ye o ciai?oi?e, oae ? aioo??oi?e oi?a?ae?.

A?aeiia?aeii aei iinoaiiae Eaa?iaoo I?i?no??a a?ae 25 aeiaoiy 1996 ?. ?
1296 aoea noai?aia oei/aniaa eii?n?y c ieoaiue caaacia/aiiy nai?/aniino?
nieaoe iiaeaoe?a, aianaiiy ?ioeo iaia’yceiaeo ieaoaae?a oa aoaeoeaiiai
aeei?enoaiiy athaeaeaoieo eioo?a. Eii?n?y ?icaeyaea? ?iaioo ie?aieo
i?i?noa?noa ?c cacia/aieo ieoaiue ? aiineoue i?iiiceoe?? uiaei onoiaiiy
caai?aiaaiino? oa iie?ioaiiy ?ic?aooieiai-ieao?aeii? aeenoeeie?ie a
Oe?a?i?.

Iaeiae oaiaeaioe?y c?inoaiiy caai?aiaaiino? i?aei?e?inoa ia?aae
athaeaeaoii caa??aa?oueny ? a 1997 ?., i?i ui na?ae/aoue aeai?,
iaaaaeai? o oaaeeoe? 10.

Oaaeeoey 10. Noai caai?aiaaiino? ca ieaoaaeaie aei athaeaeaoo ?
Iain?eiiai

oiiaeo ia 1.02.97 ?. (iei. a?e.)

Iaeiaioaaiiy ieaoaae?a

1.01.97

1.02.97 A?aeoeeaiiy aei 1.01.97

(+,-) %

Iiaeaoie ia aeiaeaio aa?o?noue 575,0 916,9 341,9 159,5

Aeoeeciee ca?? 34,7 35,1 0,4 101,2

Iiaeaoie ia i?eaooie 318,0 264,5 -53,5 83,2

I?eaooeiaee iiaeaoie ia aeioiaee a?ae i?aei?e?iieoeueei? ae?yeueiino?
2,7 2,9 0,2 107,4

Ieaoa ca caieth 166,2 211,9 45,7 127,5

?io? iiaeaoee ? ieaoaae? 268,0 287,0 19,0 107,1

ANUeIAI 1364,6 1718,3 353,7 125,9

Iaaeoiaeaeaiiy aei Iain?eiiai oiiaeo 1581,7 1785,3 203,6 112,9

ANUeIAI 2946,3 3503,6 557,3 118,9

Oaeei /eiii, caai?aiaai?noue i?aei?e?inoa ia?aae athaeaeaoii ia 1.02.97
?. noaiiaeea 3,5 ie?ae. a?i., aai a 2 ?ace a?eueoa a?ae i?ny/ieo
iaaeoiaeaeaiue o n?/i? i. ?. Iaeaea 50% oe??? caai?aiaaiino? i?eiaaea?
ia 600 aaeeeeo i?aei?e?inoa ia?aaaaeii aea?aeaaii? oi?ie aeaniino? e
oaeeo, aea /anoea aeoe?e iaeaaeeoue aea?aeaa?. Aea?aeaaieie iiaeaoeiaeie
aaei?i?no?aoe?yie Oe?a?ie a 1996 ?. ia?aa??aii 369 oen.
ainii?aei?e?inoa, aai aeecueei 60% ?o caaaeueii? e?eueeino?. O eiaeiiio
ae?oaiio ia?aa??aiiio i?aei?e?inoa? anoaiiaeaii ii?ooaiiy /eiiiai
caeiiiaeaanoaa, aeiaeaoeiai ia?aoiaaii iiaeaoe?a ? canoiniaaii
o?iainiaeo naieoe?e ia noio 2,8 ie?ae. a?i.

Ia?aa??eaie aeio?eiaiiy onoaiiaaie aaie?a ii?yaeeo eaniaiai aeeiiaiiy
athaeaeaoo a 877 onoaiiaao eiia?oe?eieo aaie?a aeyaeaii ii?ooaiiy, ca ui
aei ieo canoiniaaii o?iainia? naieoe?? ia noio 12,2 iei. a?i., a
ii?ooaiiy /a?aiaino? ca?aooaaiiy ieaoaae?a aei athaeaeaoo anoaiiaeaii o
1521 aeiaaeeo, ca ui ia?aoiaaii oo?aoieo naieoe?e ia 4,7 iei. a?i.

Aea?aeaaieie iiaeaoeiaeie aaei?i?no?aoe?yie ia?aaeaii 5008 ni?aa aei
a?a?o?aaeieo noae?a i?i aeciaiiy ai?aeiee?a aaie?ooaie.

I?ae?icae?eaie iiaeaoeiai? iie?oe?? a 1996 ?. aee?eoi 5919 e?ei?iaeueieo
i?iya?a ooeeyiiy a?ae nieaoe iiaeaoe?a (o 1995 ?. — 3464), ii?ooaii 5682
e?ei?iaeuei? ni?aae (o 1995 ?. — 3293), a oaeiae aee?eoi 6224 ?ioeo
cei/ei?a, iia’ycaieo ?c iacaeiiiith ae?yeuei?noth iinaaeiaeo in?a
ia?aa??aieo eiia?oe?eieo no?oeoo? (o 1995 ?. — 6265). Aei athaeaeaoo
aeiia?aoiaaii 368,7 iei. a?i. (o 1995 ?. — 20,5 iei. a?i.). Aei
e?ei?iaeueii? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? i?eoyaiooi iiiaae 12,3 oen. in?a, ?c
ieo — 6,1 oen. ce?nieo iaieaoiee?a iiaeaoe?a (o 1995 ?. — 3,6 oen.), ia
yeeo aei noaeo iai?aaeaii 1771 e?ei?iaeueio ni?aao (a 1995 ?. — 666
ni?aa).

I?e/eiaie oaei? neooaoe?? ? iecueeee ??aaiue a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? oa
iaae?eiaee iaoai?ci aaei?i?no?aoeaieo iiea?aiue uiaei noyaiaiiy
iiaeaoe?a ? cai??a. O no/anieo oiiaao i?aei?e?inoaai ? i?aai?caoe?yi
o?iainiaa aea?aei?oa niea/oaaoe oo?aoi? naieoe?? oa aeei?enoiaoaaoe a
nai?o oe?eyo eiooe, ye? nai?/anii ia niea/ai? aei athaeaeaoo oa ia
iiaa?ioo? iinoa/aeueieeai, i?ae acyoe e?aaeeoe a onoaiiaao eiia?oe?eieo
aaie?a.

Caaaeath/e ia oaeo neeaaeio neooaoe?th, Aa?oiaia ?aaea 5 ethoiai 1997 ?.
i?eeiyea Caeii Oe?a?ie “I?i aianaiiy ci?i ? aeiiiaiaiue aei
E?ei?iaeueiiai ? E?ei?iaeueii-i?ioeanoaeueiiai eiaeaen?a Oe?a?ie uiaei
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ca ooeeyiiy a?ae nieaoe iiaeaoe?a”, a?aeiia?aeii aei
yeiai iineeth?oueny i??a a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ieaoiee?a iiaeaoe?a ca
iaaienia ooeeyiiy a?ae nieaoe iiaeaoe?a, cai??a oa iaia’yceiaeo
ieaoaae?a aae aei iicaaaeaiiy aie? ?c eiio?neaoe??th iaeia.

Aeoiaey/e c iaaaeueii? iio?aae coieiaiiy e?eciaeo yaeu a aeiiii?oe?,
?aoe?iiaeueiiai aeei?enoaiiy athaeaeaoieo eioo?a oa c iaoith iineeaiiy
o?iainiai-athaeaeaoii? aeenoeeie?ie, 28 ethoiai 1997 ?. I?aceaeaio
Oe?a?ie aeaeaa Oeac “I?i caoiaee uiaei caaacia/aiiy iaiiaiaiiy
aea?aeaaiiai athaeaeaoo oa iineeaiiy o?iainiai-athaeaeaoii?
aeenoeeie?ie”, yeei ia?aaeaa/aii:

— ooai?aiiy a Aaoiiiii?e ?anioae?oe? E?ei, iaeanoyo, i?noao Ee?a? oa
Naaanoiiie? oei/aniaeo eii?n?e c ieoaiue caaacia/aiiy nai?/aniino?
nieaoe iiaeaoe?a, aianaiiy ?ioeo iaia’yceiaeo ieaoaae?a oa aoaeoeaiiai
aeei?enoaiiy athaeaeaoieo eioo?a ia /ie? c Aieiaith ?aaee I?i?no??a
Aaoiiiiii? ?anioae?ee E?ei, aieiaaie a?aeiia?aeieo i?noeaaeo aea?aeaaieo
aaei?i?no?aoe?e oa eii?aeeiaoe?th ae?yeueiino? cacia/aieo oei/aniaeo
eii?n?e;

— i?aaiai aeeiiaa/i? aeaaee aeeth/aoe aei eiio?aeo?a c ea??aieeaie
i?aei?e?inoa, onoaiia, i?aai?caoe?e, ui iaeaaeaoue aei noa?e ?o
oi?aae?iiy, oiiae uiaei aeeiiaiiy i?aei?e?inoaaie, onoaiiaaie,
i?aai?caoe?yie ciaia’ycaiue c? nieaoe iiaeaoe?a, aianaiiy ?ioeo
iaia’yceiaeo ieaoaae?a aei athaeaeao?a oa aeieaoe ca?ia?oii? ieaoi?
i?aoe?aieeai /e aeio?eiaiiy iiaiaeaeaiiai a?ao?ea iiaaoaiiy
a?aeiia?aeii? caai?aiaaiino?, ia?aaeaa/ath/e, ui iaaeeiiaiiy oeeo oiia ?
i?aenoaaith aeey ?ic??aaiiy eiio?aeo?a;

— cai?iaaaeeoe uiaeaiia iaeiie/aiiy ?ioi?iaoe?? i?i iaaeoiaeaeaiiy
ie?aieo iiaeaoe?a, cai??a e ?ioeo iaia’yceiaeo ieaoaae?a aei caaaeaiiai
athaeaeaoo Oe?a?ie c aeae?eaiiyi ?ioi?iaoe?? uiaei iaaeoiaeaeaiue aei
aea?aeaaiiai athaeaeaoo;

— oii?yaeeoaaoe ?aaeei aacieoii? oi?a?ae? c iaoith caiia?aaiiy iiaeeeaei
ceiaaeeaaiiyi o oe?e noa??;

— ?icaeyiooe ieoaiiy uiaei cai?iaaaeaeaiiy canoaae o aeiaaeeo
oei/aniaiai aaacaiiy ia oa?eoi??th Oe?a?ie o?ainii?oieo cania?a;

— ?icaeyiooe ieoaiiy uiaei ?icoe?aiiy i?acoiioeaiiai iiiaeaoeoaaiiy
i?aei?e?iieoeueei? ae?yeueiino? o?ce/ieo in?a — i?aei?e?ioe?a oa
noa’?eo?a iaeiai i?aei?e?iieoeoaa ?c cai?iaaaeaeaiiyi o?eniaaieo noaaie
iiiaeaoeoaaiiy caeaaeii a?ae ianya?a iai?ioo ca ?acoeueoaoaie
ae?yeueiino?, a oaeiae uiaei iiaeeeaino? cai?iaaaeaeaiiy iiaeaoeo c
iai?ioo ia ie?ai? aeaee i?aei?e?iieoeueei? ae?yeueiino?;

— cai?iaaaeeoe ?aaoethaaiiy oiiae?a iieaoe i?aoe? ia
i?aei?e?inoaao-iiiiiie?noao.

?aeiiaiaeiaaii Aeuiio a?a?o?aaeiiio noaeo Oe?a?ie aaeeoe caoiae?a uiaei
i?enei?aiiy ?icaeyaeo a?a?o?aaeieie noaeaie ni?aa i?i aaie?oonoai,
ii?ooaieo cayaaie aea?aeaaieo iiaeaoeiaeo aaei?i?no?aoe?e.

Ii?yae ?c oeei ia?aaeaa/aii i?aeaiooaaoe ?yae caeiiiaeaa/eo aeo?a ?c
cacia/aieo i?iaeai oa iineeeoe a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ieaoiee?a iiaeaoe?a
ia?aae athaeaeaoii, cie?aia uiaei:

— aianaiiy ci?i aei Caeiio Oe?a?ie “I?i i?aei?e?iieoeoai” a /anoei?
ni?iuaiiy i?ioeaaeo?e neanoaaiiy aea?aeaaii? ?a?no?aoe?? noa’?eo?a
i?aei?e?iieoeueei? ae?yeueiino? a ?ac? ii?ooaiiy ieie iiaeaoeiaiai
caeiiiaeaanoaa;

— ni?aaeyiiy aa?ciiai ieoa oa iiaeaoeo ia aeiaeaio aa?o?noue ia
i?iaeoeoe?th, aeaioiaeaio ?c aeaaaeueieoeueei? ne?iaeie oe?a?inueeiai
caiiaieea, i?ae /an aaacaiiy oe??? i?iaeoeoe?? ia ieoio oa?eoi??th
Oe?a?ie;

— iineeaiiy iaeiiai?, e?ei?iaeueii? oa aaei?i?no?aoeaii?
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ca ooeeyiiy a?ae nieaoe iiaeaoe?a, cai??a oa
aianaiiy ?ioeo iaia’yceiaeo ieaoaae?a aei athaeaeao?a ca iaoe?eueiaa
aeei?enoaiiy athaeaeaoieo eioo?a;

— anoaiiaeaiiy i?i?iaeueii? i?aiaeii? ieaoe ca caea/o a i?aiaeo aeeoea,
aoae?aaeue (nii?oae) o?ce/ieie iniaaie ye aace aeey ia?aooaaiiy
i?eaooeiaiai iiaeaoeo c a?iiaaeyi.

Caaeiaieaiiy iniaenoeo, i?aei?e?iieoeueeeo ?ioa?an?a ia? aa?aiooaaoeny
caeiiiaeaanoaii Oe?a?ie, ui noaia iniiaith aeey ca?eueoaiiy
aeaoeaio?ae?ciaaieo o?iainiaeo ?ano?n?a ? aacith aeey ci?oeiaiiy
o?iainiaiai noaiiaeua aea?aeaae /a?ac noaa?euei?, ?aaeuei?, iaae?ei?
iaoiaee aieeao ? i?aeieie ?aaoethaaiiy aeiiii?/ieo i?ioean?a, ? ia?o ca
ana — /a?ac aeei?enoaiiy ae?eiaiai iaoai?cio noyaiaiiy iiaeaoe?a ?
oi?ioaaiiy aeioiae?a athaeaeaoo. Iiainoai?aio ca a?aeiia?aeiee ia??iae
aa?o?noue o aeaeyae? iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeioiaeo ne?ae ?iciiae?eyoe
aeoeaieie, aoaeoeaieie ? noaa?eueieie iaoiaeaie, cina?aaeaeoth/e a ?oeao
aea?aeaae oo eiai /anoeio, aeeo/aiiy yei? ia ni?e/eieoue iiaeeaeaiiy
noia?a/iinoae i?ae aeiiii?/ieie ?ioa?anaie noa’?eo?a ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei
? ni?eyoeia ?o aeiiii?/iiio c?inoaiith. Anoaiiaeaiiy iioeiaeueiiai
?ici??o aeeo/oaaii? /anoee iiainoai?aii? aa?oino? ia an?o noaae?yo
noni?eueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa ? aeineoue aaaeeeaith ?iaioith. Oea ieoaiiy
iiaeia ae??oeoe iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaiei aecia/aiiyi ? ciaioaiiyi
e?eueeino? ia’?eo?a iiiaeaoeoaaiiy, a oaeiae anoaiiaeaiiyi ?ici???a
iiaeaoe?a ? cai??a aei athaeaeaoo oa oe?eueiaeo iicaathaeaeaoieo
oiiae?a. Cia/iith i??ith oea caeaaeeoue a?ae iaoai?cio noyaiaiiy
iiaeaoe?a ? oi?ioaaiiy aeioiae?a athaeaeaoo, a?ae i?ioan?iiae?cio e
eiiiaoaioiino? iinaaeiaeo in?a, ye? caeiathoueny ?aae?caoe??th
iiaeaoeiai? iie?oeee.

Ca aeiiiiiaith iiaeaoe?a aea?aeaaa ia? ?aaoethaaoe i?ioeane
ae?iaieoeoaa, ?iciiae?eo, ia?a?iciiae?eo oa niiaeeaaiiy AAI,
caaeainiaaiino? aeiiii?/ieo ?ioa?an?a oa aeeo/aiiy /anoeie iiainoai?aii?
aa?oino? aei athaeaeao?a on?o ??ai?a ? oe?eueiaeo oiiae?a.

Ca nai?th i?e?iaeith iiaeaoee aeeiiothoue o?neaeueio, noeioethth/o,
?aaoethth/o ? eiio?ieueio ooieoe??. Ia i?aoaiaeoth/e ia iaeiicia/i?noue
o iiaeyaeao ia ci?no iiaeaoe?a, caoaaaeeii, ui iei? ae?th/a nenoaia
iiaeaoe?a ? cai??a ia aeeiio? iiaiith i??ith aeiaeii? c oeeo ooieoe?e, a
?aeeiee iaoai?ci aeeiiaiiy aeioiae?a athaeaeaoo ye oaeee o noni?euenoa?
ua ia noi?iiaaiee. Ae?th/a nenoaia iiiaeaoeoaaiiy iio?aao? ?aaeeeaeueieo
ci?i. A iniiao ?? iiaoaeiae ne?ae iieeanoe noaa?euei?, ?aaeuei? oa
noeioethth/? iaoiaee e oi?ie ?aae?caoe?? aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei, ye? a
ni?eyee ?icaeoeo ?i?oe?aoeae oa i?aei?e?iieoeoaa, noaa?e?caoe??
aeiiii?ee ? o?iainiaiai noaiiaeua aea?aeaae.

Ia aeeiiaiiy Oeaco I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie a?ae C? eeiiy 1996 ?. ? 621 “I?i
caoiaee uiaei ?aoi?ioaaiiy iiaeaoeiai? iie?oeee” Eaa?iao I?i?no??a
i?aeaiooaaa iaeao caeiiiaeaa/eo aeo?a uiaei ae??oaiiy ia?oi/a?aiaeo
caaaeaiue ?c ?aoi?ioaaiiy iiaeaoeiai? iie?oeee ? cieaeaiiy iiaeaoeiaiai
oyaa?y ia oiaa?iae?iaieea, ye? iiaeai? ia ?icaeyae Aa?oiaii? ?aaee.

O oeueiio iaeao? — i?iiiceoe?? uiaei aaeineiiaeaiiy ii?yaeeo ni?aaeyiiy
iiaeaoeo ia aeiaeaio aa?o?noue, iiaeaoeo ia i?eaooie i?aei?e?inoa,
i?eaooeiaiai iiaeaoeo, aeoeeciiai cai?o, i?noeaaeo iiaeaoe?a ? cai??a,
iiaeaoeo ?c aeaniee?a o?ainii?oieo cania?a, iaoei ? iaoai?ci?a.

Ia ?icaeyae? o Aa?oiai?e ?aae? Oe?a?ie ciaoiaeyoueny caeiiii?iaeoe “I?i
iiaeaoie ia ia?ooiia iaeii (ia?ooii?noue)”, “I?i caaacia/aiiy ?icaeoeo
a?o/eciyiiai i?aei?e?iieoeoaa oa caaeainoaaiiy aeioiae?a ? aeaeaoe?a
athaeaeaoo”, “I?i cae?eniaiiy ieaoaae?a ia oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie oa ii?yaeie
caaacia/aiiy iiaeaoeiaeo ciaia’ycaiue” ? aeaye? ?io? i?iaeoe. O
caeiiii?iaeoao i?iiiio?oueny:

— ciaioeoe iiaeaoeiaa iaaaioaaeaiiy ia noa’?eoe i?aei?e?iieoeueei?
ae?yeueiino? a ia?oo /a?ao ca ?aooiie nei?i/aiiy a?ae?aooaaiue a?ae
oiiaeo iieaoe i?aoe? aei aea?aeaaieo oe?eueiaeo oiiae?a (Iain?eiiai
oiiaeo, Oiiaeo aeey cae?eniaiiy caoiae?a uiaei e?ea?aeaoe?? iane?aee?a
*i?iiaeeuenueei? eaoano?ioe oa nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo ianaeaiiy, Oiiaeo
ni?eyiiy caeiyoino? ianaeaiiy); — neanoaaoe a?ae?aooaaiiy aei ?yaeo
?ioeo oiiae?a;

— aecia/eoeny c iiaeie i?aeoiaeaie a iiiaeaoeoaaii? i?eaooeo
i?aei?e?inoa ? aeioiae?a a?iiaaeyi;

— ?icoe?eoe iiaeaoeiao aaco oeyoii cia/iiai nei?i/aiiy i?euea o i?ioean?
iiiaeaoeoaaiiy aeioiae?a th?eaee/ieo oa o?ce/ieo in?a, nieaoe iiaeaoeo
ia aeiaeaio aa?o?noue oa aeayeeo ?ioeo aeae?a i?euea.

Ii?yae ?c oeei ia?aaeaa/a?oueny cae?enieoe ?ano?oeoo?ecaoe?th
caai?aiaaiino? i?aei?e?inoa oa i?aai?caoe?e ia?aae athaeaeaoii, yea
aeieeea inoaii?ie ?ieaie, a naia:

— noio caai?aiaaiino?, ui aeieeea aei C? a?oaeiy 1993 ?., nienaoe o
ca’yceo ?c cae?i/aiiyi no?ieo iiciaii? aeaaiino?;

— noio iiaeaoeiaeo ciaia’ycaiue, ui aeieeea c 1 n?/iy 1994 ?. aei C?
a?oaeiy 1995 ?. aeeth/ii, ?ano?oeoo?ecoaaoe oeyoii ?icno?i/aiiy nieaoe
noie caai?aiaaiino? no?ieii ia 120 i?nyoe?a c? nieaoith ??aieie
/anoeiaie uieaa?oaeueii;

— noio iiaeaoeiaeo ciaia’ycaiue, ui aeieeea c 1 n?/iy 1996 ?. aei CI
eenoiiaaea 1996 ?. aeeth/ii, ?ano?oeoo?ecoaaoe oeyoii ?icno?i/aiiy
nieaoe noie caai?aiaaiino? no?ieii ia 60 i?nyoe?a c? nieaoith ??aieie
/anoeiaie uii?ny/ii.

Iiaeaoeiaa ?aoi?ia ia?aaeaa/a? onoiaiiy i?e/ei, ui aaeueiothoue ?icaeoie
i?aei?e?iieoeueei? ae?yeueiino? an?o oi?i aeaniino?, caioi/aiiy
?iaanoeoe?e a aeiiii?eo Oe?a?ie, ?aaeueia caaeainoaaiiy athaeaeaoo,
ci?oeiaiiy iiaeaoeiai? oa athaeaeaoii? aeenoeeie?ie.

?aoi?ioaaiiy iiaeaoeiai? iie?oeee i?ioiaeeoue aeineoue neeaaeii. ? oea
iaaeiaaeeiai. Oeueiio ? ia’?eoeai? oa noa’?eoeai? i?e/eie. Ia iaoo
aeoieo, iei? iniiaiei caaaeaiiyi ? oa, ui e?euee?ni? iieacieee
iiaeaoeiai? nenoaie iathoue iinooieoenue ye?niei oeyoii nei?i/aiiy
e?eueeino? iiaeaoe?a, cai??a ? iaia’yceiaeo ieaoaae?a oa cai?iaaaeaeaiiy
nenoaie a?aaoeueiaaieo, iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaieo, iioeiaeueieo oi?i ?
iaoiae?a iiaeaoeiaiai aieeao, ?aaoethaaiiy i?aei?e?iieoeueei?
ae?yeueiino? /a?ac ye?nii iia?, iaeaieeaia?o?, a aieiaia, aoaeoeai? oa
noeioethth/? iiaeaoeia? aaaeae?. Iiaeaoeiaa iie?oeea ia? aooe
aei?noeith, aea ni?aaaaeeeaith, noaa?eueiith, c?icoi?eith oa
i?eaaaeeaith. Aiia ia? aenooiaoe i?ia?aeiei noeioethth/ei oaeoi?ii o
noaa?e?caoe?? ae?iaieoeoaa, caaacia/oaaoe iiaia, ye?nia ? nai?/ania
aeeiiaiiy aeioiae?a athaeaeao?a on?o ??ai?a.

Iiaeaoeiaa ?aoi?ia, yea i?iaiaeeoueny a Oe?a?i?, — oea a?aee?eoee e?ie
aea?aeaae aei ?icoi?iiy on?ia noa’?eoaie i?aei?e?iieoeueei? ae?yeueiino?
naiai iaia’yceo oa a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ia?aae noni?euenoaii uiaei
iiaeaoeiaeo ciaia’ycaiue. Ciaioaiiy iiaeaoeiaiai iaaaioaaeaiiy ia?
ni?eyoe eaaae?caoe?? “o?iueiaeo” aeioiae?a ? iioie?a o?iainiaeo ?ano?n?a
oa ca?eueoaiith iaaeoiaeaeaiue aei athaeaeaoo. Iiaeaoee iathoue
niea/oaaoe on? noa’?eoe i?aei?e?iieoeueei? ae?yeueiino?, a ia eeoa o?,
aea aaaeaoueny iae?e. Oea — ia’?eoeaiee caeii aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo.

I?iaaaeaiiy ?aoi?ie — oea ?iaioa ia iaeiiai o?iainiaiai ?ieo. Iiaeeeai,
aeioe?euei?oa i?eeiaoe caeiiiaeaa/? aeoe c ieoaiue iiiaeaoeoaaiiy ?
?aoi?ioaaiiy iiaeaoeiai? nenoaie iinooiiai. Oea oiaiiaeeeaeei a
iaaaoeai? iane?aeee, iia’ycai? c i?ioeanaie ?aae?caoe?? iiaeaoeiai?
iie?oeee ? oi?ioaaiiy ?eieiaiai na?aaeiaeua.

AeAssE? IOe?IEE I?AEOEEE IANEOAIAOAAIIss AeA?AEAAIIAI AI?AO A OE?A?I?

Aea?aeaai? oe?ii? iaia?e (AeOeI) ? o?iainiaei ?ino?oiaioii, yeee
aeei?enoiao?oueny i?aeoe/ii a on?o e?a?iao. Aeione ?o cae?enith?oueny
o?yaeaie a?aeiia?aeieo aea?aeaa aieiaiei /eiii aeey iaai?n?eiiai
(ia?ioeyoe?eiiai) o?iainoaaiiy oei/aniaiai aai ia?iaiaioiiai aeao?oeeoo
aea?aeaaiiai athaeaeaoo. E??i oiai, ca aeiiiiiaith ai?n?? AeOeI iiaea
iaeii/anii iaoeny ia oaac?:

— aeei?enoaiiy AeOeI ye aoaeoeaiiai ?ino?oiaioo iae?iaeiiii?/iiai
?aaoethaaiiy (?aaoethaaiiy e?aaeeoii-a?ioiaiai ia?ao ca aeiiiiiaith
iia?aoe?e ia a?aee?eoiio ?eieo oeyoii aieeao ia aaie?anueeo nenoaio,
aieea ia ??aaiue ? no?oeoo?o ?iaanoeoe?e oa caiuaaeaeaiue ianaeaiiy ?
noa’?eo?a ainiiaea?thaaiiy, oi?ioaaiiy aaciai? noaaee aeey ?ioeo
iai?ioieo o?iainiaeo ?ino?oiaio?a oiui);

— ?icaeoie oiiaeiaiai ?eieo a oe?eiio ? oi?aiaaeueii? nenoaie aeey ?eieo
AeOeI cie?aia;

— aecia/aiiy ?aaeueii? aa?oino? ianeoaiaoaaiiy aea?aeaaiiai ai?ao
(i?ioeaioia noaaea i?eaooeiaino? AeOeI aecia/a?oueny ia ?eieo).

Eiie?aoia “aaaa” aeuacacia/aiiai caeaaeeoue a?ae eiie?aoieo aeiiii?/ieo
? iie?oe/ieo oiia o e?a?i?, ui aeineoue /?oei i?inoaaeo?oueny ia
i?eeeaae? iino?aaeyinueeeo aea?aeaa NIAe, cie?aia Oe?a?ie oa ?in??.

Oea ?iaeoue AeOeI iaia’yceiaei ao?eaooii aeiiii?/iiai aeeooy aoaeue-yei?
?icaeiooi? aea?aeaae ? icia/a?, ui i?aeo?eiea aeinyaiooeo ianya?a ?eieo
(e?euee?noue AeOeI a ia?ao, iiiiiaeaia ia ?o eo?niao aa?o?noue), a
oaeiae (cae/aeii) eiai iino?eia ? iia?eueia c?inoaiiy ? iaeiei ?c
aaaeeeaeo caaaeaiue o?yaeo a?aeiia?aeii? aea?aeaae (iai/iee i?eeeaae —
NOA). Aiane?aeie oeueiai iaae?ei?noue AeOeI aaaaea?oueny (? ni?aaae? ?
oaeith) iaeneiaeueiith ia oiiaeiaiio ?eieo eiie?aoii? e?a?ie. ?ioa
ni?aaa, eiee naia aea?aeaaa iiaea noaoe aaie?ooii /a?ac ?yae ianoaaei,
cie?aia /a?ac ia?ae?o/aia oyaeaiiy i?i i?e?iaeo AeOeI, ye? ? ia?o ca ana
?ino?oiaioii iia?aoeaiiai ?aaaoaaiiy ia aeenaaeaine iaaeoiaeaeaiue ?
aeo?ao aea?aeathaeaeaoo, ui aeieeathoue, ? ia iiaeooue neoaeeoe
“iaee/eith-nooeaei/eith” aeey caooeyiiy ae??ie o athaeaeao?, eio??
iathoue no?oeoo?io i?e?iaeo, ye o aeiaaeeo c Oe?a?iith oa ?in??th.

