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Финансы Украины

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1. I?aaeiao, niaea?aeaiea e caaea/e eo?na.

I?aaeiao – eco/aiea iauaeoeai. caeiiiia?iinoae aeaeaeaiey aeai. n?-oa a
iau-aa a i?ioeanna ?ani?aae. e ia?a?ani?aae. NII e IAe.

Eo?n ninoieo ec aeieia: 1) iiiyoea o-nia e oi?-ea eie (o-nu eae ye.
eaoaai?ey, eniieueciaaiea o-ia a one-yo ?ui. oic-ey, oei. iao-ci e oei.
iieeoeea, oi?-ea o-naie O-iu). 2) ain. o-nu (nouiinoue AA, no?-?a aai
aeio. e ?ano. /anoe, aeeiaieea yoie no?-?u, oaeoi?u, aeeythuea ia no?-?o
AA, aeaoeoeeo AA, ianoiua oeiainu, i?iaeaiu eo oi?i-ey e eni-ey). 3)
aeaoeaio?aeec o-nu eee o-nu i?aaei?-e. 4)Oei. ?uiee O-iu (oiiaeiaue,
aaethoiue, e?aaeeoiue, no?aoiaie). 5) O-nu e oeai-ea a O-ia.

Ini. caaea/ae eo?na yae. eco/aiea oai?. aii?inia o-nia, ?anniio?aiea
oei. iieeoeee e oei. iao-cia, aeeythuaai ia ?acaeoea iauanoa. i?-aa e
iaeaaeaiea i?aeoe/. iaaueaie a iaeanoe athaeae. ieaie?-y e athaeae.
?aa-ey, aiaeecia athaeae. i?ioeannia, ioeaiee yo-noe eni-ey IO e ia.
n?-oa, iaoiaeeea ?an/aoa iaeio. aeaeia iaeiaia. Eo?n “O-nu” iineo
niae?ao. oa?-a?. Yoi au?aae. a oii, /oi a aeaiiii eo?na ?anniao?eaathony
i?eioeei. iiceoeee ii ae?. aaaeiaeoei oei. aeenoeeieeiai: ”Athaeaeao e
athaeae. nen-ia O-iu”, “O-nu i?aaei?-e”, “?OeA”, “Eiaano-ea”,
“No?ao-ea”, “Aeai. ia?. e e?aaeeo”, “Iaeiae e iaeiaiiiae-ea”.

Iaoiaeieiae/. iniiaie eo?na yae. “Ye. oai?ey”. Eo?n “O-nu” naycai n
noaoenoe/. aeenoe-iaie : ION, NYN, no-ea o-nia, eio. aeatho
aiciiaeiinoue i?iaiaeece?iaaoue iaeaieaa iauea yaeaiey e ?ac?aaioaoue
i?iaiicu ioiineo. oao eee eiuo oei. i?ioeannia

?4. Oei nenoaia Oe?aeiu.

Ooieoeeii-ea oei-ia iaani-ny n iiiiuueth oei n-iu Oe? – yoi
niaieoiiinoue oei ioiioaiee, nou-eo a ?aieao eiie?aoiie iauanoaaiii-ye
oi?iaoeee (a oceii niunea – nenoaia oei o/?aaeaeaiee ain-aa). Aieaa
iieii oei nenoaia – yoi niaieoiiinoue acaeiiuo noa? e caaiueaa oei
ioi-ee, i?enoueo ei oeaio?aeec e aeaoeaio? oiiaeia aeai n?-oa e aiia?aoa
oi?aae-ey eie. Oei n-ia aeeth/ neaae iauaeou oei ioiio-e: NII, IAe,
ainaeioiaeu, i?eaueue, oiiaeu ii.

Noauaeou oei ioi-ee – ain-ai, ii-y (i?ieca, eiiia?/ ii-y, no?aoiaua
aaieianeea no?oeoo?u, athaeae i?aaiec-ee. A niioa n yoei a iauae
niaieoiiinoe auaeae-ny neaae iiaenenoaiu oei nenoaiu: oei-u ain-aa,
ii-e, ianaeaiey.

A niioa n iauae i?e?iaeie ye-o n-i auaeaeytho iau/ii 2 oeia oei n-iu. 1.
aeaiie?aoe/aneiai oeaio?aeecia, i?enouee aaeieieiiiaiaeiie yeii. Ia
ia?aue ieai auaeaeaaaony ia noieueei aeaiie?aoe/aneee oa?aeoa?,
neieueei aa eiiiaiaeiue oa?aeoa?. 2 oei. i?aaiec oei. n-iu iac-ny
oeneaeueiui oaaea?aeeciii. Ii oaeiio oeio iino?iaiu oei. n-iu ?acaeouo
eiaeono?eaeueiuo no?ai, a ieo ain. athaeaeaou e iaeiae ioaeaeaiu io
athaeaeaoia e iaeiaia ooaoia (a NOA), caiaeue (a Aa?iaiee) e o.ae.

2. ?ieue oei-ia a aini?iec-aa NII e IAe.

A noa?a oicyeno-ey aeaaiaea?y oei-ai, yaeythu-ny eino?oi-ii noieiinoi
?ani?-ey iauanoa i?iaeoeoa, iaania/-ny oaeiaeaoa iinoiyiiiai
iaiythueony aini?ieca iio?aai-ae. Oei-u iicaie i?eniiniaeoue
i?iii?oeee i?-aa e ioaeaeai iio?aaeaiey. Ia?aiia/aeueii i?iii?oeee
?ani?-ey noieiinoe iauano i?iaeoeoa io?aaeatho no?oeoo?o ioi-ee i?-ai
– au?o/ea, eio aeaeyony i?iii?oeeiiaeueii eeieoai noieiinoe, io?aae
oneiaey i?-aa oiaa?ia. Iaeiaei ?ani?aaeae-ay oaeei ia?acii au?o/ea
ia niioaaono iio?aaiinoyi eciaiythuaainy iauan i?-aa, /oi aucua-ny
iaiaoiaee-iinoueth a aa ?ani?-ee. ?acaeoea iauano iio?aaiinoae
i?eaiaeeo e eciaiaieth ninoaaa e no?oeoo?u aeai oiiaeia, nicaeaaaaiuo a
?anii?yaeaiee noauaeoia oicyeno-ey. Anee ?anniao? i?ioeann aini?-aa a
aeeiaieea, oi ii i?aaeno niaie niaieoiiinoue iai?a?uaii iiaoi?ythueony
oeeeeia, nino ec /aou?ao iineaaeiaao noaaeee: i?-ai, ?ani?-ea, iaiai e
iio?aaeaiea. Eaaeaeue neaaeothuee oeeee aini?-aa aiciiaeai eeoue
iinea oiai eae nicaeaiiay a i?-aa e ?aaeeciaaiiay a i?ioeanna iaiaia
noieiinoue aoaeao ?ani?aaeaeaia eee ia?a?ani?aaeaeaia, a ?ac-oa /aai
aoaeoo nicaeaiu oeaeaaua e aeai oiiaeu, eio yae-ny iniiaie
oaeiaeaoai?aiey ?aciiia? iio?aaiinoae. A oiaea ?ani?-ey nicae-ny
oneiaey (i?aaeiinueee) aeey aoaeouaai oaeiaeaoa-ey iio?aai-ae, i?e /ai
i?ienoiaeeo yoi a noieiino oi?ia. Ia?aiia/ noa?ie aicieeiia oei
ioiio yae i?ioeannu ?ani?-ey noieiinoe iauan i?iaeoeoa ia ninoaae
yeaiaiou C+V+M e i?ienoiaeeo ia?aciaaiea ?acee/iuo oi?i aeai aeioiaeia
e iaeiieaiee. Oei-u – yoi nenoaia ye ioi-ee, neeaaeuaathueony a iauanoaa
a i?ioe ?ani?-ey e ia?a?ani?-ey NII e IAe e ?aaeecoaiuo i?e oi?i-ee
iiiaiia? aeai oiiaeia.

Aeaeueiaeo ?ni?-ea no-oe i/o noauaeoaie oic-y oaeaea i?ieno. ia iniiaa
oei-ia. Yoi ia?a?ani?-ea nii?iaiaeae oaeeie i?ioeannaie eae oieaoa
iaeiaia, oi?ie? oiiaeia eiaanoe?. e eai. aeiaeaiee., oiiae. nioe caueou
ianaeaiey,oiiaeia iao. noeioee?iaaiey ?aaioieeia iau. i?-aa e ?yaea
ae?oaeo oiiaeia, iin?aaenoaii yoeo i?ioeannia inou. ia?a?ani?. iauanoa.
i?iaeoeoa e IAe ii anai caaiueyi iau. i?-aa e noauaeoai oic-y.

3. Nouiinoue e iacia/aiea oei-ia.

Eae eaoaai?ey oei-u eiatho enoi?e/ oa?aeoa?. Iie aicieeee a one
oiaa?ii-aeai ioiio-ee, o.a. ia eiie?aoiii yoaia enoi?e/ ?acaeoey
iauanoaa iiae aeeyieai iio?aa-ae e ooieoeeii iacia/aiey ain-aa. Oei-u a
ia?aaiaea n eaouie- ieaoaae eee aeioiae. Aia?aua ni cia/aieai aeai
ieaoaae oeiainu noaee oe?iei eni-ny a 13-15 aaeao a Eoaeee. Aeaeaa
yoio oa?iei iieo/ee iaaeaeoia? ?ani?ino? e noae oiio?-ny eae
iiiyoea, nayc n nenoaiie aeai ioiioaiee, ia?aciaaiee aeai ?an-ia e
oiiaeia, iiaeeecoaiuo Ain-ii aeey ?aaeecaoeee naieo nioe, ye e
iieeoe/aneeo e aeinoeaeaiey oic noauaeoaie naieo i?ieca-eiiia?/
oeaeae.A eeoa?aoo?a ano?a/ ?acee/iua ii?aaeaeaiey aeey
oa?ieia”Oeiainu”. Iaeio aaoi?u n/eo, /oi oei-u – nenoaia ye ioiio-ee
neeaaeuaathueony a iauanoaa a i?ioe ?ani?-ey e ia?a?ani?-ey NII e IAe e
?aaeecoaiuo i?e oi?i-ee iiiaiiia? aeai oiiaeia. Ae? yeiiiienou
n/eoatho, /oi o-nu – yoi nenoaia aeai ioiio, aiciee a ia-uanoaa a
i?ioeanna oi?i-ey, ?ani?-ey e eniieuec-ey eae oeaio?aeec, oae e
aeaoeaio?aeec aeai oiiaeia no?aiu. Ano?a/-ny oaeaea ae?oaea ii?aae-ey
oei-ia. Eae iao/ iiiyoea oei-u iau/ii annioe-ny n oaie iiiai/ene
i?ioeannaie, eio oa?aeoa?ecothony aeaeaeaieai aeai n?-a. Aianoa n oai
aeaeae-ea aeai n?aaenoa aua ia ?ane? nouiinoe oei-ia. Aano?aae?oynue io
iiiai/ene oi?i, a eioi?uo i?ioaeatho oei i?ioeannu, iiaeii oaeaeaoue
oi iauaa, /oi eo iauaaeeiyao, o.a. eaaeauea a iniiaa oei i?ioe-ia
ioiio-ey iaaeaeo o/anoieeaie i?ii i?-aa. O.i. oei-u yoi ye ioi-ey,
eiathuea iauaeo oa?aeoa? e niaoeeoe/ iauanoa iacia/aiea. Yoi oa?aeoa?ec
oei-u eae ye eaoaai?eth.

Oei iaoee eco/ ia ?ano?nu eae oaeiaua, a iauano ioiioaiey e ae noa?a ye
ioiioaiee eiatho neaae iauanoa iacia/aiea: 1) oei ioi-ey aeaeatho
aiciiaeiui oi?ie?-ea oeaeaauo aeai oiiaeia a ?oeao i?aaeo-aa, eioi?ua
i?aaeiacia/ aeey auiieiaiey iauanoa oneoa, nioe-ye e i?i/eo ooieoeee; 2)
n iii oei-ia ain-ii ?aaoe-ny ini i?iii?oeee a ?acaeoee iauan i?-aa:
iaaeaeo i?ieca e iai?inoa?aie, iaaeaeo oiiaeii iaeiieaiey e iio?-ey,
iaaeaeo noa?aie iauan aeayo-oe e yeiiiieee; 3) /a?ac oei ioi-ey inou-ny
aicaeaenoaea ia ?acaeoea oei-ia a ieciauo no?oeoo?ao iauanoaa e
oe?aieaiey oei iieiaeaiey ii-e; 4)oei ioiioaiey yae-ny ye aacenii a
?acaeoee iaaeaeoia? nioe e o?oaeiauo ioiioaiee, a ?acaeoee iaaeaeoia?
?uieia eaieoaea, o?oaea e ?aa neeu; 5) oei-u neoaeao oaeaea noa?ie
?aaeec-ee ai nioe i?ia?aiiu, nioecaueou e ye iiaeaea?aeee ianaeaiey.

5. Ini caaiuey oei nenoaiu Oe?.

Iaee/ea ?aciuo iauan iio?aaiinoae o noauaeoia oic-y e ain-aa i?eaiaeeo
e aicieei ?aciiia? oei naycae. Ioee/aynue ae?oa io ae?oaa iie
iaeiia?aiaiii oa?. e iaeio iaueie /a?oaie,iicaieythueie iauaaeeieoue
oei ioi-ey a ioae, n?aaieoaeueii iainiaeaiiua a?oiiu. Ii naiae i?e?iaea
oei ioi-ey yae ?ani?-ie. Yoi ?ani?-ea no-oe inou i?aaeaea anaai ii
noauaeoai, eio oi?ie?. aeai. oiiaeu oeaeaaiai iacia/aiey. Ii ?iee
oicyenoa noauaeoa a iauanoa-i aini?ieca. iiaoo auoue auaeaeaiu 3 noa?u
oei. ioi-ee: 1 oei-u ii-e: a)oei ii, inou eii.aeayo,a) oei ii, inou
iaeii. aeayo,a)oei iau i?aai …2. no?aoiaaiea a) ee/iia a)eiou a)nioe
a)ioaaonoa… 3. ain. oei-u a) AA, a) aiaathaeae oiiaeu a) ain e?aaeeo
a) oei ain ii.

Aioo?e eaaeaeie ec iacaai noa? auaeae-ny caaiuey, eaaeaeia caaii
oei.n-iu a naith i/a?aaeue iiae?acae ia iiaecaaiuey a niioa n aioo?
no?oeoo?ie niaea?ae-ny a iai acaeiina. Iai?. a no?ao aeayo, aaea
oa?aeoa? aeayoaeueiinoe noauaeoa i?aaeii?aaeaeyao niaoeeoeeo iauaeoa
no?ao. a ea/. caaiueaa aunooiatho: nioe. no?-a, eiou no?-a, e o.ae.
Noa?u e caaiuey oei ioi-ee acaeiinayc e ia?ac a niaieoiiinoe aaeeioth
oei. nen-io.

Oa?iei “Oei. n-ia” oiio? aeey iaicia/ ii naiae nooe iiiyoee: 1)
niaieoi-oue noa? e caaiueaa oei. ioiio, acaeiina i/o niaie; 2) nia. oei
o/?-ee no?aiu, e eio. ioiin oei. i?aaiu e ana iiae?acae. ain. iaeia
neoaeau.

Oei n-ia i?aaeno niaie niaieoiiinoue oei caaiueaa, i?ecaaiiuo iaania/
ain-ao inou. naieo ooieoe.

Ii o?iaith oeaio?ae. oei. n-io iiaeii i?aaeno. a neaae aeaea: Oei n-ia:
1. oeaio?. oei a)AA, a)Ianoi A a) iain.oiiae a) oiiae nioe no?ao
ae)aiaathaeae oiiaeu, a) oiiae ain. e?aaeeoa; 2. aeaoeaio?. oei. a) oei
io?aneae a) oei. ii a) oei o/?. iai?. noa?u a) oei iau i?aai. a) oiiae
*a?i ae)oei. ianae c) eiii e?aaeeo.

Ii o?iaith oi?-ey 1. oei. noauaeoia oic.a)nianoa n?-aa a) oei
?acoeueoaoia 2.athaeae n-ia a)AA a) ?aaeii.A 3. aiaathaeae. oiiaeu a)ain
aiaa oiiaeu a) iaain aiaa oiiaeu 4. oei. iai?. noa?u a) athaeae oei-u a)
oei ?ac-o i?aaei?. aeayo 5. oei. ianae a) aeioiaeu a noa?a iao. i?. a)
aeioiaeu a iaiao noa?a. 6. aiaoiaain oei iayc a) e?aaeeou e iiiiuue a)
iieaoa ii e?aae e aeieaai. 7.oei. eio?ano?. a) caeiiiiae. ono iaani. a)
n-ia oei. o/?aaeae a) Iao/-oao e i?aaia. iaani.

Eaaeaeoth ec i?eaaae no?oeoo? iiaeii ?ac?aa aieaa aeaoaeueii. ?ani-ay
eo, iiaeii auaeaeeoue ini caaii a eaaeaeie ec ieo. Oaeeie aaaeou
caaiueyie yae 1. AA, eae niaieoiiinoue ye. ioi-ee ii oi?i-eth, ?ani?-eth
e eni. ini oeaio?ae oiiaea no?aiu. 2 ii cia/eiinoe yae. oei-nu ii-e. Oei
n-ia oanii naycaia ni no?-?ie oei-ia

A ?aaeueiie aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe oei nenoaia aeeth/aao iiiaiia? oei
einoeooou, eio iauanoai eniieuecoao n oeaeueth iaani-ey e?oaiiai?ioa oei
?an-ia.

?6. No?oeoo?a e ninoaa oeaio?aeec e aeaoeaio? oei-ia

Oei nenoaia iiaeao auoue i?aaenoaaeaia a aeaea aeaoo nenoai:

1. oeaio?. oei-u a)AA, a)Ianoi athaeaeaou a) iain.oiiae a) oiiae nioe
no?ao ae)aiaathaeae oiiaeu, a) oiiae ain. E?aaeeoa; ae) oiiae
aineiouanoaa e ee/iiai no?aoiaaiey; 2. aeaoeaio?. oei: a) oei io?aneae
i/o; a) oei. ii-e; a) oei o/?. iai?. noa?u a) oei iau i?aai. ae) oiiae
*a?i; a) eiii e?aaeeo; ae) oiiaeu eiiia?/ no?oeoo?; c) oiiaeu no?ao
eiiiaiee; e) ain oiiae niaeaenoaey caiyoinoe; e)oei. ianae

A niioa-ee n aioo? no?oeoo?ie niaea?aeaueony a ?acee/i caaiueyo oei
nenoaiu acaeiinaycae, eaaeaeia caaii iiae?acae-ny ia iiaecaaiuey.

Aaaeouei caaiii oei nenoaiu aunooiaao ainathaeaeao Oe?, eio i?aaeno
niaie niaie nenoaio ye ioiioaiee, iiin?aaenoaothueo i?ioeannu oi?ie?-ey,
?ani?-ey e eni-ey oeaio?aeec oei ?ano?nia, i?aaeiacia/-uo aeey
oaeiaeaoa-ey iauanoa iio?aaiinoae. ?aaoee?iaaiea oei ioi-ee n iiiiuueth
ainathaeaeaoa inou-ny ia iae?iye o?iaia.

Aaaeiaeoei caaiii oei nenoaiu aunooi oei-u ii-e, eio iaania/ i?ioeann
oi?ie?-ey e eni-ey aeioiaeia ia?ae/iuo i?ieca no?oeoo? e ?aaoee?otho
?ani?aae ioiio-ey ia o?iaia iee?iyeiiiieee. Eiaiii caeanue nicae-ny NII
e IAe, yaeythueany iauaeoaie aeaeuei oei ioi-ee.

Ooieoeee oei-ia ii-e a one ?ui yeiiiieee caee-ny a iaania/aiee oei
?ano?naie iio?aaiinoae ?anoe? aini?-aa ia iniiaa onoaiiaeaiey
iioeiaeueiiai niioi-ey iaaeaeo n?aaenoaaie, iai?aaeyaiuie ia iio?-ea eee
iaeiieaiea.

Oiiae ainnioeno?aoiaaiey – yoi niaoeeoe/ oi?ia ye ioi-ee, eanathueony
?ani?-ey e eni-ey /anoe IAe, iai?aaeyaiie ia auieaoo iainee, iiniaee,
?acaeoea icaei?iaeo e oece/ eoeueoo?u.

Ain e?aaeeo yoi noa?a aeai ioiioaiee, aiciee iaaeaeo ain-ii eae
caaiueeii aeai n?-a, n oece/ e th?eae eeoeaie eae e?aaeeoi?aie a nayce n
nicaeaieai oeaio?aeec ain oiiaea aeai ?an-ia. Caeanue ain-ai ia
aica?aoiuo ia/aeao iiaeeece?oao aeai n?-aa ianaeaiey, ii-e e i?aai-ee
aeey oaeiaeaoai? iauan iio?aaiinoae.

Ini noa?u oei iiaenenoaiu iaoiaeyony a oaniie acaeiinayce: ianaeaiea e
/anoiua oic-aa i?aaenoaaeytho ii-yi e ain-ao ?aa neeo, iieo/ay a
ea/aonaa eiiiainaoeee ca naie o?oae c/i. A naith i/a?aaeue ain-ai ca
n/ao ecuyoey /anoe aeioiaeia ii-e e ianaeaiey a aeaea iaeiaia a
athaeaeaou ?ace o?iaiae i?aaeinoaaeyao “Iauee oiaa?” (niaea?aeaiea
a?iee, caueoa ie?oae n?aaeu, iaania/ ia?aciaaiey e nioe aa?aioee,
cae?aaiio?aiaiey), eioi?ue eiaao iauaain cia/aiea eee aea i?aaeinoaae-ny
a ?anii?yaeaiea aieueoeo nioe a?oii.

?7. Oei-i?ii a?oiiu e eo ?ieue a oi?aaeaiee oeiainaie.

Oi?aaeaiea – yoi niaieoiiinoue i?eaiia e iaoiaeia oeaeaiai?aae
aicaeaenoaey ia iaaueo oi?aae. n oeaeueth iieo/aiey ii?aae. ?ac-oa.
Aaaeiie iaeanoueth oi?aaeai/ aeayo. yae. oi?-ea oei. Iii inou niaoe
aiia?aoii (Iei. oei) iin?aaenoaii i?eaiia e iaoiaeia, eoaea aoiaeyo
?aciiia? noeioeu e naieoeee. Eneonnoai oi?aaeaiey ninoieo a auai?a
iaeaieaa yooaeoeai iaoiaea ec /enea eiathueony eee nicaeaiee one-ee aeey
?aoe eni-ey i?eiaiyai iaoiaeia n oeaeueth auno?. ?aoaiey iinoaae oeaee.

Eae e ai anyeie oi?aaeyaiie n-ia a oi?aae-ee oei-ie auaeaeytho iauaeou e
noauaeou oi?-ey. Iauaeoii oi?aaeaiey yae. ?acee/i aeaeu oei. ioiioaiee,
a noauaeoaie yae oa i?a. no?-?u, eio. inou. yoi oi?aae. I?eiaieoaeueii e
Oe?. auaeaeythony 3 a?oiiu iauaeoia oi?aae.: oei-u ii-y, ainoae o-u,
no?aoiaua eiii. E noauaeoai oi?aaeaiey ioiinyo: oei. neoaeau ii-y, no?ao
i?aaiu, oei. i?aaiu e iaeia. einiaeoeee. Noauaeou oi?aae ooieoe. a
eaaeaeii caaia e a eaaeaeie noa?a oei. ioiioiee. Niaie. anao i?aai.
no?-? inou. oi?aaeaiea oeiain. iacua oei aiia?aoii. Auaeae ianeieueei
iaoiaeia eee i?eaiia inou oi?-ey:1)oei ieaie? 2)iia?ao oi?-a 3)oei
eiio?ieue.

A nenoaia ain oi?aaeaiey oei-ie aaaeou ?ieue ioai-ny ain ?aaoee?-eth.

Aai nii oeaeueth aunooiaao oei iaania/aiea ye i?ioennia, iicaieythuaa
i?aaeioa?auaoue /?acau/ neooaoeee, nayc n oa?icie aeeciaaeayo-oe
iauanoaa a oeaeii; oeo/oaoue yeieiae/aneoth ianoaiiaeo; noaaeeece?iaaoue
ye neooaoeeth a no?aia; ieacuaaoue ye iiaeaea?aeeo iaei iaania/aiiui
neiyi ian-y; noaaeeec-oue oeaiu; iaania/ aeayo-oue ye nenoaiu a oeaeii;
caueuaoue aeaiie?aoeth e ae?. ?aaeec-ny ainoeioi?aaeaiea /a?ac i?aaiaoth
aaco, iaeia n-io, ia?a?ani?-ea aeai aeioiaeia e ?an-ia.

Oi?aaeaiea oei-ie aeeth/ a ea/anoaa aaaeiaeoae ninoaaiie /anoe oi?-ey
oei-i?ii a?oiiaie, eioi?ua i?aaenoatho eae n?aaenoai ?aaeec-ee
naeaeoeaiie no?oeoo?iie iieeoeee ain-aa, iaania/ aini?iec-ai,
iaeiieaiea, eiioeaio-eth, ia?auaiea oei, i?iecaiaeeo-ai e oiaa?iiai
eaieoaea, aai eiaanoe?-ea a i?eie?eo iaeanoe i?iiuoe-oe, iiauoaiey
ioaea/e io eiaanoeoeeii i?iaeoia.

Oei-i?ii a?oiiu, eae niinia eioaa?aoeee eaieoaea ii-e e oei a?oii iiaoo
eiaoue ?acee/iua i?aaiec-i?aaiaua oi?iu, iai?aaeaiey aeayo-oe, ninoaa
o/anoieeia e no?oeoo?o oi?-ey. N oi/ee c?aiey oi?i eioaa?-ee eaieoaea
oei-i?ii a?oiia iiaeao oi?ie?-ny eae AI, oieaeeia eiiiaiey, o?ano
(ia?aaea/a nianoa-oe a aeiaa?eo iieueciaaiea), ia?ae?anoiia aeaaeaiea
aeoeeyie (acaeiio/anoea a eaieoaea), no?aoaa aeueyin (iauaae-ea oneeee,
aeathuaa eaaeaeiio o/anoieeo aeinooi e niaianoii auiieiyaiui i?iaeoai,
i?ia?aiiai, aacai aeaiiuo e ae?.)

?8.Oei iaiaaeae-o eae n-ia oi?-ey

Oei iaiaaeaeiaio iai?aaeai ia oi?-ea aeaeaeaieai oei ?an-ia e oei
ioi-ee, aiciee-eo a i?ioe aeaeae-ey aeai n?-a. Ioaao ia aii?in, eae
i?aaeeueii ?oeiaiaeeoue yoei aeaeaeaieai e ioiio-ie, ninoaaeyao
niaea?aeaiea oei iaiaaeae-oa. Iineaaeiee i?aaeno niaie i?ioeann
au?aaioee oeaee oi?-ey oei-ie e inouan-ea aicaeaenoaey ia ieo n
iiiiuueth ?u/aaia e iaoiaeia oei iao-cia. O.i. oei iaiaaeae-o aeeth/ a
naay no?aoaaeth e oaeoeeo oi?-ey. Iiae no?aoaaeae a aeaiiii neo/aa
iiiei-ny iauaa iai?aaeaiea e niinia eniieuec-ey n?-a aeey aeinoeaeaiey
iinoaae oeaee. Yoiio niiniao niioaaonoaoao ii? iaai? i?aaee e
ia?aie/aiee i?e i?eiyoee ?aoaiey. No?aoaaey iicaie neiioeaio?e?iaaoue
oneeey ia oao aa?eaioao ?aoaiey, eio ae ia i?ioeai?a/ao, ioa?inea ana
ae?oaea aa?eaiou. Iinea aeinoeaeaiey iinoaae oeaee no?aoaaey i?ae?au
naia nouano-ea. Iiaua oeaee noaayo caaea/o ?ac?aaioee iiaie no?aoaaee.
Oaeoeea – yoi eiie? iaoiaeu e i?eaiu aeey aeinoeae iinoaae oeaee a eiie?
oneiaeyo. Caaea/ae oaeoeee oi?-ey yae-ny auai? iaeaieaa iioeiaeueiiai
?aoaiey e eo/oeo a aeaiiie oic neooaoeee iaoiaeia e i?eaiia oi?-ey.

Oei iaiaaeae-o eae n-ia oi?-ey ninoieo ec 2 iiaenenoai: oi?aaeyaiie e
oi?aaeythuae, eee iauaeoa e noauaeoa oi?-ey. Iauaeoii oi?-ey a oei
iaiaaeae-oa yae-ny niaieoii-oue oneaee inouan-ey aeai iai?ioa,
e?oaiiai?ioa noieiinoe, aeaeae-ey oei ?an-ia e oei ioi-ee ieaaeaeo oic
noauaeoaie e eo iiae?acaeaeaieyie a oic i?ioeanna. Noauaeo oi?-ey – yoi
niaoe a?oiia ethaeae, eio iin?aaenoaii ?acee/iuo oi?i oi?aaeai/
aicaeaenoaey inou-ao oeaeaiai? aicaeaenoaea ia ooieoeeii-ea iauaeoa.

Ethaie iauaeo oi?-ey, ethaie i?ioeann i?aaenoaaeyao niaie nenoaio. Iiae
nenoaiie iiieiaaony niaieoii-oue acaeiiaeaenoa yeaiaioia, ninoaaeythueo
oeaeinoiia ia?aciaaiea. Eaaeaeiio yeaiaioo n-iu i?enoue ?ace naienoaa:
yeaiaio nenoaiu auiieiyao oieueei aio i?enouoth ooieoeeth, iaeaaeaao
niiniai-th acaeiiaeaenoaiaaoue n ae? yeaiaioaie e eioaa?e?iaaoue n ieie.
Naienoaa yeaiaioia oei n-iu iicaie auaanoe iauaa i?aaeei oei
iaiaaeae-oa: anaaaea iaaei no?aieoueny e oei onoie/eainoe oei n-iu a
oeaeii, a ia ioaeaeueiuo aa yeaiaioia, iiaenenoai.

?10. I?iaiice? e ieaie? a oei iaiaaeae-oa

Oei iaiaaeaeiaio iai?aaeai ia oi?-ea aeaeaeaieai oei ?an-ia e oei
ioi-ee, aiciee-eo a i?ioe aeaeae-ey aeai n?-a. Ioaao ia aii?in, eae
i?aaeeueii ?oeiaiaeeoue yoei aeaeaeaieai e ioiio-ie, ninoaaeyao
niaea?aeaiea oei iaiaaeae-oa. Iineaaeiee i?aaeno niaie i?ioeann
au?aaioee oeaee oi?-ey oei-ie e inouan-ea aicaeaenoaey ia ieo n
iiiiuueth ?u/aaia e iaoiaeia oei iao-cia. Aaaeiay ?ieue a oei
iaiaaeae-oa ioaiaeeony ieaie?iaaieth e i?iaiic-eth. Ieaie? a oei
iaiaaeaeiaioa ea?aao nouano ?ieue. Aeey oiai, /oiau aeaoue eiiaiaeo,
ioaeii ninoaaeoue caaeaiea, i?ia?aiio aeaenoaey, aeey /aai ?ac?aa-ny
ieaiu oei ia?ii?-ee, iieo/aiey aeioiaeia, yooaeoeai eni-ey oei ?an-ia.
Oei ieaie?, eae ooieoeey oi?-ey oei-ie ioaaouaaao aanue eiiieaen
ia?ii?-ee eae ii au?aaioea ieaiiauo caaeaiee, oae e ii aiieiu eo a
aeeciue.

I?iaiice? a oei iaiaaeae-oa – yoi ?ac?aaioea ia aeeeoaeuei ia?niaeoeao
eciai-ee oei ninoiyiey iauaeoa a oeaeii e aai ?acee/iuo /anoae.
I?iaiice? ia noaaeo caaea/o inouan-ey ia i?aeoeea ?ac?aaioaiiuo
i?iaiicia. Yoe i?iaiicu i?aaeno niaie i?aaeaeaeaiea niioaaonoa eciai-ee.
Inia-th i?iaiic-ey yae-ny oaeaea aeueoa?iaoeaiinoue iino?iaiey oei
iieacaoaeae e ia?aiao?ia, ii?aaeaeythuay aa?eaioiinoue ?acaeoey oei
ninoiyiey iauaeoa oi?-ey ia iniiaa iaiaoeaoeony oaiaeaioeee. I?iaiice?
iiaeao inou-ny eae ia iniiaa yenia?oiie ioeaiee oaiaeaioeee eciaiiaiee,
oae e ia iniiaa i?yiiai i?aaeaeaeaiey eciaiaiee.

Eiio?ieue a oei iaiaaeae-oa naiaeeony e i?iaa?ea i?aaiecaoeee oei
?aaiou, auiieiaiey oei ieaiia e o.i. Eiio?ieue i?aaeiieaaaao aiaeec oei
?acoeueoaoia. Aiaeec – /anoue i?ioeanna ieaie?iaaiey oei-ia.
Neaaeiaaoaeueii oei eiio?ieue yae-ny iai?ioiie noi?iiie oei ieaie?iaaiey
e aeieaeai ?anniao?-ny eae aai ninoaaiay /anoue – eiio?ieue ca
auiieiaieai oei ieaia, ca auiiei i?eiyouo ?aoaiee.

Oi?-ea ia iniiaa ieaie?iaaiey, i?aaeaeaeaiey e eiio?iey o?aaoao
au?aaioee o oei iaiaaeaea?a /oanoaa ?ui iaoaiecia e eiooeoeee, a oaeaea
niiniaiinoe i?eiyoey aeaeeo yeno?aiiuo ?aoaiee.

?9. Cia/ e o-ee oei iaiaaeae-oa.

Oei iaiaaeaeiaio i?aaeiaci aeey oi?-ey aeaeaeaieai oei ?an-ia e oei
ioi-ee, aiciee-eo a i?ioe aeaeae-ey aeai n?-a. Ioaao ia aii?in, eae
i?aaeeueii ?oeiaiaeeoue yoei aeaeaeaieai e ioiio-ie, ninoaaeyao
niaea?aeaiea oei iaiaaeae-oa. Iineaaeiee i?aaeno niaie i?ioeann
au?aaioee oeaee oi?-ey oei-ie e inouan-ea aicaeaenoaey ia ieo n
iiiiuueth ?u/aaia e iaoiaeia oei iao-cia.

?anniao?eaay ooieoeee oei iaiaaeae-oa ioiaoei, /oi iie ii?aaeaeytho
oi?ie?-ea no?oeoo?u oi?aeythuae n-iu. ?acee/ aeaa ini oeia oei
iaiaaeae-oa: auiieiaiea ooieoeee iauaeoa e noauaeoa oi?-ey. E ooiieoeeyi
iauaeoa oi?-ey ioiin-ny: i?aaiecaoeey aeai iai?ioa, niaaaeaiea oei
n?aaenoaaie e eiaanoeoe eino?oiaioaie, niaaaeaiea ini-ie e iai?
oiiaeaie, i?aai-ey oei ?aaiou e oae. Ooieoeee noauaeoa oi?-ey i?aaen
niaie iauee aeae aeayo-oe, au?aaeathuae iai?aaeaiea inouano-ey
aicaeaenoaey ia ioiioaiey ethaeae a oic i?ioeanna e a oei ?aaioa. ?a/ue
eaeao i oaeeo ooieoeeyo eae ieaie?iaaiea, i?iaiice?, i?aai-ey, ?aaoe-ea,
noeioe-ea e eiio?ieue.

Oei ieaie?, eae o-oeey oi?-ey oei-ie ioaao aanue eiiieaen ia?ii?-ee eae
ii au?aaioea ieaiiauo caaeaiee, oae e ii aiieiu eo a aeeciue.

I?iaiice? a oei iaiaaeae-oa – yoi ?ac?aaioea ia aeeeoaeuei ia?niaeoeao
eciai-ee oei ninoiyiey iauaeoa a oeaeii e aai ?acee/iuo /anoae.

Ooieoeey i?aaiecaoeee a oei iaiaaeae-oa naiaeeony e iauaae-eth ethaeae,
niaianoii ?aaeecothueo oei i?ia?aio ia aaca ii? i?aaee e i?ioeaaeo?.

?aaoe-ea a oei iaiaaeae-oa – yoi aicaeaenoaea ia iauaeo oi?-ey,
iin?aaenoaii eio?iai aeinoeaaaony ninoiyiea oei onoieneainoe.

Eii?aeeiaoeey a oei iaiaaeae-oa – niaeaniaaiiinoue ?aaio anao caaiueaa
n-iu oi?-ey e niaoeeaeenoia. Eii?ae-ey iaania aaeeinoai ioiioaiee
iauaeoa e noauaeoa oi?-ey, aiia?aoa oi?-ey e ioaeaeueiiai ?aaioieea.

Iin?aaenoaii noeioee?iaaiey a oei iaiaaeae-oa inou-ny oi?aaeaiea
?ani?aaeaeaieai iao e aeooiaiuo oeaiiinoae a caaenei io eie-aa e
ea/anoaa cao?a/aiiai eaaeae ?aaioieeii o?oaea.

Eiio?ieue a oei iaiaaeae-oa naiaeeony e i?iaa?ea i?aaiecaoeee oei
?aaiou, auiieiaiey oei ieaiia e o.i. Eiio?ieue i?aaeiieaaaao aiaeec oei
?acoeueoaoia.

Oei iaiaaeaeiaio aeieaeai aace?iaaoueny ia ciaiee noaiaea?oi i?eaiia
oi?-ey e ia oiaiee auno?i e i?aaeeueii ioeaieoue eiie? oei neooaoeeth e
i?e iiiiue eniieuec-ey o-oeee oei iaiaaeae-oa iaeoe auoiae ec yoie
neooaoeee (aiciiaeii, aaeeinoaaiiue).

?11. O-ee oei-ia a iaani iauanoa aini?iec-aa

Oei-u yae. eino?oiaioii noieiinoi ?ani?.; eo niaoeeo iacia/aiea ninoieo
a oii, /oiau ?ani?. e ia?a?ani?. no-oue AAI, au?aaeaiioth a aeai oi?ia
iaaeaeo ?aciuie noauaeoaie oic. e iai?aaeaieyie oeaeaaiai eni..
Nouiinoue o-ia eae eaoaai?ee i?iyae-ny a eiie? ooieoeeyo oei-ia:

1. ?ani?aae-ay. *a?ac yoo o-oeeth ?aae iauanoa iacia/aiea oei-ia –
iaani-ea eaaeaeiai noauaeoa oic. iaiaoiae. aio oei. ?ano?naie, eni. a
oi?ia aeai. oiiaeia niaoe. oeaeaaiai iacia/. Iauaeoaie aeaenoaey yoie
o-oeee aunooiatho no-oue NII e IAe. N iii ?ani?aae.ooieoeee inou. 1.
ia?ae/iia ?ani?-ea NII ia c+v+m ia no-oue aicieeathueo n?-a i?-aa n,
v,m. Iinea ia?ae/i ?ani?-ey NII e a /anoiinoe ia?a?ani?-ey aiiaue
nicaeaiiie no-oe. Oaeia ia?a?ani?. i?ieno ca n/ao acuiaiey iaeiaia
eaeooeo a oeaio?. aeai oiiaeu IAe=m’+m+v, aaea m’eaeao a ain.athaeaeao,
m inoaaony ia ii v – /anoe/ii ia?a?ani? ca n/ao iiae. iaeiaa, /anoue
eaeao a ain e ianoi athaeae.

E?iia oiai ca n/ao oei-ia inou. ia?a?ani?-ea aeai n?-a i/o ?acee/i
io?aneyie ye-e (i?ieca e iai?ieca); aioo?e yoeo io?aneae oaeaea inou
oa??eoi? ?ani?-ea oei ?an-ia. ?a/ue eaeao i athaeae anneaiiaaieyo,
auaeaeyaiuo a neaai?aca. yeii ?aeiiu.

*a?ac oei-u inou aicae. ia ana aac eneeth/ noa?u iau. i?-aa. Nthaea
ioiineony aiciau noiei-e iio?. n?-a i?-aa e ia?aciaaiea aeioiaeia e
oiiaeia a ?acee/i oi?iao. ?ani?aae o-ey oei-ia caeeth/ e a oii, /oi
nicaeaaaai n iii oei-ia aiaathaeae. oiiaeu, athaeae. ?ano?nu, no?ao
oiiaeu iicaie ono?aiyoue io?eoe iineaaenoaey, aiciee aneaaenoaea
aeeni?iii?oeee a ?acaeo ioae io?aneae ye-e. ?ani? o-oeey oei caee e a
oii, /oi n aa iii inou aeeooa?aioe oei aeioiaeia ian-y. A one ?uiea
aeeoo iaaeyaeii i?iyae a oii, /oi oaea iaicia/eeenue aeiaieueii ?ace
nioe a?oiiu ianae. A yoii ithaina i?iyae-ny e oeeinioey e iieeoeea
oei-ia. Oioy oei-u e yae-ny yeai-ii aacena, iie naycaiu n yeaiaioaie
iaaeno?ieee n i?iaaaeaieai ii?aae iieeoeeee ain.

