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Финансы. Полный курс шпаргалок

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OAIA 1 OEIAINU EAE NOIEIINOIAss EAOAAI?Ess.

Oeiainu — yoi ia aeaiueae !

Eiaaea oeiainu i?aa?auathony a i?eeaaaoaeueiia (oeiainiaua oiiaeu,
oeiainiaua ?ano?nu e o.i.), oiaaea oeiainu noaiiayony oaea aeaiueaaie. A
yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee aeaiueae ioaeiu aeey i?ioeanna aini?iecaiaenoaa.

Nouanoaotho ii?aaeaeaiiua i?iaeaiu oeiainiaie nenoaiu:

1) ieioie nai? aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa;

2) ?anoiaeu ?! ii?aaeaeeoue i?ei?eoaou a ?ani?aaeaeaiee n?aaenoa;

3) naaeaine?iaaiiinoue athaeaeaoa.

Oeiainu — yoi nenoaia yeiiiie/aneeo (aeaiaaeiuo) ioiioaiee, n iiiiuueth
eioi?ie nicaeathony e ?anoiaeothony oiiaeu aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa.

Oeiainu – niaieoiiinoue iauaeoeaii iaoneiaeaiiuo yeiiiie/aneeo
ioiioaiee, eiathueo ?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiue oa?aeoa?, aeaiaaeioth oi?io
au?aaeaiey e iaoa?eaeecoaiuo a aeaiaaeiuo aeioiaeao e iaeiieaieyo,
oi?ie?oaiuo a ?oeao ainoaea?noaa e noauaeoia oicyenoaiaaiey aeey oeaeae
?anoe?aiiiai aini?iecaiaenoaa, iaoa?eaeueiiai noeioee?iaaiey
?aaioathueo, oaeiaeaoai?aiea nioeeaeueiuo e ae?oaeo iio?aaiinoae.

Enoi?e/aneee oa?aeoa? eaoaai?ee icia/aao, /oi

1 – aei eaeiai-oi ia?eiaea a?aiaie eaoaai?ee ia auei;

2 – iiyaeaiea;

3 – ?acaeoea;

4 – en/aciiaaiea.

Oeiainu – “finance” (eao.) – aeaiaaeiue ieaoaae. A aeaiiii eo?na
eco/athony ioiioaiey, naycaiiua n aeaeaeaieai aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa.

Aeaiaaeiue ieaoaae – ioiioaiey noauaeoia, neaaeiaaoaeueii, oeiainu eae
yeiiiie/aneay eaoaai?ey anoue niaieoiiinoue ioiioaiee. Yoe ioiioaiey
oa?aeoa?ecothony ii?aaeaeaiiuie i?eciaeaie. Ioiioaiey nouanoaotho
iaaeaeo noauaeoaie aini?iecaiaenoaaiiiai i?ioeanna. Iie aicieeatho ia
anao noaaeeyo e o?iaiyo aeecie iauanoaa. Eiaiii eae niaieoiiinoue
ii?aaeaeaiiuo ioiioaiee iie ia?aciauaatho yeiiiie/aneoth eaoaai?eth.

Eae yeiiiie/aneay eaoaai?ey oeiainu ioee/athony io ae?oaeo yeiiiie/aneeo
eaoaai?ee naieie i?eciaeaie. Iauanoaaiiua ioiioaiey – ioiioaiey iaaeaeo
ethaeueie. Yeiiiie/aneea ioiioaiey naycaiu n i?ioeannii nicaeaiey e
aeaeaeaiey noieiinoe.

Ia noaaeeyo i?iecaiaenoaa e iio?aaeaiey aeaeaeaiey noieiinoe ia
i?ienoiaeeo, iiyoiio iie ia yaeythony ianoii aicieeiiaaiey oeiainia.

Ia o?aoueae noaaeee ?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiiai i?ioeanna ?ani?aaeaeaiea
i?eia?aoaao oi?io aeaeaeaiey oiaa?a. Naii aeaeaeaiea oiaa?a
iiin?aaeoaony aeaeaeaieai aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa e noieiinoue ia
io/oaeaeaaony, a iaiyao naith oi?io. Ia aeaiiie oaca ii?aaeaeythuae
yaeyaony yeiiiie/aneay eaoaai?ey oeaia e ia aeaiiii yoaia i?ienoiaeeo
oeaiiaia ?ani?aaeaeaiea noieiinoe.

Ia aoi?ie oaca aini?iecaiaenoaaiiiai i?ioeanna i?ienoiaeeo
?ani?aaeaeaiea AII. Yoi ?ani?aaeaeaiea oa?aeoa?ecoaony oai, /oi iii
i?eia?aoaao oi?io aeaeaeaiey aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa, ia?aoiaeyueo ec iaeieo
?oe a ae?oaea e caeanue i?ienoiaeeo io/oaeaeaiea noieiinoe a aa
aeaiaaeiii au?aaeaiee. Aeaeaeaiea aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa i?ienoiaeeo
iainiaeaiii io aeaeaeaiey oiaa?ia. Ia noaaeee ?ani?aaeaeaiey
inouanoaeythony niaoeeoe/aneea aeaiaaeiua ioiioaiey.

Yoa niaoeeoeea au?aaeaaony a ioiioaieyo, au?aaeathueo iaeiinoi?iiiaa
aeaeaeaiea noieiinoe. Aeaiaaeiua ioiioaiey iieo/atho iauanoaaiiua oi?iu
oi?ie?iaaiey. E oai naiui iie au?aaeathony a ii?aaeaeaiiuo yeiiiie/aneeo
eaoaai?eyo:

– ca?aaioiay ieaoa;

– oeaia;

– e?aaeeo;

– oeiainu.

Ia o?aoueae noaaeee aini?iecaiaenoaaiiiai i?ioeanna aeaiaaeiua ioiioaiey
eiatho ae?oaoth niaoeeoeeo: ano?a/iiai aeaeaeaiey iaoa?eaeueiuo e
aeaiaaeiuo oi?i noieiinoe. Aeaiaaeiua ioiioaiey au?aaeathony a ?aciuo
oi?iao ?an/aoia: aeoeaio, aee?aaeeoea e o.ae., e caeanue a iniiaiii
ooieoeeiie?otho aeaa eaoaai?ee: aeaiueae e oeaia. A i?ioeanna
ia?aeeaaiey oi?i noieiinoe iaaeaeo noauaeoaie oicyenoaiaaiey
oi?ie?othony oeiainiaua ?ano?nu.

Iaiaoiaeeiinoue oeiainia a oneiaeyo oiaa?ii-aeaiaaeiuo ioiioaiee
iauyniyaony oai, /oi oeiainu iaiaoiaeeiu aeey ?ani?aaeaeaiey noieiinoe
iauanoaaiiiai i?iaeoeoa. Oieueei n iiiiuueth eaoaai?ee oeiainia
inouanoaeyaony yoio i?ioeann.

Oeiainu caieiathony ?ani?aaeaeaieai nicaeaiiie noieiinoe a aeaiaaeiii
au?aaeaiee. A caaeneiinoe io oiai, eae iu ?ani?aaeaeei aoaeao caaenaoue
i?ioeann aini?iecaiaenoaa. Iaiaoiaeeiu ii?aaeaeaiiua i?iii?oeee, a
aeaaiay i?iii?oeey caaeneo io oiai eae iu iiaeaeei iaoeeiiaeueiue
aeioiae.

Oeiainu eae nenoaia aia?aua iiyaeyaony ia aoi?ie noaaeee
aini?iecaiaenoaa – ia noaaeee ?ani?aaeaeaiey. ?ani?aaeaeaiea i?iaeoeoa
i?ienoiaeeo iaaeaeo aeaaeaeueoeai yoiai oiaa?a e oai, eoi aai i?iecaae.

NII (niaieoiiue iauanoaaiiue i?iaeoeo) = C + V + M

C — iniiaiie eaieoae

V — ca?ieaoa

M — i?eaueue

OOIEOeEE OEIAINIA:

? ?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiay (?ani?aaeaeyao nicaeaiiue i?iaeoeo; n iiiiuueth
yoie ooieoeee nicaeathony oiiaeu);

? ia?a?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiay (ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiea nicaeaiiiai i?iaeoeoa,
o.a. aoi?e/iia ?ani?aaeaeaiea iaaeaeo /eaiaie iauanoaa);

? ?aaoee?othuay (oeiainu iiaoo eae noeioee?iaaoue i?iecaiaenoai. oae e
oaiaoaoue aai);

? eiio?ieueiay (aeaaiaea?y oeiainai iauanoai eiaao aiciiaeiinoue
iaaethaeaoue ana oeiainiaua iioiee a ainoaea?noaa aeey oiai, /oiau
aia?aiy iiaeeyoue ia oio eee eiie oiaa?u).

Ae?oaay o?aeoiaea (ii o/aaieeo ?iaeeiiiaie) caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi
ooieoeee oeiainia neaaeothuea: ?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiay e eiio?ieueiay, a
inoaeueiua yaeythony i?iecaiaeiuie io ?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiie ooieoeeth.

?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiay ooieoeey.

Noaaeey ?ani?aaeaeaiey ia/eiaaony n ?ani?aaeaeaiey iiaie noieiinoe e
caeai/eaaaony oi?ie?iaaieai ia?ae/iuo aeioiaeia (ca?aaioiay ieaoa,
i?eaueue). Noaaeey ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiey – iiiainooiai/aoue yoai, ia
eioi?ii oi?ie?oaony iauaainoaea?noaaiiua oiiaeu: ainathaeaeao,
aiaathaeaeaoiua oiiaeu, no?aoiaua, aaieianeea oiiaeu e oiiaeu
i?aaei?eyoee. ?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiay ooieoeey – iauaeoeaiia naienoai
eaoaai?ee oeiainia inouanoaeyoue ?ani?aaeaeaiea noieiinoe nicaeaiiiai
i?iaeoeoa a aeaiaaeiii au?aaeaiee.

Ia?a?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiay noaaeey ioee/aaony io ?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiie oai,
/oi ia yoie noaaeee ia?a?ani?aaeaeythony ?aiaa nicaeaiiua aeioiaeu.

Eiio?ieueiay ooieoeey. Inouanoaeaieai niaethaeaiey i?iii?oeee a
?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiii i?ioeanna caieiaaony eiio?ieueiay ooieoeey oeiainia.
I?iii?oeee aeey ?aciuo io?aneae ?acee/iu e neeaaeuaathony i?e ?aciuo
oneiaeyo e, neaaeiaaoaeueii, iie iauaeoeaiu. Iauaeoii eiio?iey aunooiaao
?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiue i?ioeann. Aeaaiie aea eiio?iee?oaiie i?iii?oeeae
yaeyaony i?iii?oeey iaaeaeo oiiaeaie iaeiieaiey e iio?aaeaiey.

A nayce n ?acaeoeai ?uii/iuo ioiioaiee e?iia athaeaeaoiuo ioiioaiee
iiyaeeenue aiaathaeaeaoiua. *anoue n?aaenoa ia i?iaaaeaiea nioeeaeueii –
eoeueoo?iuo ia?ii?eyoee eaeao /a?ac aiaathaeaeaoiua oiiaeu. Oaeei
ia?acii, n/eoaaony, /oi iu nie?auaai athaeaeao, ii i?e yoii
oaaee/eaaaony iaa?ocea ia i?aaei?eyoey, eioi?ua i?iecaiaeyo io/eneaiey.

Iiyaeeenue iiaua iiiaiou a oai?ee oeiainia. Iaeiei ec ieo yaeyaony
noeioee?othuay ooieoeey oeiainia.

I?eciaee oeiainia:

1). Oeiainu iinyo aeaiaaeiue oa?aeoa?, iaeiaei auaatho neooaoeee, eiaaea
a oeiainiaie nenoaia a?auathony e iaoo?aeueiua oiaa?u.

2). Oeiainiaua ioiioaiey iinyo ?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiue oa?aeoa?.

3). Oeiainiaua ioiioaiey anaaaea naycaiu n oi?ie?iaaieai aeaiaaeiuo
aeioiaeia e iaeiieaiee, eioi?ua i?eieiatho oi?io oeiainiauo ?ano?nia.

Oeiainiaue enoi/iee > oeiainiaua ?ano?nu > oeiainiaua oiiaeu.

Acaeiinaycue oeiainia n ae?oaeie yeiiiie/aneeie eaoaai?eyie.

A ia?aoth i/a?aaeue aaaeii ciaoue acaeiinaycue oeiainia n oaeeie
yeiiiie/aneeie eaoaai?eyie eae oeaia, ca?aaioiay ieaoa, e?aaeeo. A
oaeaea a eaeie iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe yoe eaoaai?ee anooiatho a
?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiue i?ioeann.

1. OeAIA. Eiaiii iia ia?aie anooiaao a ?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiue i?ioeann e
ii?aaeaeyao ia?ae/iua i?iii?oeee a iai. Eieaaaiey oeaiu aie?oa noieiinoe
nicaeatho iiea aeayoaeueiinoe aeey oeiainia.

A oeaia caeeth/aiu ana no?oeoo?iua /anoe noieiinoe, eioi?ua aeaeaa
?ani?aaeaeythony e iieo/atho naie yeiiiie/aneea oi?iu a aeaea oeiainiauo
?ano?nia e oiiaeia. A oneiaeyo aeanoeie oeaio?aeecaoeee aeiey ca?aaioiie
ieaou iaiueoa; aeiey aea aeiieao e ca?aaioiie ieaoa – aieueoa. A
oneiaeyo aeaiie?aoee: ca?aaioiay ieaoa – iniiaiay, a aeiiieieoaeueiua
auieaou cia/eoaeueii iaiueoa. O ian anoue iauanoaaiii iaiaoiaeeiua e
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiua cao?aou. ?acieoea iaaeaeo ieie aueeaaaony a i?eaueue.
Oeaia iiaeaioaaeeaaao oneiaey aeey ooieoeeiie?iaaiey oeiainia. Eeai
n?aaenoaa iaeaieeaathony o i?aaei?eyoey, ii oiaaea oaaee/eaathony noiiu
iaeiaia, eeai iauanoaaiiue i?iaeoeo ?ac?anoaaony, /oi i?eaiaeeo e
aunaiaiaeaeaieth ?ano?nia, eioi?ua ia?aiauathony a io?anee n iaeaieaa
aunieie ii?iie i?eauee.

Oeiainu eiie?aoece?otho oa i?iii?oeee, eioi?ua caeiaeaiu oeaiie.
Oeiainiaia ?ani?aaeaeaiea ioee/aaony io oeaiiaiai oai, /oi iauaeoii
oeaiiaiai ?ani?aaeaeaiey aunooiaao oieueei /anoue noieiinoe aaeiaiai
iauanoaaiiiai i?iaeoeoa (oa, aaea oeaia ioeeiiyaony io noieiinoe).
Oeiainu ?ani?aaeaeytho anth noieiinoue aaeiaiai iauanoaaiiiai i?iaeoeoa.
Ii ioiioaieth e oeaiiaiio ?ani?aaeaeaieth, oeiainiaia ?ani?aaeaeaiea
yaeyaony aoi?e/iui. Oeaiiaia ?ani?aaeaeaiea ia iiaa?oiinoe iacaiaoii,
iii ne?uoi a iauae ianna au?o/ee. Oeiainiaia ?ani?aaeaeaiea /aoei
i?iniao?eaaaony. Oeaiiaia ?ani?aaeaeaiea caieiaaony oieueei
?ani?aaeaeaieai, a oeiainiaia – ?ani?aaeaeaieai e ia?a?ani?aaeaeaieai.

2. CA?IEAOA. Neaaeii ca oeaiie, aioo?e oeiainiaiai ?ani?aaeaeaiey,
ia/eiaao ooieoeeiie?iaaoue ca?aaioiay ieaoa. Oeiainu nicaeatho oneiaey
aeey ii?ie?iaaiey oiiaea ca?aaioiie ieaou e ae?oaeo oiiaeia iieaou
o?oaea. Yoe eaoaai?ee nicaeatho i?aaeiinueee aeey aini?iecaiaenoaa
?aai/ae neeu; ai acaeiiaeaenoaee noeioee?otho aini?iecaiaenoaaiiue
i?ioeann.

?acee/ey ca?aaioiie ieaou e oeiainia:

1. A?aieoeu oeiainiaiai ?ani?aaeaeaiey cia/eoaeueii oe?a; ca?aaioiay
ieaoa eanaaony oieueei eiiiainaoeee cao?ao.

2. Oeiainu o/anoaotho a iaeiinoi?iiiai aeaeaeaiee noieiinoe, a
ca?aaioiay ieaoa ai ano?a/iii aa aeaeaeaiee.

N iiiiuueth ca?aaioiie ieaou iu iieiinoueth ?ani?aaeaeyai (V) e /anoe/ii
(M).

N iiiiuueth oeiainia oi?ie?oaony iiiaeanoai oiiaeia, a n iiiiuueth
ca?aaioiie ieaou – oiiae ca?aaioiie ieaou e i?aieaeueiue oiiae. Iie
ninoaaeytho oiiae iieaou o?oaea. Ca?aaioiay ieaoa – iniiaa aeey oieaou
iaeiaia. Enoi/ieeii ca?aaioiie ieaou yaeythony oeiainiaua ?ano?nu, a
oiiae ca?aaioiie ieaou i?e aai yeiiiiee nai noaiiaeony enoi/ieeii
oeiainiauo ?ano?nia.

3. E?AAeEO. Oiiaeu aaieia oi?ie?othony ia noaaeee ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiey,
o.a. e?aaeeo caaa?oaao ?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiue i?ioeann. E?aaeeoiua ?ano?nu
oi?ie?othony a ?acoeueoaoa oiai, /oi iiyaeyaony ianiioaaonoaea a iaee/ee
nianoaaiiuo n?aaenoa e eo iio?aaiinoueth. E?aaeeo aeiiieiyao oeiainiaua
?ano?nu e iicaieyao i?ienoiaeeoue i?ioeanno ?anoe?aiiiai
aini?iecaiaenoaa.

Iniaaiiinoe:

1. n?aaenoaa aaiea auaeatho ia ii?aaeaeaiiue n?ie; ia ii?aaeaeaiiuo
oneiaeyo e i?e oneiaee aica?aoiinoe.

2. n?aaenoaa i?e oeiaine?iaaiee auaeathony ia ii?aaeaeaiiua oeaee;
aanieaoii aacaica?aoii.

N iiiiuueth e?aaeeoa i?ienoiaeeo ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiea oeiainiauo ?ano?nia
iaaeaeo i?aaei?eyoeyie, i?aaiecaoeeyie e a?aaeaeaiaie.

Iinoiyiii i?ienoiaeeo ia?aeeaaiea e?aaeeoiuo ?ano?nia a oeiainiaua
?ano?nu e iaiai?io. Ana oiiaeu i?aaei?eyoey eiioeaio?e?othony ia n/aoao
a aaieao e yaeythony enoi/ieeaie nnoaeiuo oiiaeia aaieia aeey auaea/e
e?aaeeoia. Iaaeaeo e?aaeeoii e oeiainaie iiiai iaueo /a?o, ii iniiaiie
yaeyaony oe?ieia eniieueciaaiea iaaeo a e?oaiiai?ioa e
aini?iecaiaenoaaiiii i?ioeanna.

Eniieueciaaiea oeiainia a oneiaeyo ?uiea.