O na?o? ?nio? aaaaoi aeae?a AeOeI. Iaeiae, iacaaaeath/e ia
??ciiiai?oi?noue iaca, aiie iathoue i?aeoe/ii iaeiaeiao iaoo ? oiiae
aeioneo, i?e oeueiio iniiaia ??cieoey i?ae oaeeie oeiaie AeOeI — eeoa a
oa?i?iao ?o iiaaoaiiy.

Iai?eeeaae, aeaye? aaoi?e i?e ia?aeeaae? iaeiaioaaiue ?eieiaeo oe?iieo
iaia??a, ui ai?oothoueny o?yaeii NOA, ioioiaeiththoue ei?ioeino?ieia?
iae?aaoe?? c eacia/aenueeeie aaenaeyie.

Oaea ci?ooaaiiy iiiyoue ??cieo oei?a AeOeI c th?eaee/ii? oi/ee ci?o
iiaea aooe iaoiiaeaia ?o i?aeoe/ii iiaiith aea?aaeaioi?noth a
aeiiii?/iiio cia/aii?: iaia? ??cieoe?, ye iacaaoe AeOeI, yeui aiie
?aaeueii ? o?iainiaeie ?ino?oiaioaie c oaeoe/ii ?aeaioe/ieie
aeanoeainoyie aei ?eieiaiai ia?ao oa ?iaanooaaiiy, a oaeiae iathoue
?aeeio iaoo ai?n?? — o?iainoaaiiy aea?aeathaeaeaoo. Aaniethoia
iaae?ei?noue ciaia’ycaiue aea?aeaae a ?icaeiooeo e?a?iao ?iaeoue
ianooo?aith ??cieoeth a iaaeaieo th?eaee/ieo i?aaao ? aa?aio?yo aeey
?iaanoi??a. O oe?eiio, ye caea?oueny, oaiaeaioe?y aei aca?iicai?iiino?,
caeeaeaiiy, oi?aa?nae?caoe?? oa?aeoa?enoee ?ino?oiaio?a, ye? ua ia oae
aeaaii aeineoue neeueii a?ae??ciyeeny, — oa?aeoa?ia ?ena no/aniiai
o?iainiaiai (a oiio /ene? oiiaeiaiai) ?eieo.

Iaiao?aeii, ye oyaey?oueny, a?aoiaoaaoe ? iniaeeaino? ia?aeeaaeo, a
oaeiae i?aeaea?aeaaio ??cieoeth a oa?i?iieia??, ui ?iiae? ia ?iaeoueny,
a ?acoeueoao? /iai ? aeieeathoue o?oaeiiu?. O oe?eiio oa?aeoa?ieie
?enaie an?o AeOeI ?:

— iaeneiaeueii iiaeeeaa (th?eaee/ia ? i?aeoe/ii) aa?aio?y ?iaanoeoe?e; —
i?aeoe/ii aaniethoia e?ea?aei?noue;

— eiieo?aioicaeaoia i?eaooeia?noue c o?aooaaiiyi i?i?iaeueiiai ii??aiyii
c ?ioeie o?iainiaeie ?ino?oiaioaie ?eceeo.

Aia?oa o?iainoaaiiy aeao?oeeoo aea?aeathaeaeaoo oeyoii aea?aeaaii?
iiceee aoei cae?eniaii o?yaeii Oe?a?ie o 1995 ?. (iinoaiiae Eaa?iaoo
I?i?no??a ? 586 a?ae 23.08.94 ?. oa ? 994 a?ae 11.12.94 ?.). Aei oeueiai
/ano ?eiie aiaeia?/ieo AeOeI ?in?? — AeEI — ?nioaaa ? ?icaeaaany
aaee/acieie oaiiaie aaea iaeaea 2 ?iee.

O a?aeiia?aeiino? c oeeie iinoaiiaaie no?iee ia?ao iae?aaoe?e
aioo??oiuei? aea?aeaaii? iiceee (IAAeI) aoee aecia/ai? a 91, 182, 273 ?
364 aei?. Iae?aaoe?? — eoiiii?, ia i?aae’yaieea, iii?iaeii 100 iei. e?a.
I?eaooeia?noue — 140% ??/ieo.

Oe? iinoaiiae aecia/eee ?yae ia?aiao??a ai?n?? IAAeI, ye?
aeei?enoiaoaaeenue ? a iiaeaeueoiio: aiie ai?oothoueny o aeaeyae?
aeaeo?iiieo caien?a ia ?aooieao nenoaie aeaeo?iiiiai iae?eo ia?ao AeOeI.
Nenoaia ioi?ieaiiy oa ?ici?uaiiy aeioneo a oe?eiio caeeoa?oueny
aiaeia?/iith o?e, yea aaea aeei?enoiao?oueny a ?in??. Ai?oo? IAAeI
I?io?i Oe?a?ie (IO), a?i aea aenooia? a?ae ?iai? Eaai?io Oe?a?ie
aa?aioii nai?/aniino? iiaaoaiiy IAAeI. Aaia?aeueiei aaaioii ii
?ici?uaiith oa iae?eo i?aa aeaniino? ia IAAeI ? IAO. A iueiio
caa??aa?oueny aeiaaeueiee na?oeo?eao ia aanue aeione, iei aea (/a?ac
eiia?oe?ei? aaiee) cae?enith?oueny ianeoaiaoaaiiy aeioneo. Ai?n?y
aeciaaaeany cae?eniaiith aaea i?e 20% ?ici?uaiiy. I?e/iio IAO i?a, ca
niaoe?aeueiith aeiiiaeai?noth c I?io?iii, neoieoe oo /anoeio aeioneo,
yea caeeoeeany, aeey iiaeaeueoiai ia?ai?iaeaaeo.

C o?aooaaiiyi eiie?aoii? eii’thieoo?e ?eieo i?aeaaie?anueeeo e?aaeeo?a,
aeaiiceoieo noaaie, iae?eiai? noaaee IAO oa uii?ny/ieo oaii?a ?ioeyoe??
aoea i/aaeaeiith iai?eaaaeea?noue iecueeiai ??aiy i?eaooeiaino? IAAeI,
/a?ac ui ?aaeueia ?ici?uaiiy IAAeI(95) ii/aeiny eeoa o aa?aci? 1995 ?.,
eiee a?aeiia?aei? noaaee cia/ii aiaee, a aieiaia — a oe?eiio iai?oeeany
caaaeueia oaiaeaioe?y aei ?o iiaeaeueoiai cieaeaiiy.

E??i oiai, ona?aeiieaiiy iaao?oii? ia?niaeoeae cioneei IAO ua aei
iiiaioo cae?eniaiiy ai?n?? caaeoiaoeny iaae aeeaa?neo?eaoe??th aeioneo
ca oa?i?iaie (iinoaiiaa Eaai?io ? 994) ? ca noa’?eoaie (ia?aaeaa/aeanue
?aae?caoe?y iae?aaoe?e o?ce/iei iniaai ? ia?aceaeaioai). Iaeiae, ye
a?aeiii, oe? iai??e iiai?noth ia ?aae?ciaai? e aein?.

Caaaeii ianya ?ici?uaiiy IAAeI(95) (ca na?aaeiueicaaaeaiith oe?iith
aoeoe?ii?a) noaiiaea iaeaea 34 o?ei. e?a., i?e/iio ia 91-aeaii? aeionee
i?eiaaeaei iiiaae 26 o?ei. e?a. (78%). Aea ia oea aieiaia. Aieiaia
iieyaa? a oiio, ui an? noa’?eoe ?eieo ii?iaoeaia ? i?aeoe/ii
“ii?aoethaaee” aeineoue /?oeee iaoai?ci ?eieo (?ai?oa a?aeiiee eeoa
oai?aoe/ii oa i?aeoe/ii uiaei ?in?enueeeo AeEI) ye o /anoei? cae?eniaiiy
ai?n??, oae ? a /anoei? oi?aae?iiy nai?ie ii?ooaeyie IAAeI caeaaeii a?ae
eii’thieoo?e oeueiai ? an?o ?ioeo naaiaio?a o?iainiaiai ?eieo Oe?a?ie.

Oni?oia ?iaioa c IAAeI(95) aeaea ciiao IO ? IAO, a oaeiae ?ioei
o/anieeai ?eieo (eiia?oe?eiei aaieai oa ?ioei ainiiaea?thth/ei
noa’?eoai) iaeiie/eoe aeinoaoi?e aeina?ae ?iaioe ia iueiio, ui e
ni?e/eieeiny o 1996 ?. aei ?icai?oaiiy caoiiethth/eo nthaeao?a ai?ioueae
ca “cieioiai o?eueoey” i?ae ai?oaioii ? iia?aoi?aie ?eieo. Ni?iao?ii
i?iaiae?coaaoe oe? iiae??.

Iniiaieie oe?iiooai?thth/eie oaeoi?aie ia ?eieo IAAeI ?: — aeeiai?ea
iioi/ieo aeieao ca IAAeI ?c aieo IO; — noaaea ?ao?iainoaaiiy IAO;

— iioi/ia neooaoe?y ia aaethoiiio oa a?ioiai-e?aaeeoiiio ?eieao, a
oaeiae oaiaeaioe?? ia ieo;

— ?aoe?iiaeuei? i/?eoaaiiy ainiiaea?thth/eo noa’?eo?a uiaei oaii?a
?ioeyoe?? ? aeeiai?ee i?ioeaioii? noaaee ia i?aeaaie?anueeiio
e?aaeeoiiio ?eieo, a oaeiae aeaiiceoieo noaaie;

— e?aaeeoii-a?ioiaa iie?oeea aea?aeaae (ianyae a?ioiai? ai?n??). E??i
oeeo iniiaieo, a ie?ai? ia??iaee ooieoe?iioaaiiy ?eieo cia/iee aieea ia
iueiai iaee e ?io? oaeoi?e, cie?aia: — iaea?aeaiiy (aai iaiaea?aeaiiy)
/a?aiaeo e?aaeeo?a a?ae IAO, a oaeiae

e?aaeeo?a ? o?iainiai? aeiiiiiae a?ae ?ioeo i?aeia?iaeieo i?aai?caoe?e
oa ?iicaiieo aea?aeaa;

— iaiao?aei?noue aeey o?yaeo aeio?eioaaoeny aeiia
i?aai?caoe?e-e?aaeeoi??a a?aeiinii iae?iaeiiii?/ieo oa ?ioeo iieaciee?a
noaio aeiiii?ee e?a?ie;

— an? oaeoi?e (iae?iaeiiii?/i? oa nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/i?), ye?
aieeaathoue ia i/?eoaaiiy ??ai?a iaeaooiuei? ?ioeyoe?? ? aaethoiiai
eo?no, a oiio /ene? io?oe?ei? ? iaio?oe?ei? cayae iinaaeiaeo in?a IAO oa
o?yaeo a?aeiinii ?o aa/aiiy iae?iaeiiii?/ii? neooaoe?? a e?a?i? ?
niinia?a ae??oaiiy ?nioth/eo i?iaeai; — a?ioiaa ?aoi?ia;

— iie?oeea IO uiaei no?ie?a ?ao?iainoaaiiy ? noaaie ianeoaiaoaaiiy
aea?aeai?ao.

Iaaaaeaiee ieae/a a?ao?e 1 aeaiiino?o? aeeiai?eo ??aiy ?ioeyoe?? o 1994—
1996 ??. (io?oe?ei? aeai?, o % aei iiia?aaeiueiai i?nyoey).

A?ao?e 1.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

A?aoiaoth/e i?iaeaiiino?iaaio aeae?eueea ?ac?a ca ae?oaa i?a??//y 1996
?. i?aeoe/io iiaeeea?noue o?yaeo ? IAO cia/iith i??ith ea?oaaoe
?ioeyoe??th ? aaethoiei eo?nii (ie ia aiai?eii ooo i?i ?o iaoiaee ?
oe?io oaeiai ea?oaaiiy), iiaeia i?eionoeoe, ui aeeiai?ea ?ioeyoe?? aei
e?oa 1997 ?. a iniiaiiio a?aeiia?aeaoeia i/aaeaei?e (c a?ao?ea)
oaiaeaioe?? — cieaeaiith aei 1—3% iaia?aaeiaei? ceie, ianooiiiio
i?aeaeuaiith a n?/i?—aa?aci? o na?aaeiueiio aei 2—5% c iinooiiaei
niaaeii aei 1% iaaani? oa ieae/ei ??aiai (aei 0%) — ae?oeo. (Oe?
i?eiouaiiy, aacoiiaii, iaaecae/aeii a?iioaoe/i?: ui aoaea, eiee o?yae
ae??oeoue, iai?eeeaae, aeieaoeoe caai?aiaai?noue ii ca?ieao? ca
aeiiiiiaith a?ioiai? ai?n???)

?acii ?c oei, ine?eueee iniiaieie iia?aoi?aie ?eieo aei oeueiai /ano ?
eiia?oe?ei? aaiee ? ia?aceaeaioe, ae??oaeueia cia/aiiy aeey ?eieo IAAeI
ia? ia ?ioeyoe?y ye oaea, a ia?aaaaeii eieeaaiiy eo?no OeAI, oae ae
iiaeoe, “?ioeyoe?y oeai ii e5A”. sse iiaeia aa/eoe, oaiie ?ioeyoe?? ?
oaiie aeaaaeueaaoe?? UAK (UAH) aaeueie a?ae??ciythoueny: niaae
io?oe?eiiai eo?no IAE (IAI) uiaei e80, iai?eeeaae, ca ia??iae ?c
30.08.95 ?. aei 28.08.96 ?. noaiiaea 8,04%, a ca ia??iae c 01.12.95 ?.
aei 22.11.96 ?. — 4,7%; o oie aea /an oe? oeeo?e a?aeiia?aeathoue
?iaeaenai ?ioeyoe?? a ie?ai? i?nyoe? ana?aaeei? oeeo ia??iae?a,
?ioeyoe?y ca 10 i?nyoe?a noaiiaeea 36,8%’, ??/iee ?iaeaen iai?/a?oueny a
iaaeao 48%. Oaeei /eiii, iiaeia neacaoe, ui eo?niooai?aiiy a Oe?a?i?
/anoi ia caeaaeeoue a?ae ?aaeueiiai noaio ni?aa a aeiiii?oe?, a
eieeaaiiy eo?no UAH iinyoue /?oei ae?aaeaiee eii’thieoo?ii-iie?oe/iee
oa/ aai naciiiee oa?aeoa?. Oey ianoaaeia, ia iaoo aeoieo, iiaeiia
cia/iith i??ith aieeiooe ia iioeaaoe?th aei ?iaanooaaiiy a IAAeI aeey
??cieo eaoaai??e ?iaanoi??a: aaiee ? ia?aceaeaioe i???ioothoueny
ia?aaaaeii ia aaethoio aeio?aei?noue aei iiaaoaiiy (aeey ia?aceaeaio?a,
e??i oiai, caaaeaio ca ?eceeii iaiiaaoaiiy ? c?noaaeaio ?c
i?eaooeia?noth ca aeueoa?iaoeaieie o?iainiaeie ?ino?oiaioaie-aiaeiaaie,
iai?eeeaae, ?in?enueeeie AeEI ? IOI), e??i oiai, ia noaaee i?aeaaieo ?
e?aaeeo?a ia i?yiiai iice/aeueieea, a ?io? eaoaai??? ?iaanoi??a — a
iniiaiiio ia aioo??oith eoi?aaeueio ni?iiiaei?noue UAH o c?noaaeaii? c
i?eaooeia?noth aeanieo aeueoa?iaoeaieo iai?yie?a ?iaanooaaiiy ia?o ca
ana ?o a?ciano.

O ca’yceo c oei, ui aeiiii?ea Oe?a?ie c ieeiii /ano ana ae iaaoaa?
a?aee?eo?oiai oa?aeoa?o, iineeaiiy ?ioeyoe?? aaciina?aaeiuei
noi?iaiaeaeoaaoeiaoueny cieaeaiiyi ye ?aaeueii?, oae ? aaethoii?
aeio?aeiino? IAAeI, iiaaoaieo o eiie?aoi? ia??iaee. Iaeiae aiaeii/an oea
icia/a? iaiao?aei?noue ? iiaeeea?noue aeey ai?oaioa (IO) ca?eueoeoe
iii?iaeueio aoeoe?iiio i?eaooeia?noue ?ici?uaieo IAAeI. Oey ianoaaeia (o
?ac? ?a?iaanooaaiiy iaea?aeaieo ca iiaaoaieie IAAeI noi) caeaoia iaaiith
i??ith i?aaethaaoe ?ioeyoe?ei? ao?aoe oa, e??i oiai, noai?th?
aeaaiaeaoio neooaoe?th aeey iieoioe?a “ei?ioeeo” (c? no?ieaie iiaaoaiiy
/a?ac 45 aei?a ? iaioa) ? “iaaeei?ioeeo” (aei 20 aei?a) IAAeI ia
aoi?eiiiio ?eieo. Ocaiaeaeoth/e oa?i?ie iiaaoaiiy IAAeI o nai?io
ii?ooae? c iaiao?aei?noth aea?eueiaiiy eioo?a c ?eieo aeey eiiaa?oaoe??,
iiaeia ia o?eueee i?aeoe/ii i?aaethaaoe aaethoiee ?ecee, a e o iaaiee
iiiaio iaea?aeaoe eo?niaee i?eaooie.

Ianya ?eieo IAAeI ye o 1995, oae ? a 1996 ??. aecia/aany ii?iaoeaia,
Iinoaiiaith Eaa?iaoo I?i?no??a ? 78 a?ae 16.01.96 ?. aoea caoaa?aeaeaia
ai?n?y eoiiiieo IAAeI(96) iii?iaeii 100 iei. e?a. o ?ici??? 60 o?ei.
e?a., iio?i ca?eueoaia aei 70 o?ei. ca?aeii c iinoaiiaith ? 457 a?ae
25.04.96 ?.; iinoaiiaith Eaa?iaoo I?i?no??a ? 434 a?ae 18.04.96 ?.
ia?aaeaa/aeinue ai?ooaaoe IAAeI(96) ?c aeiaeaoeiaeie oa?i?iaie 28 ? 63
aei? iii?iaeaie 10 oa 100 iei. e?a; iinoaiiaith Eaai?io ? 469 a?ae
29.04.96 ?. ia?aaeaa/aeiny a 1996 ?. ai?ooaaoe aeeneiioi? IAAeI(96) o
caaaeueiiio ianyc? 262,9 o?ei. e?a.

Ianya ?ici?uaiiy IAAeI(96) noaiiaea ia 29.10.96 ?. (213-e aoeoe?ii)
iiiaae 2,332 ie?ae. a?i., noaiii ia 28.11.96 ?. (255-e aoeoe?ii) —
iiiaae 2,677 ie?ae. a?i. Oaeei /eiii, ca i?nyoeue IO aoei ?ici?uaii
IAAeI ia noio iaeaea 345 iei. a?i.

Ianooiia a?noia?aia 1 iieaco? ianya ai?n?? an?o IAAeI (96) ca i?nyoeyie
a iei. A?i.

A?noia?aia 1.

400

sse aa/eii, IO ia aaeaeiny aeiaea?aeaoe aeioe?eueii?, ia iaoo aeoieo,
iie?oeee iino?eiiai oa iia?eueiiai ?icoe?aiiy ?eieo ye ca caaaeueieie
ianyaaie, oae ? ca ianyaaie IAAeI c ??cieie oa?i?iaie ia?ao. A?eueo
aeaoaeueii ie ia oeueiio coieieiiny aeae?.

Ae?aa?aia 1 aeaiiino?o? ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ianya?a IAAeI ??cieo oa?i?i?a o
caaaeueiiio ianyc? ai?n??.

364 aei.

273 aei.16% 12% 91AeI. 59%

182 aei. 13%

Oae, ia?aaaaeia a?eueo?noue IAAeI(96) ai?ooaaeanue ?c oa?i?iii iiaaoaiiy
91 aeaiue, ui a oe?eiio (c ei?eaoaaiiyi ia ??aaiue cai?iiiiiaaii?
i?eaooeiaino?) a?aeia?aaea? iano?i? ?inoeoooe?eieo ?iaanoi??a ? nooi?iue
?o aeia??e aei aea?aeaae oa ?? caeaoi?noue ea?oaaoe aeiiii?/ieie
i?ioeanaie a e?a?i?.

Ca i?nyoeyie 1996 ?. ianyae ai?n?e IAAeI ??cieo oa?i?i?a ia?ao
?iciiae?eeeeny oae, ye oea iieacaii ia a?noia?ai? 2. sse aa/eii, ana o?
ae 91-aeaii? IAAeI aoee iaenoaa?euei?oei ca ianyaii o?iainiaei
?ino?oiaioii, ca aeiyoeii ??ceiai ia?aiaaeo ea?oiy—o?aaiy. Oeae
ia?aiaae, aei ?a/?, aeineoue-oaee i?ei?oiee: ia ea?oaiue aeiaei
iiaaoaiiy 91-aeaiieo IAAeI ?c iaeaeueie noaaeaie i?eaooeo, ?o iiaaoaiiy
aoei i?iaaaeaii ca ?aooiie aaee/aciiai, noia?a/eeaiai uiaei eii’thieoo?e
c?inoaiiy ianya?a ?ici?uaiiy 273-aeaiieo IAAeI, yea noi?iaiaeaeoaaeiny
??ceei (ia 50%) iaae?iiyi ianya?a ?ici?uaiiy 91-aeaiieo. Ia oeae aea
ia??iae, ye aeaeii c iaaaaeaieo ieae/a a?ao?e?a, i?eiaaeathoue ??cea
ciaioaiiy i?eaooeiaino? i?e ia?aeiiiio ?ici?uaii? 91-aeaiieo IAAeI oa
ao?oeea? iiae?? ia aaethoiiio ?eieo, ye? noi?iaiaeaeoaaeeny iaae?iiyi
eo?no IAE ia 1,6% ca ia?o? 10 aei?a ea?oiy c ianooiiei ci?oeiaiiyi ia
3,1% aei e?ioey o?aaiy. Oe? ae 273-aeaii? IAAeI ? iniiaiith neeaaeiaith
i?eo iiaaoaiiy a?ae 16.01.97 ?. (iiiaae 154 iei. a?i. ca
na?aaeiueicaaaeaiith oe?iith aoeoe?iio). Ana oea aea? ciiao aaaaeaoe, ui
a?ey aeaea?ae iiae?e ia?aaoaaea i?eoiaaia ai?n?y, yea cae?enithaaeany
IAO oeyoii i?eaeaaiiy IAAeI o IO. sseui oea iani?aaae? oae, oi ne?ae
a?aeaeaoe iaeaaeia IO ? IAO, ye? aaeaei “c??caee” aeoaea oaeaeei
c?inoath/o iniiao i??ai?aee.

A?noia?aia 2.

200 000 000

150 000 000

100 000 000

50 000 000

E?oi 1996 ?. oa?aeoa?eco?oueny c?inoaiiyi ianya?a ?eieo c iaeii/aniei
cieaeaiiyi noaaie ia?aeiiiai ?ici?uaiiy ? iiaeiaaeaiiyi oa?i?io
?ao?iainoaaiiy aea?aeai?ao ca ?aooiie 364- ? 273-aeai. IAAeI. sse
oyaey?oueny, iie?oeea IAO ? IO ia ?eieo a oeae ia??iae iiaea aooe
ioe?iaia ye aeineoue i?iaeoiaia, ?c oei canoa?aaeaiiyi, ui i?i eiie?aoi?
ae?? IAO ia ?eieo a oeae ia??iae iiaeia eeoa caeiaaaeoaaoenue: /e ia
aoei oea iie?ioaiiy iieaciee?a ooo/iei iaia?aaeiaei? aeaiii?iaoe??
iaoe?iiaeueii? aaethoe?

?c a?noia?aie 3 aeaeii, ye ?iciiae?eeany ca i?nyoeyie ianya ai?n?? IAAeI
(96) ona?aaeei? oa?i?i?a.

Caa?oa? ia naaa oaaao ??cea c?inoaiiy ianya?a ?ici?uaiiy 364- oa
273-aeaiieo IAAeI ae?oeo, a iio?i oaea ae ??cea ?o ciaioaiiy aei 0.
Oaeee ?iciiae?e ianya?a ai?n?? ana?aaeei? oa?i?i?a i?a aooe aeeeeeaiee
ye ?ioa?aaioe?yie IAO, oae ? aeayeeie iiaithaaiiyie aaie?a o ca’yceo ?c
ii?yaeeii ? iane?aeeaie aaaaeaiiy a ia?a oeai. c?inoaiiy ianya?a
182-aeaiieo o aa?ani?— aeiaoi? 1996 ?. — ?acoeueoao ??ceiai niaaeo
noaaee i?eaooeiaino? ca 91-aeaiieie IAAeI.

Ni?iaa anoaiiaeoe caeaaei?noue i?ae uii?ny/ieie ianyaaie ?ici?uaiiy
IAAeI ??cieo oa?i?i?a ? aeeiai?eith ci?ie na?aaeiueiai io?oe?eiiai eo?no
UAK/UAH (aeea. oaae. 11), a oaeiae io?oe?eieie ?iaeaenaie ?ioeyoe?? (ca
10 i?n. 1996 ?.) o i?ioeaioao aei iiia?aaeiueiai i?nyoey aeaea oae?
?acoeueoaoe (aeea. oaae. 12)’.

Oaaeeoey 11.

Oa?i?i ia?ao IAAeI, aei. 191 182 273 364

Eiao?oe??io ei?aeyoe?? -0,642 -0,414 0,045 -0,277

Oaaeeoey 12.

Oa?i?i ia?ao IAAeI, aei. 91 182 273 364

Eiao?oe??io ei?aeyoe?? -0,510 0,009 -0,235 -0,105

sse aa/eii, 91-aeaii? oa 182-aeaii? aeionee iaa?oue o aei?noeeo oiiaao
a?aenooiino? o IAAeI aeueoa?iaoeae ? iaea?eueo “?eieiaee”. A oe?eiio ae
iiaeia aiai?eoe i?i a?aenooi?noue caeaaeiino? i?ae oeacaieie
ia?aiao?aie, ui aeaeii iaa?oue c a?ao?e?a, ye? aeaiiino?othoue
iaeii/anii ianyae ? i?eaooeia?noue a?aeiia?aeieo a?oi aoeoe?ii?a.

Ie?aii ne?ae coieieoeny ia o/ano? ia ?eieo ia?aceaeaio?a. Oi/ ?c iiiaioo
noai?aiiy ?eieo i?yii? caai?iie ia ?o o/anoue ia aoei, i?aeoe/iee
iaoai?ci ?iaioe ia?aceaeaio?a ?c IAAeI aoa inay/aiee eeoa iinoaiiaith
Eaai?io ? 1022 a?ae 31.08.96 ?. I?e oeueiio ne?ae cacia/eoe: iiaa
(oaeoe/ii) eoea eeoa i?i aaiee-ia?aceaeaioe, ye? a oaeiio aeicaie?
caa?oo ia aeoaea e iaee iio?aao, ai aeaaii ?aaeueii eoioaaee IAAeI ?c
aeiiiiiaith nai?o oe?a?inueeeo ia?oia??a. Aeoiea i?i caeo/aiiy
ia?aceaeaio?a ia ?eiie noaea aeooaeueiith, iaaooue, eeoa i?ney oiai, ye
aeyaeeiny, ui ?ano?n?a aeanii? aaie?anueei? nenoaie iaaeinoaoiuei aeey
caieaiiaaiiai a?oooi-?ici?uaiiy, ? caeo/aiiy aeiaeaoeiaeo eioo?a
iiaeeeaa eeoa i?e aeueo noaaeao, ye? o?eueee-ii aaeaeiny ciaioeoe.

Iiyaa aaeeeeo ?iicaiieo ?iaanoi??a, naieoe?iiiaaia aeacaiith iinoaiiaith
Eaai?io, caeaoia i?aeo?eiaoe ianyae i?e a?aeiinii iaaenieeo aeey IO (o
ii??aiyii? c aaniyiei ia??iaeii) noaaeao ianeoaiaoaaiiy aea?aeai?ao.

A ?acoeueoao?, ye aeaeii c ioae?eaoe?e o i?an?, IO ? IAO c eeiiy 1996 ?.
i?iaeaaaee ia?aceaeaioai IAAeI ia caaaeueio noio aeecueei 120 iei. a?i.
ia i?nyoeue. Onueiai IAO i?iaeaa ?iaanoeoe?eiei eiiiai?yi
?iaeono??aeueia ?icaeiooeo e?a?i iae?aaoe?e ia caaaeueio noio iaeaea 400
iei. a?i., ia e?iaoeue eenoiiaaea ia?aceaeaioai iaeaaeeoue IAAeI ia 110
iei. a?i. .

Oaeei /eiii, IO ? IAO aeino?ieiai ?ica’ycaee iinoaaeaia ia?aae ieie
caaaeaiiy ii a?oooi-?ici?uaiith IAAeI o 1996 ?. Iaeiae o oeueiai o??oioo
?, caea?oueny, ? nai? i?ione:

1. “Aoaeo aeo?niaiiy”, eiee aaee/aci? eiooe ni?yiiaothoueny ia ia
?iaanoeoe?? o ?icaeoie ae?iaieoeoaa, a aeei?enoiaothoueny aeey eaoaiiy
ae??ie o athaeaeao?.

Ei?ioeino?ieia?noue iae?aaoe?e oa ?o aeineoue aeniea i?eaooeia?noue i?e
aocueeiio eie? e?oiieo iia?aoi??a (aeae?eueea aeanyoe?a) ?iaeyoue ?eiie
IAAeI iaeiei ?c e?aea??a ca niaeoeyoeai?noth, ui /anoeiai ia?aoeiaeaea?
aeinyaiaiith aeacaieo aeua oe?eae noai?aiiy naiiai ?eieo AeOeI.