2. Eiio?ieueiay.Iniiao eiio? o-oeee oei nino aeaeaeaiea aeai ?an,
i?ienoiae eae a oiiaeiaie e ai aiaoiiaeiaie oi?iao. Eiio? o-oeey inou a
i?ioe oi?i, ?ani?-ey e eni ?ace aeaeia aeai. oiiaeia. Eo oi?i-ea, oei
eiio?ieue inou a i?ioe acuiai ?ace aeaeia iaeiaia e iaeia ieaoaaeae,
iiaee-ee ae? enoi/ieeia aeioiaeia, ii?aaeaeaiee iaeiaiiae. aacu,
onoaiiaeaiea n?ieia iinooieai aeioiaeia. I?e ?anoiae-ee oiiaeia oei
eiio?ieue iaani ioeaieo yoo. eni-ey n?-a, a oaeaea eo niioaaoneaea
oeaeaaiio iacia/-eth, iniaaiii a iae athaeaeaoa. Aaaeii ioiaoeoue, /oi
oei eiio?ieue oaeaea inou ca i?-ii, ?ani?aae e iio?aae NII e aai
aaaeiaeoaai eiiiiiaioa IAe, a oaeaea ca niaethaeaieai eiie? i?iii?oeee,
neeaaeua-ny a i?ioe ia?a?ani?-ey IAe. Eino?oiaioia ?aaeec-ee eiio?
o-oeee aunooiaao oei eioi?i-ey, eio io?aae-ny a oei iieacaoaeyo,
eiathueony a aooa., noaoenoe/ e iia?aoeaiie io/aoiinoe. Oioy oei.
iieacaoaee yae ?aciiaeaeiinoueth noieiinoiuo iieacaoaeae, eo
iniaaiiinoue caee. a oii, /oi ei i?enou neioaoe/aneee oa?aeoa?,
io?aaeaiea ?acee/iuo noi?ii oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?,
i?aaiecaoeee. N eiio?ieueiie ooieoeeae iai?yioth naycaii iiiyoea oei.
aeenoeeieeiu.

?11 (i?iaeieaeaiea)

3. Ooieoeey iaani. nou ain-aa noaaeo naiae caaea/ae nicaeaiea iao.-oei.
aacu ooieoe. ain-aa, a eiaiii niaea?aeaiea aiia?aoa oi?aaeaiey no?aiie,
i?aceaeaioneie aeanoe, caeiiiaeaoaeueie e eniieieoaeueiie aeanoe,
i?aaiio?aieoaeueiuo e oai. i?aaiia, iaeiaiauo neoaea, o.a. niaea?aeaiea
oao no?-?, aac eioi?uo ia i?aaenoaaeyaony auiieiaiey ain. naieo iieeoe/,
yeii e nioe. ooieoeee. Yoa ooieoe. inou. ca n/ao ain. athaeaeaoa, aaea
ia yoe oeaee i?eoiaeeony io 6,5 aei 9,5% a caaeneiinoe io oiai eee eiiai
aiaea. Aaaeiia cia/aiea eiaao oaeaea oei-iea AYAe Oe?: niaae?aeaiea ca
n/ao athaeae. aeeieiiao. i?aaenoaaeoaeueonoa Oe?aeiu, aciinu a iaaeae.
i?aaiecaoeee , /eaiii eioi?uo yaeyaony Oe?aeia e o.ae. Ia yoeo oeaee
ain-ai o?aoe o io 3 aei 7% ?anoiaeia ain. athaeae.

4. Nioeeaeueiay o-y oei. iaeaaieaay?ei i?iyaeyaony a nia? oneiaeyo, a
ia?eiae ia?aoiaea e ?ui. yeii. Nae/an iiyaeeanue i?eioe. iiaay a?oiia
?anoiaeia. ain. athaeaeaoa – nioe. caueoa ianaeaiey, nioe. iaania/aiea.
Iaeiaei nioe. o-y oei. naiaeeony ia oieueei e iiaeaea?aeea iaeiiaani
neiaa ianaeaiey, ii e e niaea?aeaieth o/?aaeaeaiee iai?. noa?u.

?31. Eiio?ieue ca eniieiaieai athaeaeaoa e aai cia/aiea.

Eiio?ieue ca eniieiaieai athaeaeaoa inou-ny niioaaonoaaiii Aa?o niaaoii
Oe?, Aa?o niaaoii ?ani E?ui, ianoiuie niaaoaie ia?iaeiuo aeaiooaoia,
eioi?ua naiinoiyoaeueii ii?aaeaeytho i?aaiecaoeeii oi?iu inouano-ey
oaeiai eiio?iey. I?aaiaie ain eniieieo aeanoe e eniieieo i?aaiaie
ianoiuo niaaoia ia?iaeiuo aeaiooaoia aianoa n i?aaiaie Ieioeia Oe?
inou-ny eiio?ieue ca ninoiyieai iinooieaiey aeioiaeia a niioaaonoaothuee
athaeaeao, n?aaenoa aiaathaeae oiiaeia e i?aaeeueiui eniieuec-ai ii-ie,
o/?aaeae-ie e i?aai-ie auaeaeaiiuo ei athaeae anneaiiaaiee, n?aaenoa
aiaathaeae oiiaeia.

I?aaiu ain eniieieo aeanoe e eniieieo i?aaiu ianoiuo niaaoia ia?iaeiuo
aeaiooaoia aunoaai o?iaiy inouanoae iaaeci? ca oiaeii eniieiaiey
athaeaeaoa, enoiaey eo o?aaiaaiee aeaenoaothuaai caeiiiaeao-aa, ?aoaiee
i?aaiia ain eniieieo aeanoe aunoaai o?iaiy, i?eiyouo a ?aieao eo
eiiiaoaioeee.a neo/aa, anee noaaaioeee, auaeaeaiiua athaeaeaoo
ieaeanoiyuaai oa??eoi? o?iaiy ia eniieuec-ny a onoaiiae n?ie eee
eniieuec-ny ia ii oeaeaaiio iacia/aieth, noaneaee?iaaiea i?ae?auaaony, a
auaeaeaiiua n?-aa iiaeeaaeao aica?aoo a athaeaeao, ec eioi?iai iie auee
iieo/aiu.

Ieioei Oe? ianao ia?niiaeueioth ioaaonoaaiiinoue ia?aae Aa?o niaaoii Oe?
ca niaethaeaiea caeiia “I ainathaeaeaoa Oe?”. Ieioei Oe? iaycai
iaiaaeeaiii eioi?ie?iaaoue Aa?o niaao Oe? i anao neo/ayo ia?ooaiey
i?aaiaie ain eniieieo aeanoe eneeth/eoaeueiiai i?aaa Aa?o niaaoa
onoaiaaeeaaoue iaeiae e ii?aaeaeyoue caeiiiinoue eniieuec-ey athaeae
n?aaenoa.

?12. Nouiinoue oei iieeoeee

A ethaii oeeaeeec iauanoaa i?aaeo-ai eniieuecoao oei ioi-ey aeey
aeinoeaeaiey ii?aaeae oeaeae, aeey inouanoaeaiey naieo ooieoeee e
caaea/. A yoie nayce oei iieeoeea aunooiaao aeoeaiui i?oaeeai
aicaeaenoaey ain-aa eae ia ye eioa?anu ?ace-uo neiaa ian, oae e iauanoaa
a oeaeii.

Nouiinoue oei iieeoeee ninoieo a ?ac?aaioea iao/ii iainiiaaiiuo
eiioeaioeee ?acaeoey oei-ia, ii?aaeaeiee ini iai?aaeaiee e niiniaia
eni-ey oei-ia ia aeeeoaeueioth ia?niaeoeao e ia oaeou ia?eiae n o/aoii
oeaeae ye e nioe iieeoeee ain-aa, iaaeaeoia? oaeoi?ia iauanoa ?acaeoey,
aiciiaeiinoae oaaee/aiey oei ?an-ia no?aiu, a oaeaea a inouanoaeaiee
i?aeoe/ aeaenoaee, iai?aae ia aeinoeaeaiea eiie? oeaeae.

Oei iieeoeea ia i?aaenoaaeyaony aac i?enoueo ae i?ioeai?a/ee eee eiioe
neooaoeee. Ia ain o?iaia oaeia i?ioeai?a/ea aiciee i?e ?ac?aaioea e
iino?iaiee ainathaeaeaoa. Aaaeue aeey ?anoe?aiiiai iauan aini?iec-aa
iaiao oaaee/aiea oic ?anoiaeia, eioi?ua ia?aie/aiu iauaiii aeioiaeia
athaeaeaoa. Caeanue aicieeaao i?ioeai?a/ea i?e oi?i-ee aeioiaeiie e
?anoiaeiie noaoae athaeaeaoa, eio i?iyaeyaony a oii, /oi oaaee/aiea
?anoiaeia ?aaoe-ny eeieoe?oaiuie iauaiaie iaeiaiauo iinooieaiee. Caaea/a
oniaoiie oei iieeoeee ninoieo a oii, /oiau ?aaeueii o/eouaaoue aicieeoea
i?ioeai?a/ey e iaoiaeeoue a?aieoeu e niiniau eo ?ac?aoaiey.

?13. No?ao e oaeoeea a oei iieeo

A caaen io aeeeoaeuei ia?eiaea e oa?aeoa?a ?aoaai caaea/ oei iieeoeea
iiae?acae ia oei no?aoaa e oaeoeeo.

Oei no?aoaaey yoi aeieaia?ai eo?n oei iieeoeee, ?an/eoaiiue ia aeeeo
ia?niaeoeao ?aoaiey e?oiiiianoo caaea/, ii?aaeaeyaiuo ye e nioe
no?aoaaeae i?aaeo-aa. Caeanue i?iaiic-ny ini oaiaeaioeee ?acaeoey
oei-ia, ii?-ny oaeoi?u, ieacuaathuea ?aoathuaa aeeyiea ia yoi ?acaeoea,
oi?ie?-ny eiioeaioeee eni-ey oei-a,

iaini-ny i?eioeeiu i?aiecaoeee oei ioi-ee, i?ieca-ny auai? aeieaia?ai
oeaeae, ?ac?aa oeaeae oei i?ia?aii.

Oei oaeoeea naycaia n ?aoaieai eiie? caaea/, noiyueo ia ii?aaeaeaiiii
yoaia ?acaeoey iauanoaa e ?aaeec-ny iooai naiaa?aiaiiiai eciaiaiey oei
ioiioaiee, iaiaa?e?iaaiey oei ?ano?naie, ia?aa?oiie?iaeie aeai n?aaenoa.
?aoathuoth ?ieue a oei no?aoaaee i?e i?aiaeieaiee oei-ai e ye e?ecena a
Oe? ea?aao athaeaeaoiue i?ioeann. ?a/ue eaeao i oii, /oiau a caeiia “I
athaeae nenoaia Oe?” aieaa /aoei au?aceoue ioiioaiey iaaeaeo ain-ii e
ianoiuie athaeaeaoaie a /anoe ?ani?aaeaeaiey e ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiey
iaeiaia e ae?oaeo ieaoaaeae.

?14. Oeaeue oei iieeoeee a Oe?

Oeaeueth oei iieeoeee yae-ny iaeaieaa iieiay iiaeeecaoeey oei ?an-ia
no?aiu, iaiao aeey oaeiaeaoa iinoiyiii ?anooueo iio?aaiinoae iauanoaa.
Nthaea ioiinyony iieeoeea eiaanoe?iaaiey, ?acaeoey eiiiaaoe i?ioeannia,
iiaeaea?aeaiea e ?acaeoea i?-aa aaaeiaeoeo io?aneae i?iiuoe-oe e ii-e,
iieeoeea acaeiiioiioaiee ii-e n athaeaeaoii, onoaiiaeaiea ?aoeeii oi?i
ecuyoey /aoen i?eauee eee aeioiaea a iieueco ain-aa eee ianoiuo i?aaiia
ainoi?aaeaiey. Oei iieeoeea iineo iiiaiaa?eaioi oa?aeoa?. Aeey i?eiyoey
eiie? ?aoaiee a /anoe oei no?aoaaee eee oei oaeoeee i?i?aa-ny ianeieueei
aa?eaioia aiciiaeiuo neooaoeee. Caoai ioae?athony iaeaieaa i?eaieeiua ec
ieo, i?iaiaeeony ain eee iao/iay yenia?oeca e eeoue caoai i?eieiaaony
ieii/ao aa?eaio, ooaa?aeae i?aa-ii no?aiu eee Aa?o nia-ii Oe?

Iieiaeaiey, eceiaeaiiua a aeieeaaeao i?aceaeaioa, a oaeaea enneaae-ey
o/aiuo, iai? ia nenoaiioth no?oeoo?ecaoeeth i?iaeai, iicaie auaeaeeoue
neaae iai?aaeaiey oei iieeoeee Oe? ia nia? yoaia:

– ye noeioee?iaaiea i?-aa

– naea?aeeaaiea eioeyoe i?ioeannia

– ia?aie/ai e?aaeeoiie e aeai yienne

– ini iai?-ey ?anoiae-ey ainathaeaeaoa

– noeioee?iaaiea athaeae iinooie-ee

?15.Ye noei-ea i?-aa eae ninoaai /anoue oei iieeoeee ia nia? yoaia

Aeey ye noeioee? i?-aa iaiaoiaeeii ?aoeoue eiiieaen i?iaeai, a o./.
oe?aieyoue oei iieiaeaiea ii-e, noaaeeece?iaaoue o?iaaiue iio?aaeaiey
ianaeaiey, inouanoaeoue einoeoooeeiiiia eciaiaiea e ae?. Ia o?iaia
aioee?eceniuo no?aoaaee iaeaunoee iioaioeeaeueiue aeeaae a i?aiaeieaiee
ye, nioe e oei-ai e?ecena iaania/ noeioee?iaaiea i?-aa, /oi aieaa /ai ia
17% i?aauoaao iioaioeeae no?aoaaee naea?aeeaaiey eioeyoeee. No?aoaaeth
noeioe-ey i?-aa iiaeii ?acaeaeeoue ia no?oeoo?ioth ia?ano?ieeo,
einoeoooe eciaiaiey a yeiiiiiieea, oe?aie oei iieiaeaiey ii-e,
noaaeeecaoeeth o?iaiy iio?aaeaiey ianaeaiey, oneeaiea i?aaiecaoe oi?i
ain ?aaoe-ey yeiiiieee.

Iuooeiia aeiieie?iaaiea no?aoaaee ye noei-ey i?-aa iaoneaae aunieoth
n?aaieoaeueioth aaaeiinoue aa iieeoee. Oae, aeey iae?iyeii niaoeeaeec-ee
aaaeiuie iieeoeeaie noeioe-ey i?-aa yae-ny: no?oeoo?iay ia?ano?ieea
(iioaioeeae 17,3%), einoeoooe eciai-ey a yeiiiieea (iioaioe 15,1 %),
oe?aieaiea oei iieiaeaiey ii-e a Oe?(iioaioe 12,3%).

A /enea iaoaieciia no?oeoo?iie ia?ano?ieee iaeaunoee iioaioeeae eiatho:
oeaeaaay naiaoeey ii-e e aiaae?aiea iao-cia aaie?ionoaa; ?ac?aaioea ain
i?ii iieeoeee, a oaeaea noeioe-ea i?-aa yenii?oiie e eiii?oicaiauathuae
i?iae-ae. A iauai eiioaenoa iae?iye noaaeeecaoeee aeinoaoi/ii
aeeyoaeueiuie aioee?eceniuie iao-ie yae-ny oaeaea ia?aoiae ai aioo?-eo
oei ?an/aoao e ie?iaui oeaiai ia yia?aiiineoaee, ain oeaeaaia
eiaanoe?iaaiea iaania/aiey no?oeoo?iuo eciaiaiee e noeioe-ea i?iaeaaee
eceeoieo eiouanoa aeoeaia. Aaaeiia cia/ oaeaea eiaao oe?aieaiea oei
iieiaeaiey ii-e, ii?aaeaeythuoth ?ieue a oe?aieaiee eioi?iai a
ia?niaeoeaa aoaeao eiaoue i?eaaoec-ey ain ii-e.

?16.Naea?ae eioeyoe i?ioe eae nino /anoue oei iieeo ia nia? yoaia

A naea?aeeaaiee eioeyoe i?ioeannia, eae no?aaoaaee oei iieeoeee,
aeieaeiu auoue eniieueciaaiu aeaeu iieeoee, iaania/ ?aaoe-ea ?anoiaeiie
/anoe athaeaeaoa, niaa?oai-ea oi?ie?-ey aeioiaeiie /anoe, noaaeeec-eth
oi?aiaiai aaeaina e aaethoi eo?na.

Ia o?iaia aioee?eceniuo no?aoaaee iaeaunoee iioaioeeaeueiue aeeaae a
i?aiaeieaiee ye, nioe e oei-ai e?ecena iaania/ noeioee?iaaiea i?-aa, /oi
aieaa /ai ia 17% i?aauoaao iioaioeeae no?aoaaee naea?aeeaaiey eioeyoeee.
Ii aiciiaeiinoe no?aoaaee naea?ae eioe-ee iieiinoueth ia eniieuec-ny
(aaea-oi ia 27%). No?aoaaey naea?ae eioeyoeee aeaeeony ia ia?aie/aiey
e?aaeeoiie e aeai yiennee, ?aaoe-ea ?anoiaeia athaeaeaoa, noeioe-ea
iinooieaiee a ainathaeaeao, noaaeeec-eth oi?aiaiai aaeaina, noaaeeec-eth
aaethoiiai eo?na.

A iano a?aiy iaeaieaa aaniiue aeeaae a ?aoaiea i?iaeaiu i?aiaeieaiey
oei-ye e?ecena iaania/: no?oeoo?iay ia?ano?ieea (4,5%), ?aaoe-ea
?anoiaeia athaeaeaoa (4,2%), a oaeaea ia?aie/aiea e?aaeeoiie e aeai
yiennee (4,1%).

A /enea iaoaieciia no?oeoo?iie ia?ano?ieee iaeaunoee iioaioeeae eiatho:
oeaeaaay naiaoeey ii-e e aiaae?aiea iao-cia aaie?ionoaa; ?ac?aaioea ain
i?ii iieeoeee, a oaeaea noeioe-ea i?-aa yenii?oiie e eiii?oicaiauathuae
i?iae-ae. A iauai eiioaenoa iae?iye noaaeeecaoeee aeinoaoi/ii
aeeyoaeueiuie aioee?eceniuie iao-ie yae-ny oaeaea ia?aoiae ai aioo?-eo
oei ?an/aoao e ie?iaui oeaiai ia yia?aiiineoaee, ain oeaeaaia
eiaanoe?iaaiea iaania/aiey no?oeoo?iuo eciaiaiee e noeioe-ea i?iaeaaee
eceeoieo eiouanoa aeoeaia. Aaaeiia cia/ oaeaea eiaao oe?aieaiea oei
iieiaeaiey ii-e, ii?aaeaeythuoth ?ieue a oe?aieaiee eioi?iai a
ia?niaeoeaa aoaeao eiaoue i?eaaoec-ey ain ii-e.

?17 (i?iaeieaeaiea)

ieienoa?noa. Ia o?iaia ?aaeiia yoei caiei oei oi?aae, eio eiaao ii?a
no?-?o: Eaa.Iei 1. oei. oi?aae aaoii. ai?iaeia. a) ?aeioaeaeu. 2. iei.
oei. a) oei oi?aae iaeeni a) ai?oeiioaeae a) ?aeoeiioaeae a)naeuene oei
ioaeae.3. Iei. oei A?E.

A ?anniio?. no?-?a aaaeiaeoaa ianoi caieiatho ai?oeiioaeaeu. Aaaeouei
caaiii a n-ia oi?aaeaiey yae. Ieioei a ninoaaa eio. auaeaeyaony oeaeue
?yae oi?aaeaiee, a o./. athaeae. oi?aaeaiea e?aaeeoaie e OeA, ioaeaeueii
auaeaeyaony Eacia/aenoai, anoue oi?aae oeiain. nioe noa?u, iaoee, oi?aae
iaoiaeieiaee aooa. o/aoa e io/aoiinoe, oi?-a iae. neoaeau e ae?. Ain.
iae neoaeaa oa?aeo cia/eo eciaiaieyie, iai?aaeaiiuie ia iiauoaiea
aeaenoaaiiinoe ain oi?-y.

?17. Oi?aaeaiea oei-ie a Oe?

Oi?aaeaiea – yoi niaieoiiinoue i?eaiia e iaoiaeia oeaeaiai?aaeaiiiai
aicaeaenoaey ia iaaueo oi?aae. n oeaeueth iieo/aiey ii?aae. ?ac-oa.
Aaaei iaeanoueth oi?aaeai/ aeayo. yae. oi?-ea oei. Iii inou niaoe
aiia?aoii (Iei. oei) iin?aaenoaii i?eaiia e iaoiaeia, eoaea aoiaeyo
?aciiia? noeioeu e naieoeee. Eneonnoai oi?-ey nino a auai?a iaeaieaa
yooaeo iaoiaea ec /enea eiathueony eee nicaeaiee oneiaee aeey ?aoe
eni-ey i?eiaiyai iaoiaeia n oeaeueth auno?. ?aoaiey iinoaaeaiiie oeaee.

Eae e ai anyeie oi?aaeyaiie n-ia a oi?aae-ee oei-ie auaeaeytho iauaeou e
noauaeou oi?aaeaiey. Iauaeoii oi?aaeaiey yae. ?acee/i aeaeu oei.
ioiio-ee, a noauaeoaie yae oa i?a. no?-?u, eio. inou. yoi oi?aae. A Oe?
auaeae 3 a?oiiu iauaeoia oi?aa: oei-u ii-y, ain o-u, no?ao eiii. E
noauaeoai oi?-ey ioiinyo: oei. neoaeau ii-y, no?ao i?aaiu, oei. i?aaiu e
iaeia. einiaeoeee. Noauaeou oi?aae ooieoe. a eaaeaeii caaia e a eaaeaeie
noa?a oei. ioi-ee. Niaie. anao i?aai. no?-? inou. oi?-ea oeiain. iacua
oei aiia?aoii. Auaeaeytho ianeieueei iaoiaeia eee i?eaiia inou
oi?-ey:1)oei ieaie? 2)iia?ao oi?-a 3)oei eiio?ieue. Oi?aae ?aoaiey a
i?ioeanna ieai. i?eiei. ia iniiaa aiaeeca oei. eioi?iaoeee, eio.
aeieaeia auoue iieiie e aeinoiaa?iie. Oei. ieaie? – yoi niaie-oue ia? ii
ninoaaeaieth e eniieiaieth oi?i-ey e eni. aeai. n?-a e iaeiieaiee. Oei
ieaie? ii-y yae nino /anoueth aeciann-ieaia e iicaie aeinoeaaoue
aaeeinoai i/o i?ieca. e oei. ?ano?naie, a oaeaea aucuaaoue aiciiaeiinoe
aeey iiiieiaiey oei ?an-ia. Ieaie? a ianooaaao i/o aeeth/ a naay
i?aaeaea anaai athaeaeaoiia eae iniiaiia caaii oei. ieaie?iaaiey.
Iia?aoeaiia oi?aae i?aaeno. niaie eiiieaen ia?, ?ac?aaioaiiuo ia iniiaa
iia?. aiaeeca oei. neooaoeee e aeinoeaathueo oeaee iieo/aiey iao oei.
yooaeoa i?e iei. cao?aoao n iii. iia?aoeaiiai ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiey oei.
?an. Nouiinoue iia?. ieaie?iaaiey – yoi oei. iaiaa?e?ia. Eiio?ieue eae
yeaiaio oi?aaeaiey i?enoonoa. e a iia?ao ieaie?ia e a oi?aae.

Oei eiio?ieue aeaao aiciiaeiui niiinoaaeyoue iieo/ oei. ?ac-ou n ieaie?.
e iia?aoeaii inou ei??aeoe?iaeo oei. ?aoaiee a eaaeaeue eiie? iiiaio
a?aiaie. ?acee/ no?aoaae/ e iia?aoeaiia oei. oi?-ea. No?aoaa. eee iauaa
oi?aae. naycaii n ?ac?aaioeaie, eanathueieny i?iaiic. oei. n?-a a
ianooaaao i/o e eo yo-ai eni. a iae?iye. aniaeoa.

Iia?aoeaiia – yoi oi?aae ia iee?io?iaia,inou. anaie iiae?acaeae oi?aae
oei n-iu. Oi?aaeaiea a nia? one-o o?aaoao aieaa oe?ieiai eni. oao
iaoiaeia, eioi?ua nae/an eni. aeinoaoi/ii neaai, iai?. iaoiae
iaiaa?e?iaaiey oei. ?an?naie, iaoiae oe?ieiai eni. oei. ?uieia, iaoiae
i?iaiic. oei. ?ao.

A niioa n i?eieiaaiie Eiino iauaa oi?aae. oei-ie a Oe?. aiceiaeaii ia
aunoea i?aaiu ain aeanoe – AN, aiia?ao I?ac e i?aaeo-ai. Iia?ao
oeioi?aaeaiea inou oei. aiia?ao (Ieioei), n iii. eioi?iai i?aaeo, 1.
?aniieaaaao eioi?i. i nino oei aeae a oii eee eiii caaia i/o, 2. /a?ac
yoio aiia?ao inou ?aaiou ii ieaie?iaaieth, o/aoo, aiaeeco e eiio?ieth,
ii ninoaaeaieth e eniieiaieth oei. ieaiia. Oei oi?aae ia i?aaei?. inou
niaoe. oei. ioaeaeaie ia o?iaia ieienoa?no, oaeaea oei. ioaeaeie eee
oi?aaeaieyie yoeo

?18. Athaeaeao eae ye eaoaai?ey a nenoaia noieiinoiuo eaoaai?ee

A nenoaia oeaio?aeec oei-ia aaae ?ieue ioaiaeeony ainathaeaeaoo.
Athaeaeao eae ye eaoaai?ey i?aaeno niaie neiaeioth nenoaio nioe-ye
ioiioaiee, ?acaeaathueony a iauanoaa a i?ioe oi?ie?iaaiey, ?ani?-ey e
eni-ey oeaio?aeec oei ?ano?nia, nicaeaaaaiuo ia ?ace o?iaiyo oi?aaeaiey
i/o e i?aaeiacia/aiiuo aeey ianeoaeeaaiey iauan iio?aaiinoae.

Iaiaoiaeeiinoue oi?i-ey oeaio?aeec oiiaeia (ainathaeaeaoa) iaone
i?aaeaea anaai iio?aaiinoyie, aicieeathueie o ain-aa a nayce n
auiieiaieai naieo ye-eo, iieeo-eo, iaoeeiiaeueiuo, yeieiae/aneeo,
aiaoiaye-eo e ae? o-oeee. Oei ianeoaeeaaiea i?ieca e iai?ieca noa?
yeiiiieee, a nicaeaiee ii?aaeae i?iii?oeee iauan ?acaeoey, niaea?aeaiea
aiia?aoa oi?aaeaiey, iaeiaiauo, noaeaaiuo e i?aaiio? i?aaiia, iaoe
aaa?aeee i?aaeoni auaeaeaiea iaiao oei ?ano?nia. Ana ia?a/eneaiiua
?anoiaeu i?iecaiaeyony ca n/ao n?aaenoa ainathaeaeaoa. Oei ioiioaiey,
aicieeathuea o ain-aa n ii-ie, o/?aaeaeaieyie e ianaeaieai a oeaeii
iac-ny athaeaeaoiuie. Ei i?enou iauaeo oa?aeoa?, o.e. enoi?e/anee e
eiae/anee oei n?aaenoaa anaaaea oi?ie?-ny a ?oeao ain-aa aeey auiieiaiey
naieo iaiin?aaeno o-oeee – iaania/aiey nouano-ey ain-aa.

Athaeaeaoiua ioiioaiey – yoi i?iecaiaenoaaiiua ioiioaiey, iiyoiio iie
yae-ny yeaiaioii aacena iauanoaa. A ethaii neo/aa iie au?aaeatho
ioiioaiey eiie?aoiuo a?oii e neiaa ianaeaiey e caeanue athaeaeao i?aaeno
niaie oeeinioeth e eaeaieiaeth iauano ?acaeoey. ssaeyynue /anoueth oei
ioi-ee, athaeaeao eiaao oa aea oa?aeoa?enoeee, /oi e oei-u a oeaeii, ii
a oi aea a?aiy oa?aeoa?ecoaony ii?aae iniaaiiinoyie:

– athaeaeao yae-ny iniaie oi?iie ia?a?ani?aae-uo ioi-ee, naycaiiuo n
iainiae /anoueth IAe a ?oeao ai-aa;

– iin?aaenoaii athaeaeaoa inou-ny ia?a?ani?-ea IAe ia anao o?iaiyo i/o e
ii anai noa?ai yeiiiieee;

– iaeanoue athaeae ?ani?-ey caieiaao oeaio? ianoi a ninoaaa ain oei-ia.

Eae ye eaoaai?ey athaeaeao naycai ni iiiaeie ae?oaeie eaoaai?eyie,
n?aaee eioi?uo iiaeii auaeaeeoue aeaa o?iaiy:

1) aae iau i?iae-o (AII), NII, IAe –

athaeaeao neoaeeo n?aaenoaii ia?a?ani?-ey yoeo eaoaai?ee;

2) oei-u, i?eaueue, iaeiae, e?aaeeo, c/i, iaoa? noeioee?iaaiea e ae?. –
athaeaeao neoaeeo ?acoeueoaoii ?ani?-iy yoeo eao-ee ii io?aneyi i?-aa,
noa?ai aeayoaeueiinoe e o.ae.

?20. ?ieue athaeaeaoa a inouanoaeaiee ?anoe? ain?iec-aa

A athaeaeaoa no?aiu aeeoioe-ny cia/ /anoue aiiaue nicaeaiiie noieiinoe –
IAe, ?ani?aaeaeyaiiai e eniieuecoaiiai a niioa n ?ui caeiiaie iauano
?acaeoey (caeiia noieiinoe, ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey, caeiia
iiauoathuaeny IO, caeiia aic?anoaiey iio?aaiinoae) aeey iaania/aiey
?anoe?aiiiai aini?iec-aa e oaeiaeaoai?aiey iauaain iio?aaiinoae.

A one ?ui ioiioaiee ?ani?-ea IAe i?ieca-ny iin?aaenoaii ia?aciaaiey,
?ani?-ey e eni-ey aeai aeioiaeia e iaeiieaiee (ain aeioiaeau, aeioiaeu
ii-e e iauaae-ee, ?ace eiiia?/aneeo e oei no?oeoo?, aaieia,
eiaanoeoeeiiiuo oiiaeia e ianaeiey). Cia/eo /anoue IAe iinooiaao a
athaeaeao iooai i?yiiai ?ani?-ey – iaeiaiiaeiaeaiee ain, /anoiuo e
eiiia?/ ii-e. *anoue /enoiai aeioiaea ian-ey ia?a/ene-ny a athaeaeao a
ii?yaeea ia?a?ani?-ey. ?ani?-ea IAe /a?ac ainathaeaeao iaone
iaiaoiaeeiinoueth nicaeaiey oeaio?aeec oiiaea aeai n?aaenoa aeey ?anoe?
aini?iec-aa e oaeiaeaoai?aiey ae?oaeo niaieoiiuo iio?aaiinoae iauanoaa
iooai ia?a?ani?-ey n?aaenoa iaaeaeo io?aneyie i?ieca e iai?ieca noa?
aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe iauanoaa, a oaeaea iaaeaeo yeiiiie/-ie ?aeiiaie
no?aiu, noi iaoneiaeaii iaiaoiaeeiinoueth ia?aaea/e /anoe /enoiai
aeioiaea ec iaeiie io?anee iauano i?-aa a ae?oaoth a niioa-ee n ieaiaie
ye e nioe ?acaeoey no?aiu, n i?ia?aiiaie ?aaeeeaeueiuo ye i?aia?aciaaiee
iauanoaa aeey inouanoaeaiey ia?ano?ieee no?oeoo?u iauano i?-aa.

Oaeia ia?a?ani?-ea a cia/ noaiaie aucaaii ?acee/iui o?iaiai oao
iniauaiey, yia?ai- e oiiaeiaii?oaeaiiinoe ii-y; ia?aaiiia?iinoueth
?aciauaiey; aeaenoaothuae nenoaiie oeaiiia?aciaaiey e oai, /oi i?e
ia?aoiaea e ?uieo iaiaoiaeeia iiaeaea?aeea ni noi?iiu ain-aa
ia?niaeoeaiuo io?aneae i?-aa. Ia?a?ani?-ea IAe eae iaaeaeo io?aneyie,
oae e aioo?e ieo i?ienoiaeeo iin?aaenoaii ain eiaanoeoeee e
i?ei?eoaoiiai oeiaine?iaaiey ioae aeaeia i?iecaiaenoa, aunieeo
oaoiieiaee, eiiiaaoeeiiiuo i?ioeannia.

I?e ia?aoiaea e ?ui ioiioaieyi nouanoaaiii iaiyaony ?ieue athaeaeaoa a
?aaoee?iaaiee iauano i?–aa e ?ani?-ee IAe. Ini iai?aaeaiey yoeo
i?aia?aciaaiee – nin?aaeioi/aiea aeaaiuo ?ano?nia ainathaeaeaoa ia
i?ei?eo io?aeyo yeiiiieee, ii?aaeaeaiea iaeaieaa iaueo i?iii?oeee
?acaeoey iauano i?-aa, iaiao oaiiia ?acaeoey yeiiiieee a oeaeii.

Ini eiaeea oaeeo o?ainoi?iaoeee a oii, /oi aeieaeia niaethaeaoueny iauay
oaiaeaioeey ?acaeoey yeiiiieee a one ?ui ioiioaiee – ia?aiin oeaio?a
oyaeanoe n oeaio?aeec-uo ia aeaoeaio?aeec oei-u no?aiu.

I?-ai, ?ani?-ea e ia?a?ani?-ea /a?ac athaeaeao NII e IAe yae-ny
i?aaeiinueeie e oeaeueth ?acaeoey iauanoaa a oeaeii e eaaeaeiai /aeiaaea
a ioaeaeueiinoe.

?21. Athaeaeaoiay i?ia?aiia e ini iai?aaeaiey aa ?ani?aaeaeaiey

Athaeaeaoiay i?ia?aiia Oe? ii naiae nooe i?aaeiieaaaao ?ani?-ea e
ia?a?ani?-ea IAe. ?ani?-ea IAe /a?ac ainathaeaeao iaone
iaiaoiaeeiinoueth nicaeaiey oeaio?aeec oiiaea aeai n?aaenoa aeey ?anoe?
aini?iec-aa e oaeiaeaoai?aiey ae?oaeo niaieoiiuo iio?aaiinoae iauanoaa
iooai ia?a?ani?-ey n?aaenoa iaaeaeo io?aneyie i?ieca e iai?ieca noa?
aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe iauanoaa, a oaeaea iaaeaeo yeiiiie/-ie ?aeiiaie
no?aiu, noi iaoneiaeaii iaiaoiaeeiinoueth ia?aaea/e /anoe /enoiai
aeioiaea ec iaeiie io?anee iauano i?-aa a ae?oaoth a niioa-ee n ieaiaie
ye e nioe ?acaeoey no?aiu, n i?ia?aiiaie ?aaeeeaeueiuo ye i?aia?aciaaiee
iauanoaa aeey inouanoaeaiey ia?ano?ieee no?oeoo?u iauano i?-aa.

Oaeia ia?a?ani?-ea a cia/ noaiaie aucaaii ?acee/iui o?iaiai oao
iniauaiey, yia?ai- e oiiaeiaii?oaeaiiinoe ii-y; ia?aaiiia?iinoueth
?aciauaiey; aeaenoaothuae nenoaiie oeaiiia?aciaaiey e oai, /oi i?e
ia?aoiaea e ?uieo iaiaoiaeeia iiaeaea?aeea ni noi?iiu ain-aa
ia?niaeoeaiuo io?aneae i?-aa. Ia?a?ani?-ea IAe eae iaaeaeo io?aneyie,
oae e aioo?e ieo i?ienoiaeeo iin?aaenoaii ain eiaanoeoeee e
i?ei?eoaoiiai oeiaine?iaaiey ioae aeaeia i?iecaiaenoa, aunieeo
oaoiieiaee, eiiiaaoeeiiiuo i?ioeannia. Aaaeiui iai?aaeaieai ia?a?ani?-ey
IAe yae-ny auaeaeaiea /anoe n?aaenoa, eaeoueo ia ?acaeoea iai?ieca
noa?u. A one ?ui ioiioaiee yoi ioiineony i?aaeaea anaai e
iiaeaea?aeaieth ainoaea?noaii i?inaauaiey e cae?aaiio?-ey, iaoee e
eoeueoo?u. Cia/eo ianoi a no?oeoo?a ia?a?ani?aaeaeyaiie /anoe IAe
ioaiaeeony niaea?aeaieth aiia?aoa oi?-ey, i?aaiio? i?aaiia e o.ae.

Iinooie n?-a io ianaeaiey

Aii?oec io/eneaiey

I?e ia?aoiaea e ?ui ioiio-yi nouanoaaiii iaiyaony ?ieue athaeaeaoa a
?aaoee?-ee iauano i?–aa e ?ani?-ee IAe. Ini iai?-ey yoeo i?aia?aciaaiee
– nin?aaeioi/aiea ae ?ano?nia ainathaeaeaoa ia i?ei? io?aneyo ye-e,
ii?aaeaeaiea iaeaieaa iaueo i?iii?oeee ?acaeoey iauano i?-aa, iaiao
oaiiia ?acaeoey ye-e a oeaeii.

Ini eiaeea oaeeo o?ainoi?iaoeee a oii, /oi aeieaeia niaethaeaoueny iauay
oaiaeaioeey ?acaeoey yeiiiieee a one ?ui ioiioaiee – ia?aiin oeaio?a
oyaeanoe n oeaio?aeec-uo ia aeaoeaio?aeec oei-u no?aiu.

Oa?aeo iniaaiiinoueth nia?ai yoaia athaeaeaoiie iieeoeee yae e oi, /oi
ana aieueoay aeiey IAe oi?ie?oaony a noa?a ia?auaiey. Aieaa oiai, a
oneiaeyo eioeyoeeiiiiai ?inoa oei ?ano?nia eciaieeanue no?oeoo?a
?ani?-ey e ia?a?ani?-ey IAe. O.a. aai eioeyoe i?e?ino ia
i?iii?oeeiiaeueii ?ani?-ny iaaeaeo oaie noauaeoaie, eoi iieo/aao aai
aeey eniieueciaaiey.

?22. Acaeiinaycue aini?iec-aa ?aa neeu n eniieiaieai athaeaeaoa

I?-ai, ?ani?-ea e ia?a?ani?-ea /a?ac athaeaeao NII e IAe yae-ny
i?aaeiinueeie e oeaeueth ?acaeoey iauanoaa a oeaeii e eaaeaeiai /aeiaaea
a ioaeaeueiinoe. A yoie nayce, ?anniao?eaay ?ieue athaeaeaoa a ?ani?-ee
NII e IAe, aaaeii io?aceoue aeeyiea athaeae iieeoeee ia i?ioeann
aini?iec-aa ee/iinoiiai yeaiaioa i?-aa – ?aa neeu. Eco/ay 1-oth oaco
yoiai aini?iec-aa – i?-ai ee/iinoiiai yeaiaioa i?-aa (eio aeeth/ athaeae
?anoiaeu ia iaaeeoeeio, eoeueoo?o, ia?aciaaiea e ia?aiiaeaioiaeo
eaae?ia), iaaei ioiaoeoue, /oi yoa oaca i?aaie/anee naycaia n ?anoiaeiie
/anoueth athaeaeaoa. 2-ay oaca – oaeaea a cia/ noaiaie naycaia n ?ano
/anoueth athaeae n?aaenoa. ?a/ue eaeao i niaea?aeaiee ca n/ao athaeaeaoa
ae?ae o?oaea e oeaio?ia caiyoinoe, i ?anoiaeao ia o?oaeiono?-ai
iacaiyoie ?aa neeu, niaea?aeaiea aac?aaioiuo. 3-y oaca – eniieuec-ea ?aa
neeu, naycaia n oacie i?-aa iauano i?-aa. Caeanue eaeao i?ioeann
nicaeaiey iao aeaa, NII e IAe e i?ioeann iio?aaeaiey ?aa neeu. O.i. yoa
oaca naycaia n aeioiaeiie /anoueth athaeaeaoa. Yoi au?aae a oii, /oi
/anoue aiiaue nicaeaiiie ?aaioieeaie iao i?-aa noieiinoe (i?eauee,
iinooiathuae a athaeaeao a aeaea iiaeioiaeiiai iaeiaa n ianaeaiey)
iinooiaao a athaeaeao aeey aeaeueiaeo ia?a?ani?-ey iaaeaeo io?aneyie,
noa?aie iauano i?-aa, ?acee/iuie a?oiiaie e neiyyie ianaeaiey e o.ae.

Io?acei acaeiinaycue aini?iec-aa ?aa neeu n athaeaeaoii ia noaia:

O?ainoa?iua ieaoaaee

O?ainoa?iua ieaoaaee – oaeea aeaeu ieaeaaeae, eioi?ua caoai ie a eaeie
oi?ia ia aica?auathony a athaeaeao (iainee, iiniaey, noeiaiaeee) –
aeeth/athony a 1-oth oaco aini?iec-aa ee/iinoiiai yeaiaioa i?-aa.