Iauaeoeaiua i?aaeiinueee e aiciiaeiinoe eniieueciaaiey oeiainia

Oeiainu, yaeyynue eino?oiaio aoi?ie noaaeee iauanoaaiiiai
aini?iecaiaenoaa, iiaoo aeeyoue ia ana noaaeee aini?iecaiaenoaa e
i?ioeann a oeaeii. Iauaeoeaiua i?aaeiinueee aeeyiey naycaiu n aeaoiy
ianoiyoaeuenoaaie:

1. Oeiainu ooieoeeiie?otho ai anao noa?ao iauanoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa
(i?iecaiaenoaa, ia?auaiee, iio?aaeaiee)

2. Oeiainu iaeaaeatho iioaioeeaeueiui naienoaii auoue eaoaeecaoi?ii
yeiiiie/aneeo i?ioeannia (/oi auoaeaao ec ?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiie ooieoeee).
?ani?aaeaeaiea ia/eiaaony a noa?a iaoa?eaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa. Yoa
noa?a aeeth/aao 4 noaaeee, aaea ii?aaeaeythuae yaeyaony noaaeey
i?iecaiaenoaa.

a). Noa?a iaoa?eaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa. Oaeei ia?acii ieacuaaao aeeyiea
ia oa?aeoa? e ianooaau i?iecaiaenoaa.

a). Noa?a ia?auaiey. Iia i?aaenoaaeaia oi?aiaeae. A iae oa?aeoa?iu
i?ioeannu eoiee – i?iaeaaee. Iio?aaeoaeueneea naienoaa oiaa?a ia
iaiythony, a iaiyaony aai noieiinoue. Oiaa? i?iaeaaony e i?aaei?eyoea
iieo/aao au?o/eo (Ae’). Caoai i?ienoiaeeo ?ani?aaeaeaiea yoie au?o/ee ia
oiiaeu aiciauaiey, iaeiieaiey, iio?aaeaiey. Oeiainiaua ioiioaiey
i?aaeoanoaotho e caaa?oatho i?ioeann eoiee i?iaeaaee.

a). Noa?a iio?aaeaiey. Aaea auaeaeytho:

– eiiia?/aneea i?aaiecaoeee;

– athaeaeaoiua i?aaiecaoeee

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy iiaeii ano?aoeoue i?aaiecaoeee niaoaiiiai oeia, aaea
eiiia?/aneea no?oeoo?u auaeaeytho aeaiueae aeey athaeaeaoiuo
i?aaiecaoeee.

Ia?yaeo n i?aaeiinueeaie nouanoaotho aiciiaeiinoe eniieueciaaiey
oeiainia. Iie auoaeatho ec yeiiiie/aneie i?e?iaeu oeiainia. Iineieueeo
yoi ?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiay eaoaai?ey, oi iauanoai eniieuecoao aa aeey naieo
oeaeae. Niciaoaeueiia eniieueciaaiea oeiainia a eioa?anao iauanoaa e
ioaeaeueiuo aai yeaiaioia i?aa?auaao oeiainu ec iauaeoeaiie
yeiiiie/aneie eaoaai?ee a yeiiiie/aneee eino?oiaio oicyenoaiaaiey.

Yeiiiie/aneee eino?oiaio – yoi yeiiiie/aneay eaoaai?ey aiieiuaiiay a
eiie?aoiuo oi?iao i?iyaeaiey e niciaoaeueii eniieuecoaiay iauanoaii aeey
aeinoeaeaiey eiie?aoiuo oeaeae. Yeiiiie/aneee eino?oiaio, a oii /enea e
oeiainu, ianoo aeaa ia/aea: ia?aia – iauaeoeaiia (auoaeathuaa ec
yeiiiie/aneie eaoaai?ee), aoi?ia – noauaeoeaiia (i?oaeea ?aaeecaoeee
yeiiiie/aneie iieeoeee ainoaea?noaa).

Oeiainu aeeytho aeaiyei:

//- eiee/anoaaiii (oa?aeoa?ecoaony i?iii?oeeyie ?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiiai
i?ioeanna)

//- ea/anoaaiii (oa?aeoa?ecoaony aicaeaenoaeai oeiainia ia iaoa?eaeueiua
eioa?anu noauaeoia oicyenoaiaaiey).

Eae yeiiiie/aneee eino?oiaio oeiainu aeeytho ia iauanoaaiiia
aini?iecaiaenoai aeaiyei. Ea/anoaaiiay noi?iia aeeyiey oa?aeoa?ecoaony
i?iii?oeeyie a ?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiii i?ioeanna. Ea/anoaaiiia aeeyiea
oa?aeoa?ecoao aicaeaenoaea oeiainia ia iaoa?eaeueiua eioa?anu noauaeoia
oicyenoaiaaiey, /a?ac ?acee/iua oi?iu i?aaiecaoeee oeiainiauo ioiioaiee.

Ea/anoaaiiay noi?iia aeeyao ia iauanoaaiiue i?iaeoeo e naycaia n
i?aa?auaieai oeiainia a noeioe ?acaeoey yeiiiieee. Oaeia i?aa?auaiea
aiciiaeii, eiaaea ii?yaeie oi?ie?iaaiey aeioiaeia, oneiaey e i?eioeeiu
oi?ie?iaaiey oiiaeia, iai?aaeaiey eo eniieueciaaiey, oaeaaony oanii
oaycaoue n yeiiiie/aneeie eioa?anaie noauaeoia oicyenoaiaaiey.

Yeiiiie/aneee noeioe – eino?oiaio, eioi?ue oaycai n iaoa?eaeueiuie
eioa?anaie noauaeoia oicyenoaiaaiey. Niciaoaeueiia eniieueciaaiea
oeiainia a iauanoaaiiii i?iecaiaenoaa i?eaiaeeo e ?acoeueoaoai a eioi?uo
i?iyaeyaony aeoeaiay ?ieue oeiainia a iauanoaaiiii i?iecaiaenoaa a
oneiaeyo ?uiea. Iauee iiaeoiae e ioeaiea ?acoeueoaoia aeinoeaaaiuo n
iiiiuueth oeiainia, iicaieyao ?anniao?eaaoue ?ieue oeiainia a 3-o
iai?aaeaieyo:

1)n iiceoeee iaania/aiey iio?aaiinoae ?anoe?aiiiai aini?iecaiaenoaa
iaiaoiaeeiuie oeiainiauie enoi/ieeaie;

2) n oi/ee c?aiey eniieueciaaiey oeiainia aeey ?aaoee?iaaiey noieiinoiie
no?oeoo?u

3) n iiceoeee eniieueciaaiey oeiainia, eae yeiiiie/aneiai noeioea.

OAIA 2 NOA?U E CAAIUess OEIAINIAIE NENOAIU.

Oeiainiaay nenoaia — any niaieoiiinoue caaiueaa e noa? (1 niune);
niaieoiiinoue o/?aaeaeaiee oeiainiaie nenoaiu, eioi?ay nouanoaoao ia
i?aaei?eyoee, a ain-aa e o.ae. (2 niune).

Ia?aay noa?a, aaea iaiaoiaeeiu oeiainu — ainoaea?noai. Nenoaia, n
iiiiuueth eioi?ie ainoaea?noai niae?aao e ?anoiaeoao n?aaenoaa
iacuaaaony ainoaea?noaaiiua oeiainu (Publik Finance).

E?iia ainoaea?noaa nouanoaotho ?acee/iiai ?iaea i?aaei?eyoey,
neaaeiaaoaeueii aoi?ay noa?a iacuaaaony oeiainu i?aaei?eyoee. Yoi
eino?oiaio, n iiiiuueth eioi?iai i?aaei?eyoea niae?aao n?aaenoaa
(Corporate Finance).

O?aouey noa?a — i?i/ea oeiainu (a oii /enea oeiainu no?aoiaaiey).

Caaiuey I noa?u:

1. Ainoaea?noaaiiue athaeaeao (a iai eiioeaio?e?othony ia?iiiua
oeiainiaua ?ano?nu. Ia 1996 aiae AII ii i?iaiicai ninoaaeo 210 o?ei.
?oa., a aeioiaeu a athaeaeao – ieiei 435 o?ei. ?oa., neaaeiaaoaeueii
ieiei 1/3 AII neiioeaio?e?oao athaeaeao a 1996 aiaeo).

2. Aiaathaeaeaoiua oiiaeu (aeaiaaeiua n?aaenoaa, eioi?ua
eiioeaio?e?othony a ?oeao iai?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuo, ii ainoaea?noaaiiuo
i?aaiecaoeee)

a) Iaineiiiue oiiae.

b) Oiiae nioeeaeueiiai iaania/aiey (eiioeaio?e?oao aeaiueae,
i?aaeiacia/aiiua ia iieaoo ioioneia, aieueie/iuo e o.ae.).

c) Oiiae caiyoinoe.

d) Oiiae iaycaoaeueiiai iaaeeoeeineiai no?aoiaaiey.

I?aaeoaeuenoai no?aieony ?anii?yaeaoueny yoeie oiiaeaie, oae eae a ieo
inaaeatho eieinnaeueiua n?aaenoaa, eioi?ua i?aaeoaeuenoai iiaeao
eniieueciaaoue aeey naieo oeaeae.

3. Ainoaea?noaaiiue e?aaeeo (aeaoeoeeo athaeaeaoa a 1996 aiaeo — 88
o?ei. ?oa. Nae/an auaeaeytho ec ainoaea?noaaiiuo oeiainia ianoiua
oeiainu. Eo iiaeii iaicia/eoue eae ioaeaeueioth noa?o.

Caaiuey II noa?u (oeiainu i?aaei?eyoee):

1) oeiainu i?aaei?eyoee, ooieoeeiie?othueo ia eiiia?/aneeo ia/aeao;

2) oeiainu o/?aaeaeaiee e i?aaiecaoeee, eioi?ua inouanoaeytho
iaeiiia?/aneoth aeayoaeueiinoue;

3) oeiainu iauanoaaiiuo iauaaeeiaiee (i?ionithcia, iieeoe/aneeo ia?oee,
iauanoaaiiuo oiiaeia);

No?aoiaaiea — niaoeeoe/aneay noa?a, eioi?ay eiaao naie caaiuey:

1) Nioeeaeueiia no?aoiaaiea (ana iaoiaeu);

2) Ee/iia no?aoiaaiea;

3) Eiouanoaaiiia no?aoiaaiea;

4) No?aoiaaiea ioaaonoaaiiinoe;

5) No?aoiaaiea i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneeo ?eneia.

Oeiainiaua ?ano?nu e oeiainiaua oiiaeu

Iai?eia?, ia?aae aee?aeoi?ii noieo oeaeue i?iaanoe eaieoaeueiue ?aiiio
noaiea. Aeey aai inouanoaeaiey ioaeai aeaiaaeiue oiiae, eioi?ue iiaeao
auoue nicaeai eee oe?aaeai. Anee aeaiueae oe?aaeaiu, oi yoi ia
aeaiaaeiue oiiae. Aeaiaaeiua oiiaeu iacuaathony oeiainiauie oiiaeaie
oieueei oiaaea, eiaaea iie oi?ie?othony ca n/ao oeiainiauo ?ano?nia
(aeaiaaeiuo aeioiaeia, iinooieaiee, iaeiieaiee, i?i/eo enoi/ieeia,
eioi?ua iaoiaeyony a ?oeao i?aaei?eyoey, o.a. a aai nianoaaiiii
?anii?yaeaiee:

* aii?oecaoeeiiiua io/eneaiey;

* i?eaueue;

* eeoiaa eiouanoai.

Oeiainiaua ?ano?nu — aeaiaaeiua ?ano?nu o i?aaei?eyoee e ainoaea?noaa,
eioi?ua ?aca?ae?othony aeey iaania/aiey iai?aaeaeaeaiiuo ?anoiaeia e
niaoeeaeueiuo iio?aaiinoae.

I. OEIAINU I?AAeI?EssOEE, I?AAIECAOeEE E O*?AAEAeAIEE (OIOI)

OIOI au?aaeatho aeaiaaeiua ioiioaiey ii nicaeaieth, ?ani?aaeaeaieth e
eniieueciaaieth aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa, i?aaeiacia/aiiuo aeey:

— auiieiaiey iaycaoaeuenoa ia?aae oeiainiai – aaieianeie noa?ie;

— oeiaine?iaaiey cao?ao ii ?anoe?aiiiio aini?iecaiaenoao, nioeeaeueiiio
ianeoaeeaaieth, iaoa?eaeueiiio noeioee?iaaieth ?aaioathueo.

Aeaiaaeiua ioiioaiey, ninoaaeythuea iniiao OIOI, iiaeii
eeanneoeoee?iaaoue ii neaaeothuei aeaeai:

A io?aneyo iaoa?eaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa A io?aneyo iaiaoa?eaeueiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa

1. naycaiiua n oi?ie?i-aaieai ia?ae/iuo aeioi-aeia, ia?aciaaieai e
en-iieueciaaieai a oicyeno-aaiiuo iiae?acaeaeaieyo iaoa?eaeueiiai
i?iec-aiaenoaa oeaeaauo oiiaeia aioo?eoicyenoaaiiiai iacia/aiey —
onoaaiiai oiiaea, oiiaea ?acaeoey i?iecaiaenoaa, iiiu?e-oaeueiuo oiiaeia
e i?. Iaeie ec ieo eniieueco-thony ia oaeiaeaoai?aiea i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo
iio-?aaiinoae, a ae?oaea —iio?aaeoaeueneeo. 1. io?anee eee naiiai
o/?aaeaeaiey (i?aaieca-oeee) n athaeaeaoii. Ia eo iniiaa ca n/ao
athaeaeao-iuo n?aaenoa oi?ie?otho-ny io?aneaaua aeaiaaeiua oiiaeu
cae?aaiio?aiaiey, eoeueoo?u, i?inaauaiey e i?.

2. aicieeathuea iaaeaeo i?aaei?eyoeyie, anee iie iinyo
?ani?aaeaeeoaeue-iue oa?aeoa?, a ia ianeo-aeeaathuee iaiai; caeanue
aeaeaeaiea oeiainiauo ?ano?nia inouanoaeyaony a iaoiiaeiaie oi?ia
(oieaoa e iieo/aiea oo?aoia, aianaiea iaaauo aciinia, eiaanoe-?iaaiea
n?aaenoa a aeoeee e iaeeaaoeee ae?oaeo i?aaei?eyoee e o.ae.). 2. iaaeaeo
io?aneaauie i?aaiecaoeeyie oi?aa-eaiey, iiaeaaaeiinoaai-iuie
i?aaiecaoeeyie e aioo?e i?aaiecaoeee.Iie nii?iaiaeaeathony
eniieue-ciaaieai io?aneaauo aeaiaaeiuo oiiaeia oeaea-aiai iacia/aiey
(ca?-ieaou, eaieoaeueiiai ?aiiioa e ae?.) a ?anii?yaeaiee noauaeoia
oicyenoaiaaiey. Aioo?e o/?aaeaeaiee e i?aaieca-oeee oeiainiaua
ioiioa-iey aicieeatho ii iiaiaeo oi?ie?iaaiey e eniieue-ciaaiey oiiaeia
ca?aaioiie ieaou e yeiiiie/aneiai noeio-ee?iaaiey; a nayce n
ia?a?ani?aaeaeaieai aea-iaaeiuo n?aaenoa oeaeaaiai iacia/aiey.

3. neeaaeuaathueany o i?aaei?eyoee ni no?aoi-auie i?aaiecaoeeyie a nayce
n oi?ie?iaaieai e eniieueciaaieai ?acee/-iuo no?aoiauo oiiaeia. 3.
iaaeaeo noauaeoaie oicyenoaiaaiey ?aciuo io?aneae, a oii /enea
aeaiaaeiua ioiioaiey, naycaiiua n oi?ie?iaa-ieai e eniieueciaaieai
aiaathaeaeaoiuo oiiaeia nioeeaeueiiai no?aoiaa-iey, iaineiiiuo e i?.

4. ia?acothueany iaaeaeo i?aaei?eyoeai e aaieii a nayce n iieo/aieai
nnoae, eo iiaaoaieai, oieaoie i?ioeaioia ii iei, i?aaeinoaaeaieai aaieai
a?aiaiii naiaiae-iuo aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa ca ii?aaeaeaiioth ieaoo. 4.
aeaiaaeiua ioiioaiey noauaeoia oicyenoaiaa-iey n iio?aaeoaeyie oneoa e
niiini?aie. Ia eo iniiaa oi?ie?othony oeiainiaua enoi/ieee o/?aaeaeaiee
e i?aaieca-oeee iai?iecaiaenoaaiiie noa?u.

5. o i?aaei?eyoey n ainoaea?noaii ii iiaiaeo ia?aciaaiey e
eniieue-ciaaiey aiaathaeaeaoiuo e athaeaeaoiuo oiiaeia (iea-oaaee a
athaeaeao, athaeaeao-iia oeiaine?iaaiea, ieaoaaee ai aiaathaeaeao-iua
oiiaeu e ae?.)

6. iaaeaeo i?aaei?eyoeai e auoanoiyueie no?oe-oo?aie oi?aaeaiey
(“aa?oeeaeueiay” acaeii-naycue a a?aieoeao aioo?e-io?aneaaiai
ia?a?ani?a-aeaeaiey oeiainiauo ?ano?nia.

OIOI eae noa?a oeiainiaie nenoaiu oi?ie?oao ooiaeaiaio yeiiiieee
iauanoaa, oae eae caeanue nicaeathony iaoa?eaeueiua e iaiaoa?eaeueiua
aeaaa.

A ?aiea noa?u OIOI eiioeaio?e?othony i?aiaeaaeathuay /anoue
iaoa?eaeueiuo, o?oaeiauo e oeiainiauo ?ano?nia, iaania/eaay oai naiui
i?ioeann ?anoe?aiiiai aini?iecaiaenoaa a iauanoaa.

A ninoaa OIOI aoiaeyo:

I. OEI (oeiainu eiiia?/aneeo i?aaei?eyoee) — ana i?aaei?eyoey
iaoa?eaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa e /anoue iai?iecaiaenoaaiiie noa?u, a
oneiaeyo ?uii/iie yeiiiieee inouanoaeythueo naith aeayoaeueiinoue ia
ia/aeao eiiia?/aneiai ?an/aoa.

Eiiia?/aneee ?an/ao — iaoiae aaaeaiey oicyenoaa, oeaeueth eioi?iai
yaeyaony iieo/aiea iaeneiaeueiie i?eauee i?e ieieiaeueiuo cao?aoao. Ii
i?aaeiieaaaao iaycaoaeueiia iieo/aiea i?eauee e aeinoaoi/iiai aeey
i?iaeieaeaiey oicyenoaiaaiey o?iaiy ?aioaaaeueiinoe.

Niaoeeoeea eiiia?/aneiai ?an/aoa:

? noauaeou oicyenoaiaaiey iaeaaeatho oeiainiaie iacaaeneiinoueth;

? oeiainiaua ioiioaiey i?aaei?eyoey naiaiaeiu io iaei/iie ?aaeaiaioaoeee
ni noi?iiu ainoaea?noaa;

? noauaeou oeiainiauo ioiioaiee ianoo ?aaeueioth yeiiiie/aneoth
ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca oaeoe/aneea ?acoeueoaou ?aaiou e naiaa?aiaiiia
auiieiaiea iaycaoaeuenoa;

? a oneiaeyo eiiia?/aneiai ?an/aoa o i?aaei?eyoey neeaaeuaathony
?acee/iiai ?iaea acaeiiioiioaiey n aaieaie, no?aoiauie i?aaiecaoeeyie e
ainoaea?noaii.

II. OIO (oeiainu iaeiiia?/aneeo o/?aaeaeaiee). Iaeiiia?/aneay
aeayoaeueiinoue ia i?aneaaeoao oeaeue iieo/aiey ii?aaeaeaiiuo aeioiaeia.
Ii yoe aeioiaeu eniieuecothony ia ?acaeoea naiiai o/?aaeaeaiey.

Enoi/ieee oeiainiauo ?ano?nia:

* athaeaeaoiua n?aaenoaa;

* aiaathaeaeaoiua ainoaea?noaaiiua oiiaeu;

* n?aaenoaa ianaeaiey;

* aeaiaaeiua io/eneaiey ?acee/iuo eiiia?/aneeo no?oeoo?, iinooieaiey
n?aaenoa ca ?aaiou e oneoae, auiieiaiiua a niioaaonoaee n aeiaiai?aie;

* au?o/ea io ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee, aeeth/ay n?aaenoaa io i?iaeaaee
aeeaoia ia ianniaua ia?ii?eyoey;

* au?o/ea io naea/e eiouanoaa a a?aiaeo;

* aeioiaeu io iiaeaioiaee eaae?ia (ia?aiiaeaioiaeo, iiauoaiea
eaaeeoeeaoeee e o.i.).

III. OII (oeiainu iauanoaaiiuo i?aaiecaoeee) aeeth/atho a naay:

a). oeiainu iauanoaaiiuo, a oii /enea i?ioi?aaiecaoeee;

a). oeiainu iieeoe/aneeo e iauanoaaiiuo aeaeaeaiee;

a). oeiainu niaoeeaeueiuo oeaeaauo oiiaeia;

a). oeiainu aeaaioai?eoaeueiuo oiiaeia.

Iauanoaaiiia iauaaeeiaiea — aeia?iaieueiia oi?ie?iaaiea, aicieeoaa a
?acoeueoaoa naiaiaeiiai aieaecuyaeaiey a?aaeaeai, iauaaeeiaiiuo ia
iniiaa iauiinoe eo eioa?ania.