Aacia?a?aia ?icoe?aiiy ?eieo (oi/a o iueiai iioaioe?eii aeineoue cia/i?
?aca?ae) ? ca?eueoaiiy ??aiy i?eaooeiaino? c iaoith ineaaeaiiy oeneo ia
?io? naaiaioe o?iainiaiai ?eieo (a?ioiaee oa aaethoiee) iiaeooue
aoyaiooe o?yae aei aoae?aieoeoaa “i??ai?aee IAAeI”, ui ? iaaacia/iei,
ine?eueee iiaea i?ae??aaoe aeia??o ?iaanoi??a.

4. Aeoeaia caeo/aiiy aei ?eieo IAAeI ia?aceaeaio?a oeyoii noai?aiiy aeey
ieo iaaecae/aeii ni?eyoeeaeo oiia caa?iaeo? oei, ui iaaaeiac? (iaio ye
/a?ac ??e i?e iei?oi?o noaaeao ?ici?uaiiy 91-aeaiieo IAAeI) /enoee
i?eieea eioo?a ia?aceaeaio?a ci?ieoueny /enoei a?aeoieii i?ioeaioieo
ieaoaae?a ca ei?aeii (o oiio /ene? i?e iiai?e ?aiao??aoe?? ?ai?oa
?iaanoiaaieo noi). eei /eiii, IO ? IAO iiaee a caaeoiaoeny iaae oei
oaeoii, ui caeo/eoe aeiaeaoeia? eiooe ia ?eiie IAAeI iiaeia aoei a,
iai?eeeaae, oeyoii iaaeaiiy iiaeeeainoae aeeoe ia ?eiie on?i
ia?aceaeaioai, a ia eeoa aaeeeei cao?aeiei ?inoeoooe?eiei ?iaanoi?ai ?
aaieai-ia?aceaeaioai. I?e/iio oiiae ? iiaeeeaino? iiaeii? aooe aeey an?o
iaeiaeiaeie, aac oaaeaee?oaaiiy aaethoiiai ?eceeo, niaoe?aeueieo
aoeoe?ii?a oa noaaie, aa?aio?e, oaiae “?aii” ? o.i. i?aoa?aioe?e. Oea:
1) noai?eei a aoiinoa?o caei?iai? eiieo?aioe?? ia ?eieo; 2) aeaei
iiaeeea?noue eaaaeueii? ? c?o/ii? ?aiao??aoe?? (oae iaa?oue ?
oei/aniai?) caei?aeiiieo eai?oae?a oe?a?inueeiai iioiaeaeaiiy oa 3)
aeaei a ciiao caeeoeoe /anoeio i?eaooeo ca IAAeI a Oe?a?i? (oeei
aea?aeaaa iiaea oi/a a /anoeiai iiaa?iooe aaieai oa ?ioei
ainiiaea?thth/ei noa’?eoai aeni?ii??eiaai? o ieo o oi?i? noyaiaiiy
iaiii??ieo iiaeaoe?a ia?aia? eiooe). Iani?aaae? o?yae iaiaaa?oueny ia
aeicaieeoe ?aiao??thaaoe iacaeiiii i?eaeaai? a?o/eciyi? eai?oaee aac
aeei?enoaiiy Ea?iiai eiaeaeno, a oie aea /an iineeaii i?aeaiaeiaoth/e ?
aac oiai aee?ieo “eio?a” ?c Caoiaeo. A oaeeo oiiaao iaa?oue ?icoe?aiiy
ianooaa?a ?eieo ca ?aooiie i?aeaeuaiiy noaaee ia oaea aaea no?aoia.

E??i oeueiai, ?icoe?aiiy “aioo??oiuei?” neeaaeiai? ?eieo IAAeI,
caea?oueny, aeaei a ciiao aea?aeaa? ?aoe?iiaeuei?oa ?icii?yaeeoeny
eiooaie e?aaeeo?a IAO, IA??, o?yae?a ?iicaiieo aea?aeaa oiui, oiaoi
ni?yioaaoe ?o ia no?oeoo?io ?aoi?io i??i?eoaoieo (ia?o ca ana
aenii?oii???ioiaaieo ? iaoeii?noeeo) aaeocae aeiiii?ee e?a?ie.

O oe?eiio a 1996 ?. IO ? IAO aaeaeiny iaeiie/eoe cia/iee aeina?ae ?iaioe
ia ?eieo IAAeI, oi/a ?o ae?? ?iiae? aoee ? aeoaea iaaaeaeeie.

?icaeyae aeeiai?ee i?eaooeo a oe?e noaoo? a?aeaoaa?oueny aano?aaiaaii ia
i?aenoaa? /ooie ? aeeneon?e i?ae ??cieie caoe?eaaeaieie a?aeiinoaaie
(IO, AeIAO, IAO) a?aeiinii aace ? noaaee iiiaeaoeoaaiiy iia?aoe?e IAAeI
aeey o?ce/ieo oa th?eaee/ieo in?a ia ia?aeiiiio ? aoi?eiiiio ?eieao ?
?aae?e oaeiai iiiaeaoeoaaiiy ia o?e i?aenoaa?, ui an? iia?aoi?e ?eieo
ia?aaoaaee a iaeiaeia?e neooaoe??. Aiane?aeie oeueiai oaea i?eiouaiiy ia
iiaeiii cia/ii aee?eaeoe caaaeueio ea?oeio iaioth/eo ia ?eieo
oaiaeaioe?e.

Ia aecia/aii oaeiae ??cieoe? i?ae i?eaooeia?noth aeeneiioieo ? eoiiiieo
IAAeI, coiiaeaii? ??ciith e?euee?noth aeieao i?eaooeo ca ieie. A oiiaao
ei?ioeeo oa?i?i?a ?ici?uaiiy (aei 12 i?n.), cia/ieo ?ici???a noaaee
i?eaooeiaino?, c?noaaeaiiai c iath ??aiy ?ioeyoe?? ? i?aeoe/ii?
a?aenooiino? e?ea?aeieo iai?yie?a ?iaanooaaiiy ? ?a?iaanooaaiiy (e??i
oiai, /enei iiaeeeaeo ia??iae?a ia?iuaiiy neeaaeieo a?aenioe?a — 2—3)
?ica?aei?noue ? iacia/iith (IAO i?e ?ic?aooieao i?eaooeiaino? aoeoe?ii?a
oaeiae ia ?iaeoue oe??? ??cieoe?). Iioae?eiaai? a i?an? noaaee oae
caaii? “aoaeoeaii? i?eaooeiaino?” ? ia ii??aiyiiyi i?eaooeiaino?
iaieioaii? c i?eaooeia?noth c o?aooaaiiyi ?a?iaanooaaiiy, a i?inoei
ii??aiyiiyi c aiaeia?/iith ca i?eaooeia?noth (aac ei?aeoe?? ca ?eceeii)
noaaeith ii aaie?anueeiio aeaiiceoo c o?aooaaiiyi 30% iiiaeaoeoaaiiy,
oiaoi i?inoei iiae?eii ia 0,7.

Ei?enooth/enue iaaiaeith, oi/aoueny i?e?aeiaoeny aei iao?aiiy iia?aoi??a
?eieo ? naiiai iaia THuaiea a?aeiinii aacaeocaeinoae iaoiai
caeiiiaeaanoaa. I?eaooie ca IAAeI ye i?e iiaaoaii?, oae ? ca
?acoeueoaoaie iia?aoe?e ca aoaeue-yeeie oe?iaie ia aoi?eiiiio ?eieo ia
iiaeiai iaeeaaeaoeny iiaeaoeii ia i?eaooie (i?eaooeiaei iiaeaoeii) ?c
caa?aaeaiiyi 15% iiaeaoeo i?e eiai ?aiao??aoe??. Aea?aeieoi ca iia?aoe??
c AeOeI — iiinain. An? iiae?ai? ieaoaae? aaeueie oo?oaeiththoue aeey
?iaanoi??a ?ic?aooiie oe?i oaiae — aaeaea aiie iiaeii? ?ic?aooaaoe
noaaeo naiai i?eaooeo ? i?eaooeo eiio?aaaioa c o?aooaaiiyi eii?n??
aaieo, aea?aeieoa, eii?n?eieo a??ae? aai oi?aiai-?ioi?iaoe?eii? nenoaie,
noaaee i?e ia?aeiiiio ?ici?uaii?, noaaie ia aoi?eiiiio ?eieo, ?iaeaeno
?ioeyoe??, eo?no e50, iie?oeee IO, noaaee i?eaooeo aeueoa?iaoeaieo
iai?yie?a ?iaanooaaiiy aeanieo eioo?a oiui: ia aa?o/e aei oaaae
i?eiaeii? iaeaaaeeea?oeo oaeoi??a oe?iiooai?aiiy, iaiiaeeeai a?aiioii oa
aoaeoeaii i?aoethaaoe ia ?eieo.

Iaaecia/ai?noue o oea?ei? oe?iiooai?aiiy oyaia ca niaith a?aeoi?aiaiiy
cia/ii? /anoeie ?yaeiaeo ?iaanoi??a (e??i aaie?a — o oeo i?inoi iaia?
iniaeeaiai aeai?o), a yeeo aeaaii a?aeaeee aaaeaiiy a?aoe c aea?aeaaith
a aca?oi? ?a?e, ine?eueee aiia iino?eii ci?ith? i?aaeea a oiae? ni?aae,
i?e/iio /anoi — caaei?i /eneii. sseui o IO i?iaeaie c aeeiiaiiyi
aeio?aeii? /anoeie athaeaeaoo, oi iaoae aiii ?aaoeth? noaaeo
i?eaooeiaino?, a ia iaiaaa?oueny ?iciiae?eeoe o?eueee-ii
ia?a?iciiae?eaia.

IAO ia nueiaiaei?oi?e aeaiue iaeiie/ea cia/iee aeina?ae ?iaioe ii
ioi?ieaiith aeione?a ? aaaeaiith iae?eo i?aa ia AeOeI. O ca’yceo c oeei
aeioe?eueii aoei a i?enei?eoe ioi?ieaiiy ii?yaeeo ?iaioe ia ?eieo
oi?a?aoe?a OeI oa ?ioeo o?iainiaeo iina?aaeiee?a. Oea i?eaianei a ia
?eiie aeoo caei?iai? eiieo?aioe?? (noaey/e c ioae?eaoe?e, c?inoaiiy
e?eueeino? oiiaiiaaaeaieo aeeea??a ii ?iaio? c AeEI i?ecaaei aei oiai,
ui noaaee eii?n?eieo ?in?enueeeo aaie?a iaio? a?ae oe?a?inueeeo ia
ii?yaeie), a e??i oiai, aeaei a ciiao ca?eueoeoe eiai ianyae.

Ui ae aei aaie?a, oi aeioe?eueii aoei a aeaoe ?i iiaeeea?noue ? a
iiaeaeueoiio o?eiaoe cia/io /anoeio nai?o ?aca?a?a a IAAeI (iniaeeai
“aeiaaeo”), aea?eueiyth/e oei naiei cia/i? ianyae aio?aee aeey
e?aaeeooaaiiy, a?eueo aeoeaii ai?iaaaeaeoaaoe noaie eiiaa?aeiiai
e?aaeeooaaiiy (aeei?enoiaoth/e aoaeo ioeueoeie?eaoi?a, ca?eueooaaoe
e?euee?noue ? oaeaee?noue a?ioae a ia?ao, ia ae?oeoth/e aeiaeaoeiaeo
a?ioiaeo ciae?a). Oae? caoiaee iio??aii aaeeoe ? uiaei oi?ioaaiiy
?aca?aieo oiiae?a no?aoiaeo eiiiai?e, ?iaanoeoe?eieo oiiae?a ? eiiiai?e,
aeia??/eo oiaa?enoa.

I?eaooeia?noue ?iaanoeoe?e a IAAeI (96) aeaiiino?o?oueny a?ao?eaie 2—5.
sse aa/eii, ao?oeea? iiae?? ia ?eieo iaee i?noea aei eeiiy. I?ney
oeueiai e?eaa i?eaooeiaino? (?c na?aaeeie eeiiy — aeey ei?ioeeo ? c
ii/aoeo i?nyoey — aeey aeiaaeo) iaaaaeo? ea?ae?ia?aio o?oia. Oei /anii,
ye oea aeaeii c a?noia?ai 2, 4, 5, naia a oeae ia??iae niinoa??aa?oueny
iia?eueia ca?eueoaiiy caaaeueieo ianooaa?a ?eieo ca ?aooiie 91- ?
182-aeaiieo IAAeI — iaei?eaaaeea?oeo aeey an?o eaoaai??e ?iaanoi??a, ?
oea iacaaaeath/e ia cia/i? eieeaaiiy ianya?a aeieao o eeii?—aa?ani?.

A?ao?e 2.

A?ao?e 3.

120

110

100

90

80

70

60

50

40

Oaeei /eiii, iiaeia i?eionoeoe, ui noaaee ?ici?uaiiy IAAeI o iaaeao
57—64% ??/ieo ia no?ie 91—182 aei? aoee a eeii?—aa?ani? 1996 ?.
iaei?eeiyoi?oeie aeey ?iaanoi??a ? ?aaeueieie aeey aea?aeaae (oiaoi
?eieiaeie) iieacieeaie oe?ie ianeoaiaoaaiiy aea?aeai?ao ? oa?i?i?a eiai
?ao?iainoaaiiy, ine?eueee a oeae /an ia ?eieo oaeoe/ii niinoa??aaeanue
??aiiaaaa (ie ia a?aoiao?ii ooo oaeoi?o /ooie i?i a?ioiao ?aoi?io). sse
oea aeaeii ?c ni?anoaaeaiiy iaaaaeaieo a?ao?e?a, a?aeiia?aei? ia?aiao?e
aeey n?/iy—o?aaiy oe.?. noa- iiaeee 100—110% ??/ieo ? 91 aeaiue. Aei
e?ioey eenoiiaaea ia?aiao?e aeecuee? aei 51—53% ??/ieo ? 91 aeiy.

A?ao?e 4.

A?ao?e 5.

Oi?ioaaiiy noaaee i?eaooeiaino? a?aeaoaaeiny a oiiaao i?aeoe/ii iiaiiai
ca?ao a?aen?/ieo oa na?aaeiueicaaaeaieo oe?i ye ca aeeneiioieie, oae ?
ca eoiiiieie IAAeI on?o oa?i?i?a ia?ao, ui aeaeii c a?ao?e?a
a?aeiia?aeieo caeaaeiinoae.

Aeey i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiy aeoiee aiae?oee?a uiaei i?ea’ycee i?eaooeiaino?
IAAeI aei iae?eiai? noaaee iai aaeaeiny anoaiiaeoe aeineoue neeueio
ei?aeyoe?eio caeaaei?noue (oaaeeoey 13).

Oe?eaa? aeai? a?aeiinIi caeaaeiino? i?ae i?eaooeia?noth IAAeI ?
??cieoeath i?ae iii?iaeueiith i?eaooeia?noth aoeoe?iio ? iae?eiaith
noaaeith aeaiiino?othoue oa, ye naia ?aaaoaaa ?eiie IAAeI eiie?aoieo
oa?i?i?a ia ci?io iae?eiai? noaaee (oaaeeoey 14).

Oaaeeoey 13.

Oa?i?i ia?ao IAAeI, aei. 91 182 273 364

Eiao?oe??io ei?aeyoe?? eoiiii? 0,94051 0,9611 0,8384 0,89896

aeeneiioi? 0,94628 0,9912

Oaaeeoey 14.

Oa?i?i ia?ao IAAeI, aei. 91 182 273 364

Eiao?oe??io ei?aeyoe?? eoiiii? -0,191 -0,688 0,7212 0,5336

aeeneiioi? 0,8897 0,9872

sse aa/eii, aeeneiioi? 91- ? 182-aeaii? IAAeI /a?aiaee ?ac iieacaee na?e
ni?aaae? ?eieiaee oa?aeoa?; caeaaei?noue ?o aeineoue cia/ia.

Ia aaeaeiny anoaiiaeoe caeaaei?noue i?ae ianyaaie ai?n?? IAAeI
aecia/aieo oa?i?i?a oa noaaeith i?eaooeo a?aeiia?aeieo aoeoe?ii?a
(oaaeeoey 15), a oaeiae i?ae ianyaaie ai?n?? IAAeI aecia/aieo oa?i?i?a
oa ??cieoeath i?ae oe?iith a?aen?/aiiy ? na?aaeiueicaaaeaiith oe?iith
a?aeiia?aeieo aoeoe?ii?a (oaaeeoey 16).

Oaaeeoey 15.

(Oa?i?i ia?ao IAAeI, aei. 91 182 273 364

Eiao?oe??io ei?aeyoe?? 0,1272 -0,0581 -0,0279 -0,1577

Oaaeeoey 6.

(Oa?i?i ia?ao IAAeI, aei.

91 182 273 364

Eiao?oe??io ei?aeyoe??

-0,14794 0,00426 -0,0463 -0,16732

Ioaea, noaey/e c aiae?co aeaieo i?i oaiaee ia aoi?eiiiio ?eieo,
aecia/aeueiee aieea ia iueiai iaee an? o? ae oaeoi?e, ye? aieeaaee ia
ia?aeiiee ?eiie, a oaeiae aeeiai?ea naiiai ia?aeiiiai ?eieo.

Ca aeaieie aeaiiceoa??th AeOeI IAO, na?aaeiueii?ny/i? ianyae oaiae ia
iicaa??aeiaiio ?eieo noaiiaeyoue iaeaea 140 iei. a?i. i?e na?aaeiueiio
ianyc? iaei??? oaiaee aeecueei 436 oen. a?i. Iaeiae aiane?aeie
a?aenooiino? iiaii? ? aeinooiii? io?oe?eii? ?ioi?iaoe?? aeey oeueiai
aiae?co aeei?enoiaoaaeeny ?acoeueoaoe oi?a?a ia oiiaeia?e naeoe?? OIAA,
oi/ oaiaee oai noaiiaeyoue aeoaea iacia/io /anoeio iicaa??aeiaiai ?eieo
(iai?eeeaae, 0,6% o eenoiiaae? 1996 ?.’). Aea aiane?aeie i?aeoe/ii
iiiiiieueiiai noaiiaeua aaie?a ia oeueiio ?eieo aeai? ? aeineoue
?ai?acaioaoeaieie. Caaaeueiee ianya oaiae o oiiaeia?e naeoe?? OIAA ia
31.10.96 ?. coaiiaea iaeaea 62 557 oen. a?i., i?e oeueiio na?aaei?e
ianya iaei??? oaiaee — iaeaea 91,14 oen. a?i. ?iciiae?e ianya?a oaiae ca
i?nyoeyie o a?aenioeao i?aaenoaaeaii o a?noia?ai? 4.

A?noia?aia 4.

C?noaaeyth/e oe? aeai? c ?acoeueoaoaie aeuaiaaaaeaiiai aiae?co, iiaeia
a?aecia/eoe, ui:

— iniiaieie iia?aoi?aie ia oeueiio ?eieo aoee aaiee (na?aaei?e ?ici??
iaei??? oaiaee i?iiiaey? nai ca naaa); e??i oiai, aeineoue aaeee?
eii?n?ei?, ye? noyaothoueny a??aeath (ii 1% c iieoioey ? i?iaeaaoey),
iiaee “aeo?eiaoe” ciiao ae oaee a iniiaiiio aaiee: ?i ia aeiaiaeeeiny
ieaoeoe naiei nia? eii?n?ei? (aei 0,5% aeiaeaoeiai c eiaeiiai o/anieea
iia?aoe??);

— ia?aaaaeia a?eueo?noue oaiae aoea oeeaaeaia o o?aai?—na?ii?, oiaoi a
ia??iae ia?iaiaioiiai niaaeo noaaie ia ia?aeiiiio ?eieo, eiee aaiee
caeiaeenue a?a?o?aaeai aoeoe?ii— ee??ioe, iaea?aeoth/e iiiiiieuei?
iaaei?eaooee a?ae i?iaeaaeo ?ai?oa eoieaieo noia?i?eaooeiaeo IAAeI;

— ye o ia??iaee c?inoaiiy noaaie ia ia?aeiieo aoeoe?iiao, oae ? a
ia??iaee ?o niaaeo ?eiie ??cei nei?i/oaaany ye ca caaaeueieie ianyaaie,
oae ? ca na?aaei?ie ianyaaie iaei??? oaiaee;

— noaa?euei?noue aai i?aeaeuaiiy eo?no UAK (UAH) ai?oth/a ae?yee ia
?eiie; — ?nio? iaaia ei?aeyoe?eia caeaaei?noue i?ae uii?ny/iei ianyaii
oaiae oa ?o na?aaei?i ?ici??ii (eiao?oe??io 0,74), oiaoi ?icoe?aiiy
?eieo aeinyaaeinue ia no?eueee ca ?aooiie caeo/aiiy iiaeo o/aniee?a,
ne?eueee ca ?aooiie iineeaiiy aca?oo noa?eo.

sse iieaco? ae?aa?aia 2, iicaa??aeiaee ?eiie, ii noo?, aei??aith? ?eieo
91-aeaiieo IAAeI.

Aiane?aeie oeueiai ?icaeyae aoi?eiiiai ?eieo a aeai?e noaoo? a
iiaeaeueoiio a?oiooaaoeiaoueny ia aiae?c? iia?aoe?e c 91-aeaiieie IAAeI.

Ia?aiao?e iia?aoe?e c ieie noaiii ia 31.10.96 ?. o oe?eiio
aeaiiino?othoueny o a?noia?aiao 5, 6, 7.

Ae?aa?aia 2. A?aeiioaiiy ianya?a iia?aoe?e c IAAeI (ca oa?i?iaie) aei

anueiai ianyao iia?aoe?e

A?noia?aia 5.

sse aa/eii, a?noia?aia 5, yea aeaiiino?o? i?ioeaioia ni?aa?aeiioaiiy
ianya?a oaiae 391- aeaiieie IAAeI, i?aeoe/ii oe?eeii a?aeiia?aea?
a?noia?ai? 4. A?noia?aia 6.

A?noia?aia 7.

Na?aaei?e ianya oaiae c 91-aeai. IAAeI, oen. a?i.

Oaaeeoey 17 aeaiiino?o? i?ioeaioia ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?ae ianyaaie oaiae ?
e?euee?noth oaiae 391- aeaiieie IAAeI aei caaaeueii? e?eueeino?”:

Oaaeeoey 17.

I?ieoei c aeaoe aoeoe?iio E?euee?noue oaiae o % aei onueiai Ianya oaiae
o % aei onueiai

aei CI aei. aee. 40,58 54,16

aei 60 aei. aee. 37,67 29,08

aei 90 aei. aee. 21,75 16,76

?c oaaeeoe? 17 aeaeii, ye aeoeaii aaiee a?aee ia ia?ai?iaeaaeo ei?ioeeo
IAAeI, i?e/iio aaeeeeie iaeaoaie.

O no/anieo aeiiii?/ieo oiiaao Oe?a?ie aaiee — iaei? c iniiaieo
iia?aoi??a oa ?iaanoi??a ia ?eieo — i?aeoe/ii ia iathoue aeueoa?iaoeaieo
IAAeI ca i?eaooeia?noth (ia eaaeo/e aaea i?i iaae?ei?noue) iai?yie?a
aeei?enoaiiy aeanieo ? caeo/aieo eioo?a. I?e oeueiio o?yae ? IAO ?iaeee
? ?iaeyoue ona, uia ia aeaoe ciiae iaoei aaieai “i?aeiyoeny”, ca?eueoeoe
nai? ?ici??e, a cia/eoue, ? iiaeeeaino?. A ?acoeueoao? iiooaei?noue
aaie?anueei? nenoaie Oe?a?ie ia iiaeia c?noaaeoe iaa?oue c ?in?enueeith,
oi/ ? oai i?iaeai aenoa/a?. ?acoeueoaoe oaei? iie?oeee caneoaiaothoue ia
ie?aiee ?icaeyae, a ooo ie iaiaaeeiiny eeoa aiae?cii ?? iane?aee?a uiaei
?eieo IAAeI.

Caea?oueny, i?aeoe/ii an? e?iee ii icaei?iaeaiith nai?? aeiiii?ee (ia
eaaeo/e aaea i?i ?o i?aaiaa caaacia/aiiy) Oe?a?ia ?iaeoue ne?aeii ca
?in??th — ?c cai?ciaiiyi a?ae aeae?eueeio i?nyoe?a aei e?eueeio ?ie?a,
i?e oeueiio aeo?aoii iiaoi?thth/e iiieeee iiia?aaeieea.

Ne?eueee aaeano naiai /ano ia?iaea “/i?iee a?aoi?ie” 11.10.94 ?. o
?in??! Ne?eueee ienaeinue i?i oa, ui iaeiei ?c iniiaieo oaeoi??a a?ae
ii/aoeo iaaaeo RUR., a iio?i niaaeo USD aaea ia ianooiiiio oeaei? noaee
a?aeiia?aeii a?aeieea eioo?a ?c ?eieo AeEI oa ?ici?uaiiy /a?aiaeo ?o
o?ei?ny/ieo aeione?a! Aea oea ia iaa/eei: ia oaee? “noaa?eueiiai”
ii?aoi?iaiiai eo?no IAI, aaea i?ney “a?aeiouaiiy” eiai eo?no c aieo IAO,
IO ae??oeei “neeiooe noaaeo” ia?aae aeieaoaie a a?oaei? 1996 — n?/i?
1997 ??.

Aeyaeeiny, ui iaiaithaaoe IAO iaaaaaoi i?ino?oa, i?ae uinue ?aaeueii
ci?ieoe a aeiiii?oe?.

O oaeeo oiiaao, eiee aaiee i?aeoe/ii ia iiaeooue “ii-noa?iio” ca?iaeyoe
nai? a?io? ca ?aooiie e?aaeeooaaiiy i?yieo iice/aeueiee?a, eiee
?ioeyoe?y a na?ii?—aa?ani? noaiiaeea 5,7% ? 2% a?aeiia?aeii, a noaaea ca
an?ia IAAeI ??cei ciaioeeanue, aiie ionoeeeny ia an? canoaaee ia
aaethoiiio ?eieo. Ni?aaae?, ca i?aenoieaie 207-ai ? 210-ai aoeoe?ii?a
(22 ? 29.10.96 a?aeiia?aeii) noaaea i?eaooeiaino? ca 91-aeaiieie IAAeI
aiaea aei 30,65 ? 30,19% ??/ieo, i?e oiio, ui noaaee i?aeaaieo ca
overnight nyaaee CI—35%, a ca CI-aeai. — 60— 65%. Aiane?aeie oeueiai
aaiee ia eeoa ia?anoaee ?iaanooaaoe a IAAeI iia? a?io?, a e noaee
“ooiaeeoe a aeiea?” c iaae??th ia niaeoeyoeai? iaaei?eaooee. sse
i?aenoiie oeueiai — yaii caaeuaiee eo?n UAH (na?aaei?e io?oe?eiee eo?n
USD o /a?ai?—eeii? 1996 ?. — 180031 UAK) aaeaeiny ?icea/aoe ia i?aeaaieo
. Iineeeany iioaioe?ae a?a?o?aaeo IIAA—OIAA oa OIAA—i?aeaaie, a iio?i ia
?eieo an? noaee “aaaeiaaeyie”. A ooo ua e IAO, ciooaiee “i?aeaaiyoe
??oaiiy i?ae a?aeiia?aeue” — i?aeo?eioaaoe iieaciee /enoeo ciai?oi?o
aeoea?a ia?aae IAO, aenooiea iniiaiei iieoioeai USD ia i?aeaaieo ? IIAA.
Ioaea, 05.10- 22.11.96 ?. UAH aeaaaeueaoaaea ia 6,31%.

Iaeiae aeaaaeueaaoe?y UAH — ia ?aeeiee iaaaoeaiee ?acoeueoao
iai?iaeoiaii? iie?oeee IO, ia ocaiaeaeaii? aei oiai ae ?c IAO. Aieiaia —
ao?aoa aeia??e eiina?aaoeaieo ?iaanoi??a (ia?o ca ana ia?aceaeaio?a)’ ,
a oaeiae oain ia ?eieo, iane?aeeii yeiai noaa eaoano?io?/iee niaae
ianya?a caeo/aiiy a?ioae ?aceaeaio?a ia i?eaeaaiiy IAAeI.

IO, cae/aeii, iiai’yoaeiny, aea aoei i?cii: i?nyoeue (c 17.10.96 ii
14.11.96) ianyae caeo/aiiy 91-aeaiieo IAAeI noaiiaeee a na?aaeiueiio 3,1
iei. a?i. ca aoeoe?ii (o noi? — 18,8 iei. a?i.), 182-aeaiieo — 6,1 ?
55,6 iei. a?i. a?aeiia?aeii. Eoaee iiae?eeny a?io? — ie aaea aa/eee
aeua. A iai?oe? 12.11.96 ?. IO ??cei (ia 12,26 i?ioeaioieo ioieoa)
i?aeiyei noaaeo i?eaooeiaino? ia 91-aeai. IAAeI, a 15.11.96 ?. — iaeaea
oae naii ??cei (ia 6,9 i?ioeaioieo ioieoa) ia 182-aeaii?. sse iane?aeie,
15.11.96 ?. ianya ?ici?uaiiy 91-aeaiieo IAAeI noaiiaea 35,9 iei. a?i.
(i?eaooeia?noue aeoe?iio 45,96% ??/ieo), 21.11.96 ?. — 74,3 iei. a?i.
(56,88%); ia oeth ae aeaoo (21.11.96 ?.) ianya ?ici?uaiiy 182-aeaiieo
IAAeI noaiiaea 28,4 iei. a?i. (59,9%).

Oaeei /eiii, aeoaea (ia 106,1 iei. a?i. ca oe?iith ?ici?uaiiy)
oneeaaeieaoe nia? aeeooy a ethoiio 1997 ?., aeaaaeueaoaaaoe UAH,
i?ae??aaaoe aeia??o ?iicaiieo ? a?o/eciyieo ?iaanoi??a, iaea?aeaaoe ca
i?nyoeue anueiai eeoa aeecueei 74,4 iei. a?i. ca iecueeith oe?iith,
caieaoeaoe a 1,5 ?aca aei?iae/a ca aeacai? 106,1 iei. a?i. ca 91-aeaii?
IAAeI, IO o ?acoeueoao? iieieeiny ia oiio ae i?noe?.