?anniio?aiea i?iaeai ?aoe acaeiinayce aini?iec-aa ?aa neeu n athaeae
i?ioeannii iicaieyao ia noaaeeyo oi?ie?iaaiey e eniieiaiey athaeaeaoa
ii?aaeaeyoue iaeaieaa i?ei?eoaoiua iai?-ey ?anoiaeiaaiey athaeae
n?aaenoa n oi/ee c?aiey ea/anoaaiiiai aini?iec-aa ?aa neeu.

?23. Nioe-ye e iieeo oaeoi?u, aeeythuea ia oi?ie?-ea athaeaeaoa

Eae ye eaoaai?ey athaeaeao io?aaeaao neiaeiua ioiioaiey ii iiaiaeo
aeaeaeaiey oeaio?aeec aeai n?aaenoa, i?aaeiacia/aiiuo aeey
oaeiaeaoai?aiey iauanoa iio?aaiinoae. Ioia/ay oio oaeo, /oi athaeaeao
yae-ny e i?aaeiinueeie, e ?acoeueoaoii iauano ?acaeoey, iiaeii
auaeaeeoue oaeoi?u, eio aeeytho ia oi?ie?-ea athaeaeaoa e aai eni-ea.
Yoe oaeoi?u aeaeyony ia: yeiiiie/aneea, nioe-ua e iieeo-ea.

Ye-ea a cia/eo noaiaie naycaiu n iae?iye i?ioeannaie, i?ienoiaeyueie a
noa?a iauano i?-aa. Nthaea ioiinyony NII, AAI, IAe, ye ?ino (niaae)
i?-aa, eioeyoeey, aac?aaioeoea, no?oeoo?iua eciaiaiey a i?-aa,
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue iauano o?oaea, caaeaiey ii ?acaeoeth aaaeiaeoeo
io?aneae iaoee e oaoieee, iaeiaiaay iieeoeea, eiaanoeoe cao?aou ia
?acaeoea i/o e niioiioaiea n?aaenoa, eaeoueo ia iio?aae e iaeiieaiea.

N oi/ee c?aiey ia?niaeoea oi?ie?-ey athaeaeaoa, iniiaiie
caeiiiia?iinoueth aini?iec-aa a one ?uiea aeieaeia noaoue oaiaeaioeey
oaaee/aiey oiiaea iaeiieaiey i?e ?ani?-ee IAe Oe?aeiu. Yoi iicaieeo
inouanoaeyoue aieaa oeaeaiai?aaeaiioth eiaanoeoe iieeoeeo, oe?aieyoue
iao-oao aaco i?-aa e oai naiui oaaee/eaaoue aeioiaeioth /anoue
ainathaeaeaoa Oe?.

Nioe oaoi?u iaoneiaeaiu iniaaiiinoyie aini?iec-aa ?aa neeu e ianaeaiey
no?aiu a oeaeii. Yoi oei n?aaenoaa, eaeouea ia ia?aciaaiea, iaaeeoeeio,
nioe-eoeueo ia?ii?eyoey, nioecaueoo ianaeaiey, a oaeaea iauano oiiae
iio?aaeaiey; V e o?iaaiue c/i ?ace eaoaai?ee ?aaioathueo; ?acia?
iio?aaeo ei?ceiu; oiaa?iiai?io ain e eiiia?/ oi?aiaee; naoue o/aai
caaaaeaiee e aieueieoe.

Iieeo oaeoi?u iaiin?aaenoaaiii naycaiu n iaania/aieai iai?iiiniiniaiinoe
no?aiu e iiaeaea?aeaieai aioo? i?aaiii?yaeea, ?aoe i?aaiecaoeeae oi?-ey
no?aiie, oe?aieaieai caeiiiaeao e eniieieo aeanoe – inouanoaeaieai
?aaoee?othueo ooieoeee aeaiie?aoe/aneiai ain-aa.

Aaaeiaeoaa i?aaeiacia/aiea athaeaeaoa – nicaeaiea iao iniiau aeey
?aaeecaoeee aeaiie?ao ainoaea?noaii naieo ?aaoee?othueo ooieoeee (eio
i?iyae-ny /a?ac ye, nioe e iieeo oaeoi?u). ?ane?iai yoe ooieoeee (a one
?ui yeiiiieee) a aeaea noaiu:

Nioecaueoa ian Caueoa iio?aa-ey

Caueoa Caueoa

aeaiie- ie?oae

?aoee n?aaeu

Caueoa Caueoa

eioi?- /aeiaa/

iaoeee aeinoi-

einoaa

Iaania/ ain Caueoa ye

iacaaenei-e nenoaiu

?24. Ooieoeee athaeaeaoa

Nouiinoue ainathaeaeaoa eae ye eaoaai?ee ?aaeecoaony /a?ac aai o-oeee:
?ani?aaeaeeoaeueioth, eiio?ieueioth e o-oeeth ii iaania/ nouanoa-ey
ain-aa

Aeaaiaea?y ?ani?aae o-oeee athaeaeaoa i?ienoiaeeo eiioeaio?aoeey aeai
n?-a a ?oeao ain-aa e eo aeaeueiaeoaa eni-ea n oeaeueth oaeiaeaoai?aiey
iauano iio?aaiinoae. ?ani?-ea e ia?a?ani?-ea aeai n?-a i?ieno iaaeaeo
ioae io?aneyie e noa?aie aeayoaeueiinoe, iaaeaeo ioae neiyie ianaeaiey,
aioo?e neiaa ian-ey, iaaeaeo iaeio aeaeaie oneoa. A ?ac-oa ?ani?-ey e
ia?a?ani?-ey inouanoae oi?ie?iaaiea ?acee/iuo oiiaeia aeai ?ano?nia –
ain e ianoiuo athaeaeaoia, oiiaeia nioeno?aoiaaiey, iaineiiiai
iaania/aiey, nioecaueou, caiyoinoe ianaeaiey, *a?iia e eiiiaaoeeiiiiai
oiiaeia. Iin?aaenoaii athaeaeaoa ain-ai aicaeaenoaoao ia oieueei ia
ia?a?ani?-ea IAe, ii e ia aai i?iec-ai; iaeiieaiea aeai n?-a; noa?o
iio?aaeaiey; i?ioeannu aeaiiiiiieecaoeee yeiiiieee e iaiauanoaeaiey
i?-aa.

Nouanoaaiii, /oi niaea?aeaiea ?ani?aae o-oeee athaeaeaoa ii?-ny
i?ioeannaie ia?a?ani?-ey oei n?aaenoa iaaeaeo ?acee/i iiae?acaeaeaieyie
iauano i?-aa e neiyie ianaeaiey.

Eiio?ieueiay o-oeey caee a oii, /oi athaeaeao /a?ac oi?ie?iaaiea e
eni-ea aeai n?-a ain-aa io?aaeaao ye i?ioeannu, i?ioaeathuea a
no?oeoo?iuo caaiueyo yeiiiieee. I?e oi?ie?-ee ain aeioiaeia oei
eiio?ieue inou-ny ca i?aaeeueiinoueth acuiaiey ?ace aeaeia iaeiaia,
iiaeeecaoeeae ae?oaeo enoi/ieeia aeioiaeia, niaethaeaieai onoaiiae
i?iii?oeee iaaeaeo ieie, ii?aaeaeaieai iaeiaiaie aacu, oi?iaie
eueaioiiai iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey, n?ieaie iinooieaiey aeioiaeia. I?e
?anoiaeiaaiee athaeae n?aaenoa eiio?ie-ny yooaeo-oue eo eni-ey, eo
niioaaonoaea oeaeaaiio iacia/aieth. Oei eiio?ieue inou-ny ca i?iec-ii,
?ani?-ai e iio?aae-ai NII e IAe, ca i?iii?oeeyie, neeaaeuaathu-ny a
i?ioe ia?a?ani?-ey IAe.

O-oeey iaania/aiey nouano-ey ain-aa noaaeo naiae caaea/ae nicaeaiea
iao-oei aacu ooieoeeii-ey ain-aa; niaea?aeaiea aiia?aoa oi?-ey no?aiie,
i?aceaeaioneie aeanoe, caeiiiaeao e eniieieo aeanoe, i?aaiio? e oei
i?aaiia, iaeiaiaie neoaeau (7-9 % ?anoiaeia ainathaeaeaoa).

Aaaeiia cia/ eiaao inouanoaeaiea aiaoiaye aeayo-oe Oe?: niaea?aeaiea
athaeaeaoa aeeieiiaoe/ i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoa Oe? ca?oaaaeii, aciinu a
iaaeaeoia? i?aaiecaoeee, /eaiii eioi?uo yae-ny Oe? e ae?.(3-7 %
?anoiaeiie /anoe ainathaeaeaoa).

?25. Ainathaeaeao – iniiaiie oei ieai Oe?aeiu

Iiae ainathaeaeaoii eae oei ieaiii iiieiaaony athaeae ieai aeaeaeaiey
oeaio?aeecoaiie /anoe NII. Yoi anoue ?acoeueoao i?aeoe/aneiai eni-ey
iauaeo ye ioi-ee, aiciee a iauanoaa.

Ainathaeaeao – yoi iniaay oi?ia ainieaia, eiathuaai neeo caeiia e
onoaiaae-ai aeey i/o a oeaeii, aeey anao no?oeoo?iuo iiae?acae-ee iauano
i?-aa athaeae acaeiiioiioaiey ii anneaiiaaieyi ec athaeaeaoa e ieaoaaeai
a athaeaeao ia iniiaa caaeaiee e ia?ii?eyoee Ainieaia ye e nioe ?acaeoey
Oe?aeiu. Ainathaeaeao aoiaeeo a iauoth nenoaio oei ieaiia Oe?.
Ii?aaeaeythueie i?eioeeiaie i?aaiecaoeee nenoaiu oei ieaiia iauano
?acaeoey iiaeii iacaaoue anaiauiinoue, oeaeinoiinoue e naaeaine?ia-noue
oei oeaio?aeec-eth.

?anniao?eaay athaeaeao eae ini oei ieai, neaae ioiaoeoue, /oi a iai
i?aaenoaaeaiu ana ao?eaoou oei ieaia: aeai iinooieaiey eee aeioiaeu
(oi?ie?-ea oiiaeia aeai n?-a) ii eiie?aoiui enoi/ieeai iinooieaiee; aeai
?anoiaeu (eni-ea oiiaeia aeai n?-a) ii eiie?aoiui iai?aaeaieyi e
ia?ii?eyoeyi; niecia?aiea aeai aeioiaeia e ?anoiaeia ia iniiaa
aaeainiauo ?an/aoia.

Ninoaaeaiea e eniieiaiea oei ieaiia ai anae eo niaieoiiinoe ii?aaeaeytho
niaea?aeaiea oei ieaie?iaaiey, a oi?ie?-ea eniieiaiey ainathaeaeaoa –
niaea?aeaiea athaeaeaoiiai ieaie?iaaiey. Iie yae-ny iaiouaieeiie
ninoaaiie /anoueth ain ieaie?iaaiey e aace?othony ia iaueo i?eioeeiao,
caaea/ao e oeaeyo oicyenoaiaaiey a one ?ui yeiiiieee. A one ?uii/iiai
aaaeaiey oicyenoaa ini caaea/aie oei ieaie?-ey yae-ny:

1) onoaiiaeaiea iioeiaeueiuo i?iii?oeee iaaeaeo oeaio?aeec e
aeaoeaio?aeec oeiainaie; 2) ii?aaeaeaiea iauaiia e enoi/ieeia oei
?ano?nia a ?ac?aca io?aneae, ioae ii-e e iauaaeeiaiee; 3) ?aoe ?ani?-ea
oei ?ano?nia iaaeaeo i?ieca e iai?ieca noa?ie, io?aneyie yeiiiieee, ye
?aaeiiaie no?aiu; 4) noeioee?iaaiea iaeaieaa yooaeoeaiiai eniieuec-ey
aeai n?-a; 5) eiioeaio?aoeey oei ?ano?nia ia iaeaieaa aaaeiuo
iai?aaeaieyo ye ?acaeoey.

A ninoaa aaeeiie nenoaiu oei ieaiia Oe? aoiaeyo: 1) ainathaeaeao; 2)
ianoiua athaeaeaou; 3) athaeaeaou nioeno?aoa e nioeiaania/aiey ian-ey;
4) iain oiiae; 5) aaeainu aeioiaeia e ?anoiaeia ain, /anoiuo,
eiiia?/aneeo, niaianoiuo ii-e e i?aaiecaoeee; 6) oei ieaiu iauano
i?aaiecaoeee; 7) niaou o/?aaeaeaiee iai?ieca noa?u; 8) oei ieaiu ain e
/anoiiai eiou-ai e ee/iiai no?aoiaaiey.

Aeaaainoa iieiaeaiea a yoie nenoaia caieiaao ainathaeaeao Oe?, eio
acaeiinaycai n neno-ie oei ieaiia.

Oei ieaiu ii-e, AI, iauaaeeiaiee e io?aneae iao i?-aa ninoaaeythony a
aeaea aaeainia, aeioiaeia e ?anoiaeia, a eioi?uo auaeae-ny niaoe ?acaeae
“Acaeiiioiioaiey n athaeaeaoii”. A iai io?aaeathony noiiu ieaoaaeae a
athaeaeao e anneaiiaaiey ec athaeaeaoa. Iin?aaenoaii athaeae
ia?a?ani?-ey a i?ioeanna ninoaaeaiey oei ieaiia iiaoo ecuiaoueny oei
eceeoee o iaeieo ii-e e iai?aaeyoueny ia ioaeaeu ae?oaeo. O.i.,
athaeaeao eae oei ieai n iaeiie noi?iiu – iniiaua-ny ia oei ieaiao
io?aneae iao i?-aa, n ae?oaie – ai iiiaii eo ii?aaeaeyao.

?26. Athaeae iaoaieci eae ninoaaiay /anoue oei iaoaiecia

Athaeae iaoaieci – ?aaeueiia aiieiuaiea athaeae iieeoeee. Ii io?aaeaao
eiie?aoioth iai?aaeaiiinoue athaeae ioiioaiee a iaeanoe ye, nioe
?acaeoey, inouanoaeaiea yeieia e i?e?iaeiio?aiiuo ia?ii?-ee a Oe?.

Oei iaoaieci i?aeno niaie niaieoii-oue niiniaia i?aaiecaoeee oei
ioiioaiee, ?aaeecoaiuo a iauanoaa aeey nicaeaiey aeaaii? oneiaee ye e
nioe ?acaeoey no?aiu. Oei iao-ci aeeth/ oi?iu e iaoiaeu i?aaiecaoeee oei
ioi-ee, niiniau eo eiee/anoaaiiiai ii?aaeaeaiey e onoaiiaeaiea ea/anoa
niioiioaiey.

A ?aaeecaoeee oei iao-ia ini ?ieue ioaiaeeony ain-ao, eio a eeoea
eniieieo e caeiiiaeao i?aaiia aeanoe ia niiiaa eco/aiey aeaenoaey ye
caeiiia aiiaua e caeiiiia?iinoae ?acaeoey oei-ia a /anoiinoe, a oaeaea
caaea/ ye e nioe iieeoeee onoaiaaeeaaao iaoiaeu ?ani?-ey NII e IAe,
oi?iu e aeaeu aeai iaeiieaiee, ii?aaeaeyao aeaeu e no?oeoo?o ieaoaaeae a
?ace caaiuey oei nenoaiu, ?ac?aa-ao i?eioeeiu e iai?-ey eniieuec-ey ain
oei ?an-ia e o.ae.

a caaenei io iniaaiiinoae ioae iiae?acaeaeaiee iauano i?-aa, a oaeaea ia
iniiaa auaeaeaiey ioae noa? e caaiueaa oei ioi-ee, oei iaoaieci aeaeeony
ia iaoaieci ooieoeeiie?-ey ain oei-ia, no?aoiaie iao-ci, e?aaeeoiue
iao-ci, oei iao-ci ii-e e oic i?aaiecaoeee. Aeaeaa eaaeaeay ec yoeo noa?
aeeth/ ioaeaeueiua no?oeoo?iua caaiuey. Oae, iao-ci ain oei-ia aeaeeony
ia athaeaeaoiue e iao-ci ooieoeeii-ey aia athaeae oiiaeia.

?anniao?eaay athaeae iao-ci eae iaeii ec iai?aae-ee ?aaeecaoeee oei
iao-ia, neaae ioiaoeoue, /oi n aai iiiiuueth iiaeii eniieueciaaoue
athaeaeao a ea/anoaa eino?oiaioa ain ?aaoee?iaaiey ye i?ioeannia,
?aoaiey nioe, i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo e yeieia caaea/. Eiaiii iin?aaenoaii
athaeae ia?a?ani?-ey aiciiaeii niaa?oai-ea no?oeoo?u iauano i?-aa a
oeaeii. Oai naiui ain-ai aeiaeaaaony iaiao eciaiaiee a i/o-uo
i?iii?oeeyo, inouanoaeyaiuo eae ia iae?io?iaia, oae e a one ?aaeiiia.
I?e i?aaeeeueiii iino?iaiee athaeae iaoaiecia ii iiaeao aicaeaenoaiaaoue
ia ye iiaeuai e oe?aieaiea nioe noa?u, oni?aiea oaiiia IOI,
ia?ainiauaiea iao-oao aacu iauano i?-aa, ia?ano?ieeo aai no?oeoo?u.

?aaoee?iaaiea ye i?ioeannia iin?aaenoaii athaeae iao-ia inou-ny iooai
iaiaa?e?iaaiey aeai n?-ie, iinooiathueie a ?anii?yae ain-aa. Yoi
aiciiaeii, o.e. a athaeaeaoa ionoonoaoao i?eioeei cae?aieaiey aeioiaeia
ca eii?aoiuie aeaeaie e iai?aeaieyie ?anoiaeiaaiey athaeae n?-a. A yoie
nayce n?-aa, iinooiathuea a ain eee ianoiua athaeaeaou iaacee/eaathony,
e iiyoiio iiaoo auoue eniieueciaaiu ii ethaiio oeaeaaiio iacia/aieth
(e?iia iain e eiiiaaoe oiiaeia). Eiaiii iin?aaenoaii iaiaa?-ey athaeae
oiiaeaie iiaeii aeeyoue ia oaiiu e i?iii?oeee ?acaeoey iauano i?-aa a
oeaeii.

?27. Athaeae iao-ci eae eino?oiaio ?aaeec-ee athaeae iieeoeee ain-aa

Nouiinoue athaeae iieeoeee ain-aa io?aae-ny a noaoueyo aeioiaeia e
?anoiaeia athaeaeaoa, enoi/ieeao eo oi?ie?-ey e iai?aaeaieyo
eniieuec-ey. *a?ac aeeiaieeo athaeae iieacaoaeae iiaeii neaaeeoue ca
oa/aieai ye e nioe i?ioeannia.

Athaeae iaoaieci i?aaie/anee naycai n athaeaeaoii. Ii aianoa n oai ia
aai ?aaeecaoeeth nouanoaaiiia aicaeaenoaea ieacuaatho oaeaea caaea/e,
?aoaaiua iauanoaii ia eiie?aoiii yoaia enoi?e/ ?acaeoey. A caaenei io
eciaiaiey caaea/ aeieaeai iaiyoueny e athaeae iao-ci. Nouanoa eciaiaieai
athaeae iao-ia a ?ui oneiaeyo aeieaeia noaoue iai?aaeaiiinoue aai
aicaeaenoaey ia oic eiiutheoo?o e o?iaaiue aeaeiaie aeoeaiinoe
i?aaei?eieiaoaeae. *a?ac oaeea oei eino?oiaiou, eae iaeiae, iauaiu
oeiaine?iaaiey, aineiaanoeoeee iiaeii aeeyoue ia ?ace noi?iiu
oicyeno-ey, niinianoaoy onei?aieth iaiiaeaiey IIO, aiaae?aieth IOI,
eiiiaaoeee, ?acaeoeth iai?ieca noa?u, eio?ano?oeoo?u iauano i?-aa.

?ui yeiiiieea ia ioaa?aaao ieaie?iaaiey, o.e. ieai – yoi eiie?aoiia
ioi?ieaiea oi?aaeai/ ?aoaiee. Ii ?ui yeiiiieea aieaa aeaeay, eai
iie?aaony ia iiaeaee?iaaiea, i?iaiice?iaaiea e i?ia?aiie?iaiea. Yoe
?an/aou aac-ny ia eniieuec-ee iaoiaeia yenia?oiuo ioeaiie,
yeno?aiieyoeee, iaoaiao iiaeaee?iaaiey e ii?iaoeaiiai iaoiaea.

Iaoiae yeno?aiieyoeee ninoieo a ii?aaeaeaiee athaeae iieacaoaeae ia
iniiaa auyaeaiey caeiiiia?iinoae eo aeeiaieee. Ii?iao iaoiae iniiaaie ia
eniieuec-ee onoai-uo a caeiiiaeao ii?yaeea ii?i e ii?iaoeaia, eio
i?eiaiythony i?e athaeaeaoe?iaaiee. ?ac?aa-ny Ieioeiii Oe? e
ooaa?aeae-ny Aa?o niaaoii. Iiaoo i?eiaiyoueny oaeaea ianoiua ii?iu e
ii?iaoeau. Iaoaiao iiaeaee?iaaiea caee a iino?iaiee iiaeaeae,
eieoe?othueo oa/aiea ?aaeueiuo ye, nioe e aeaiia?aoe/ i?ioeannia.
Auno?aa anaai eiee/ e ea/ eciaiaiey io?aae-ny a V e no?oeoo?a ianoiuo
athaeaeaoia. A athaeae ieaie?-ee e i?iaic-ee i?eiai-ny iioeiecaoeeiiiua,
aeeiaie/aneea, noaoenoe/ iaoaiao iiaeaee.

Aeey niaeaniaaiey iai?aaeaiee eniieuec-ey athaeae n?-a n enoi/ieeaie eo
oi?ie?-ey i?eiai-ny aaeainiaue iaoiae. Oaeaea a athaeae i?ioeanna
eniieuec-ny iaoiae iiiaiaa?eaioiiai ieaie?iaaiey (auae? iaeeo/oee).

Ooieoeeiie?-ea athaeae iao-ia i?ienoiaeeo iin?aaenoaii iniauo ye oi?i –
aeioiaeia e ?anoiaeia, au?aaeathueo iineaaeiaao yoaiu ia?a?ani?-ey
noieiinoe iauano i?iaeoeoa, eio eiioeaio?-ny a ?oeao ain-aa. Aeioiaeu e
?anoiaeu athaeaeaoa – yoi iauaeoeaii iaoneiaeaiiua eaoaai?ee. Eaaeaeay
ec ieo eiaao naia niaoeeoe/ iauano iacia/aiea: aeioiaeu neoaeao oei
aacie aeayo-oe ain-aa, ?anoiaeu – aeey oaeiaeaoai?aiey iauano
iio?aaiioae.

?28. Athaeae nenoaia e athaeae ono?ienoai a Oe?aeia

Athaeae nenoaia – yoi iniiaaiiay ia ye ioiioaieyo e th?eaee/aneeo ii?iao
niaieoiiinoue anao aeaeia e caaiueaa athaeaeaoa no?aiu. Athaeae nenoaia
Oe? ?aaoee?-ny caeiiii Oe? “I aianaiee eciaiaiee e aeiiieiaiee e caeiio
Oe? “I athaeae nenoia Oe?”, a niioa-ee n eio athaeae n-ia Oe? ninoieo
ec: ainathaeaeaoa Oe?, ?anioaeeeaineiai athaeaeaoa aaoiiiiiie ?anioaeeee
E?ui e ianoiuo athaeaeaoia.

Niaie-oue anao athaeaeaoia, aoiaeyueo a ninoaa athaeae n-iu Oe? i?aaeno
niaie naiaeiue (eiinieeaee?iaaiiue) ainathaeaeao Oe?.

Naiaeiue ainathaeaeao Oe? eniieuec a oeaeyo aiaeeca e auyaeaiey iaoiaeia
ain?aaoe-ey ye e nioe ?acaeoey Oe?.

Athaeaeao aaoii ?ani E?ui iauaaeei ?anioae athaeaeao e athaeaeaou
?aeiiia e ai?iaeia ?ani iiae/eiai ?ani E?ui.

E ianoiui athaeaeaoai ioiin iae, ai?iaeneea, ?aeiiiua, ?aeiiiua a
ai?iaeao, iinaeeiaua e nae athaeaeaou.

Athaeaeao iaeanoe iauaae iaeathaeaeao, a oaeaea athaeaeaou ?aeiiia e
ai?iaeia iaeiiae/eiaiey. Athaeaeao ?aeiia nino ec ?aeathaeaeaoa,
athaeaeaoa ai?iaeia ?aeiiae/eiaiey, iinaeeiaiai e nae athaeaeaoia.
Iineaaeiea nicae-ny ii ?aoaieth ?ae- e ai?niaaoia ia? aeai-ia i?e
iaee/ee iaiao oei aacu. ?ae e ai?niaaou ii?aae aeioiaeu niioaaonoa
iinaeeiauo e nae athaeae-ia.

Athaeaeao ai?iaea, eiathuaai ?aeiiiia aeaeaiea, iauaaeei aiathaeaeao e
athaeaeaou ?aeiia,eio aoiaeyo a aai ninoaa

Iiae athaeae ono?ienoaii iiiei i?aaiecaoeey e i?eioeeiu iino?iaiey
athaeae nenoaiu, ooieoeeiie?othuae ia iniiaa aeaenoaothu athaeae i?aaa;
no?oeoo?a athaeae nenoaiu; acaeiiioiioaiey iaaeaeo ioae caaiueyie
athaeae nenoaiu. Athaeae ono?ienoai Oe? ii?aae n o/aoii ain ono?ienoaa e
aaeiei-oa??eoi? aeaeaiey Oe?aeiu.

?29. I?eioe athaeae ono?-aa a Oe?

Iiae athaeae ono?ienoaii iiiei i?aaiecaoeey e i?eioeeiu iino?iaiey
athaeae nenoaiu, ooieoeeiie?othuae ia iniiaa aeaenoaothu athaeae i?aaa;
no?oeoo?a athaeae nenoaiu; acaeiiioiioaiey iaaeaeo ioae caaiueyie
athaeae nenoaiu. Athaeae ono?ienoai Oe? ii?aae n o/aoii ain ono?ienoaa e
aaeiei-oa??eoi? aeaeaiey Oe?aeiu.

Athaeae ono?ienoai Oe? iniiaaii ia i?eioeeiao: aeaiie?aoecaoeee athaeae
ioiioaiee, aaeeinoaa, iieiiou, aeinoiaa?iinoe, aeaniinoe, iaaeyaeiinoe e
naiinoiyo-oe anao athaeaeaoia, aoiaeyueo a athaeae nenoaio.

Aeaiie?aoecaoeey athaeae ioiioaiee nino a oii, /oi iion?iaiea naiaeiiai
athaeaeaoa Oe? i?aaeoni ?aoeni/aoaiea oeaio?aeeciaaiiiai ia/aea a
oi?aaeaiee athaeae i?ioeannii n oe?ieei o/anoeai ianoiuo e ?aaeii
i?aaiia aeanoe, a oaeaea iaiin? o/anoea o?oaeyueony a ianoaeaeaiee e
inouanoaeaiee athaeae iieeoeee.

I?eioeei aaeeinoaa athaeaeaoa icia/aao nouanoaiaaiea aaeeiiai iaoiaea
?an/aoa aeioiaeia e ?anoiaeia caaiueaa athaeae n-iu. Aaeeinoai athaeae
n-iu iaania/-ny aaeeiie i?aaiaie athaeae eeanneoeeaoeeae, aaeoinoaii
oi?i athaeaeaoiie aeieoiaioaoeee, niaeaniaaiiuie i?eioeeiaie athaeae
i?ioeanna, i?aaeinoaaeaieai iaiao noaoenoe/ e athaeae eioi?iaoeee io
iaeiiai o?iaiy athaeaeaoa e ae?oaiio.

I?eioeei iieiiou ninoieo a ioia?aaeaiee a athaeaeaoa anao aac
eneeth/aiey aeioiaeia e ?anoiaeia.

I?eioeei aeinoiaa?iinoe caee a oi?ie?-ee athaeaeaoa ia aaca ?aaeueiuo ye
iieacaoaeae, iao/ii iainiiaaiiuo ii?iaoeaia e io?aaeaiee a io/aoa i
auiieiaiee athaeaeaoa oieueei oao aeioiaeia e ?anoiaeia, eio yae-ny
?acoeueoaoii eiia/iuo eanniauo iia?aoeee aaieia.

I?eioeei aeaniinoe iaania/-ny oai, /oi a n?aaenoaao ianniaie eioi?iaoeee
iinoiyiii inaau-ny iieacaoaee athaeaeaoia e io/aoia ia eo eniiei-ee

I?eioeei iaaeyaeiinoe – yoi io?aaeaiea iieacaoaeae athaeaeaoa ai
acaeiinayce n iaueie ye iieacaoaeyie iooai eniieuec-ey n?aaenoa iaenei
eioi?ie?iaaiiinoe, ?ac-ia n?aaieo aiaeeca, ii?aaeaeaiey oaiiia e
i?iii?oeee ya ?acaeoey iauano i?-aa.

Naiinoiyoaeueiinoue athaeaeaoia iaania/-ny iaee/eai nianoaaiiuo
enoi/ieeia aeioiaea e i?aaii ii?aaeaeaiey iniiaiuo iai?aaeaiee eo
eniieueciaaiey a niioaaonoaee n caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii Oe?.
Naiinoiyoaeueiinoue a i?eiyoee ?aoaiee icia/aao, /oi i?e ninoaaeaiee e
eniieiaiee naieo athaeaeaoia niioaaonoaothuea i?aaiu ianoiie aeanoe
aeieaeiu o/eouaaoue, aia?aoth i/a?aaeue, iauaainoaea?noa eioa?anu.

?30. Ieaie?iaaiea, ninoaaeaiea, ?anniio?aiea e ooaa?aeae athaeaeaoa

Athaeaeaoiue i?ioeann – yoi ?aaeaiaioe?aaiiue caeiiiaeao-ii ii?yaeie
ninoaaeaiey, ?anniio?aiey e ooaa?aeae athaeaeaoia, eo eniieiaiey e
eiio?ieue ca eo eniieiaieai, ooaa?aeaeaiey io/aoia i auiieiaiee
athaeaeaoia, eio nino athaeae nenoaio Oe?. Athaeae ii?oeann i?aaeoniao?
?ac?aaioeo ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiauo e i?aaiecaoe iniia, aeathueo
i?aaenoaaeaiea i eiie? oi?iao i?aaiecaoeee yoie ?aaiou, i ?ani?-ee
o-oeee a eniieiaiee athaeaeaoa iaaeaeo i?aaiaie ainaeanoe, oicoi?aeaiey,
ieaiiai-oei i?aaiaie e o?aaeaeaieyie aaieia, iauaaeeiaieyie ,ii-ie,
athaeae o/?aaeae-ie ii anae oa??eo no?aiu.

Niaea?aeaiea athaeae ieaie?iaaiey aieaa oe?iei: iii aeeth/ oaeaea
aii?inu oai?ee e iaoiaeieiaee ninoaae-ey athaeaeaoia anao o?iaiae e anao
oei ieaiia i/o Oe?. I?e inou-ee athaeae ieaie?iaaiey aaaeii o/anoue aai
ini i?eioeeiu, a eiaiii:

– aeaiie?aoec-ey athaeae ioiioaiee

– i?ei? cia/aiea athaeae ieaie?iaa-

iey ai anae niaieoi-oe oei ieaiia

– aaeeinoai n-iu athaeae ieaiia. Athaeae

ieaiu aeieaeiu auoue niaeania eae ii

aeioiaeiie , oae e ii ?anoiaeiie /anoe

ii anai caaiueyi athaeae n-iu Oe?

– aee?aeoeaiinoue e oeaeaaie oa?aeoa?

athaeae iacia/aiee e iaycaoaeuenoa

– i?aaie/aneay naycue athaeae ieaie?i-

aaiey n ieaiaie nioe-ye ?acaeoey

no?aiu e ?aaeiiia.

Athaeae ieaie?iaaiea inou-ny Ieioeiii Oe? e ianoiuie oei i?aaiecaoeeyie
a niioa-ee n i?aaeinoaae-ie ei i?aaaie. Iniiaa athaeae ieaie?iaaiey,
i?aaa e iaycaiiinoe ieaiiauo i?aaiia ii?aaeaeaiu a caeiia “I athaeae
n-ia Oe?”, a oaeaea a caeiia “I ianoiuo niaaoao ia? aeaioo-ia, ianioii e
?aaeii naiioi?aaeaiee”, a I?aaeeao ninoaaeaiey e eniieiaiey
ainathaeaeaoa Oe?.

Iaeiie ec noaaeee athaeae i?ioeanna yae-ny ninoaaeaiea i?iaeoa
ainathaeaeaoa, a eio?ii i?aaeiieaaatho, /oi ii iaania/ n?aaenoaaie
oeiain-ey ia?ii?eyoey ye e nioe ?acaeoey no?aiu, eioi?ua eiatho iauaain
cia/aiea, a oaeaea iaaeainioiioaiey.

Ii?yaeie ninoaaeaiey i?iyeoa e athaeaeaoa ninoieo a oii, /oi a AN
Oe?aeiu ia iicaeiaa 15 ethiy oaeouaai aiaea ?ac?aaaouaaao e ii- nueaao
I?aceaeaioo Oe?aeiu niaoeiinoaiiaeaiey (athaeaeaoioth ?aciethoeeth) i
aeaiaaeiuo iai?aaeaieyo athaeaeaoiie iieeoeee ia i?aaenoiyuee athaeaeao-
iue aiae. I?aaeea ioi?ieaiey i?iyeoa caeiia ” I Ainathaeaeaoa Oe?ae-
iu” ooaa?aeaeaaony AN Oe?aeiu. ?anoiaeu Ainathaeaeaoa ?anienuaathony a
i?iyeoa Caeiia a ?ac?aca Ieienoa?noa, Aaaeiinoa e ae?.i?aaiia
Aineniieieoaeueiie aeanoe.

Ia naiai canaaeaiee EIO ?anniao?eaaao i?iyeo caeiia, i?eie- iaao
ieii/aoaeueiia ?aoaiea ioiineoaeueii i?iyeoa Caeiia e i?aae- noaaeyao
aai I?aceaeaioo. E i?iyeoo caeiia i?eeaaathony: “Iniiaiua i?iaiiciua
iae?iiieacaoaee yeiiiie/aneiai e nioeeaeueiiai ?acaeoey Oe?aeiu” (
aaee/eia NII, IAe, iaoe i?iaeoeoa, i?eauee, i?iecaiaee- oaeueiinoe
iauanoaaiiiai o?oaea, o?iaaiue iio?aaeaiey e ae?.); naiaeiue aaeain
oei?ano?nia Oe?aeiu; iniiaiia iai?aaeaiea athaeaeaoiie e iaeiaiaie
iieeoeee; i?aaeeiaeaiey ioiineoaeueii acaeiiioiioaiee ainathaeaeaoa
Oe?aeiu n ianoiuie athaeaeaoaie; iauaiu oeaio?aeeciaaiiuo eaieoaeueiuo
aeiaeaiee n ?an/aoaie e iainiiaaieyie ii ioaeaeueiui iice-

?30. (i?iaeieaeaiea)

oeeyi e iauea iieacaoaee naiaeiiai athaeaeaoa Oe?aeiu.

?ac?aaioaiue e i?aaenoaaeaiue EIO e AN Oe?aeiu i?iaeo Ainathaeaeaoa
i?aaeaa?eoaeueii ianoaeaeaaony a eiienneyo ii aii?inai ieaie?iaa- iey,
athaeaeaoa, iaeiaiaie iieeoeee, oeaiiia?aciaaiey e ae?. iinoiyi- iuo
eiienneyo a iiaeeiienneyo AN Oe? ii ?acoeueoaoai aai ?anniio?aiey
iinoiyiiua eiiennee AN aioiayo e i?aaenoaaeytho AN caeeth/aiea e
i?aaeeiaeaiey ii niaa?oainoaiaaieth athaeaeaoiiai i?ioeanna.

I?iaeo caeiia ” I ainathaeaeaoa Oe?aeiu” i?aaenoaaeyao ia canaaeaiee AN
Oe?aeiu I?aceaeaio Oe?aeiu. N aeieeaaeii i i?iyeoa caeiia aunooiaao
Ieieno? oeiainia Oe? eee eeoei auiieiythuaa aai iaycaiiinoe.

Aeioiaeu e ?anoiaeu oeaeaauo iauaainoaea?noaaiiuo oiiaeia aeeth/aiiuo a
ninoaa Ainathaeaeaoa Oe?aeiu, ooaa?aeaeathony ii eaaeaeiio oiiaeo
ioaeaeueii. Oaeouea ?anoiaeu oeaeaauo iauaainoaea?noaaiiuo oiiaeia
ooaa?aeaeathony AN Oe?aeiu a i?aaeaeao aeioiaeia yoeo oiiaeia. Cai?au.
eniieueciaaiea n?aaenoa iaineiiiiai oiiaea ia ae?. oeaee, e?iia
i?aaeoni. iieiaeaieai ia yoii oiiaea.

A caeii i Ainathaeaeaoa ia aeiioneaaony onoaiiaeaiea iiauo eee
ono?aiaiea nouanoaothueo iaeiaia, nai?ia e ieaoaaeae, aianaiea
eciaiaiee a caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai. A neo/aa iaiaoiaeeiinoe eciaiaiey eee
aeiiieiaiey aiinyony aia/aea a niioaaonoaothuea caeiiu. AN Oe?aeiu
i?eieiaao iinoaiiaeaiea i ii?yaeea aaaaeaiey a aeaenoaea caeiia i
Ainathaeaeaoa Oe?aeiu. Yoio caeii ioaeeeoaony aeey anaiauaai
naaaeaiey. Anee AN Oe?aeiu ia ooaa?aeee a iieiii iauaia ?anoiaeu,
io?aaeaiiua a Ainathaeaeaoa ii ca?ieaoa e ia/eneaieth ia iaa ooaoiay
/eneaiiinoue o/?aaeaeaiey, oeiaine?oaiuo ec athaeaeaoa niioaanoaaiii
nie?auaaony.

?32. Niaea?aeaiea e i?eioeeiu eniieiaiey athaeaeaoa.

Eniieiaiea athaeaeaoa icia/aao iaania/aiea iieiiai e naiaa?aiaiiiai
iinooieaiey caieaie?iaaiiuo aeioiaeia, iaeiaia e ieaoaaeae ai ana
caaiuey athaeae n-iu Oe? e aania?aaieiia oeiaine?-ea ia?ii?-ee, iaia/-uo
ieaiii nioe-ye ?acaeoey ?aaeiiia eee no?aiu a oeaeii. Yoa noaaeey
athaeae i?ioeanna aeeth/ ia?u ii auiieiaieth aeioiaeiie e ?anoiaeiie
/anoe eaaeaeiai ec athaeaeaoia, aoiaeyueo a ninoaa eiinieeaee?iaaiiiai
ainathaeaeaoa Oe?. A ?aaioa ii eniieiai athaeaeaoa o/anoaotho ii-y,
ieaiiaua, oic, oei i?aaiecaoeee.

E i?eioeeiai i?aaiecaoeee eniieiaiey athaeaeaoa ioiinyony:

– iaania/aiea iieiiai e naiaa?aiaeiiiai iinooieaiey aeioiaeia a oeaeii e
ii eaaeae enoi/ieeo ioaeaeueii

– oeiain-ea ia?ii?-ee a i?aaeaeao ooaa?aeae-uo ii athaeaeaoo noii e a
oa/ aiaea, ia eioi?ue ooaa?aeae athaeaeao

– i?aaeinoaaeaiea athaeae i?aa a ia?o auiieiaiey eaaeae ii-ai ieaiia
caaeaiee n o/aoii ?aiaa ioiouai n?-a

– oeiain-ea th? eeoe oieueei ec athaeae

– oaaee/ oei ?ano?nia ain-aa ca n/ao aiaea/aiey a i?-ai aioo?eoic
?aca?aia, oeo/oaiey aeayo-oe ii-e ia iniiaa iiauoaiey eiieo?aioini-oe e
?aioaa-oe, iiauoaiey IO, iaeneiecaoeee i?eauee

– niaethaeaiea ?aaeeia yeiiiiee a ?anoiaeiaaiee o?oaeiauo e i?e?iaeiuo
?ano?nia, iao n?aaenoa

– iaania/aiea yooaeoeaiiai eiio?iey ca i?aaeeueiui eniieue-ai ain n?-a,
niaethaeaieai ia ii-yo e a i?aiec-yo athaeaeaoiie noa?u ainieaiiaie e
oei aeenoeeieeiu.

Caaea/e ii eniieiaieth athaeaeaoa aiceaaathony ia oei i?aaiu,
o?aaeaeaiey aaieia, ieienoa?noaa, aaaeiinoaa, ianoiua i?aaiu aeanoe,
ii-y, i?aaiecaoeee e o/?-ey. Eii?aeeie?othuei oeaio?ii ii eniieiaieth
athaeaeaoa yae oei nenoaia Oe?.