Yeiiiie/aneia niaea?aeaiea OII aeeth/aao a naay neaaeothuea aeaeu e
a?oiiu aeaiaaeiuo ioiioaiee:

– aeaiaaeiua ioiioaiey iaaeaeo iauanoaaiiuie i?aaiecaoeeyie e eo
/eaiaie, naycaiiua n oieaoie ?acee/iiai ?iaea aciinia, ieacaieai
iaoa?eaeueiie iiiiue e i?.;

– aeaiaaeiua ioiioaiey iauanoaaiiuo i?aaiecaoeee n i?aaei?eyoeyie e
o/?aaeaeaieyie, naycaiiua n aeia?iaieueiuie iiaea?oaiaaieyie, eioi?ua
iiaoo ia?a/eneyoueny a oiiaeu iauanoaaiiuo i?aaiecaoeee;

– aeaiaaeiua ioiioaiey iauanoaaiiuo i?aaiecaoeee ii oi?ie?iaaieth e
eniieueciaaieth oeaeaauo aeaiaaeiuo oiiaeia;

– aeaiaaeiua ioiioaiey iaaeaeo auoanoiyueie i ieaeanoiyueie no?oeoo?aie
iauanoaaiiuo i?aaiecaoeee;

– aeaiaaeiua ioiioaiey iaaeaeo iauanoaaiiuie i?aaiecaoeeyie e
iiaeaaaeiinoaaiiuie ei i?iecaiaenoaaiii – oicyenoaaiiuie no?oeoo?aie.

Oeiainiai – oicyenoaaiiay aeayoaeueiinoue iauanoaaiiuo i?aaiecaoeee
ni/aoaao 2 niiniaa eniieueciaaiey oeiainiauo ?ano?nia:

– naiiieoiaaiinoue;

– niaoiia oeiaine?iaaiea.

II. oeiainu No?aoiaaiey

No?aoiaaiea – niaieoiiinoue iniauo caieioouo ia?a?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiuo
ioiioaiee iaaeaeo aai o/anoieeaie ii iiaiaeo oi?ie?iaaiey ca n/ao
aeaiaaeiuo aciinia oeaeaaiai no?aoiaiai oiiaea, i?aaeiacia/aiiiai aeey
aiciauaiey aiciiaeiiai oua?aa, iaianaiiiai noauaeoii oicyenoaiaaiey, eee
au?aaieaaiey iioa?ue a naiaeiuo aeioiaeao a nayce n iineaaenoaeyie
i?ienoaaeoeo no?aoiauo neo/aaa.

No?aoiaaiea — niaoeeoe/aneay noa?a, eioi?ay eiaao naie caaiuey:

1) Nioeeaeueiia no?aoiaaiea (ana iaoiaeu);

2) Ee/iia no?aoiaaiea;

3) Eiouanoaaiiia no?aoiaaiea;

4) No?aoiaaiea ioaaonoaaiiinoe;

5) No?aoiaaiea i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneeo ?eneia.

III. ainoaea?noaaiiua oeiainu.

Ainoaea?noaaiiua oeiainu — aeaiaaeiua ioiioaiey ii iiaiaeo
?ani?aaeaeaiey e ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiey noieiinoe iauanoaaiiiai i?iaeoeoa e
/anoe iaoeeiiaeueiiai aiaaonoaa, naycaiiua n oi?ie?iaaieai oeiainiauo
?ano?nia a ?anii?yaeaiee ainoaea?noaa e aai i?aaei?eyoee e
eniieueciaaieai ainoaea?noaaiiuo n?aaenoa ia cao?aou ii ?anoe?aieth
i?iecaiaenoaa, oaeiaeaoai?aiea nioeeaeueii – eoeueoo?iuo iio?aaiinoae
iauanoaa, ioaeae iai?iiu e oi?aaeaiey.

Ainoaea?noaaiiua oeiainu aeeth/atho a naay:

1). Athaeaeao – yeiiiie/aneay eaoaai?ey, i?aaenoaaeaiiay aeaiaaeiuie
ioiioaieyie, aicieeathueie o ainoaea?noaa n th?eaee/aneeie e oece/aneeie
eeoeaie ii iiaiaeo ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiey iaoeeiiaeueiiai aeioiaea a nayce n
ia?aciaaieai e eniieueciaaieai athaeaeaoiiai oiiaea no?aiu,
i?aaeiacia/aiiiai ia oeiaine?iaaiea ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa, nioeeaeueii –
eoeueoo?iuo ioaeae, ioaeae iai?iiu e ainoaea?noaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey.

2). Aiaathaeaeaoiua oiiaeu — niaoeeoe/aneay oi?ia ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiey e
eniieueciaaiey oeiainiauo ?ano?nia, i?eaeaeaaiuo aeey oeiaine?iaaiey
iaeioi?uo iauanoaaiiuo iio?aaiinoae e eiiieaenii eniieuecoaiuo ia iniiaa
i?aaiecaoeeiiiie naiinoiyoaeueiinoe oiiaeia.

Enoi/ieee oi?ie?iaaiey

a). niaoeeaeueiua oeaeaaua iaeiae, caeiu e aeioiaeu io i?iaaaeaiey
aeaiaaeii aauaauo eioa?ae;

a). noaneaeee ec athaeaeaoa;

a). aeiiieieoaeueiua aeioiaeu e nyeiiiieaiiua oeiainiaua ?ano?nu

a). aeia?iaieueiua aciinu e iiaea?oaiaaiey.

Aiaathaeaeaoiua oiiaeu aa?aioe?otho oeaeaaia eniieueciaaiea ?ano?nia a
iieiii iauaia eo iinooieaiey e naiaa?aiaiiia oeiaine?iaaiea aaaeiaeoeo
nioeeaeueiuo ia?ii?eyoee; iie auiieiytho ?ieue oeiainiaiai ?aca?aa, e
eioi?iio i?eaaaatho ainoaea?noaaiiua aeanoe a neo/aa oeiainiauo
cao?oaeiaiee.

3). Ainoaea?noaaiiue e?aaeeo — aeaiaaeiua ioiioaiey, aicieeathuea o
ainoaea?noaa n th?eaee/aneeie e oece/aneeie eeoeaie a nayce n
iiaeeecaoeeae a?aiaiii naiaiaeiuo aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa a ?anii?yaeaiea
i?aaiia ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe e eo eniieueciaaiea ia oeiaine?iaaiea
ainoaea?noaaiiuo ?anoiaeia.

Oi?iu ainoaea?noaaiiiai e?aaeeoa:

– ainoaea?noaaiiua caeiu;

– eacia/aeneea nnoaeu.

OAIA 3 INIIAU ENIIEUeCIAAIEss OEIAINIA A IAUANOAAIIII AINI?IECAIAeNOAA.

I. Oeiainiaua ?ano?nu.

Oeiainiaua ?ano?nu – aeioiaeu e iinooieaiey noauaeoia oicyenoaiaaiey e
ainoaea?noaa a eeoea aai i?aaiia, eioi?ua eniieuecothony ia oeaee
?anoe?aiiiai aini?iecaiaenoaa e ia oaeiaeaoai?aiea ae?oaeo iio?aaiinoae.
Eiaiii oeiainiaua ?ano?nu iicaieytho ioaeaeeoue eaoaai?eth oeiainia io
eaoaai?ee oeaiu e ae?oaeo noieiinoiuo eaoaai?ee. Oeiainiaua ?ano?nu
yaeythony iaoa?eaeueii – aauanoaaiiui aiieiuaieai naieo oeiainiauo
ioiioaiee. Oeiainiaua ?ano?nu, aunooiay a aeaiaaeiie oi?ia, ioee/athony
io ae?oaeo ?ano?nia. Iie ioiineoaeueii iainiaeaiu a naieo ooieoeeyo,
iiyoiio nouanoaoao iaiaoiaeeiinoue a iaania/aiee oaycee oeiainiauo
?ano?nia n ae?oaeie ?ano?naie.

Enoi/ieeaie oeiainiauo ?ano?nia aunooiatho ana o?e yeaiaioa noieiinoe
iauanoaaiiiai i?iaeoeoa, ii noaiaiue o/anoey eaaeaeiai ec ieo ?acee/ia.

Oeiainu aicaeaenoaotho ia iauanoaaiiia aini?iecaiaenoai a neaaeothueo
iai?aaeaieyo:

? oeiainiaia iaania/aiea aini?iecaiaenoaaiiiai i?ioeanna;

? oeiainiaia ?aaoee?iaaiea yeiiiie/aneeo e nioeeaeueiuo i?ioeannia;

? oeiainiaia noeioee?iaaiea yeiiiieee.

Aini?iecaiaenoaaiiua cao?aou — yoi i?aaeaea anaai onoaaiue oiiae, a
eioi?ii auaeaeythony iniiaiua e iai?ioiua n?aaenoaa. Aeey iie?uoey
cao?ao iaiaoiaeeiu aeaiueae.

Aeey ?anoe?aiey i?iecaiaenoaa (oaaee/aiey yeaiaioa “C”) iaaei
i?eaeaeaoue aeiiieieoaeueiua ?ano?nu.

Oeiainiaua enoi/ieee aeaeyony ia:

1) enoi/ieee, eioi?ua aeaenoaotho ia iae?io?iaia (o?iaia ainoaea?noaa);

2) enoi/ieee, eioi?ua aeaenoaotho ia iee?io?iaia (o?iaia i?aaei?eyoey).

Naiue aaaeiue enoi/iee oeiainiauo ?ano?nia — noieiinoue AAI no?aiu,
eioi?ue ninoieo ec C+V+M (eaieoae + ca?ieaoa + i?eaueue).

V + M — iniiaiua enoi/ieee oeiainiauo ?ano?nia ia iae?io?iaia.

Yeaiaio V, yaeyynue ee/iui aeioiaeii o?oaeyuaainy, eae i?aaeei,
ca?ieaoie, aunooiaao a ea/anoaa enoi/ieea oeiainiauo ?ano?nia ii 3-ai
iai?aaeaieyi:

· iaeiae (ec ca?ieaou aeieaeiu auiea/eaaoueny);

· no?aoiaua ieaoaaee;

· i?i/ea ieaoaaee (eae i?ionithciua aciinu, aciinu a niaoeoiiaeu e
o.ae.)

Oaeei ia?acii, yeaiaio V o/anoaoao a nicaeaiee oeiainiauo ?ano?nia ia
iae?io?iaia.

Yeaiaio I — i?eaaai/iay noieiinoue, i?eaueue. ssaeyaony iniiaiui
enoi/ieeii oeiainiauo ?ano?nia.

Enoi/ieee oeiainiauo ?ano?nia ia iae?io?iaia:

1. AAI (ia?aay a?oiia oeiainiauo enoi/ieeia).

2. Aeioiaeu io aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe (nae/an iaoe
noaoenoe/aneea i?aaiu ia?aoiaeyo e nenoaia iaoeeiiaeueiuo n/aoia (NIN),
eioi?ay iiiiaaao iaeoe AAI, IAe e o.i.).

3. Iaoeeiiaeueiia aiaaonoai.

4. I?eaea/aiiua (caaiiua) ?ano?nu.

Enoi/ieee oeiainiauo ?ano?nia ia iee?io?iaia:

1. Enoi/ieee nianoaaiiuo oeiainiauo ?ano?nia (iai?eia?, au?o/ea aeaao
aiciiaeiinoue oi?ie?iaaoue ?ano?nu i?aaei?eyoey):

· Aiaoiyy yeiiiie/aneay aeayoaeueiinoue i?aaei?eyoey;

· Aiaaonoai i?aaei?eyoey (noaiee e i?., o.a. ana, /oi iiaeii i?iaeaoue).

2. N?aaenoaa i?aaei?eyoey, eioi?ua i?e?aaieaathony e nianoaaiiui (yoi
n?aaenoaa i?aaei?eyoey, eioi?ua aio ia i?eiaaeeaaeao, ii iaoiaeyony a
aai ?anii?yaeaiee):

· ca?ieaoa(aunooiaao a oi?ia onoie/eauo ianneaia);

· ioioneiua aeaiueae (ia/eneythony, ii iaoiaeyony a ?anii?yaeaiee
i?aaei?eyoey).

3. I?eaea/aiiua n?aaenoaa (yoi n?aaenoaa, eioi?ua iiaeeecothony
i?aaei?eyoeai ia oeiainiaii ?uiea — ?uiie oeaiiuo aoiaa (?OeA), nnoaeiuo
eaieoaeia e o.i.):

· caaiiua n?aaenoaa;

· iooai i?iaeaaee aeoeee e iaeeaaoeee.

4. Enoi/ieee, eioi?ua iieo/atho i?aaei?eyoey a ii?yaeea
ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiey n?aaenoa:

· io ieienoa?noa, auoanoiyueo einoaioeee, ec athaeaeaoa;

· no?aoiaua aiciauaiey (no?aoiaaiea – niinia ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiey
n?aaenoa).

Iniiaiua aeaeu oeiainiauo ?ano?nia ia iae?io?iaia:

I. E?aaeeou IAO e ae?oaeo iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo i?aaiecaoeee, iethn
aioo?aiiea e?aaeeou Oeaio?iaaiea.

II. Iaeiae.

III. Io/eneaiey ai aiaathaeaeaoiua oiiaeu.

IV. Ieaoaaee ianaeaiey a ianoiue athaeaeao.

V. I?i/ea.

Iniiaiua aeaeu oeiainiauo ?ano?nia ia iee?io?iaia:

I. I?eaueue.

II. Aii?oecaoeey.

III. E?aaeeoiua eiaanoeoeee.

IV. No?aoiaua aiciauaiey.

V. Au?o/ea io ?aaeecaoeee auauaoaai eiouanoaa.

VI. Onoie/eaua ianneau.

VII. Iiaeeecaoeey aioo?aiieo ?ano?nia a no?ieoaeuenoaa.

VIII. Iaaaua e ae?oaea aciinu /eaiia oiaa?euanoa e eiiia?aoeaia.

IX. Aeioiaeu io i?iaeaaee nianoaaiiuo oeaiiuo aoiaa.

X. Oeiainiaua ?ano?nu ii ia?a/eneaieth io auoanoiyueo no?oeoo?.

XI. Athaeaeaoiua noaneaeee.

XII. I?i/ea.

Oeiainiaua ?ano?nu aeaeyony ia:

1) oeaio?aeeciaaiiua (aunooiatho a oi?ia athaeaeaoiuo e aiaathaeaeaoiuo
oiiaeia e iaania/eaatho iio?aaiinoe aini?iecaiaenoaa ia iae?io?iaia
(iai?eia?, athaeaeao)).

2) aeaoeaio?aeeciaaiiua (oi?ie?othony o noauaeoia oicyenoaiaaiey e
eniieuecothony ia ?anoe?aiea i?iecaiaenoaa (eee ieacaiea oneoa) e
oaeiaeaoai?aiea nioeeaeueii – eoeueoo?iuo iio?aaiinoae ?aaioieeia
i?aaei?eyoey.

Iie iai?aaeythony ia neaaeothuea oeaee:

a) eaieoaeiaeiaeaiey;

b) oaaee/aiea iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa;

c) oeiaine?iaaiea IOI;

d) i?iaaaeaiea i?e?iaeiio?aiiuo ia?ii?eyoee;

e) iaania/aiea iio?aaiinoae nioeeaeueiiai oa?aeoa?a (aeeeeuiue oiiae,
noa?a aeioeieueiuo o/?aaeaeaiee, icaei?iaeoaeueiua eaaa?y, aeiia
eoeueoo?u);

f) i?i/ea aiaeiae/iua oeaee.

?acee/atho enoi/ieee e aeaeu oeiainiauo ?ano?nia. Nouanoaoao 5 neo/aaa
aunaiaiaeaeaiey oeiainiauo ?ano?nia ec naaanoieiinoe:

1-e neo/ae: i?e onei?aiee iai?a/eaaaiinoe;

2-e neo/ae: i?e nie?auaiee i?iecaiaenoaa;

3-e neo/ae: i?e nie?auaiee caiania;

4-e neo/ae: i?e nie?auaiee iaoa?eaeiaieinoe;

5-e neo/ae: caiaia nianoaaiiuo n?aaenoa caaiiuie.

Nouanoaoao /aou?a enoi/ieea oeiainiauo ?ano?nia ec ca?aaioiie ieaou (V):

1. iaeiae a athaeaeao e aiaathaeaeaoiua oiiaeu;

2. oieaoa no?aoiauo aciinia;

3. iieoiea oeaiiuo aoiaa;

4. o?aiaiea n?aaenoa ia n/aoao a aaieao.

I?eaueue aea aunooiaao enoi/ieeii oeiainiauo ?ano?nia a iieiii oauaia.
Nouanoaoao 7 iai?aaeaiee ?anoiaeia oeiainiauo ?ano?nia:

1. eaieoaeueiua aeiaeaiey;

2. i?e?ino iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa;

3. i?i/ea iaoa?eaeueiua cao?aou;

4. ?aca?au;

5. nioeeaeueii – eoeueoo?iua iio?aaiinoe;

6. aeaiaaeiua auieaou ianaeaieth;

7. iiiiuue ae?oaei no?aiai.

?aca?au – /anoue oeiainiauo ?ano?nia, eioi?ay i?aaeiacia/aia aeey
oeiaine?iaaiey iio?aaiinoae aicieeathueo iai?aaeaeaeaiii, e iai?aaeaiiua
eae ia i?inoia, oae e ia ?anoe?aiiia aini?iecaiaenoai e iio?aaeaiea.
No?aoiaua ?aca?au – /anoue oeiainiauo ?ano?nia, iai?aaeaiiay ia
aiciauaiea oua?aa ii no?aoiaui neo/ayi. No?aoiaua oeiainiaua ?aca?au –
oeiainiaua ?aca?au no?aoiauo eiiiaiee. Yoe ?aca?au iaiaoiaeeiu, eiaaea
oaeoueo n?aaenoa ia oaaoaao ia auieaou.

Oeiainiaue ?uiie — yoi iniaay oi?ia aeaiaaeiuo iia?aoeee, aaea iauaeoii
eoiee – i?iaeaaee aunooiatho naiaiaeiua aeaiaaeiua n?aaenoaa noauaeoia
oicyenoaiaaiey, ainoaea?noaa e ianaeaiey. I?e/ai i?aaeinoaaeaiea yoeo
n?aaenoa i?iecaiaeeony ia iniiaa auionea e ia?auaiey ?acee/iuo aeaeia
oeaiiuo aoiaa.

O/anoieee oeiainiaiai ?uiea:

Naa?aaaoaee – th?eaee/aneea e oece/aneea eeoea iaeaieeaathuea aeaiaaeiua
n?aaenoaa a nayce n oai, /oi ?anoiaeu iaiueoa iaeiieaiiuo n?aaenoa,
nin?aaeioi/aiiuo ia ?oeao a aeaea iaee/iinoe eee ia n/aoao a aaieao
(ianaeaiea, i?aaei?eyoey e ainoaea?noai).

Eiaanoi?u – noauaeou oicyenoaiaaiey (i?aaiu ainoaea?noaaiiiai
oi?aaeaiey, iai?aaeythuea aeaiaaeiua n?aaenoaa ia iie?uoea n?i/iuo e
aeeeoaeueiuo iio?aaiinoae).

Yieoaiou – th?eaee/aneea eeoea, eioi?ua iiaoo auioneaoue oeaiiua aoiaae.
N iiiiuueth oeiainiaiai ?uiea aeaiaaeiua iaeiieaiey naa?aaaoaeae
i?eaeaeathony aeey eiaanoe?iaaiey cao?ao ia ?acaeoea i?iecaiaenoaa,
inouanoaeaiea ainoaea?noaaiiuo e ?aaeiiaeueiuo oeaeaauo i?ia?aii e
ae?oaeo ioaeae. Iauaeoeaiie i?aaeiinueeie yaeyaony ianiaiaaeaiea
iio?aaiinoae a oeiainiauo ?ano?nao o noauaeoia oicyenoaiaaiey n iaee/eai
enoi/ieeia oeiainiauo ?ano?nia.

Ooieoeeiiaeueiia iacia/aiea oeiainiaiai ?uiea – inouanoaeaiea
aeeoioeyoeee e ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiey aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa a oeaeyo
iaania/aiey iaiaoiaeeiuie oeiainiauie ?ano?naie noauaeoia oicyenoaiaaiey
e ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaiia. Oi?ie?iaaiea e ooieoeeiie?iaaiea
oeiainiaiai ?uiea iaoneiaeaii neaaeothueie yeiiiie/aneeie, i?aaiauie e
i?aaiecaoeeiiiuie oaeoi?aie.