Caeeoa?oueny niiae?aaoeny, ui ai?oaio iaea?aeaa ei?eniee o?ie: a oiiaao,
eiee aaiee ?aaeueii iiaeooue ca?iaeyoe eeoa ia IAAeI ? aaetho?,
iiaiaeeoeny c ianyaaie ? noaaeith ia ?eieo iaiao?aeii aeoaea iaa?aaeii —
aeoi??y a?ae aaeaei i?iaaaeaii? aeaiii?iaoe?? iaoe?iiaeueii? aaethoe ?
?aae?? aeiiii?ee — ana ua “aea? aaeee? ??cieoe?”.

Oaeei /eiii, iniiaith iie?oeee ai?oaioa ia? aooe iia?eueia, iinooiiaa
c?inoaiiy ?eieo i?e noaa?euei?e (oa/aai ia?aaeaa/ai?e) noaaoe?
i?eaooeiaino?, i???ioiaaii? ia iae?eiao noaaeo IAO, ?iaeaen ?ioeyoe?? ?
oaiie aeaaaeueaaoe?? UAH. ? cae/aeii, iie?oeea oey iiaeiia aooe
aeaniith, a iiaia io?oe?eia ?ioi?iaoe?y i?i ia?aiao?e ?eieo —
aeinooiiith aeey an?o noa’?eo?a ainiiaea?thaaiiy.

Iei? iiaeia aeae?eeoe oae? oaeoi?e, ye? caeaoi? aieeaaoe aai iaa?oue
aecia/aoe aeeiai?eo ??aiy i?eaooeiaino? AeOeI o iaeaooiueiio.

Oaeoi?e, ui aieeaathoue ia c?inoaiiy iii?iaeueii? i?eaooeiaino? IAAeI ia
ii/aoeo 1997 ?.:

— an? oaeoi?e, ui iineeththoue ?ioeyoe?th (aeaeea?iaai? IO ia 1997 ?.
iieacieee ?ioeyoe?? ia ??ai? 24,5%, ia iaoo aeoieo, aeo?eiai? ia
aoaeooue);

— aaeee? ianyae iiaaoaiiy IAAeI oaea, a ?—II eaa?oaeao 1994 ?. (aeea.
a?ao?e 6),

— caieaiiaaia cieaeaiiy iiaeaoe?a iiaeiii (oi/ ? oei/aniai) ??cei
nei?ioeoe i?eaooeiao /anoeio athaeaeaoo i?ioyaii ye i?i?ioi ia?oeo
o?ueio eaa?oae?a 1997 ?., ui cioneoue IO ooeaoe aeueoa?iaoeai? aeaea?aea
o?iainoaaiiy, a naia (a iiaeeeai, ? a iniiaiiio) ca ?aooiie ?eieo AeOeI.
A naith /a?ao, oaeaeei ? cia/ii ?icoe?eoe ?eiie iiaeia aoaea, eeoa
ca?eueoeaoe ?o i?eaooeia?noue.

Oaeoi?e, ye? i?ioeae?thoue c?inoaiith iii?iaeueii? i?eaooeiaino? IAAeI
ia ii/aoeo 1997 ?.:

— ai?n?y ?a?iiae?aaoe?e oa AeOeI, aiaeia?/ieo IAAeI (aeaaii caieaiiaaiee
aeione eacia/aenueeeo aaenae?a);

— acaaae? an? oaeoi?e, ye? ca?eueoothoue i?iiiceoe?th a?ioae ia ?eieo
IAAeI, a naia:

a) aei?noea ?aaeaiaioiaai?noue, aeinoaoi?e nooi?iue ea?oaaiiy c aieo IAO
? a?aeiinii iaaaeee? ianyae aaethoiiai ?eieo Oe?a?ie acaaae? ai?oth/a
ae?thoue ia i?eaooeia?noue aaethoieo niaeoeyoe?e, ui i?ecaiaeeoue aei
a?aeaa?iaiiy niaeoeyoeaiiai eai?oaeo ia ?eiie IAAeI;

a) iaea?aeaiiy e?aaeeo?a IAO, ine?eueee oe? eiooe iiaeooue aooe
?aae?ciaai? ia aaethoiiio ?eieo, a ae?o/aia a?eai?aa iana iio?i iiaea
aooe ni?yiiaaia ia iiaaoaiiy IAAeI;

a) iayai?noue a IAO noaa?e?caoe?eiiai oiiaeo UAH;

a) aei?noea ?aaoethaaiiy aeiiii?ee, a?aenooi?noue iaae?eieo ? aeineoue
i?eaooeiaeo iai?yie?a ?iaanooaaiiy aeey cia/ii? /anoeie ainiiaea?thth/eo
noa’?eo?a.

(A?aoo? I?io?i iiaea ia aeoaea iiaithaaoenue cieaeaiiy ianya?a ?eieo i?e
?icoiiiio cieaeaii? i?eaooeiaino?.

Acaaae?, ciaioaiiy aino?ioe iio?aae I?io?io o aio?aoe? aeey iiaaoaiiy
IAAeI /a?ac aoaeue-ye? i?e/eie aeanoue ciiao eiio iia?eueii cieceoe
i?eaooeia?noue IAAeI, iaa?oue yeui oea i?ecaaaea aei nei?i/aiiy ae?o/ee
a?ae iiai?ici?-uaieo o?aio?a IAAeI);

– aei?noea iiiaoa?ia iie?oeea o?yaeo a 1996 ?.;

– neaae?noue aaie?anueei? nenoaie Oe?a?ie.

?iciiae?e caai?aiaaiino? ii aeieaoao o 1996—1997 ??. (iei. UAH) ca
i?aenoieaie 255 aoeoe?ii?a IAAeI(96) aeaiiino?o?oueny a?ao?eii 6.

A?ao?e 6.

sse aa/eii, ?—II eaa?oaee 1997 ?. aeineoue iai?oaeai? aeey IO (ia
e?iaoeue /a?aiy 1997?. — 1046 iei. a?i., a ua iiia?aaeo a?oaeaiue
1997-ai), iaa?oue c o?aooaaiiyi oiai, ui cia/ia /anoeia caai?aiaaiino?
(aei 580 iei. a?i.), iiaeeeai, iiaeiia aooe aeiea/aia (oiaoi ia
aeiea/aia) ??aeiiio IAO. Ioaea, ?ecee ?iaanooaaiiy a IAAeI iineoue
iie?oeei-aeiiii?/iee oa?aeoa?.

Acaaae?, noaia ?ao?iainoaaiiy aea?aeai?ao iaaaaeo? i??ai?aeo ca oeiii AO
“III”, yea ?nio?, aeiee aea?aeaaa ia? e?aaeeo aeia??e o ?iaanoi??a.
Oaeei /eiii, iaaae i??ai?aee acaaae? iiaea iaoe i?noea /a?ac oae?
i?e/eie: — iai?iaeoiai? ae?? aea?aeaae, ui i?ecaaee aei ianiaiai
neeaeaiiy IAAeI, ye oea aaea aoei o aeiaaeeo c ia?aceaeaioaie;

— ??cea iineeaiiy oaii?a ?ioeyoe?? aai i?eaooeiaino? aaethoieo
niaeoeyoe?e, ui ia noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny aaeaeaaoiei c?inoaiiyi
i?eaooeiaino? iia?aoe?e ?c IAAeI;

— iai?aaeeueia noaia aeei?enoaiiy caeo/aieo eioo?a o noeoiiino? c
iaaeeiiaiiyi aeio?aeii? /anoeie athaeaeaoo (eiee caeo/ai? ia ?eieo IAAeI
eiooe i?inoi aeei?enoiaothoueny ia caooeyiiy ae??ie o athaeaeao?, ui
iathoue a iniia? no?oeoo?i? i?iaeaie a aeiiii?oe?, a ia
aeei?enoiaothoueny aeey ?iaanoeoe?e o ae?iaieoeoai oiui).

Aiane?aeie oeeo oa ?ioeo i?e/ei aea?aeaaa iiaea aeyaeoeny iani?iiiaeiith
nai?/anii iiaaneoe /a?aia? aeionee IAAeI (oiaoi “caii?iceoe” aeieaoe ia
iaaiee oa?i?i).

Ao?aoe ?iaanoi?a o oeueiio ?ac? caaaeooueny aei iaiaea?aeaiiai i?eaooeo
ca ?aooiie aeueoa?iaoeaieo iai?yie?a ?iaanooaaiiy oa ?ioeyoe?eieo ao?ao.
?acii ?c oei i?aeoe/ii iaia? noii?a?a o naiiio iiaa?iaii? (oi/ ? c
cai?ciaiiyi) ?iaanoiaaieo noi.

Ne?ae, iaeiae, cacia/eoe, ui ca a?aeiia?aeieo oiia oaeiai ?iaeo
i??ai?aee iiaeooue ?nioaaoe i?aeoe/ii a?/ii (i?eeeaae — NOA). Aei ?a/?,
o ?in?? ia nueiaiaei?oi?e aeaiue aaea ? aeineoue-oaee cia/iee aeina?ae
?ano?oeoo?ecaoe?? aea?aeai?ao (ye ca oa?i?iaie, oae ? ca noaaeaie
i?eaooeo ? iaa?oue ca ??cieie o?iainiaeie ?ino?oiaioaie). sse na?ae/aoue
oni?oi? ae?? IAO ae?oeo 1996 ?ieo, a Oe?a?i? oaeiae iiaeeeaa aoaeoeaia
ea?oaaiiy neooaoe??th ia ?eieo.

?icoe?aiiy ?eieo ? ca?eueoaiiy ??aiy i?eaooeiaino? c iaoith iineaaeaiiy
oeneo ia ?io? naaiaioe o?iainiaiai ?eieo (a?ioiaee ? aaethoiee) o
noeoiiino? c iiioe?nonueeith athaeaeaoiith iie?oeeith iiaeooue aoyaiooe
o?yae aei “iaa?aiioii?” iiaoaeiae “i??ai?aee”. ?acii ?c oei i?aeo?eiea
aeinyaiooeo ianya?a ?eieo, a oaeiae eiai iino?eia ? iia?eueia c?inoaiiy
? iaeiei ?c aaaeeeaeo caaaeaiue aoaeue-yeiai o?yaeo aiane?aeie aeoaea
aaeeeiai iae?iaeiiii?/iiai cia/aiiy ?eieo aea?aeaaieo iaia’yce?a. ?
o?yae iiaeiai ?iaeoe ana a?ae iueiai caeaaeia, uia ia ?eieo ia o?aieeeny
iaaaoeai? ci?ie.

Oaeei /eiii, iaeaaaeeea?oith aa?aio??th ?aae?caoe?? i?aa oa ?ioa?an?a
?iaanoi??a ? i?yia ? nooo?aa caoe?eaaeai?noue ai?oaioa — I?i?noa?noaa
o?iain?a.

I?ssI? ATHAeAEAOI? O?AINOA?OE A NENOAI? I?AEATHAeAEAOIEO A?AeIINEI

Iaei??th c oeaio?aeueieo ?, aiaeii/an, noia?a/eeaeo i?iaeai
aioo??oiueiaea?aeaaieo o?iainiaeo a?aeiinei ? iaaeaiiy i?noeaaei i?aaiai
aeaaee eioo?a c oeaio?ae?ciaaiiai athaeaeaoo. Oi/a aaaiia i?aeo?eiea
i?noeaaeo i?aai?a aeaaee caaacia/o?oueny ?o o/anoth o
caaaeueiiiaoe?iiaeueieo iiaeaoeao, i?ioa ??, ye i?aaeei, aeyaey?oueny ia
aeineoue aeey caaacia/aiiy aaeaeaaoiiai o?iainoaaiiy ae?yeueiino?
i?noeaai? aeaaee ii aeeiiaiith nai?o ooieoe?e ca?aeii ?c
caeiiiaeaanoaii. Oiio aiia aeiiiaith?oueny i?yieie athaeaeaoieie
o?ainoa?oaie, /anoea yeeo o aeioiaeao i?noeaaeo athaeaeao?a o ??cieo
e?a?iao noaiiaeoue a?ae 10 aei 30%. Ni?e/eiththoue oaea noaiiaeua
aeae?eueea oaeoi??a.

Ii-ia?oa, iae/ano?oa iaaeaiiy aeayeeo noni?eueieo aeaa, ye io: ina?oa,
ioi?iia caei?ia’y oa iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua oiui, aoaeoeai?oa
cae?enithaaoe ia eieaeueiiio ??ai?, aea ?o ae?iaieoeoai iaeneiaeueii
iaaeeaeaia aei niiaeeaa/?a, a oiio e iaio? oi?aae?inuee? aeo?aoe ?
a?eueo aoaeoeaiee eiio?ieue ca aeei?enoaiiyi eioo?a. Aeaeaoee i?noeaaeo
athaeaeao? ia ae?iaieoeoai oaeeo aeaa iathoue, i?e?iaeii, iie?eaaoeny
a?aeiia?aeieie o?ainoa?oaie ?c oeaio?ae?ciaaiiai athaeaeaoo.

Ii-ae?oaa, ?niothoue oae? eieaeuei? noni?euei? aeaaa, ui
oa?aeoa?ecothoueny oae caaiei ni?e-iaa?ii, aai ciai?oi?i aoaeoii. Ieie
iiaeooue ei?enooaaoeny ? iaoeaioe? non?aei?o oa?eoi??e, oi/a ? ia
ianooue i?e oeueiio aeiaeieo aeaeaoe?a. Oeth yaio iani?aaaaeeea?noue
iiaeia iiaeieaoe oeyoii ni?eueiiai o?iainoaaiiy i?iaeo?a aeae?eueeiia
oa?eoi??yie, aea /anoi oaea iiaeeea?noue ia iiaea aooe ?aae?ciaaia aai
/a?ac a?ae o ieo eioo?a, aai aiane?aeie iaaaaeaiiy aeayeeo c ieo a?aoe
o/anoue o o?iainoaaii? (oea yaeua aiaeia?/ia i?iaeai? “aaca?eaoiee?a”,
ui aeieea? o a?aeiineiao ?iaeea?ae — eieaeoea i?e ae?iaieoeoa? aeaa
eieaeoeaiiai niiaeeaaiiy). Oiio, a?aoiaoth/e aenieo cia/ou?noue oaeeo
eieaeueieo noni?eueieo aeaa, aea?aeaaa ia? caaacia/oaaoe o?iainiao
i?aeo?eieo oei i?noeaaei i?aaiai aeaaee, ye? ?o iaaeathoue.

Ii-o?ao?, i?ae aaei?i?no?aoeaii-oa?eoi??aeueieie iaeeieoeyie ?niothoue
ia’?eoeaii iaoiiaeai? a?aei?iiino? uiaei iiaeeeainoae caeo/aiiy
aeioiae?a aei i?noeaaiai athaeaeaoo, ye? caa??aathoueny iaa?oue i?e
noia?aenioeia?e aoaeoeaiino? ?o cae?aiiy ? noia?aenioeiaeo
a?ae?aooaaiiyo a?ae noie caaaeueiiiaoe?iiaeueieo iiaeaoe?a. Oe?
a?aei?iiino? aeioiaeiiai iioaioe?aeo, ii?iaeaeai? aeeoa?aioe?aoe??th
??aiy aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo oa?eoi??e, no?oeoo?e aeiiii?ee,
aeaiia?ao?/ieo iniaeeainoae ? o.i., iiaeooue aeinyaaoe ?acth/iai
?iciaoo: o Iieueu? ia ii/aoeo 90-o ?ie?a iaeneiaeueiee ?ic?ea i?ae
aeioiaeaie ai?i ia aeooo ianaeaiiy nyaaa ? : 500′. Iacaeaoi?noue aeayeeo
ina?aaee?a i?noeaai? aeaaee noi?ioaaoe athaeaeao, aeinoaoi?e aeey
o?iainoaaiiy aeiaeaoe?a, ?iaeoue iaiao?aeiith oeaio?ae?ciaaio aeiiiiiao
ioaeaeaiiei aaei?i?no?aoeaiei iaeeieoeyi, ine?eueee iaeiei ?c caaaeaiue
aea?aeaae ? caaacia/aiiy i?eaeecii iaeiaeiaeo oiia aeeooy a?iiaaeyi
iacaeaaeii a?ae oiai, aea aiie iaoeathoue.

Ii-/aoaa?oa, a aeayeeo aeiaaeeao aea?aeaaa ia?aeeaaea? ia i?noeaaee
??aaiue ooieoe??, ye? caeiiiaeaa/a (? iaa?oue eiinoeoooe?eia) cae??ieai?
ye ?? noa?a a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?, — iai?eeeaae, oo?eiaiiy a?enueeiaeo
aa?i?cii?a, i?aai?a i?aaiii?yaeeo aai a?ioiaeo aeieao:; iaaiei
eaoaai??yi ianaeaiiy ca?aeii ?c iaoe?iiaeueiei caeiiiaeaanoaii, — .ui
ia? noi?iaiaeaeoaaoenue noia?aenioeiaei a?aeoeiaeoaaiiyi c
iaoe?iiaeueiiai athaeaeaoo iiianaieo aeaeaoe?a.

Ia?aoo?, ii-i’yoa, iiaeooue aeieeaoe ??ci? ianoaaeie, oeth aeiaaathoue
oaei? aeniain?? i?noeaaeo aeaeaoe?a. i?io?iainoaaoe yeo i?noeaa?
athaeaeaoe i?inoi ia a ciic?, — iai?eeeaae, o ?ac? noeo?eiiai eeoa,
no?oeoo?ii? e?ece, ui a?aaea? ?aa?iie ?c neiioeaio?iaaieie oai
iaia?niaeoeaieie ae?iaieoeoaaie oiui. Iiaeaaaoe aeiiiiiao a oeeo
aeiaaeeao ia? ciiao ae oaee Aea?aeaaiee athaeaeao.

Oaeei /eiii, iaiao?aei?noue niaoe?aeueii? athaeaeaoii? i?aeo?eiee
i?noeaaeo i?aai?a aeaaee o oi?i? i?yieo athaeaeaoieo o?ainoa?o?a (aeae?
IAO) iaoiiaeaia, ianaiia?aae, aeiiaaie aoaeoeaii? aeieaoe?? oa
ni?aaaaeeeaino?. Iaeiae oea, cae/aeii, ia aeeeth/a? aeiaaee?a, eiee oaea
aeiiiiiaa iiaea?oueny ?c nooi iie?oe/ieo i?e/ei, iai?eeeaae, uia
caaacia/eoe eiyeuei?noue i?noeaai? aaei?i?no?aoeaii? ae?oe aei oeaio?o,
aai eiee aiia ? ?acoeueoaoii iicaeoe?nieo aeiiiaeaiinoae i?ae i?noeaaith
oa oeaio?aeueiith ath?ie?ao??th.

INIIAI? AEAeE I?ssIEO ATHAeAEAOIEO O?AINOA?O?A I?NOeAAEI I?AAIAI AEAAeE

O?aaeeoe?eii i?yi? athaeaeaoi? o?ainoa?oe iiae?eythoueny ia o?e aeaee:
aeioaoe??, noaaaioe??, noaneae??. I?ioa eeoa inoaii?i /anii c’yaeeeny
ni?iae /?oei ?iciaaeoaaoe oe? aeaee, nie?ath/enue ia ye? iiaeia aeaoe
oae? aecia/aiiy:

Athaeaeaoia aeioaoe?y — oea, ye i?aaeei, o?eniaaia a noi? a?ioiaa
aeiiiiiaa, ui i?e iaaieo oiiaao iiaeanoueny aeuanoiyuei athaeaeaoii
i?noeaaei c iaoith caaacia/aiiy aeeiiaiiy ieie nai?o ooieoe?e aac
iaiaaeaiiy noa?e aeei?enoaiiy eioo?a ia aaciiai?ioi?e iniia? ? ia
aeiaaa? aeeaaeaiiy eioo?a c aieo io?eioaa/a. Ca?aeii c i?aeia?iaeia
aeciaiith oa?i?iieia??th, oea ? iaca’ycaiee, aai caaaeueiee, aai
aacoiiaiee, aai aaia?aeueiee o?ainoa?o (a?aio) — aiae. general,
non-conditional grant.

Athaeaeaoia noaaaioe?y — oea a?ioiaa aeiiiiiaa, ui iiaea?oueny
aeuanoiyuei athaeaeaoii i?noeaaei c iaoith caaacia/aiiy ieie ?aae?caoe??
eiie?aoieo oe?eae ? iiaea aooe iaoiiaeaia aeeaaeaiiyi eioo?a c aieo
io?eioaa/a; i?e iaoe?eueiaiio aeei?enoaii? eiooe i?aeeyaathoue
iiaa?iaiith. Ca?aeii c i?aeia?iaeia aeciaiith oa?i?iieia??th oea ?
ca’ycaiee, aai niaoe?aeueiee, aai oiiaiee o?ainoa?o (a?aio), yeee
iaaea?oueny i?e iaai?e o/ano? o o?iainoaaii? c aieo io?eioaa/a, — aiae.
Selective matching grant.

Athaeaeaoia noaneae?y — oea a?ioiaa aeiiiiiaa, ui iiaea?oueny
aeuanoiyuei athaeaeaoii i?noeaaei c iaoith caaacia/aiiy ieie ?aae?caoe??
eiie?aoieo oe?eae, aea aac iaiao?aeiino? aeeaaeaiiy eioo?a c aieo
io?eioaa/a. I?e iaoe?eueiaiio aeei?enoaii? eiooe i?aeeyaathoue
iiaa?iaiith. Ca?aeii c i?aeia?iaeia aeciaiith oa?i?iieia??th oea ?
ca’ycaiee, aai niaoe?aeueiee, aai oiiaiee o?ainoa?o (a?aio), ui ia
aeiaaa? o/ano? o o?iainoaaii? c aieo io?eioaa/a.

Aeai? aeua aecia/aiiy ca ci?noii iieeaaeai? iaie a iniiao eeaneo?eaoe??
IAO o ca?oa?aeieo e?a?iao. Iaiiaea “ca ci?noii” ia? ooo i?eioeeiiaa
cia/aiiy, ine?eueee a ??cieo e?a?iao iaeei ? oie aea aeae IAO iiaea
iaceaaoeny ii-??ciiio. Oae, o aeayeeo e?a?iao athaeaeaoi? aeioaoe??
neeaaeathoueny c e?eueeio ??cieo o?ainoa?o?a, ui iaaeathoueny ca iaaieo
oiia i?noeaaei eieaeoeaai: o ?in?? — oea athaeaeaoia aeioaoe?y,
oaaea?aeueiee o?ainoa?o; o O?aioe?? — aeiaaeueia aeioaoe?y ia
ooieoe?iioaaiiy, aeioaoe?y ia eiiiainaoe?th iiaeaoeiaeo i?euea oa
cieaeaiiy noaaie iiiaeaoeoaaiiy, oiiae eiiiainaoe?? IAeA. O aeayeeo
e?a?iao — oea iaeei o?ainoa?o, yeee, i?aaaea, iiaea iaceaaoeny
ii-??ciiio: o O?I — aeiaeaoeia? aeioaoe?? aeey caiaeue oa eeth/ia?
aeioaoe?? aeey eiioi; o Iieueu? — aaia?aeueia noaaaioe?y; o Oaaoe?? —
iaca’ycaia noaneae?y; o Eaoa?? — athaeaeaoia noaneae?y; o Eeoa? —
aeioaoe?y. Ui noino?oueny Oe?a?ie, oi ooo aei inoaiiueiai /ano a ia?ao
aoa eeoa iaeei oa?i?i — “athaeaeaoi? noaaaioe??”, yeei (ca ci?noii)
iaceaaee athaeaeaoi? aeioaoe??; c 1996 ?. a?i aoa cai?iaiee ia a?eueo
aaeaeaaoiee, ia iao iiaeyae, oa?i?i — athaeaeaoia aeioaoe?y.

Oaea ae ?icia?ooy oa?aeoa?ia ? aeey noaneae?e: o O?I ?o iaceaathoue
“aeiiiiiaa”, “aeioaoe?y”; o O?aioe?? — niaoe?aeuei? noaaaioe??,
aeiaaeueia aeioaoe?y ia onoaoeoaaiiy; a Iieueu? — niaoe?aeuei? aeioaoe??
(ia naiino?eii ?ic?iaeai? ai?iaie i?ia?aie aeaeaoe?a); o Oaaoe?? —
oe?eueia? noaneae??.

Athaeaeaoi? noaaaioe?? aenooiathoue o ?in?? i?ae oe??th iacaith; o O?I —
oe?eueia? aeioaoe?? aeey eiioi; o O?aioe?? — aeiaaeueia aeioaoe?y ia
aeaoeaio?ae?caoe?th; o Iieueu? — niaoe?aeuei? aeioaoe?? (ia caoiaee ai?i
ca?aeii ?c caeiiiaeaanoaii oa ia?aaeaieie a?ae aea?aeaae caaaeaiiyie); o
Eaoa?? — athaeaeaoe; a?aioe; o Eeoa? — niaoe?aeuei? noaneae??.

Eeaneo?eaoe?y ca ci?noii iniiaieo aeae?a IAO, ui i?aeoeeothoueny o
??cieo e?a?iao, iiaeaia a oaaeeoe? 18.

Oaaeeoey 18. Oa?i?iieia?/ia ioi?ieaiiy IAO o ??cieo e?a?iao

E?a?ia Athaeaeaoia aeioaoe?y Athaeaeaoia noaneae?y Athaeaeaoia
noaaaioe?y

?in?y Athaeaeaoia aeioaoe?y Oaaea?aeueiee o?ainoa?o *eno?
aca?ii?ic?aooiee Athaeaeaoia noaaaioe?y

O?I caie?

eiioie Aeiaeaoeia? aeioaoe??

Eeth/ia? aeioaoe??. Aeiiiiiaa ia ?iaanoeoe?? Aeioaoe?? ia aeeiiaiiy
ni?eueieo caaaeaiue No?oeoo?iee oiiae

Aeiiiiiaa ia ?iaanoeoe?? Aeioaoe?? ia ianeoaiaoaaiiy ai?ao No?oeoo?iee
oiiae

Oe?eueia? aeioaoe??

O?aioe?y Aeiaaeueia aeioaoe?y ia ooieoe?iioaaiiy Aeioaoe?y ia
eiiiainaoe?th iiaeaoeiaeo i?euea oa cieaeie iiaeaoe?a Oiiae eiiiainaoe??
IAeA Aeiaaeueia aeioaoe?y ia onoaoeoaaiiy Niaoe?aeuei? noaaaioe?? .
Aeiaaeueia aeioaoe?y ia aeaoeaio?ae?caoe?th

Iieueua Noaaaioe?y aaia?aeueia Aeioaoe?? ia naiino?eii ?ic?iaeai?
i?ia?aie aeaeaoe?a Aeioaoe?? ia caaaeaiiy ca?aeii ?c caeiiiaeaanoaii
Aeioaoe?? ia aeeiiaiiy ia?aaeaieo aea?aeaaith caaaeaiue

Oaaoe?y Iaca’ycaia noaneae?y Oe?eueia? noaneae??

Eaoa?y Athaeaeaoi? noaneae?? Noaneae?? c oiiaeo ae??aithaaiiy

Athaeaeaoi? a?aioe

A?aioe c oiiaeo ae??aithaaiiy

Eeoaa Aeioaoe??

Niaoe?aeuei? noaneae??

Oe?a?ia Athaeaeaoi? aeioaoe??

Ne?ae cacia/eoe, ui a caeiiiaeaanoa? ?icaeyiooeo e?a?i ia aea?oueny
?icai?iooiai aecia/aiiy eiaeiiai c aeae?a i?aeoeeiaaieo IAO, a
aeaco?oueny eeoa oa, c yeith iaoith iiaea?oueny ineiee aeae aeiiiiiae.
Oae, a?aeiinii aeiaeaoeiaeo aeioaoe?e ia caie? O?I iaienaii:
“Oaaea?aoe?y ca ?aooiie nai?o eioo?a iaaea? neaaeei o o?iainiaiio
a?aeiioaii? caieyi aeioaoe?? aeey aeiaeaoeiaiai iie?eooy ?o caaaeueieo
o?iainiaeo iio?aa a Aaei?i?no?aoeaiiio eiaeaen? O?aioe?? i?i aeiaaeueio
aeioaoe?th ia aeaoeaio?ae?caoe?th neacaii eeoa oa, ui aiia iaaea?oueny
aeey eiiiainaoe?? aeo?ao i?e ia?aaea/? iiaiiaaaeaiue caa?oo aiec, yeui
aeaeaoee ia eiiiainothoueny ia?aaea/ath iiaeaoe?a oiui. Eiie?aoi?
aeaiaioe iaoai?cio iaaeaiiy IAO aecia/athoueny aai niaoe?aeueieie
caeiiaie, aai iae/ano?oa ?ino?oeoeaieie iaoa??aeaie I?i?noa?noaa
o?iain?a. Oae, o O?aioe?? ui??/ii aeaea?oueny “Athaeaeaoiee ioo?aiee
aeey eiioi, aeaia?oaiaio?a oa ?aa?ii?a”, a yeiio o?enothoueny oiiae
iaaeaiiy IAO o iioi/iiio o?iainiaiio ?ioe? oa ?iciiae?e ?o caaaeueii?
noie ca?aeii ?c Caeiiii i?i athaeaeao. Naia oeei .iiaeia iiynieoe oa, ui
a aeayeeo e?a?iao IAO, ye? ca ci?noii iathoue aooe a?aeianai? aei ??cieo
aeae?a, iathoue iaeio e oo naio iacao (o O?aioe?? ? O?I oaeith iacaith ?
aeioaoe??, o Oaaoe??— noaneae?? ? o.ae.). Oiaoi oe? iiiyooy
aeei?enoiaothoueny ca?aeii ?c o?aaeeoe?eiei ci?noii, ui a ieo
aeeaaea?oueny; ?iaeoa eaaeo/e, i?eioeeiiai aaaeeeaith ? ia iacaa IAO, a
noa?a eiai aeei?enoaiiy oa iaoai?ci iaaeaiiy.