Eniieiaiea athaeaeaoa ninoieo a iaania/aiee iinooieaiey, ?anoiaeiaaiey e
o/aoa aeaeaeaiey athaeae ?ano?nia. Eniieiaiea athaeaeaoa i?aaeno niaie
neiaeioth nenoaio oei ioiioaiee, nayc-uo n oi?ie?-ai, ?ani?-ai e
eniieuec-ai oeaio?aeec aeai n?-a eae ia ain o?iaia, oae e a ?aieao ioae
iaeanoae e ?aaeiiia. A niioa-ee n caeiiii “I athaeae n-ia Oe?”
eniieiaiea ainathaeaeaoa aiceiaeaii ia Eaaiei Oe?. Ii i?aaiecoao
eniieiaiea athaeaeaoa /a?ac Ieioei Oe?, ieienoa?noaa, aaaeiinoaa e
eniieieo i?aaiu ianoiuo niaaoia ia?iaeiuo aeai-ia Oe?. Iineaaeieie
inou-ny e eniieiaiea ianoiuo athaeaeaoia.

?33. ?inienue aeio-ia e ?anoiaeia – ini iia? ieai a athaeaeaoe?iaaiee

Aeey i?aaiecaoeee eniieiaiey athaeaeaoa i?eioeeieaeueii aaaeiia cia/aiea
eiaao i?aaeeueiia e yeiiiie/anee iainiiaaiiia ?ani?aaeaeaiea anao aeaeia
ieaoaaeae e athaeae anneaiiaaiee ii eaa?oaeai. A i?ioeanna yoie ?aaiou
ioaeii o/eouaaoue, /oiau athaeae iieacaoaee eaaeaeiai eaa?oaea
niioaaonoaiaaee caaeaieyi ainieaia e ieaiia nioe-ye ?acaeoey iaeanoae.

Iieaa?o ?ani?-ea n?-a no?ieony oaeei ia?acii, /oia ia aeiionoeoue
caieaeaiey caaeaiee ia ia?aua eaa?oaeu aiaea, iaani-eoue ?aaiii
iinooie-ea aeioiaeia aeey aania?aaieiiai oeiain-ey anao iaia/ai
ia?ii?-ee.

Iieaa?oaeueiia ?ani?-ea athaeae iacia/aiee i?ieca-ny ii eaaeaeiio
ieienoa?noao, aaaeiinoao, oi?aaeaieth (ioaeaeo) eniieieoaeueiiai
eiieoaoa ianoiiai i?aaia aeanoe, ii eaaeae aeaeo aeioiaeia e ii
eaaeaeie naiaeiie niaoa ?anoiaeia. Ooaa?aeaeaiiia iieaa?oaeueiia
?ani?-ea aeioiaeia e ?anoiaeia athaeaeaoa neoaeeo iniiaaieai aeey
?ac?aaioee ?iniene aeioiaeia e ?anoiaeia niioaaonoaothuaai athaeaeaoa.
Ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca eniieiaiea athaeaeaoa aiceaaaaony ia oei i?aaiu, eio
e ?ac?aaao ?iniene.

?inienue aeioiaeia e ?anoiaeia – yoi ini iia?aoeaiue ieai, ia iniiaa
eioi?iai ?ani?-ny aeioiaeu e ?anoiaeu athaeaeaoa ii iiae?acaeaeaieyi
athaeae eeanneoeeaoeee – ?acaeaeai, aeaaai, ia?aa?aoai e noaoueyi. A iae
i?aaeoniao? n?iee iinooie-ee aeioiaeia e ?anoiae-ey athaeae n?-a a oa/
aiaea. Eaaeae oei i?aai ninoaae oaeoth ?inienue ii niioaaonoaothu
athaeaeaoo iinea aai ooaa?aeae, iaani-ay niaethae iaiao aaeaina ia
i?ioyae athaeae aiaea.

?inienue ainathaeaeaoa ooaa?aeae Ieioeiii Oe?. ?iniene iae, ai?iaeneeo
(e?iia ai?iaeia ?aeiiiiai iiae/eiaiey), ?aeiiiuo athaeaeaoia –
caaaaeothueie niioaaonoaothueo oeiioaeaeia (oi?aaeaiee). Ii ai?iaeneei
(?aeiiiiai iiae/eiaiey), naeueneei, iinaeeia athaeaeaoai ?inienue
aeioiaeia e ?ano-ia ioaeaeueii ia ninoaae.

?inienue aeioiaeia e ?anoiaeia yae-ny iia?aoeaiui aeieoiaioii aeey
?oeiaiaenoaa eniieiaieai athaeaeaoa. Iin?aaenoaii eo oei i?aaiu
i?iaa?ytho auiieiaiea th? eeoeaie iaycaoaeuenoa ia?aae ain-ii.
Ianaiaa?ai eee ia iieiia auiieiaiea oaeeo iaycaoaeuenoa yae-ny a?oaui
ia?ooaieai oei aeenoeeieeiu.

?inienue aeioiaeia e ?anoiaeia (aiaeiaay n iieaa?oaeueiui ?ani?-ai)
ninoaae-ny ia iniiaaiee naiaeiuo aaeainia aeioiaeia e ?anoiaeia e
naiaeiuo niao ?anoiaeia ii ?acaeaeai e noaoueyi athaeaeaoiie
eeanneoeeaoeee. Eoiaiaua aeaiiua yoeo iaoa?eaeia aeieaeiu
niioaaonoaiaaoue ooaa?aeaeaiiiio aiaeiaiio athaeaeaoo.

Aiaeiaay n iieaa?oaeueiui ?ani?-ai ?inienue aeioiaeia e ?anoiaeia
ninoaae-ny ii eaaeaeiio aeaaiiio ?anii?yaeeoaeth e?aaeeoia a niioa-ee n
iiae?acaeaeaieyie athaeae eeanneo-ee.

Naiae ?anoiaeia, aeeth/-uo a ?inienue aeioiaeia e ?anoiaeia, yae-ny
aeieoiaioii, oaeinoiaa?-ei i?aai ?oeiaiaeeoaeae ieienoa?noa, aaaeiiona,
oi?aaeaiee eniieieo eiieoaoia ianoiuo i?aaiia aeanoe ia eniieuec-ea
athaeae n?-a a oa/ aiaea. Ooaa?aeaeaiiay ?inienue aeioiaeia e ?anoiaeia
athaeaeaoa yae-ny aeieoiaioii, ia iniiaaiee eioi?iai i?ieca-ny acuneaiea
ieaoaaeae n eiie?aoiuo ieaoaeueueeia e ioe?uoea e?aaeeoia aeey
oeiaine?iaaiey i?aaeoniio?aiiuo a athaeaeaoa ia?ii?eyoee ii
ieienoa?noaai, oi?aaeaieyi eniieieo eiieo-ia ianoi i?aaiia aeanoe.

?34. Athaeaeaoiua e?aaeeou e eo ?anii?yaeeoaee

Aaaei oaaii a eniieiai athaeaeaoa yae ioe?uoea athaeae e?aaeeoia. Iii
i?aaeii?aaeae iai?aaeaiea e iaoneaae yooaeo-oue anae iineaae ?aaiou,
naycaiiie n athaeae oeiaine?-ai ia?ii?-ee,i?aaeoniio?aiiuo ieaiii
nioe-ye ?acaeoey Oe? ii iiaeuaio ye-e i/o, eiaanoe?-eth iaeaieaa i?ei?eo
io?aneae, iaania/aieth nioecaueou, oeo/oaieth nioe-eoeueo ianeoaeeaaiey
ianae e inouano-eth ae?oaeo o-oeee, aiceaaaaiuo ia ain-ai.

Ieaiii nioe-ye ?acaeoey e athaeaeaoii eae ini oei ieaiii i?aaeoni-ny
eiie? caaeaiea ii oic no?ieoaeuenoao, ?aciauaieth eaiaeiaeaiee,
no?oeoo?iie ia?ano?ieea ye-e, niaea?aeaieth i?aaiia oi?aaeaiey e ae?,
eaaeae ec eioi?uo eiaao naiino cia/aiea. Ana iai?-ey e aeaeu ?anoiae-ey
iaani-ny iaiao enoi/ieeaie oeiaine?-ey, eio-ie iiaoo auoue nianoa n?-aa
noauaeoia oicyeno-ey, e?aaeeou aaieia, ain eee /anoiua eiaanoeoeee,
athaeae anneaiiaaiey. Ii?aaeae eiie? enoi/ieeia oeiain-ey (nianoa,
caaiiua eee athaeae-ua) aeieaeii i?ieca-ny a i?ioe athaeae ieaie?iaaiey.

Aaaei iniaai-oueth athaeae i?ioeanna yae oi, /oi athaeae ieaie? anaaaea
auaaao eiie?aoiui e aae?aniui, e eiaao a naiae iniiaa eiie?aoiuo
eniieieoaeae (th? eeoe). Iiyoiio ?anoiaei /anoue athaeaeaoa i?aaeno
niaie naiae athaeae iacia/aiee eiie?aoiui ieienoa?noaai e oi?aaeaieyi
(ioaeaeai) eniieieo eiieoaoia ianoi i?aaiia aeanoe. Yoe iacia/aiey iinyo
iacaaiea athaeae e?aaeeoia – yoi n?-aa, i?aaeinoaaeyaiua ieienoa?noaai,
aaaeiinoaai, iauaaeeiaieyi, ioaeaeai eniieeiiia ianoiuo niaaoia ia
oeaee, i?aaeoni-ua oei ieaiii eee niaoie. Ii eiaao no?iai oeaeaaia
iacia/aiea e i?aaeinoaae-ny a caaen io iaee/ey n?aaenoa ia oaeouai n/aoa
niioaaonoa athaeaeaoa, n o/aoii aeaenoaeo iio?aai-ae a athaeae anneai-yo
e inaiaiey ?aiaa ioiou-uo n?-a.

Ioe?uoea athaeae e?aaeeoia oei i?aaiaie i?ieno iooai ia?a/eneaiey
athaeae anneai-ee, i?eiyouo ia aiae, ia n/aoa aeaaiuo (?oeiaiaeeoaeae
ieienoa?noa, aaaeiinoa, iauaaeeiaiee, ioaeaeia eniieeiiia ianoi niaaoia,
?ani?aaeaeythuea athaeae anneai-ey iaaeaeo ieaeanoiyueie
?anii?yaeeoaeyie e?aaeeoia – iaaeaeo ?oeiaiaeeoaeyie iiae/eiaiiuo
i?aaiia e iiaeaaaeiinoaaiiuo ii-e, i?aai-ee, o/?-ee)

e ieaeano ?anii?yaeeoaeae e?aaeeoia.

Ae ?anii?yaeeoaee e?aaeeoia eiatho i?aai ?aoiaeiaaoue athaeae n?-aa ia
niaea?aeaiea aicaeaae-ai eie o/?aaeaeaiey, ia oeaio?aeec ia?ii?-ey,
inouanoae-ua iaiin?aaeno-ii yoei o/?-ai, a oaeaea ?ani?aaeaeyoue
i?aaeino-ua ei athaeae anneai-ey iaaeaeo ieaeanoiyu ?anii?yaeeoaeyie
e?aaeeoia.

Ieaeanoiyu ?anii?yaeeoaee iiaoo eniieuec-aoue auaeaeaiiua ei e?aaeeou
aeey ioaeae nianoa-uo (iiae/e-iaiiuo ei) o/?aaeaeaiee e ?ani?aaeaeyoue
e?aaeeou iaaeaeo ieie.

Ioe?uoea e?aaeeoia i?aaeno niaie aeieoiaio ioi?ieaiea oaeoe/ i?aaa ae
?anii?yaeeoaeae e?aaeeoia ?anoiaeiaaoue n athaeae n/aoia a o/?aaeaeaieyo
aaieia n?aaenoaa, auaeaeaiiua ii niioaaonoaothu athaeaeaoai.

Eaaeae athaeae e?aaeeo eiaao no?iai oeaeaa iacia/. Iaycao oneia ioe?uoey
e?aaeeoa yae iaee/ea ooaa?aeae-uo oei ieaiia aeey oic noauaeoia e niao
cao?ao aeey athaeae o/?aaeaeaiee. E?aaeeou ioe?ua ioaeaeueii ia eaaeae
?acaeae, oa?aeoa?ec oo eee eioth io?aneue (iaaeeoeeia, i?inaauaiea,
oi?-ea, i?ieo?aoo?a e noae e ae?).

?35. Nouiinoue ain aeioiaeia. Ini noaouee aeioiaeia ainathaeaeaoa Oe?

A ninoaaa oeaio?aeec ainaeioiaeia ae ianoi caieiatho aeioiaeu
athaeaeaoa, ca n/ao eioi?uo iaania/-ny ?aoaiea ye e nioe caaea/ ?acaeoey
iauanoa i?-aa.

Iiae aeioiaeaie ainathaeaeaoa iiieiatho ye ioiioaiey, aicieeathuea o
ain-aa n ii-ie, oe?iaie, ei?ii?aoeeyie, aaieaie, no?ao i?aaiec., oei
eiiiaieyie, a oaeaea n a?aaeaeaiaie, a i?ioe oi?ie?-ey oeaio?aeec
athaeae oiiaea no?aiu. Oi?iie i?iyaeaiey yoeo ye ioiioaiee neoaeao ?ace
aeaeu ieaoaaeae ii-e, i?aaiecaoeee e ianaeaiey a ainathaeaeao, a eo
iao-aauanoa aiieiuaieai – aeai n?-aa, iiaeeecoaiua a athaeae oiiae.
Athaeae aeioiaeu, n iaeiie noi?, yae ?acoeueoaoii ?ani?-ey noieiinoe
iauano i?iaeoeoa iaaeaeo ?ace o/anoieeaie aini?iecaiaenoa i?ioeanna, a n
ae?oaie – aunooiatho iauaeoii aeaeueiaeoaai ?ani?-ey neiioeaio?e?iaaiiie
a ?oeao ain-aa noieiinoe, eai iineaaeiyy eniieuec-ny aeey oi?ie?-ey
athaeae oiiaeia oa??eoi?-ai, io?aneaaiai e oeaeaaiai iacia/aiey. Ninoaa
athaeae aeioiaeia, oi?iu iiaeeecaoeee aeai n?-a a athaeaeao caaenyo io
nenoaiu e iaoiaeia oicyeno-ey, a oaeaea io ?aoaaiuo iauanoaii ye e nioe
caaea/. Aeioiaeiay /anoue ainathaeaeaoa Oe? oi?ie?-ny ca n/ao iaeiaia e
iaiaeiaiauo iinooieaiee. A niioa-ee n caeiiii Oe? “I nenoaia
iaeiaiiae-ey” a Oe? acuiathoy:

A. Iauaain iaeiae, nai?u e ae? iaycao ieaoaaee: 1) IAeN, 2) aeoeeci
nai?, 3) iaeiae ia i?eaueue ii-e, 4) iiaeioiaeiue iaeia n a?aaeaeai, 5)
ain iioeeia, 6) ieaoa ca caieth, 7) ieaoa ca niaoee eiieuec-ea i?e?aei
?an-ia, 8) aciinu a oiiae niaeaeno caiyo ianae, 9) aciinu a O *a?i, 10)
aciinu a iain O, 11) aciinu a ain eiiia O.

A. Ianoi iaeiae, nai?u e ae? iayc ieaoaaee.

Aeioiaeiay /anoue athaeaeaoa ia yae aaee/eiie iinoiyiiie. Oae, n 1990 ii
1995 a. aeioiaeu athaeaeaoa, au?aaeaiiua a aaniethoiii cia/aiee e a %-ao
e aaeia. aioo?. i?iae. (AAI) nouanoaaiii iaiyeenue. Ca yoio ia?eiae
i?iecioei cia/eo iiauoaiea oae.aana aeioiaeia athaeaeaoa a AAI.

No?oeoo?a aeioiaeia ainathaeaeaoa oaeaea i?aoa?iaea nouanoaaiiua
eciaiaiey. Ec aiaea a aiae i?ienoiaeeo oneiaeiaiea no?oeoo?u
aeio.athaeaeaoa ca n/ao iiiieiaiey aai iiauie aeaeaie iaeiaia , nai?ia e
ieaoaaeae, a oaeaea iaiaeia. Iinooieaiee. Oae, a 1995 a. a aeioiaeioth
/anoue athaeaeaoa aianaiu iiaua noaouee aeioiaea – ieaoa ca
niaoe.eniieuec.iaae? i?e aeiau/a iieac.eneii., ?aioiay ieaoa ca iaooue e
aac., eio.aeiauaathony ia Oe?aeia, iinooieaiey io ?aaeecaoeee
ae?aa.iaoaeeiae o.ae.

Ec anao noaoae aeioiaeia ain athaeaeaoa Oe? a iineaaeiea aiaeu caieiatho
iaeiae. A no?oeoo?a iaeiaia ia?ainoai cia/ eiaao IAeN; oaeaea ana
aieueooth ?ieue ea?aao aeoeeciue nai?, iaeia ia i?eaueue, caiaeueiue
iaeia.

Iaeiaei, iaaethaeaaony onoie/ oaiaeaioeey e nie?auaieth aeiee iaeiaia a
iauai V aeioiaeia ainathaeaeaoa Oe?. Aianoa n oai aic?anoaao cia/
iaiaeiaiauo iinooie.:aeioiaeia io AYAe, ieaou ca eniieuec aiaeiuo e ae?
i?e?iae ?an-ia, iaae? no?aiu, ?aioiie ieaou, /oi niinianoaoao aa?aaeiiio
ioiioaieth e iaoe aiaaonoao no?aiu. Oaeaea a aeioiae /anoe athaeaeaoa
auaeae oeaeaa ain oiiaeu (oeacaiiua auoa).

Oiiaeu eiatho oeaeaaia iacia/aiea, o.e. a oie aea noiia, a eio.iie
iinooiatho a athaeaeao, iie ?anoiaeothony ia ii?aaeaeaiiua oeaee.

?36. Nouiinoue ain ?anoiaeia. Ini iai?aaeaiey ?anoiaea athaeae n?-a

?anoiaeu ainathaeaeaoa – yoi ye ioi-ey, i?iyae-ny a iauanoaa a nayce n
?ain?-ai oiiaea oeaio?aeec aeai n?-a ain-aa e aai eniieuec-ai ii io?ane,
oeaeaaiio e ?aaeii iacia/ai. A ?anoiaeao athaeaeaoa iaoiaeyo naia au?aae
aeaa noi?iiu aaeeiiai ?ani?aae-ai i?ioeanna: ?anuaieaiea athaeae oiiaea
ia ninoaai /anoe e oi?ie?-ea aeai oiiaeia oeaeaa iacia/-ey o ii-e,
i?a-ee e o/?-ee iao i?-aa e iai?ieca noa?u, iieo/-eo athaeae anneai-ey.
N oeaeueth auyniaiey ?iee e cia/ iiiaiia? athaeae ?anoiaeia eo
eeanneoeoee?otho ii ii?aae i?eciaeai: ii ?iee a iauanoa aini?iec-aa;
iauanoa iacia/aieth; io?aneyi i?-aa e aeaeai aeayo-oe; oeaeaaiio
iacia/aieth.

Ii ?iee a iauanoa i?-aa ?anoiaeu ainathaeaeaoa iiae?acae ia aeaa /anoe:
iaeia naycaia n ?acaeoeai iao i?-aa, niaa?oain-ai aai io?ane no?oeoo?u,
ae? eniieuec ia niaea?aeaiea e aeaeueiaeo ?acaeoea iai?ieca noa?u. N iii
athaeae ?anoiaeia ain-ai iiaeao ?aaoee? ?ani?-ea n?-a iaaeaeo iao i?-ii
e iai?ieca noa?ie a niioa-ee n iio?aaiinoyie a iae ye e nioe ?acaeoey:
ieacuaaoue noeioee? aicaeaenoaea ia ?acaeoea i?ei?eo io?aneae ye-e e
aeaeia i?iecaiaenoa, inouanoaeyoue no?oeoo?ioth ia?ano?ieeo iauanoa
i?-aa, aeiaeaaoueny onei?aiey IOI, ia?aoai?youe a aeeciue eiiiaaoe
iieeoeeo e o.ae. Athaeae ?anoiaeu a neeo ia?a?ani?aae-uo o-oeee
athaeaeaoa ea?atho ?ao ?ieue a ain iaania/aiee e ain ?aaoee?iaaiee ye-e
no?aiu.

A?oiie?iaea ?anoiaeia ii eo iauanoa iacia/aieth iaiin?aaenoaaiii io?aae
auiieiyaiua ain-ii o-oeee: iieeoe/, ye, nioe, iai?iiiua e o.ae. A
niioa-ee n iauanoa iacia/aieai ana ?anoiaeu athaeaeaoa iiaoo auoue
iiae?acaeaeaiu ia a?oiiu:

1) i/o, 2) nioe-eoeueo ia?ii?-ey, 3) iai?iia, 4) oi?aaeaiea, 5) aiaoiaye
aeayo-oue, 6) nioe caueoa ianaeaiey.

A iniiao io?aneaaie a?oiie?iaee ?anoiaeia athaeaeaoa iieiaeaii
iauai?eiyoia aeaeaiea ye-e ia ini io?anee e noa?u aeayo-oe. Enoiaey ec
yoeo i?eioeeiia ?anoiaeu a i?ieca noa?a iiae?acae-ny ia ?acaeoea
i?iiuoe-oe, n/o, o?ainii?oa, nayce e o.ae.; a iai?ieca noa?a – ii
io?aneyi e aeaeai iauanoa aeayo-oe – ia ia?aciaaiea, iaaeeoeeio, iaoeo,
nioecaueoo ianae, ainoi?aaeaiea e ae?. Io?aneaaia aeaeaiea ?anoiaeia
iicaie ?aaoee?iaaoue iaaeio?ane i?iii?oeee a ?ani?-ee athaeae anneai-ee
e, ei??aeoe?oy eo, aeiaeaaoueny iaiao naeaeaia a io?ane no?oeoo?a iauano
i?-aa.

A athaeae i?ioeanna Oe? nio?ai-ny oeaeaaia iacia/aiea auaeaeyaiuo
anneai-ee, eio io?aaeatho eiie? aeaeu cao?ao, oeiaine?oaiuo ain-ii. Oae,
a ninoaaa ?anoiaeia ia i/o auaeae-ny cao?aou ia eaiaeiaeaiey, aeioaoeee,
iia?aoe ?anoiaeu. Eeanneo-ey ?anoiaeia ii oeaeaaiio iacia/aieth yae-ny
i?aaeiinueeie aeey inouano-ey oei eiio?iey ca eniieuec-ai oei n?-a.

Ia?yaeo n ye eeanneo-ae nouanoaoao i?aaiecaoe a?oiie?iaea ain?anoiaeia.
A aa iniiaa eaaeeo ?ani?-ea anneai-ee ii oeaeaaui i?ia?aiiai e o?iaiyi
oi?aaeaiey. A ainathaeaeaoa Oe? auaeae-ny n?-aa ia oeiaine?-ea iaoe
einie/aneie i?ia?aiiu, iaoe i?ia?aiiu enneaaeiaaiey e eniieuec-ey
?ano?nia Aciai-*a?iiii?neiai aannaeia, iaoe i?ia?aiiu oeo/oaiey
aaciianiinoe, i?ieca noa?u e ae?.

A niioa-ee n o?iaiai ainoi?aaeaiey ?anoiaeu eiinieeaee?-ai ainathaeaeaoa
Oe? aeaeyony ia: ?anoiaeu ainathaeaeaoa, ?ano athaeaeaoa aao ?ani E?ui e
?ano ianoi athaeaeaoia.

?37. Ini aeioiaeiua enoi/ieee ianoiuo athaeaeaoia

Nouiinoue ooieoeeii-ey aioo?eathaeae ioiioaiee iicaie ii?aaeaeeoue ianoi
athaeaeaou (IA) eae niaieoi-oue oi?i i?aaiecaoeee athaeae ioi-ee,
iin?aaenoaii eioi?uo /anoue athaeae ?ano?nia ain-aa iai?aae a ?anii?yae
ianoiuo i?aaiia aeanoe aeey iaani-ey o-oeee oi?aaeaiey ianoiui naeoi?ii
ye-e no?aiu. E IA a Oe? ioiinyony:

athaeaeaou iaeanoae

athaeae ai?iaeia ?ani iiae/eiaiey

—–iaeanoiiai iiae/eiaiey

—- ?aeiiiiai iiae/eiaiey

athaeaeaou ?aeiiia (a ai?iaeao)

naeuene e iinaeeiaua athaeaeaou

Ana aeioiaeu IA aeae ia 2 a?oiiu: cae?aie-ua (nianoa) e ?aaoee?othuea.

Cae? aeioiaeu oa?aeoa?ec oai, /oi iie iai?aae a oio eee eiie aeae
athaeaeaoa a caaen io aaaeiinoa iiae/eiaiiinoe oic-aa e n o/aoii oa??eo
i?eciaea iinooieai aeai n?-a. E /eneo cae?aie enoi/ieeia ioiin iaeia ia
i?eaueue ii-e, iao-ny a eiiioi nianoa-oe, iano.iaeiae, nai?u, ieaoaaee e
ae?.

?aaoee? aeio – aeio, iinooi a ?acee/i caaiuey athaeaeaoia a niioa-ee n
%-ie io/eneaiee,onoaiaae-ie aeey aeaiiiai athaeaeaoa. E iei ioiin
io/eneio IAeN, iaeiaa ia i?ea ii-e, iiaeio.iae.n a?aae. e o.ae. Ninoaa e
?acia?u io/ene.io iauaain.iaeiaia , nai?ia e ieaoaaeae, iinooiathu. A
IA, ii?aae AN Oe?.enoiaey ec niioa nioe-ye ii?iaoeaia, athaeae
iaania/-oe oa?eo-ee e nino-ey iano enoi/ aeio.

Enoi/ieeaie aeioiaeia IA yae.:

1.Iauaain.iaeiae, nai?u e ieaoaaee:

1) IAeN, 2) iae ia i?ea.ii-e e i?a-e anao oi?i nianoa-oe; 3) aeoeeciue
nai?; 4) iiaeioiaeiue iaeia n a?aaeaeai; 5) ieaoa ca caieth; 6) iaeia n
aeaaeaeueoeaa o?ainii?o.n?aaenoa; 7) ain.iioeeia; 8) ieaoa ca aiaeo; 9)
iaeia ia i?iiunae

2.Ian iaeiae, nai?u e iayc ieaoaaee:

1) ainoeie/.nai?; 2) nai? ca ia?eiaeo aaoiiia; 3) ?uii/iue nai?; 4) nai?
ca auaea/o i?aea?ia ia eaa?oe?o; 5) eo?i?oiue nai?; 6) nai? ca o/anoea a
aaaao ia eiiiae?iia; 7) iaeia n ?aeeaiu; 8) eiiioiaeueiue iaeia; 9) nai?
ca i?aai i?iaaaeaiey oioi- e eeiinuaiie; 10) —–aoeoeeiiia; 11) nai?
ca auaea/o ?ac?aoaiey ia ?aciau.iauaeoia oi?aiaee; 12) iaeia ia
i?iaeaaeo eiii?oiuo oiaa?ia e o.ae.

Ioae e naiinoiyo noaoueae aeio.IA yae aeioaoeee, noaaaioeee e noaneaeee.

Aeioaoeee – oi?ia oeaio?aeec.?aaoee? aeioiaeia e ?ano ii-e,
i?a-e,o/?aae-e, a oaeaea athaeaeaoia, ieaiia cao?aou, eio i?aauo iieo/ai
aeio,a aeaea i?aaeinoaae. aeai n?-a, eiiiaine? oauoi/iinoue. Oaeay
aeiiiei auaea/a n?-a iiaeao eaeoe ia iie?uo oauoeia ii-e e i?a-e i?ieca
e iai?ieca. noa?u, a oaeaea ia naaeaine?ia. IA.

Noaaaioeee – oeaeaaua iiniaey, aeae ain. niaeaenoaey iano. i?aaiai
aeanoe eee io?aneyi oic-aa, i?aaeinoaae. aeey ?aoaiey ii?aaeae. caaea/.

Noaneaeee – oei iiiiuue a aeaea aeai iiniaey, i?aaeino-ai /aua anaai ca
n/ao n?-a ainathaeaeaoa iano. i?aaiaie aeanoe, th? e oec eeoeaie, ae?
ain-ie. ?ace i?yiua e einaai noaneaeee.

Iaeaieaa aaniiue V aeioaoeee e noaaaioeee iieo/atho AEeoiie?.,
Caea?iao., /a?iiaeoe., e ?yae ae?. iaeanoae

?38. Iai?aaeaiey ?anoiae-ey ianoiuo athaeaeaoia (IA)

Ianoi i?aaiu aeanoe ?anoiaeotho iinooiathuea a eo ?anii?yae n?-aa a
niioa-ee n aiceiae ia ieo o-yie. ?anoiaeu IA au?aaeatho ye ioi-ey,
aiciee a nayce n ?ani?-ai oeaio?aeec aeai n?-a, iaoiae-ny a
?anii?yae. ianoi i?aaiia aeanoe. A c-ia O “i athaeae. nen-ia O”
oeac-ny, /oi n?-aa IA ?anoiae eeoue ia oeaee e a i?aaeaeao, ooaa?aeaeai
ianoi niaaoaie ia?iaeiuo aeai-ia. A niioa. n yoei ec IA inouanoae
?anoiaeu ia: 1) oeiaine?. o/?aaeaeai. i?inaau. iaoee, eoeueoo?u,
io?aiu caei?iauey, nioe.iaania/. e nioe. caueou ian-ey, eio-ua
iaoiaeyony a iiae/eiaiee eniieieo. i?aaiia aeanoe iaeanoae, ai?iaeia
Eeaaa e Naaanoiiiey, a oaeaea nioe.-eoeueo. ia?-ee a niioaaonoa. n o-yie
aiceiaeai. ia yoe ii-y. 2) niaea?aeai. ianoi i?aaiia ain. aeanoe e
oi?aaeaiey. 3) oeiaine?. ii-ee e i?a-ee, aoiaeyueo a ninoaa iano.
oic-aa, i?e?iaeiio?ai ia?-ee. 4) oeiaine?. ae?. ia?-ee.

A iae, ai?-eo e ?ae-uo athaeae. nicaeathony ?aca?ai oiiaeu eniieieo.
i?aaiia iae, ai?-eo e ?ae-uo niaaoia ia? aeai-ia, a ?acia?a aei 1% io V
?anoiaeia eaaeae ec niioaaonoa. athaeae. aeey oeiaine?. iaioeiae. ia?,
eioi?ua ia auee i?aaeoniio?aiu ai a?aiy ooaa?aeaeai. yoeo athaeaeaoia.

A iae, ai?-eo, naeueneeo e iinaeeiauo athaeaeaoao nicae
iai?ioiay eanniaay iaee/iinoue. Iia i.a. eniieuec a oa/ aiaea ia
iie?uoea a?aiaiiuo eanniauo ?ac?uaia e ae.a. iiiieiaia a oii aea aiaeo
aei ?acia?ia, onoaiiaeaiiuo ai a?aiy ooaa?aeaeai. niioaaonoa.
athaeaeaoia.

?ani?-ea ?anoiaeia i/o athaeaeaoaie, aoiaeyueie a ninoaa iae inouano
iae niaaoaie ia? aeai-ia a oaeaea ?a-eiiiuie e ai?iaeneeie NiaIa?Aeai.

I?aaiaie ianoi naiioi?aaeai. naiino. ii?aae. iai?aaeaiey eniieuec n?-a
naieo athaeaeaoia.: i.a. oaaee/ a i?aaeaeao eiathueony o ieo n?-a
ii?iu ?anoiaeia ia niaea?ae. aeee-eiioi oic-aa, o/?aaeae cae?aaiio?,
i?inaauai, nioeiaania/, eoeueoo?u.

No?-?a ?anoiaeia athaeaeaoia caaen io aeaea athaeae. (iae. ai?. ?ae.
e o.ae.) a oaeaea io oa??eoi?. ?aniieiae iae-oe.

Oi?ie? ?anoiae /anoe iano athaeae. inou. a niioa n c-ii O “i athaeae.
nen-a O”, a eio oeac, /oi i?aaiu ianoi NiaIa?Aeai e i?aaiu ainoae.
eniieieo. aeanoe ai a?aiy ninoaaeai. i?iaeoa athaeae. ooi/iai. athaeae.
a oiaea aai eniieiaiey ei i?aai: – ii?aaeaeeoue a naieo athaeae.
– iauai oeiaine?. ia?-ee nioe.eoeueo. ?acaeoey niioaaonoa.
oa??eoi?.-aaeieieno?ao. aaeeieoe a i?aaeaeao ieaiiau athaeae.
aeioiaeia, auaeaeaiiuo aeioiaoeee, noaaaioeee, a oaeaea n o/aoii
iieo/ai. athaeae. n?-oa // – ii?-oue iai?aaeai. en- iieueciaai.
athaeae. n?-oa ia eiaanoeoeee, nianoaai. oeaeaaua i?ia?ai- iu n
i?aaiaie aeanoe ae?. aaeieieno?aoeaii-oa??eoi?. aaeeieoe; // –
oaaee/eaaoue a i?aaeaeao eiathueony n?-oa ?anoiaeu ia niaea?aeai. aee-
eeuii-eiioiae. oicyenoa, o/?aaeaeai. i?inaauai. cae?aaiio?ai. i?in-
aau. iaoee e o.ae. // – ii?-oue a onoaiiaeaiiii ii?yaeea a i?aaeaeao
aeii. iinooieai. a oa/. aiaea n?-oa aeiiieieo. eueaio ia iiiiu a?aae-
aeaiai, ioaeaeathueiny a nioe. caueoa. // – nicaeaaaoue a ninoaaa naia-
ai athaeae. a i?aaeaeao iauaia aai aeioiaeia ?aca?aiua e oeaeaaua
oiiaeu anee eo nicaeaiea i?aaeoniio?. c-ii O // – ii?-oue ?acia?u
aeioaoeee e noaaaioeee athaeae. iecoaai oa??eoi?. o?iaiy e eo oeaeaaia
eniieueciaai.

?39. Noui iaeiaia e eo ?ieue a oi?i-ee athaeaeaoia ?ace o?iaiae

Aeioiaeiay /anoue athaeaeaoia oi?ie? ca n/ao iaeiaia e iaiaeiaiauo
iinooieaiee. A iano a?aiy ini aeaeaie ainaeioiaeia yae-ny iaeiae. Ye
nouiinoue iaeiaia au?aae a oii, /oi yoi anoue aeai ioiioaiey,
neeaaeuaath-ueany o ain-aa n th e oec eeoeaie ii iiaiaeo aianaiey
iaycao ieaoaaeae a athaeaeao. Yoe aeai ioi-ey iauaeoeaii
iaoneiaeaiu e eiatho niaoeeoe/ e iauanoa iacia/aiea – iiaeeecaoeeth
aeai n?-a a ?anii?yae ain-aa. Iiyoiio iaeia iiaeao ?anniao?eaaoueny a
ea/anoaa ye eaoaai?ee n i?enoueie ae aeaoiy ooieoeeyie- oeneaeueiie e
yeiiiie/aneie. N ii- iiuueth ia?aie oi?ie? athaeaeaoiue oiiae,
?aaeecoy aoi?oth, ain-ai aeeyao ia aini?iecaiaenoai, noeioee?oy eee
naea?aeeaay aai ?acaeoea,oneeeaay eee ineaaeyy iaeiieaiea eaieoaea,
?anoe?yy eee oiaiueoay ieaoaaeaniin-oue ianae.

Iaeiae ieeoeaoai?ytho niaie oo /anoue niaieoiiinoe oei ioiioaiee,
eioi?ay naycaia n oi?ie?iaaieai aeai aeioiaeia ain-aa, iaiaoiaeeiuo aio
aeey auiieiaiey niioaaonoaothueo ooieoeee nioe-ye, aiaiiiiai?iiiie,
i?aaiio?aieoaeueiie e ae?. Iaeiae yae iauaeoeaiie iaiaoiaeeiinoueth,
eai iaoneiaeaiu iio?aaiinoyie iinooiaoaeueiiai ?acaeoey iauanoaa.
Eiie?aoiuie oi?iaie i?iyaeaiey eaoaai?ee iaeiaa yae aeaeu iaeia
ieaoaaeae, onoaiaaeeaaaiuo caeiiiaeaoaeueiuie i?aaiaie aeanoe.
Niaieoiiinoue ?aciuo aeaeia iaei- aia a iino?iaiee e iaoiaeia en/eneaiey
eioi?uo ?aaeecothony ii?aaea- eaiiua i?eioeeiu, ia?acotho iaeiaiaoth
nenoaio no?aiu. Iaeiaiaay nenoaiu Oe? no?ieony ia ni/aoaiee i?yiuo e
einaaiiuo iaeiaia. Ia?aua onoaiaaeeaathony iaiin?aaenoaaiii ia aeioiae
eee eiouanoai iaeiaiieaoaeueueeia, aoi?ua-aeeth/athony aaeaea iaaeaaaee
a oeaio oiaa?ia eee oa?eoa ia oneoae e iiea/ethony iio?aaeoaeyie. I?e
i?yiii iaeiaiiaeaaeaiee aeai ioiioaiey aicieeatho iaaeaeo ainoaea?noaii
e naiei ieaoaeueueeii, aiinyuei iaeia iaiin?aaenoaaiii a eacio, i?e
einaaiiii – noauaeoii iaeiaa noaiiaeony i?iaeaaaoe oiaa?a (oneoae),
aunooiathuee iin?aaeieeii iaaeaeo ainoaea?noaii e ieaoaeueueeii ( iio-
?aaeoaeai).

I?yiua iaeiae iiae?acaeaeythony ia ?aaeueiua, oiea/eaaaiua n io-
aeaeueiuo aeaeia eiouanoaa, e ee/iua, acuiaaiua n th?eaee/aneeo e oec
eeoe o enoi/ieea aeioiaea eee ii aeaeea?aoeee. Einaaiiua iaeiae
aeaeyony ia aeoeecu, eioi?ua iiaoo auoue eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuie e oie-
aa?naeueiuie, oeneaeueiua iiiiiieee e oaiiaeaiiua iioeeiu. Einaaiiua
iaeiae ioee/athony i?inoioie acuiaiey. Eo i?eiaiaiea aeaao oeneaeueiue
yooaeo aeaaea a oneiaeyo iaaeaiey i?iecaiaenoaa. Eniieueciaaiea a
aaeeiie nenoaia ?aciiia?aciuo ii iauaeoai iaeiaeaiey e iaoiaeai
en/eneaiey i?yiuo e einaaiiuo iaeiaia iicaieytho ainoaea?noao iieiaa
?aaeeciaaoue ia i?aeoeea iaa ooieoeee iaeiaia- e oeneaeueioth e
yeiiiie/aneoth: iiae iaeiaiaui aicaeaenoaeai ieacuaaaony e eiouanoai
i?aaei?eyoee nicaeathueo -oaoie/aneoth iniiao eo aeaenoaee, e
iio?aaeyaiua a i?iecaiaenoaa ?aciua aeaeu ?ano?nia e ?aai/ay neea e
iieo/aaiue aeioiae.

?40. Acaeiiioi i?ii ii n athaeae

Oeiainu i?ii ii-y i?aaeno niaie niaieoiiinoue ye aeai ioiioaiee,
naycaiiuo n oi?ie?iaaieai e eniieuec-ai oiiaeia aeai n?aaenoa e
iaeiieaiee ii-e. Oeiainu ii-e ninoaaeytho iniiao oei nenoaiu e caieiatho
a no?oeoo?a oeiainia enoiaeiia e ii?aaeaeythuaa iieiaeaiea, o.e.
ianeoaeeaatho ini caaii iauano i?-aa, aaea nicaeathony iao aeaaa,
eioi?ua caoai a aeaea NII e IAe e ninoaaeytho iniiao athaeaeaoa.

Acaeiina o-ia ii-y n oei n-ie Oe?:

Ia iniiaa oei-ia ii-e oi?ie?-ny:

– athaeaeaou anao o?iaiae

– oeaio?aeec aiaathaeae oiiaeu

– oiiaeu nioeiaania/aiey

– ain e?aaeeou

– i?i/ea oeaio?aeec oiiaeu

Oai naiui iaaeaeo ii-ai e ain-ii /a?ac aeai ioiioaiey i?ienoiaeeo
oi?ie?-ea athaeae-uo e aiaathaeae-uo oiiaeia e eo eniieuec-ea.

Oeiainu ii-e iinooiatho a athaeaeaou ?ace o?iaiae iin?aaenoaii nenoaiu
iaeiaiiaeiae. Yoi oaeea iaeiae, eae IAeN, iaeia ia i?eaueue, aeoeeciue
nai? e ae?oaea oaaea?aeueiua iaeiae.

*a?ac iaeiae, iaeia eueaiou, iauai e iai?aaeaiea athaeae oeiaine?iaaiey
iiaeii aeeyoue ia ?ace noi?iiu oicyenoaiaaiey, niinianoaoy onei?aiiiio
iaiiaeaieth i?iecaiaenoa oiiaeia, auno?aeoaio aiaae?aieth a i?-ai
iao/ii-oao aeinoeaeaiee, iiauoaieth ?aioaaaeueiinoe. Yoiio aea aeieaeia
neoaeeoue ioiaia athaeaeaoiiai aeaoe?iaaiey ia?aioaaaeueiuo
i?aaei?eyoee eo cae?uoey eee ia?ai?ioeee?iaaiey.