Yeiiiie/aneea oaeoi?u – iaee/ea a yeiiiieea ?aaeueiuo nianoaaiieeia,
iaeaaeathueo ?aaeueiie naiinoiyoaeueiinoueth, eioi?ua niiniaiu
caeeth/aoue naeaeee, i?aaeeaaay ni?in ia aeaiaaeiua n?aaenoaa, a oaeaea
eiaanoe?iaaoue eo (yoi ?aaeueiue ni?in ia aeaiaaeiua n?aaenoaa).
I?aaiaua iniiau – niioaaonoaothuea th?eaee/aneea aeieoiaiou,
?aaeaiaioe?othuea aeayoaeueiinoue ?uii/iuo no?oeoo?. I?aaiecaoeeiiiua
iniiau – aiieiuathony /a?ac oi?iu i?aaiecaoeee ?uii/iuo iia?aoeee
(oiiaeiaua ae?aee e iaaeaaieianeea iauaaeeiaiey). Ia oiiaeiauo ae?aeao
e iaaeaaieianeeo iauaaeeiaieyo ia?yaeo ni naa?aaaoaeyie, yieoaioaie e
eiaanoi?aie ooieoeeiie?otho iin?aaeieee: a?iea?u e aeeea?u. A?iea?u
inouanoaeytho /enei iin?aaeie/aneea iia?aoeee. Aeeea?u auiieiytho
iin?aaeie/aneea iia?aoeee e naiinoiyoaeueii i?eieiatho o/anoea a eoiea –
i?iaeaaea oeaiiuo aoiaa.

Oeiainiaue ?uiie niinianoaoao ?acaeoeth yeiiiieee, inouanoaeaieth
iaoa?eaeueii – oeiainiaie naaeaine?iaaiiinoe ii iauaio iauaio e ii
no?oeoo?a iauanoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa. N aai iiiiuueth ?acaeaathony
i?aaei?eyoey e io?anee, eioi?ua iaania/eaatho eiaanoi?ai iaeneiaeueioth
i?eaueue ia aeiaeaiiue eaieoae. Niinianoaoao ?aaeueiiio inouanoaeaieth
iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai i?ia?anna. Oeiainiaue ?uiie iicaieyao
oeeaeeeciaaiiui ia?acii iie?uoue aeaoeoeeo ainoaea?noaaiiiai athaeaeaoa,
aeey /aai ainoaea?noai auioneaao oeaiiua aoiaae e i?iaeaao eo.

Oeiainiaue ?uiie ninoieo ec ianeieueeeo /anoae:

1. ?uiie aaieianeeo nnoae (neoaeeo aeey iiiieiaiey iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa).

2. ?uiie nnoaeiuo eaieoaeia (neoaeeo aeey iiiieiaiey iniiaiiai eaieoaea.
Naeaeea ioi?ieyaony auioneii e ?aciauaieai oeaiiuo aoiaa).

3. Aaethoiue ?uiie (oeene?oaony ioeoeeaeueiue eo?n aeey oiai, /oiau ia
i?aaei?eyoeyo aaeny o/ao iia?aoeee e aeey oiai, /oiau aaeny o/ao
oaiiaeaiiuo ieaoaaeae. E?iia ioeoeeaeueiiai eo?na anoue eo?n iieoiee e
i?iaeaaee aaethou aaieii).

eo?n iieoiee eiiia?/aneeie aaieaie > ioeoeeaeueiiai eo?na Oeao?iaaiea noaaeeueiua oeaiu (eioeyoeey = 0). Iaeiaei eioeyoeey i?enoonoaoao e a
?acaeouo no?aiao, aaea iia ?aaia i?eia?ii 1, 8 % a aiae.

> aeaoeoeeo athaeaeaoa ia aieaa 2 – 3 % io AII.

> ainoaea?noaaiiue aeiea aeieaeai ninoaaeyoue iaaieueooth noiio e ?anoe
oieueei n ?inoii AII.

Ia?aeoe e eiaanoeoeeyi e iiaeuaio !

Oeiainiaua noeioeu – yeiiiie/aneea ?u/aae, aeaenoaea eioi?uo naycaii n
iaoa?eaeueiuie eioa?anaie noauaeoia oicyenoaiaaiey. I?e noeioee?iaaiee
ea/anoaaiiie noi?iiu oeiainu eniieuecotho a iauanoaaiiii i?iecaiaenoaa a
iai?aaeaiee iaania/aiey yeiiiie/aneeo eioa?ania, noeioeia. I?e yoii
i?aiaeaaeaao ea/anoaaiiia noeioee?iaaiea yeiiiieee.

Iiaeii auaeaeeoue a?oiiu oeiainiauo noeioeia:

1. Oeiainiaua noeioeu, eioi?ua iicaieytho iaania/eoue auai? iaeaieaa
yooaeoeaiuo iai?aaeaiee eiaanoe?iaaiey ?ano?nia a iauanoaaiiia
i?iecaiaenoai. A yoie nayce aaaeii i?aaeeueii ?ac?aaioaoue oeaeaaua
i?ia?aiiu e iaania/eoue eo aeinoaoi/iuie ?ano?naie (n iiiiuueth
athaeaeaoa).

I?e auai?a iniiaiuo iai?aaeaiee eiaanoe?iaaiey n?aaenoa aieueoia
aieiaiea oaeaeyaony iieacaoaeyi oeiainiaieinoue e oeiainiioaea/a. Iie
yaeythony e?eoa?eyie aeey au?aaioee oeaeaauo i?ia?aii.

Oeiainiaieinoue – eaeia eiee/anoai oeiainiauo ?ano?nia o?aaoaony ia
auiieiaiea oie eee eiie i?ia?aiiu.

Oeiainiioaea/a – eiee/anoai i?eauee iieo/aaiie ia aeiaeaiiua ?ano?nu.
Iniiaiie caaea/ae yaeyaony nieaeaiea oeiainiaieinoe e iiauoaiea
oeiainiioaea/e a iauanoaaiiii i?iecaiaenoaa. I?e yoii iaiaoiaeeii
iiiieoue, /oi aaaeiui ?aca?aii ?inoa oeiainiauo ?ano?nia aunooiaao
oeo/oaiiay aini?iecaiaenoaaiiay no?oeoo?a oeiainiauo ?ano?nia noieiinoe
iauanoaaiiiai i?iaeoeoa.

Oae eae iniiaiui enoi/ieeii oeiainiauo ?ano?nia yaeyaony aeiaaai/iue
eaieoae (i?eaueue), oi /ai auoa aeiey i?eauee a noieiinoe iauanoaaiiiai
i?iaeoeoa, oai auoa ?aca?au ?inoa oeiainiauo ?ano?nia.

2. Eniieueciaaiea niaoeeaeueiuo iiiu?eoaeueiuo oiiaeia.

3. Oeiainiaua noeioeu, naycaiiua n athaeaeaoiuie iaoiaeaie
eioaineoeeaoeee i?iecaiaenoaa.

I?iaiaey aeoeaioth oeiainiaoth iieeoeeo, ainoaea?noai iiaeao
eniieueciaaoue athaeaeaoiua aeioiaeu e ?anoiaeu aeey noeioee?iaaiey
i?iecaiaenoaa.

*oiau athaeaeaoiua aeioiaeu i?aa?aoeeenue a athaeaeaoiua noeioeu,
ioaeii, /oiau eaaeaeue aeae ieaoaaea auiieiye ia oieueei oeneaeueioth,
ii e noeioee?othuoth ooieoeeth.

4. Niaoeeaeueiua oeiainiaua eueaiou e naieoeee

Oeiainiaue iaoaieci eae eino?oiaio ?aaeecaoeee oeiainiaie iieeoeee

Oeiainiaue iaoaieci – niaieoiiinoue oi?i i?aaiecaoeee oeiainiauo
ioiioaiee, eioi?ay iicaieyao oi?ie?iaaoue e eniieueciaaoue oeiainiaua
?ano?nu. Eino?oiaioaie aunooiatho iaeiae e iaiaeiaiaua iinooieaiey.

Aieueoia cia/aiea eiaao au?aaioea oeiainiaiai iaoaiecia aeey auiieiaiey
oeiainiaie iieeoeee. O/ao oneiaee a i?ioeanna i?iaaaeaiey oeiainiaie
iieeoeee o?aaoao auyaeaiey niioaaonoaothueo i?eaiia e iaoiaeia,
iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey ?aaeecaoeee iinoaaeaiiuo caaea/ naycaiiuo n
nioeeaeueiui iaania/aieai, ?aaoee?iaaieai iaeiaia, ?acaeoeai
iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai i?ia?anna, ?aoaieai i?iaeai i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai
i?ioeanna, iaania/aiea oeiainiauie ?ano?naie oeaeaauo i?ia?aii, ?acaeoea
oicyenoaa anao ?aaeiiia. ?aaeecaoeey oeiainiaie iieeoeee inouanoaeyaony
n iiiiuueth oeiainiaiai iaoaiecia Oeiainiaue iaoaieci aeeth/aao a naay
aeaeu, oi?iu e iaoiaeu i?aaiecaoeee oeiainiauo ioiioaiee e niiniau eo
eiee/anoaaiiiai ii?aaeaeaiey. Iiiaeanoai oeiainiauo acaeiinaycae
i?aaeii?aaeaeyao ?acee/iua oi?iu e iaoiaeu i?aaiecaoeee.

Ainoaea?noai ia iniiaa iauaeoeaiuo caeiiia ii?aaeaeyao oi?iu e iaoiaeu
?ani?aaeaeaiey noieiinoe aaeiaiai iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?iaeoeoa
iaoeeiiaeueiiai aeioiaea. Ainoaea?noai ii?aaeaeyao iaeiae, i?eioeeiu e
iai?aaeaiey eniieueciaaiey oeiainiauo ?ano?nia, aii?oecaoeeiiioth
iieeoeeo. Ainoaea?noai inouanoaeyao ieaie?iaaiea e i?iaiice?iaaiea,
ii?iaoeaii ioi?ieyy niiniau i?aaiecaoeee oeiainiauo ioiioaiee. I?e yoii
aaaeiia cia/aiea eiaao eiio?ieue.

Oeiainiaue iaoaieci aeaeeony ia:

– oeiainiaue iaoaieci i?aaiecaoeee;

– no?aoiaie iaoaieci;

– iaoaieci ooieoeeiie?iaaiey ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaiia;

– e?aaeeoioth iieeoeeo.

A eaaeaeii ec ?acaeaeia auaeaeytho no?oeoo?iua aeaeu ii caaiueyi
oeiainiaie nenoaiu.

Oa??eoi?eaeueiia aeaeaiea:

//- oeiainiaue iaoaieci oaaea?aoeee;

//- oeiainiaue iaoaieci ?anioaeeee;

//- oeiainiaue iaoaieci ianoiuo i?aaiia.

Ii aicaeaenoaeth ia iauanoaaiiia i?iecaiaenoai:

a). iaoaieci iiaeeecaoeee oeiainiauo ?ano?nia;

a). iaoaieci i?aaeinoaaeaiey oeiainiauo ?ano?nia;

a). iaoaieci noeioee?iaaiey iauanoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa.

Eaaeaeue yeaiaio yaeyaony ninoaaiie /anoueth aaeeiiai oeiainiaiai
iaoaiecia, ii ooieoeeiie?othuee naiinoiyoaeueii. E ana yeaiaiou o?aaotho
niaeaniaaiey. Ana caaiuey ?acee/athony noaiaiueth neiaeiinoe e
?acaeoeai ioaeaeueiuo yeaiaioia.

Ainoaea?noai onoaiaaeeaaao niiniau i?aaiecaoeee oeiainiauo ioiioaiee e
oeene?oao yoe niiniau a ii?iaoeaiuo aeoao e oeiainiaui i?aaii.
Oeiainiaue iaoaieci e oeiainiaay iieeoeea oanii naycaiu n oeiainiaui
i?aaii. Iaee/ea th?eaee/aneeo ii?i iicaieyao onoaiiaeoue aaeeiua
o?aaiaaiey ai anae oeiainiaie nenoaia. Oeiainiaia i?aai yaeyaony
eino?oiaioii oi?ie?iaaiey e i?iaaaeaiey oeiainiaie iieeoeee e ieacuaaao
aeeyiea ia yeiiiie/aneoth iieeoeeo.

Iiaeii noaiaoe/anee ecia?aceoue yoe nayce:

1. Eniieueciaaiea oeiainia /a?ac iiciaiea aiciiaeiinoae yoie eaoaai?ee.

2. I?aaiaia ioi?ieaiea oeiainiaie iieeoeee.

3. ?acaeoea e ?aaeecaoeey i?eaiia e iaoiaeia ?aoaiey caaea/.

4. Oeiainiaia i?aai inouanoaeyao ?aaeaiaioaoeeth oeiainiauo ioiioaiee.

Oeiainiaay iieeoeea ia nia?aiaiiii yoaia.

A i?ioeanna ?aaiou ainoaea?noai ?aoaao i?ioeai?a/eaua caaea/e,
neaaeiaaoaeueii oeiainiaay iieeoeea aeieaeia auoue aaeaine?othuae.
Iniiaiuie iai?aaeaieyie oeiainiaie iieeoeee a nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo
yaeythony:

1). i?iaaaeaiea ia?ii?eyoee ii ia?aaiaeo i?aaei?eyoee ia ?uii/iua
ioiioaiey;

2). i?aiaeieaiea e?eceniiai ninoiyiey oeiainia e icaei?iaeaiea aeaiaaeii
– e?aaeeoiie nenoaiu;

3). eiiieaen ia? ii nioeeaeueiie caueoa ianaeaiey.

A oneiaeyo ia?aoiaea e ?uii/iie yeiiiieea iniiaiuie iai?aaeaieyie
oeiainiaie iieeoeee yaeythony:

– ?acoiiay i?eaaoecaoeey ainoaea?noaaiiiai naeoi?a;

– aeaeueiaeoaa ?acaeoea aioeiiiiiieueiie iieeoeee;

– niaa?oainoaiaaiea aeaenoaothuae iaeiaiaie nenoaiu;

– oeiainiaia iaania/aiea eiiaa?nee;

– ?acaeoea oeiainiaiai ?uiea;

– eeeaeaeaoeey athaeaeaoiiai aeaoeoeeoa;

– nie?auaiea aioo?aiiaai e aiaoiaai aeieaa;

No?oeoo?a oeiainiaiai iaoaiecia io?aaeaao oeiainiaoth nenoaio n iiceoeee
a?oiie?iaee oeiainiauo ioiioaiee e ninoieo ec 5 acaeiinaycaiiuo aeieia.

Aeie 1. Oeiainiaua iaoiaeu — niiniau aicaeaenoaey oeiainiauo ioiioaiee
ia oicyenoaaiiue i?ioeann. Aeeth/aao a naay:

© ieaie?iaaiea; © nenoaio ?an/aoia;

© i?iaiice?iaaiea; © a?aiaeo;

© naiioeiaine?iaaiea; © no?aoiaaiea;

© eiaanoeoeeiiioth i?ia?aiio; © caeiaiaua iia?aoeee;

© e?aaeeoiaaiea; © o?ano;

© auione oeaiiuo aoiaa; © oaeoi?eia;

© iaeiaiiaeiaeaiea; © eeceia;

© o?ainoa?o.

Aeie 2 – I?aaiaia iaania/aiea:

© i?aaiaua aeou;

© caeiiu;

© oeacu;

© iinoaiiaeaiey I?aaeoaeuenoaa;

© i?eeacu, ?anii?yaeaiey, ienueia Ieioeia e o.i.

Aeie 3 – Oeiainiaua ?u/aae:

* i?eaueue * oeaia;

* aeioiae * a?aiaeiay ieaoa;

* aii?oecaoeeiiiua io/eneaiey * aeeaeaeaiaeu;

* oeiainiaua naieoeee * i?ioeaioiay noaaea;

* aeeneiio

Aeie 4 – Ii?iaoeaiia iaania/aiea:

* eino?oeoeee;

* iaoiaee/aneea oeacaiey.

Aeie 5 – Eioi?iaoeeiiiia iaania/aiea:

* eiiiuethoa?iua i?ia?aiiu;

* aooaaeoa?neay io/aoiinoue;

* noaoenoe/aneay io/aoiinoue;

* iia?aoeaiay io/aoiinoue e i?.

OAIA 5 OI?AAEAIEA OEIAINAIE.

Oi?aaeaiea oeiainaie – niaieoiiinoue i?eaiia e iaoiaeia aicaeaenoaey ia
iauaeo aeey aeinoeaeaiey ii?aaeaeaiiuo oeaeae.

Oeiainu iiaeii ?anniao?eaaoue eae iauaeo e noauaeo oi?aaeaiey. Anee eo
?anniao?eaaoue eae noauaeo oi?aaeaiey, oi aeaeii, /oi iie ea?atho
aeoeaioth ?ieue a oi?aaeaiee yeiiiieeie. E a yoii iiieiaiee iu eiaai
aeaei n oeiainaie eae eino?oiaioii oi?aaeaiey yeiiiieeie. N ae?oaie
noi?iiu oeiainu – iauaeo oi?aaeaiey, aaea oeiainu aunooiatho eae
iauaeoeaiay yeiiiie/aneay eaoaai?ey, eioi?ay ioaeaeaaony a oii, /oiau
oeiainaie oi?aaeyee /a?ac iiciaiea aiciiaeiinoae e naienoa yoie
eaoaai?ee. Ionthaea neaaeoao, /oi aac oi?aaeaiey oeiainaie, oeiainiauie
ioiioaieyie, eiie?aoiuie oi?iaie i?iyaeaiey eaoaai?ee oeiainia
iaaiciiaeii ?acaeaaoue yeiiiieeo. E eiie?aoiui iauaeoii oi?aaeaiey
yaeyaony noa?a oeiainiauo ioiioaiee eee oeiainiauo acaeiinaycae, eioi?ua
iaoa?eaeecothony a oeiainiauo ?ano?nao.

Oeiainiaua iauaeou – ?aciiia?aciua aeaeu oeiainiauo ioiioaiee.

E iauaeoai ioiinyony:

– OIOI;

– no?aoiaua ioiioaiey;

– ainoaea?noaaiiua oeiainu e o.ae.

Oeiainiaua noauaeou – i?aaiecaoeee. eioi?ua i?aaiecotho e inouanoaeytho
yoi oi?aaeaiea.

E noauaeoai ioiinyony:

– oeiainiaua neoaeau, ioaeaeu e i?aaiu, eioi?ua nouanoaotho ia
i?aaei?eyoee;

– oeiainiaua i?aaiu ainoaea?noaa (eae Ieioei, oeiainiaua ieienoa?noaa
?anioaeee);

– iaeiaiaua einiaeoeee.

Ooieoeeiiaeueiua yeaiaiou oi?aaeaiey:

Yeaiaio 1. Ieaie?iaaiea – yoi ioeaiea ninoiyiey oeiainia, auyaeaiea
aiciiaeiinoe oaaee/aiey oeiainiauo ?ano?nia.

Yeaiaio 2. Iia?aoeaiia oi?aaeaiea – eiiieaen ia?, n iiiiuueth eioi?uo
iieo/aaony iaeneiaeueiay yooaeoeaiinoue i?e ieieiaeueiuo cao?aoao.

Yeaiaio 3. Eiio?ieue – niiinoaaeaiea oaeoe/aneeo ?acoeueoaoia n
ieaiiauie, auyaeaiea ?aca?aia aeey oaaee/aiey ?ano?nia n iiiiuueth
yooaeoeaiiai oicyenoaiaaiey.

Oi?aaeaiea oeiainaie:

1. No?aoaae/aneia oi?aaeaiea caeeth/aaony a ii?aaeaeaiee oeiainiauo
?ano?nia ia ia?niaeoeao, aeey /aai iaiaoiaeeii ciaoue aeeiaieeo AII.

2. Iia?aoeaiia oi?aaeaiea inouanoaeyaony oeiainiaui aiia?aoii e
caeeth/aaony a aiieiuaiee a aeeciue eaeae no?aoaae/aneiai ieaie?iaaiey.

Oeiainiaay nenoaia ?O aeeth/aao a naay eiiieaen ainoaea?noaaiiuo e
iaainoaea?noaaiiuo niaoeeaeece?iaaiiuo o/?aaeaeaiee, a ooieoeee eioi?uo
aoiaeeo:

a). inouanoaeaiea ?acee/iiai ?iaea oeiainiauo, aeaiaaeiuo, no?aoiauo,
aaethoiuo iia?aoeee;

a). yoe aea i?aaiu i?aaeinoaaeytho aoaeeoi?neea oneoae;

a). iie ieacuaatho eiinoeueoaoeee ii anai aii?inai
oeiainiai-yeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe;

a). inouanoaeytho ?aaoee?iaaiea oeiainiaie noa?u.