?A?IIAENUeEEE AeINA?Ae IAAeAIIss I?NOeAAEI ATHAeAEAOAI O?AINOA?O?A C
AeA?AEAAIIAI ATHAeAEAOO

A on?o c i?iaiae?ciaaieo e?a?i ?niothoue iaai? nenoaie aa?oeeaeueieo
athaeaeaoieo o?ainoa?o?a, ui ? caaa?oaeueiith eaieith i?aeathaeaeaoieo
o?iainiaeo a?aeiinei. Aiie iieeeeai? caaacia/eoe ii?iaeueia
ooieoe?iioaaiiy i?noeaaeo eieaeoea?a ? aeiiiaieoe oae? ?o aeaiaioe, ye
i?noeaa? iiaeaoee ? cai?e, o/anoue o caaaeueiiiaoe?iiaeueieo iiaeaoeao.
O aeayeeo e?a?iao nenoaia IAO aeiiiaith?oueny ai?eciioaeueieie
o?ainoa?oaie, ui oa?aeoa?ecothoue a?aeiineie i?ae athaeaeaoaie iaeiiai
??aiy. Oae? nenoaie ai?eciioaeueiiai ae??aithaaiiy ?niothoue ianaiia?aae
o ?icaeiooeo e?a?iao (aeea. oaae.22).

sseei aeiiaai ia? a?aeiia?aeaoe iioeiaeueia nenoaia IAO? A iaei?e c
ioae?eaoe?e Na?oiaiai aaieo cacia/aii, ui aiia ia?:

— a?aoiaoaaoe a?aei?iiino? o o?iainiaeo iio?aaao oa?eoi??e ca oiia /?oei
aecia/aii? noa?e ?o a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?;

— eiiiainoaaoe a?aei?iiino? i?ae o?yaeaie iaeiiai ??aiy uiaei
iioaioe?eii? iiaeeeaino? o?iainoaaoe aeaeaoee:

— noai?thaaoe noeioee aeey c?inoaiiy nooiaiy aeei?enoaiiy i?noeaaeie
i?aaiaie aeaniiai aeioiaeiiai iioaioe?aeo;

— aooe noaa?eueiith, ia?aaeaa/oaaiith, a?aeiia?aeaoe aeeiai?oe? iio?aa
oa?eoi??e;

— ia caioi/oaaoe ia?iio?aonoai noni?eueieo eioo?a. O oe?eiio a
aeine?aeaeoaaieo e?a?iao IAO noaiiaeyoue aeineoue aaaiio /anoeo
aeioiae?a i?noeaaeo athaeaeao?a. I?e/iio; ye aeaeii c oaaeeoe? 21,
aaaii?oa /anoea IAO — o e?a?iao oi?oa?iiai oeio (iniaeeai O?aioe?y,
Iieueua, Eaoa?y), oiae? ye o oaaea?aoeaieo (O?I; ?in?y) -” aiia ieae/a.
Oea iioaa?aeaeo? aeniiaie, c?iaeaiee ua o 70-o? ?iee o aeiiia?ae? uiaei
e?a?i c ?icaeiooith ?eieiaith aeiiii?eith Iae-Aeoaeanii Eii?n??
?a?iiaenueeiai Ni?aoiaa?enoaa: ??aaiue ia?a?iciiae?eo i?ae ?aa?iiaie a
oi?oa?ieo aea?aeaaao aeuee, i?ae o oaaea?aoeaieo’.

sseui acyoe ca aeo?aeiee i?aeo?ae aei eeaneo?eaoe?? IAO uiaei ?o
aeaea?ae, iaoai?ci?a ?iciiae?eo oa nooiaiy naiaiaee aeei?enoaiiy, ui
i?aeoeeo?oueny oao?aoeyie c i?noeaaeo o?iain?a, oi aiae?c iaoa??ae?a
noiniaii aeine?aeaeoaaieo e?a?i aeicaiey? c’ynoaaoe iaea?eueo caaaeuei?
iniaeeaino? nenoaie IAO ye oaei?.

Oi?ioaaiiy oiiaeo IAO iiaea cae?enithaaoeny ye:

a) /anoeia? a?ae?aooaaiiy a?e iaeiiai aai aeayeeo iiaeaoe?a, ui
iaaeoiaeyoue aei aea?aeathaeaeaoo;

a) ui??/i? aneaioaaiiy aea?aeathaeaeaoo;

a) ianya aeaeaoe?a i?noeaaeo eieaeoea?a.

Iaeyae aeaea?ae oiiaeo IAO iiaeaiee o oaaeeoe?

Oaaeeoey 19. Aeaea?aea oiiaeo IAO o ??cieo e?a?iao

E?a?ia Aeaee IAO Aeaea?aea IAO

O?I Aeiaeaoeia? aeioaoe??

Aeiiiiiaa ia ?iaanoeoe??

Aeioaoe?? ia aeeiiaiiy ni?eueieo caaaeaiue No?oeoo?iee oiiae 2% noie
IAeA, niea/o?oueny c oaaea?aeueii? /anoee

Caeaaeii a?ae i?noeaaeo aeaeaoe?a

?in?y Athaeaeaoia aeioaoe?y

Athaeaeaoi? noaaaioe??

Oaaea?aeueiee o?ainoa?o

*eno? aca?ii?ic?aooiee Athaeaeaoi? aneaioaaiiy 15% iaaeoiaeaeaiue aei
aea?aeathaeaeaoo Caeaaeii a?ae i?noeaaeo aeaeaoe?a

O?aioe?y Aeiaaeueia aeioaoe?y ia ooieoe?iioaaiiy Aeioaoe?? ia
eiiiainaoe?th iiaeaoeiaeo i?euea Aeiaaeueia aeioaoe?y ia
aeaoeaio?ae?caoe?th Aeiaaeueia aeioaoe?y ia onoaoeoaaiiy Eiiiainaoe?y
IAeA Niaoe?aeuei? noaaaioe?? Ui??/ii ?iaeaeniaaia /anoea IAeA
Athaeaeaoi? aneaioaaiiy, /anoea iiaeaoeo ia i?eaooie

Caeaaeii a?ae i?noeaaeo aeaeaoe?a „ *anoea IAeA Athaeaeaoi? aneaioaaiiy;
caeaaeii a?e i?noeaaeo aeaeaoe?a

Oaaoe?y Iaca’ycai? noaneae?? Oe?eueia? noaneae?? Athaeaeaoi? aneaioaaiiy

Ca?aeii c i?noeaaeie aeaeaoeaie

Iieueua Caaaeuei? noaaaioe?? Oe?eueia? aeioaoe?? *anoea aei athaeaeaoieo
aeaeaoe?a aea?aeaae

Athaeaeaoi? aneaioaaiiy; caeaaeii a?ae i?noeaaeo aeaeaoe?a

Eaoa?y Athaeaeaoi? noaneae??

Noaneae?? c oiiaeo ae??aithaaiiy

Oe?eueia? a?aioe Athaeaeaoi? aneaioaaiiy

*anoea i?eaooeiaiai iiaeaoeo Athaeaeaoi? aneaioaaiiy

Eeoaa Athaeaeaoi? aeioaoe??

Niaoe?aeuei? noaneae?? Athaeaeaoi? aneaioaaiiy

Oe?a?ia Athaeaeaoi? aeioaoe?? Athaeaeaoi? aneaioaaiiy

Caaaeii aaaaea?oueny, ui iaenoaa?euei?oith /anoeiith IAO ? o?, aeaea?aei
yeeo i?ea’ycaia aei aeioiae?a athaeaeaoo, oi/ iiaii? noaa?eueiino? oaeee
i?aeo?ae ia aea?. Ia iao iiaeyae, iaea?eueoo noaa?euei?noue c iaeyaeo ia
aeaea?aei iathoue aeioaoe?? o O?aioe?? (AAeO). O e?a?iao ?c noaa?eueiith
aeiiii?eith IAO, ui iathoue i?e?iaeo athaeaeaoieo aeioaoe?e,
o?iainothoueny naia c oaeiai aeaea?aea (O?I, O?aioe?y, Iieueua). Oaeiai
i?aeoiaeo iaiaaathoueny aeio?eioaaoeny e o ?in??. Ui noino?oueny
ca’ycaieo IAO, oi iaea?eueo i?aeoiaeyuei aeey ieo aeaea?aeii ? aeaeaoee
athaeaeaoo caeaaeii a?ae ianyao i?noeaaeo aeaeaoe?a. sse aa/eii, e?a?ie
c o?ainoi?iaoe?eiith aeiiii?eith (Eaoa?y, Eeoaa, Oe?a?ia) ia a ciic?
caaacia/eoe noaa?eueiiai aeaea?aea IAO, a oiio a?aeaeathoue ia?aaaao
athaeaeaoiei aneaioaaiiyi, ianya yeeo caeaaeeoue a?ae iiaeeeainoae
athaeaeaoo oa iie?oe/iiai oaeoi?a.

Na?oiaa i?aeoeea aeae?ey? oae? iaoiaee ?iciiae?eo IAO:

a) i?iii?oe?eii o?iainia?e nee? (aeioiaeai) i?noeaaiai eieaeoeao;

a) aaaaoioaeoi?ia oi?ioea;

a) eiiiainaoe?y oaeoe/ieo aeaeaoe?a i?noeaaeo eieaeoea?a

a) ye /anoeia ??/iiai athaeaeaoo i?noeaaiai eieaeoeao. Aeey ?iciiae?eo
athaeaeaoieo aeioaoe?e iae/ano?oa canoiniaothoueny ae?oaee oa /aoaa?oee
iaoiaee; aeey ca’ycaieo IAO — ia?oee oa o?ao?e. Iaeyae iaoiae?a
?iciiae?eo athaeaeaoieo aeioaoe?e, yeee i?aeoeeo?oueny o ??cieo e?a?iao,
iiaeaii a oaaeeoe? 20.

Oaaeeoey 20. Iaoiaee ?iciiae?eo athaeaeaoieo aeioaoe?e

E?a?ia Aeaee aeioaoe?e Iaoiaee ?iciiae?eo

O?I Aeiaeaoeia? aeioaoe?? *anoeia ??/iiai athaeaeaoo — o ?ici??? noi,
iaiao?aeieo aeey aeiaaaeaiiy aeioiaeii? aace aei na?aaeiueiai ??aiy, oa
ye o?eniaai? noie

?in?y Athaeaeaoia aeioaoe?y Oaaea?aeueiee o?ainoa?o *anoeia ??/iiai
athaeaeaoo Oi?ioea

O?aioe?y Aaia?aeueia aeioaoe?y ia ooieoe?iioaaiiy

Aeioaoe?y ia eiiiainaoe?th iiaeaoeiaeo i?euea

Oiiae eiiiainaoe?? IAeA Oi?ioea

Ca?aeii c oaeoe/iei ?ici??ii ao?ao (eiiiainaoe?y)

Eiiiainaoe?y /anoeie aeaeaoe?a ia eai?oaeiaeeaaeaiiy

Iieueua Noaaaioe?y aaia?aeueia Oi?ioea

Oaaoe?y Iaca’ycaia noaneae?y Oi?ioea

Eaoa?y Athaeaeaoi? noaneae??

Noaneae?? c oiiaeo ae??aithaaiiy Oi?ioea

Oi?ioea

Eeoaa Aeioaoe?? *anoeia ??/iiai athaeaeaoo

Oe?a?ia Athaeaeaoi? aeioaoe?? *anoeia ??/iiai athaeaeaoo

sse aeaeii c oaaeeoe? 20, i?e ?iciiae?e? aeioaoe?e a?eueo?noue e?a?i
iaaea? ia?aaaao oi?ioeai, ine?eueee aiie aeathoue ciiao a?eueo
ia’?eoeaii ioe?ieoe iio?aao i?noeaaiai athaeaeaoo a oeaio?ae?ciaai?e
i?aeo?eioe?. Iaeiae naia ii nia? oi?ioea ua ia ae??oo? i?iaeaie,
ine?eueee aeoaea aaaeeeaee iaa?? e?eoa???a, a?aoiaaieo o i?e, oa
cia/aiiy ?o aaae. Ca aeiyoeii O?aioe?? oa Oaaoe?? a on?o e?a?iao iaei ia
ui??/ii a?aeaoaa?oueny ia?aaeyae oa ooi/iaiiy oi?ioe. I?ioa o O?aioe??
oa Oaaoe?? oi/aoueny aeaaa? noia?a/ee a?aeiinii i?aaii??iino? aeeth/aiiy
o oi?ioeo iaaieo iieaciee?a.

Nooi?iue naiaiaee i?noeaaeo i?aai?a aeaaee o aeei?enoaii? aa?oeeaeueieo
o?ainoa?o?a aecia/a?oueny ni?aa?aeiioaiiyi i?ae ca’ycaieie IAO
(noaaaioe?? oa noaneae??) oa iaca’ycaieie. *ei ?noioi?oa /anoea
athaeaeaoieo aeioaoe?e o IAO — oei a?eueoo naiaiaeo iathoue i?noeaa?
eieaeoeae. Aeoaea /anoi ii?yae c ia’?eoeaieie /eiieeaie iaeaaaii?oeie
ooo aeyaeythoueny iie?oe/i?, a naia: iaiaaaiiy oeaio?o caaacia/eoe nia?
eiyeuei?noue ?aa?ii?a. Oae, o ?in?? oea aeyaeeinue o ??ceiio c?inoaii?
/anoee iaca’ycaieo o?ainoa?o?a. Oaea ae ea?oeia — o Oaaoe??, oi/a ooo
ia?oo ?ieue a?ae?a?aee aeiiii?/i? oaeoi?e. sse aeaeii c oaaeeoe? 21, o
e?a?iao ?c noaa?eueiith aeiiii?eith oa ?icaeiooeie o?aaeeoe?yie
naiia?yaeoaaiiy naia athaeaeaoi? aeioaoe?? a?ae?a?athoue aieiaio ?ieue
(O?I, O?aioe?y, Oaaoe?y), oiae? ye o e?a?iao, ui o?ainoi?iothoueny,
iae/ano?oa — ca’ycai? o?ainoa?oe (Iieueua, Eaoa?y, aei inoaiiueiai /ano
?in?y). Caaaeii i?i iioeiaeueia ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?ae oi?iaie IAO iaa?yae
/e iiaeia aiai?eoe. I?i iioei?caoe?th iiaea eoeny eeoa a ie?ai?e e?a?i?,
oi/a oaiaeaioe?y aei aeiaae?caoe?? IAO o na?o? ?nio?.

Oaaeeoey 21. Ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ??cieo aeae?a IAO (o % aei aeioiae?a
i?noeaaeo eieaeoea?a)

E?a?ia Onueiai IAO O oiio /ene?

Aeioaoe?? Noaaaioe?? oa Noaneae??

O?I caie? eiioie 8,1

41,6 1,4

31,0 6,7

10,6

?in?y 20,1 2,4 17,7

O?aioe?y 23,0 15,3 7,7

Oaaoe?y ioi?oeeiae?oaoe eaie 20

17 15,0

11,0 5,0

6,0

Iieueua 29,2 11,9 17,3

Eaoa?y 61,7 9,2 52,5

Eeoaa 8,7 5,7 3,0

Oe?a?ia 3,1 3,1 —

Ne?ae cacia/eoe, ui o aaaaoueio e?a?iao athaeaeaoi? aeioaoe??
canoiniaothoueny ye ?ino?oiaio o?iainiaiai ae??aithaaiiy, oi/a inoaii?
iiaea cae?enithaaoeny ? aaciina?aaeiuei i?ae oa?eoi??aeueieie
eieaeoeaaie. Iaea?eueoiai ??aiy ?icaoaeiae oeeo ?ino?oiaio?a iinyaee o
O?I oa Oaaoe??.

Oaaeeoey 22. Iayai?noue niaoe?aeueieo iaoai?ci?a o?iainiaiai
ae??aithaaiiy

na?aae i?noeaaeo eieaeoea?a

E?a?ia Ca ?aooiie IAO Ca ?aooiie ai?eciioaeueiiai ia?a?iciiae?eo

O?I Aeiaeaoeia? aeioaoe?? Ai?eciioaeuei? o?ainoa?oe

?in?y Oiiae i?aeo?eiee ?aa?ii?a —

O?aioe?y Aeioaoe?y ??aiii??iiai ?iciiae?eo Oiiae nie?aea?iino?
oa?eoi??aeueieo eieaeoea?a

Oaaoe?y Aa?aioiaaia aeioiaeia aaca I?aeioi?oeeiaeuei? ae??aithaaeuei?
ieaoaae?

Iieueua Noaaaioe?y ia ae??aithaaiiy

Eaoa?y Oiiae ae??aithaaiiy Oiiae aca?iii? aeiiiiiae

Eeoaa

Oe?a?ia – —

Aoaeoeai?noue ooieoe?iioaaiiy nenoaie IAO a ie?aieo e?a?iao i?yii
iia’ycaia ?c nooiaiai aeineiiaeino? oa onoaeaiino? ii?iaoeaii? aace, ui
?o ?aaoeththoue. ??aaiue ii?iaoeaii? cae??ieaiino? IAO o
aeine?aeaeoaaieo e?a?iao aeoaea a?ae??ciy?oueny. Na?aae e?a?i ?c
noi?iiaaiith ii?iaoeaiith aacith, yea ia?aaeyaea?oueny aeoaea ??aeei,
iiaeia a?aecia/eoe O?I, O?aioe?th, Oaaoe?th. Oae, o O?I aecia/aiiy
iniiaieo aeae?» IAO caieyi cae??ieai? a Iniiaiiio Caeii? (oae caaia
O?iainiaa eiinoeoooe?y). Iaoai?ci iaaeaiiy IAO aecia/a?oueny
niaoe?aeueieie caeiiaie (“I?i ae??aithaaiiy ??cii? aeiiii?/ii? neee
caiaeue”, “I?i o?iainiao aeiiiiiao Oaaea?aoe??…”, caeiiaie i?i ie?ai?
aeaee a?ioiaeo aeieao, a?aeianaieo aei ni?eueii? eiiiaoaioe??). O
O?aioe?? iniiai? aeaee IAO aecia/athoueny niaoe?aeueieie caeiiaie, ye?
caaaeai? a Aaei?i?no?aoeaiee eiaeaen ii i?noeaaiio naiia?yaeoaaiith.
Eiaeaen eiioi oiui.

O e?a?iao, ui ia?aaeeaathoue ia??iae noaiiaeaiiy iiaeo canaae i?noeaaiai
naiia?yaeoaaiiy, caeiiiaeaanoai a?ae??ciy?oueny a?eueoith
??ciiiai?oi?noth, yea, i?ioa, ia iicaaaey? ?o iaiao?aeiino? ii
aeae?eueea ?ac?a ia?aaeyaeaoe iaei? e o? nai? caeiiiaeaa/? aeoe,
iiiiaeai? ca?aeii c iiaeie oiiaaie. A a?eueoino? e?a?i i?eeiyoi caeiie
i?i i?noeaaa naiia?yaeoaaiiy, aea aecia/aii o?iainia? iniiae i?noeaai?
aeaaee ? aeaee IAO, ye? aiie iiaeooue io?eioaaoe; ? oaeiae ? caeiie i?i
i?noeaa? athaeaeaoe, aea aecia/a?oueny aeioiaeia aaca i?noeaaeo
eieaeoea?a, ?o i?aaa ia io?eiaiiy IAO.

Ianya ?ano?n?a aeey IAO o ?ic??c? ?o ie?aieo aeae?a aecia/a?oueny
caeiiaie i?i athaeaeao, ye? i?eeiathoueny ui??/ii. Aiie noai?ththoue
ii?iaoeaio aaco IAO o e?a?iao, aea iiee ui iaia? niaoe?aeueieo caeii?a
uiaei ie?aieo ?o oi?i, aea ?iaeyoue i?ioean ?o iaaeaiiy
iaia?aaeaa/oaaiei oa ianoaa?eueiei, ine?eueee a aaaaoueio c oeeo e?a?i
athaeaeaoe iathoue aaeee? aeao?oeeoe. Oea nei?i/o? o?iainia? ?ano?ne
aeey i?aeo?eiee i?noeaaiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy, a iaaaoeaiee aoaeo
i?aeneeth?oueny caoyaoaaiiyi athaeaeaoieo aeaaao?a, /anoeie ei?aeoe?yie
athaeaeaoieo aeaeaoe?a.

Iaeiae o iinonioe?ae?noe/ieo e?a?iao ?aea ?ioaineaiee i?ioean
caeiiioai?/ino? a oe?e aaeoc?, ? /a?ac iaaiee /an aiie iaoeiooue
aeineoue a?aei?aoeueiaaio ii?iaoeaio aaco iaaeaiiy IAO. Ui noino?oueny
Oe?a?ie, oi ooo ii?iaoeaia aaca iaaeaiiy IAO i?aeoe/ii a?aenooiy. O
aaeoc? caeiiioai?/ino? aeey i?noeaaiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy ie a?aenoaee a?ae
non?aei?o aea?aeaa ia 3—4 ?iee, ui ia iiaei iaaaoeaii ia aieeiooe ia
?icaoaeiao i?noeaaiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy. I?ioa c i?eeiyooyi iiaiai
Iniiaiiai Caeiio iacaeaaeii? Oe?a?ie iaae?y ia i?enei?aiiy ?icaoaeiae
o?iainiaeo a?aeiinei i?ae ??cieie ??aiyie aea?aeaae, aeeth/ath/e ? IAO,
?noioii c?inoa?, oi/a, ia iao iiaeyae, ?o canaaee noi?ioeueiaai?
caiaaeoi caaaeueii, a oiio i?aeeyaathoue eiie?aoecaoe?? o niaoe?aeueiiio
caeiiiaeaanoa?.

AENIIAEE ?C NA?OIAIAI AeINA?AeO AeEss OE?A?IE

Noai IAO a Oe?a?i? iiaea aooe ioa?aeoa?eciaaiee oae: ~ ii-ia?oa,
a?aenooi? caeiiiaeaa/a cae??ieaiiy (? iaa?oue aecia/aiiy) iniiaieo
aeae?a aa?oeeaeueieo o?ainoa?o?a, ia c’yniaai? iaoai?cie iaaeaiiy IAO.
?c aeae?a IAO, ia ye? ca?aeii c athaeaeaoiei caeiiiaeaanoaii iathoue
i?aaa i?noeaa? eieaeoeae, i?aeoeeo?oueny eeoa iaeei — athaeaeaoi?
aeioaoe?? (aei 1996 ?. ?o aaci?aenoaaii iaceaaee athaeaeaoieie
noaaaioe?yie);

— ii-ae?oaa, /anoea IAO ii??aiyii ?c aeine?aeaeoaaieie e?a?iaie,
aeeth/ath/e e o?, eio?? ia?aaeeaathoue iinonioe?ae?noe/io eaieo
onoaeaieo a?aeiinei, iaaecae/aeii iaea uiaei caaaeueii? noie aeioiae?a
i?noeaaeo athaeaeao?a, ui na?ae/eoue i?i oaeoe/io ia?icaeioo?noue
iaoai?cio IAO ye oaeiai;

— ii-o?ao?, ia ?ic?iaeai? ii?iaoeai? canaaee ?iciiae?eo IAO, yeee
cae?enith?oueny ca i?eioeeiii “a?ae aeinyaiooiai” ? ia noai?th? noeioe?a
aeey aeoeai?oi? aeioiaeii? iie?oeee i?noeaaeo o?yae?a.

C oeueiai, a?aoiaoth/e na?oiaee aeina?ae, iiaeia c?iaeoe oae? aeniiaee:
1. O?aaa noai?thaaoe ii?iaoeaio aaco aeey iaaeaiiy IAO. Aiia ia? /?oe?oa
aecia/eoe eiiiaoaioe?th i?noeaaeo i?aai?a aeaaee oa aea?aeaae,
?iciaaeiaoaaoe aeaea?aea ?o aeioiae?a. Aeioe?eueii aoei a i?eeiyoe
niaoe?aeueiee caeii i?i i?noeaaee athaeaeao, aea aoee a /?oei aecia/ai?
iniiai? aeioiaee e aeaeaoee i?noeaaeo athaeaeao?a, ii?yaeie ?o aeeiiaiiy
oiui, ?aieiaee caeii i?i iniiae iaaeaiiy i?yieo athaeaeaoieo
o?ainoa?o?a. Iiaeeeai, iaiao?aei? e niaoe?aeuei? caeiie, aea aecia/aeiny
a, a yeeo aeiaaeeao ? ye? aeaee IAO iiaeooue io?eioaaoe i?noeaa?
eieaeoeae, yea i?ioeaaeo?a iaaeaiiy ?o, eiio?ieth ca aeei?enoaiiyi oiui.

2. Ne?ae oe?oa aeei?enoiaoaaoe aanue niaeo? aeae?a IAO, ui
i?aeoeeo?oueny o na?o?. E??i athaeaeaoieo aeioaoe?e, iiceoeaia cia/aiiy
ie.– a iaoe canoinoaaiiy ianaiia?aae athaeaeaoieo noaaaioe?e ?c
cae?eoith aeaoith. I?e oeueiio cian?i ia iaia’yceiai oea i?eaaaea aei
ca?eueoaiiy aeaeaoe?a oeaio?ae?ciaaiiai athaeaeaoo, yeui eiooe ia
ia?iaeia ainiiaea?noai, ui i?ioiaeyoue /a?ac i?i?noa?noaa, ia?aaeaoe
/anoeiai ia i?noey ye o?iainiao aaco aeey noaaaioe?e. Oea aeicaieeoue
caaacia/eoe ?o oe?eueiaa aeei?enoaiiy c o?aooaaiiyi i?noeaaeo ?ioa?an?a.
Ia ia?oeo ii?ao ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?ae iaca’ycaieie oa ca’ycaieie IAO
iiaea aooe ia ei?enoue ia?oeo. A i??o i?aeaeuaiiy ae??aino? nenoaie
i?noeaaiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy /anoea athaeaeaoieo aeioaoe?e iinooiiai iiaea
i?aeaeuoaaoeny.

3. Aeaea?aeii athaeaeaoieo aeioaoe?e, ui caeeoaoeiooueny aaaiiei
aeaiaioii IAO, aeioe?eueii c?iaeoe ia athaeaeaoi? aneaioaaiiy, ye oea
i?aeoeeo?oueny iei?, a ioe (iaa??) iaoe?iiaeueieo iiaeaoe?a,
iaaeoiaeaeaiiy a?ae yeeo oa?aeoa?eco?oueny iaea?eueoith noaa?euei?noth —
IAeA oa i?eaooeiaee iiaeaoie c a?iiaaeyi.

4. Na?aae iaoai?ci?a ?iciiae?eo athaeaeaoieo aeioaoe?e ia?aaaao ne?ae
a?aeaeaoe no?oeoo?i?e oi?ioe?, yea a aeeth/aea a naaa eiiiiiaio
ae??aithaaiiy. Ca?aeii c ?aeiiaiaeaoe?yie oao?aoe?a Na?oiaiai aaieo, ia
ia?oiio aoai? (aei 5 ?ie?a) iiaeia iaiaaeeoenue eeoa ae??aithaaiiyi ca
athaeaeaoieie aeioiaeaie, a i?ney iaa?iiaaeaeaiiy aeinoaoiueiai
aeina?aeo ae??aithaaiiy — ae??aithaaiiyi ca athaeaeaoieie aeaeaoeaie, ui
ia? cae?enithaaoeny oaeiae ia ii?iaoeai?e iniia?. Iniiai? eiiiiiaioe
oi?ioee, ?o aaae iiaeii? aooe i?aaeiaoii ui??/ieo ooi/iaiue, ye? iathoue
i?iaiaeeoe I?i?noa?noai o?iain?a c ?aaeith ?aa?ii?a (ia ??ai? iaeanoae —
o?iainiaa oi?aae?iiy oa anioe?aoe?? i?noeaaeo ?aae). Oea iaiao?aeii
oiio, ui nioe?aeueia-aeiiii?/ia neooaoe?y a e?a?i? o oe?eiio oa a
ie?aieo ?aa?iiao iiaea ci?ithaaoeny aeoaea oaeaeei.

5. Iaoai?ci ai?eciioaeueiiai ae??aithaaiiy, ia iao iiaeyae, iiee ui
aaiaeeoe iaaeioe?eueii aiane?aeie aaniethoii? iaaeinoaoiino? o?iainiaeo
?ano?n?a iaa?oue o ?icaeiooeo ?aa?iiao. Oaeee iaoai?ci ne?ae aaiaeeoe a
ae?th i?ney a?eueo-iaio .o?eaaeiai ia??iaeo noaa?e?caoe?? aeiiii?ee
e?a?ie. E??i oiai, i?ae?aa?iiaeueiee ia?a?iciiae?e iiaea aeeeeeaoe o
aeaiee iiiaio ? iaaaaeai? iie?oe/i? iane?aeee /a?ac iaaaeiaieaiiy ae?oe
?aa?ii?a, ye? iathoue ?iaeoe, aei ieo aianee.

O?NEAEUeIA IIE?OEEA: IAIAO?AeI?NOUe CAAEAINIAAIIAI ATHAeAEAOO

I?ae o?neaeueiith iie?oeeith ?icoi??ii i?ioean ci?i o nenoai?
iiiaeaoeoaaiiy oa o?yaeiaeo aeaeaoeao. Aeey oiai, uia : a) ciaioeoe
eieeaaiiy ae?eiaeo oeeee?a a) ni?eyoe oaeaeeiio c?inoaiith aeiiii?ee c
aenieith caeiyo?noth oa aac aeniei? iaeiio?ieueiaaii? ?ioeyoe??.