?41. Nouiinoue IAeN

A niioaaonoaee n aeaiiuie aeioiaeiie /anoe Ainoaea?noaaiiiai athaeaeaoa
Oe?aeiu ia 1995 iaeaieueooth aeieth (14,3 %) a iauai iauaia
athaeaeaoiuo iinooieaiee ninoaaeyao iaeia ia aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue
(IAeN). IAeN i?aaeno niaie oi?io ecuyoey a athaeaeao /anoe aeiaaae
noiei, nicaeaaaaiie ia anao noaaeeyo i?-aa e ia?auaiey e ii?aaeaeyaiue
eae ?acieoea iaaeaeo noieiinoueth ?aaeeciaaiiie i?iae-ee (oiaa?ia),
?aaio, oneoa, e noiei iao cao?ao, ioianai ia ecaea?aeee i?-aa e
ia?auaiey.

A Oe?aiea IAeN aaaaeai a 1992 a. Iauaeoii iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey yae iai?iou
ii ?aaeecaoeee oiaa?ia, ?aaio, i?aaeinoaae oneoa, e?iia eo ?aaeecaoeee
ia yenii?o. A nayce n yoei IAeN eiaao oe?ieoth aaco iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey,
/oi iaania/eaaao noaaeeueiinoue iinooieaiey n?aaenoa a ain athaeaeao.
Aeey en/eneaiey IAeN e iai?ioo, eioi?ue aeeth/aao ( oaea oiea/aiiiai
iaeiaa, nae/an eniieuec noaaea 16,67%, a i?e aeeth/aiee IAeN a oeaiu
?aaeeciaaiiuo oiaa?ia (?aaio, oneoa) – 20%.

Ii?yaeie en/eneaiey e oieaou IAeN ?aaeaiaioe?oaony naaiaeiy Aeae?aoii
Eaaieiii Oe? ” I IAeN” io 26.12.92 a. e iae ae? ii?iaoeaiuie aeoaie.

O i?aaei?eieiaoaeae aicieeatho cia/eoaeueiua o?oaeiinoe i?e en/eneaiee
iiaeeaaeauae oieaoa noiiu IAeN, iniaaiii i?e ii?aaeaeaiee iaeiaiiaeia
iai?ioa. Yoi iiaeao i?eaanoe e cia/ iaaeiieaoai, ca eioi?ua iaeia
einiaeoeey acuneeaaao ia iaiaa cia/eo oo?aou.

Iniaaiiinoueth iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey eiii?oiuo iia?aoeee yaeyaony oi, /oi
iieo/aiiay au?o/ea ca yneii?oioth i?iaeoeoeeth ia yaeyaony iauaeoii
iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey. A yoii neo/aa (o.a. i?e en/eneaiee IAeN) iauaeoii
iaeiaeaiey i?e yenii?oa yaeyaony noiia ioa?oaeaiiiie i?iaeoeoeee. I?e
yoii IAeN, oiea/ai ?aiaa, aiciauaaony ii-ai iinea iinooieaiey au?o/ee ia
n/ao, ii ia iicaea /ai /a?ac aiae iinea auionea i?iae-e.

IAeN ia eiii?o ia/ene ii aeaeea?e?iaaiiie noieiinoe oiaa?a e o/eoua-ny a
iieoiiie oeaia eiii?oe?oaiiai oiaa?a. IAeN yenii?oii-eiii?oiuo iia?aoeee
oiea/ea a iiiaio iaoiaeaeaiey oiaa?a ia oaiiaeai neeaaea. Eeoue iinea
oieaou iaeiaa oiaa? iiaeao auoue ioa?oaeai ca a?aieoeo eee ia neeaae
iio?aaeoaeth.

Eiio?ieue ca iieiioie en/eneaiey e naiaa?aiiiinoueth ia?a/eneaiey IAeN a
athaeaeao inou-ny iaeiaiauie i?aaiaie ia iniiaaiee aeaiiuo, niiauaaiuo
iaeiaiieaoaeueueeaie a iaeiaiauo ?an/aoao, eioi?ua i?aaeinoaaeythony a
n?iee, onoaiiae aeaenoaothuei caeiiiaeao-ii.

?42. Nou iaeiaa ia i?eaueue ii-e

Iaeia ia i?eaueue ia?yaeo n IAeN yae-ny ninoaaiui yeaiaioii iaeiaiaie
n-iu Oe? e neoaeeo eino?oiaioii ia?ani?-ey IAe. Iaeia ia i?eaueue ii-e
yae i?yiui, o.a. aai ieii/aoaeueiay ( iieiinoueth caaeneo io eiia/iaiiai
oei ?acoeueoaoa.

Ii en/ene-ny ia iniiaa caeiia Oe? “I iaeiaiiae-ee i?eauee ii-e”

Ieaoaeueueeaie iaeiaa ia i?ea yae:

– noauaeou i?aaei?eieiao aeayo-oe, athaeae i?a-oeee a /anoe inouanoae
oic?an/ aeayo-oe, aaiee (e?iia IAO e aai o/?aaeaeaiee), yaeythueany th?
eeoeaie niaeanii caeiiiae-ao Oe?, iaaeaeoia? i?a-oeee, eio ia iieuec
eiioieoaoii e aeeieiiao i?eaeeaaeyie e inou i?aaei?eiei aeayo a Oe?;

– oeeeaeu, ioaeaeaiey e ae?oaea iainiae iiae?acae-ey
iaeiaiieaoaeueueeia, oeacaiiua auoa, eio nino ioaeaeuei aaeain e eiatho
?/n (oaeouee);

– ia?aceaeaiou, eio inou i?aaei?eiei aeayo-noue /a?ac iinoiyiiua
i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa, ?aniieiaeaiiua ia Oe?;

– ia?aceaeaiou, eio inou ?aiao?eaoeeth i?eaueae, iieo/aiiuo ia Oe?.

Iauaeoii iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey yae aaeainiaay i?eaueue iaeiaiieaoaeueueea,
oaaee/aiiay ia:

– ( oauoeia ii oiaa?iiaiaiiui iia?aoeeyi i?e ?aaeecaoeee i?iae-ee
(?aaio, oneoa), inouanoae ii oeaiai ieaea iau/iuo,ii?aae-uo caeiiiae-ii;

– n?-aa oiiaeia, nicaeaiiuo iaeiaiieaoaeueueeaie ca n/ao c/c i?iae-ee,
eniieuec eie ia ii oeaeaa iacia/;

– ( n?aaenoa, aeeth/ay aaethoiua oeaiiinoe, noieiinoue iao oeaiiinoae e
iaiao aeoeaia, aeeth/ay ei?ii?aoeaiua i?aaa e oeaiiua aoiaae, iieo/aiiua
iaeiaiieaoaeueueeii io ae?oaeo noauaeoia i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie
aeayoaeueiinoe ia nianoaaiiua ioaeaeu aacaiciacaeii eee a aeaea
aacaica?aoiie oeiainiaie iiiiue eee ia o/oaiiuo a ?aaeecaoeee.

I?eaueue ii-e, aeeth/ay i?aaei?eyoey, o/?aaeaeaiiua ia nianoaaiiinoe
ioaeaeueiiai a?aaeaeaieia Oe?, iaeaa-ny iaeiaii ii aaciaie noaaea 30 %.

I?eaueue io iin?aaeie/aneeo iia?aoeee, aoeoeeiiiuo oi?aia iaoa?eaeueiuie
oeaiiinoyie (e?iia oeaiiuo aoiaa, ei?ii?aoeaiuo i?aa, aaethoiuo
oeaiiinoae e ae?oaeo aeaeia oeiainiauo ?ano?nia) iaeaaaaony iaeiaii ii
noaaea 45 i?ioeaioia.

I?eaueue io i?iaaaeaiey eioa?ae (e?iia ainoaea?noaaiiuo), io eaceii,
ae?oaeo eai?iuo aeiiia (iano), ea?iauo aaoiiaoia n aeaiaaeiui auea?uoai
e eiiai eai?iiai aeciana iaeaaaaony iaeiaii ii noaaea 60 i?ioeaioia.

Io oieaou iaeiaa inaiaiaeaeathony:

– ii-y ( n i?eauee, iieo/aaiie io i?-aa naeueoic i?iaeoeoeee e
i?iaeoeoeee aa ia?a?aaioee ia nianoa ia?a?aaaouaathueo iiuiinoyo,
aeeth/ay iaaeoic ii-y, ca eneeth/aieai i?eauee, iieo/aaiie io
oeaaoi/ii-aeaei?aoeaiiai ?anoaieaaiaenoaa, i?iecaiaenoaa nie?oa,
eeea?i-aiaei/iuo ecaeaeee, ieaa, iaoiauo e oaaa/iuo ecaeaeee,
aeiiiaoa?eaeia;

I?eaueue ii-e e i?a-oeee aa?ii?ii eiiieaena ii ianeoaeeaaieth naeueoic
i?-aa iaeaa iaeiaii ii noaaea 15 %.

Oieaoa iaeiaa ia i?eaueue i?ieca-ny a aaciae ii?yaeea a n?iee,
onoaiiaeaiiua aeaenoa caeiiiae-ii. Ii-y n eiino? eiaanoeoeeyie iiaoo
oiea/eaaoue iaeia a eiaaethoa ii eo?no IAO, aeaenoaothuaio ia aeaoo
iieo/aiey aeioiaea.

?43. Nouiinoue iiaeioiaei iaeiaa

Ieaoaeueueeaie iiaeioiaeiiai iaeiaa yae-ny oec eeoea eae eiathuea, oae e
ia eiathuea iinoiyiiiai ianoa aeeoaeuenoaa a Oe?. Iauaeoii
iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey o a?aaeaeai, eiathueo iino ianoi aeeo-aa a Oe? yae
niaieoiiue aeioiae, iieo/aiiue a eaeaiaea?iii aiaeo ia oa??eoi?ee Oe?, a
aa ye ciia e ca i?aaeaeaie Oe? eae a aeai (iaoeeiiaeueiie eee eiino?
aaethoa) oae e a iaoo? oi?ia. Aeioiaeu a?aaeaeai, ia eiathueo iino ianoa
aeeo-aa a Oe?, iiaeeaaeao iaeiaeaieth iaeiaii, oieueei anee iie iieo/aiu
ia oa??eoi?ee Oe?. A ninoaa niaieoiiiai aeioiaea a?aaeaeai aeeth/ oaeaea
( iao e nioe aeaa, i?aaeinoaae-uo ii-ie ia?niiaeueii naiei ?aaioieeai.

A niaieoii aiaeiaie aeioiae ia aeeth/:

– ain iiniaey ii nioeno?aoo e nioeiaania/aieth, a oaeaea ae? aeaeu
iiiiue a aeai e iaoo? oi?ia, ieacuaaaiua ec n?aaenoa aeaaioai?eoaeueiuo,
aiaathaeae e yeieiae/ oiiaeia

– ana aeaeu iainee

– noiiu, iieo/aiiua ?aaioieeaie a aiciauaiea oua?aa ca oooaeoaiea
caei?iauey, naycaiiia n eniieiaieai eie naieo o?oaeiauo iaycaiiinoae

– auoiaeiua iiniaey, auiea/eaa-aiua i?e oaieueiaiee

– eiiiainaoeeiiiua auieaou ?aa-ai

OeEO?U !!!!!

II-y, o/?aaeaeaiey, i?aaiecaoeee, oec eeoea, ca?aaeno?e? a ea/anoaa
i?aaei?eieiaoaeae, iaycaiu iiaeaaaoue a i?aaiu AIE aeaeea?aoeeth i
aeioiaeao, ia iniiaaiee eioi?ie iie oiea/eaatho iiaeioiaeiue iaeia.
?aaioieee iaeiaiauo i?aaiia iaycaiu eiio?iee?iaaoue naiaa?aiaiiinoue
iiaea/e aeaeea?aoeee i aeioiaeao e ouaoaeueii i?iaa?youe iieo/aiiua
iaoa?eaeu ia iniiaaiee eiathueony o ieo naaaeaiee. Iaeiaiaua i?aaiu
aeieaeiu i?iecaiaeeoue ianeaaeiaaiea aeayo-oe a?aaeaeai, a ioiioaiee
eioi?uo eiathony naaaeaiey i iieo/aiee eie aeioiaeia ia io ?aaiou ia
ii-yo, a o/?aaeaeaieyo e i?aaiecaoeeyo. A oeaeyo auyaeaiey a?aaeaeai,
ecaeaeathueo aeioiaeu, eio iiaeeaaeao iaeiaiiaeiaeaieth, iaeia i?aaiu
inou i?aa?ee oaeaea a ianoao ?aaeec-ee ecaioiaeyaiuo ecaeaeee eee
ieacaiey oneoa.

Ca ianaia?ai ia?a/eneaiea iiaeio iaeiaa ca naieo ?aaioieeia iacaaeneii
io iaee/ey aeai n?-a ia n/aoao ii-e acuneeaaaony iaiy a onoaiiae ?acia?a
ca eaaeaeue aeaiue i?in?i/ee. N oec eeoe, ca?aaeno?e?iaaiiuo a ea/anoaa
i?aaei?ei-ae, iaiy acuneeaaaony ia iniiaaiee ieaoaaeiiai ecaauaiey,
a?o/aaiiai ei iaeia i?aaiii ii ?acoeueo i?iaa?ee.

A neo/aa onoaiiaeaiey oaeoia ia?a/eneaiey ii-ai eee i?aaiecaoeeae noii
iaeiaia ca naieo ?aaioieeia, oeacaiiua noiiu aeeth/ a ninoaa iaeaaaaiiai
aiae aeioiaea yoeo eeoe.

?44. Oei-u ii-e eae ini caaii oei nenoaiu Oe?

O-u ii-y yae ninoaai /anoueth oei n-iu. Iie io?aae aeai ioi-ey, eio
aiciee a i?ioe e?oaiiai?ioa ini e iai? n?-a i?e i?-aa e ?aaeec-ee
i?iae-ee eee oneoa, a oaeaea i?e nicaeaiee e eni aeai oiiaeia ii-y.
Iin?aaenoaii ?aoe i?aaiecaoeee oei ia ii-e iaania/ iai?a? eo?aiiai?io
aeai n?-a, eo naiaa?ai iinooieaiea ia n/aoa ii-y, i?aaeeuei ?ani? ii
enoi/ieeai e oeae iacia/aieth e eniieuec-eth yoeo n?-a. O.i. any
i?ieca-eiii. aeayoaeuei ii-y i?iiecaia oei e aeai ioiio-ie, eio iicaie
nicaeaaaoue iaiao i?iae e oneoae, oi?ie?-oue eiie? aeai oiiaeu e
?acaeaaoue oaoi aaco i?-aa. E oaeei oiiaeai ioi – oiiae c/i, oiiae
iio?aaeaiey, oiiae aeeaeaeaiaeia e ae?. Nouiinoue oei ii-y yae
nicaeaiea e eniieuec-ea aeai.aeioiaeia e oiiaeia aeey iaani-ey eiia/i
?acoeueo oic aeayo-oe ii-y. Oei i?aaei? i.a. ioa?aeo. n oi/ee c? ain.
i?aaei?., AI, /anoi. ii-y, a?aiaei ii-y e ae?. ?ace. oi?i nianoa-oe. A
caaen io io?aneae i/o ?ace oei i?ii, n/o, o?ainii?oa, no?-aa, oi?aiaee
e o.ae.

Oei ii-e yae iniia caaiii oei n-iu a oie nayce, /oi caeanue
i?iecaiaeeony AAI e IAe iauanoaa ca n/ao eio. oi?ie?. aeioiaeu ain. e
ianoi. athaeaeaoia. Oiiaeu n?-a ain. e aaie. e?aaeeoa, oaeea oiiaeu:
Iain O, oiiae /a?i, O caiyo-oe, Oiiae io? o?oaea, Onoie/ oei nino ii-e –
yoi iniiaa oei noaaeeueiinoe anae n-iu, o.e. iiaeaae /anoue oei ?an
io?aneae (>80%) iao. a ia?au-ee ia i?ii ii.

Noui oei. ii-y ?ane? a eo ooieoeeyo: 1. ?ani?aae, 2. eiio?ieueiay
(niaea-?aeaiea oieaa aea, eae e a o-oeee oei.

Ini caaea/e, eio noiyo ia?aae oei. neoaeaaie naiaeyony e neaae: 1.
aiaeec oei. -oic. e eii aeayo i?aaei?. ; 2. iiaee. oei ?ano?n, iaiaoiae
aeey iaani i?ioeannia i?-aa e ?aaeec i?iae. 3. ninoaaeaiea
aeciann-ieaia, 4. e?aaeeoiaaiea, 5. iiaeeecaoeey eno. ?anoe?aiey i?-aa,
o.a.eai. aeiae e ?aiiioa, 6. iiene iooae oaaee/aiey i?ea e ?aioaa
i?-aa. 7. inou ?an/aoia e ieaoaaeae n iinoaau, iio?aa e i?aai.
oei-e?aae. n-iu. 8. inou-a eiio?iey ca yoo. eniieuec. aeai. oiiaeia.
Iauea i?eioeeiu i?aai. oeiainia:1. aeaiie?aoec. oei ioiioaiee, 2.
ieaiiainoue, 3.eii. ?an/ao e naiiieoiaaiinoue, 3. ?ani?aaeae n?-a ia
nianoa. e caaiiua e nicaeaiea ?aca?aia.

I?eioeei aeaiie?aoec icia/aao. ?aoe. ni/aoaiea ain. oi?aae. oeiainia
iin?. oei. ?aoaiee n iia?aoeaiie naiino. i?aaei?. Ain. ?aaoe. eniieuec.
a neaae. iai?aae: 1 iaeia. e oeiainiai-e?aaeeoiay iieeoeea, aeeth/y
?ac?aaioeo iaeia. noaaie, eueaio e naieoeee, i?ioeaio ii ain. e?aaeeoo,
?ac?aaioeo oeai e i?eioeeiia oeaiiia?., onoaiiaeaiea aae. eo?na e ae?.
oei. iia?aoe. 2. i?eia?aoaiea ain. eiouanoaa, nicaeaiea n-iu ?aca?aia (
eeceia, ?ac?aa nioe-yeii ii?i e ii?iao). 3. Iao/ii-oaoi. e nioe
i?ia?aiiu.4. ain caeacu e ain aeiaiai?u ia auiieiaiea eiie? ?aaio. 5.
aeioaoeee e noaaaioeee, i?aaeinoaae. ioae. i?aaei?. ain-ii.
Naiinoiyoaeueiinoue i?aaei? i?iyae. a oii, /oi i?aaei?. naiino.
ieaie?oao V e iiiaieeaoo?o i?ieca. i?iaeoeoeee, ii?aaeaeyao ia?niaeoeau
?acaeoey i?iecaiaenoaa, enoiaey ec ni?ina ia i?iaeoeoeeth, a oaeaea
iaiaoiaeeiinoe iaani. o?oaeyueony nioe.-eoeue oneoaaie e iiauoaiea
aeioiaeiinoe i?aaei?. Iniiao ieaie?iaaiey i?aaei?. nino. caeacu e
aeiaiai?u, caee. n iio?aaeoaeyie ecaeaeee e n iinoaau. iao.-oaoi.
?ano?nia. I?e yoii i?aaei?-a

?44. (i?iaeieaeaiea)

niiino. ?aaeecoao i?iaeoeoeeth, ?ani?aae. /enooth i?eaueue e inou. AYAe.
2 i?eioeei caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi oi?i. anao aeaeia aeioiaea e aeai.
oiiaeia, eiaano. inou. ia iniiaa aiaeiauo e oae. i?ieca. e oei. ieaiia.
Ieaiiainoue caee. oaeaea a noaaeeueiinoe ii?i e ii?iaoeaia, a oaeaea a
oneiaeyo ia?e. ?aaiou. Eiii. ?an/ao e naiioi?. caee a oii, /oi i?aaei?.
naii iaani. naay e aeiaeaaaony iao i?eauee i?e iei. cao?oao ia i?-ai.

?ani?. n?-a ia nianoa e caaiiua n?-aa iaone. oai, /oi i?aaei?. ia i.a.
iaania/aii nianoa IaN iieiinoueth a ?acia?a aiae. i?ieca. i?ia?aiiu,
o.e. ai a?aiai. ia?eiae iiaoo aicieeiooue eceeoee oei. n?-a, a a
eaeie-oi – iaaeinoaoie. Iiyoiio i?aaei? iie?uaatho /anoue ii?ioeaa
nianoa. n?-a ca n/ao caaiiuo n?-a, oaeeo eae n?aaenoaa aaiea, a oaeaea
nicaeatho ?aca?ai. oiiaeu eeeaeaeaoeee a?ai oei. cao?oaei.

?45. Ini oiiaeu ii-y, eo ninoaa e iieacaoaee yooae-oe eniieuec-ey

Aeey inou eiiia?/ aeayo ethaia iii-a ?aniieaaaao ini oiiaeaie e iai?
n?aenoaaie. Ini oiiaeu – yoi niaieoiiinoue iao oeaiiinoae, eio
iiiaie?aoii o/anoaotho a i?ioeanna i?-aa, nio?aiyy naith iaoo? oi?io e
iinoaiaiii ia?aiinyo naith no-oue a aeaea aii?o. io/eneaiee ia aio
i?iae. Ii oa?aeoa?o ini oiiaeu iiae?acae ia: ini i?ieca (IIO) e iai?iec
oiiaeu. IIO: no?iaiey, nii?oaeaiey, iai?oaeiaaiea – 64%, iaoeiu,
iaoaieciu e i?eniiniaeaiey – 16%, o?aini. n?-aa – 4%. Iai?ieca. oiiaeu
– aeeeuea, aeiia, aeao naaeu, eio. iaiin? a i?ioeanna i?-aa ia
o/anoaotho. ?acee/atho oece/aneee e ii?aeueiue eciin IO. Oec eciin – yoi
iioa?e eo no-oe aneaaenoaea iaoa?. eciaoeaaiey a i?ioeanna yenieoaoaoeee
eee oo?aou eo no-oe aneaaenoaee ieioie nio?aiiinoe. Ii?aeueiue eciin –
oaeaoaaeaiea i?-aa oaeeae aea n?-a i?-aa eee iiyaeaiea aieaa
i?iecaiaeeiuo iaoei iiaeiaiiai eeanna. Aeaiaaeiia au?aaeaiea no-oe
eciioaiiiai a i?ioeanna yenieoao. iai?oaeiaaiey iac. aii?o.
io/eneaieyie. Yoi anoue yeaiaio n/n-oe i?iaeoeoeee e iinea aa ?aae.
aica?auaaony a ( au?o/ee. Nou. c iaoiaea ioeaiee IO: 1. ia?aiia/aeueiay
no-oue, eio. io?aaeaao ana cao?aou ia i?eia?ao. eee no?ieo. IO; 2.
ainnoaiia. no-oue, o.a. yoi no-oue ainnicaeaiey IO a nia?aiaiiuo
oneiaeyo; 3. inoaoi/iay no-oue, eio. io?aaeaao ia?aii. no-oue IO n
o/aoii eo eciina, o.a. aii?o. io/eneaiee. Nou. ?yae iieacaoaeae yo-oe
eni. IO: 1) oiiaeiioaea/a: V aae. i?iae/n?aaeiaa. no-oue IO; 2)
oiiaeiaieinoue: 1/oiiaeiioaea/o. 3) oiiaeiaii?oae: no-oue ini.
oiiaeia/n?a-aeiani. /ene. ?aaioieeia. 4) o?iaaiue ?aio:
(i?eaue/n?aaeiaa. no-oue IO.

?46. Iai? n?-aa ii-y. Eo ninoaa e iieacaoaee yooaeo-oe eniieuec-ey

Aeey i?aaiecaoeee ii?iaeueiiai ooieoeeii-ey i?ieca e eiii?a/ aeayo-oe
ii-y, ei?ia IIO, iii eniieuecoao iai? n?-aa, eio i?aaeno niaie
niaieoiiinoue iai? oiiaeia e oiiaeia ia?auaiey, au?aaeai a aeai
ecia?aiee.

IaIO nino ec i?aaeiaoia o?oaea (nu?uea, iaoa?eaeu, oiieeai,
yeaeo?iyia?aey), iacaaa?o i?-aa e ?anoiaeia aoaeoueo ia?eiaeia.Oiiaeu
ia?auaiey ii naiae no?oeoo?a e ninoaao i?aaeno niaie aio i?iaeoeoeeth ia
neeaaea, ioa?oaeaiioth i?iaeoeoeeth, aeaiae ca eio aua ia iinooieee,
aeai n?-aa aeaaeoi?neie caaeieaeaiiinoe, n?-aa a eanna ii-y, ia
?an/aoiuo e aaethoiuo n/aoao e a aee?aaeeoeaao.

A iao/iuo enneaaeia-yo e oicyeno-ie i?aeoeea ?acee/ no?oeoo?o e ninoaa
iai? n?-a. Ninoaa iai? n?-a – yoi niaieoiiinoue ?aciuo aeaeia e a?oii
iao yeaiaioia, oeaiiinoae a aeai ioeaiea, au?aaeaiiuo eeai ii ioeaiea
i?ea?aoaiey, eeai ii ioeaiea i?-aa.

No?oeoo?a iai? n?-a – yoi niioiioaiea iaaeaeo ia?a/ene yeaiaioaie iai?
n?-a, au?aaeaiiuie a oae aana oao eee eiuo yeaiaioia (a oeaeii ii
no?aia, ii io?aneyi i/o e ii ioaeaeueiui ii-yi). No?oeoo?a ia n?-a:

oiaa?ii-iao oeaiiinoe – 81 %;

ioa?oaeaiiay i?iae-ey e oneoae – 9 %;

aeai n?-aaa a ia?auaiee – 6 %;

aeaaeo caaeieaeaiiinoue ii-y – 3 %;

ae? iai? n?-aa – 1 %.

Iai? n?-aa aeaeyony ia ii?ie?oaiua e iaii?ie?oaiua. Ii?ie?oaiua – yoi
n?-aa, eio oa?aeoa?ec niaie ieiei caianu oia-iao oeaiiinoae ia ii-ee
(i?ieca caianu – iieooaa?eeaou, nu?uea e iaoa?eaeu, oiieeai; iacaaa?o
i?-ai; ?anoiaeu aoaeoueo ia?eiaeia e aio i?iaeoeoeey ia neeaaea)

Ii?iaoea iai? n?-a – yoi onoaiiaeaiea ieaiiaie ( aeai n?-a, eio aeieaeia
iaania/eaaoue ieieiaeueioth e aoi aea a?aiy aeinoaoi/ioth iio?aaiinoue
i?ii ii-y a i?ieca caianao, iacaaa?o i?-aa e a caianao aio i?iae

Iia.n?. = ? ( Ae, aaea

? – iaeiiaeiaaiua ?aoiaeu,

Ae – ii?ia caiania a aeiyo

Ii?ie?oaiua iai? n?-aa – yoi aeai n?-aa, eio aeieaeiu iaania/
ii?iaeueioth e aania?aaieioth oic aeayo ii-y.

Iaii?ie? ia n?-aa – yoi oa n?-aa, aaee/eia eioi?uo ?aaoee?-ny a
aeeiaie/iii ii?yaeea (aio i?iaeoeoeey, ioa?oaeaiiay iieiaoaeyi; aeaiueae
a eanna, ia ?/n e ia aae n/aoa e a oeaiiuo aoiaaao; aeaaeo
caaeieaeaiiinoue).

Ini enoi/ieeaie oeiaine?-ey iai? n?-a yae-ny: 1) nianoaaiiua n?-aa ii-e,
i?aaenoaaeaiiua aeieae a onoaaiii oiiaea ii-y; 2) i?eaueue ii-y; 3)
onoie/eaua ianneau ii-y, a o./. e?aaeeoi? caaeieaeaiiinoue ii c/i; 4)
e?aaeeou aaieia; 5) n?-aa oeaeaaiai iacia/aiey, eio eiathony ia n/aoao e
a ?anii?yaeaiee ii-y.

Oeo/oaiea iai?a/-oe iai? n?-a – aaaeiay oeaeue aeey oeo/oaiey ?aaiou
ii-y. Aeey ioeaiee yooaeo-oe eniieuec-ey iiaoo i?eiai-ny neaae
iieacaoaee:

– eiyooeoeeaio yooaeoeaiinoe eniieuec-ey iai? n?-a = V ?aaeeciaaiiie
i?iae-ee / n?aaeiaaeiaaiua inoaoee iai? n?-a;

– aeeeoaeueiinoue iai?ioa iai? n?-a =

= n?aaeiaaei inoaoee ( 360 / V ?aaeec

i?iae-ee;

– eiyoo-o iai?a/-oe iai? n?-a =

= V ?aaeec i?iae-ee / n?aaeiea inoa-

oee iai? n?-a, eio auee a ?anii?y-

aeaiee ii-y ca yoio ia?eiae;

– o?iaaiue ?aioaa = (i?eauee io ?a-

eec i?iae-ee / n?aaeiea inoaoee iai?

n?-a

?47. Aeaeu ?anoiaeia ii-e

A i?ioe naiae i?ieca-oic aeayo-oe ii niaa?oatho ?anoiaeu, a eiaiii:

1. Cao?aou ia i?-ai e ?aae-th i?iae

?acee/atho i?ieca e iai?ieca ?ano.

2. ?ano ii ?anoe? i?-aa eee ?ano, naycai n EA. EA – yoi niaieoi. cao?ao
ii nicae iiauo, ?aeiino?oe?-eth aeaenoa ini oiiaeia, ?ano ii ?aiiioo

3. ?ano ia niaoe ia?ii?eyoey, aeeth/.

?ano. ia nioe.-eoeueo. oeaee

4. Auiieiaiea iaycaoaeuenoa ia?aae

oei-e?aae neno e athaeaeaoii

5. ?ano, naycai n i?eaaoecaoe. ii-e.

?aoathoaa cia/. aeey i?aae-e eiatho cao?aou ia i?-ai e ?aaeecaoe. i?iae.
Yoe cao?aou i?aaenoaae. niaie aeaiaae. au?aae. ec?anoiaeia. i?aaei?-ai
n?-a i?-aa e cao?ao o?oaea a i?ioeanna i?-aa e ?aaeecaoe. i?iae. E?iia
oiai, a cao?aoao ia i?-ai o/eouaathony io/ineaiey ia nioe. no?ao.
Cao?aou, naycai. n auioneii i?iae., e io/ene. ia nioe. no?ao.
ninoaaeytho i?iecaiaenoa.n\n, a aianoa n aiai?iecaiae. ?ano. – iieioth
n\n i?iae. N\n i?aaenoaae. niaie /anoue no-oe, eioi?ay aeieaeia
iinoiyiii aica?auaoueny i?-th aeey aiciauaiey aai cao?ao e iaania/. ia
yoie iniiaa iai?a?aiinoe i?ioeanna i?-aa.

Cao?aou ia ?anoe?aiea i?-aa eaaeaeiai i?aae-y aeeth/. EA e i?e?ino
ii?iaoeaa iai?ioiuo n?-a.

Aeey oneeaiey iaoa?. caeioa?ania. e iiauo. yoo-oe i?-aa, oeo/oaiey
ea/-aa i?iae., ?inoa iauaia ?aae-oeee e i?eauee, i?aae-y iai?aaeytho
/anoue i?eauee ia ia?acia. oiiaeia yeiiiie/. noeioee?. Io i?ea. i?ieno.
io/ene. a oiiae iaoa?. iiiu?aiey. Oiiae iaoa?. iiiu?aieyeniieuecoaony:
ia i?aie?iaaiea ?aai/eo, ?oeiaiaeyu. ?aaio., EO?; aeey aaeeiia?aiai.
iiiu?aiey ioee/eaoeony ?aaioi. e neoaeau.; aeey auieaou aiciaa?aaeae. ca
?acoeueoaou ?aaiou i?aae-y ii eoiaai ca aiae; aeey ieacaiey aaeeiia?.
iiiiue ?aaioi. ii-e.

Oiiae nioe.-eoeueo. ia?ii?eyoee e aeeeeuiiai no?ieo. nicaeaaony ca n/ao
i?eauee . Aai n?-aa eniieuec. aeey no?ieo. e eai.?aiiioa aeeeuo aeiiia e
eoeueo.-auoia. o/?aaeae., oeo/oaiey eoeueo.-auo. ianeoaeea. ?aaioi.
ii-y.

Oiiae ?acaeoey i?-aa eniieuec aeey oeiaine? EA ia aiaae?aiea iia.
oaoieee. iaoaiecaoe., aaoiiaoecaoe. i?-aa, iiaea?iecaoe. iai?oaeia.,
iaiiaeaiea ini. oiiaeia, niaa?oainoaiaaiea i?a-oeee i?-aa, o?oaea e
o.ae.

?48. Oi?ie?-ea aeioiaeia e aeai n?-a ia ii-ee

Caeii Oe?. “ I i?aaei?eyoeyo a Oe?aeia” aiai?eo, /oi iniiauiuie
aeioiaeaie i?aaei?eyoey yaeythony aeaiaaeiua e iaoa?eaeueiua aeioiaeu,
eioi?ua iiaoo eiaoue aioo?aiiea e aiaoiea enoi/ieee. E /eneo aioo?aiieo
aeioiaeia ioiin.: aae. i?iaeoeoeey, aaeiaue aeioiae i?aaei?., i?eaueue
io ?aae. i?iae., aaeiaay e aaeain. i?ea., /enoay i?eaueue i?aaei?.
Aeioiaeu i?aaei?. e aai eiou nino. onoaaiie eaieoae i?aaei?. eioi?ue
aeaeeony ia iniiaiie e iai?ioiue eaieoae. E?iia oiai i?aaei?. i. eiaoue
aeioiaeu io ?aae. io ?aae. OeA, iinooieaiey io ?acainoae. e i?eaao
nianoa., aanieaoi. e aeaaioa. aciinia aiaoieo i?aaiecaoeee e
iiaea?oaiaaiey – aiaoiea aeioiaeu. Ae. enoi/ieeii aeio. i?aaei?. yae.
au?o/ea io ?aaeecaoeee i?iecaiaeeiie ei i?iaeoeoeee, aa ?acia? ?aaai:
Au?=(Oei(eie-ai i. Aaeia. i?iaeoeoe. i?aaei?. – yoi no-oue anao
auiieiaiiuo ?aaio e oneoa ca ii?aae. i?iiaaeooie a?aiaie. Iieacaoaee:

1 Aae. aeioiae ?ann/aaaony eae ?acieoea i/o iauaiii aae. i?iaeoeoeee e
iao. cao?aoaie ia i?-ai yoie i?-oeee: AAe = IA – IC;

2. *enoue aeioiae: *Ae = AAe — (Oiio?+O/a?i+Oiai+nioe.no?.+Ocai)3.
I?eaueue io ?aaeec-ee i?iae=

= au?o/ea io ?aae — n/n iiei. Iiei n/n = cao? ia i?-ai i?-oeee
+eii.?anoiaeu;

4. Aae eee aaeain.i?-eue = i?ea io ?aae. i?iae + aia?aae.aeioiaeu –
oauoee i?aaei?.

E aia?aae. aeioiaeai ioiinyony oo?aou, iaonoieee, aeeaeaeaiaeu,
iieo/aaiua io iia?aoeee n OeA, a?aiaeiay ieaoa. Oauoee: oo?aou, iaie,
iaonoieee, eio. oiea/eaathony aeaii. i?aaei?, oauoee io noeoeeiuo
aaaenoaee.

*enoay i?eaueue=aaeain.aae.i?ea-iaeia. ieaoaaee=eia/a iacua. ?ani?aae.
i?eaueue. Eiaiii iia yae. ini. iaiauathuei iieacao. ?acoeueoao. aeaiiiai
i?aaei?.

Ioiineo iie-ee: ?aioaa-noue ii-y = ((i?eaue/no-oue IO+Ian?-aa ) (100%
?aio. aaeei = (i?ea / iiei n/n( 100%.

Ii?yaeie ?ani?aaeaeaiey i?eauee e aeioiaea: 1. ieaoaaee a athaeaeao, 2.
n?aaenoaa eaeouea ia ?acaeoea i?-aa, ia oeiaine?iaaiea cao?ao ii EA, ia
iiaaoaiea aeieain?i. e?aaeeoia, oieaoa % ca iieueciaaiea e?aaeeoaie, ia
i?iaaaeaiea iao/ii-enneaae.?aaio, eieeaeoeaa. a o./. – niaea?aeaiey
iauaeoia nioe. noa?u;a) i?iaaaeaiea icaei?iaeoaeueiuo ia?ii?eyoee;a)
i?iaaaeaiea eoeueo. iannia. ia?ii?.; a)aeai. auieaou ?aaioieeia a aeaea
iiiu?aiey;ae) nioe. eueaiou. a) auieaou aeioiaeia e aeeaeaeaiaeia; ae)
ia?acia. oei. ?aca?aia, no?ao, oiiaea e oiiaea ?enea ia i?aaei?. 4.
?anoiaeu ia aeaaioa. oeaee, eio. ninoaaeytho aieaa 2% io iaeiaiiae.
i?eauee;5. i?i/ea cao?aou e io/eneaiey.

?49. Oei aniaeou i?eaaoecaoeee eiouanoaa ain ii-e

I?iaaaeaiea ye ?aoi?i, inouanoaeaiea no?oeoo?i ia?ano?ieee, aeinoeaeaiea
ea/anoa aini? e yoo eniieuecia i?ieca aiia?aoa o?aa cia/ oei n?-a. A
neiaeeao one-yo iaeiei ec aici enoi/ieeia n?-a aeey oeiaine? ia?ii? ii
oeo/oaieth aini? i?ioeannia, eiaano aeoeaiinoe iiaeao auoue eiino?
eaieoae, a oaeaea o/anoea eiino? eiiiaiee a i?eaaoec-ee eiou ain-aa.
Iiaeeeth/aiea eiino? eaieoaea e i?ioeanno i?eaao yae oeaeaniia? aeey
no?ai-i?iaeaaoeia eiouanoaa. O/anoea eiino? eiaanoi?ia a i?eaao a cia/
noaiaie ii?aae-ny eii oeaeueth i?eaao-ee e aa iieeo e ye iioeaaie. EI
Oe? ooaa?aeae ia?a/aiue iauaeoia,i?eaao-ey eio aeieaeia inou n i?eaea/
eiino? eiaanoi?ia: AIE, eaaeay i?ii, iaoeiino?, aacia io?anee i?ii,
o?aini e nioe eio?ano?-?u. I?eaao-ey eiou ain. ii-e inou ia iniiaa neaae
i?eioeeiia: 1. aueoi iauaeoia iaeie i?ea, nianoaaiieeaie noaiia-ny
oiaa?eu-aa iieoiaoaeae, nicaeai ?aaioieeaie yo ii-y. N?-aa io i?eaaoec
eaeoo a ianoi ath-aeaeaou. 2. aueoi ain eiou ii aeueoa?iao ieaio
i?eaaoec. Nianoa. ii-y noai-ny oiaa?eu-ai iieoiao. Caeanue caeiaeaia
eiieo? iniiaa i?ea. 3. aueoi eiou-aa, naeaiiiai a a?aiaeo. aneaaenoaea
aueoia ii-y nianoaaiieeii noai a?aiaeaoi?. 4. i?iaeaaea ia aoeoeeiia. 5.
i?iaeaaea ii eiieo?no n ion?i/eie ieaoaaea ia 3 aiaea i?e one aianaie
30% noiei ii-y. Ia?aae i?e-aaoec ii?aaeae oeaia iauaeoa i?eaaoec. Iia
ii?aaeae enoiaey ec ainno noiei IO, caoeene? a iiiaio yiennee i?eaao
OeA, ca au/aoii eciina IO, oaeoe/ noiei IaO n o/aoii aeaaeo e e?aaeeoi?n
caaeieae-oae ii. Oeaia iauaeoa i.a. eciaiaia n o/ iioaioeeaeuei
i?eaueueiinoe i?eaao iauaeoa. Enoi/ieee i?eaao-ee: 1.nianoa n?-aa
oiaa?eu-a iieoiaoaeae, eio i?eiaaeeaaeao ?aaioieeai i?eaao iauaeoa –
/anoue /eno i?eauee, eio i?eiaaee o?oae eieeaeoeao, 2. caaiiua n?-aa.3.
OeA e i?eaao eiou na?o, /aee, n?-aa ia i?ea. aeaiic e niaoe n/aoao.

N?aaenoaa io i?eaaoecaoeee ca/eneythony ai aiaathaeaeaoiua oiiaeu, eaeoo
a aeioiaeioth /anoue AA a ?acia?a, i?aaeoniio?aiiii caeiiii i AA ia
eiie?. aiae. N?aaenoaa io i?ea. iai?aaeythony oaeaea ia aiciau. cao?ao,
naycaiiuo n i?eaao, ia e?aaeeoiaaiea oaoie/aneiai ia?ainiauaiey i?-aa,
?acaeoea i?-aa e nicaeaiea iiauo ?aa. iano.