Nenoaia oeiainiaiai oi?aaeaiey inouanoaeyaony n iiiiuueth oeiainiaiai
aiia?aoa, a nai oeiainiaue aiia?ao i?aaenoaaeyao niaie niaieoiiinoue
i?aaiia e i?aaiecaoeee caieiathueony oi?aaeaieai oeiainaie. Eee,
ae?oaeie neiaaie, oeiainiaue aiia?ao – nenoaia oeiainiauo i?aaiia.

Anoanoaaiii aanue oeiainiaue aiia?ao oaeaea ninoieo ec yeaiaioia,
aiaeiae/iuo a?oiie?iaea oeiainiauo ioiioaiee.

Ia?aay noa?a – oeiainiaua iiae?acaeaeaiey a io?aneyo e ia i?aaei?eyoeyo.

Iie oi?aaeytho oeiainiauie ?ano?naie, eioi?ua nicaeathony e inoathony a
?anii?yaeaiee io?aneae e i?aaei?eyoee.

Aoi?ay noa?a – nenoaia no?aoiauo i?aaiia.

O?aouey noa?a – ainoaea?noaaiiua oeiainu – Ieienoa?noai oeiainia, ana
oeiainiaua i?aaiu, iaeiaiaua neoaeau e o.ae. I?aaiu oi?aaeaiey
aiaathaeaeaoiuie oiiaeaie e ana inoaeueiua oiiaeu nicaeathony a yoie
noa?a.

*aoaa?oay noa?a – e?aaeeoiua o/?aaeaeaiey – Oeaio?iaaie e eiiia?/aneea
aaiee.

Oeiainiaue aiia?ao ninoaaeytho:

a). oeiainiaua i?aaiu ainoaea?noaa;

a). no?aoiaua i?aaiu;

a). oeiainiaua neoaeau i?aaei?eyoee.

?anniio?ei oeiainiaua i?aaiu ainoaea?noaa. Eo o?e:

1. Oaaea?aeueiia nia?aiea

* Niaao Oaaea?aoeee (89 /ae. o 2 = 178 /ae.);

* Ainoaea?noaaiiay aeoia (450 /ae.).

2. I?aceaeaio.

3. Ieioei, eioi?ue aeeth/aao a naay ieaeanoiyuea o?iaie Ainiaeianeoaeau.

Oeaio?aeueiia ianoi a Ieioeia caieiaao athaeaeaoiia oi?aaeaiea, a ia
aoi?ii ianoa iaoiaeeony eacia/aenoai, eioi?ia eniieiyao athaeaeao.
Aeaeaa –

– oi?aaeaiea iaeiaiauo ?aoi?i;

– oi?aaeaiea oeaiiuie aoiaaaie e oeiainiaui ?uieii;

– oi?aaeaiea oeiaine?iaaiey naeueneiai oicyenoaa.

Nae/an oi?ie?oaony oi?aaeaiea oeiaine?iaaiey eiiaa?neiiiuo i?ia?aii.

Eacia/aenoai – nicaeaii a 1993 aiaeo. Yoa no?oeoo?a auea nicaeaia aeey
oiai /oiau inouanoaeyoue ooieoeee athaeaeaoa. E?iia oiai, eacia/aenoai
i?iaiaeeo ?an/aou, aeaiiceoiua e ae?oaea iia?aoeee, eioi?ua ?aiueoa
auiieiye Oeaio?iaaie, o.e. Oeaio?iaaie aue eniieieoaeai athaeaeaoa.

Eacia/aenoai aicaeaaeyaony aeaaiui oi?aaeaieai oaaea?aeueiiai
eacia/aenoaa. Yoi aeaaiia oi?aaeaiea aoiaeeo a oeaio?aeueiue aiia?ao
Ieienoa?noaa oeiainia e iiae/eiyaony iaiin?aaenoaaiii aio. Iiaeii
neacaoue, /oi eacia/aenoai i?aaenoaaeyao niaie aioo?aiiee aaie
Ieienoa?noaa oeiainia, eioi?ue eiaao ioaeaeaiey ia ianoao e naith
nenoaio ?an/aoia. Ia 01.01.94 auei nicaeaii 59 oa??eoi?eaeueiuo i?aaiia.

Eiio?ieueii – ?aaeceiiiia oi?aaeaiea nicaeaii i?e Ieienoa?noaa oeiainia
a 1923 aiaeo. Iii iiae/eiyaony iaiin?aaenoaaiii Ieienoa?noao oeiainia.
I?aaiu E?O anoue ai anao noauaeoao ?O, ai?iaeao e ?aeiiao. Aanue yoio
aiia?ao niaea?aeeony ca n/ao n?aaenoa oaaea?aeueiiai athaeaeaoa. E?O –
yoi aaeeinoaaiiay nenoaia ainoaea?noaaiiiai oeiainiaiai eiio?iey. Iia
inouanoaeyao neaaeothuea aeaeu aeayoaeueiinoe:

– aeieoiaioe?iaaiea ?aaecee ia ainoaea?noaaiiue i?aaei?eyoeyo,
i?aaiecaoeeyo e o/?aaeaeaieyo;

– i?iaiaeeo i?iaa?ee ii caaeaieyi IAAe a ?aieao ai?ueau n i?aaieciaaiiie
i?anooiiinoueth.

Aeaaiay i?iaeaia a ?aaioa yoie no?oeoo?u – caeiiiaeaoaeueiay aaca aeey
oeiainiaiai eiio?iey.

Noa?ua no?oeoo?u:

– oi?aaeaiea oeiaine?iaaieai nioeeaeueiuo i?ia?aii e iaoee;

– oi?aaeaiea oeiaine?iaaieai iai?iiu e aaciianiinoe;

– oi?aaeaiea aaethoii – oeiainiaiai ?aaoee?iaaiey.

Aaoiiaoecaoeey oi?aaeaiey oeiainaie.

Aaoiiaoece?iaaiiua nenoaiu oi?aaeaiey noaiiayony iaiouaieaiie /anoueth
?aaiou oeiainiauo i?aaiia. Aaoiiaoece?iaaiiua nenoaiu aace?othony ia
yeaiaioao i?ia?aiie?iaaiey e YAI.

OAIA 6

OEIAINIAIA IEAIE?IAAIEA

Oeiainiaia ieaie?iaaiea – i?iaeoeo oeiainiauo enneaaeiaaiee, eioi?uie
caieiaaony iaoea. Ieaie?iaaiea eae yeaiaio oi?aaeaiey anoue eo/oaa
n?aaenoai oeiainiaie iieeoeee. Iii iicaieyao ieaaii e iacaiaoii
niaa?oaoue e?oiiua oicyenoaaiiua ia?aiaiu.

Iauaeoii oeiainiaiai ieaie?iaaiey yaeyaony oeiainiaay aeayoaeueiinoue
noauaeoia oicyenoaiaaiey e ainoaea?noaa, a eoiaiaui ?acoeueoaoii –
ninoaaeaiea oeiainiauo ieaiia, ia/eiay io niao ioaeaeueiiai o/?aaeaeaiey
aei naiaeiiai oeiainiaiai aaeaina ainoaea?noaa. A eaaeaeii ieaia
ii?aaeaeythony aeioiaeu e ?anoiaeu ia ii?aaeaeaiiue ia?eiae, nayce ni
caaiueyie oeiainiaie e e?aaeeoiie nenoai (aciinu io/eneaiee ia
nioeeaeueiia no?aoiaaiea, ieaoaaee a athaeaeao, ieaoa ca aaieianeee
e?aaeeo e ae?.). Eiie?aoiua caaea/e oeiainiaiai ieaie?iaaiey
ii?aaeaeythony oeiainiaie iieeoeeie. Yoi ii?aaeaeaiea iauaia aeaiaaeiuo
n?aaenoa e eo enoi/ieeia, iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey auiieiaiey ieaiiauo
caaeaiee; auyaeaiea ?aca?aia ?inoa aeioiaeia, yeiiiiee a ?anoiaeao;
onoaiiaeaiea iioeiaeueiuo i?iii?oeee a ?ani?aaeaeaiee n?aaenoa iaaeaeo
oeaio?aeeciaaiiuie e aeaoeaio?aeeciaaiiuie oiiaeaie e ae?.

Ieaie?iaaiea oa?aeoa?ecoaony:

1) yenoaineaiinoueth (ioaaouaaao oe?ieee e?oa nioeeaeueii – iieeoe/aneeo
e yeiiiie/aneeo yaeaiee);

2) eioaineaiinoueth (iiae?acoiaaaao i?eiaiaiea niaa?oaiiie oaoieee);

3) yooaeoeaiinoueth (icia/aao, /oi a eoiaa iaiaoiaeeii aeinoe/ue oao
oeaeae, eioi?ua noaaeo oeiainiaia oi?aaeaiea).

Iaoiaeu oeiainiaiai ieaie?iaaiey:

a) aaoiiaoe/aneee (aeaiiua i?aaeuaeouaai aiaea ia?aiinyony, iai?eia?, ia
1999 aiae. Anee anoue eioeyoeey, oi aeaiiua oiiiaeathony ia eiyooeoeeaio
eioeyoeee). Yoio iaoiae yaeyaony naiui i?eieoeaiui iaoiaeii e, eae
i?aaeei, eniieuecoaony i?e iaoaaoea a?aiaie;

b) noaoenoe/aneee (neeaaeuaathony ?anoiaeu ca i?aaeuaeouea aiaeu e
aeaeeony ia eiee/anoai i?aaeuaeoueo eao);

c) ioeaaie aacu (ana iiceoeee aeieaeiu ?ann/eouaaoueny ii iiaie. Yoio
iaoiae o/eouaaao ?aaeueiua iio?aaiinoe e oaycuaaao eo n aiciiaeiinoyie)

A oneiaeyo ?uii/iie yeiiiieee ieaie?iaaiea, eae ooieoeey oi?aaeaiey,
aeieaeii i?eieiaoue oi?io anaiauaai ioaaoa anao noi?ii yeiiiie/aneie e
nioeeaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe. Anee a ieaiiaie yeiiiieea a ieaie?iaaiee
oeiainia aeaeaeny oii? ia ?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiua i?ioeannu, oi ?uii/iay
yeiiiieea iie?aaony ia noa?o iaiaia, /a?ac eioi?oth inouanoaeyaony
?aaeecaoeey oiaa?ia e oneoa e i?eciaiea iauanoaaiii iaiaoiaeeiuo cao?ao
i?iecaaaeaiiuo i?e eo i?iecaiaenoaa e ?aaeecaoeee.

Neaaeiaaoaeueii, a ?uii/iie yeiiiieea ainiiaenoaothuei e ii?aaeaeythuei
niiniaii nayce a i?ioeanna i?iecaiaenoaa e ?aaeecaoeee oiaa?a e oneoa
aunooiaao ?uiie ni naiei iaoaieciii, aeeth/athuei aeaiueae, oeaio, caeii
noieiinoe, caeii ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey. Oaeay i?e?iaea ?uii/iiai
iaoaiecia ii?aaeaeyao ooieoeeiie?iaaiea a iai i?iaiiciiai iaoiaea
ii?aaeaeaiey ?acoeueoaoia i?iecaiaenoaa e iaiaia, ii n yeaiaioaie
ieaie?iaaiey.

Oeiainiaue ieai – nenoaiiay niaieoiiinoue ia?ii?eyoee iaoa?eaeueiiai
iiin?aaeiaaiey ooieoeeiie?iaaiey ainoaea?noaa. Ii ninoaaeyaony ia n?ie
io 1 aei 5 eao e aoiaeeo a athaeaeao. Ii oi?ia oeiainiaue ieai
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie eceiaeaiee oeaeae, oeeo? e i?aaiecaoeeiiiuo
i?aaeeiaeaiee ia ieaie?oaiue ia?eiae. Ia i?aaei?eyoee ieaie?iaaiea
iniiauaaaony ia o/aoa caeiia noieiinoe e i?e yoii ieaie?iaaiea aunooiaao
eae yeiiiie/aneay eaoaai?ey.

Eae i?aaeei, ieaiu ioee/athony io naiaai ?acoeueoaoa eniieiaiey, ii ai
anai ie?a yoi ioee/ea ninoaaeyao aeanyoua aeiee i?ioeaioa.

Aaaeiaeoei i?eioeeiii ieaie?iaaiey yaeyaony i?eioeei iai?a?uaiinoe,
eioi?ue i?eiaiyaony a oii niunea, /oi ieaie?iauee aiineo ei??aeoeau a
ieai aaeaaiaeii. aeaeinoue ieaiia aeieaeia iaania/eaaoue eo
aeeciaiiinoue, a oeiainiaay oaoieea i?eaeoiaea i?eioeei “neieuecyuee
athaeaeao”. yoio i?eioeei i?eiaiyaony aeey aieueoeinoaa ?anoiaeia,
iniaaiii i?e ?an/aoa ainoaea?noaaiiuo anneaiiaaiee. A yoeo athaeaeaoao
(ninoaaeyaiuo ia 5 eao) anoue ii?aaeaeaiiua iiiyoey a aeaea oeeo? ii
aiaeai:

Oeeo?a 1 aiaea – ieii/aoaeueiay;

Oeeo?a 2 aiaea – oaa?aeay;

Oeeo?a 3 aiaea – ioiineoaeueii oaa?aeay;

Oeeo?a 4 aiaea – i?aaeaa?eoaeueiay;

Oeeo?a 5 aiaea – i?eaeeceoaeueiay.

Yoi nenoaiii – aa?eaoeeiiiue iaoiae ieaie?iaaiey (IIA).

IIA – ieaie?iaaiea, i?ia?aiie?iaaiea e athaeaeaoe?iaaiea:

I noaouey – ieaie?iaaiea (aeeth/aao a naay oi?ie?iaaiea e eceiaeaiea
oeaeae e caaea/, a iai?aaeaiee eioi?iai aeieaeiu aeaenoaiaaoue
i?aaiecaoeee i?e naiai ooieoeeiie?iaaiee);

II noaouey – i?ia?aiie?iaaiea (iiae?acoiaaaao iiaeai? eiathueony e
iaoiaeaeaiea iiauo n?aaenoa, eioi?ua eniieuecothony aeey aeinoeaeaiey
oeaeae. I?ia?aiie?iaaiea icia/aao i?ioeann i?inoe?athueeny a aeaeaeia e
aeeaeaeoaa aoaeouaa);

III noaouey – athaeaeaoe?iaaiea (i?ioeann ia?aaiaea iaueo iiiaieaoieo
i?ia?aii ia ycue aiaeiauo athaeaeaoiuo oeeo? ii oeiainiaui aiaeai. Yoi
i?ioeann ?ani?aaeaeaiey anae niaieoiiinoe eiee/anoaaiii au?aaeaiiuo
iia?aoeee ii o?aaeeoeeiiiie athaeaeaoiie a?oiie?iaea).

Oeiainiaua ieaiu eiathony o anao caaiueaa oeiainiaie nenoaiu:

Iaoiaeu ieaie?iaaiey:

? yeno?aiieyoeey (ninoieo a ii?aaeaeaiee oeiainiauo iieacaoaeae ia
iniiaa auyaeaiey eo aeeiaieee; a ?an/aoao enoiaeyo ec iieacaoaeae
io/aoiiai ia?eiaea, ei??aeoe?oy eo ia ioiineoaeueii onoie/eaue oaii
eciaiaiee; aeeiaieea iieacaoaeae yeno?aiiee?oaony ia aoaeouaa);

? ii?iaoeaiue (ii ii?aaeaeaiiui ii?iai);

? iaoaiaoe/aneiai iiaeaee?iaaiey (iino?iaiea iiaeaee i?ioeanna e ia?aiin
aa a oeiainiaoth iaeanoue);

? aaeainiaue (i?eiaiyaony aeey niaeaniaaiey iai?aaeaiee eniieueciaaiey
oeiainiauo ?ano?nia n enoi/ieeaie eo oi?ie?iaaiey, oaycee anao ?acaeaeia
oeiainiauo ieaiia iaaeaeo niaie; aai ia?ooaiea i?eaiaeeo e oiio, /oi
ia?ooathony nayce, niaeaniaaiea e aicieeaao ianiioaaonoaea iaaeaeo
?acaeaeaie oeiainiauo ieaiia).

OAIA 7

OEIAINIAUE EIIO?IEUe

Eiio?ieue ?oaeai – eiio?ieue ?uiea iaae i?iecaiaeeoaeai oiaa?ia e oneoa,
aaea ?uiie aunooiaao eae yooaeoeaiue iieoiaoaeueneee ni?in, o.a. yoi
i?aaeaea anaai ethaee, o eioi?uo anoue /oi? Aeaiueae.

Oeiainiaue eiio?ieue – eiio?ieue ni noi?iiu ainoaea?noaa ca
oi?ie?iaaieai e eniieueciaaieai aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa

Oeiainiaue eiio?ieue – oi?ia ainoaea?noaaiiiai eiio?iey ca ia?aciaaieai,
?ani?aaeaeaieai e eniieueciaaieai ?ano?nia anao caaiueaa oeiainiaie
nenoaiu.

Iacia/aiea oeiainiaiai eiio?iey caeeth/aaony a niaeaenoaee oniaoiie
?aaeecaoeee oeiainiaie iieeoeee ainoaea?noaa, iaania/aiee i?ioeanna
oi?ie?iaaiey e yooaeoeaiiai eniieueciaaiey oeiainiauo ?ano?nia ai anao
noa?ao e caaiueyo ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa. Oeiainiaue eiio?ieue eae iniaay
iaeanoue eiio?iey, naycaiiay n eniieueciaaieai noieiinoiuo eaoaai?ee,
eiaao ii?aaeaeaiioth noa?o i?eiaiaiey e niioaaonoaothuoth oeaeaaoth
iai?aaeaiiinoue. Iauaeoii oeiainiaiai eiio?iey yaeythony aeaiaaeiua,
?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiua i?ioeannu i?e oi?ie?iaaiee e eniieueciaaiee
oeiainiauo ?ano?nia, a oii /enea a oi?ia oiiaeia aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa ia
anao o?iaiyo e caaiueyo ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa.

Oeiainiaue eiio?ieue aeeth/aao i?iaa?eo: niaethaeaiey o?aaiaaiee
yeiiiie/aneeo caeiiia, iioeiaeueiinoe i?iii?oeee ?ani?aaeaeaiey e
ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiey noieiinoe aaeiaiai iauanoaaiiiai i?iaeoeoa e
iaoeeiiaeueiiai aeioiaea; ninoaaeaiey e eniieiaiey athaeaeaoa
(athaeaeaoiue eiio?ieue); oeiainiaiai ninoiyiey e yooaeoeaiiai
eniieueciaaiey o?oaeiauo, iaoa?eaeueiuo e oeiainiauo ?ano?nia
i?aaei?eyoee e i?aaiecaoeee, athaeaeaoiuo o/?aaeaeaiee, a oaeaea
iaeiaiaue eiio?ieue; ae?oaea iai?aaeaiey.

Ia?aae oeiainiaui eiio?ieai noiyo neaaeothuea caaea/e: niaeaenoaea
naaeaine?iaaiiinoe iaaeaeo iio?aaiinoueth a oeiainiauo ?ano?nao e
?acia?aie aeaiaaeiuo aeioiaeia e oiiaeia ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa;
iaania/aiea naiaa?aiaiiinoe e iieiiou auiieiaiey oeiainiauo
iaycaoaeuenoa ia?aae ainoaea?noaaiiui athaeaeaoii; auyaeaiea
aioo?ei?iecaiaenoaaiiuo ?aca?aia ?inoa oeiainiauo ?ano?nia, a oii /enea
ii nieaeaieth naaanoieiinoe e iiauoaieth ?aioaaaeueiinoe; niaeaenoaea
?aoeeiiaeueiiio ?anoiaeiaaieth iaoa?eaeueiuo oeaiiinoae e aeaiaaeiuo
?ano?nia ia i?aaei?eyoeyo, a i?aaiecaoeeyo e athaeaeaoiuo o/?aaeaeaieyo,
a oaeaea i?aaeeueiiio aaaeaieth aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa e io/aoiinoe;
iaania/aiea niaethaeaiey aeaenoaothuaai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa e ii?iaoeaiuo
aeoia, a oii /enea a iaeanoe iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey, i?aaei?eyoee, ioiinyueony
e ?acee/iui i?aaiecaoeeiiii – i?aaiaui oi?iai; niaeaenoaea aunieie
ioaea/a aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoee, a oii /enea ii
aaethoiui iia?aoeeyi e ae?.