Aino?a aeeneon?y iaaeiei ieoaiue o?neaeueii? iie?oeee a Oe?a?i? aaaaoi a
/iio iaaaaeo? iiae?aio neooaoe?th a e?a?iao Eaoeinueei? Aia?eee
iai?ee?ioe? 1980-o ??., eiee iac??e? ci?ie — nei?i/aiiy aeao?oeeoo
athaeaeaoo, aii?yaeeoaaiiy o?yaeiaeo aeaeaoe?a, iiaeaoeiaa ?aoi?ia —
ni?eeiaeeny iaiaeiicia/ii, a ?ioeyoe?eia ?ia?oe?y oa ianiaa ooeeyiiy
a?ae nieaoe iiaeaoe?a oneeaaeithaaee aoaeue-ye? i?aeoe/i? e?iee. I?ioean
?aaeeeaeueiiai ?aoi?ioaaiiy aeiiii?e eaoeiiaia?eeainueeeo e?a?i
na?ae/eoue: 1) aac aeinyaiaiiy caaeainiaaiiai athaeaeaoo iaiiaeeeai
caaacia/eoe o?eaaeo iae?iaeiiii?/io noaa?e?caoe?th, 2) i?e nei?i/aii?
aeao?oeeoo athaeaeaoo i?iaaaeaiith iiaeaoeiai? ?aoi?ie iiaeiii
ia?aaeoaaoe aii?yaeeoaaiiy o?yaeiaeo aeaeaoe?a, 3) cieaeaiiy noaaie
iiiaeaoeoaaiiy ni?ey? c?inoaiith athaeaeaoieo iaaeoiaeaeaiue ca oiia
?icoe?aiiy iiaeaoeiai? aace oa iineeaiiy a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ca ooeeyiiy
a?ae nieaoe iiaeaoe?a.

1 Ia?aaaae caaeainiaaiiai athaeaeaoo Iae?iaeiiii?/i? iieacieee /ioe?ueio
iaea?eueoeo e?a?i Eaoeinueei? Aia?eee — A?aaioeie, A?acee??, Iaeneee oa
*ee? — ia?aeiiothoue o ni?aaaaeeeaino? a?aeiieo oai?aoe/ieo a?aoiaio?a
ia ei?enoue caaeainiaaiiai athaeaeaoo: i?eieiaiiy ?ioeyoe??, ca?eueoaiiy
i?eaaoieo ?iaanoeoe?e, iie?ioaiiy naeueaei iioi/iiai ?aooiea,
i?enei?aiiy oaii?a aeiiii?/iiai c?inoaiiy (oaaeeoey 23).

?noioia nei?i/aiiy aai (ua e?aua) aeinyaiaiiy aeiaeaoiiai naeueaei
athaeaeaoo ia eeoa iaiaaeo? iio?aao a ai?n?eieo e?aaeeoao oeaio?aeueiiai
aaieo, a e oi?io? niiae?aaiiy oe?iiai? oa a?ioiai? noaa?eueiino?
(?acoeueoao, iaiao?aeiee aeey iiaeieaiiy ?ioeyoe?eii? ?ia?oe??).
Aaaeeeai caoaaaeeoe, ui ?nio? ? cai?ioiee ca’ycie — aaeueioaaiiy
?ioeyoe?? ca?eueoo? iaaeoiaeaeaiiy aei athaeaeaoo (aoaeo Ie?aa?e —
Oaic?). Caaaeii oea aea? ciiao cieceoe i?ioeaioi? noaaee. A A?aaioei?
aeeiai?ea i?ioeaioieo noaaie iaeaea ?aeaaeueii iiaoi?th? ci?ie a noai?
athaeaeaoo: yeui a 1991 — 1993 ??. iie?ioaiiy naeueaei athaeaeaoo iaei
iane?aeeii no??iea cieaeaiiy i?ioeaioieo noaaie, oi a 1994 — 1995 ??.
aeayea iia??oaiiy oeueiai iieacieea ii?aeio?oueny ?c aeueie i?ioeaioieie
noaaeaie, iaa?oue iacaaaeath/e ia iiaeaeueoa cieaeaiiy ?ioeyoe??. O
Iaeneoe? ?aae?? caaeainiaaiiai athaeaeaoo ni?eyee iaeii/aniiio
cieaeaiith ?ioeyoe?? oa i?ioeaioieo noaaie i?ioyaii 1990 — 1993 ??.,
iaeiae aeniain?eia iie?oeea c ii/aoeo 1994 ?. (o na?ii? oeueiai ?ieo
a?aeaoaaeeny i?aceaeaionuee? aeai?e) ni?e/eieea no??iea iaae?iiy
iaeneeainueeiai iani, iiiiaeaiiy ?ioeyoe?? oa c?inoaiiy i?ioeaioieo
noaaie o ianooiiiio, 1995 ?.

O A?acee?? ca’ycie i?ae naeueaei athaeaeaoo, ?ioeyoe??th oa i?ioeaioieie
noaaeaie ia oaeee i?iiiaenoee, iaeiae aecia/aeueio ?ieue o?neaeueii?
?ano?eeoe?? a oni?oiiio i?iaaaeaii? aioe?ioeyoe?eiiai ieaio “Real”
(eeiaiue 1994 ?.) aaaeei caia?a/eoe. O ieioeiio a oe?e e?a?i? ia ?ac
aeyaeyeiny, ui iaa?oue aec-

Oaaeeoey 23. Iae?iaeiiii?/i? iieacieee e?a?i Eaoeinueei? Aia?eee (o %),

1990 -1995 ??.

E?a?ia Iieaciee 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995

Naeueaei athaeaeaoo -0,4 -1,3 0,4 1,2 -0,1 -0,5

?ioeyoe?y

72,0 24,6 10,6 4,3 3,3

I?ioeaioi? noaaee

71,0 15,0 6,0 8,0 11,0

A?aaioeia ?iaanoeoe?? 14,0 14,6 16,7 18,2 19,2 17,8

C?inoaiiy AAI 0,1 8,9 8,7 6,0 7,4 -0,7

Iioi/iee ?aooiie 6,6 -0,4 -2,9 -2,9 -3,6 -8,8

Naeueaei athaeaeaoo -6,2 -0,5 -3,9 0,3 1,3 -5,0

A?acee?y ?ioeyoe?y

459,0 1229,0 2491,0 941,0 23,2

I?ioeaioi? noaaee 1082,8 2494,3 1489,0 5756,8 56,4 39,0

?iaanoeoe?? 22,9 19,3 19,5 20,0 20,8

C?inoaiiy AAI -4,6 0,3 -0,8 4,2 5,8 4,2

Iioi/iee ?aooiie

-2,5 0,1 0 -0,3

Iaeneea Naeueaei athaeaeaoo -2,8 -0,2 1,5 0,4 -0,8 -0,7

?ioeyoe?y 26,5 22,7 15,5 9,7 6,9 35,0

I?ioeaioi? noaaee 37,4 23,6 18,9 17,4 16,5 50,5

?iaanoeoe?? 22,8 23,4 24,4 23,2 23,5 19,4

C?inoaiiy AAI 4,5 3,6 2,8 0,7 3,5 -6,9

Iioi/iee ?aooiie -1,1 -1,7 -2,4 -2,0 -2,3 0,0

*ee? Naeueaei athaeaeaoo 0,8 1,2 2,2 1,9 1,6 2,6

?ioeyoe?y 26,6 22,0 15,6 12,1 12,0 7,9

I?ioeaioi? noaaee 48,8 28,6 23,9 24,3 20,3 18,2

?iaanoeoe?? 26,3 24,5 26,8 26,8 26,8 27,4

C?inoaiiy AAI 3,3 7,3 10,7 6,7 4,2 8,5

Iioi/iee ?aooiie -5,8 0,9 -4,5 -11,4 -2,9 0,6

no?aiaeueii aenie? i?ioeaioi? noaaee iani?iiiaei? i?eai?eaoe ?ioeyoe?th,
yeui i?/iai ia ?iaeeiny aeey nei?i/aiiy aeao?oeeoo athaeaeaoo. I?ei??ii,
a?ae ii/aoeo 1989 ?. ?aaeuei? i?ioeaioi? noaaee aoee aenieeie (ieai
“Verao”), iaeiae cia/iee aeao?oeeo athaeaeaoo (18,6% a?ae AAI) ca?a
iai?aaoeue ai?ioueao c ?ioeyoe??th — o eenoiiaae?—a?oaei? 1989 ?. ??
i?ny/i? oaiie ia?aaeueee 40%. Ioaea, iia??oaiiy naeueaei athaeaeaoo a
1995 ?. iaaaaeo? i?i iiaeeea?noue iiaoi?aiiy iaeneeainueeiai
“noeaia??th”.

Aeina?ae A?aaioeie, A?acee??, Iaeneee oa *ee? ia caia?a/o? aeniiaeo i?i
“i?eai?/oaaiiy” i?eaaoieo ?iaanoeoe?e aeaeaoeaie o?yaeo
(?ino?oiaioaeueia oeae aieea cae?enith?oueny /a?ac iaoai?ci ?aaeueieo
i?ioeaioieo noaaie). A A?aaioei? o 1991 — 1994 ??. ianyae ?iaanoeoe?e
c?inoaee a na?aaeiueiio ia 8% ui??/ii, o iiai?e a?aeiia?aeiino? aei
oni?o?a o aeinyaiaii? caaeainiaaiiai athaeaeaoo. ? iaaiaee, ??aaiue
?iaanoeoe?e cieceany o 1995 ?., ui iiaeia iiynieoe ca?eueoaiiyi
aeao?oeeoo athaeaeaoo. Ia aeiaaeeiai ianooiiiai, 1996 ?. aeinyaiaiiy
caaeainiaaiiai athaeaeaoo ?icaeyaeaeiny ye iniiaiee aeaiaio o?neaeueii?
iie?oeee. O Iaeneoe? eiia?iiaaia ae?y iaa?oue aeineoue iacia/iiai
aeao?oeeoo athaeaeaoo, ?ioeyoe?? oa aenieeo i?ioeaioieo noaaie cieceea
??aaiue ?iaanoeoe?e o 1995 ?. aei ?aei?aeii iecueei? iicia/ee — 19,4%
a?ae AAI (oea ia 5% iaioa, i?ae o 1992 ?., eiee ia?aaeuaiiy aeioiae?a
athaeaeaoo iaae eiai aeaeaoeaie aoei iaei?iiiaeno?oei).

Ca?eueoaiiy ?iaanoeoe?e (1) ?iaeoue iaio i?ici?ei i/?eoaaiee iaaaoeaiee
ca’ycie i?ae aeao?oeeoii athaeaeaoo (G—T) oa naeueaei iioi/iiai ?aooiea
(NE)’:

(S-1)-(G-T)=NA, (1)

aea G — aeaeaoee athaeaeaoo, O — athaeaeaoi? iaaeoiaeaeaiiy, a S —
ianyae caiuaaeaeaiue. C?icoi?ei, ui nei?i/aiiy aeao?oeeoo athaeaeaoo
iie?ioo? naeueaei iioi/iiai ?aooiea, i?eeiath/e iaci?iieie ??ai?
i?eaaoieo caiuaaeaeaiue oa ?iaanoeoe?e. sseui ae ?iaanoeoe??
c?inoathoue, oi ia aeeeth/aii, ui a?aeiia?aeia ca?eueoaiiy ?iii?oo
iniiaieo cania?a, ne?iaeie oa iai?aoaa?eeao?a iia??oeoue naeueaei
iioi/iiai ?aooiea, i?eiaeii? a ei?ioei/aniiio ieai?. C ?ioiai aieo, o
a?aeaeaeai?o?e ia?niaeoea? i?enei?aiiy oaii?a aeiiii?/iiai c?inoaiiy —
eia?/iee iane?aeie c?inoaiiy ianya?a ?iaanoeoe?e — oa iiaeaeueoa
ca?eueoaiiy caiuaaeaeaiue iiaeii? iie?ioeoe naeueaei iioi/iiai ?aooiea.
Naia oaeee ia?aa?a iiae?e niinoa??aa?oueny a aeiiii?oe? *ee?.

?icaeoie /ee?enueei? aeiiii?ee ia?aeiio? o ia?aaaaao o?eaaeiai
ia?aaeuaiiy aeioiae?a athaeaeaoo iaae aeaeaoeaie (caoaaaeeii, ui oaeee
?acoeueoao oa?aeoa?iee aeey e?a?i I?aaeaiii-No?aeii? Ac??). Ia aeoieo
niaoe?ae?no?a IAO, aeiaeaoia naeueaei athaeaeaoo aeiaeaoeiai aea? ciiao:
ca?eueoeoe e?aaeeoi? ?ano?ne o aaie?anueeiio naeoi??; iaeo?ae?coaaoe
iaaaoeai? iae?iaeiiii?/i? oiee; i?aeaeueoe aeia??o aei iaoe?iiaeueii?
aeiiii?ee; caaacia/eoe aeia?iaoo iaeaooi?o iieie?iue O 1988 — 1995 ??.
aeiaeaoia naeueaei athaeaeaoo ni?eyei iine?aeiaiiio cieaeaiith oaii?a
?ioeyoe?? — aei 7,9% o 1995 ?. Cia/i? ianyae ?iaanoeoe?e o /ee?enueeo
aeiiii?eo caaacia/eee no?eea c?inoaiiy AAI — o na?aaeiueiio ia 6,8% o
1990 — 1995 ??. Ia iaio aaaeeeai, ui aeiiii?ea *ee? iiaeieaea iaeiiaieo
i???ioaoe?th ia aeaeiaooie oa aenii?o i?ae?: a 1995 ?. ?? /anoea a
caaaeueieo ianyaao aenii?oo aiaea aei 32%. Ii/aee ?icaeaaoeny n?euenueea
ainiiaea?noai oa ia?a?iaia i?iieneia?noue.

2. Oeyoe aeinyaiaiiy caaeainiaaiiai athaeaeaoo. Ia?oi/a?aiaei
caaaeaiiyi aii?yaeeoaaiiy o?yaeiaeo aeaeaoe?a, ui ia?aaeaa/a?:
nei?i/aiiy ?o /anoee o AAI oa ca?eueoaiiy aeaeaoe?a ia ina?oo, ioi?iio
caei?ia’y, ?icaeoie ?io?ano?oeoo?e. Eeoa i?ney oeueiai noa? iiaeeeaei,
aecia/eoe ia?aiao?e iiaeaoeiai? ?aoi?ie, yea ca aoaeue-yeeo oiia ia
iiaeiia ca?eueooaaoe aeao?oeeoo athaeaeaoo — ?iaeoa ?? i?iaaaeaiiy
ao?a/a? nain ? iiaea icia/aoe e?ao caaaeaii? aeiiii?/ii? iie?oeee.

C ii/aoeo 1990-o ??. /anoea o?yaeiaeo aeaeaoe?a o AAI A?acee?? oa
Iaeneee ?noioii ciaioeeanue (oaaeeoey 24). Ia ??ai? 20% a?ae AAI
noaa?e?coaaeeny aeaeaoee o?yaeo *ee?. I?ioa /anoea o?yaeiaeo aeaeaoe?a o
AAI e?a?i Eaoeinueei? Aia?eee cia/ii ia?aaeuo?, iai?eeeaae, iieacieee
e?a?i I?aaeaiii-No?aeii? Ac?? — I?aaeaiii? Ei?a?, N?iaaio?o ? Oa?eaiaeo,
ui na?ae/eoue i?i iacaaa?oai?noue ?icii/aoi? ?iaioe uiaei nei?i/aiiy
o?yaeiaeo aeaeaoe?a.

‘Oeth caeaaei?noue io?eiaii i?ney aeaeiiiiceoe?? aeaiaio?a aaeiaiai
iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeioiaeo (Y):

Y =N+I+G+O—I =N+S+O—F, aea N— i?eaaoia niiaeeaaiiy, O — ianyae aenii?oo
oiaa??a oa iineoa, I — ianyae ?iii?oo oiaa??a oa iineoa, F — o?ainoa?oi?
ieaoaae? c-ca ei?aeiio. Naeueaei iioi/iiai ?aooiea (NA) aecia/aii oaeei
/eiii:

NA = X— I+ F

Oaaeeoey 24. Aeaeaoee athaeaeaoo a e?a?iao Eaoeinueei? Aia?eee oa
I?aaeaiii-No?aeii? Ac?? (o % aei AAI), 1989 — 1994 ??.

1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994

Eaoeinueea Aia?eea A?aaioeia 28,3 23,2 24,2 28,0 30,0

A?acee?y 40,1 37,0 25,7 30,2

Iaeneea 23,4 17,4 17,0 15,9 16,6 17,7

*ee? 20,9 20,3 21,2- 20,3 20,8 20,5

I?aaeaiii-No?aeia Ac?y Iae. Ei?ay 16,0 16,2 16,5 17,0 16,9 17,7

N?iaaio? 21,5 20,4 20,8 18,9 17,1

Oa?eaiae 14,9 14,6 14,9 15,4 16,4 17,0

Iai?yiee oaeiai nei?i/aiiy aoee o?aaeeoe?eieie: e?ea?aeaoe?y
??ciiiai?oieo noaneae?e oa aeioaoe?e, i?eaaoecaoe?y aea?aeaaiiai iaeia,
?aoe?iiae?caoe?y aea?aeaaiiai aia?aoo, ia?aaeyae nioe?aeueieo i?ia?ai
oiui. A A?aaioei? i?ney ii/aoeo ieaio “Convertibidad” (ea?oaiue 1991 ?.)
ia?niiae aea?aeaaieo onoaiia nei?ioeee ia 100 oen. in?a. I?ioyaii 1991 —
1995 ??. o i?eaaoi? ?oee ia?aeoee: oaeaoiiia ia?aaea oa iaooiaa eiiiai?y
YPF (o 1990 ?. ?? caeoee noaiiaeee 1,2 ie?ae. aeie. NOA),
aeaeo?inoaioe??, aa?iii?oe, aioae?. Oe?eaai, ui, ia?aaoaath/e o
aea?aeaai?e aeaniino?, caeoeiaei aoei iaa?oue eaceii. E??i ciaioaiiy
iaaaioaaeaiiy ia athaeaeao, i?eaaoeciaai? ia’?eoe ii/aee aaia?oaaoe
cia/i? iiaeaoeia? iaaeoiaeaeaiiy. Oae, o 1992 ?. a?ae i?eaaoieo
oaeaoiiieo eiiiai?e aei athaeaeaoo iaae?eoei 76 iei. aeie. NOA
(aeanyoee?ooyie oaeaoiiia ia?aaea A?aaioeie aoea caeoeiaith). O A?acee??
1993 ?. i?eaaoecaoe?y 8 noaeaieaaeeueieo eiiiai?e ia?aoai?eea inoaii? ?c
caeoeiaeo o i?eaooeia? i?aei?e?inoaa i?ioyaii ?ieo.

Aeina?ae ia?aeiio?, ui iaeaaae/a ii?aeiaoe caaaeueia nei?i/aiiy
o?yaeiaeo aeaeaoe?a ?c c?inoaiiyi aeaeaoe?a ia aeiiii?/ia ianeoaiaoaaiiy
(o?ainii?o,ca’ycie, ?io?ano?oeoo?a) oa nioe?aeuei? iio?aae (ina?oa e
ioi?iia caei?ia’y). Aiaeii/an eia?ea iie?oe/ii? “ei?aeoiino?” caaaaea?
ciaioaiith noaneae?e oa e?ea?aeaoe?? noii?aieo nioe?aeueieo aa?aio?e.
Oea iniaeeai iii?oii a A?acee?? — e?a?i?, aea, ye aea?oothoue, ?nio? 595
ia?o?e (ii iaei?e ia eiaeiiai aeaiooaoa ia?eaiaioo). A 1994 — 1995 ??.
a?aceeuenuee? ia?eaiaioa??? caaeieoaaee i?ioean i?eaaoecaoe??, ?aoi?io
iain?eii? nenoaie, coneeey o?yaeo uiaei nei?i/aiiy aeaeaoe?a athaeaeaoo
oiui. Oei /anii a ie?aieo ooaoao ia 22 ae?th/eo i?eiaaea? 330
iieeiaiee?a o a?aenoaaoe?. sseui aeey ia?an?/iiai a?aceeueoey iain?eiee
noaae noaiiaeoue CI — 35 ?ie?a, oi aeey aeaiooaoa ia?eaiaioo — eeoa 8
?ie?a. Nenoaie aacieaoiiai iaa/aiiy oa ioi?iie caei?ia’y oaeiae
iaaeathoue ia?aaaae oei, o eiai aeu? aeioiaee. A A?acee?? ia iaeiiai
nooaeaioa aeo?a/a?oueny 8804 aeie. NOA, ui iaaaaaoi a?eueoa, i?ae o
I?ia//ei? — 5900 /e Eaiaae? — 3975 aeie. NOA. Aiaeii/an o caiaaeaaiiio
noai? ia?aaoaathoue ii/aoeiaa oa na?aaeiy ina?oa. O noa?? ioi?iie
caei?ia’y ia 12000 iaecaiiaei?oeo iaoe??io?a aeo?a/a?oueny no?eueee ae
eioo?a, ye ia ?aooo 40 iei. a?iiaaeyi.

Uiaei iiaeaoeiai? nenoaie, oi a a?eueoino? e?a?i Eaoeinueei? Aia?eee ia
iiiaio ?aoi?ie ?? niioai?thaaee neeaaeia no?oeoo?a iiaeaoe?a,
iaiaaeai?noue iiaeaoeiai? aace, iaaeineiiaea caeiiiaeaanoai. Neooaoe?th
oneeaaeithaaee ooeeyiiy a?ae nieaoe iiaeaoe?a oa ei?oiiiaai?noue
iiaeaoeiaeo neoaea. O 1974 ?. o Eieoia?? ia eiaeia iani oaaa?a aea?aeaaa
ao?a/aea oaeaaaeoeyoa?i a?eueoa. O A?acee?? ui??/i? ao?aoe a?ae ooeeyiiy
iae nieaoe iiaeaoe?a o 1990 — 1994 ??. noaiiaeee 40 ie?ae. aeie. NOA .
Iai?ee?ioe? 1980-o ??. o A?aaioei? ieaoeoe iiaeaoie aaaaeaeiny iaaaeaeei
aea?oii. Ia aeeaii, ui naia a oe?e e?a?i? 1991 ?ieo i?iaaee
iaeiine?aeiai?oo iiaeaoeiao ?aoi?io. A *ee? oea ?iaeee iinooiiai
i?ioyaii 1985 — 1990 ??. Oni?oiith aoea iiaeaoeiaa ?aoi?ia o Aie?a?? a
1985 — 1986 ??. A on?o aeiaaeeao caaacia/oaaeeny oi?aa?naeuei? aeiiae:
ca?eueoaiiy aeioiae?a athaeaeaoo, aoaeoeai?noue, ni?aaaaeeea?noue,
i?ici??noue.

Aeina?ae e?a?i Eaoeinueei? Aia?eee ia caia?a/o? aeniiaeo, ui cieaeaiiy
noaaie iiiaeaoeoaaiiy ca?eueoo? iaaeoiaeaeaiiy aei athaeaeaoo. I?ei??ii,
o Aie?a?? a 1986 ?. noaaeo iiaeaoeo ia aeio?ae cieceee ?c 45 aei 10%, a
cai?noue iiiaae 400 iiaeaoe?a ia ?icae??aiee i?iaeaae cai?iaaaeeee
?aeeiee IAeA c? noaaeith 10%. O i?aenoieo /anoea iiaeaoe?a o AAI Aie?a??
c?inea c 1,9% o 1984 ?. aei 7% o 1987 — 1988 ??.”. Iiae?aiei /eiii
cieaeaiiy noaaie iiaeaoeo ia aeio?ae ca?eueoeei iaaeoiaeaeaiiy aei
iaeneeainueeiai athaeaeaoo c ii/aoeo 1990-o ??.

Aiaeii/an cieaeaiiy noaaie iiiaeaoeoaaiiy ia iiaea ?icaeyaeaoeny iica
eiioaenoii nei?i/aiiy o?yaeiaeo aeaeaoe?a oa i?iaaaeaiiy no?oeoo?ieo
ia?aoai?aiue. ?iaeoa — oea iiioe?ci. Ie??i i?eaaoecaoe??, ia?niaeoeaiei
noiooi?i caoiaeii ? ia?ao?ae aei i?eaaoieo noai nioe?aeueiiai
no?aooaaiiy. sse aeneiaeany a?o?oaeoi? a?aaioeinueeeo ?aoi?i Aeii?iai
Eaaaeueei, “aeaea?aeii iain?e aeey oeo, ooi i?aoeth?, iiaeii? noaoe ?oi?
aeani? caiuaaeaeaiiy, a ia iiaeaoee, ui aeaaeae? c?inoathoue” . Ia?o?
i?eaaoi? iain?ei? oiiaee ua a 1981 ?. ii/aee noai?thaaoe o *ee?. O 1993
?. iiae?aiee aenia?eiaio ?icii/aoi a Ia?o, a a 1994 ?. — a A?aaioei? oa
Eieoia??.

Aeina?ae ie?aieo e?a?i canoa??aa? a?ae aeei?enoaiiy caieaeaieo noaaie
iiaeaoeo ia i?eaooie. I?ney o?ueio ?ie?a aenia?eiaiooaaiiy a A?aaioei? o
1990 ?. noaaeo oeueiai iiaeaoeo i?aeaeueee c 20 aei 30%. O?ioe ?ai?oa
oea c?iaeee a *ee?, aea noaaea iiaeaoeo ia i?eaooie c?inea a?ae 10 aei
30%. C ?ioiai aieo, iaaeioe?eueii iia’ycoaaoe aoaeoeai?noue ?iaioe
i?aei?e?inoa o?eueee c? noaaeith iiiaeaoeoaaiiy”. Ia iaio i?iiiaenoei ?
aieea eiieo?aioe??, oe?iiai? oa a?ioiai? noaa?eueiino?, e?aa?ae?caoe??
ciai?oiuei? oi?a?ae? oa ?eieo ?iai/i? neee. A A?aaioei? o 1991 — 1994
??. i?iaeoeoeai?noue i?aoe? i?aeaeueeanue ia 42% , a AAI c?inoaa ui??/ii
a na?aaeiueiio ia 7,7%, iacaaaeath/e ia aeu? iiaeaoee oa i?eieiaiiy
aea?aeaaii? “i?aeo?eiee” o an?o oi?iao (i?yi? noaneae??, i?ioaeoe?ii?ci,
caieaeaiiy iai?iiiai eo?no iani oiui).

Iiaeaoeiaa ?aoi?ia a A?aaioei? aeyaeea ua iaeio iniaeea?noue —
aa?iii?caoe?y iiaeaoe?a aoaeoeaia eeoa o ?ac? ?icoe?aiiy iiaeaoeiai?
aace. A 1990 ?. e?ea?aeaoe?th ??ciiiai?oieo “oei/aniaeo” iiaeaoe?a (ia
aaie?anuee? aeaiiceoe, ia o?iainia? iia?aoe?? oiui) aoei ii?aeiaii ?c
cieaeaiiyi i?i?iaeueiiai ??aiy iiiaeaoeiaoaaiiai aeioiaeo oa iaiaaeaiiyi
i?aeoeee iiaeaoeiaeo i?euea. O 1991 ?. ooeeyiiy a?ae nieaoe iiaeaoe?a
ii/aei ea?aoeny o?eaaeei oa’yciaiiyi; neoaeae iiiaeaii? iiaeaoeiai?
?iniaeoe?? (001) io?eiaee aeiaeaoeia? i?aaa o eiio?ie? ca nieaoith
iiaeaoe?a aaeeeeie i?eaaoieie eiiiai?yie.

Caaaeii o a?eueoino? e?a?i Eaoeinueei? Aia?eee, ye ? anthaee o
“o?aoueiio” na?o?, /anoea iiaeaoeo ia aeioiaee a?iiaaeyi o caaaeuei?e
noi? iiaeaoeiaeo iaaeoiaeaeaiue caeeoa?oueny iaaenieith — ia a?eueo ye
20%. Iia? aeaea?aea iiiaeaoeoaaiiy iia’ycothoueny ?c ai?iaaaeaeaiiyi
iiaeaoeo ia ia?ooii?noue, ia caieth, ia aaoiiia?e?, a oaeiae
anoaiiaeaiiyi aeoeecieo cai??a ia othothiia? ae?iae oa aeeiaieuei?
iaii?. Aeaye? iiaeaoee, iai?eeeaae ia i?aaeiaoe ?iceio?, ei?eni? ia oae
aeey c?inoaiiy aeioiae?a athaeaeaoo, ye c iiaeyaeo nioe?aeueii?
ni?aaaaeeeaino?”. O a?eueoino? aeiaaee?a iiaeaoeiaa ?aoi?ia
noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny cia/ieie iie?oe/ieie oneeaaeiaiiyie. I?eeeaae?a ia
a?aeo?. Iiaeaoeiaa ?aoi?ia 1974 ?. a Eieoia?? aiooaaeany e?eueea ?ie?a ?
aeyaeeany iaaecae/aeii oni?oiith: a 1975 ?. iiaeaoeia? iaaeoiaeaeaiiy
c?inee ia 45%”. Iaeiae oaea ianooiiiai, 1976 ?. iaeao caoiae?a
“oaeineiiaeeee” ia?eaiaioa???, a ni?eoi? ae?eee a?ae?aco ae ciaeoee
oeyoe, ye ia?eoe caeiiiaeaanoai. O i?aenoieo ii/aoeiaee aoaeo aoei
cia/iith i??ith ao?a/aii. A A?acee?? iii??eiaaiee iaeao caoiae?a
iiaeaoeiai? ?aoi?ie (?aoe?iiae?caoe?y iiiaae 60 iiaeaoe?a oa cai??a,
oi?o?eaoe?y aeaio iiaeaoe?a ia ?icae??aiee i?iaeaae, ci?ie a iain?eieo
ieaoaaeao) ?icaeyaeathoue oaea aeaa ?iee — oni?o?a ai?ye?n?iueeeo.