Oaeaeueiue aan *I a 1995a. ninoaaee 56%, a /anoue a iauai iauaia i?ii.
i?-aa – 68%. A iaain. naeoi?a a 1995 a. ?aaioaei nauoa 5000 i?aaei?.,
eaaeaeia aoi?ia ec eioi?uo aeieaaia, eaaeaeia iyoia – a?aiaeiia. A
ia?niaeoeaa aoaeao aaaaeaii iiiyoea ain. aeoeeiia?iiai iauanoaa, a
eioi?ii ia iaiaa 51% aeoeee aoaeao i?ei. ain. Yoi anoue nicaeaiea
ei?ii?ao. i?aaei?, /oi iicaieeo: -ieii/aoaeueii ?aca?aie/eoue athaeaeao
ain. e oeiainu i?aaei?.; – ioe?uoue yoei i?aaei?eyoeyi iooue e oei
?uieai;- aianoe niioa. eciaiaiey a no?oeoo?o eo iiae/eiaiey.

Oeacii I?aceaeaioa i caaea/ao e iniaaiiinoyo i?eaaoecaoeee ain. eiou a
1996a. ii?aaeaeyaony iieiaeaiea i caaea/ao e i?ei?eoaoao ain. eiou
i?aei?, a 1996a. ia iaan/ia/aiee aaeeiie i?aaiaie iieeoeee a ?aaoe
i?ioeannia i?eaaoecaoeee, ono?aiaiea ecuyiia a caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa – ii
yoei aii?inai ia?aciaaiea oneiaee aeye no?oeoo?iie ia?ano?ieee
yeiiiieee a ia?eiae inou. i?eaaoecaoeee ain. eiou. i?aaei?eyoee.

?50. I?aaiecaoeey oei ieaie?iaaiey ia ii-ee

Oei. ieaie?ia. i?aaeno. niaie nia-noue ia?ii?. ii nioaaeaieth e
auiieiaieth ieaia oi?i-y e eni-y aeai. oiiaeia e iaeiieaiee i?ii.
i?aaei?-ey.Iauaeoii aeaiiiai ieai-y yae. oei. aeayo-oue noauaeoia
oicyno-y e ain-aa, a eoiaia. ?ac-oii ninoaaeaiea oei.ieaiia, ia/eiay io
niaou ioae. o/?aaeaeaiey aei naiaiaeiiai oei. aaeaina ain-aa.
Ninoaaeaiea oei. ieaia iaiin?aaenoa.aeeyao ia oi?i-a i?ieca.ieaiia e
iicaieyao oaycaoue i?ieca. caaeaiey n eiathueieny oei. ?an-naie. I?ieca.
eii. i?aaei?-y ninoaaeytho aiaeiaua oei. ieaiu n
?ani?aae.oei.iieacaoaeae ii eaa?oaeai, a oaeaea iia?aoeai. oei.
ieaiu(ieaoaaei.eaeaiaea?e, e?aaeeoi. e eanniaua ieaiu). Ini. oi?iie
oei.ieaia yae. aaeain aeioiaeia e ?anoiaeia, eio. nino. ec 5 ini.
?acaeaeia.

1.”Aeioiaeu e iinooieaiey n?-oa”.Nthaea aeeth/.ana oei.?an-nu i?aaei?-y
e?iia n?-oa,iieo/aiiuo ec athaeae.e aiaathaeae.oiiaeia.A ninoaaa iie-eae
yoiai ?acaeaea auaeae: i?eaueue io ini.aeayo-oe,i?eaueue io
eiano.aeayo-oe,%-u e aeeaaaeaiaeu ii OeA,aii?oec.io/eneaiey e o.ae.

2.”?anoiaeu e io/eneaiey n?-oa”. Ii io?aae. eni-ea oei. ?an-nia ia
?noe?aiea i?-aa, yeiiii. noeioee?iaaiea, ii?aoe. e i?i/ea ?anoiaeu,
e?iia ?anoiaeia ia ini. i?-ai. Ii ?acae.2 i?ioiaeyo: EA, io/eneaiey a
oiiaeu ye. noeioee?iaaiey, ?anoiaeu ia i?eia?ao. OeA, io/eneaiey a ?ace.
aeaaioai?eoaeueiua oiiaeu e o.i.

3.”E?aaeeoi. acaeiiioiioaiey i?-oey n aaieianeeie o/?aaeae-yie”, aaea
oeene?. iieo/aiiua i?aaei?-ai nnoaeu, eo aic?ao e oieaoa % ca
iieueciaaiea e?aaeeoii. Yoio ?acaeae nino. ec 2 /anoae: a aeioiaeiie
io?aae. iieo/aiiua i?aaei?-ai nnoaeu, a a ?anoiaeiie-eo iinoaiaiiia
iiaaoaiea e oieaoa % ca iieuecia. eie.

4.”Acaeiiioiioaiey i?aaei?-ey n athaeae-ii e aiaathaeae. oiiaeaie”,
nino. oiaea ec aeaoo /anoae- aeio-e e ?ano-e. A yoio ?acaeae aee. ana
iaeia. ieaoaaee a athaeae. e aiaathaeae. oiiaeu. I?aauoaiea ieaoaaeaee a
athaeaeao e aiaathaeae. oiiaeu iaae iieo/aiiuie anneaiiaaieyie aeieaeii
oi/ii nino. ?acieoeo i-o aeioiaeaie(?.1) e ?anoiaeaie (?.2) n o/aoii
naeueaei e?aaeeoi. acaeiiioiioaiee (?.3). O.i. 3, 4 ?ac. yae.
aaeaine?othueie.

5.”Anneaiiaaiey ec athaeae. e aiaathaeae. oiiaeia”. Nthaea aee.
iieo/aaiua anneai-y, athaeae. e?aaeeou, n?-aa ia eai. no?-ai e o.ae.

A oei.ieaia i?-oey io?aae. eiia/i. eoiae ieaiia. ?an/aoia ii anaio e?oao
iieacaoaeae, iieo/aiiuo?aci. aeaeia oei. ?an-nia e iaai?aae-y eo eni-ey.

A one-yo oei. e oic. naiinoiyoaeueiinoe i?-oea naii ?ac?aa. naie
ieaiu.?oeiaiaenoaoynue i?e yoii aaeeinoa. oeaeueth – aeinoeaeaieai
aunieie yo-oe oic-ey e iieo/aiey iao. i?eauee. Eiaiii iiyoiio a oiaea
oei. ieai-eyaieueoia aieiaiea oaeaeyaony aieaa iieiiio auyaeaieth
aioo?. ?a-aia i?-oey. Yo. eni-eth i?ieca. iiuiinoae, ?aoe. ?anoiae-eth
iao., o?oae. e aeai. ?an-nia, eo/oae i?a-oeee i?-aa e o.i.

A one. eio-e oei. ieai-a oic. noauaeoa aeaeaaony ia eaa?oae e ei??aeoe?
n o/aoii eiaeaena eioeyoeee.

?51. Aeaoeoeeo athaeaeaoa. Aai nouiinoue e iooe i?aaeieaiey

Athaeae aeaoeoeeo- aaee/eia i?aauoaiey ?anoiaeia athaeae iaae aai
aeioiae.

Athaeae aeao iiaeao oeiain ca n/ao 3-o enoi/ieeia.: aioo?aiieo e aiaoieo
caeiia, aeai.-e?aaeeoi. yiennee. A neo/aa oeiine?iaaiey aeao. athaeae.
ca n/ao aioo?. caeiia e auionea i?aaeo. OeA, eie-ai oiaa?ia e oneoa a
i/o inoaaony iaeciai., e iineaaenoaey oaeie caaeieaeaiiinoe caaenyo io
yeiiiie/aneie eiiuetheooe?u e ninoiyiey ?uiea o?oaea e eaieoaeia. I?e
iaee/ee o ianaeaiey naiaiaeiuo aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa e iaaeinoaoi/iinoe
ni?ina ia eaieoae ni noi?iiu /anoiiai naeoi?a, aunieii o?iaia ne?uoie
aac?aaioeoeu, oaaee/aiee ain. ?anoiaeia oei. ca n/ao aioo?. caeiia
yaeyaony oaeoi?ii, aeaaii?. yeiiii. ?acaeoeth no?aiu. A yoii neo/aa oei.
aeaoeoeeoa athaeaeaoa i?ienoiaeeo ca n/ao nie?. ee/iiai iio?aae. Oei.
athaeaeaoiiai aeaoeoeeoa ca n/ao ai. caeiia icia/aao iiyaeaiea
aiciiaeiinoe inou-y aeii. ain. ?anoiaeia aac ia?aie/aiey oaeouaai
iio?aaeaiey e ?aaeueiie eiaano. aeayoaeueiinoe /anoi. naeoi?a. Aianoa n
oai aica?ao aeieaa e aai ianeoaeeaaiea i?ienoiaeyo ca n/ao aoaeouaai
i?-aa, /oi iio?. a aoaeouai niioa. oaae. eiii?o. oiaa?ia e oneoa. A 1996
a. ca n/ao iieo/aiey aiaoieo caeiia a Oe?aeia ieaie?oaony iaania/eoue
44% io noiiu aeaoeoeeoa athaeaeaoa. ?a/ue eaeao i caeiao,
i?aaeinoaaeyaiu IAO. 3 enoi/ieeii oeiaine?iaaiey aeaoeoeeoa yaeyaony
aeai.-e?aaeeoiay yienney. A Oe?. i?aaeiieaaaaony, /oi e?aaeeou IAO
ninoaayo 23% AeA ia 1996a. Oaaee/aiea AeA a iniiaiii icia/aao aai
yienneiiiia oeiaine?iaaiea, e, eae neaaeaenoaea yoiai, ?ino eioeyoeee.
Iiyoiio e?aaeeouoe IAO i?aaeo. ae.a. iinoaaeaiu a aeanoeea
caeiiiaeaoaeueiua ?aiee.

A oeaeii aea aeaoeoeeo athaeaeaoa au?aaeaao yeiiiie/aneea ioiioaiey,
eioi?ua aicieeatho iaaeaeo o/anoi. oic aeayo. e iauanoa. i?-aa a
i?ioeanna eni. aeai n?-a naa?o eiathueony cae?aieaiiuo enoi/ieeia
aeioiaeia ioiineoaeueii ?inoa i?aaeaeueiuo ecaea?aeae i?-aa.

?52. Iniaai oi?i athaeae ia 1996 a

Iniaaiiinoe oi?ie? AA ia 1996 a :

1. oi?ie?iaaiea AA i?ienoiaeeei iiae aicaeaenoaeai IAO. ?aoaiea IAO
ninoiyei a oii, /oi aei 6.04.96 aeieaeai auoue i?eiyoue athaeaeao ia 96
aiae a ieii/aoaeueiie ?aaeaeoeee, i?e yoii auei iinoaaeaii oneiaea,
/oiau aeaoeoeeo athaeaeaoa ia i?aauoae 6,7% io AAI, a ianoiua athaeaeaou
aeieaeiu auoue aacaeaoeoe. A ieii/aoaeueiii aa?eaioa ain. eiinie.
athaeaeaou ia 1996 a. auee i?eiyou aei 6.04.96a., a 6.04 auee oaea
iaia?iaeiaaiu, i?e/ai i?eiyoua oeeo?u eae ii ain., oae e ii eiin.
athaeaeaoo auee nei??aeo, o.e. yoi aue aoi?ie aa?eaio: aeioiaeu AA –
2,39 eaae?, ?anoiaeu – 2,65 eaae?. Aeaoeoeeo – 6.2% io AAI.

2. Caeii niaea?aeeo aeioiaeioth. e ?anoiaeioth /anoe, i?e/ai aeioiaeiay
/anoue iiiieieeanue ?iaeii iiauo iiooieaiee e ooo aea iaicia/aiu aeii.
aeioiaeiua enoi/ieee, eioi?ua ia aioee a iniiaioth /anoue. Ii ?anoiaeiie
/anoe cia/eoaeueii ?anoe?ai niaeo? ?anoiaeia AA iniaaiii oao
iai?aaeaie, eioi?ua naycaiu n nioe. caueoie ianaeaiey e iniaaiii
iino?aaeaaoeo io *a?iiauey.

3. A ?anoiaeiie /anoe athaeaeaoa cao?aou ia eai. aeiaeaiey niaea?ae.
niaoe noaoueth – cao?aou ia aa?ieiiieaen.

4. a no?oeoo?a cao?ao auaeaeyaony oiiae ii ?acaeoeth oiieeaii-yia?a.
eiiie.Oe?aeiu.

5. Anaai i?e oi?ie?iaaiee ain. athaeae. auaeaeaii 4 i?ei?eoaoiuo
iai?aaeaiey: 1. ?acaeoea AIE. 2. ?acaeoea OYE, a /anoiinoe oaieuei.
i?ii. 3. ?acaeoea iaoeiaieeo i?ia?aii 4. nioe ?acaeoea ianaeaiey.

6. A caeiia iaicia/aiu ii?i. io/eneaiee io iauaain iaeiaia. e nai?ia,
eioi?ua eaeoo a ianoiua athaeaeaou: ii?iaoeaua io/. n IAeN aa?uee?othony
n 20% ii Aeiai?. iaeanoe aei 100% ii Cai. iaeanoyi; 20% io aeoeeca, 50%
io iiae. iaeiaa, i?ei 70% io iaeiaa ia i?ea.

7. A caeiia iaone. iniaaiiinoe oi?i ianoiuo athaeaeaoia: IAeN,
iieo/aiiue noa?o ii?i. aaee/ei a iauaia 50% inoaaony a ?anii?. ianoiuo
athaeaeaoia, oaeei ia?acii inou noeioe. ?acaeoey i?-aa, iniaaiii oiaa?ia
ia?. iio?aa.

8. Aeaiiui caeiiii oaaee/aia a 1,45 ?aca noaaea caiaeueiiai iaeiaa ii
ioiioaieth e noaaea 1995a.

?53. Caeii Oe? “I AA Oe?” ia 1996

22.03.96 AN Oe? i?eiye C.Oe?. “I AA”, a niio n eio aeioiae enoi/ieeaie
oei. aeaoeoeeoa AA Oe?. yae aioo?. ain. caeiu – 33%, e?aaeeou IAO – 23%,
aiaoi enoi/ieee oei. – 44%. Aeioiaeu AA ia 1996 a. (no?oeoo?a):
IAeN-12.7%,iaeia ia i?ea. ii-e7,2%, aeoeec – 2,4% iiae. iae n a?aaeae –
4,8%, 30% iinooieaiee n?-a ieaou ca caieth – 1,23%, ieaoa ca niaoe eni.
eanoiuo ?an. – 0,07 %, ieaoa ca niaoe eni. i?aniuo aiaei ?ano?nia – 0,3%
, ieaoa ca niaoe eni. iaae? i?e aeiau/a iie eneii – 0,1%, ?aioiay
iieaoa ca iaooue e i?e? aac – 11,1%, ain. iioeeia-0,27%,iinooi io AYAe –
1,53%, io/eneai ia aaieiai-?acaaae. ?aaiou – 1,5%. aciinu ii-y e oic.
i?aaiec a O /a?i – 7,5%., iino-ey e io/ene io i?aauo oae. aeio iaae
?ano. IAO – 0,54%, nai?u e iaiae ieaoaaee- 8,9% Iinooie a iain. O Oe? –
30,5%, ain. eiia. oiiae – 0,9 %, ain. O niaeaenoaey caiyoinoe ianae –
1,6%, O ?aca-ey oiie-yia? eiiieaena – 4,5 %. ae? iinooieaiey – 2.36%.

No?oeoo?a ?anoiaeia AA :

nioe.cau. ianae – 5.6%, oeiaine? nioe-eoeueo noa?u- 8,8%, iaoee – 2,5%
ain.eai. aeiaeaiey -3,2, ?anoiaeu ?ano?oeo oaieuei i?ii – 0,9, i/o –
12,4, ?ano ia oaoi. ia?aaii?oae i?aaei?. oiie-yia?a. eiiieaena – 3,7,
io?aia ie?. n?aaeu – 0,3%, iaoe iai?iia 4,8, i?aaiio?. aeayo. e iaani
aacii ain-aa – 4,8%, ianoiua AIE – 0,4, niaea?ae i?aaiia caeii, eniiei,
ain e noae aeanoe – 1,54, AYAe – 1,6, i? ?anoiaeu 0,33. ?aca?ai O eaa.
ieia Oe? 0,8%, /a?iiaueue – 6,3, ?anoiaeu iain oiiaea – 25,6. ?ano ain.
oiiaea niae caiyo. – 1, ?ano ii iane ain aeieaa – 1,2.

Iineaaeiea aiaeu eaeao ia?aea/eaaiea n?-a ec aino ?aioaa ?aaeiiia a
caiaaeiua, oauoi/iua. Oaeeo iaeanoae-aeiii?ia – 5: Aeiai?., Aeii.,
Caii?, Iieo, e Oa?ueeianeay, oaeaea naiui e?oiiui aeiii?ii aunooiaao
Eeaa.

Caeiiii Oe?. i AA onoaiiaeai ii?iaoeau io/eneaiey io iauaain. iaeiaia e
nai?ia a athaeaeaou aaoii ?ani. E?ui, iae-oae, a Eeaaa e Naaanoii.
Oaeaea aeey Aeiai?. iae. onoaiiaeaiu ne. ii?iaoeau io/. : aeoeec – 20%,
IAeN- 24,2%, iiae. iaeia – 50%. Aeaiiui caeiiii onoaiaaeea, /oi aeoe.
nai? aaacaiiuo ia oa??. Oe? iiaeaeoeec. oiaa?ia caueouaaaony a AA Oe?.
Oaeaea a 1996a. ninoaa aeioiaeia Aa Oe?. ca/ene.: au?o/ea io ?aae
oiaa?ia e ae? i?aaeiaoia, eiioen oaiiaeaiiuie i?aaiio? e ae?oaeie oiiei.
ia yoi i?aai., a oaeaea (, iieo/aiiua io ?aae. oiaa?ia. e ae?.
i?aaeiaoia, eio. naa?aaaeenue iiae oaiiae. eiio?.; aeioiaeu, iieo/ai io
aoeoeeiiiie i?iaeaaee eaio ia yenii?o oiaa?ia iinea iie?uoey ?ano,
naycai n i?iaaaeaieai aoeoeeiia; n?-aa a eiaaethoa ca ?aaeno?aoeeth
i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoa eiino. noauaeoia oic aeyo. e a aaethoa Oe? ca auaea/o
yen. e eiii?oi. eeoeaicee. N?-aa, a o./ eiaaethoa, io ?aae. eceeoiaai
aii?., aiaiiie e niaoe. oaoieee, eiouanoaa i IO aii?. nee Oe?,
iai?aeythony oeaeaaui iacia/aieai ia oeiaine? iao.-oaoi e iao/iiai
iaani., no?ieo. aeeeuey e ?aoaiea ae?. nioe aii?inia aiaiine. e /eaiia
eo naiae

A 1996a. caeiiii onoaiaae. oaaee/aiea a 1,45 ?aca noaaee cai. iaeia,
onoai. caeiiii Oe? “ I ieaoa ca caieth”, n o/aoii eo iiauoaiey a 1994
-95aa. , oaeaea aeai ia?a/aiue iauaeoia, eioi?ue ina. io oieaou cai.
iaeiaa.

Aeaiiui caeiiii onoai., /oi a AA can/eouaathony aeeaeaeaiaeu, iieo/aiiua
io aeoeee, eio. i?eiei. ain. a AI, nicaeaiiuo a i?ioeanna i?eaao e
ei?ii?aoecaoeee i?aaei?. ain. nianoa.

?54. C. Oe? “i athaeae n-ia Oe?”

28.04.95 AN Oe? i?eiye c-i “I aianaiee eciaiaiee e aeiiieiaiee a C ONN?
“I athaeae. nen-ia ONN?”( 1990) A yoii c-ia ioia/aii, /oi ?aaeaeoeey
c-ia “I athaeae. nen-ia ONN?” a nayce n ia?aoiaeii e ?ui. ioiioaieyi e
?acaeoeai ?ui. oic-aa ai iiiaii onoa?aea. Iiyoiio auee ?ac?aaioaiu
niaa?oaiii iiaua iiceoeee ii athaeae. nen-ia O-iu. A nayce n yoei a 95a.
yoio c-i i?eiyo a iiaie ?aaeaeoeee CO “I athaeae. nen-ia O-iu”. Yoio c-i
a cia/eo. noaiaie aeiiiei. i?aaeeaeouee. Ii niaea?aeeo 5 ?acaeaeia. A
1-ii ?acae. io?aaeaiu nouiinoue e o-oeee athaeaeaoa, ?annii?oaiu
athaeae. nen-ia e athaeae. ono?-ai ain-aa, aai i?eioeeiu, athaeae.
i?ioeann, aeaaony iiiyoea athaeae. eeanneoeeaoeee. Eoae, athaeaeao – yoi
ieai ia?aciaaiey e eniieuec oei. ?an-a aeey iaania/aiey o-oeee, eio.
inou-ny i?aaiaie ain. aeanoe O-iu, aeanoe A? E?ui e ianoiuie
niaia?aeaiaie.

Athaeae. nen-ia neeaaeua. ec AA O-iu, ?anioaeeeai athaeaeaoa A? E?ui e
ianoi. athaeae-ia. Nia-noue anao a-oia, eio. aoiaeyo a ninoaa athaeae.
nen-iu O-iu yae. naiaeiui athaeaeaoii O-iu. E ianoi a-oai
i?eiaaeeaaeao iae., ai?., ?aeiiiua., iinaeeia e naeuene.

E?iia yoiai a 1 ?acae. ii?aaeaeaiu iauea i?aaeea ninoaaeaiey e
eniieiaiey athaeaeaoia.

Ai 2-ii ?acae. ?anniao?eaathony ini. aeaeu aeioiaeia AA O-iu, ?aioaeee.
a-oa, iae., ?ae., ai?., iinaeeiauo e naeueneeo a-oia; ?aa-ea aeioiaeia
a-oa.

A 3-ai ?acae. – nou-oue, eeanneoeeaoeey ?anoiaeia AA O-iu, ?ani. a-oa,
ianoi. a-oia, a oaeaea niiniau aeinoeaeaiey naaeaine?iaaiiinoe ?ace.
aeaeia athaeaeaoia a athaeae. nen-ia, acaeiiioiioaiey a-oia n ae?.
caaiueyie oei. nen-iu.

4-ue ?acae. – iniiau athaeae. i?ioeanna e iauea i?eioeeiu ninoaaeaiey e
?anniio?aiey i?iaeoia athaeaeaoia e eo ooaa?aeaeaiea.

5-ue ?acae. – eniieiaiea a-oa. A yoii ?acaeaea ?anniao?eaaaony eanniaia
eniieiaiea athaeaeaoia, ii?yaeie i?eiyoey ?aoaiee ia ooi/iaiee a-oa e ia
eniieueciaaiee naiaiaeiuo athaeae. n?-a; eniieiaiea AA O-iu, ?anioaeee.
a-oa, ianoiuo athaeaeaoia, a oaeaea eiio?ieue ca eniieiaieai a-oia e
eniieueo-a n?-a aiaathaeae. o-aeia, ii?aae-ny ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca
ia?ooaiea caeiiiaeao-aa i athaeae. nen-ia, ?anniao?eaa aii?inu io/aoa i
auiiei AA, ?anioaeee. athaeaeaoa, e ianoi. athaeaeaoia, a oaeaea io/aoa
i auiieiaiee naiaeiiai a-oa O-iu.

?55. Oiiaeiaue ?uiie, aai nouiinoue e iacia/aiea

Aieueoeinoai ii-e naiinoiyoaeueii acuneeaatho iao, o?oaeiaua e aeai
?ano?nu ia ?acee/iuo aeaeao ?uieia, /a?ac eioi?ua ?ani?-ny iiaeaae
/anoue iauanoa i?iaeoeoa, au?aaeaiiiai a iaoo?-aau eeai a noiei oi?ia.
Yoi ?uiie ?aaeueiuo aeoeaia (aaea i?iaeathony e iieoiathony iaoa?
?ano?nu), ?uiie o?oaea, oei ?uiee (iaania/eaatho ?ani?-ea aeai n?-a
iaaeaeo o/anoieeaie ye ioiioaiee).

O.e. ia yoeo ?uieao ?aaeec ?ace oi?iu oei naycae e ioiioaiee, oi n yoeo
iiceoeee ?acee/atho oaeea oei ?uiee, eae e?aaeeoiue, aeai, aaethoi, ?OeA
(oiiaeiaue), no?aoiaie e ae?.

?OeA (oiiaeiaue ?uiie – O?) ioaaouaaao eae e?aaeeoiua ioiioaiey, oae e
ioiioaiey niaeaaeaiey, au?aaeathueany /a?ac auione niaoe aeieoiaioia
(oeaiiuo aoiaa), eio eiatho ninanoa noieiinoue e iiaoo i?iaeaaaoueny,
iieoiaoueny eee iiaaoaoueny.

No?ooeoo?o O? Oe? iiaeii i?aaenoaaeoue a aeaea neaae aeieia:

1. Yieoaiou (ei?ii?aoece?oaiua e

i?eaaoece?oaiua ii-y):

– th? eeoea – noauaeou i?aaei?ei aeayo

– ain-i(IAO,Ieioei,ian i?a aeanoe)

2. Eiaanoi?u (a?aaeaeaia ain-aa, th? eeoea e einoeoooeeiiaeueiua
eiaanoi?u – no?ao eiiiaiee, iaineiiiua e eiaanoeoeeiiiua oiiaeu)

3. Niaoeeaeece?iaaiiua i?aaiu ii

o/aoo, o?aiaeth e ?an/aoai ii OeA:

– iaoeeiiaeueiue aeaiiceoa?ee

– eee?eiaiaue aaie

4. Ain i?aaiu, ?aaoee?othuea ?OeA:

– ain eiienney ii OeA e O?

– Ieioei e IAO

– Iei yeiiiieee

– Oiiae ain eiouaonaa

– Aioeiiiiiieueiue eiieoao

5. Oei iin?aaeieee:

– oi?aiaoeu OeA

– eiaanoeoeeiiiua oiiaeu

– aaiee e oiiaeiaua ae?aee

– no?ao eiiiaiee

6. Naii?aaoee?othueany i?a-oeee

o/anoieeia ?OeA :

– oe? annioeeaoeey oi?aiaoeaa OeA

– oe? annioeeaoeey aeiaa?eo iauanoa, eiaanoeoeeiiiuo oiiaeia e eiiiaiee

7. OeA (aeoeee, iaeeaaoeee, eacia/aeneea iaycaoaeuenoaa, naa?aa
na?oeoeeaou, aaenaey, eiaanoeoe na?o-ou, na?oeo-ou ia eiiiainaoeeth
aeeaaeia ianaeaiey,caiaeueiua na?oeoeeaou)

OeA i?aaeno niaie oei aeieoiaio, eio io?aaeaao naycaiiua n iei eiouanoa
i?aaa, iiaeao naiinoiyoaeueii ia?auaoueny ia oei ?uiea e auoue iauaeoii
eoiee-i?iaeaaee e eiuo naeaeie, a oaeaea neoaeeoue enoi/ieeii iieo/aiey
aeioiaeia. Iia yae ?aciiaeaeiinoueth aeai eaieoaea. Iauaeou naeaeie ia
?OeA iacua eino?oiaioaie ?OeA, oiiaeaie eee oiiaeiauie oeaiiinoyie.

?56. Eeanneoeeaoeey ?OeA

?OeA (oiiaeiaue ?uiie – O?) ioaaouaaao eae e?aaeeoiua ioiioaiey, oae e
ioiioaiey niaeaaeaiey, au?aaeathueany /a?ac auione niaoe aeieoiaioia
(oeaiiuo aoiaa), eio eiatho ninanoa noieiinoue e iiaoo i?iaeaaaoueny,
iieoiaoueny eee iiaaoaoueny.

?OeA iiaeao auoue oneiaii ?acaeaeai ia ioae naaiaiou (?uiee a aieaa
oceii cia/aiee). Aiciiaeiu neaae eeanneo-ee ?OeA ii neaae ini i?eciaeai:

1) ii yieoaioai (ain-ai, /anoiue naeoi?, eiino? noauaeou);
niioaaonoaaiii ana OeA iiaoo auoue oneiaii ioianaiu e ainoae-ui, /anoiui
eee iaaeaeoia?-ui;

2) ii ye i?e?iaea OeA (OeA, au?aaeathuea ioiioaiey niaeaaeaiey – aeoeee;
OeA, iiin?aaenoaothuea e?aaeeoiua ioiioaiey – ?acee/iua o?iu aeieaiauo
iaycaoaeuenoa: iaeeaaoeee, eacia/ aaenaey e iiou; i?iecaiaeiua oiiae
oeaiiinoe – ia?aoeiua iae-ee, niaoe OeA aaieia, i?aaa e iaycai-oe ii
iioeeiiiui eiio?aeoai);

3) ii nayce OeA n eo ia?ae/iui ?aciauaieai e iineaaeothuei ia?auaieai
(ia?ae/iua OeA – iaania/eaatho iinooieaiea oiiaeiaie oeaiiinoe ia ?uiie;
aoi?e/iua OeA – ia?ai?iaeaaea oaea iinooieaoaai ia ?uiie eino?oiaioa
ae?oaei noauaeoai). Caeanue auaeae ia?ae/iue e aoi?e/iue ?OeA;

4) ii aeeeoaeueiinoe ia?eiaeia i?eaea/aiey a?aiaiii naiaiaeiuo n?-a.
Auaeaeytho aeai ?uiie (oei n?-aa i?eaeaeathony ia n?ie aei 1 aiaea) e
?uiie eaieoaeia, aaea ia?auathony n?aaeian?i/iua e aeieain? OeA;

5) ii niiniao auieaou aeioiaeia – OeA n oeene? aeioiaeii e OeA n
eciaiythueiny aeioiaeii;

6) ii oa??eoi?eyi, ia eioi?uo ia?auathony OeA. Auaeaeytho: ?aaeiiaeiua
(ianoiua), iaoeeiiaeueiua e ie?iaua (iaaeaeoia?) ?OeA;

7) ii o?iaith ?enea, naycaiiiai n aeaaeaieai OeA.

Aaeaeo iiiaiia?acey iia?aoeee n oiiae oeaiiinoyie e iiiaia?aiiinoe
ooieoeee, eio auiieiythony ?aciuie o/anoieeaie ?OeA, ia i?aaenoaae
aiciiaeiui aeaoue ei aaeeioth, en/a?iuaathuoth eeanneo-eth. Iia iiaeao
auoue inouanoaeaia, iai?eia?, ii neaae i?eciaeai: 1) ii oa?aeoa?o ye
iiaaaeaiey o/anoieeia ?uiea (ain-ai, ianaeaiea e eiiia?/ i?a-oeee).
Eiiia?/ i?a-oeee aeaeyony ia iaoeiainiaua e oei-ua (eiiia?/ aaiee, no?ao
eiiiaiee, eiaanoeoeeiiiua e iaineiiiua oiiaeu); 2) ii o?iaith
i?ioanneiiaeecia e aeaeai aeayo-oe ii OeA (i?ioanneii, eiathuea
eeoeaiceth, e iai?io-ua o/ano-ee ?OeA; 3) ii ioiioaieth e a?aaeaeainoao
eiie?aoiie no?aiu.

Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi ini o/anoieeaie ?OeA yae-ny:

– yieoaiou OeA – th? e oec eeoea, eio io naiaai eiaie auioneatho OeA n
oeaeueth iieo/aiey oei ?acoeueoaoia e iaycothony eniieiyoue iaycaiiinoe,
eio i?aaeoni oneiaeyie eo auionea

– eiaanoi?u – oec e th? eeoea, a o./. eiaanoeoe oiiaeu, aeiaa?eo
oiaa?euanoaa, iain oiiaeu e no?ao eiiiaiee, eio eiatho naia n?-aa e
aeaeatho aeiaeeoue eo a OeA n oeaeueth iieo/ aeioiaeia eee i?e?inoa ?ui
noiei OeA

– iin?aaeieee – th? eeoea, aeayo-noue eioi?uo oanii naycaia n
i?aaeinoaaeaieai i?ioanneii oneoa ii ?aciauaieth OeA, eo eoiea-i?iaeaaea

– ain-ai, eio iin?aaenoaii i?eiyoey caeiiiaeao aeoia e nicaeaiey
niioaaonoaothueo ain i?aaiia ii?aaeaeyao oneiaey i?aaiaiai ?aaoee?iaaiey
aeayo-oe oiiae ?uiea n oeaeueth nicaeaiey oneiaee aeey aai
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey, caueou aai o/anoieeia.

?57. Aeaeu OeA, eo oa?aeoa?-ea

A caeiia Oe? “I OeA e oiiae ae?aea” aeaaony ii?aaeaeaiea OeA eae
aeaiaaeiuo aeieoiaioia, eio oaeinoiaa?ytho i?aai aeaaeaiey, eeai
aeieaiaua ioiioaiey, ii?aaeaeyth acaeiiioiioaiey iaaeaeo eeoeii, eio eo
auionoeei e eo nianoaaiieeii e i?aaeoni auieaoo aeioiaeia a aeaea
aeeaeaeaiaeia eeai %, a oaeaea aiciiaeiinoue ia?aaea/e aeai e eiuo i?aa,
auoaeathueo ec aeieoiaioia, ae?oaei eeoeai.

Ana OeA aeaeyony ia o?e ini a?oiiu:

1) aeieaaua OeA, ii eioi?ui yieoaio ia ianao iaycaiiinoae aa?iooue
n?-aa, eiaanoe?iaaiiua a aai aeayo-noue, ii eio naeaeaeuenoaotho ia
o/anoeee a onoaaiii oiiaea, iaaeaeytho eo aeaaeaeueoeaa i?aaii ia
o/anoea a oi?aaeaiee i?-aii e iieo/aiea /anoe i?eauee a aeaea aeeaeae-ia
e /anoe eiou i?e eeeaeaeaoe yieoaioa;

2) aeieaiaua OeA, ii eioi?ui yieoaio ianao ioaaonoaaiiinoue aa?iooue a
iacia/ n?ie n?-aa, eiaanoe?iaaiiua a aai aeayo-noue eee eioi?ua ia
iaaeaeytho eo aeaaeaeueoeaa i?aaii ia o/anoea a oi?aaeaiee i?-aii;

3) i?iecaiaeiua OeA, iao-ci ia?aoaiey eioi?uo naycai n aeieaauie,
aeieaiauie OeA e ae? oei eino?oiaioaie eee i?aaaie ioiineoaeueii eo.

A Oe? auioneathony e ia?auathony neaae aeaeu OeA: aeoeee, iaeeaaoeee
aioo? ?anioae-eo (ain-uo) e ianoiuo caeiia, iaeeaaoeee ii-e,
eacia/aeneea iaycao-aa ii-e, naa?aa na?oeo-ou, aaenaey, i?eaaoec
na?oeo-ou, eiaanoeoe na?oeo-ou.

Aeoeey i?aaeno niaie OeA aac onoaiiaeaiiiai n?iea ia?auaiey, eio
oaeinoiaa?yao aeieaaia o/anoea aa aea?aeaoaey a OO AI, iiaeoaa?aeaeaao
/eainoai a AI e aeaao i?aai aa nianoaaiieeo ia iieo/aiea /anoe i?eauee a
aeaea aeeaeaeaiaeia, a oaeaea a ?acaeaea eiou i?e eeeaeaeaoeee AI.

Iaeeaaoeey ii?aaeaeyaony eae OeA, eio

oaeinoiaa?yao aianaiea aa nianoaaiieeii aeai n?-a e iiaeoaa?aeaeaao
iaycao-ai aicianoeoue aio iiiei noiei-oue yoie aoiaae n auieaoie
oeene?iaaiiiai %.

Eacia/ iaycao-aa – yoi aeae OeA ia i?aaeuyaeoaey, eio ?aciau-ny
eneeth/eoaeueii ia aeia?iaieueiie iniiaa n?aaee ianaeaiey e
naeaeaoaeuenoaotho i aianaiee eo nianoaaiieeii aeai n?-a a athaeaeao e
aeatho i?aai ia iieo/aiea oei aeioiaea.

Naa?aa na?oeo-ou – yoi ienueiaiiia naeaeao-ai aaiea i aeaiiie?iaaiee
aeai n?-a, eioi?ia iiaeoaa?aeae i?aai aeeaae/eea ia iieo/aiea aeaiiceoa
e % ii iaio iinea ieii/aiey onoaiiae n?iea.

Eiaanoeoe na?oeo-ou – yoi OeA, auioneaaiua eneeth/eoaeueii eiaanoeoe
oiiaeii eee eiiiaieae e aeathuea i?aai eo aeaaeaeueoeo ia iieo/
aeioiaeia aeaea aeeaeaeaiaeia.

Aaenaeai yae-ny OeA, naeaeaoaeuenoaothuay i aaconeiaiii aeai
iaycaoaeuenoaa aaenaeaaeaoaey iieaoeoue iinea ianooieaiey n?iea
ii?aaeaeiioth ( aeaiaa aeaaeaeueoeo aaenaey

?59. Aeoeee, eo nouiinoue e oa?-ea

Aeoeey i?aaeno niaie OeA aac onoaiiaeaiiiai n?iea ia?auaiey, eio
oaeinoiaa?yao aeieaaia o/anoea aa aea?aeaoaey a OO AI, iiaeoaa?aeaeaao
/eainoai a AI e aeaao i?aai aa nianoaaiieeo ia iieo/aiea /anoe i?eauee a
aeaea aeeaeaeaiaeia, a oaeaea a ?acaeaea eiou i?e eeeaeaeaoeee AI.

A caeiia Oe? “I OeA e oiiae ae?aea” auaeae neaae aeaeu aeoeee: eiaiiua,
ia i?aaeuyaeoaey, i?ieaaeaae?iaaiiua e i?inoua.

Eiaii yae aeoeee, iai?io eioi?uo, a oaeaea iaeioi?ua aeiiieieo ?aeaeceou
oeene?othony a niaoe eieaa ?aaeno?aoeee aeoeee, eioi?ay aaaeaony AI.

I?eaaeaae? aeoeee aeatho i?aai aeoeeiia?o ia i?aeiou iieo/aiea
aeeaeaeaiaeia e i?ei?eo o/anoea a ?acaeaea eiou-aa AI i?e aai
eeeaeaeaoe.

Nouanoaotho oaeaea aeoeee aac iiiei noieiinoe, eio i?e eeeaeaeaoeee AI
aa?aioe?otho aeoeeiia?ai aica?ao eeoue ii?aaeae /anoe eiathueony n?-a
AI, a ia anae iiiei noieiinoe.

Aeoeey aeieoee?iaaiiay – ?aciiaeaeiinoue eiaiiuo aeoeee, eio iiaoo auoue
ia?aaeaiu a o?aouee ?oee eeoue n ?ac?aoaiey auionoeaoaai eo AI.

Aeoeey iaeoiioeyoeaiay – aeae i?eaaeaa aeoeee (n oeene? aeeaeaeiaeii),
ii eioi?ui ia iaeaieeaathony iaiiea/aiiua aeeaeaeaiaeu.

Aeoeey iai?iieoaeueiay – aeoeey eiiiaiee, ecaanoiie noaaeeueiui i?eoieii
e auieaoie aeioiaeia e i?iaeaiiino?e?iaaaoae ioiineoaeueiue eiioieoao e
ieioie eiiutheoo?a.

Aeoeey iau/iay – OeA a oi?ia i?aeeia?iiai na?oeo-oa, naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i
nianoaaiiinoe ei?ii?aoeee. Aea?aeaoaee aeoeee – nianoaaiieee oe?iu, eio
o/anoaotho a ?acaeaea i?eauee, anee iia nouanoaoao.

Aeoeey ia?aie/aiiay – aeoeey, i?eiinyuay iau/iua aeeaeaeaiaeu, ii ia
aeathuay i?aaa aieina.

Aeoeey iiaaoaiiay – aeoeey, aeathuay aeaaeaeueoeo iieiia i?aai
nianoaaiiinoe, ii ii eioi?ie ia auiea/ aeeaeaeaiaeu aei ii?aaeaeaiiiai
n?iea eee aei aeinoeaeaiey ii?aaeaeaiiiai o?iaiy i?eauee.

Aeoeey n o/aoeai – i?eaaeaae? aeoeey, aeathuay i?aai o/anoaiaaoue iinea
iieo/aiey i?eaaeaae? aeeaeaeaiaeia a ?ani?-ee iineaae-eo aeeaeaeaiaeia
ia?aaia n aea?aeaoaeyie iau/i aeoeee.

Aeoeey /anoe/ii iiea/aiiay – aeoeey, yieoaio eio eiaao i?aai iio?aaia io
aeoeeiia?ia aeiiieieo aciinia.

Aa??aiou – niaoe aa?aioee, aeathuea i?aai aeoeeiia?o ia iieoieo aeoeee
iiaiai auionea.

I?aaui oaaii yiennee OeA yae-ny ?aaeno?aoeey eioi?iaoeee i auionea OeA.
Iauee ?aano? auionea OeA a Oe? aaaeaony aineiienneae ii OeA e oiiae
?uieo. Eioi?iaoeey i auionea OeA aeieaeia auoue iiaeienaia yieoaioii e
oi?aiaoeai OeA. Yieoaio oaeaea i?aaeinoaaeyao cayaeaiea i ?aaeno?-ee
aeoeee e eiieth onoaaa AI. A oa/ 30 aeiae ni aeiy iiaea/e yoeo
aeieoiaioia i?aai ?aaeno?-ee auaeaao naeaeao-ai i ?aaeno?-ee OeA, eio
yae-ny iniiaaieai aeey iieo/aiey aeaieia OeA eeai ?aciau-ey caeaca ia eo
ecaioiae-ea.