Ooieoeee oeiainiaiai eiio?iey:

1) i?iaa?ea ?anoiaeiaaiey ainoaea?noaaiiuo n?aaenoa (niioaaonoaea
?anoiaeia cai?aoeaaaiui noiiai e yooaeoeaiinoue eniieueciaaiey
ainoaea?noaaiiuo n?aaenoa);

2) i?iaa?ea naiaa?aiaiiinoe e iieiiou iiaeeecaoeee n?aaenoa a
ainoaea?noaaiiua ?ano?nu ii anai caaiueyi oeiainiaie nenoaiu;

3) i?iaa?ea niaethaeaiey i?aaee o/aoa e io/aoiinoe.

A oeiainiaii eiio?iey aaaeiia cia/aiea eiaao athaeaeaoiue eiio?ieue,
eioi?ue ioaaouaaao i?aaeaea anaai ainoaea?noaaiiue athaeaeao e
aiaathaeaeaoiua oiiaeu (iai?aaeoaeuenoaaiiua). Athaeaeaoiiio eiio?ieth
iiaeaeanoiu ianoiua oeiainu e oeiainu i?aaei?eyoee, i?eiaaeeaaeaaoeo
ainoaea?noao.

Aeey inouanoaeaiey oeiainiaiai eiio?iey nicaeathony iniaua eiio?ieueiua
i?aaiu, oeiiieaeoiaaiiua aunieieaaeeoeoee?iaaiiuie niaoeeaeenoaie.

Caeiiiaeaoaeueiua i?aaiu no?aiu inouanoaeytho eiio?ieue i?e ?anniio?aiee
e ooaa?aeaeaiee ainoaea?noaaiiiai i?iaiica yeiiiie/aneiai e
nioeeaeueiiai ?acaeoey ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa, ainoaea?noaaiiiai
athaeaeaoa ii caaiueyi athaeaeaoiie nenoaiu, io/aoia ii aai eniieiaieth.
Eiio?iee?oaony caeiiiinoue e yooaeoeaiinoue eniieueciaaiey
ainoaea?noaaiiuo n?aaenoa, oeaeaniia?aciinoue inouanoaeyaiuo ?anoiaeia.
I?iecaiaeeony oeiainiaue eiio?ieue caeiiiaeaoaeueiuie i?aaiaie /a?ac
eiieoaou e eiiennee, a /anoiinoe, /a?ac ieaiiaua e
athaeaeaoii-oeiainiaua eiiennee.

I?aaiu oeiainiaiai eiio?iey:

I. Ia?eaiaio (oaaea?aeueiia nia?aiea, a a iai n/aoiay ieaoa,
eiio?ieueiia oi?aaeaiea i?e I?aceaeaioa ?O).

A ?O a aaaeaiee Eiio?ieueii – n/aoiie iaeaou iaoiaeyony oaeea aii?inu,
eae eiio?ieue ca:

1) enoi/ieeaie iinooieaiey athaeaeaoiuo ?ano?nia, eo yeiiiiiui
eniieueciaaieai eae i?aaeoaeuenoaii, oae e caeiiiaeaoaeueiuie i?aaiaie;
i?ana/aiea ?anoi/eoaeuenoaa;

2) yooaeoeaiinoueth eniieueciaaiey ainoaea?noaaiiie nianoaaiiinoe,
?aaiou ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee, ?acainoaea?noaeaieai e
i?eaaoecaoeeae ainoaea?noaaiiie nianoaaiiinoe;

3) eniieueciaaieai n?aaenoa niaoeeaeueiuo oiiaeia, iai?eia?,
iaineiiiiai, caiyoinoe, nioeeaeueiiai no?aoiaaiey; “*a?iiauey” e o.ae.;

4) enoi/ieeaie aeaiaaeiuo aeioiaeia iauanoaaiiuo i?aaiecaoeee aeeth/ay
?acee/iua ia?oee, ca eniieueciaaieai yoeo n?aaenoa niioaaonoaaiii
onoaaiui oeaeyi.

II. Niaoeeaeueiua aaaeiinoaa ainoaea?noaaiiiai oeiainiaiai eiio?iey.

III. Niaoeeaeueiia eiio?ieueiia ?aaeceiiiia oi?aaeaiea.

Iii iiae/eiyaony iaiin?aaenoaaiii Ieioeio. I?aaiu E?O anoue ai anao
noauaeoao ?O, ai?iaeao e ?aeiiao. Aanue yoio aiia?ao niaea?aeeony ca
n/ao n?aaenoa oaaea?aeueiiai athaeaeaoa. E?O – yoi aaeeinoaaiiay nenoaia
ainoaea?noaaiiiai oeiainiaiai eiio?iey. Iia inouanoaeyao neaaeothuea
aeaeu aeayoaeueiinoe:

· aeieoiaioe?iaaiea ?aaecee ia ainoaea?noaaiiue i?aaei?eyoeyo,
i?aaiecaoeeyo e o/?aaeaeaieyo;

· i?iaiaeeo i?iaa?ee ii caaeaieyi IAAe a ?aieao ai?ueau n i?aaieciaaiiie
i?anooiiinoueth.

Aeaaiay i?iaeaia a ?aaioa yoie no?oeoo?u – caeiiiaeaoaeueiay aaca aeey
oeiainiaiai eiio?iey.

IV. I?aaiu oeiainiaiai eiio?iey a io?aneaauo ieienoa?noaao
(aioo?eaaaeiinoaaiiue eiio?ieue, eae i?aaeei, iaeiaiaa yooaeoeaai).

Oeiainiaua i?aaiu, aicaeaaeyaiua ieienoa?noaaie oeiainia, eiio?iee?otho
i?ioeannu iiaeeecaoeee e eniieueciaaiey n?aaenoa athaeaeaoiuo oiiaeia.
Iiyoiio yoio aeae oeiainiaiai eiio?iey iacuaaaony athaeaeaoiui.
Athaeaeaoiue eiio?ieue niinianoaoao ?ac?aaioea iioeiaeueiie oeiainiaie
iieeoeee, iaania/eaathuae iaeneiaeueiue ?ino iinooieaiee a
ainoaea?noaaiiue athaeaeao e ?acaeoea yeiiiieee. A ninoaaa aiia?aoa
Ieioeia ooieoeeiie?otho eiio?ieueii – ?aaeceiiiua oi?aaeaiey, a a
oa??eoi?eaeueiuo oeiainiauo i?aaiao – aiia?ao aeaaiiai eiio?iea?a –
?aaeci?a. Eiio?ieueii – ?aaeceiiiua oi?aaeaiey e aiia?aou eiio?iea?ia –
?aaeci?ia i?iaiaeyo ana aeaeu ?aaecee i?iecaiaenoaaiii – oeiainiaie
aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoee, i?aaiecaoeee e o/?aaeaeaiee.

E?aaeeoiua o/?aaeaeaiey inouanoaeytho oeiainiaue eiio?ieue i?e auaea/a,
i?iaa?ea iaania/aiiinoe e acuneaiee nnoae. Aineiiennee, Aineiieoaou,
ieienoa?noaa e aaaeiinoaa i?iaiaeyo oeiainiaue eiio?ieue niaoeeaeueiui
?aaeci?neei aiia?aoii.

Iaeiaiaua einiaeoeee – yoi i?aaiu iia?aoeaiiai oeiainiaiai eiio?iey.
Aicaeaaeyao nenoaio iaeiaiauo i?aaiia Ainoaea?noaaiiay iaeiaiaay neoaeaa
?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee. Iaeiaiaua einiaeoeee ia ianoao iiae/eiythony
oieueei naiaio auoanoiyuaio i?aaio. Caaea/aie iaeiaiauo neoaea yaeythony

a). eiio?ieue ca niaethaeaieai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa i iaeiaao, iaania/aiea
iieiiou e naiaa?aiaiiinoe aianaiey a athaeaeao iaeiaiauo ieaoaaeae.

a). inouanoaeytho i?iaa?eo oeiainiaiai ninoiyiey i?aaei?eyoee e
i?aaiecaoeee iacaaeneii io aaaeiinoaaiiie iiae/eiaiiinoe e eo
i?aaiecaoeeiiii – i?aaiaie oi?iu;

a). i?iaiaeyo eiio?ieue ca i?aaeeueiinoueth ii?aaeaeaiey
iaeiaiiaeaaaaiie i?eauee (aeioiaea) n oeaeueth iaaeiiouaiey aa
caieaeaiey;

a). aaaeoo ?aaeno?aoeeth anao noauaeoia, a oaeaea ?aaeueiuo e
iioaioeeaeueiuo iauaeoia iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey.

ae). iaania/eaatho o/ao, ioeaieo e ?aaeecaoeeth eiioeneiaaiiiai,
aanoiciiai eiouanoaa, eiouanoaa, ia?aoaaeoaai ainoaea?noao, eeaaeia.

Iaeiaiaua einiaeoeee eiatho i?aai: iieo/aoue a i?aaiecaoeeyo ?acee/iuo
oi?i nianoaaiiinoe iaiaoiaeeiua aeieoiaiou e naaaeaiey, ca eneeth/aieai
oao, eioi?ua ninoaaeytho eiiia?/aneoth oaeio, ii?aaeaeyaioth
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii; eiio?iee?iaaoue niaethaeaiea caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa i
i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa a?aaeaeai; ianeaaeiaaoue ana iiiauaiey,
eniieuecoaiua aeey ecaea/aiey aeioiaeia; i?einoaiaaeeaaoue ana iia?aoeee
i?aaei?eyoee e a?aaeaeai a neo/aa iai?aaenoaaeaiey aeieoiaioia; ecuiaoue
aeieoiaiou, naeaeaoaeuenoaothuea i nie?uoee aeioiaeia; i?eiaiyoue
naieoeee e oo?aou; i?aaeuyaeyoue a noae e a?aeo?aae enee i eeeaeaeaoeee
i?aaei?eyoee, i?eciaiee naeaeie iaaeaenoaeoaeueiuie.

Aianoa n oai iaeiaiaua einiaeoeee iaycaiu ia ?acaeaoaoue naaaeaiey i
?acia?a aeeaaeia i?aaei?eyoee e a?aaeaeai. A?aaeaeaia e i?aaei?eyoey
iiaoo iiaeaoue a noae eaee a?aeo?aae aeaeiau ia aeaenoaey
ainoaea?noaaiiuo iaeiaiauo einiaeoeee. ?acaeoea oiaa?ii-aeaiaaeiuo
ioiioaiee ii?iaeaeaao ?aciiia?acea oi?i nianoaaiiinoe, niinianoaoao
iiyaeaieth oeiainiaiai ?uiea, /oi ii?aaeaeyao iai?aaeaiey aeaeueiaeoaai
?acaeoey e aicieeiiaaiea iiauo oi?i e n?aaenoa oeiainiaiai eiio?iey.

Oi?iu e iaoiaeu ainoaea?noaaiiiai eiio?iey.

Oi?iu (e?eoa?ee – n?iee e iaoiaeu)

Ii n?ieai:

· i?aaeaa?eoaeueiue (inouanoaeyaony aei ?anoiaeiaaiey e i?eiaiyaony eae
i?ioeeaeoe/aneay ia?a);

· oaeouee (inouanoaeyaony ai a?aiy ?anoiaeiaaiey e naa?yaony n ieaiii
eee niaoie);

· iineaaeothuee (iinea i?iaaaeaiey ?anoiaeia ia iniiaa io/aoiuo
iaoa?eaeia. Aeaeathony ii?aaeaeaiiua auaiaeu aeey i?aaeaa?eoaeueiiai e
oaeouaai eiio?iey).

Iaoiaeu (niinia i?iaaaeaiey):

a). ?aaecey (i?iaa?ea aeayoaeueiinoe anao iiae?acaeaeaiee ii anai
aeieoiaioai. Yoi i/aiue aei?iainoiyuee e ?aaeeee iaoiae);

a). einiaeoeey (ia?eiaee/aneay i?iaa?ea oeiainiaiai ninoiyiey
i?aaei?eyoey ia ianoa);

a). ianeaaeiaaiea (eco/aiea iaaeinoaoeia);

a). iaaethaeaiea (iauaa iciaeiieaiea n ninoiyieai oeiainia ia
i?aaei?eyoee).

Iaiin?aaenoaaiiui i?aaeiaoii i?iaa?ie aunooiatho oaeea oeiainiaua
(noieiinoiua) iieacaoaee, eae i?eaueue, aeioiaeu, iaeia ia aeiaaaeaiioth
noieiinoue, ?aioaaaeueiinoue, naaanoieiinoue, ecaea?aeee ia?auaiey,
io/eneaiey ia ?acee/iua oeaee e a oiiaeu. Yoe iieacaoaee eiatho
neioaoe/aneee oa?aeoa?, iiyoiio eiio?ieue ca eo auiieiaieai, aeeiaieeie,
oaiaeaioeeyie ioaaouaaao ana noi?iiu i?iecaiaenoaaiiie, oicyenoaaiiie e
eiiia?/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe iauaaeeiaiee, i?aaei?eyoee, o/?aaeaeaiee, a
oaeaea iaoaieci oeiainiai – e?aaeeoiuo acaeiinaycae.

Noa?ie oeiainiaiai eiio?iey yaeythony i?aeoe/anee ana iia?aoeee,
niaa?oaaiua n eniieueciaaieai aeaiaa, a a iaeioi?uo neo/ayo e aac ieo
(aa?oa?iua naeaeee e o.i.). I?e yoii enoiaeyo ec iieiaeaiey i
iaaiciiaeiinoe eneeth/aiey i?yiie eee iiin?aaeiaaiiie acaeiinayce
oi?ie?iaaiey e eniieueciaaiey oeiainiauo ?ano?nia, oiiaeia aeaiaaeiuo
n?aaenoa n ethauie aeaeaie aeayoaeueiinoe eee aacaeaenoaey.

Neaaeiaaoaeueii, iaeie e oa aea iauaeou iiaoo iiaeaa?aaoueny ia oieueei
oeiainiaiio eiio?ieth, ii e ae?oaei aeaeai eiio?iey (i?e e?aaeeoiaaiee,
?an/aoao, oeaiiia?aciaaiee e o.ae.). Ii aeaaea i?e niaiaaeaiee
eiie?aoiiai i?aaeiaoa i?iaa?ee e aiaeeca oeiainiaiio eiio?ieth i?enoua
iniaay iai?aaeaiiinoue a ioeaiea ninoiyiey yoeo iauaeoia,
niioaaonoaothuay aai iacia/aieth. Eiio?ieth iiaeeaaeao ia oieueei ieioi
?aaioathuea i?aaei?eyoey e i?aaiecaoeee, ii e eiathuea ii?iaeueiua
?acoeueoaou aeayoaeueiinoe.

I?aaiecaoeey oeiainiaiai eiio?iey, iooe iiauoaiey aai aeaenoaaiiinoe.

Oeiainiaue eiio?ieue ?aoaao neiaeiua e iiiaiia?aciua caaea/e a ?acee/iuo
noa?ao yeiiiie/aneie aeecie iauanoaa e ia ?aciuo o?iaiyo oicyenoaaiiiai
oi?aaeaiey, /oi i?aaeuyaeyao ii?aaeaeaiiua o?aaiaaiey e aai i?aaiecaoeee

A caaeneiinoe io noauaeoia, oeiainiaue eiio?ieue auaaao:

I. Ainoaea?noaaiiue oeiainiaue eiio?ieue:

a). iauaainoaea?noaaiiue oeiainiaue eiio?ieue (inouanoaeytho i?aaiu
ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe e oi?aaeaiey; ii iai?aaeai ia iauaeou,
iiaeeaaeauea eiio?ieth iacaaeneii io eo aaaeiinoaaiiie iiae/eiaiiinoe).

a). aaaeiinoaaiiue oeiainiaue eiio?ieue (i?iecaiaeyo eiio?ieueii –
?aaeceiiiua ioaeaeu ieienoa?noa, eiioea?iia, oi?aaeaiey eniieeiiia
ianoiuo i?aaiia aeanoe e ae?. Aai iauaeoii yaeythony i?iecaiaenoaaiiay e
oeiainiaay aeayoaeueiinoue iiaeaaaeiinoaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee,
o/?aaeaeaiee).

II. Aioo?eoicyenoaaiiue oeiainiaue eiio?ieue (inouanoaeyaony
yeiiiie/aneeie neoaeaaie i?aaei?eyoee, i?aaiecaoeee e o/?aaeaeaiee
(aooaaeoa?ee, oeiainiaua ioaeaeu e o.ae. Iauaeoii caeanue aunooiaao
i?iecaiaenoaaiiay e oeiainiaay aeayoaeueiinoue naiiai i?aaei?eyoey, a
oaeaea aai no?oeoo?iuo iiae?acaeaeaiee).

III. Iauanoaaiiue oeiainiaue eiio?ieue (auiieiytho a?oiiu, ioaeaeueiua
oece/aneea eeoea (niaoeeaeenou) ia iniiaa aeia?iaieueiinoe e
aacaiciacaeiinoe. Iauaeo eiio?iey caaeneo io eiie?aoiie caaea/e,
iinoaaeaiiie ia?aae i?iaa?ythueie. Iacaaeneiue oeiainiaue eiio?ieue
inouanoaeytho niaoeeaeece?iaaiiua aoaeeoi?neea oe?iu e neoaeau).

IV. Iacaaeneiue (aoaeeoi?neee) eiio?ieue

Aoaeeoi?noai – iiaay a iaoae no?aia i?aaiecaoeeiiiay oi?ia oeiainiaiai
eiio?iey ca oeiainiai-oicyenoaaiiie e eiiia?/aneie aeayoaeueiinoueth
i?aaei?eyoee e i?aaiecaoeee. Eiio?ieueiua e eiinoeueoaoeeiiiua oneoae
aoaeeoi?neea oe?iu ieacuaatho anai i?aaei?eyoeyi e i?aaiecaoeeyi ia
ieaoiie iniiaa. Aoaeeoi?neea oe?iu – yoi iacaaeneiua i?aaiecaoeee,
i?ecaaiiua niinianoaiaaoue iiauoaieth ea/anoaa eiio?iey, aai
iauaeoeaiinoe.

Aoaeeoi? – iacaaeneiuee aooaaeoa? – ?aaeci?, aunieieaaeeoeoee?iaaiiue
niaoeeaeeno a iaeanoe oeiainia, o/aoa e eiio?iey. Iie iauaaeeiaiu a
Annioeeaoeeth aoaeeoi?ia, eioi?ay i?ecaaia niinianoaiaaoue iiaeaioiaea e
ia?aiiaeaioiaea eaae?ia, a oaeaea eiio?iee?iaaoue aunieia ea/anoai
ciaiee e i?ioanneiiaeueiuo iaaueia aoaeeoi?ia.

Auaeaeythony aeaa aeaea aoaeeoa – aiaoiee e aioo?eoe?iaiiue.

Aioo?eoe?iaiiue aoaeeo inouanoaeyaony aioo?eoe?iaiiie aoaeeoi?neie
neoaeaie, ooieoeeiie?othuae eae ia o?iaia oeaio?aeueiiai ?oeiaiaenoaa
oe?iu, oae e ia o?iaia oeeeaeia, aei/a?ieo eiiiaiee e o.i. Ii iai?aaeai
ia iiauoaiea yooaeoeaiinoe oi?aaeai/aneeo ?aoaiee ii niaa?oainoaiaaieth
oeiainiaie e oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey a oeaeyo
iaeneiecaoeee ?aioaaaeueiinoe e i?eauee. A aai caaea/e aoiaeeo: i?iaa?ea
niaethaeaiey i?eioeeiia e i?aaee aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa i?e iiaeaioiaea
aaeaaiaeiie io/aoiinoe; i?i?aaioea ?aeiiaiaeaoeee aiaoieo aoaeeoi?ia;
eiinoeueoe?iaaiea ?oeiaiaenoaa oe?iu ii anai aii?inai oeiainiaie
no?aoaaee i?aaei?eyoey; i?iaa?ea naiaa?aiaiiinoe, iaaeaaeiinoe e
oi/iinoe oeiainiaie eioi?iaoeee, iiaeaioiaeaiiie aeey ?oeiaiaenoaa
oeeeaeaie oeaio?aeueiuo i?aaiia; aiaeec aaeaeaaoiinoe e yooaeoeaiinoe
ia?ii?eyoee ii iaania/aieth nio?aiiinoe aeoeaia; auyaeaiea ?aca?aia
yeiiiiee eeeaeaeiuo n?aaenoa; ii?aaeaeaiea yooaeoeaiinoe
oeiainiai-oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe oe?iu e oeeeaea e o.i.