A A?aaioei? aia?a?ei? coneeey i?i?no?a aeiiii?ee Ae. Eaaaeueei uiaei
nei?i/aiiy aeaeaoe?a athaeaeaoo oa ca?eueoaiiy iiaeaoeiaeo
iaaeoiaeaeaiue cia/iith i??ith coiiaeee eiai a?aenoaaeo ae?oeo 1996 ?.
Ii-ia?oa, ia?aaeaa/aeiny iiaeaeueoa nei?i/aiiy aea?aeaaiiai aia?aoo ia
20 oen. in?a. Ii-ae?oaa, aoei e?ea?aeiaaii an? i?eueae aeey ieaoiee?a
iiaeaoeo ia aeio?ae, o o. /. aeey noaeae?a oa /eai?a ia?eaiaioo. Noaaea
IAeA caeeoeeany ia iiia?aaeiueiio ??ai? (21%), iaeiae i?euea oaae ia
caeeoeeiny. Ia?aoo? noaaea iiaeaoeo ia oiaa?e ?iceio? c?inea a?ae 0,5
aei 1,0% (i/?eoaaeiny, ui oea ca?eueoeoue aeioiaee athaeaeaoo ia 800
iei. aeie. NOA ).

3. Caeeth/i? caoaaaeaiiy oa aeniiaee. O?neaeueia iie?oeea caaaeaee
ia?aaoaa? o oieon? ai?ioueae aeiiii?/ieo ? iie?oe/ieo ?ioa?an?a.
Eaoeinueea Aia?eea ia ? aeiyoeii, oae naii ye ? Oe?a?ia ia ? “?ioith”
aea?aeaaith. Iacaaaeath/e ia o?oaeiiu?, a inoaii? ?iee aaeoi?
o?neaeueii? iie?oeee a e?a?iao Eaoeinueei? Aia?eee noi?ioaaany aeineoue
/?oei: 1) nei?i/aiiy aeao?oeeoo athaeaeaoo, 2) ciaioaiiy /anoee AAI, ui
ia?a?iciiae?ey?oueny /a?ac athaeaeao, 3) aa?iii?caoe?y iiaeaoeiaiai
caeiiiaeaanoaa, 4) ai?ioueaa c ooeeyiiyi a?ae nieaoe iiaeaoe?a.

C iiaeyaeo aeeneon?? a Oe?a?i? iaaeiei o?neaeueii? iie?oeee a oe?eiio oa
iiaeaoeiai? ?aoi?ie cie?aia, ?noioieie ? o?e caoaaaeaiiy. Ii-ia?oa,
iaaei?a/ii ?icaeyaeaoe ci?ie a iiaeaoeia?e nenoai?, ia aecia/eaoe
i??i?eoao?a o aeaeaoeao o?yaeo (/anoea o AAI, no?oeoo?a aeaeaoe?a,
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?ae aeaeaoeaie oeaio?aeueiiai o?yaeo oa i?noeaaeo
i?aai?a aeaaee). Ii-ae?oaa, yeeie a ia aoee aa??aioe noaaie
iiiaeaoeoaaiiy, e?eueeino? iiaeaoe?a oiui, iiaeiai a?aoeny aei oaaae
noai ieao?aeiiai aaeaino. A aeiiii?oe? Oe?a?ie e aeae? caa??aa?oueny
a?ae’?iia naeueaei ieao?aeiiai aaeaino, ? oiio iio?aaa a ia?aaeuaii?
aeioiae?a athaeaeaoo iaae eiai aeaeaoeaie caea?oueny iano?eiith.
Ii-o?ao?, aii?yaeeoaaiiy o?yaeiaeo aeaeaoe?a oa iiaeaoeiaa ?aoi?ia ia
noaiooue ?aaeueieie aac aeyao iiooaeii? iie?oe/ii? aie?, ia?aaeon?i ?c
aieo aeeiiaa/i? aeaaee, ? iaiao?aeiiai i?aai?caoe?eii-i?aaiaiai
caaacia/aiiy.

I?IAEAIA AeA?AEAAIIAI AI?AO (IA I?EEEAAe? NOA)

Oi?ioaaiiy ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei a Oe?a?i?, ?? ?ioaa?aoe?y ?c na?oiaith
aeiiii?/iith ni?eueiioith iio?aaothoue aeeaieiai aea/aiiy e
ia?ainieneaiiy aeina?aeo ?ioeo e?a?i. Iniaeeaee ?ioa?an ia? aea/aiiy
o?iainiaeo a?aeiinei, ui noaiiaeyoue iaa?ae’?iio /anoeio caaaeueii?
aeiiii?/ii? nenoaie.

Aaaeeeaith noa?ith o?iain?a ? aea?aeaaiee e?aaeeo o eiai eeane/i?e
oi?i?: eiee aea?aeaaa a inia? aaei?i?no?aoe?? an?o ??ai?a aenooia? ia
o?iainiaiio ?eieo ye ai?aeiee, iice/aeueiee, iane?aeeii oeeo a?aeiinei ?
aea?aeaaiee ai?a. I?e/eia aeieeiaiiy ai?ao — aeao?oeeo aea?aeaaiiai
athaeaeaoo, yaeua aeoaea ciaeiia, ia aeaeue, ? a?iiaaeyiai iacaeaaeii?
Oe?a?ie. Iaaaeyeith i?iaeaiith aeey aaaaoueio ?icaeiooeo e?a?i ? aea??
niiniao iie?eooy athaeaeaoiiai aeao?oeeoo /a?ac aeione aea?aeaaieo
ai?aiaeo ciaia’ycaiue aai a?ioiai? ai?n??.

Oeth noaooth i?enay/aii aea/aiith oai?aoe/ieo ? i?aeoe/ieo ieoaiue
aea?aeaaiiai ai?ao a NOA – o e?a?i? c aeaionio??/iei aeina?aeii, aea
i?ae aieeaii iie?oe/ieo, aeiiii?/ieo ? nioe?aeueieo i?e/ei noaany
ia?ao?ae a?ae ci?oaiiai niiniao o?iainoaaiiy athaeaeaoiiai aeao?oeeoo
(iiceeaie oa ai?n??th a?ioae) aei i?eeiyoi?oiai — aeioneo iicee ?
ooai?aiiy aea?aeaaiiai ai?ao.

Cai?iiiiiaaia aeine?aeaeaiiy iaienaii ia i?aenoaa? aea/aiiy noaoenoe/ieo
? iiiia?ao?/ieo i?ea?iaeueieo aeaea?ae, ye? aeaee ciiao ioiieoe o?eaaeee
?noi?e/iee ia??iae a?ae 1800 aei 1995 ?ie?a.

?ooiiith i?oaeeiith ?icai?oaiiy aea?aeaaiiai e?aaeeoo, iane?aeeii yeiai
? ai?a oaaea?aeueiiai o?yaeo, a NOA aoee a?eie. O XX no. aei ieo
i?e?aeiaeeny aeiiii?/i? e?ece. ?oo iae?iaeiiii?/iiai iieacieea ai?a /AAI
na?ae/eoue, ui a XIX no. “oaee?” i?eiaaeaee ia ai?ii? ?iee (?en. 1). O
XX no. “e?ooa oaeey” i?eiaaea? ia ?iee Ae?oai? na?oiai? a?eie, eiee ai?a
aeinyaaa 122,7%, oiaoi ia?aaeuoaaa ianya AAI. Oe?eaaee ?oo iieacieea ia
iicia/eao 50-o — 70-o ??. A?i ??cei cieceany (1975 ?. — 34,5%) a oiiaao
c?inoaiiy a?enueeiaeo aeo?ao ia??iaeo oieiaeii? a?eie. Oea iieaciee
oiai, ui aia?eeainueea aeiiii?ea aeo?eioaaea oyaa? aaee/acieo
a?enueeiaeo aeo?ao (a?ae 6 aei 10% AAI).

Iaaeoi neeueiiai oaea?o ii aea?aeaaieo o?iainao caaaeaee aeiiii?/i?
e?ece 1973— 1975 ??., 1981—1983 ??. ? ii/aoeo 90-o ??. O 1975 ? 1976 ??.
ui??/iee i?e??no ai?ao noaiiaea 14%, o 1983 ?. — 20,6%, oiaoi aeoaea
iaaeeaea?oueny aei i?e?inoo o ai?ii? ?iee. C 1982 ?. ii/eia?oueny iiaa
no?eea oaiaeaioe?y c?inoaiiy iieacieea ai?ao /AAI, aei 1995 ?. a?i
aeinyaa? 70%, ui iaaeeaea?oueny aei iieacieea na?aaeeie 50-o ??. —
71,3%, ia??iaeo a?enueeiaiai i?ioenoiyiiy aeaio na?oiaeo nenoai ?
iaea?eueoi? ieoiii? aaae a?enueeiaeo aeo?ao o i?neyai?iiee ia??iae.

1900 1922 1935 1945 1955 1965 1975 1985
1995

1912 1933 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980
1990

?en. 1 . Aea?aeaaiee ai?a oaaea?aeueiiai o?yaeo NOA (o % aei AAI)

A?ao?e neeaaeaiee ca aeaieie Statistical Abstract of the United States
ca 1940, 1947, 1955, 1965, 1970, 1991, 1993 ??.

Iaaaaeai? ieae/a i?aeia?iaei? ii??aiyiiy cana?ae/othoue oo naio
oaiaeaioe?th a ?ioeo e?a?iao ?c ?eieiaith aeiiii?eith (aeea. oaaeeoeth).

Ie??i oaaea?aeueiiai ai?ao, o NOA c?inoa? oae caaiee ioi?oeeiaeueiee
ai?a, oiaoi ai?a ooao?a ? i?noeaai? aeaaee.

Aeeeeea? oe?eaa?noue aea/aiiy caaaeueii? aea?aeaaii? caai?aiaaiino? o
NOA. ?? no?oeoo?a i?ioyaii 1990—1994 ??. ci?ieeany: i?iyaeeanue
oaiaeaioe?y c?inoaiiy /anoee ai?ao oaaea?aoe?? (?en. 2), ui
iiynith?oueny i?ioeanii oeaio?ae?caoe?? aea?aeaaieo aeo?ao ? aeioiae?a o
oaaea?aeueiiio athaeaeao?, a oaeiae iaioith (o ii??aiyii? c
oaaea?aeueiei) aeao?oeeoi?noth athaeaeao?a.

Ne?ae caa?iooe oaaao ia oa, ui ai?n?y iae?aaoe?e ooao?a ? i?noeaai?
aeaaee ?aaoeth?oueny e eiio?ieth?oueny oaaea?aoe??th, aeey /iai aoei
noai?aii oi?aae?iiy c ae?iaeaiiy i?aaee uiaei iia?aoe?e ?c
ioi?oeeiaeueieie oe?iieie iaia?aie. I?aeoe/iee ?ioa?an ia? aea/aiiy
neeaaeo no?oeoo?e ioi?oeeiaeueieo iae?aaoe?e.

O NOA i?noeaaa aeaaea aeionea? aeaa iniiaieo aeaee iae?aaoe?e: cae/aei?
e aeio?aei?. Aei 70-o ??. ia?aaaao iaee ia?o?, i?ney — ae?oa?. Oaeee
iiai?io noaany aiane?aeie ci?oei?eiai ianiaiai iii?o ieaoiee?a iiaeaoe?a
i?ioe i?aeaeuaiiy noaaie i?noeaaiai iaeiiaiai iiaeaoeo, yeee caaacia/o?
aeieaoo i?ioean?a ? iiaaoaiiy cae/aeieo aii?a. Aeio?aei? iae?aaoe?? ia
iio?aaothoue i?aeaeuaiiy iiaeaoe?a, ?o iiaaoaiiy c i?ioeaioaie
a?aeaoaa?oueny c aeioiae?a, ye? iaea?aeothoueny o i?ioean? inai?iiy
?ano?n?a ia ia’?eoao, ui aoaeothoueny. C oeueiai iiaeia c?iaeoe aeniiaie
i?i iaiao?aei?noue a Oe?a?i? aeioneaoe ia i?noeyo aeio?aei? ia-

Oaaeeoey. Aea?aeaaiee ai?a (aaeia? noie) o % aei AAI

1980 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 2000
(i?iaiic)

NOA 37,7 48,1 51,0 52,0 52,7 53,2 55,4 58,9 61,7 63,4 69,1 69,1
70,0-72,0

ssiii?y 52,0 68,7 72,3 74,9 72,8 70,6 69,8 68,2 67,3 68,3 70,3 72,4 —

I?ia//eia 36,5 42,5 42,6 43,8 44,4 43,2 43,5 41,8 42,8 46,2 50,8 60,6 —

O?aioe?y 36,4 45,5 45,7 47,2 46,8 47,5 46,6 48,6 51,6 57,1 62,1 66,3 —

?oae?y 61,1 84,3 88,2 92,6 94,8 97,9 100,5 104,0 108,0 114,0 116,5 118,0
123,0-125,0

Aaeeeia?eoai?y 54,3 52,7 51,1 48,6 42,2 36,8 34,7 35,4 40,5 47,3 52,3
56,4 —

Eaiaaea 44,6 65,0 68,9 70,1 69,3 69,5 71,6 77,5* 83,3 88,3 90,6 90,7
90,0-93,0

Na?aaeiy

ii 7 e?a?iao 42,9 54,9 57,3 58,6 58.3 57,9 58,8 60,5 62,8 65,7 67,9
70,0 —

ii iaeeo e?a?iao IAN? 36,3 58,7 59,9 60.6 59,6 59,0 58,5 60,4 62,9 68,4
72,7 75,6 —

ii e?a?iao Cao?aeii? ?a?iie 42,7 57,4 58,4 59,5 58,8 58,1 58,1 59,1 61,9
67,3 71,6 76,1 —

ii an?o e?a?iao IAN? 42,0 55,4 57,6 58,9 58,4 58,0 58,7 60,5 62,8 66,1
68,5 70,7 —

e?aaoe??, oei ia/a ui aeania aeio?aeia aaca o iaoeo i?noeaaeo aeanoae
aeoaea neaaea. Ieoiia aaaa iicee o oaaea?aeueieo aeioiaeao ii??aiyii
iecueea i?e aenieiio iieacieeia? ai?a /AAI (?en. 3). Oea na?ae/eoue i?i
oa, yeo iaaaciaeo iathoue iioi/i? iiceee /a?ac iaeiie/aiiy iiia?aaei?o
ai?a?a.

Ca no?oeoo?ith oaaea?aeueiee ai?a iiae?ey?oueny ia ?eieiaee (65%) ?
ia?eieiaee. Iae?aaoe?? ?eieiaiai iathoue a?eueiee ia?a ye ia a?ioiaiio,
oae ? ia oiiaeiaiio ?eieao. A iia?aoe?yo a?ioiaiai ?eieo aaaeeeao ?ieue
a?ae?a?athoue eacia/aenuee? aaenae?. ?noi?e/ii aiie noaiiaeee a?ae 55
aei 60% eiai iai?io?a. ?c iiyaith iiaeo ?ino?oiaio?a a?ioiaiai ?eieo a
60—90-o ??. ?oiy /anoea cieaeo?oueny aei CI—32%. Eacia/aenueeee aaenaeue
— iniaeeaee o?iainiaee ?ino?oiaio ?eieo. A ?oeao eacia/aenoaa oea can?a
oi?aae?iiy eaniaei aeeiiaiiyi athaeaeaoo, aeey Oaaea?aeueii? ?aca?aii?
nenoaie (O?N) a?i aieiaiee ?ino?oiaio i?iaaaeaiiy iia?aoe?e ia
a?aee?eoiio ?eieo, oiaoi oi?aae?iiy a?ioiaei ia?aii, aeey ei?ii?aoe?e oa
?ioeo ia’?eo?a ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino? oea can?a ?aaoethaaiiy
e?ea?aeiino?. Ia oiiaeiaiio ?eieo iae?aaoe?? oaaea?aeueiiai o?yaeo
iin?aeathoue aaaeeeaa

?en. 2. Ci?ia no?oeoo?e caaaeueii? aea?aeaaii? caai?aiaaiino? o NOA (o %
aei AAI)

A?ao?e neeaaeaiee ca aeaieie Statistical Abstract of the United States
ca 1940, 1947, 1955, 1961, 1965, 1970, 1991, 1993 ??.

i?noea. Aiie ?icaeyaeathoueny e?aaeeoi?aie ye iaae?eia aac?eceeiaa
aeeaaeaiiy o?iainiaeo oiiae?a.

Eiei aea?aeaaieo e?aaeeoi??a iaaeoi oe?iea ? ?icia?oa. O NOA ooieoe?iio?
?icai?iooa ?io?ano?oeoo?a o?iainiaiai ?eieo o aeaeyae? ??cieo
aaie?anueeeo ? iaaaie?anueeeo aeaiiceoieo ?inoeooo?a, o?iainiaeo,
e?aaeeoieo, no?aoi-

aeo, iain?eieo, aeia??/eo oiiae?a, anioe?aoe?e, ni?eie oiui. A?ae 10 aei
25% aeoea?a o?iainiaeo ?inoeooo?a aeeaaeaii o oaaea?aeuei? e
ioi?oeeiaeuei? iae?aaoe??. O?ce/i? iniae (ca noaoenoeeith NOA — aeiiaoi?
ainiiaea?noaa) ? ye i?yieie, oae ? iai?yieie e?aaeeoi?aie aea?aeaae. O
NOA aeioneathoueny iuaaei? aiie — ia?eieia? iae?aaoe??, iioe?thaai?
na?aae o?ce/ieo in?a ca nenoaiith “caiuaaeaeoe o i??o oiai, ye
ca?iaey?o”. Aei oe??? nenoaie i?aeoe/ii caeo/aii an?o caeiyoeo,
ine?eueee aiia noai?th?oueny aooaaeoa??yie i?aei?e?inoa ? onoaiia. O
1902—1995 ??. aeecueei 6% oaaea?aeueiiai ai?ao i?eiaaeaei ia iuaaei?
aiie, e??i oiai 5% aii?a o ?ioeo aeioneao aoei i?eaeaaii o?ce/ieie
iniaaie. A Oe?a?i? iiaeia aoei a c?iaeoe ni?iao aiaeae a iaiaaeai?e
e?eueeino? aeionoeoe iiae?ai? oe?ii? iaia?e.

Ii??/ oiai, o?ce/i? iniae nai?ie aianeaie /e eoi?aeath aio?oao?a,
aeoe?e, aiion?a oi?iothoue ? ?io? ianeae o?iainiaeo ?inoeooo?a ? oaeei
/eiii iiina?aaeeiaaii /a?ac o?iainia? onoaiiae ?iaeyoue ?iaanoeoe?? o
aea?aeaai? oe?ii? iaia?e.

Oaaea?aeuei? ?aca?ai? aaiee e eiia?oe?ei? aaiee — iaaeoi aaaeeea? e
aaeee? e?aaeeoi?e aea?aeaae. Aiie aeeaaeathoue nai? oiiaee ia?aaaaeii a
ei?ioeino?ieia? (aei 1 ?ieo) ciaia’ycaiiy oa iae?aaoe?? a?ae 1 aei 5
?ie?a. A?io? aeioneathoueny a ia?a oaaea?aeueieie ?aca?aieie aaieaie
iaeaea iiai?noth i?ae iie?eooy aea?aeaaieie iae?aaoe?yie. *a?ac oea
o?aieythoueny ?ioeyoe?ei? iiooiaoe, caeaa ai?n?y, o naith /a?ao
eiia?oe?ei? aaiee i?ae i?eaeaai? iae?aaoe?? ?icoe?ththoue e?aaeeooaaiiy,
ui /anoi aeeeeea? oiiaeiaee aoi.

Oeth noia?a/i?noue aea?aeaaa iaiaaa?oueny ?aaoethaaoe c aeiiiiiaith
iia?aoe?e O?N ia a?aee?eoiio ?eieo. Oaaea?aeueiee eii?oao ?c a?aee?eoiai
?eieo (OEA?) cae?enith? a?ioiao iie?oeeo oeyoii eoi?ae?-i?iaeaaeo
aea?aeaaieo iae?aaoe?e (ia?aaeon?i eacia/aenueeeo aaenae?a). ?c oe??th
iaoith OEA? i?iaiaeeoue aea/aiiy eii’thieoo?e o?iainiaiai ?eieo, ia
i?aenoaa? /iai neeaaeathoueny i?iaiice ci?ie iniiaieo iae?iiieaciee?a,
noaio e?aaeeoiiai ?eieo, iiaeeeai? no?oeoo?e i?ioeaioieo noaaie. A?aeoae
?ic?iaeythoueny i?iaiice ?ooo a?ioiaeo aa?aaao?a ? eiio?ieuei? oeeo?e
?oiueiai i?e?inoo. I?aai?caoe?th iia?aoe?e ia a?aee?eoiio ?eieo
iieeaaeaii ia Oaaea?aeueiee ?aca?aiee aaie (O?A) i. Iueth-Ei?ea (ie?oa
?2).

Iia?aoe?? i?iaiaeyoueny ii an?e O?N, oiio eoi?aey (i?iaeaae)
cae?enith?oueny c ?aeeiiai “?aooiea nenoaie iia?aoe?e ia a?aee?eoiio
?eieo”. A oeueiio ?ac?, yeui ca i?iaiicaie i/?eo?oueny i?aeaeuaiiy
ainiiaea?nueei? eii’thieoo?e, yea o?yae i?aeo?eio?, O?A i. Iueth-Ei?ea
ae?noa? caaaeaiiy eoieoe ia iaaio noio aea?aeaai? iae?aaoe??. Oe? ae??
ni?e/eiythoue iaai?oaiiy a?ioiai? iane a ia?ao, noai?ththoueny o?iainia?
oiiaee aeey aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo, ui aeeeeea? c?inoaiiy oe?i ia aeoe??
ei?ii?aoe?e, oe?ia o?iainiaeo aeoea?a c?inoa?, iiieo i?aeaeuo?oueny. A
oiio ?ac?, yeui i/?eo?oueny oiiaeiaee aoi, yeee iiaea i?ecaanoe aei
e?ece, aaieia? aea?oueny caaaeaiiy cieceoe ianya a?ioiai? iane, uia
nei?ioeoe oiiaee aeey ?iaanooaaiiy. C oe??th iaoith a?aeaoaa?oueny
i?iaeaae aea?aeaaieo iae?aaoe?e. Ia o?iainiaiio ?eieo oiiaee
ia?ai?uothoueny ?c i?eaaoieo oe?iieo iaia??a o aea?aeaai?. Ae?eiaa
aeoeai?noue cieaeo?oueny, oe?ia o?iainiaeo aeoea?a iaaea?. Iie?oeea
iia?aoe?e ia a?aee?eoiio ?eieo i?aeaea?oueny e?eoeoe?, a?aecia/a?oueny
iaiiaeeea?noue iiaeieaiiy /aniaeo eaa?a oa ?io? aaaee.

Ca /eiaei ?ie?a niinoa?aaeaiue ? aeine?aeaeaiue aaaaoi ooi c
aia?eeainueeeo aeiiii?no?a ae?eoia aeniiaeo, ui oaeoe/ii oeaio?aeuei?
aaiee iiaeooue onoaiiaeoe o?eueee /anoeiaee eiio?ieue iaae a?ioiaei
ia?aii,

?ic?iaeyth/e a?ioiao iie?oeeo a Oe?a?i?, aeeeaaeaia aeua ne?ae a?aoe aei
oaaae ? aooe aioiaeie aei oiai, ui a ?eieia?e aeiiii?oe? a?io? aoaeooue
eeoa /anoeiai ea?iaaiith noa?ith.

sse aea a?aeaoaa?oueny oi?aae?iiy aea?aeaaiei ai?aii? O NOA eiai
iieeaaeaii ia niaoe?aeueiee i?aai i?i?noa?noaa o?iain?a — ath?i c
aea?aeaaiiai ai?ao. Oaaea?aeuei? ?aca?ai? aaiee oa ?oi? a?aeae?eaiiy
aenooiathoue ye o?iainia? aaaioe e aeaiiceoa??? aeey i?i?noa?noaa
o?iain?a, aiie aeeiiothoue on? aei?o/aiiy, iia’ycai? c oi?aae?iiyi
aea?aeaaiei ai?aii. Ia?aeiia ?ici?uaiiy iae?aaoe?e eoiiiieo na??e
cae?enith?oueny ia aoeoe?iiao, eiai i?iaiaeeoue eacia/aenoai /a?ac O?A.
Ia?o? aeeea?e c aea?aeaaieo iae?aaoe?e, yeeie ? iaea?eueo? eiia?oe?ei?
aaiee, iathoue i?aai eoioaaoe iae?aaoe?? i?inoi o eacia/aenoaa.
Aoi?eiiee ?eiie aea?aeaaieo oe?iieo iaia??a aaee/aciee, eiai uiaeaii?
iai?ioe ia?aaeuothoue iai?ioe ia aoaeue-yeiio na?oiaiio ?eieo oe?iieo
iaia??a (aei 260—270 ie?ae. aeie. o 90-o? ?iee).

O NOA oaeaeeeie oaiiaie cae?enith?oueny ia?ao?ae aei aeaeo?iiieo oe?iieo
iaia??a. Iei? ae?thoue aea? nenoaie eiii’thoa?eciaaieo ?aooie?a: 1) o
eiia?oe?eieo aaieao; 2) nenoaia aeey iaaeaiiceoieo o?iainiaeo ?inoeooo?a
oa o?ce/ieo in?a. I?i?noa?noai o?iain?a ia? ia iao? iiai?noth
a?aeiiaeoeny a?ae iicee o oi?i? iae?aaoe?e ? ia?aeoe aei 2000 ?. ia
nenoaio eiii’thoa?ieo ?aooie?a.

Iia?aoeaia ocaiaeaeai?noue oi?aae?iiyi ai?aii i?ae i?i?noa?noaii
o?iain?a ? O?A nie?a?oueny ia ocaiaeaeai?noue oe?eae o?neaeueii? oa
a?ioiai? iie?oeee. Iaoa O?N iieyaa? a oiio, uia oeyoii eoi?ae?
(i?iaeaaeo) iae?aaoe?e ?aaoethaaoe a?ioiaee ia?a ? oi?aaeyoe ?aca?aaie
(oiaoi noiaie, ia ?iaanoiaaieie aaieaie, ui aei??aiththoue iaai?e
/anooe? ?oi?o aeaiiceo?a).

Iaoa eacia/aenoaa — ?aaoethaaoe ai?a, oiaoi ?ici?uoaaoe iia? aeionee,
iiaaoaoe noa??, i?aeo?eioaaoe aecia/aio no?oeoo?o ai?ao ca oa?i?iaie e
aeio?aei?noth. Aeey eacia/aenoaa oi?aae?iiy ai?aii ?icaeyaea?oueny ye
eiai noaiiaeua ia o?iainiaiio ?eieo ? ye can?a i?aeaeuaiiy o?neaeueii?
iie?oeee. Aeey O?N oi?aae?iiy ai?aii ?icaeyaea?oueny oaeiae ye ?? aeania
noaiiaeua ia o?iainiaiio ?eieo ? iaiao?aei?noue ?aaoethaaiiy ii?ooaey
oe?iieo iaia??a. Ioaea, /a?ac oi?aae?iiy ai?aii i?iaaaeeoueny iaaia
a?ioiaa iie?oeea, a /a?ac oi?aae?iiy a?ioiaei ia?aii — o?iainiaa
iie?oeea.

A oaia? e?eueea ne?a i?i no/ani? oai?aoe/i? i?iaeaie, ui ae?noaee
?icaeoie a aia?eeainuee?e aeiiii?/i?e e?oa?aoo??.

C on?o eiioeaioe?e iiaeia aeae?eeoe aea?, ia iao iiaeyae, iaeoe?eaa?o?.
Ia?oa — A.Ea?ia?a i?i ciai?oi?e ai?a ? eiai aoaeoeai?noue, yeo iiaeia
canoinoaaoe aei iaoeo oiia. C?inoaiiy ciai?oiueiai ai?ao o?eueee oiae?
noa? eaaaeith, eiee caeo/ai? oiiaee i?oee ia iioi/i? oe?e? e ia i?eaaee
aei noai?aiiy iiai? aa?oino? oa aaaaonoaa. Ciai?oi? iiceee, caeo/ai? ia
o?iainoaaiiy ia’?eo?a i?iieneiaiai /e n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai
aoae?aieoeoaa, oiaoi aeo?a/ai? i?iaeoeoeaii, noai?youe iiaeeea?noue
iiaa?iooe oiiaee c i?ioeaioaie, a caeeoie ca?eueoeoue aa?o?noue ?
iaoe?iiaeueia aaaaonoai.

Ae?oaa eiioeaioe?y (eaein?ainueea oai??y), yeo ?icaeaathoue aaaaoi
aeiiii?no?a (?.Iana?aea, E. Iaeeiiiaee, N. A?th oa ?i.), iieyaa? a oiio,
ui aea?aeaaiee ai?a ? a?iiaaeyinueeei aeoeaii, neeaaeaiei ?c o?iainiaeo
aeoea?a on?o noa’?eo?a ?eieo, oiaoi aaaea aei i?aeaeuaiiy iiieoo ? oe?ie
?ioeo aeoea?a. Oea noaiiaeua iniaeeai caaino?eeiny a i?ae /an cieaeaiiy
iiaeo ai?n?e ei?ii?aoe?e. *a?ac oea caea? caiuaaeaeaiiy iathoue aooe
caeo/ai? a ?iaanoeoe?? aea?aeaaieo oe?iieo iaia??a.

Ia i?aenoaa? aeine?aeaeaiiy aea?aeaaiiai ai?ao a NOA iiaeia c?iaeoe
aeniiaee, ui noinothoueny i?aeoe/iiai aieo ieoaiiy.

Ii-ia?oa, aea?aeaaiee ai?a ?iaiaioiee ?eieia?e aeiiii?oe?, oiio i?ae /an
ia?ao?aeiiai ia??iaeo a Oe?a?i? iinooiiai c?inoaoeia aea?aeaaia
caai?aiaai?noue.

Ii-ae?oaa, c?inoaiiy ai?ao a iiaeaeueoiio i?ecaaaea aei c?inoaiiy
athaeaeaoieo aeo?ao ia oi?aae?iiy ai?aii.

Ii-o?ao?, o i??o ?icaeoeo o?iainiaiai ?eieo aoaea noai?aii iiaeeea?noue
aeey aeoea?caoe?? eoi?ae? (i?iaeaaeo) aea?aeaaieo ciaia’ycaiue.