A niioa n caeiiii “I OeA e oiiae ae?aea” ia iaiaa, /ai ca 10 aeiae aei
ia/aea iiaeienee ia aeoeee, a i?aaiao ia/aoe Aa?o niaaoa, Eaaieia e
ioeoe ecaeaiee oiiae ae?aee aeieaeia auoue iioaeeeiaaia eioi?iaoeey i
auionea aeoeee.

?60. Iaeea-oeee, eo noui e oa?-ea

Iaeeaaoeey ii?aae-ny eae OeA, eio oaeinoiaa?yao aianaiea aa
nianoaaiieeii aeai n?-a e iiaeoaa?aeaeaao iaycao-ai aicianoeoue aio
iiiei noiei-oue yoie aoiaae n auieaoie oeene? %.

Aeaaeaeaoe iae-oeee ia yae-ny nianoaaiieeii eeai nio/?aaeeoaeai yieoaioa
iaeeaaoeee, ii yae-ny e?aaeeoi?ii ii ioiioaieth e yieoaioo, eo
naycuaatho aeieaiaua ioiioaiey.

Iaycaoaeuenoaa yieoaioa iae-oeee iiauieaoa eo iiiei noiei-oe e % ii iei
ia caaenyo io eoiaia oic aeayo-oe e ia iiaoo auoue ia?aniio?aiu.

Caeii ?acee/aao iae-oeee aeaoo aeaeia: iae-oeee aioo? ain-uo e ianoiuo
caeiia e iae-oeee ii-y. Iae-oeee iiaoo auoue eiaiiuie e ia
i?aaeuyaeoaey, %-ie e aani?ioeaioiuie (oeaeaauie), eiathueie naia
oiaeaeaiea eee n ia?aie/ e?oaii ia?auaiey

Iaeeaaoeey eiaeaene?iaaiiay – ii eioi?ie auiea/-ny %, aaee/eia oioi?uo
caaeneo io aeeiaieee ii?aaeaeaiiiai ye iieacaoaey (eiaeaena oeai).

Iaee-oeey eiiaa?oe?oaiay – aeaao aeaae-oeo i?aai a ethaie iiiaio
iaiaiyoue aa ia aeoeeth oie aea eiiiaiee

Iae-ey ia i?aaeuyaeoaey – ii ianooieaieth n?iea ieaoaaea i?aaeuyaeoaeth
auiea/-ny % e iiiei noieiinoue iae-ee.

Iaeeaaoeey ?anoyaeeiay – iicaieyao aea?aeaoaeth ioeeaaeuaaoue iiaaoaiey
iae-ee ia ?yae eao.

Iae-ey n iaeiieaieai % – oeaia, ii eioi?ie i?iaeaaony iae-ey, aeeth/ a
naay iaoiea/aiiia i?e?auaiea %.

Auione iae-ee inou n niaethaeaieai ?aaeeiia ioaee/iinoe,
i?aaeoniio?aiiuo aeey aeoeee ioe?uouo AI. Caeii onoaiaaeeaaao
ia?aie/aiey aeey auionea iae-ee ioe?uouo AI: ia aieaa 25% io ( ono
oiiaea e oieueei iinea iieiie iieaou anao auiouaiiuo aeoeee. Cai?auaii
auioneaoue iae-ee aeey oi?ie?iaaiey onoaaiiai eaieoaea yieoaioa, a
oaeaea aeey iie?uoey aai oauoeia. Aeaaeaeae iae-ee iiaeao iieo/eoue
aeioiae aeaoiy iooyie: eeai aea?aeaoue eo, iieo/ay ii iei %-ou, a caoai
a ?ac-oa iiaaoaiey iieo/eoue iiiei noiei-oue iae-ee, eeai i?iaeaaaoue eo
ii ?ui noiei-oe. A neo/aa iaauiieiaiey yieoaioii iaycaoaeuenoa ii iae-yi
eo aeaaeaeae iiaeao ia?aoeoueny a noae ia i?aaeiao i?eioaeeo acuneaiey
i?e/eoathueony aio aeai noii.

?61. Iin?aaeieee ia ?OeA.

*?acau/aeii aaaeiui aeey auno?iai e aeeiaie/aneiai ?acaeoey yae-ny
iin?aaeie/aneay aeayo-noue n OeA n oeaeueth iieo/aiey i?eauee.
I?eaueueiinoue yae-ny iaiaoiaeeiie aeey i?eaea/aiey ia oiiaeiaue ?uiie
eioaeeaeooaeueiuo e oeiainiauo ?ano?nia, a oaeaea aeey i?iecaaaeaiey
eiinoeueoaoeee e eco/aiey oeiainia, iie?uoey ?eneia a i?ioeanna
ia?ae/iiai ?aciauaiey e ia?auaiey OeA.

Iin?aaeie/ aeayo-noue ii auioneo e ia?auaieth OeA eeoeaice?oaony
niio-aaonoaaiii aeey aeaenoa caeiiiae-aa.

Iin?aaeieeaie ia oei ?uiea i.a.:

ii-y, eioi?ua niaoeeaeece?othony ia ?aaioa n OeA, i?iecaiaeyo
iin?aaeie/ aeayoaeueiinoue ii auioneo e ia?auaieth OeA, auiieiyy
iia?aoeee ia oiiaeiaii ?uia ii ii?o/aieyi e ca n/ao naieo eeeaioia
(eiien-neiiiay(a?iea?neay)aeayoaeueiinoue), ca nianoa n/ao (eiiia?/aneay
(aeeea?neay)aeayoaeueiinoue), ii ii?o/aieth yieoaioa a i?ioeanna
ia?ae/iiai ?aciauaiey oeaiiuo aoiaa e i?aaeinoaaeyy ae?oaea oneoae,
eanathueany oeaiiuo aoiaa (eiaanoeoeeiiiia eiinoeueoe?iaaiea, oi?aaeaiea
ii?ooaeai oeaiiiuo aoiaa, aeiaa?eoaeueiua iia?aoeee n oeaiiuie aoiaaaie,
?aano?aoeeiiiua ooieoeee e o.ae.). Yoe i?aaei?eyoey iaycaiu eiaoue
nianoaaiiue eaieoae aaeaeaaoiue iauaio eo iia?aoeee ia oiiaeiaii ?uiea;

aaieianeea o/?aaeaeaiey, eioi?ua aianoa n ae?oaeie oeiainiai-e?aaeeoiuie
ooieoeeyie iiaoo i?iecaiaeeoue iin?aeie/aneoth aeayoaeueiinoue ii
auioneo e ia?auaieth oeaiiuo aoiaa, auiieiyy iia?aoeee ia oiiaeiaii
?uiea ca nianoaaiiue n/ao, ii ii?o/aieth e ca n/ao naieo eeeaioia,
i?iecaiaey ?aano?aoeeiiiua ooieoeee, aeiaa?eoaeueiua n oeaiiuie
aoiaaaie e auaea/ae e?aaeeoia, nacyaaiuo n oeaiiuie aoiaaaie. Aeieaeiu
auoue ?anoe?aiu aiciiaeiinoe aaieia ii eiaanoe?iaaieth a oeaiiua aoiaae
n iaeiia?aiaiiui iaania/aieai caueou aeeaae/eeia aaieia /a?ac
yeiiiie/aneea ii?iaoeau, onoaiiaeaiiua aeey eiiia?/aneeo aaieia;

Eiaanoeoeeiiiua eiiiaiee, eioi?ua niaaeeiytho ooieoeee oeiainiaiai
iin?aaeieea ia ?uiea oeaiiuo oiaa e einoeoooeeiiiiai eiaanoi?a, oi aonue
eiaanoi?a. Aeey eioi?iai eiaanoe?iaaiea a oeaiiua aoiaae yaeyaony
iniiaiui enoi/ieeii aeioiaea e iaiouaieeiie /anoueth aeayoaeueiinoueth.
Acaeiiua oiiaeu eiaanoeoeeiiiie eiiiaiee aeeoioee?otho n?aaenoaa
eiaanoi?a aeey niaianoiai eiaanoe?iaaiey a oeaiiua aoiaae, aeaenoothuea
ca n/ao e a eioa?anao eeoe, eioi?ua i?eia?aoatho eo oeaiiua aoiaae.
Eiaanoeoeeiiiua eiiiaiee aunooiatho eaey ae?oaeo einoeoooeeiiiuo
eiaanoi?ia eiaanoeoeeiiiuie iaiaaeaea?aie e eiinoeueoaioaie, oi?ie?otho
eo aeoeau a oeaiiuo aoiaaao, i?aaiecotho ia/eneaiea e auieaoo
aeioiaeia ii oeaiiui aoiaaai. Aeey i?iaaaeaiey naaie aeayoaeueiinoe
iiaoo iauaaeeiyoueny a aeia??iaieueiua iauaaeeiaiey, a oii /enea
oiiaeiaua ae?aee.

Iin?aaeieee oiiaeiaiai ?uiea i?iecaiaeyo iia?aoeee eae ia ae?aeaaii, oae
e ia aiaae?aeaaii ?uiea oeaiiuo aoiaa.

?62. Yieoaiou ia ?OeA.

Aeaenoa caeiiiae-ai Oe? iicaie i?aeoe/anee anai i?aaei?eiei no?oeoo?ai
ca?aaeno?-ny a ea/ th? eeoea, auioneaoue oa eee eiua aeaeu OeA.
Yieoaioaie OeA a Oe? i.a.: eiaeeaeae ii-y, /aoiua ii, naiaei ii, ain ii,
AI, III, iauanoai n aeiiiei ioaaonoa, iieiua iauanoaa e eiiiaiaeeoiua.

Caeiiiae-ai ia ii?aaeae ieiei ?acia?a OO eiaeeaeae ii-y, iiyoiio iii
iiaeao yieoe?iaaoue oieueei oaeea OeA, eae iae-ee e aaenaey.
I?aaeaeueiue ?acia? eo yiennee oaeaea ia onoaiiaeai. Iae-ee e aaenaey,
auiou eiaeeaeae ii-ai, i?aaeno niaie auniei?ene OeA, o.e. caeanue
ionoonoa yeaiaioa?i iao-ciu caueou eiaanoi?a.

Caeiiiae-ai onoaiaae aeey /anoiiai ii-y iei ?acia? OO 250 a?i. *anoiia
ii-a iiaeao inouanoae yienneth iae-ee e aaenaeae, V eioi?ie caeiiiae-ii
ia ia?aie/ai. Iiyoiio yoe OeA oaeaea ioiinyony e auniei?ene.

Ain ii-y iiaoo yieoe?iaaoue iae-ee e aaenaey. E?iia oiai, a i?ioeanna
i?iaaaeaiey i?eaaoecaoeee, yoe ii-y inouanoaeytho auione aeoeee.
Aeaaeaeueoeo aaenaey eeai iae-ee, auiouaiiuo ain ii-ai iaaeinoaoi/ii
i?inoi i?eiaieoue acuneaiea ia eiou-ai ii-y. Iiyoiio, ianiio?y ia oi,
/oi OeA, yieoe?iaaiiua ain i?aaiaie eeai ii-ie, yae-ny
aunieieeeaeaeiuie, a Oe? ia naaiaei aeaiue eo neaaeoao ioianoe e
auniei?eneiaui.

AI auaatho aeaoo aeaeia: ioe?uoua,aeoeee eioi?uo iiaoo naiaiaeii
ia?auaoueny ia ae?aea, e cae?uoua, aeoeee eioi?uo ?ani?-ny iaaeaeo
o/?aaeeoaeyie. Iei ?acia? OO AI – 1250 iei ca?ieao. AI auione aeoeee ia
anth aaee/eio OO. Iae-ee iiaoo auioneaoueny ia ( ia aieaa 25% io OO e
oieueei iinea iieiie iieaou anao aeoeee. AI iiaeao inouanoaeyoue auine
aaenaeae, ?acia? yiennee eioi?uo ia ia?aie/ai. AI yae-ny
i?aaiecaoe-i?aaiaie oi?iie, iicaieythuae a iano a?aiy iaeaieaa iieii
iaani eioa?anu aea?aeaoaeae aai OeA.

Iei ?acia? OO III ii?aaeaeai a 625 iiei ca?ieao. III iiaeao
inouanoaeyoue auione iae-ee e aaenaeae, iei ?acia? yiennee eioi?uo ia
onoaiiaeaiu. III ioaa/aao ii naiei iayc-ai eneeth/eoaeueii a i?aaeaeao
naiaai OO (e eiiai eiou-aa, iaoiaeyuaainy ia aaeaina). O/?aaeeoaee
(aeoeeiia?u) ia ioaa/atho ii iaycao-ai oaeeo iauanoa eaeei-eeai eiou-ii.
Iiyoiio neiaeii aiai?eoue i iaaeaaeiie iaania/ai-oe iayc-noa,
aicieeathueo o oaeeo yieoaioia ia?aae aea?aeaoaeyie iae-ee e aaenaeae.

Iieiia iauanoai ianao nieeaea?ioth ioaaonoa-oue ii naiei iaycao-ai anai
naie eiou-ii. Iei ?acia? OO aeey iieiiai iauanoaa ia onoaiiaeai. Iieiia
iauanoai ai?aaa inouanoaeyoue auione iae-ee e aaenaeae, eio iaeaaeatho
aieaa aunieie noaiaiueth iaaeaaeiinoe, o.e. ioaaonoaaiiinoue iauanoaa ii
aai iayc-ai ia ia?aie/aia e acuneaiea ii iaycao-ai i.a. ia?auaii eae ia
n?-aa iauanoaa, oae e ia ana ee/iia eiouanoai aai o/anoieeia. O/anoieee
iieiiai iauanoaa ianoo nieeaea?ioth ioaaono-oue ii aai iayc-ai, /oi
aieaa iaaeaaeii iaania/ i?aaa e?aaeeoi?ia.

Niaieoiiue ?acia? aciinia aeeaae/eeia a eiiiaiaeeoiia iauanoai ia iiaeao
i?aauoaoue 50% aai eiouanoaa. Eiiiaiae iauanoai ai?aaa inouanoaeyoue
auione iae e aaen, ia?aie/aiea ia V yiennee ionoonoaoao. OeA eiiiaiae
iau-aa iaeaaeatho ii?aaeaeaiiie i?eaeaeao-th aneaaenoaea iaee/ey
eiiiaiaeenoia, iaeaaeathueo cia/eo iauaiii eiou-aa, ia eio iiaeii
ia?aoeoue acuneaiea.

?63. Oiiaeiaua ae?aee eo iacia/

Oiiaeiaua ae?aee (OA) – niaoeeaeece? o/?aaeaeaiey, eioi?ua nicae oneiaey
aeey iinoiyiii aeaenoaothuae oeaio?a-eec oi?aiaee OeA iooai
iauaaeeia-iey ni?ina, i?aaeeiaeaiey ia ieo, i?aaeinoaaeyy ianoi e
niiniau eae aeey i?ae/iiai ?aciauaiey, oae e aeey aoi?e/iiai ia?auaiey
OeA, eio aeieaeiu ?aaioaoue ii aaeeiui i?aaeeai e ii aaeeiie oaoiieiaee
yeaeo?iiiiai ia?auaiey OeA, eioi?ia i?iaiaeeo Iaoeeiiaeueiay OA.

*eaiii OA iiaeao noaoue eaeie-ieaoaeue iin?aaeiee ia ?OeA, eio
i?e-aea?aeeaaaony e auiiei o?aaiaaiey, onoaiiae onoaaii e i?aaeeaie OA.

OeA, aeiiouaiiua e eioe?iaaieth ia OA, aeieaeiu ianeoaeeaaoueny
nenoa-iie Iaoeeiiaeueiiai aeaiiceoa?ey.

Ain-ai aoaeao eiio?iee?iaaoue /ano-iinoue e ni?aaaaeeeainoue i?aaee OA e
i?ioeaaeo? eenoeiaa aeey o/anoieeia oiiae ?uiea, ii?aaeaeaiiuo niini-aia
i?aaiecaoeee e iiaeaea?aeee oi?-aiaee oeaee yooaeoeaiiai ?ane?uoey oeai
ia OeA, aoaeao niinianoaiaaoue oieoeeaoeee ae?aeaauo i?aaee.

Ia yoaia i?eaaoecaoeee eiouanoaa ain ii-ee /a?ac OA iiaeao
i?ien-oiaeeoue ia?ae/i ?aciau oie /anoe aeoeee e?oiiaeoeo ii-e, eioi?ay
?aaeecoaony ca aeai n?-aa, aeey ii?aaeaeaiey /a?ac eioe?iaaiea ?ui
noiei aeoeee. Ain-ai /a?ac OA iiaeao i?iecaiaeeoue ?aciauaiea ain OeA.

OA, iauaaeeiyy i?io. o/anoieeia ?OeA a iaeiii iiiauaiee, nicaeatho
one-ey aeey eiioeaio?aoeee ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey e iiauoaiey
eeeaeaeiinoe ?uiea a oeaeii. Iaeiaei, a-aea – yoi ia oieueei niaoe.
ianoi aeey niaa?oaiey naeaeie, ii e ii?aae. nen-ia i?a-oeee oi?aiaee,
eio. iiae/eiyaony niaoe. i?aaeeai e i?ioeaaeo?ai. E oi?aai ia ae?aea
iau/ii aeiioneathony eeoue aeinoaoi/ii ea/. e aunieieeeaeaeiua OeA, /oi
nicaeaao aici-oue oi?ie?-y iai?a?uaiiai eo ?uiea. A i?ioeanna ae?ae.
oi?aiauo nia?aiee iniauie iaoiaeaie on-oaiaae. eo?n (?ui. oeaia) OeA,
eioi?i-oeey i eio. ia?yaeo ni naaaeaieyie ia iauaiao niaa?oaiiuo naeaeie
noaiiaeony aeinoiyieai oe?ieeo neiaa eiaanoe?ouae ioaeeee.

Iieo/aiea eeoeaicee o/anoieeii ?OeA yae. iaiaoiaeeiui oneiaeai /eainoaa
a ae?aea a aieueoeinoaa yeiiiie/anee ?acaeouo no?aiao.

Ia oiiae. a-aea ana aieueoaa ?ani?ino?aiaiea iieo/atho aaoiiaoec-ua
nen-iu oi?aiaee OeA. Iie iicaieytho iaeiia?aiaiii n ianeieueeeo ?aa.
iano. naiaeeoue ii?o/aiey i iieoiea eee i?iaeaaea OeA.

?64. Aeaeu oiiaeiauo ae?ae

Eino?oiaioii ?uiea eaieoaeia aunooiatho oiiae. ae?aee, ia eio.
i?iaeathony aeoeee e iae-oeee aaaeoueo e?oiiaeoeo ii-e. Nou-tho
ioeoeeaeueiua e iaioeoe oiiae. a-aee. Ia iaioeoe. (/a?iuo) a-aeao
eioe?othony anaaiciiaeiua OeA, ia aeiiouaiiua ?oe-aii a-aee e ioeoe
eioe?iaea.

Oiiae. a-aee i. aunooiaoue a aeaea: 1) *anoiuo AI; 2) ain.
einoeoooia; 3) iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo oiiae. ae?ae; 4) niaoeeaeece?.
oiiae. ae?ae; 5) ?aaeiiaeueiuo oiiae. ae?ae.

Ia?aciaaiea iaaeaeoia?. oiiae. ae?ae naycaii n ?acaeoeai
eiiiuethoa?ecaoeee e eioa?iaoeeiiaeecaoeee e-ea. E?oiiua nieaeaiea
eo?nia OeA ia iaeiie ec aaaeoueo ae?ae no?aiu eee ie?a io?aae. ia eo?nao
OeA ae?. oii. ae?ae. Yoi iauyniyaony oai, /oi i?ienoiaeeo i?ioeann oie-
oeeaoeee aaieianeeo %-uo noaaie, a oaeaea oai, /oi OeA
o?ainiaoeeiiaeueiuo eiiiaiee eioe?othony iaeiia?aiaiii ia aieueoeinoaa
oiiae ae?ae a ?aciuo no?aiao.

OeA ?acee/atho 1-ie e 2-ie eaoaai?ee. 1) aeoeee, iae-oeee ianoiuo e ain.
caeiia, iae-oeee i?aae-oee, eacia/aeneea iayc-aa, na?oeoeeaou, aaenaey,
i?eaaoec. /aee. 2) aee?aaeeoeau, aeai. /aee, no?aoia. naeae-aa,
eiou. na?oeoeeaou, ?an/aoiua /aee, aiiu, iaeeiaua eieaeee.

Eoiey-i?iaeaaea OeA ia oiiae. a-aea inou-ny ia iniiaa eo ae?ae. eo?na.
Ae?aeaaie eo?n eieaaeaony a caaeneiinoe io nioiioaiey i/o ni?ini e
i?aaeeiaeaieai. Eioe?iaea OeA – yoi onoaiiaeaeiea eo?na OeA, ii eio. iie
i?iaeathony e iieoiathony ia oei. ?uieao. ?uii/ioth eioe?iaeo inou.
e?oiiua eiiiaiee e aaiee ia aiaae?aeaaii ?uiea OeA. Ae?aeaaie eo?n OeA
ii?-ny neaae. oaeoi?aie: 1) aeioiaeiinoue oaeouay e iaeeaeaaiay; 2)
?acia? aaieianeie %-ie noaaee, oeaiu ia cieioi, ia ioae. oiaa?u, ia
iaaeaeaeeiinoue; 3) eeeaeaeiinoue.

OA, iauaaeeiyy i?io. o/anoieeia ?OeA a iaeiii iiiauaiee, nicaeatho
one-ey aeey eiioeaio?aoeee ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey e iiauoaiey
eeeaeaeiinoe ?uiea a oeaeii. Iaeiaei, a-aea – yoi ia oieueei niaoe.
ianoi aeey niaa?oaiey naeaeie, ii e ii?aae. nen-ia i?a-oeee oi?aiaee,
eio. iiae/eiyaony niaoe. i?aaeeai e i?ioeaaeo?ai. E oi?aai ia ae?aea
iau/ii aeiioneathony eeoue aeinoaoi/ii ea/. e aunieieeeaeaeiua OeA, /oi
nicaeaao aici-oue oi?ie?-y iai?a?uaiiai eo ?uiea. A i?ioeanna ae?ae.
oi?aiauo nia?aiee iniauie iaoiaeaie on-oaiaae. eo?n (?ui. oeaia) OeA,
eioi?i-oeey i eio. ia?yaeo ni naaaeaieyie ia iauaiao niaa?oaiiuo naeaeie
noaiiaeony aeinoiyieai oe?ieeo neiaa eiaanoe?ouae ioaeeee.

Iieo/aiea eeoeaicee o/anoieeii ?OeA yae. iaiaoiaeeiui oneiaeai /eainoaa
a ae?aea a aieueoeinoaa yeiiiie/anee ?acaeouo no?aiao.

Ia oiiae. a-aea ana aieueoaa ?ani?ino?aiaiea iieo/atho aaoiiaoec-ua
nen-iu oi?aiaee OeA. Iie iicaieytho iaeiia?aiaiii n ianeieueeeo ?aa.
iano. naiaeeoue ii?o/aiey i iieoiea eee i?iaeaaea OeA.

?65. Aaethoi ?uiie e aae iia?-ee

Aaethoiue ?uiie – yoi noa?a ?aaeecaoeee ye ioiioaiee, aaea inou-ny
iia?aoeee ii eoiea-i?iaeaaea, iaiai eiino? aaethou eieaoaaeiuo
aeieoiaioia, au?aaeaiiuo a eiino?aiiuo aeai aaeeieoeao. Iiae aaethoiui
?uieii a aieaa oe?ieii niunea iiieiaaony nenoaia aaethoi ioiioaiee e
oei-e?aaeeoiuo o/?aaeaeaiee, i?e iin?aaeie/anoaa eioi?uo inou-ny
iia?aoeee eoiee-i?iaeaaee aaethoiuo n?aaenoa e oeaiiinoae.

Aaethoiua ?uiee iaiaoiaeeiu aeey oneeaiey eioaa?aoeeiiiuo i?ioeannia a
ye-ea eaaeaeie no?aiu, a oaeaea ?acaeoey eioaa?aoeeiiiuo i?ioeannia a
ie?iaii oic-aa a oeaeii.

Aaethoi. ?uiie O-iu e no?ai NIA naycai n aa?iiaeneie aaetho. nen-iie e
ie?iaie aaethoi. nen-iie. Aeayo-oue aaethoiiai ?-ea Oe?. no?ieony ia oao
i?eioeeiao, /oiau i?eia?anoe aeaoaaea, a i?iaeaoue – aei?iaea. Ia
aioo?aiiai aae. ?-ea O-iu i?aae-y e OE iiaoo i?eia?aoaoue aae. n?-aa ca
e?a. aeey i?eia?aoaiey ca a?aieoeae iiaaeoeo oaoiieiaee, iai?oae-ey e
ae?. iaoa?. oeaiiinoae. Eiua i?aae-y, iai?ioea, ?aniieaaay naiaiaeiie
aaethoie, i. i?aaeinoaaeyoue aa a e?aaeeo, i?iaeaaaoue ia aae. ?-ea.

Eo?n aaethou ia aae. ?-ea O-iu onoaiaaeeaaaony IAO.

Aae. iia?aoeee, auiieiyaiua ia aae. ?-eao, – yoi oei. iia?aoeee,
naycaiiua ni niaiie i?aaa niano-oe ia aae. oeaiiinoe, a oaeaea
eniieueciaaieai a-ou a ea/-aa ieaoaaea i?e inouanoaeaiee aiaoiayeiiiie/.
aeayo-oe ain-aa, naycaiiie n aaicii e auaicii oia.-iao. oeaiiinoae,
inouanoaeaiea aeai. i?aaiaeia.

Aae. iia?aoeee iiae?acaeae. ia: 1) oaeouea, 2) iia?aoeee, naycaiiua n
aeaeae. e-ea.

Oaeouea: – iia?aoeee, naycai. n eoieae-i?iaeaaeaeaae. oeaiiinoae,
oiaa?ia e i?aaeinoaaeyaiuo oneoa, ?aaeecaoeeae i?aaa ia eioaeaeooaeuei.
nia-oue, ?an/aou, ii eio. inou-ny ia one. aacion?i/iiai ieaoaaea e
i?aaeoniao?eaathuaa i?aaeinoaaeaiea e i?eaea/aiea e?aaeeoa; – ia?aaiaeu
n?-oa ca a?aieoeo e ec-ca a?aieoeu, ia/eneaiea %-ia, aeea-aeia e ae?.
aeioiaeia ii aaie. aeeaaeai, e?aaeeoai, eiaanoeoeeyi e ii ae?. oei.
iia?aoeeyi; – ia?aaiaeu n?-oa iaeio. oa?-?a, a o./. ia?aaiaeu n?-oa
c/i, iainee, noeiaiaeee e o.ae.

Iia?aoeee, naycai. n aeaeaeaieai e-ea aeeth/.: – eiaanoeoeee, a o./.
i?eia?aoaiea e i?iaeaaea OeA; – i?aaenoaaeaiea e iieo/aiea e?aaeeoia;
– i?eaea/aiea e ?aciauaiea n?-oa ia n/aoao e ai aeeaaeu; – oei.
iia?aoeee, auiieiaiea eio. i?aaeoniao?eaaao /a?ac ii?aae. n?ie ieaoaaee
eee ia?aaiae i?aaa nia-oe ia aae. oeaiiinoe.

Aaethoiua ii?aaoeee, inou. ia aae. a-aeao, iiae?acae. ia 2 aeaea: 1)
iaee/ii-aeaiaaeiua (niio) n eniieueciaaieai eiino?. a-ou iaee/iuie
n?-aaie a iiiaio ioi?ieaiey ii?aaoeee eee a i?aaeaeao nooie; 2) n?i/iua
(oi?aa?ae) eee oueth/a?niua, i?e eio. ieaoaaee inou. a ca?aiaa
onoaiiaeai. n?ie, iau/ii io iaaeaee aei 5 eao ii eo?no ia iiiaio
caeeth/aiey naeaeee.

?66.1. Aaethoiua oiiaeu a Oe?. Ii?yaeie eo oi?ie? e eniieuec-ey

Aaethoiue ?uiie – yoi noa?a ?aaeecaoeee ye ioiioaiee, aaea inou-ny
iia?aoeee ii eoiea-i?iaeaaea, iaiai eiino? aaethou eieaoaaeiuo
aeieoiaioia, au?aaeaiiuo a eiino?aiiuo aeai aaeeieoeao. Iiae aaethoiui
?uieii a aieaa oe?ieii niunea iiieiaaony nenoaia aaethoi ioiioaiee e
oei-e?aaeeoiuo o/?aaeaeaiee, i?e iin?aaeie/anoaa eioi?uo inou-ny
iia?aoeee eoiee-i?iaeaaee aaethoiuo n?aaenoa e oeaiiinoae.

Ia aaethoiii ?uiea Oe? ?ace. 3 aeaea aaethoi. o-aeia: 1) Ain. aaethoi.
o-aeu, 2) Aaetho. o-aeu ianoiuo niaia?aeaiia, 3) aaethoi. o-aeu i?aae-e.

Ain. aaethoi. o-ae O-iu oi?iei-ny EI O-iu ca n/ao n?-a AA a i?aaeaeao
noii ?anoiaeia, ooaa?aeaeaiiuo AN O-iu. Oi?ie?-ea aae. o-aea inou-ny
iooai i?eia?aoaiey aae. oeaiiinoae ia iaaeaaie. aae. a-aea, a oaeaea
iin?aaenoaii iieo/aiey e?aaeeoia a eiino?. aaethoa a i?aaeaeao,
ooaa?aeae. AN O-iu, Ieinoaoa, aiaoiaai ain. aeieaae ca n/ao ae?.
iinoaieaiee, i?aaeoniao?aiiuo aeaenoa. caeiiiaeao-aii.Eni-ea aae. o-aea
i?ienoiaeeo ia oaeiaeaoai?aiea ia?aii/a?aaeiuo iio?aaiinoae yeii.
?acaeoey no?aiu e ianaeaiey: aeey caeoiee ca a?aieoeae iiauo iaoei e
iai?-y, oaoiieiaee, iio-oao, n?-a caueou ?anoaiee, oaeia?aiee,
eaea?noaaiiuo i?aia?aoia, aeey nicaeaiey aae. ?ac-aia n oeaeueth
iaania/aiey onoie/eainoe aaoe. aae-ou e ae?. oeaeae.

Aae. o-aeu ianoi. niaia?aeaiia oi?i-ny iooai i?eia?aoaiey eiino?. a-ou
ia iaaeaaieianeii aaethoiii ?-ea Oe? ca n/ao n?-a niioaaonoaothueo iae.,
?aeiiiuo athaeaeaoia a i?aaeaeao noii, ooaa?aeae. niaia?aeaiia, a oaeaea
ca n/ao ae?. iinooieaiee. Ianoi. niaaou ia?aeaiia. aunooiatho a yoeo
neo/ayo ?anii?yaeeoaeyie yoeo n?-a. Eni-ea n?-a yoeo o-ia inou. aeey
i?eia?aoaiey iaaeeeaiaioia, i?iaeiaieuenoaey, iaoei e iai?oaeiaaiey, a
oaeaea aeey inou-y eiiaiaee?iai/iuo ?anoiaeia ca a?aieoeu. N?-aa
aaethoi. o-ia i. i?iaeaaaoueny ia aae. a-aeao, aoeoeeiiao. Aae. o-aeu
i?aae-e nicaeathony ca n/ao iinooieaiee au?o/ee io ?aaeecaoeee i?iae-ee
a eiaaethoa ia aae. n/aoa i?aae-e noiia iinooieaiee oiaiueoaaony ia 50%
aeey i?iaeaaee ia IAA O-iu. Oaeie ?acia? i?iaeaae onoaiiaeai EI O-iu ia
ia?eiae aei noaaeeecaoeee aae. eo?na e?a. Aae. n?-aa eni-ny i?aae-ie
naiinoiyoaeueii. Iie i.a. eniieueciaaiu a neaae. oeaeyo: 1) ia iieaoo
oiaa?ia, i?aaeinoaaeaiiuo oneoa, auiieiaiiuo ?aaio; 2) ia caeoieo iaoei,
iai?-y e oaoiieiaee aeey nia-o ioaeae, aeey iiaea?iecaoeee e
?aeiino?oeoeee i?-aa; 3) aeey i?a/eneaiey ia aae. n/aoa ae?. i?aae-ee.

?66.2. No?aoiaie ?uiie a Oe?

No?ao. ?uiie (N?) – yoi iniaay noa?a aeai. ioiioaiee, aaea iauaeoii
eoiee-i?iaeaaee aunooiaao niaoeeoe/. oneoaa – no?ao. caueoa, oi?ie?oaony
ni?in e i?aaeeiaeaiea ia iaa.

Iauaeoeaiay iniiaa ?acaeoey N? yae aicieeathuay a i?ioeanna aini?-aa
iio?aaiinoue iaania/aiey aania?aaieiinoe yoiai i?ioeanna, au?aae. a
ieacaiee aeai. iiiiue iino?aaeaaoei a neo/aa ianooieaiey
iai?aaeaeaeaiiuo iaaeaaii? niauoee. Ia N? i?ienoiaeeo oi?ie?iaaiea e
?ani?ae-a no?ao. o-aea aeey iaania/aiey no?ao. caueou iauanoaa.
Noauaeoaie N? yae no?ao i?a-oeee (no?aoia-ueee), eio. a oie eee eiie
noaiaie i?eieiatho o/anoea a ieacaiee no?ao oneoae, no?aoiaaoaee e
cano?aoiaaiiua. Ao?eaooaie ?-ea, a o./. e no?ao., yae. i?iaeaaaoe,
iieoiaoaeue, oiaa? eee oneoaa e ?aaeueiay naiaiaea iieaiaoaey a auai?a
oiaa?a ( oneoaa). ?acaeoie N? aee. a naay neaae. eaoaai?ee
i?iaeaaoeia no?ao. oneoae. No?ao-ia iaiin?aaenoaaiii caeeth/athueo
aeiaiai?u N.; oae iacua. no?aoiaueeia aeey no?aoiaueeia –
ia?ano?aoiai/iua i?a-oeee, eio. i?eieiatho /anoue e?oiiuo ?eneia ca
niioa. aiciaa?aaeaeaiea; iin?aaeieeia i/o no?aoiaueeaie e
no?aoiaaoaeyie; ?ace. iauaaeeiaiey no?aoiaueeia. Iieoiaoaeyie no?ao.
oneoae i.a. ethaua th? e oec eeoea, anee yoi ia i?ioeai?a/eo i?aaeeai e
one-yi aeaiiiai aeaea N. Oae, a ee/iii N. nou. ii?aae. aic?anoiua
ia?aie/aiey, a eiou-iii ia?aie/aiey ii ninoaao ei-aa. No?ao. oneoae i.a.
i?aaeinoaaeaia ia iniiaa aeiaiai?a (a aeia?iaieueiii N.) eee ia iniiaa
C-ia a iaeanoe cao?aaea. N.

Niaoe. oiaa?ii i?aaeeaiaaiii ia no?ao ?-ea yae. no?ao.oneoaa. Ia?a/aiue
aeaeia N., eio. iiaoo ainiieueciaaoueny no?aoiaaoaee i?aaenoaaeyao niaie
anni?oeiaio no?ao. ?-ea. Iieiaeaiea ia no?ao. ?-ea ii?aae-ny aeaenoaeai
iiiaeanoaa oaeoi?ia, aaaeiaeoei ec eio. yae. ?eneiaay neooaoeey, aeai.
o-aeu no?aoiaaoaeae, no?ao. oa?eo, i?aaeeiaeaiiua no?ao. oneoa e o.ae.
One-ey ?aaeecaoeee no?ao. oneoae, neeaaeuaathuaeny a eiie?aoiii ?aaeiia
a aeaiiia n?aiy iac. eiiuthieoo?ie no?ao. ?-ea.

Iai?aiaiiui ao?eaooii N? yae ia?eaoeia, eio iiae?acoiaaaao aeaoaaeeiue
iiaeoiae e ?uieo: ouaoaeueiia eco/aiea N? (iio?aaiinoae, eioa?ania,
ni?ina ia no?ao oneoae, iaueo oaiaeaioeee ye ?acaeoey no?aiu) e
niciaoaeueiia aicaeaenoaea ia ?uiie e neiaeeaoeeny ni?in, ia
oi?ie?iaaiea iio?aaiinoae e iieoiaoaeueneeo i?aaeii/oaiee.

Eiieo?aioeey ia N? i?iyae-ny a oaeeo iai?aaeaieyo, eae i?aaeeiaeaiea
iiauo aeaeia no?ao-ey ia iniiaa oi?ie?iaaiey iiauo iio?aaiinoae
no?aoiaaoaeae, ?ac?aaioea aeiaiai?ia no?ao-ey n ?ace eiiaeiaoeeae
?eneia, iiieaeaiea no?ao oa?eoia ii n?aai n oa?eoaie, i?aaeeaaaaiuie
ae?oaeie no?aoiaueeaie i?e oie aea ioaaonoaaiiinoe e oii aea iaai?a
?eneia, aieaa aunieia ea/anoai ianeoaeeaaiey no?aoiaaoaey.

O.i., a oeaeii N? Oe? aieoae a naay iaiao ao?eaoou no?ao aeciana,
iaeiaei ?acaeoea aai ?acee/iuo yeaiaoia i?ienoiaeeo ia?aaiiia?ii e iineo
caiaaeeeoaeueiue oa?aeoa?.

?67. Ye nouiinoue no?aoiaaiey

Ye. eaoaai?ey no?ao-ey (N) yae nino /anoueth eaoaai?ee o-nia. Ii anee
o-nu a oeaeii naycaiu n ?ani?aae-ai e ia?a?ani?-ai aeioiaeia, oi N ioaao
oieueei noa?o ia?a?ani? ioi-ee.

I. auaeaeeoue neaae. nouanoa. i?eciaee, oa?aeoa?ec. niaoeeoe/iinoue yoie
ye. eaoaai?ee N: 1) i?e N. aicieeaao aeai. ia?a?ani?aae. ioi-ey,
iaoneiae iaee/eai aa?iyoiinoe ianooieaiey aiacaiiuo iai?aaeaeae-o e
iai?aiaeieeiuo niauoee, o.a. no?ao. neo/aaa, aeaeoueo ca niaie
aiciiaeiinoue iaianaiey iao eee eiiai oua?aa i/o e ian-th; 2) i?e N inou
?aneeaaeea iaianaiiiai oua?aa i/o o/anoieeaie N – no?aoiaaoaeyie, eio
anaaaea iinyo caieiooue oa?-a?. Aicieeiiaaiea oaeeo ia?a?ani?aae ioi-ee
iaone. oai, /oi neo/aeiue oa?-a? iaianaiey oua?aa aea/ao ca niaie iao
eee eiua iioa?e, eio ioaaouaaao ia ana oic-aa, ia anth oa?-?eth aeaiiie
no?aiu eee ?aaeiia, eeoue eo /anoue. Yoi nicaeaao one-ey aeey aiciau
oua?aa iooai nieeae-ie ?aneeaaeee iioa?ue iaeieo oic-a i/o anaie
cano?ao. oic-aaie; 3) N. i?aaeoni. ia?a?ani?aae. oua?aa eae i/o
oa??eoi?. aae-oeaie, oae e ai a?aiaie. I?e yoii aeey yo. oa?.
ia?a?ani?aae. n?-a no?ao. o-aea a ?aieao iaeiiai aiaea o?aa aeinoaoi/ii
aieueoay oa?-?ey e cia/eo. /enei iiaeeaaeaueo no?ao-th iauaeoia.
?aneeaaeea oua?aa ai a?aiaie naycaia ni neo/ oa?-?ii aicieeiiaaiey /?aca
niauoee: ianeieueei eao iiae?yae /?aca niauoee i. e ia a. e oi/iia a?aiy
eo ianooieaiey iaecaanoii. Yoi iano-ai ii?iaeaeaao iaiaoiaeei
?aca?ae?iaaiey a aeaaii? aiaeu /anoe iinooieaoeo no?ao ieaoaaeae aeey
nicaeaiey caiani. o-aea n oai, /oiau ii neoaeee enoi/ieeii aiciau /?aca
oua?aa a iaaeaaii? aiaeu; 4) caieiooay ?aneeaaeea oua?aa iaone
aica?aoiinoue n?-a, iiaeeeciaaiiuo a no?ao. oiiae. No?ao. ieaoaaee
eaaeaeiai no?aoiaaoaey, aiineiua a no?ao. oiiae, i?aaeiaci aeey
aiciauaiey aa?iyoiie ( oua?aa a ii? oa?-ee a ianooaaa e a oa/ ii?aae
ia?eiaea. Iiyoiio any noiia no?ao. ieaoaaeae ( aac o/aoa iaeeaaei.
?anoiaeia oie i?a-oeee, eio. i?iaiaeeo N.) aica?au a oi?ia aiciau-y
oua?aa a oa/ i?eiyoiai a ?an/ao a?aiai ia?eiaea a oii aea oa??eo
ianooaaa).

O.i. N.- yoi nia-oue caieioouo ia?a?ani?aae. ioi-ee i/o aai o/-ie ii
iiaiaeo ioi?ieaiey ca n/ao aeai aciinia e oneoa no?ao. o-aea, i?aaeiac
aeey ?aciau aici oua?aa iaianaiiiai noauaeoii oic-ey eee au?aaieaaiey
iioa?ue naiaei aeioiaeia a nace n iineaaenoa i?ienoaaeo no?ao neo/aaa.