Aiaoiee aoaeeo auiieiytho niaoeeaeueiua aoaeeoi?neea oe?iu ii aeiaiai?o
n ainoaea?noaaiiuie iaeiaiauie e ae?oaeie i?aaiaie, i?aaei?eyoeyie,
ae?oaeie iieueciaaoaeyie – aaieaie, eiino?aiiuie ia?oia?aie,
aeoeeiia?aie, no?aoiauie iauanoaaie e o.ae. Iniiaiie eo caaea/ae
yaeyaony onoaiiaeaiea aeinoiaa?iinoe oeiainiaie io/aoiinoe i?iaa?yaiuo
iauaeoia, a oaeaea ?ac?aaioea ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii ono?aiaieth eiathueony
iaaeinoaoeia a aeayoaeueiinoe oici?aaiia, oeo/oaieth eo
oeiainiai-oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe e eiiia?/aneeo ?acoeueoaoia.

Aeey aeinoeaeaiey iinoaaeaiiuo caaea/ e oeaeae aoaeeoi?neea oe?iu
inouanoaeytho: oeiainiaua yenia?oecu; i?iaa?ee e ?aaecee
oeiainiai-oicyenoaaiiie e eiiia?/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoee e
i?aaiecaoeee; eiio?ieue ca i?aaeeueiinoueth ii?aaeaeaiey aeioiaeia,
iiaeeaaeaueo iaeiaiiaeiaeaieth; i?aaeioa?auaiea eo caieaeaiey e
aiciiaeiinoue ecaaaeaiey acuneaiey oo?aoiuo naieoeee; eiinoeueoe?iaaiea
ii aii?inai i?aaiecaoeee o/aoa e oi?aaeaiey, ninoaaeaiey io/aoiinoe;
i?iaa?eo i?aaeeueiinoe e yooaeoeaiinoe aioo?eoe?iaiiiai oeiainiaiai
eiio?iey e aoaeeoa.

A oeaeii iaeanoue aoaeeoi?neeo oneoa aanueia cia/eoaeueia. E iae iiaeii
ioianoe oaeaea: iinoaiiaeo e i?aaiecaoeeth aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa;
iiaeaioiaeo aeieoiaioia, iaiaoiaeeiuo i?e nicaeaiee niaianoiuo
i?aaei?eyoee eee aeoeeiia?iuo iauanoa; ?acuyniaiea aii?inia oeiainiai –
aaieianeiai, iaeiaiaiai, no?aoiaiai e ae?oaeo aeaeia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa
e o.ae. Ec ia?a/iy oneoa /aoei i?ineaaeeaaaony i?aaaioeaiue oa?aeoa?
eiio?ieueiie aeayoaeueiinoe aoaeeoi?neeo oe?i, ninoiyuee a
i?aaeioa?auaiee eaeeo-eeai oeiainiai – oicyenoaaiiuo ia?ooaiee e
iaoaea/.

yoaiu aoaeeoi?neie i?iaa?ee:

– ia/aeueiue, eee iiaeaioiaeoaeueiue yoai (aeeth/aao aeaenoaey
aoaeeoi?a, iaania/eaathuea aeinoiaa?iinoue e yooaeoeaiinoue aiaeeca:
iiaeai? e nenoaiaoecaoeeth iaoa?eaeia, i?iaa?eo niiinoaaeiinoe e acaeiii
nayce ?acee/iuo iieacaoaeae io/aoiinoe);

– ia aoi?ii yoaia auiieiyaony aieueoia eiee/anoai ?acee/iuo
aiaeeoe/aneeo ?an/aoia;

– o?aoee yoai naiaeeony e iaiauaieth ?acoeueoaoia e oi?ioee?iaaieth
yenia?oii – aoaeeoi?neie ioeaiee.

Auiieiyy aoaeeoi?neea i?ioeaaeo?u, aoaeeoi?u i?iaa?ytho iieiioo
io?aaeaiey aaaeiaeoeo oicyenoaaiiuo iia?aoeee a aooaaeoa?neii o/aoa e
io/aoiinoe; naiaa?aiaiiinoue e i?aaeeueiinoue oeene?iaaiey ?acoeueoaoia
eiaaioa?ecaoeee iniiaiuo n?aaenoa (oiiaeia), iaoa?eaeueiuo oeaiiinoae,
aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa e ?an/aoia; nio?aiiinoue a oa/aiea onoaiiaeaiiiai
n?iea ia?ae/iuo o/aoiuo e ae?oaiai ?iaea ii?aaaeaoaeueiuo aeieoiaioia,
iiaeoaa?aeaeathueo niaa?oaiea oicyenoaaiiuo iia?aoeee e eo io?aaeaiey a
aooaaeoa?neeo caienyo.

Ia iniiaa i?iaa?ee e aiaeeca oeiainiaiai ninoiyiey aoaeeoi?u aeieaeiu a
ioeoeeaeueiie oi?ia canaeaeaoaeuenoaiaaoue iainiiaaiiia iiaiea i
eiia/iuo ?acoeueoaoao aeayoaeueiinoe eiio?iee?oaiuo yeiiiie/aneeo
iauaeoia ca ii?aaeaeaiiue ia?eiae. I?e yoii iie, eae i?aaeei, aa?oo
iaycaoaeuenoai i?iaaaeaiiua i?iaa?ee ioi?ieyoue aoaeeoi?neei
caeeth/aieai, e eioi?iio i?eeaaathony aeieoiaioaeueiua ?acoeueoaou
i?iaaaeaiiuo enneaaeiaaiee, aiaeecia, yenia?oec, a niaieoiiinoe aeathuea
yniia i?aaenoaaeaiea i oii, ia iniiaaiee eaeeo aeaiiuo noi?ioee?iaaii
iiaiea aoaeeoi?ia.

I?ioanneiiaeueiua oneoae aoaeeoi?neeo oe?i yaeythony ieaoiuie, a naie
oe?iu ooieoeeiie?otho eae oic?an/aoiua i?aaiecaoeee ni noaoonii
th?eaee/aneiai eeoea. Yoi iaania/eaaao ?aaeecaoeeth aeaaiiai ioee/ey
einoeoooa aoaeeoi?noaa io ae?oaeo oi?i i?aaiecaoeee oeiainiaiai eiio?iey
– aai iieioth, a oii /enea yeiiiie/aneoth, iacaaeneiinoue io
ainoaea?noaaiiue e aaaeiinoaaiiuo oi?aaeai/aneeo no?oeoo?.

Eiieo?aioeey iaaeaeo aoaeeoi?neeie oe?iaie canoaaeyao eo i/aiue aeoeaii
ai?ioueny ca ea/anoai naieo oneoa, uaiaoeeueii ioiineoueny e eieaeaeo
oe?iu. Aiceaaaaiay th?eaee/aneay ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca ?acoeueoaou
i?iaa?ie ia iicaieyao aoaeeoi?ai auaeaaaoue iaiauaeoeaioth eioi?iaoeeth,
i?aaeii?aaeaeyao iaiaoiaeeiinoue no?aoiaaiey aoaeeoi?ia e aoaeeoi?neie
aeayoaeueiinoe. Aoaeeoi?neea oe?iu ?aaioatho ia iniiaa ?ac?aaioaiiuo e
i?eiyouo eie onoaaia. Aianoa n oai eo aeayoaeueiinoue, eae i?aaeei,
eii?aeeie?oaony e iai?aaeyaony oeaio?aeeciaaiiie aoaeeoi?neie
aaeieieno?aoeeae. A 1991 a. a iaoae no?aia auea nicaeaia Aoaeeoi?neay
iaeaoa. Aeayoaeueiinoue aa iai?aaeaia ia aieaa aeoeaiia, oii?yaei/aiiia
noaiiaeaiea e aeaeueiaeoaa ?acaeoea einoeoooa aoaeeoi?ia, iiauoaiea
ea/anoaa eo ?aaiou, a oii /enea e iin?aaenoaii aaeaioaoeee e
iaaeaeoia?iaeiui i?aaeeai e o?aaiaaieyi.

OAIA 8

IAUAss OA?AEOA?ENOEEA AINOAeA?NOAAIIUO

E IANOIUO OEIAINIA.

Ainoaea?noaaiiua oeiainu – aeaiaaeiua ioiioaiey ii iiaiaeo
?ani?aaeaeaiey e ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiey AII, eioi?ua naycaiu n
oi?ie?iaaieai oeiainiauo ?ano?nia a ?oeao ainoaea?noaa.

Ainoaea?noaaiiua oeiainu:

1). Oaaea?aeueiua oeiainu (A ?O a anoue neaaeothuaa aaeieieno?aoeaiia
aeaeaiea:

a). ?anioaeeee (89 oo.);

a). e?ay;

a). iaeanoe;

a). Iineaa e Naieo – Iaoa?ao?a);

2). Oeiainu noauaeoia Oaaea?aoeee (a ?O 89 noauaeoia)

Ianoiua oeiainu ia ioiinyony e ainoaea?noaaiiui oeiainai, o.e.
?ac?aaaouaathony aeieoiaiou ii ?aca?aie/aieth ianoiuo i?aa e iieiiii/ee
e ainoaea?noaaiiuo.

(1) Oaaea?aeueiua oeiainu aeeth/atho a naay: (2) Oeiainu noauaeoia
Oaaea?aoeee ninoiyo ec:

1. Oaaea?aeueiue athaeaeao. 1. Athaeaeao.

2. Aiaathaeaeaoiua oiiaeu. 2. Aiaathaeaeaoiua oiiaeu.

3. Ainoaea?noaaiiue e?aaeeo. 3. Oeiainiaua ia?ii?eyoey.

4. Oeiainu ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee. 4. Oeaiiua aoiaae (iiea iiae
aii?inii)

AINOAeA?NOAAIIIA ?AAOEE?IAAIEA YEIIIIEEE

Inouanoaeyaony neaaeothueie iaoiaeaie:

AeAIAAEII – E?AAeEOIUIE ATHAeAEAOIUIE

1) ?aaoee?iaaiea o/aoiie noaaee; 1) iaeiae;

2) iia?aoeee ainoaea?noaa ia ?uiea oeaiiuo aoiaa (eae yienney, oi?aiaey
AEI e i?.); 2) aii?oecaoeeiiiay iieeoeea;

3) onoaiiaeaiea eciaiaiey ieieiaeueiuo ?aca?aia. 3) ainoaea?noaaiiua
eiaanoeoeee.

Ainoaea?noaaiiua aeioiaeu

Ainoaea?noaaiiua aeioiaeu – /anoue oeiainiauo ioiioaiee, eioi?ay naycaia
n oi?ie?iaaieai oeiainiauo ?ano?nia a ?anii?yaeaiee ainoaea?noaa e
ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee. Iie aeaeyony ia:

– oeaio?aeeciaaiiua (Oaaea?aeueiua oeiainu);

– aeaoeaio?aeeciaaiiua (oeiainu noauaeoia Oaaea?aoeee).

Ainoaea?noaaiiua aeioiaeu aeaeyony ia:

a). aioo?aiiea;

a). aiaoiea.

Aeioiaeu ainoaea?noaaiiiai athaeaeaoa ninoiyo ec iiiaeo enoi/ieeia e
iinooieaiee. Niaieoiiinoue anao aeaeia ainoaea?noaaiiuo aeioiaeia,
eioi?ay oi?ie?oaony ?acee/iuie iaoiaeaie, ninoaaeyao nenoaio
ainoaea?noaaiiuo aeioiaeia.

1 ianoi — iaeiae, eioi?ua yaeythony aeaaiui eino?oiaioii
ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiey aeioiaeia e iaania/eaathuea iiaeeecaoeeth oeiainiauo
?ano?nia, iie caieiatho oeaio?aeueiia ianoi a nenoaia ainoaea?noaaiiuo
aeioiaeia. Iaeiae – i?eioaeeoaeueiia ecuyoea /anoe iaoeeiiaeueiiai
aeioiaea a iieueco ainoaea?noaa aeey auiieiaiey ooieoeee iineaaeiaai.

I?eciaee iaeiaia:

? i?eioaeeoaeueiue oa?aeoa?;

? aacaiciacaeiue oa?aeoa?;

? aacyeaeaaeaioiinoue.

2 ianoi — ainoaea?noaaiiua caeiu (2 enoi/iee nenoaiu ainaeioiaeia). Yoi
auione oeaiiuo aoiaa ainoaea?noaa, eioi?ua ?ani?ino?aiythony
ainoaea?noaii ia aioo?aiiai ?uiea (a ?O – AEI). Yoio enoi/iee oe?iei
?ani?ino?aiai a ?O (iaaeaaii aeiiouaiu ia ?uiie AEI ia?aceaeaiou, o.a.
eiino?aiiua eeoea).

3 ianoi – iaiaeiaiaua iinooieaiey (oiaea ecuyoea, ii ia
i?eioaeeoaeueiia, a aeia?iaieueiia)

4 ianoi – aeiiieieoaeueiay yienney aeaiaaeiuo ciaeia

2 ?iaea yiennee:

;

I – i?e?ino aeaiaaeiie iannu).

I?EIOeEIU ATHAeAEAOIIAI OEIAINE?IAAIEss.

I. No?iai oeaeaaie oa?aeoa? oeiaine?iaaiey: i?aaei?eyoey iieo/atho
n?aaenoaa ec ainoaea?noaaiiiai athaeaeaoa ia iniiaa ooaa?aeaeaiiuo
oeiainiauo ieaiia, niao, i?iaiicia ia ca?aiaa iaoneiaeaiiua oeaee.

II. I?aaeinoaaeaiea n?aaenoa ainoaea?noaaiiiai athaeaeaoa i?ienoiaeeo ii
ia?a auiieiaiey ieaia ii i?iecaiaenoaaiiui, iia?aoeaii – naoaaui
iieacaoaeyi, iieacaoaeyi n o/aoii ioiouaiiuo ?aiaa n?aaenoa.

III. Naeueaeiaue iiaeoiae e ii?aaeaeaieth aaee/eiu athaeaeaoiuo
anneaiiaaiee: anneaiiaaiey auaeathony i?aaei?eyoeyi iaoa?eaeueiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa a ieieiaeueiuo ?acia?ao e iinea eniieueciaaiey nianoaaiiuo
n?aaenoa.

IV. Iieo/aiea iaeneiaeueiiai yooaeoa i?e ieieiaeueiuo cao?aoao n?aaenoa.

V. Niaethaeaiea ?aaeeia yeiiiiee i?e eniieueciaaiee athaeaeaoiuo
n?aaenoa.

VI. Nenoaiaoe/aneee eiio?ieue ca yeiiiiiui e oeaeaniia?aciui
eniieueciaaieai auaeaiiuo n?aaenoa.

AINOAeA?NOAAIIUA ?ANOIAeU.

Yoi oa /anoue oeiainiauo ioiioaiee, eioi?ay iaoneiaeaia eniieueciaaieai
aeioiaeia ainoaea?noaa a nayce n inouanoaeaieai naieo ooieoeee:

– io?aiiay (aioo?e)

– iai?iiiay

– aiaoiayeiiiie/aneea ioiioaiey

– nioeeaeueiay

– oi?aaeai/aneay

Ainoaea?noai iiaeao auiieiyoue naie ooieoeee /a?ac nenoaio i?aaiia
oi?aaeaiey eee /a?ac i?aaei?eyoey, i?eiaaeeaaeauea ainoaea?noao.

Aaaeiay yeiiiie/aneay ooieoeey ainoaea?noaa – auiieiaiea ?aaoee?othuae
?iee. O.a. ainoaea?noai iiaeao eae noeioee?iaaoue i?iecaiaenoai
(nicaeaiea oaeeo ioiioaiee, eioi?ua auaiaeiu aeaiiie io?anee eee
i?aaei?eyoeth), oae e oaiaoaoue aai (nicaeaiea oneiaee aeey oiai, /oiau
naii i?aaei?eyoea i?eiyei ?aoaiea i eeeaeaeaoeee).

A ?anoiaeao athaeaeaoa iaoiaeyo naia au?aaeaiea aeaa noi?iiu aaeeiiai
?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiiai i?ioeanna: ?anuaieaiea athaeaeaoiiai oiiaea ia
ninoaaiua /anoe e oi?ie?iaaiea aeaiaaeiuo oiiaeia oeaeaaiai iacia/aiey o
i?aaei?eyoee, i?aaiecaoeee e o/?aaeaeaiee iaoa?eaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa e
iai?iecaiaenoaaiiie noa?u, iieo/athueo athaeaeaoiua anneaiiaaiey.

Eaoaai?ey ?anoiaeia athaeaeaoa i?iyaeyaony /a?ac eiie?aoiua aeaeu
?anoiaeia, eaaeaeue ec eioi?uo iiaeao auoue ioa?aeoa?eciaai n
ea/anoaaiiie e eiee/anoaaiiie noi?ii. Ea/anoaaiiay oa?aeoa?en-oeea
iicaieyao onoaiiaeoue yeiiiie/aneoth i?e?iaeo e iauanoaaiiia iacia/aiea
eaaeaeiai aeaea athaeaeaoiuo ?anoiaeia, eiee/anoaaiiay – eo aaee/eio.
Athaeaeaoiua ?anoiaeu eiatho ?aciiia?aciua oi?iu i?iyaeaiey, yoi naycaii
n aeaenoaeai ?yaea oaeoi?ia: i?e?iaeie e ooieoeeyie ainoaea?noaa,
o?iaiai nioeeaeueii – yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey no?aiu, ?acaaoaeaiiinoueth
naycae athaeaeaoa n ia?iaeiui oicyenoaii, oi?iaie i?aaeinoaaeaiey
athaeaeaoiuo n?aaenoa e o.ae. Ni/aoaiea iacaaiiuo oaeoi?ia ia eaaeaeii
ec yoaiia ?acaeoey ainoaea?noaa ii?iaeaeaao oaeoth nenoaio ?anoiaeia,
eioi?ay niioaaonoaoao iio?aaiinoyi yeiiiieee, oeio e o?iaith oi?aaeaiey
ath. Athaeaeaoiua ?anoiaeu eeanneoeoee?othony ii ii?aaeaeaiiui
i?eciaeai: ii ?iee a i?iecaiaenoaa, iauanoaaiiiio iacia/aieth, io?aneyi
i?iecaiaenoaa e aeaeai aeayoaeueiinoe, oeaeaaiio iacia/aieth.

Ii ?iee a iauanoaaiiii i?iecaiaenoaa ?anoiaeu ainoaea?noaaiiiai
athaeaeaoa iiae?acaeaeythony ia aeaa /anoe: iaeia naycaia n ?acaeoeai
iaoa?eaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa, niaa?oainoaiaaieai aai io?aneaaie
no?oeoo?u, ae?oaay eniieuecoaony ia niaea?aeaiea e aeaeueiaeoaa ?acaeoea
iai?iecaiaenoaaiiie noa?u. Yeiiiie/aneay a?oiie?iaea athaeaeaoiuo
?anoiaeia ii eo iauanoaaiiiio iacia/aieth io?aaeaao auiieiyaiua
ainoaea?noaii ooieoeee – yeiiiie/aneoth, nioeeaeueioth, iai?iiioth e
ae?. A niioaaonoaee n iauanoaaiiui iacia/aieai ana ?anoiaeu athaeaeaoa
iiaoo auoue iiae?acaeaeaiu ia /aou?a a?oiiu: ia?iaeiia oicyenoai,
nioeeaeueii-eoeueoo?iua ia?ii?eyoey, iai?iia, oi?aaeaiea. No?oeoo?a
athaeaeaoiuo ?anoiaeia a ?ac?aca iacaaiiuo a?oii a oa/aiea iiiaeo eao
auea o ian ioiineoaeueii noaaeeueiie, aeaiiino?e?oy aeaaii neiaeeaoeany
i?ei?eoaou a ?ani?aaeaeaiee athaeaeaoiuo n?aaenoa. Iniiaiua ?ano?nu –
i?eia?ii iieiaeia – iai?aaeyeenue ia oeiaine?iaaiea ia?iaeiiai
oicyenoaa, iaania/eaay ?aaeecaoeeth yeiiiie/aneie ooieoeee ainoaea?noaa;
ieiei o?aoe – ia nioeeaeueii-eoeueoo?iua ia?ii?eyoey.