Ii-/aoaa?oa, noai?aiiy ?io?ano?oeoo?e o?iainiaiai ?eieo (?iaanoeoe?eieo,
o?iainiaeo, iuaaeieo, e?aaeeoieo, iain?eieo, aeia??/eo oiiae?a,
anioe?aoe?e oiui) aoaea iaaiith i??ith iieaaoaii aiane?aeie iiaeeeaino?
aeeaaeaiiy caeo/aieo eioo?a o aea?aeaai? ciaia’ycaiiy.

Ii-i’yoa, aeey ?aaoethaaiiy a?ioiaiai ia?ao a oiiaao ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee
c’yaeoueny iaiao?aei?noue a iia?aoe?yo ia a?aee?eoiio ?eieo.

Ii-oinoa, ieoaiiy i?i caeo/aiiy ciai?oi?o ?ano?n?a, oiaoi i?i noai?aiiy
ciai?oi?o ai?a?a, iiaeia ae??ooaaoe o?eueee c iiceoe?? aeinoaoiuei?
i?eaooeiaino? caoaeiaaieo ia’?eo?a, iiaeeeaino? ca ?aooiie iaeaooiueiai
i?eaooeo iiaaneoe ai?ae ? i?ioeaioe e noai?eoe oiiaee aeey
?ao?iainoaaiiy.

INIIAI? I?EIOeEIE OI?IOAAIIss CAAAeAIIAI ATHAeAEAOO OE?A?IE A 1997 ?IOe?

O i?iaeo? caaaeaiiai athaeaeaoo Oe?a?ie ia 1997 ??e aeioiaee
ia?aaeaa/ai? i noi? 44.8 ie?ae. a?eaaiue, a aeaeaoee — 48,9 ie?ae.
a?eaaiue. Aeao?oeeo athaeaeaoo noaiiaeoue 4,1 ie?ae. a?eaaiue, aai 4,0%
i?iaiiciaaiiai aaeiaiai aioo??oiueiai i?iaeoeoo.

O i?iaeo? athaeaeaoo caa?aaeai? aacia? i?eioeeie eiai oi?ioaaiiy, ye oi:
?aaeuei?noue aeao?oeeoo athaeaeaoo, ia?aaaaeii ia?ioeyoe?ei? aeaea?aea
eiai o?iainoaaiiy, iaaeaiiy ia?aaaa nioe?aeueiiio caoenoo ianaeaiiy ?
caaacia/aiiy iio?aa nioe?aeueii-eoeueoo?ii? noa?e, noaa?e?caoe?y
ae?iaieoeoaa, noai?aiiy oiia aeey ?aaeueiiai c?inoaiiy aaeiaiai
aioo??oiueiai i?iaeoeoo, i?aeo?eiea aeaniiai ae?iaieea, oaeineiiaeaiiy
iiaeaoeiai? iie?oeee, aecia/aiiy /?oeeo i??i?eoao?» o o?iainoaaii?
i?ia?ai.

Ieoaiiy uiaei caaeainoaaiiy athaeaeaoo ia?aaeaa/a?oueny cae?enithaaoe ii
aeaio iniiaieo iai?yiao.

C iaeiiai aieo — ca ?aooiie iaiiaiaiiy aeioiaeii? /anoeie athaeaeaoo, c
?ioiai — /a?ac i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? aeo?a/aiiy athaeaeaoieo eioo?a,
oaeineiiaeaiiy ia?aae? athaeaeaoieo onoaiia oa ?o no?oeoo?e, ciaioaiiy
iaaaioaaeaiiy ia athaeaeao oeyoii caeo/aiiy iaathaeaeaoieo aeaea?ae
o?iainoaaiiy, eiioeaio?aoe?? o athaeaeao? eioo?a caaaeueiiaea?aeaaieo
oiiae?a o?iainiaeo ?ano?n?a.

Iaeneiaeueii a?aoiaaii iaaeoiaeaeaiiy iiaeaoe?a cai??a oa iaia’yceiaeo
ieaoaae?a, ui niea/othoueny ca /eiiei iiaeaoeiaei caeiiiaeaanoaii, oa
caoiaee, ui aaeeaathoueny uiaei i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy niea/oaaiino?
iiaeaoe?a ? cai??a, aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy ae?iaieoeoaa aeeiaieueieo
iaii?a ? othothiiaeo ae?ia?a.

A?aoiaaii oaeiae iiaeeeaino? iaea?aeaiiy aeiaeaoeiaeo aeioiae?a ca
?aooiie ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iiaeaoeo ia iaeii i?aei?e?inoa ca oiiae noaaee
iiaeaoeo 2% aa?oino? iaeia i?aei?e?inoa. Ca oeeo oiia iiaeaoie ia iaeii
noaiiaeoeia 3,5 i?euey?aea a?eaaiue.

Ie ?icoi??ii, ui oey i?iiiceoe?y iiaea aeeeeeaoe iaai? caia?a/aiiy, aea
?ioeo ?aaeueieo iiaeeeainoae uiaei ca?eueoaiiy aeioiae?a athaeaeaoo
iaia?.

Iaeii/anii a i?iaeo? Aea?aeaaiiai athaeaeaoo ia 1997 ??e ooi/iaii
iaaeoiaeaeaiiy i?ae caeo/aiiy 15% aii?oecaoe?eieo a?ae?aooaaiue, ui
aoaeooue ia?aoiaai? a 1997 ?ioe? aea?aeaaieie i?aei?e?inoaaie ?
ainiiaea?nueeeie i?aai?caoe?yie, a oaeiae i?aiaeieie i?aei?e?inoaaie,
caniiaaieie ia aea?aeaaiiio iaei?, c 604 aei 372 iei. a?eaaiue.

E??i oiai, i?iiiio?oueny ca?eueoeoe iaaeoiaeaeaiiy a?ae?aooaaiue a?ae
ia?aaeuaiiy iioi/ieo aeioiae?a iaae aeaeaoeaie Iaoe?iiaeueiiai aaieo c
50 aei 100 iei, a?eaaiue.

O aeaeaoeia?e /anoei? athaeaeaoo a?aoiaai? i?eeiyo? ??oaiiy uiaei
iiaoaiii? ia?aaea/? nioe?aeueii? noa?e i?aei?e?inoa aei eiioiaeueii?
aeaniino?, ca?eueoaii aeaeaoee ia cacia/aio iaoo c 200 aei 300 iei.
a?eaaiue. Oea aeanoue iiaeeea?noue aea?eueieoe /anoeio i?eaooeo
i?aei?e?inoa ? ni?yioaaoe ?? ia ?icoe?aiiy ae?iaieoeoaa oa i?aeaeueoe
eiieo?aioini?iiiaei?noue ?o i?iaeoeoe??.

Aeciaii ca iaiao?aeia ye aeaiaio cae?enithaaieo caoiae?a uiaei
i?aeo?eiee n?eueainiae?iaiee?a ia?aaeaa/eoe eiooe a noi? 250 iei.
a?eaaiue ia eiiiainaoe?th ca aoae?aieoeoai ia’?eo?a
nioe?aeueii-eoeueoo?iiai i?ecia/aiiy ia nae?.

E??i oiai, ca?eueoaii aeaeaoee ia i?aeo?eieo ae?iaieoeoaa i?iaeoeoe??
oaa?eiieoeoaa ia 100 iei. a?eaaiue.

Ia 500 iei. a?eaaiue ca?eueoaii aeaeaoee ia caeoi?aeth ca?ia ca ?aooiie
eioo?a, ia?aaeaa/aieo ia oi?ioaaiiy aea?aeaaiiai ?aca?ao.

O athaeaeao? iio?aae aa?ii?iieneiaiai eiiieaeno a?aoiaaii ia
iaeneiaeueii iiaeeeaiio ??ai?. A?eueoiai ia nueiaiaei?oi?e aeaiue
c?iaeoe iaiiaeeeai.

Cacia/ai? ooi/iaiiy aeiaaathoue iaeii/aniiai ciaioaiiy ie?aieo aeaeaoe?a
c iaoith iaaeiiouaiiy c?inoaiiy aeao?oeeoo.

Cie?aia, ia 450 iei. a?eaaiue ciaioaii aeaeaoee ia iaaeaiiy noaneae?e
ianaeaiith aeey iie?eooy aeo?ao ia iieaoo aeeoeiai-eiioiaeueieo iineoa.
Oey noia ooi/iaia aeoiaey/e c ia?aaeaa/oaaiiai 80% a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy oeeo
aeo?ao ca ?aooiie ianaeaiiy o 1997 ?ioe?.

Ia 50 iei. a?eaaiue ciaioaii aeaeaoee ia cae?eniaiiy caoiae?a c
eiiaa?n?? i?aei?e?inoa iai?iiiiai eiiieaeno oa noai?aiiy iiaeo aeae?a
oeea?eueii? i?iaeoeoe??.

A?aoiaoth/e, ui ? niaoe?aeueiee oiiae, ca ?aooiie yeiai cae?enith?oueny
aoae?aieoeoai ? ?aiiio aei??a, ca oiia e?aeiuei? iaiaaeaiino?
athaeaeaoieo ?ano?n?a i?iiiio?oueny cae?enithaaoe aeo?aoe ia ?aiiio oa
oo?eiaiiy aei??a caaaeueiiai ei?enooaaiiy aea?aeaaiiai cia/aiiy, ui aoee
ia?aaeaa/ai? o athaeaeao?, ca ?aooiie oeueiai oiiaeo, a?aeiia?aeii
ciaioeaoe aeaeaoee athaeaeaoo ia 70 iei. a?eaaiue.

Ieoaiiy iiaaoaiiy caai?aiaaiino? ca niiaeeoee aac oa ii nioe?aeueieo
aeieaoao ? nueiaiaei? /e ia iaeaino??oith nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iith
i?iaeaiith, yeo ie ia ciiaeaii inoaoi/ii ae??oeoe o iioi/iiio ?ioe?.
Oiio iaa?oue i?e an?e aino?io? neooaoe?? .? iaaeoiaeaeaiiyi aeioiae?a o
i?iaeo? ia?aaeaa/a?oueny aeecueei 3 ie?ae. a?eaaiue ia iiaaoaiiy
caai?aiaaiino? ieioeeo ?ie?a ii ??cieoe? a oe?iao ia i?e?iaeiee aac, ii
ca?ia?oi?e ieao? oa ?ioeo aeaeaoeao. Oe? aneaioaaiiy i?iiiio?oueny
caeeoeoe a Aea?aeaaiiio athaeaeao? a neeaae? ?ioeo aeaeaoe?a, a ?o
?iciiae?e cae?enieoe ca ??oaiiyi Eaa?iaoo I?i?no??a Oe?a?ie o
n?/i?-ethoiio 1997 ?ieo.

Aea oea iiaea ni?eyoe ae??oaiith i?iaeaie caai?aiaaiino? eeoa ca oiiae
?? iaeneiaeueiiai nei?i/aiiy oaea a iioi/iiio ?ioe?. ?iaeoa oaeee e?ie
iiaea eeoa oneeaaeieoe neooaoe?th.

Aianai? i?iiiceoe?? uiaei aeiiii?? athaeaeaoieo aeo?ao ca ?aooiie
oii?yaeeoaaiiy ie?aieo ieae?a aeaeaoe?a oa cai?iaaaeaeaiiy aeaiaio?a
/anoeiai? ieaoiino? i?e ei?enooaaii? iineoaaie athaeaeaoieo onoaiia. Ii
?yaeo c ieo oaea i?eeiyo? ??oaiiy. Ca oiiae ?o ?aae?caoe?? ?
iiaeeea?noue nei?ioeoe iio?aao o aeaeaoeao ia noio 1,2 ie?ae. a?eaaiue.

E??i oiai, i?iiiio?oueny ciaioeoe ianya athaeaeaoiiai o?iainoaaiiy
a?iiaaenueeeo i?aai?caoe?e. Cie?aia, i?eieieoe o?iainoaaiiy oiaa?enoaa
ca’yce?a c oe?a?ioeyie ca iaaeaie Oe?a?ie, anaoe?a?inueeiai oiaa?enoaa
“I?ina?oa”, i?ioni?eeiaeo i?aai?a o?ainii?oieo aaeocae oa ?yaeo ?ioeo.

A aeaiee /an ia ?icaeyae Eaa?iaoo I?i?no??a Oe?a?ie iiaeaii i?iaeoe
iinoaiiae Aa?oiaii? ?aaee Oe?a?ie “I?i aaaaeaiiy a ae?th Caeiio Oe?a?ie
“I?i aianaiiy ci?i aei noaoo? 85 Caeiio Oe?a?ie “I?i iain?eia
caaacia/aiiy” oa iinoaiiae Eaa?iaoo I?i?no??a Oe?a?ie “I?i caoiaee uiaei
caaacia/aiiy nai?/anii? aeieaoe iain?e”, ca?aeii c yeeie
ia?aaeaa/a?oueny anoaiiaeoe iaiaaeaiiy i?e aeieao? iain?e i?aoethth/ei
iain?iia?ai oa a?iiaaeyiai, ye? a aeaiee /an io?eiothoue iain?th aac
iaiaaeaiiy ?? iaeneiaeueiei ?ici??ii.

Ca oiiae i?eeiyooy cai?iiiiiaaieo caeiiiaeaa/eo aeo?a aeiiii?y eioo?a
Iain?eiiai oiiaeo Oe?a?ie, ui ? neeaaeiaith Aea?aeaaiiai athaeaeaoo,
noaiiaeoeia o ?ic?aooieo ia ??e a?aeiia?aeii iiiaae 21 iei. a?eaaiue.

Ne?ae caa?iooe oaaao ia ie?ai? ci?ie o no?oeoo?? aeioiae?a ? aeaeaoe?a
i?iaeoo athaeaeaoo, ye? ia aieeaathoue ia ?o ianya, aea ni?eythoue
caaacia/aiith a?eueo aoaeoeaiiai oi?aae?iiy athaeaeaoieie eiooaie oa
eiio?ieth ca ?o aeei?enoaiiyi, iioei?caoe?? i?ioeano ieeii.?iiy
Aea?aeaaiiai athaeaeaoo o 1997 ?ioe?.

Cai?iiiiiaaii ia’?aeiaoe iaaeoiaeaeaiiy aei ie?aieo oe?eueiaeo
aea?aeaaieo oiiae?a (e??i Iain?eiiai oa *i?iiaeeuenueeiai) a iaeei
?icae?e aeioiae?a “Iaaeoiaeaeaiiy aei caaaeueiiaea?aeaaieo oiiae?a
o?iainiaeo ?ano?n?a” oa a?aeiia?aeii ia?aaeaa/eoe aeaeaoee ia iioi/i?
aeo?aoe, cae?enithaai? ca ?aooiie cacia/aieo oiiae?a.

C oe??th ae iaoith cina?aaeaeaii aeaeaoee ia o?iainoaaiiy aea?aeaaieo
eai?oaeueieo aeeaaeaiue ye ca ?aooiie Aea?aeaaiiai athaeaeaoo, oae ?
Oiiaeo *i?iiaeey, ui aeanoue iiaeeea?noue i?iaiaeeoe ?aeeio aea?aeaaio
?iaanoeoe?eio iie?oeeo a oiiaao iaiaaeaiino? aeaea?ae o?iainoaaiiy.

Iaiao?aeii coieieoeny ia aca?iia?aeiineiao i?ae Aea?aeaaiei ? i?noeaaeie
athaeaeaoaie.

Aeoiaey/e ?c noaaeaieo o?yaeii i?aeoiae?a, o i?iaeo? cae?eniaii
?iciiae?e aeioiae?a ? aeaeaoe?a i?ae Aea?aeaaiei athaeaeaoii oa
athaeaeaoaie aaei?i?no?aoeaii-oa?eoi??aeueieo iaeeieoeue.

Aeioiaee i?noeaaeo athaeaeao?a noi?iiaai? ca ?aooiie aeanieo ?
cae??ieaieo aeioiae?a, a oaeiae a?ae?aooaaiue a?ae caaaeueiiaea?aeaaieo
iiaeaoe?a ? cai??a oa aeioaoe?e ?c Aea?aeaaiiai athaeaeaoo Oe?a?ie.

C iaoith noai?aiiy noaa?eueiino? oa canoinoaaiiy ?aeeieo i?aeoiae?a aei
oi?ioaaiiy aeioiaeii? /anoeie athaeaeao?a
aaei?i?no?aoeaii-oa?eoi??aeueieo iaeeieoeue o 1997 ?ioe? ia?aaeaa/,
?noueny iiaeaoie ia aeiaeaio aa?o?noue o iiaiiio ianyc? ca?aooaaoe aei
Aea?aeaaiiai athaeaeaoo Oe?a?ie. Oaeee i?aeo?ae ni?iuo? ii?yaeie
iiaa?iaiiy ieaoieeai eioo?a a oiiaao ae?? i?euea c ie?aieo a?oi oiaa??a
oa iineoa.

Iaeii/anii ia?aaeaa/aii ca?eueoeoe ii?iaoea a?ae?aooaaiue aei i?noeaaeo
athaeaeao?a a?ae aeoeeciiai cai?o (e??i ?iii?oieo i?aeaeoeecieo oiaa??a)
c 20% o 1996 ?ioe? aei 50% o 1997 ?ioe?.

Aei athaeaeao?a aaei?i?no?aoeaii-oa?eoi??aeueieo iaeeieoeue o iiaiiio
ianyc? iaaeoiaeeoeia i?eaooeiaee iiaeaoie ? a?iiaaeyi (o 1996 ?. — 50%),
ui noai?eoue noaa?euei?noue o oi?ioaaii? aeioiaeii? /anoeie ?o
athaeaeao?a ? a?aeiia?aeaoeia iieiaeaiiyi /eiiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa uiaei
ca?aooaaiiy oeueiai iiaeaoeo.

C iaoith cai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?aeeii? ?iaanoeoe?eii? iie?oeee oa
oii?yaeeoaaiiy aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy oe?i ia aac, ui niiaeeaa?oueny
ianaeaiiyi, o 1997 ?ioe? eiooe ia cae?eniaiiy cacia/aieo caoiae?a
ia?aaeaa/a?oueny ia?aaeaaaoe aei i?noeaaeo athaeaeao?a o aeaeyae?
oe?eueiaeo aeioaoe?e, ia?aoiaaieo o noiao a?aeiia?aeii — 452 oa 644 iei.
a?i. Aeaeaoee iiiaae oe? ianyae i?aaie aeaaee Aaoiiiiii? ?anioae?ee E?ei
oa i?aaie i?noeaaiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy iiaeooue cae?enithaaoe ca ?aooiie
aeiaeaoeiai aeooeaieo aeanieo aeioiae?a.

Ca oiia canoinoaaiiy cacia/aieo i?aeoiae?a aeaeaoee 15 iaeanoae oa i.
Naaanoiiiey ia iie?eaathoueny aeioiaeaie. C iaoith ?o ?o caaeainoaaiiy
c Aea?aeaaiiai athaeaeaoo Oe?a?ie ia?aaeathoueny eiooe a noi? 1087 iei.
a?i. Iaeii/anii ii 10 iaeanoyo, Aaoiiiii?e ?anioae?oe? E?ei oa i. Ee?ao
ia? i?noea ia?aaeuaiiy aeioiae?a iaae aeaeaoeaie, ui ia?aaeathoueny aei
Aea?aeaaiiai athaeaeaoo ia o?iainoaaiiy caaaeueiiaea?aeaaieo aeaeaoe?a
oa iaaeaiiy aeioaoe?e athaeaeaoai aaei?i?no?aoeaii-oa?eoi??aeueieo
iaeeieoeue.

?ic?aooieiaee ianya aeaeaoe?a athaeaeao?a Aaoiiiiii? ?anioae?ee E?ei,
iaeanoae, i?no Ee?aa ? Naaanoiiiey ia?aoiaaii aeoiaey/e c ?aeeieo
i?aeoiae?a aei oi?ioaaiiy aeaeaoeiai? /anoeie caaaeaiiai athaeaeaoo
Oe?a?ie a caaaeuei?e noi? 12321,8 iei. a?i.

I?e cae?eniaii? ?ic?aooie?a aoea a?aoiaaia aeiiaa o?yaeo uiaei
ca?eueoaiiy ianyao i?noeaaeo athaeaeao?a oa i?aeaeuaiiy naiino?eiino?
i?aai?a i?noeaaiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy o ae??oaii? ieoaiue aeiiii?/iiai ?
nioe?aeueiiai ?icaeoeo a?aeiia?aeieo aaei?i?no?aoeaii-oa?eoi??aeueieo
iaeeieoeue.

Cie?aia, ia a?aei?io a?ae iiia?aaeiueiai ?ieo ia o?iainoaaiiy c
i?noeaaeo athaeaeao?a ia?aaeathoueny:

i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/i? iaa/aeuei? caeeaaee oa aeu? iaaeaaia?/i? iaa/aeuei?
caeeaaee III ? IV ??ai?a ae?aaeeoaoe?? nenoaie I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe
Oe?a?ie;

aeu? iaa/aeuei? caeeaaee ina?oe 1 oa II ??ai?a ae?aaeeoaoe?? oa
caeeaaee, ui cae?eniththoue i?aeaioiaeo eaae??a iaoai?caoi??a aeey
n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa I?in?eueainii?iaeo,

eeoai? onoaiiae, ui ia?aaoaathoue o a?aeaii? I?in?eueainii?iaeo,
Aea?aeoa?/ii?iio, I?i?eaainio;

o aiaeiiio ainiiaea?noa? cae?eniaiiy /anoeie caoiae?a uiaei caiaeueii?
?aoi?ie oa i?ioeai?ciioe/ieo caoiae?a, ui o iioi/iiio ?ioe?
o?iainothoueny c Aea?aeaaiiai athaeaeaoo Oe?a?ie.

C o?aooaaiiyi oeueiai aeaeaoee ia nioe?aeueiee caoeno ianaeaiiy oa
o?iainoaaiiy nioe?aeueii-eoeueoo?ii? noa?e noaiiaeyoue 84% aei
?ic?aooieiaiai ianyao.

sse ? a iioi/iiio ?ioe?, c i?noeaaeo athaeaeao?a aoaea cae?enithaaoeny
o?iainoaaiiy aea?aeaaieo eai?oaeueieo aeeaaeaiue ia’?eo?a, aea
caiiaieeaie ? i?aaie i?noeaai? aeeiiaa/i? aeaaee. ?o ianyae ia?aoiaaii a
noi? 452 iei. a?i.

?aooo aeaeaoe?a i?noeaaeo athaeaeao? aoaea cae?eniaii ia o?iainoaaiiy
eiioiaeueiiai ainiiaea?noaa, oo?eiaiiy i?aai?a i?noeaai? aeeiiaa/i?
aeaaee, i?noeaaiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy oa ?i.

Aaeineiiaeaiiy nenoaie i?aeathaeaeaoieo aca?iia?aeiinei
cae?enithaaoeiaoueny i?ioyaii 1997 oa ianooiieo ?ie?a c o?aooaaiiyi
?ic?iaee oa ?aae?caoe?? caeiiiaeaa/eo aeo?a, ui aoaeooue i?eeiyo? ia
aeeiiaiiy Eiinoeoooe?? Oe?a?ie, cie?aia uiaei ?iciiae?eo aeaniino?,
aecia/aiiy canaae i?aai?a i?noeaaiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy, iiaiiaaaeaiue oa
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? i?noeaaeo i?aai?a aeaaee.

?ic?iaea iieaciee?a caaaeaiiai oa Aea?aeaaiiai athaeaeao?a ia 1997 ??e
cae?eniaia aeoiaey/e c aeiiae uiaei a?aie/iiai ?ici??o athaeaeaoiiai
aeao?oeeoo ia aeua 5% i?iaiiciiai ianyao aaeiaiai aioo??oiueiai
i?iaeoeoo ia 1997 ??e.

Aeey caa?aaeaiiy aeinyaiooiai ??aiy iae?iaeiiii?/ii? noaa?e?caoe?? o?yae
i?e aecia/aii? ianyao athaeaeaoiiai aeao?oeeoo aeoiaeea c iiaeeeainoae
ae-ooeaiiy aeaea?ae eiai iie?eooy.

O 1997 ?ioe? ? ?aaeueia iiaeeea?noue caeo/eoe oae? aeaea?aea.

Iaaeoiaeaeaiiy ciai?oiueiai o?iainoaaiiy ioe?iththoueny a noi? 1,1
ie?ae. aeie. NOA, ui, aeoiaey/e c i?iaiiciiai eo?no a?eai? aei aeiea?a
NOA ia 1997 ??e, noaiiaeoue 3,0 ie?ae. a?i. Caaaeueiee eiai ianya
ca?eueoo?oueny ii??aiyii c iioi/iei ?ieii ia 200 iei. aeie. NOA.

O ieoii?e aac? aei caaaeueiiai ianyao aeao?oeeoo Aea?aeaaiiai athaeaeaoo
Oe?a?ie ciai?oi? aeaea?aea c?inoathoue c 44% o 1996 ?ioe? aei 51% o
i?iaeo? athaeaeaoo ia 1997 ??e.

Ia iiaaoaiiy aeao?oeeoo Aea?aeaaiiai athaeaeaoo ia?aaeaa/a?oueny
ni?yioaaoe oaeiae 2 ie?ae. a?i. iaaeoiaeaeaiue a?ae aea?aeaaieo
aioo??oi?o iicee oa e?aaeeo?a Iaoe?iiaeueiiai aaieo Oe?a?ie.

Caaaeueiee ianya aeao?oeeoo Aea?aeaaiiai athaeaeaoo noaiiaeoue 4090 iei.
a?i., aai 4% aei i?iaiiciiai ianyao a?/iaiai aioo??oiueiai i?iaeoeoo ia
1997 ??e.

Aeao?oeeo ii athaeaeaoao Aaoiiiiii? ?anioae?ee E?ei, iaeanoae, i?no
Ee?aa ? Naaanoiiiey a 1997 ?ioe? ia ia?aaeaa/a?oueny.

Iiaeaiee ia ?icaeyae Aa?oiaii? ?aaee Oe?a?ie inoaoi/iee aa??aio i?iaeoo
Aea?aeaaiiai athaeaeaoo ? iaea?eueo iioeiaeueiei ca iei?oi?o ?aae?e.

A iiaeaeueoiio iaaea?oueny iiaeeea?noue iciaeiieoenue c i?iaeoii
Aea?aeaaiiai athaeaeaoo Oe?a?ie ia 1998 ??e , iiaeaiei ia ?icaeyae aei
Aa?oiaii? ?aaee Oe?a?ie.

Aeei?enoaia e?oa?aoo?a :

E?aa/aiei A. O?iainia? i?iaeaie i?noeaaeo i?aai?a aeaaee a Oe?a?ie.
/’O?iaine Oe?a?ie’.- 1995. – ? 1. – n.61.

Aaneeue/aiei C. Aeioiaee athaeaeaoo a nenoai? oi?aae?iiy aeiiii?eith.
/’O?iaine Oe?a?ie’.- 1997. – ? 6.

Eocueiaiei I. Aiae?c i?aeathaeaeaoieo a?aeiinei a Oe?a?i? (ia i?eeeaae?
*a?i?aaoeueei? iaeano?). /’O?iaine Oe?a?ie’.- 1996. – ? 9.

Iaiiue N. O?iainiaa iie?oeea ? aeioiaee athaeaeaoo Oe?a?ie /’O?iaine
Oe?a?ie’.- 1996. – ? 8.

Aaneeae E. Aaeineiiaeaiiy athaeaeaoiiai i?ioeano /’O?iaine Oe?a?ie’.-
1996. – ? 9.

*e?ea Ae. Iniaeeaino? caaeainoaaiiy i?noeaaeo athaeaeao?a /’O?iaine
Oe?a?ie’.- 1996. – ? 9.

Neooae N. I?yi? athaeaeaoi? o?ainoa?oe a nenoai? i?aeathaeaeaoieo
a?aeiinei /’O?iaine Oe?a?ie’.- 1996. – ? 12.

Ei?iiaanueeee A. Iniiai? i?eioeeie oi?ioaaiiy caaaeaiiai athaeaeaoo
Oe?a?ie a 1997 ?ioe? /’O?iaine Oe?a?ie’.- 1996. – ? 10.

?aaeuee?i I. Eieoa?ia I. Aeaye? ioe?iee i?aeoeee ianeoaiaoaaiiy
aea?aeaaiiai ai?ao a Oe?a?i? /’O?iaine Oe?a?ie’.- 1997. – ? 5.

Iaiiue N. Iiaeaoeiaa iie?oeea ? aeioiaee athaeaeao?a Oe?a?ie /’O?iaine
Oe?a?ie’.- 1997. – ? 5.

Oaa/oe A. O?neaeueia iie?oeea : iaiao?aei?noue caaeainiaaiiai athaeaeaoo
/’O?iaine Oe?a?ie’.- 1997. – ? 5.

Government Finance Statistics Yearbook. – Washington: IMF. – 1995

International Financial Statistics. – Washington. – IMF. – September
1996

Argentine Market Outlook. – London: ING Barings. – April 1996.

Aoeiaeinueeee N. O?iainiaa noaa?e?caoe?y ye iniiaa o?iainiai? iie?oeee
/’O?iaine Oe?a?ie’.- 1997. – ? 4.

Eueai/e?i N. I?iaeaia aea?aeaaiiai ai?ao (ia i?eeeaae? NOA) /’O?iaine
Oe?a?ie’.- 1997. – ? 4.

Economik Outlook. – ? 54, December, 1993. – C.148, 150

Iie A. Naithaenii A?eueyi Ae. Ii?aeaaoc Economics. – Ee?a: ‘Iniiae’. –
1995

Aaoiaiei O. Aei ieoaiiy i?i athaeaeaoio eeaneo?eaoe?th /’O?iaine
Oe?a?ie’.- 1996. – ? 8.

PAGE

PAGE 87

Нашли опечатку? Выделите и нажмите CTRL+Enter

Похожие документы
Обсуждение

Оставить комментарий

avatar
  Подписаться  
Уведомление о
Заказать реферат!
UkrReferat.com. Всі права захищені. 2000-2020