Nouiinoue N. i?iyaeyaony a aai o-oeeyo: 1) ini ?eneiaay o-oeey, o.e.
no?ao. ?ene eae aa?iyoiinoue oua?aa iaiin?. naycai n ini. iacia/aieai N.
ii ieacaieth aeai. iiiiue iino?aaeaaoei oic-aai eee a?aaeaeaiai. Eiaiii
a ?aieao aeaenoaey ?eneiaie o-oeee i?ienoiaeeo ia?a?ai?aae. aeai. oi?iu
no-noe n?aaee o/anoieeia N. a nace n iineaaenoaeyie neo/ no?ao.
niauoee; 2) i?aaeoi?aaeeoaeueiay o-oeey naycaia n eni-ai /anoe n?-oa
no?ao. o-aea ia oiaiueoaiea noaiaie e iineaaenoaee no?ao. ?enea; 3)
naa?aaao. o-oeey – naa?aaeaiea aeai. noiiu n iin. N. ia aeiaeeoea
naycaii n iio?aaiinoueth a noao. caueoa aeinoeaiooi nai. aeinoaoea (a
no?ao. aeecie eaoaai?ey N. iaea. ia?a naeeaeaaony n eaoaai?eae e?aaeeoa
i?e iaeiieaiee ii aeiaiai?ai N. ia aeiaeeoea iaone. noao. noii); 4)
eiio?ieueiay o-oeey N. au?aae. na-ai yoie eaoaai?ee e no?iai oeaeaaiio
oi?i-eth e eni-eth n?-a no?ao o-aea.

?68. Aeaeu no?aoiaaiey e eo eeanneoeeaoeey.

No?aoiaaiea (N)( yoi aeae a?aaeaeainei-i?aaiauo ioi-ee ii caueoa eiou
eioa?ania a?aaeaeai e th? eeoe i?e i?ienoanoaee ii?aaeae niauoee (no?ao
neo/aaa), ii?aaeaeaiiuo aeiaiai?ii N. eee caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii, ca n/ao
aeai oiiaeia, oi?ie?-ony iooai oieaou a?aaeaeaiaie e th? eeoeaie no?ao
ieaoaaeae (aciinia).

?acee/atho eeanneo-ee N. ii neaae e?eoa?eyi: 1) ii iauaeoai N., 2) ii
iauaia no?ao ioaaonoaaiiinoe.

A caaen io iauaeoa N. aai iiae?acaeaeytho ia io?anee: 1) eiou N., 2) N.
o?iaiy aeecie a?aaeaeai (ee/iia e nioeeaeueiia), 3) N. ioaaonoaaiiinoe,
4) N. i?aaei?eiei ?eneia.

Ii eiouanoa N. no?aoiauee aiciauaao iieiinoueth eee /anoe/ii iao oua?a
no?aoiaaoaeae.

Ii ee/iiio N. aiciauaaony ia iao oua?a, a ieacuaaaony aeai iiiiuue.

I?e N. ioaaonoaaiiinoe a ea/anoaa iauaeoia no?aoiaie caueou aunooiaao
eae eiouaonai, oae e aeeciue, caei?iauea e o?oaeiniin-noue a?aaeaeai.

A nioe N. iauaeoii yae-ny o?iaaiue aeioiaeia a?aaeaeai.

I?e N. i?aaei?eiei ?eneia iauaeoii aunooiaao ?ene iaiieo/aiey i?eauee
eee ia?aciaaiey oauoea.

Ana 4 io?anee ea?atho aaaeioth ?ieue a iaania/aiee iai?a?uaiinoe e
aania?aaieiinoe iauanoa i?-aa.

?acee/atho oaeaea iiaeio?anee N. (iai?, a ee/iii N. yoi N. aeecie e N.
io ian/ neo/aaa).

A iaeaieaa iaiauaiiie oi?ia N. ?acaeaeyaony ia aeia?ia e iaycao.

Aeia?ia N inou-ny ia iniiaa aeiaiai?a iaaeaeo no?aoiaaoaeai e
no?aoiaueeii. Iauea oneiaey e ii?yaeie i?iaaaeaiey aeia?iaieueiiai
no?aoiaaiey ii?aaeaeythony i?aaeeaie no?aoiaaiey , eioi?ua
onoaiaaeeaathony no?aoiaueeii naiinoiyoaeueii a niioaaonoaee n
o?aaiaaieyie yoiai Caeiia. Eiie? oneiaey no?aoiaaiey ii?aaeaeythony i?e
caeeth/aiee aeiaiai?a no?aoiaaiey.

Iaycaoaeueiia N. onoaiaaeeaaaony caeiiaie Oe?aeiu iooai aianaiey
eciaiaiee a yoio Caeii.

Iaeio aeaeu iaycao no?aoiaaiey :

– iaaeeoeeineia; ain ee/iia N. Aiaiiineoaeaueo; ain ee/iia N. eeoe
ninoaaa i?aaiia aioo? aeae; ain iaycao N. iaae ?aaioieeia ia neo/ae
eioeoee?iaaiey ae?onii eiioiiaeaoeoeeoa i?e eniieiaiee eie neoaeaai
iaycaoaeuenoa; ain iaycao ee/iia N. ?aaioieeia i?ieo?aoo?u; ain iaycao
ee/iia N. ?aaioieeia oaiiae i?aaiia; ain N. aeecie e caei?iauey
ia?iaeiuo aeaiooaoia; N. /eaiia yeeiaaea e aaeaoeeiiiiai ia?niiaea e
ae?.

Ii oi?ia i?aaiecaoeee auaeaeytho a?oiiiaua e eiaeeaeae aeaeu N.

Ii oi?ia i?eaioaoeee auaeaeytho N., iai?aaeaiiia ia: 1) nioe e eiou
cai?inu naiuee (N. aeecie, caei?iauey, o?aini n?aaenoa e ae?), 2)
cai?inu i?aaei?eiei no?oeoo? (N. io anao aeaeia ?eneia, ii?neia N., N.
a?aaeaeaineie ioaaonoaaiiinoe.

?69. Caeii Oe? “I no?aoiaaiee”

Yoio c-i ?aaoee?oao ioi-ey a noa?a N. e ni?eaioe?iaai ia ia?aciaaiea
?-ea no?ao. oneoa, oneeaiea no?ao. caueou eiou. eioa?ania ii-e, o/?-ee,
i?a-oeee, a?aaeaeai. Aeaenoaea yoiai c-ia ia ?ani?-ny ia ain. nioe.
no?ao. C-i niaea?aeeo 5 ?acaeaeia:

1) iau iieiaeaiey. N.- yoi aeae i?aaiauo ioi-ee ii caueoa eiou eioa?ania
a?aaeaeai e th? eeoe (THE). A neo/aa ianooie no?ao. neo/aaa, ii?aae.
aeiaiai?ii N. eee caeii-aii, ca ?an/ao aeai. o-aeia, eio. oi?i-ny iooai
oieaou a?aaeaeaiaie e THE noaoia. ieaoaaeae. No?aoiaueeaie yae. THE,
ia?aciaaiiua a oi?ia AI, III, e iauanoan n aeii. ioaaonoaaiiinoueth, a
oaeaea oa, eio. iieo/eee eeoeaiceth ia inou. no?ao. aeayo-oe.
No?aoiaaoaeyie yae. THE e aeaaniin a?aaeaeaia, eio. caeeth/eee aeiaiai?
ni no?aoiaueeaie eee yae. no?aoiaaoaeyie a niioaanoaee n caeii-aii O-iu.
No?aoiaaoaee i. iiaeienuaaoue ni no?aoiaueeaie aeiaiai?u i no?ao-ee
o?aoueeo eeoe, eio. iiaoo i?eia?aoaoue i?aaa e iaycaiiinoe no?aoiaueea.
A niioa n aeiaiai?ii N. no?aoiaaoaee eiatho i?aai i?e caeeth/aiee
aeia-?a N. ii?. a?aaeaeai eee THE aeey iieo/aiey no?ao. noii a oaeaea
eciaieoue eo aei ianooieaiey no?ao. neo/ay. Iauaeoaie N. i.a. eiou.
eioa?anu, eio. ia i?ioeai?a/ao caeii-ao O-iu, naycaiiuo n aeeciueth,
caei?iaueai, n aeaaeaieai e eni-ai ei-aa e o.ae. N. i.a. aeia?iaieueiui
eee iaycao. Aeia?. N. inou. ia iniiaa aeia-?a i/o no?aoiaaoaeai e
no?aoiaueeii.

No?ao. noiia – aeai. noiia, a a?aieoeao eio. no?aoiauee a niioaaonoaee n
niaeaoaieai N. iaycai i?iaanoe auieaoo, a oaeaea noiia, eio
auiea/eeaaony i?e ee/iii N. No?ao. ieaoaae – ?eaoa ca N., eio.
no?aoiaaoaeue iaycai auieaoeoue no?aoiaueeo a niioaaonoaee n aeiaiai?ii
N. No?ao. oa?eo – noaaea no?ao. aciina n aae-oeu no?ao. noiiu ca ii?aae
ia?eiae N. Ia?ano?aoiaaiea – N. iaeiei no?aoiaueeii ia ii?aae
aeiaiai?ii one-ee ?enea eni-ey anao eee /anoe naieo iaycaoaeuenoa ia?aae
no?aoiaaoaeai ae?. no?aoiaueeai.

2) Aeia-?u no?aoiaaiey. Aeia-? N. – yoi ienuei. niaeaoaiea i/o
no?aoiaaoaeai e no?aoiaueeii, a niioaaonoaee n eio. no?aoiaaoaeue aa?ao
ia naay iaycaoaeuenoai a neo/aa ianooieaiey no?ao. neo/ay auieaoeoue
no?aoiaaoaeth noiio aicianoeoue iieo/aiiue oauoie a a?aieoeao no?ao.
noiiu, a no?aoiaaoaeue iaycoaony auieaoeoue no?ao. ieaoaaee a ii?aae.
?acia?a e eniieieoue ae?. oneiaey aeia-?a. Aeia-? N. caeeeth/. a
niioaaonoaee n i?aaeeaie N.

3) Iaania/aiea ieaoaaeaniiniaiinoe no?aoiaueea . Ieiei. ?acia? OO
no?aoiaaoaey onoai. a noiia, yeaeaaaeaioiie 100000 YETH, ii aae.
iaiaiiiio eo?no O-iu, a aeey no?aoiaueeia, ia?aciaaiiuo n o/anoeai
eiino?. THE e a?aaeaeai, ieiei. ?acia? OO – 500000 YETH.

4) Ain. eiio?ieue ca no?ao. aeayo-oueth a O-ia. Ii inou-ny eiieoaoii ii
aeaeai eiio?iey ca no?ao. aeayo-oueth e aai i?aaiaie. A c-ia ?anniio?aiu
aai o-oeee (eo 7) e i?aaa (eo 4), a oaeaea naieoeee ca ia?ooaiea c-ia.

5) Caeeth/eo. iieiaeaiey. Caeanue ?anniao?ea. iieiaeaiey i N. eiino?.
a?aaeaeai, eeoe aac a?aaeaeainoaa e eiino?. THE ia oa?-?ee O-iu, a
oaeaea ?anniio?aiea nii?ia, naycaiiuo ni N. e iaaeaeoia?iaeiua aeia-?u.

?70. Iayc e aeia?ia no?aoiaaiea

A iaeaieaa iaiauaiiie oi?ia N. ?acaeaeyaony ia aeia?ia e iaycao.

Aeia?ia N inou-ny ia iniiaa aeiaiai?a iaaeaeo no?aoiaaoaeai e
no?aoiaueeii. Iauea oneiaey e ii?yaeie i?iaaaeaiey aeia?iaieueiiai
no?aoiaaiey ii?aaeaeythony i?aaeeaie no?aoiaaiey , eioi?ua
onoaiaaeeaathony no?aoiaueeii naiinoiyoaeueii a niioaaonoaee n
o?aaiaaieyie yoiai Caeiia. Eiie? oneiaey no?aoiaaiey ii?aaeaeythony i?e
caeeth/aiee aeiaiai?a no?aoiaaiey.

Auaeaeytho neaae i?eioeeiu aeia?ia N:

1) aeia?ia N. aeaenoaoao eae a neeo caeiia, oae e ia aeia?ia ia/aeao; 2)
i?ei?eoao i?eiaaeeaaeeo no?aiaaoaeth (iieoiaoaeue anaaaea i?aa); 3) ii
one N. aeaenoaoao ia?aie/aiea aeey caeeth/aiey aeiaiai?ia; 4) aeia?ia N.
anaaaea ia?aie/aii n?ieii N.; 5) aeia?ia N. aeaenoaoao oieueei i?e
oieaoa ?aciaiai eee ia?eiaee/aneeo aciinia; 6) no?ao iaania/aiea caaeneo
io aeaeaiey no?aoiaaoaey (ii ii?aaeaeyao ?acia? no?ao ( a i?aaeaeao
no?ao ioeaiee eiou-aa.

Iaycaoaeueiia N. onoaiaaeeaaaony ia iniiaaiee caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa Oe?.

Iaeio aeaeu iaycao no?aoiaaiey :

– iaaeeoeeineia; ain ee/iia N. Aiaiiineoaeaueo; ain ee/iia N. eeoe
ninoaaa i?aaiia aioo? aeae; ain iaycao N. iaae ?aaioieeia ia neo/ae
eioeoee?iaaiey ae?onii eiioiiaeaoeoeeoa i?e eniieiaiee eie neoaeaai
iaycaoaeuenoa; ain iaycao ee/iia N. ?aaioieeia i?ieo?aoo?u; ain iaycao
ee/iia N. ?aaioieeia oaiiae i?aaiia; ain N. aeecie e caei?iauey
ia?iaeiuo aeaiooaoia; N. /eaiia yeeiaaea e aaeaoeeiiiiai ia?niiaea e
ae?.

Ii oi?ia i?aaiecaoeee auaeaeytho a?oiiiaua e eiaeeaeae aeaeu N.

Ii oi?ia i?eaioaoeee auaeaeytho N., iai?aaeaiiia ia: 1) nioe e eiou
cai?inu naiuee (N. aeecie, caei?iauey, o?aini n?aaenoa e ae?), 2)
cai?inu i?aaei?eiei no?oeoo? (N. io anao aeaeia ?eneia, ii?neia N., N.
a?aaeaeaineie ioaaonoaaiiinoe.

I?eioeeiu iaycao N.: 1) onoaiaae-ny caeiiii, a eioi?ii
i?aaeoniao?eaaaony ia?a/aiue iauaeoia, iiaeeaaeaueo iaycao-io N., iauai
no?ao ioaaonoaaiiinoe, o?iaaiue eee ii?iu no?ao iaania/aiey,
ia?eiaee/iinoue aianaiey no?ao ieaoaaeae, ini i?aaa e iaycaiiinoe
no?aoiaueea e no?aoiaaoaeae; 2)nieioiie ioaao iaycao-ui N. iauaeoia,
oeacaiiuo a caeiia; 3) aaoiiaoe/iinoue ?ani?aae-ey iayc N. ia oeacaiiua
iauaeou; 4) aeaenoaea iaycao N. iacaaeneii io aianaiey no?ao ieaoaaeae;
5) aann?i/iinoue iayc N.; 6) ii?ie?iaaiea noaaie iaania/aiey iayc N. a %
io no?ao ioeaiee.

?71. Eiouanoa no?aoiaaiea a Oe?

Ii eiouanoa N. no?aoiauee aiciauaao iieiinoueth eee /anoe/ii iao oua?a
no?aoiaaoaeae.

A eiou. N a ea/ iauaeoa aunooiatho iao oeaiiinoe. E iaycao. eiou. N
ioiinyony: N ei-aa eieoicia, niaoicia, ae? ain n/o ii-e, N no?iaiee e
o.ae. Iauaeoaie yoiai aeaea N yae o?iaeae n/o eoeueoo?, ieiaeia
ianaaeaeaiey, iiaieiauea n/o aeeaioiuo, no?iaiey, o?ainii?oiiai n?-a e
o.ae. I?e yoii ii N. o?iaeay aeaenoaoao iaea. oe?ieee iauai no?ao.
ioaaono-oe, a ii N aeeaioiuo no?ao. ioa-noue ?acei ia?aie/aia. AEeaioiua
iiaeeaaeao N a ?acia?a 70% eo aaeain. no-noe. N no?iaiee e ae?. ini. e
iai? o-aeia io iiaea?ia, aaa?ee, noeo aaaenoaee inou a ?acia?a aaeain
no-oe, a IO – ii inoao no-oe. Ii N o?iaeay no?ao iaania/-ea nino. 70%
oua?aa. ?acia? oua?aa ii? eae ?acieoea i/o noiei. o?iaeay aeaiiie
eoeueoo?u n 1aa. a n?. ca iineaaeiea 5 eao e oaeie aea no-oe o?iaeay
iinea noeo. aaaenoaey a oae. aiaeo. A oic-aao a?-i iaycao. N iiaeeaaeao
i?eiaaeeaaeauea ei aeiia, ae?. iino?ieee a ?acia?a 40% eo no-noe, ino.
60% no-noe i. cano?aoiaaoue a aeia?ia. ii?yaeea. Aeia?. eiou. N
ioaaouaaao ei-ai ain. ii-e a noa?a iao i?-aa, N a?aaeaeai, caieiathueony
eiaeea. aeayo-oueth, N aeiiaoiaai ei-aa, n?-a o?ainii?oa. Iauaeoaie
aeia?ia. N ei-aa ain. eiiia?aoeai. ii-e yae nii?oaeaiea, iai?oae,
no?iaiey, nu?uea, iao-eu, oiieeai, o?ainii?o e ae?. oia-iao oeaiiinoe.
N?ie N -1 aiae eee iaii?aae. ia?eiae, anee ia?aae ieii/aieai ii?aae.
n?iea no?aoiaaoaeue aian no?ao. ieaoaaee.

I?e N aeii. ei-aa i. cano?aoiaaoue a iieiie no-noe ni neeaeeie ia eciin
iaaaeue, ea?oeiu, ?ace. aiia?aoo?o e o.ae. N?-aa o?ainii?oa iiaeeaaeao N
a noiia aei eo iieiie no-noe ii ain. ?ici. oeaiai ni neeaeeie ia eciin
ia neo/ae aaa?ee, oaiia, noeo. aaaenoaey.

?72. Ee/iia no?aoiaaiea a Oe?

Ii ee/iiio N. aiciauaaony ia iao oua?a, a ieacuaaaony aeai iiiiuue.

A a ee/iii N a ea/ iauaeoa aunooiatho aeeciue a?aaeaeai, eo caei?iauea e
o?oaeiniin-oue.

Iniiao ee/i. N nino. aeia?ia. N, aeaeu eio. i?aaeoni. auieaoo no?ao.
noiiu no?aoiaaoaeth eee ae?. eeoeai, anayce: n aeinoeaeaieai aei iaone.
n?iea eee niauoe, aei iaineii. aic?anoa n iieaae. iiaeeciaiiie auieaoie
iainee a onoiiae. ?acia?a; n ianooieaiey nia?oe cano?aoia. eeoea; n
?ace. oaa/eyie io ian/ neo/ay, i?ienoaaeoaai a ia?eiae N Iaeaieaa
iiioey?ii N aeecie, eiathuaa naa?aaao. o-oeeth, iai?-?, niaoai. N Niao.
N – yoi N, eio. iauaaeeiyao a iaeiii aeia-?a ianeieueei naiinoiyo.
aeaeia N: N io ian/ neo/aaa, N ia aeiaeeoea aei ieii/aiey n?iea N, N ia
neo/ae nia?oe cano?aoiaaiiiai. Aeia-i?u niaoai. N aeecie caee n a?aaeae
a aic?-a io 16 aei 77 eao ia n?ie 3,5,10,15, 20 eao. ?acia? no?ao. noiiu
caaeneo io aeaeaiey no?ao-ey.

I?e N aeaoae no?aoiaaoaeyie yae. ?iaeeoaee eee ae?. ?iaenoaaiieee, a
cano?aoiaaiiuie – ?aaaiie a aic?anoa aei 15 eao. No?ao. noiia auiea/-ny
i?e aeiaeeoee ?aaaieii aei ieii/aiee n?iea N, a oaeaea ca iin/eaaenoaey
ian/anoiuo neo/aaa n ?aaaieii ca ia?eiae N I?e ianooieaiee nia?oe
cano?aoiaaiiiai no?aoiaaoaeth auaeaaony iiniaea a ?acia?a 30% io no?ao.
noiiu e aica?au. oiea/aiiua no?ao. aciinu. Naiaia?. aa?-oii N aeaoae
yae. N e a?aeini/-eth. Ioee/ea nino. a oii, /oi no?ao. noiia auiea/ea.
i?e anooieaiee cano?aoiaaiiiai a a?ae a ia?eiae ni aeiy ieii/aiey n?iea
N e aei aeinoeaeaiey 21a. I?e yoii ?acia? no?ao. noiiu iinea inii/aiey
n?iea N aic?ano ia 3% a aiae. I?e iaanooieaiee a a?ae, no?ao. noiia
auie-ny aei aeinoeaeaiey cano?aoiaaiiui 21a.

Ia no?ao. aeiiiei. iainee i?eiei-ny ioae/eiu a aic?anoa io 25 aei 65
eao, aeaiueiu io 25 aei 60 eao. N?ie N ii?-ny eae ?acieoea i/o iaineii.
aic?anoii e aic?-ii no?aoiaaoaey i?e caee-ee aeia-?a. Iainey auiea/-ny
iiaeeciaiii iinea ieii/aiey n?iea N, anee aeiaiai? iieiinoueth iiea/ai
no?ao. aciinaie. Iain o-ae ii N aeiiieieo. iainee oi?i-ny iaiieiaeio ca
n/ao aciinia no?aoiaaoaeae e iaiieiaeio ca n/ao n?-a athaeaeaoa.

N io ian/ neo/aaa i?-ny eae ca n/ao no?aoiaaoaeae, oae e ca n/ao ii-e e
i?a-ee, a eio. iie ?aaioatho.

Oaeaea nou. iaycao. N iannaaee?ia io ian/ neo/aaa ia iooyo niiauaiey
ae/ae, aaoiiiaeeueiiai, aiaeiiai e aicae. o?ainii?oa aeaeueiaai
neaaeiaaiey. No?ao. aciinu aeeth/. a no-noue iannaae aeeaoa. I?ia-ny N
ainieoaiieeia aeaoaeiiia e oeie-eioa?iaoia, iaycao. N aiaiiine-eo.

?73. Aicaeaenoaea oei iieeoeee ia ?uiie o?oaea a Oe?

I?e ia?aoiaea e ?ui ioiio ain aiaoaoaeuenoai a ye-o no?aiu aeieaeii
iineoue ia?aie/ oa?aeoa? e auoue iai?aaeaiiui ia ono?aiaiea naiaa a
?acaeoee e ooieoe-ee ?ui iao-cia, onoaiiae naycae iaaeaeo ?ace aeaeaie
?uieia: ?uieii o?oaea, oiiae ?uieii, ?uieii nnoaeiuo eaieoaeia,
eiaanoeoe ?uieii e o.ae. A iaicia/ no?oeoo?a aaae ?ieue ioaiaeeony ?uieo
o?oaea, ooieoe-ea eio naycaii n iniaai-ie athaeae iieeoeee a nia? one.

?uiie o?oaea – neiaeiay nioe-ye eaoaai?ey, eio i?aaeno niaie nenoaio ye
ioiioaiee, iiin?aaenoaothueo aeaeaeaiea iao-aau one-ee i?-aa (?uiie ?aa
iano) e aeaeaeaiea ?aa neeu, ino-uanoaeyaiuo a i?ioeanna iauanoa i?-aa.
?uiie o?oaea i?aaenoaaeai a aeaea i?ieca noa?u, aaea i?ienoiaeeo
niaaeeiaiea aau e ee/iuo yeaiaioia i?-aa, a oaeaea naaeaine?iaaiiinoue
i?ioanneii-eaaeeoee no?oeoo?u eaae?ia e no?oeoo?u ?aa iano.

?uiie o?oaea oa?aeoa?ecoaony eae nenoaia ioiioaiee, eiathueo neaae
iniaaiiinoe: 1) yoe ioiioaiey ioaaouaatho anth no?oeoo?o iauanoa i?-aa;
2) ?aaoee?iaaiea yoeo ioiioaiee iniiaaii ia oneiaeyo naiaiaeiiai ni?ina
e i?aaeeiaeaiey ia ?aa neeo; 3) yoe ioiioaiey o?aaotho ?aaoee?iaaiey ni
noi?iiu ain-aa, eio iooai ?aoeeii ni/aoaiey athaeae iaania/aiey e
athaeae ?aaoe-ey aicae ia ?uiie o?oaea iooai ?anoe?aiey eee nie?auaiey
noa?u aai aeayo-oe.

Oi?ie?-ea ?uiea o?oaea a Oe? i?ieno ia iniiaa anao o?iaiae oi?aaeaiey
ei: ain-ai (iae?io?iaaiue), ?aaeiiaeueiiai (iacio?iaaiue) e oi?aaeaiey
ia o?iaia ii-e (iee?io?iaaiue).

Ia ain o?iaia ii?aaeaeythony iaiao ii?iu ?aaoe-ey ?uiea o?oaea, iauea
i?eioeeiu oi?aaeaiey ei e a?aieoeu oi?aaeaiey. Ain-ai iaania/eaaao
oieoeeaoeeth nenoaiu nioe e o?oaeiaiai caeiiiae-aa, ii?aaeaeyao i?aaa
?aaioiaeaoaeae e ?aaioieeia a noa?a iaeia ?aa neeu, onoaiaaeea a?aieoeu
o/anoey iineaaeieo a oi?aaeaiee i?-aii, eiiiaoaioeeth iano i?aaiia
aeanoe a oi?aae-ee ?uieii o?oaea.

Iiieii ii?iaoeaiiai, i?yiiai aicaeaenoaey ain-ai iaania/ einaaiiia
oi?aaeaiea ?uieii o?oaea /a?ac athaeae i?ioeann. Aeeyiea athaeae
iieeoeee ia ?acaeoea ?uiea o?oaea inou iin?aaenoaii neaae oei iaiaa?ia:

1) athaeae ?aaoee?iaaiea no?oeoo?iie ia?ano?ieee yeiiiieee, /oi
iicaieyao ?anoe?eoue ?uiie ?aa iano e aeeyao ia nieaeaiea aac?aaioeoeu a
o?oaeiecauoi/iuo ?aaeiiao;

2) eciaiaiea iieeoeee aineaiaeiae-e a niioa ni no?oeo ia?ano?ieeie ye-e

3) oei iaania/aiea ?acaeoey eiiiaaoe i?ioeannia, /oi aeaao aiciiaeiinoue
iaiiaeyoue iao-oao aaco io?aneae e oai naiui aeeyoue ia ?uiie ?aa neeu a
no?iio iiauoaiey aa ea/anoaaiiuo oa?aeoa?enoee;

4) athaeae iaania/aiea aini?iec-aa ?aa neeu, ?acaeoey noa?u nioe-eoeueo
ianeoaeeaaiey ianaeaiey;

5) nicaeaiea ain oiiaea niaeaenoaey caiyoinoe ianaeaiey Oe?, aeey
eioi?iai ii-y io/eneytho a ainathaeaeao 2% oiiaea iio?aaeaiey.

?anniao?eaay no?oeoo?ioth ia?ano?ieeo eae aaaeiaeoee oaeoi? aicaeaenoaey
athaeae iieeoeee ia ?uiie o?oaea, ioaeii oeacaoue, /oi aeaaiia aa
iacia/aiea – iaania/aiea ?aoeeii eniieuec-ey i?e?iaeiuo ?ano?nia e
o?oaeiaiai iioaioeeaea no?aiu, iaania/aiea ?anoe? aini?iec-aa,
noaaeeueiiai ia?aueaaiey i?-aa anao aeaeia i?iae-ee e oneoa a eaaeae
eiie? ?aaeiia Oe?.

?74. Acaeiinaycue ?uiea o?oaea n oei ?uieaie

?anniao?eaay ?uiie o?oaea eae nenoaio ye ioi-ee, iiin?aaenoaothueo niaie
aeaeaeaiea e naaeaine?iaaiiinoe no?oeoo?u ?aa iano e ?aa neeu a oiaea
iauanoa i?-aa e aini?iec-aa a oeaeii, ioiaoei, /oi yoio ?uiie eiaao naie
naaiaiou, eio niioaaonoa no?oeoo?a iauanoa i?-aa. Naaiaio ?uiea o?oaea –
aai iainiae /anoue, oa?aeoa?ec-ny i?enouae ae niaoeeoeeie i?ieca
i?ioeanna e i?io-eaaeeo no?oeoo?ie caiyouo a iae ?aaioieeia.Auaeae neaae
naaiaiou ?uiea o?oaea:i?ii i?-ai, n/o, o?ainii?o, naycue, oi?aiey,
iai?ieca noa?a (iaaeeoeeia, ia?aciaaiea, eoeueoo?a, iaoea, oi?aeaiea),
oei ?uiee (oiiae e eiaanoeoe-ue, aaethoiue e aeaiaaeiue, ?uiie no?ao
oneoa).

Eco/ay oei ?uiee, ioiaoei, /oi yoi anoue iainiae noa?a i?ieca ioi-ee e
/ae aeayo-oe, aaea i?ienoiaeeo naaeaine?-noue ?aa neeu e ?aa iano a
i?ioe inou-ey oei ianeoaeeaaiey eae i?ieca i?ioeannia, oae e noa?
iai?ieca aeayo-oe, a oaeaea aeeciaiaania/aiey ioae eieeaeoeaia e /eaiia
iauanoaa. ?ieue oei ?uieia a iaania/aiee iauanoa i?-aa io?acei ia noaia:

?ano ia iaoe ?anoiaeu ia

i?iaeoeo iio?aaeai

?ano ainoae

ia caeoiee

eiaan-

oeoeee /enoua

iaeiae

eiaanoeoe naa?a-

oiiaeu aeaiey

ieaoaaee

ca ?ano?nu IAe

I?io-eaaeeo no?oeoo?a oei ?uieia iaoneiaeaia ooieoeeii iniaaiiinoyie
aeayo-oe oei o/?aaeaeaiee e eo iauanoa i?aaeiacia/aieai.

Ia oei ?uieao a i?ioanneii ninoaaa eaae?ia neaaeoao auaeaeeoue oaeea
iaeaieaa iauea a?oiiu caiyouo ?aaioieeia: ?aaioieee no?ao eiiiaiee,
eiaanoeoe oiiaeia, oiiae ?uieia, iaeea?u, a?iea?u, aeeea?u, oei
iaiaaeaea?u e ae? oei iin?aaeieee.

Naaeaine?iaaiiinoue ia oei ?uieao aeeeooaony a iniiaiii no?oeoo?ie ?aa
iano. Yoi icia/aao, /oi aeaeaeaiea ?aa neeu ia oei ?uieao e o?iaaiue
caiyouo caeanue niaoeeaeenoia ii?aae-ny ?acaeoeai anao yeaiaioia,
ninoaaeythu no?oeoo?o oei ?uieia:

eiee/anoaii no?aoiauo e eiaanoeoe eiiiaiee, e?aaeeoiuo o/?aaeaeaiee,
oiiaeiauo e aaethoiuo ae?ae e o.ae. Aaaeioth ?ieue ea?aao oaeaea yienney
OeA (eo eie-ai a ia?auaiee); iauai aiaoiaoi?a naycae; ?acaeoea
eiiutheoo?u oei ?uieia e aai eio?ano?oeoo?u e ae?.

Oioy oei ?uiee aieoaee a naay iiiaea ao?eaoou naaiaioia ?uiea o?oaea,
yoiio naaiaioo i?enoue naie niaoeeoe/ iniaaiiinoe: 1) oe?ieia ?acaeoea
naiiieoiaaiinoe e eiiia?/ ?an/aoa, eae i?eioeeiia i?ieca-oic e oei
aeayo-oe; 2) ionoonoaea oei iiaeaea?aeee ni noi?iiu ain-aa; 3) neaaay
iiaeeueiinoue ?aa neeu; 4) aunieay noaiaiue iainiaeaiiinoe i?e
inouanoaeaiee oic aeayo-oe.

?anniao?eaay acaeiinaycue oei ?uieia n ?uieii o?oaea, ioiaoei, /oi yoio
naaiaio ?uiea o?oaea ii ia?a oe?aieaiey ?ui ioiiaoiee iieo/aao ana aieaa
oe?ieia ?acaeoea. Iaeiaei ii iiea ia onoie/ea e o?aa ?aoaiey iiiaeo
aii?inia i?aaiaiai, ii?iaoeaiiai e i?aaiec oa?-?a.

EAOAEIA “OEIAINU”

1. I?aaeiao, niaea?aeaiea e caaea/e eo?na.

2. ?ieue oei-ia a aini?iec-aa NII e IAe.

3. Nouiinoue e iacia/aiea oeiainia.

4. Oeiainiaay nenoaia Oe?aeiu.

5. Iniiaiua caaiuey oei nenoaiu Oe?.

6. No?oeoo?a e ninoaa oeaio? e aeaoe o-ia.

7. Oei-i?ii a?oiiu e eo ?ieue a oi? o-ie.

8. Oei iaiaaeaeiaio eae n-ia oi?aaeaiey.

9. Cia/aiea e ooieoeee oei iaiaaeaeiaioa.

10. I?iaiice? e ieaie? a oei iaiaaeaei-a

11. O-oeee o-ia a iaania/ iauan aini?-aa.

12. Nouiinoue oei iieeoeee.

13. Noa?oaaey e oaeoeea a oei iieeoeea.

14. Oeaeue oei iieeoeee a Oe?.

15. Ye noeioee?-ea i?-aa eae ninoaaiay

/anoue oei iieeoeee ia nia? yoaia.

16. Naea?aeeaaiea eioe i?ioeania eae nino

/anoue oei iieeoeee ia nia? yoaia.

17. Oi?aaeaiea oeiainaie a Oe?.

18. Athaeae eae ye eao-ey a n-ia noiei eao-ee

20. ?ieue athaeae a inou ?anoe? aini?-aa.

21. Athaeaeaoiay i?ia?aiia e iniiaiua ia-

i?aaeaiey aa ?ani?aaeaeaiey.

22. Acaeiinaycue aini?iec-aa ?aa neeu n

eniieiaieai athaeaeaoa.

23. Nioe-ye e iieeo oaeoi?u, aeeythuea ia

oi?ie?iaaiea athaeaeaoa.

24. Ooieoeee athaeaeaoa.

25. Ain athaeaeao – ini oei ieai Oe?.

26. Athaeae iao-ci eae nino /anoue oei iao-a

27. Athaeae iaoaieci eae eino?oiaio ?aa-

eecaoeee athaeaeaoiie iieeoeee ain-aa.

28. Athaeae n-ia e athaeae ono?ienoai a Oe?.

29. I?eioeeiu athaeae ono?ieonaa a Oe?.

30. Ieaie?iaaiea, ninoaaeaiea, ?annii-

o?aiea e ooaa?aeaeaiea athaeaeaoa

31. Eiio?ieue ca eniiei athaeae-a e aai cia/.

32. Niaea?ae e i?eioeeiu eniiei athaeaeaoa.

33. ?inienue aeioiaeia e ?anoiaeia – iniiai

iia?aoeaiue ieai a athaeaeaoe?iaaiee.

34. Athaeae e?aaeeou e eo ?anii?yaeeoaee.

35. Nouiinoue ain aeioiaeia. Iniiaiua noa-

ouee aeioiaeia ainathaeaeaoa Oe?.

36. Nouiinoue ain ?anoiaeia. Ini iai?aa-

eaiey ?anoiaea athaeaeaoiuo n?aaenoa.

37. Ini aeioiaei enoi/ieee iano athaeaeaoia.

38. Iai?-ey ?anoiaeiaaiey iano athaeaeaoia

39. Nouiinoue iaeiaia e eo ?ieue a oi?ie-

?iaaiee athaeaeaoia ?acee/i o?iaiae.

40. Acaeiiioi-ey i?ii ii-y n athaeaeaoii.

41. Nouiinoue IAeN.

42. Nouiinoue iaeiaa ia i?eaueue ii-y.

43. Nouiinoue iiaeioiaeiiai iaeiaa.

44. O-nu ii-e eae ini caaii oei n-iu Oe?.

45. Iniiaiua oiiaeu ii-y, eo ninoaa e ii-

eacaoaee yooaeoeaiinoe eniieuec-ey

46. Iai? n?-aa ii-y, eo ninoaa e iieacaoa-

ee yooaeoeaiinoe eniieueciaaiey

47. Aeaeu ?anoiaeia ii-y.

48. Oi?ie? aeioiaeia e aeai oiiaeia ia ii.

49. Oei aniaeou i?eaao-oeee eiou ain ii-e

50. I?aaiec-ey oei ieaie?-ey ia ii-ee.

51. Aeaoeoeeo athaeaeaoa, aai nouiinoue e

i?eioeeiu i?aiaeieaiey

52. Iniaaiiinoe oi?ie? athaeae ia 1997 a.

53. Caeii Oe? “I ainathaeae Oe? ia 1997 a.”

54. Caeii Oe? “I athaeae nenoaia Oe?”

55. Oiiae ?uiie, aai nouiinoue e iacia/.

56. Eeanneoeeaoeey ?uiea oeaiiuo aoiaa.

58. Aeaeu oeaiiuo aoiaa, eo oa?aeoa?-ea.

59. Aeoeee, eo nouiinoue e oa?aeoa?enoeea.

60. Iaeeaaoeee, eo nouiinoue e oa?aeoa?-ea.

61. Iin?aaeieee ia ?uiea oeaiiuo aoiaa.

62. Yieoaiou ia ?OeA.

63. Oiiaeiaua ae?aee eo iacia/aiea.

64. Aeaeu oiiaeiauo ae?ae.

65. Aaethoiue ?uiie e aaethoi iia?aoeee.

66.1. Aaethoiua oiiaeu a Oe?, ii?yaeie eo

oi?ie?iaaiey e eniieuecaaiey

66.2. No?aoiaie ?uiie a Oe?.

67. Ye nouiinoue no?aoiaaiey.

68. Aeaeu no?aoiaaiey e eo eeanneo-ey.

69. Caeii Oe? “I no?aoiaaiee”.

70. Iaycao e aeia?ia no?aoiaaiea a Oe?.

71. Eiouanoaaiiia no?aoiaaiea a Oe?.

72. Ee/iia no?aoiaaiea a Oe?.

73. Aicaeaenoaea oei iieeoeee ia ?uiie

o?oaea a Oe?.

74. Acaeiina ?uiea o?oaea n oei ?uieaie.

75. Inia-oe iaeia-athaeae iieeoeee a 1997 a

AINATHAeAEAO 1997

A i?iaeoa naiaeiiai athaeaeaoa ia 1997 aeioiaeu i?aaeoniio?aiu a noiia
44,8 ie?ae.a?i., a ?anoiaeu – 48,9 ie?ae.a?i. aeaoeoeeo athaeaeaoa nino
4,1 ie?ae a?i eee 4% i?iaiiciiai aaeaaiai aioo?aiiaai i?iaeoeoa.

NII

IAe

*eno aeioiae iau-aa

Ain

oei?aca?au

Oiiae

iieaou

o?oaea

I?e

au

eue

O aiciau

iao ecaea?- aeae

Athaeaeaoiay i?ia?aia ainoaea?noaa

?anoiaeu ia ainoi?-ea e iai?iio

Nioe-eoeueo noa?a

Nioecaueoa ian-ey

?ac

aeo

i/o

Iio?aaeaiea (eniieueci-aaiea) ?aa neeu

Aeioiaeu ainathaeaeaoa

?anoiaeu ainathaeaeaoa

I?iec-ai

?aa neeu

?ani?-ea

?aa neeu

NAIAIAeIAss

?UI YE-EA

– /ano nianoa

– naiaiaea eii-

eo?aioeee

– naiaiaea

iauaaeei-ee

– naiaiaea i?a-

aei?eiei-aa

– naiaiaea au-

ai?a i?ioan

Eiinieeaee?iaaiiue ainathaeaeao Oe?

Ain

athaeaeao

athaeaeao aao ?ani E?ui

Ianoiua

athaeaeaou

Ianoiua

athaeaeaou

?anioae

athaeaeao

Athaeaeao ai?iaeia

?ani iiae/eiaiey

Athaeaeao

iaeanoe

Iae

athaeaeao

Athaeaeao

?aeiia

Athaeaeao ai?-ia

iae iiae/-iey

athaeaeao ai?iaeia ?ae-iiae/eiaiey

?ae

athae

aeao

Iinaeeiaue

e naeueneee

athaeaeaou

OEIAINU

Oeaio?aeec

Aeaoeaio?aeec

O-u ii-e

Oeiainu i?ii-oe

O-u o?ainii?oa

O-u no?ieoae-aa

O-u oi?aiaee

O-u n/o e ae?.

O-u io?aneae i/o

?uiee

i?iaeoeoia

I?aa-

noai

Naiaei

oic-aa

Oe?iu

e ii-y

Oei-ua

?uiee

?uiee

?an-ia

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