Iniiao io?aneaaie a?oiie?iaee ?anoiaeia ainoaea?noaaiiiai athaeaeaoa
ninoaaeyao iauai?eiyoia aeaeaiea yeiiiieee ia io?anee e aeaeu
aeayoaeueiinoe.

Enoiaey ec iaai ?anoiaeu a i?iecaiaenoaaiiie noa?a iiae?acaeaeythony ii
io?aneyi ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa: ia ?acaeoea i?iiuoeaiiinoe, naeueneiai
oicyenoaa, eaieoaeueiiai no?ieoaeuenoaa, o?ainii?oa, nayce, oi?aiaee e
ae?.; a iai?iecaiaenoaaiiie – ii io?aneyi e aeaeai iauanoaaiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe: ia ia?iaeiia ia?aciaaiea, eoeueoo?o, cae?aaiio?aiaiea,
nioeeaeueiia iaania/aiea ainoaea?noaaiiia oi?aaeaiea e o.ae. Io?aneaaia
aeaeaiea ?anoiaeia iicaieyao auyaeyoue i?iii?oeee a ?ani?aaeaeaiee
athaeaeaoiuo n?aaenoa e, eciaiyy eo, aeiaeaaoueny ioaeiuo naeaeaia a
io?aneaaie no?oeoo?a iauanoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa. A ainoaea?noaaiiii
athaeaeaoa nio?aiyaony iiea oeaeaaia iacia/aiea auaeaeyaiuo
anneaiiaaiee, io?aaeathuaa eiie?aoiua aeaeu cao?ao, oeiaine?oaiuo
ainoaea?noaii.

Iaeiia?aiaiii n yeiiiie/aneie eeanneoeeaoeeae ?anoiaeia
ainoaea?noaaiiiai athaeaeaoa eniieuecoaony e i?aaiecaoeeiiiay eo
a?oiie?iaea, a iniiaa eioi?ie eaaeeo ?ani?aaeaeaiea anneaiiaaiee ii
oeaeaaui i?ia?aiiai e o?iaiyi oi?aaeaiey. A?oiie?iaea ?anoiaeia a
?ac?aca oeaeaauo i?ia?aii oeacuaaao ia eiie?aoiuo iieo/aoaeae
athaeaeaoiuo n?aaenoa, ioaaonoaaiiuo ca yooaeoeaiia eniieueciaaiea
auaeaeyaiuo athaeaeaoiuo ?ano?nia. A niioaaonoaee n o?iaiai
ainoaea?noaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey ?anoiaeu ainoaea?noaaiiiai athaeaeaoa
?innee iiae?acaeaeythony ia oaaea?aeueiua, noauaeoia Oaaea?aoeee e
ianoiua.

?anoiaeu ainoaea?noaaiiiai athaeaeaoa oanii acaeiinaycaiu n aai
aeioiaeaie. Yoa acaeiinaycue au?aaeaaony a eiee/anoaaiiii niioaaonoaee
?anoiaeia aeioiaeai, a oaeaea a eo aeeyiee ae?oa ia ae?oaa.

Ia?aeaeai e ianoiui oeiainai. Ianoiua oeiainu – yoi oeiainu ianoiuo
i?aaiia aeanoe eee i?aaiia oi?aaeaiey. Iai?eia?, a iaeanoe anoue ?aeiiu,
eaaeaeue ec eioi?uo eiaao naie athaeaeao.

Ianoiua oeiainu ?ani?aaeaeytho, ia?a?ani?aaeaey-tho e eniieuecotho
iaoeeiiaeueiue aeioiae a niioaao-noaee n oaie ooieoeeyie, eioi?uie iie
iaaeaeaiu.

E eiiiaoaioeee ianoiuo i?aaiia aeanoe ioiinyony:

a). ia?aciaaiea;

a). iaania/aiea aioo?aiiae aaciianiinoe;

a). cae?aaiio?aiaiea;

a). nioeeaeueiia iaania/aiea.

No?oeoo?a aeioiaeia ianoiuo i?aaiia aeanoe:

ai – ia?auo, io/eneaiey io oaaea?aeueiuo iaeiaia (22 % iaeiaa ia
i?eaueue iai?aaeyaony a ianoiua i?aaiu, 13 % – a oaaea?aeueiua i?aaiu.);

ai – aoi?uo, iaeiae, inoathueany a ?anii?yaeaiee ianoiuo i?aaiia
(iiaeioiaeiue iaeia);

a – o?aoueeo, ianoiua iaeiae (?aciiai ?iaea iaeiae, eae, iai?eia?, ia
i?iaii neioa, ia i?iacae a o?ainii?oa a ii/iia a?aiy e o.i. Yoiio
“oai?/anoao” nei?i aoaeao iieiaeai eiiaoe n i?eiyoeai Iaeiaiaiai
eiaeaena).

a – /aoaa?ouo, noaneaeee (ec 89 noauaeoia – 79 noauaeoia iaoiaeyony ia
aeioaoeeyo).

Aiciiaeii, /oi ianoiua i?aaiu aeanoe iiaoo auioneaoue ianoiua caeiu,
/oiau iie?uaaoue aeaoeoeeo ianoiuo athaeaeaoia (yoi iiea ?ac?aoaii
oieueei Iiaai?iaeneie aoaa?iee).

Eeanneoeeaoeey iaeiaia:

1) I?yiua (iaeiae, eioi?ua ecuiathony ec aeioiaeia th?eaee/aneeo e
oece/aneeo eeoe). Auaatho:

a). ?aaeueiua;

a). ee/iua. E iei ioiinyony:

– iiaeioiaeiue iaeia n ianaeaiey;

– iaeia ia i?eaueue th?eaee/aneeo eeoe;

– iaeia ia i?e?ino eaieoaea;

– iaeia ia aeioiaeu io aeaiaaeiuo eaieoaeia;

– iaeia ia naa?oi?eaueue.

2). Einaaiiua (iaeiae, eioi?ua i?eaioe?othony ia ?anoiaeu). Ninoiyo ec 3
a?oii:

a). aeoeecu (iaaeaaaea e oeaia);

a). oeneaeueiua iiiiiieueiua iaeiae (yoe iaeiae onoaiaaeeaaao
ainoaea?noai aeey iiiieiaiey eaciu);

a). oaiiaeaiiua iioeeiu. Auaatho:

– yenii?oiua (aeey i?ae?auaiey eee oiaiueoaiey auaica oiaa?ia);

– eiii?oiua (aeey i?aa?aaeu iinooieaiey oiaa?ia eiii?oiiai i?iecaiaenoaa
aeey ainoaea?noaa eee i?iecaiaeeoaey aioo?e no?aiu);

– o?aiceoiua.

3). Io/eneaiey a oiiaeu nioeeaeueiiai no?aoiaaiey:

a). iaineiiiue oiiae;

a). oiiae nioeeaeueiiai no?aoiaaiey;

a). oiiae caiyoinoe;

a). oiiae iaaeeoeeineiai no?aoiaaiey.

Yeaiaiou iaeiaa.

Noauaeo iaeiaa – th?eaee/aneea e oece/aneea eeoea, eioi?ua iaycaiu
ieaoeoue aeaiiue iaeia.

Iauaeo iaeiaa – i?aaeiao eee eiouanoai, iiaeeaaeauea iaeiaiiaeiaeaieth.

Enoi/iee iaeiaa – aeioiae noauaeoa, ec eioi?iai oiea/eaaaony iaeia
(enoi/iee iiaeao niaiaaeaoue n iauaeoii).

Aaeeieoea iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey – aaeeieoea ecia?aiey iauaeoa.

Iaeiaiaay noaaea – aaee/eia iaeiaa ia aaeeieoeo iaeiaeaiey. Iia iiaeao
auoue:

– oaa?aeie (onoaiaaeeaaaony a aaniethoiuo noiiao ia aaeeieoeo
iaeiaeaiey);

– aeieaaie (onoaiaaeeaaaony ii?aaeaeaiiay aeiey iaeiaa, iai?eia?, 1/8
/anoue io i?eauee) + %.

Noaaee auaatho:

a). i?iii?oeeiiaeueiua (aeaenoaotho a aaeeiii i?ioeaioa e iauaeoo
iaeiaeaiey iacaaeneii io aai aaee/eiu);

a). i?ia?anneaiua (iauaeou a?oiie?othony).

Iaeiaiaua eueaiou – iieiia eee /anoe/iia inaiaiaeaeaiea noauaeoa io
iaeiaa.

Nenoaiu ?an/aoa oieaou iaeiaia.

I. Oaaeoey?iay nenoaia.

1). Ca?ieaoa 13 iei. 12 % 1, 57 iei.

2). Aeioiaeu io oeaiiuo aoiaa 100 oun. 20 % 20 oun.

3). Aeioiaeu io n/o o/anoea 1 iei. 0 % 0

4). Aaieianeee aeaiiceo 200 oun. 0 % 0

Aanue iaeia ?aaai noiia anao yoeo ioaeaeueiuo iaeiaia.

II. Aeiaaeueiay nenoaia.

1). Ca?ieaoa 12 iei.

2). Aeioiaeu io oeaiiuo aoiaa 100 oun.

3). Aeioiaeu io n/o o/anoea 1 iei.

4). Aaieianeee aeaiiceo 200 oun.

A eoiaa iiaen/eouaaaony niaieoiiue aeioiae, eioi?ue oiiiaeaaony ia
i?ioeaioioth noaaeo 12 %, ?aaiie noiia iaeiaa.

3 aeaea iaeiaia:

1. Oaaea?aeueiua;

2. ?anioaeeeaineea;

3. Ianoiua.

Anaai nouanoaoao aieaa 60 aeaeia iaeiaia.

Oaaea?aeueiua iaeiae:

– iaeia ia i?eaueue i?aaei?eyoee; i?aaei?eyoee n eiino?aiiuie
eiaanoeoeeyie;

– IAeN;

– niaoeiaeia (ioiaiai).

E oaaea?aeueiui oaeaea ioiinyony:

– iaeia ia aiaoiayeiiiie/aneoth aeayoaeueiinoue;

– aeoeecu

?anioaeeeaineea iaeiae:

– iiaeioiaeiue iaeia;

– iaeia ia iieueciaaoaeae aaoio?ainii?oa;

– o?ainii?oiue iaeia;

– eaniie nai?.

Ianoiua iaeiae (naiay iiiai/eneaiiay a?oiia):

– nai? ca ia?eiaeo aaoio?ainii?oa;

– nai? ia niaea?aeaiea ieeeoeee e o.i.

Oiiaeu:

a). iaineiiiue oiiae;

a). oiiae nioeeaeueiiai no?aoiaaiey;

a). oiiae caiyoinoe;

a). oiiae iaaeeoeeineiai no?aoiaaiey.

Iaeiaiaia a?aiy:

ia iae?io?iaia ia iee?io?iaia

iii ii?aaeaeyaony eae aeiey

iaeiaia a AII ii?aaeaeyaony eae noiia anao iaeiaia, eioi?ue ieaoeo
ioaeaeueiia i?aaei?eyoea e aai i?eauee

Oaaea?aeueiua iaeiae:

Anee ieaoeoue ana iaeiae, oi d ninoaaeo 80 – 90 % io i?eauee.

Iaeneiaeueiue ?acia? iaeiaiaiai a?aiaie.

E?eaay Eaooa?a, iieacuaaao caaeneiinoue iaeiaiaiai i?ioeaioa e iaeiaiauo
iinooieaiee.

A oneiaeyo aaeieieno?aoeaii – eiiaiaeiie nenoaiu iinooieaiey iaeiaia

A oneiaeyo aaeieieno?aoeaii- eiiaiaeiie nenoaiu iinooieaiey iaeiaia –
100 %

A oneiaeyo ?uii/iie yeiiiieee

50 % – i?aaeae iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey

iaeia ia i?eaueue–35% = 22 % + 13 %

22 % – a ianoiue athaeaeao;

Iniiaiua aeaeu oaaea?aeueiuo iaeiaia (ii cia/eiinoe):

1. Iaeia ia i?eaueue (?aiueoa iacuaaeny iaeia ia aeioiae).

2. IAeN

W = C + V + M

V + M – aeiaaaeaiiay noieiinoue.

3. C + V + M – noiia, n eioi?ie aa?aony aeoeec

4. Oaiiaeaiiua iioeeiu.

Iaiaeiaiaua nai?u – anaaiciiaeiua nai?u e iioeeiu.

Iioeeiu – aeaiaaeiua noiiu, eioi?ua acuiathony niaoeeaeueii
oiieiiii/aiiuie o/?aaeaeaieyie ca niaa?oaiiua aeaenoaey a iieueco
i?aaei?eyoee eee /anoiuo eeoe.

Iioeeiu acuiathony neaaeothueie i?aaiaie:

a). Noaeii (i?e ?acaiaea, ?acaeaea eiouanoaa e o.i.).

a). Ainoaea?noaaiiui a?aeo?aaeii (enee iaaeaeo i?aaei?eyoeyie).

a). Iioa?eaeueiuie eiioi?aie.

a). Ieeeoeeae (i?iienea e o.ae.).

ae). Caanii (?aaeno?aoeey a?aea).

a). I?aaiaie oeiainiaie nenoaiu (ca iieo/aiea ?ac?aoaiee, eeoeaicee e
o.i.).

ae). Ia?eae (ca ?acee/iua ni?aaee).

c). Ae?oaea.

A ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee oeiainiaua i?aaiu iaoeaeaiu a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue
ia eniieueciaaiea oeneaeueiie ooieoeee iaeiaia, iaeiaei aeiey niae?aaiuo
iaeiaia ana a?aiy nieaeaaony. I?e yoii ia o/eouaaaony ?aaoee?othuay
ooieoeey iaeiaia, eioi?ay i?ecaaia n iiiiuueth iaeiaia eeai iiiu?youe,
eeai oaiaoaoue i?iecaiaenoai.

OAIA 9 AINOAeA?NOAAIIUE ATHAeAEAO.

Ainoaea?noaaiiue athaeaeao – niaieoiiue aeaiaaeiue oiiae ainoaea?noaa,
i?aaenoaaeythuee ii oi?ia oaaeeoeo aeioiaeu – ?anoiaeu. Athaeaeao
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie oi?io ia?aciaaiey e ?anoiaeiaaiey aeaiaaeiuo
n?aaenoa aeey iaania/aiey ooieoeee i?aaiia ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe.

?anoiaeu ainoaea?noaaiiiai athaeaeaoa:

1. Ia ia?iaeiia oicyenoai. Caeanue i?eia?ii 30 iiceoeee, aaaeiua ec
eioi?uo neaaeothuea:

– aeioaoeee ia i?iaeoiaa?u;

– aeioaoeee ia oaieue;

– aeioaoeee ia i?iaeoeoeeth aeeaioiiaiaenoaa;

– aeioaoeee AEEO;

– aeioaoeee iao?iiieeoaio;

– aeioaoeee ia eiiaa?neth AIE e o.i.

2. ?anoiaeu ii aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe:

– i?aaeinoaaeaiea e?aaeeoia ae?oaei ainoaea?noaai;

– auieaoa i?ioeaioia ca acyoua e?aaeeou;

– ieacaiea aacaiciacaeiie iiiiue ae?oaei ainoaea?noaai;

– oieaoa aciinia a iaaeaeoia?iaeiua i?aaiu;

– iieoiea aaethoiuo ?aca?aia e o.i.

203. Ia?iaeiia ia?aciaaiea, iaoeeiiaeueiay iiaeaioiaea eaae?ia:

– aeaoneea aeioeieueiua o/?aaeaeaiey;

– niaoeoeieu (aeey oinoaaiii ionoaeuo);

– oeieu – eioa?iaou;

– IOO;

– aa/a?iea oeieu;

– aiaiiua o/eeeua e o.i.

204. Eoeueoo?a, eneonnoai, n?aaenoaa ianniaie eioi?iaoeee:

– aeaeeioaee;

– iocae e aunoaaee;

– aeai?oeu, aeiia eoeueoo?u, eeoau;

– oai?/aneea nithcu;

– oaeaaeaeaiea, ?aaeeiaauaiea, ia?eiaee/aneay ia/aoue, ecaeaoaeuenoaa e
o.i.

205. Iaoea:

– aunoay oeiea;

– IEIE?;

– niaea?aeaiea i?aaiia oi?aaeaiey iaoeie (ieienoa?noa;
i?aiiaeaaaoaeueneiai ninoaaa;

– niaea?aeaiea a?oeaiuo o/?aaeaeaiee e o.i.

206. Cae?aaiio?aiaiea:

– aieueieoeu;

– iieeeeeieee, aiaoeaoi?ee;

– iaaeioieou, noaioeee nei?ie iiiiue e ia?aeeaaiey e?iae;

– aeiia ?aaaiea e o.i.

207. Nioeeaeueiia iaania/aiea:

– n?aaenoaa, eioi?ua ia?aaeathony a oiiae nioeeaeueiie caueou ianaeaiey;

– iao/aiea e o?oaeiono?ienoai eiaaeeaeia;

– a?a/aaii – o?oaeiaua yenia?oiua eiiennee;

– aeiieaou e iaaeaaaee e iaineyi e o.i.

208. ?anoiaeu ia iai?iio:

– ia niaea?aeaiea a?iee e oeioa;

– caeoiea aii?oaeaiey e aiaiiie oaoieee;

– ?anoiaeu ia aiaiiue IEIE?;

– iainee e iiniaey aiaiiineoaeauei e o.i.

209. Ia niaea?aeaiea i?aaiio?aieoaeueiuo i?aaiia, noaeia, i?ieo?aoo?u:

– i?aaiia aaciianiinoe;

– ia?iaeiuo noaeia;

– iia?aie/iua aienea e o.i.

210. ?anoiaeu ii niaea?aeaieth i?aaiia ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe:

– Ia?eaiaio, Aeoia, Niaao Oaaea?aoeee;

– Eiio?ieueiay athaeaeaoiay iaeaoa e o.i.

214. ?anoiaeu ii niaea?aeaieth ainoaea?noaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey:

– ana ieienoa?noaa

216. ?aca?aiua oiiaeu:

– Oaaea?aeueiiai nia?aiey;

– I?aceaeaioa ?O;

– noauaeoia Oaaea?aoeee e o.i.

230. ?anoiaeu ia oeaeaaua e ?aaeiiaeueiua i?ia?aiiu ?acaeoey ia?iaeiiai
oicyenoaa.

231. ?anoiaeu ii eeeaeaeaoeee iineaaenoaee aaa?ee ia *a?iiaueueneie AYN.

232. ?anoiaeu ii eeeaeaeaoeee iineaaenoaee yaea?iiai aua?ina a
*aeyaeineie iaeanoe.

Oaeaea oeacuaathony:

a). aiciauaiea ?anoiaeia ia iieaoo naeaaaaiuo a ainoaea?noaaiiue oiiae
ae?aaioeaiiuo iaoaeeia;

a). ?an/aou ainoaea?noaa n eiiia?/aneeie i?aaiecaoeeyie:

– Oeaio?iaaieii;

– Eiiia?/aneeie aaieaie;

– No?aoiauie i?aaiecaoeeyie.

160. Athaeaeaoiua nnoaeu.

238. ?anoiaeu ia auieaoo auea?uoae ii aeaiaaeii – aauaaui eioa?ayi e ia
eo i?iaaaeaiea.

?anoiaeu ii ianeoaeeaaieth ainoaea?noaaiiiai aioo?aiiaai aeieaa (800
o?ei. ?oa.) e ?anoiaeu ii ianeoaeeaaieth aiaoiaai ainoaea?noaaiiiai
aeieaa.

255. ?aca?a n?aaenoa ia ei??aeoe?iaeo ?anoiaeia athaeaeaoa ia eiaeaen
eciaiaiey oeai (eiaeaenaoeey aeieaeia ?anoe 1 ?ac a 3 ianyoea).

Oaeaea aeeth/athony ?anoiaeu ia i?iaaaeaiea auai?ia e ?aoa?aiaeoiia.

Aeioiaeu ainoaea?noaaiiiai athaeaeaoa:

?acaeae I. Iaeia ia i?eaueue (aeioiaeu i?aaei?eyoee e i?aaiecaoeee).

1. Iaeia ia i?eaueue anao i?aaei?eyoee (e?iia eiino?aiiuo).

2. Iaeia ia i?eaueue i?aaei?eyoee n eiino?aiiuie eiaanoeoeeyie.

3. Iaeia ia i?eaueue eaceii, eai?iuo aeiiia, aeaeainaeiiia,
aeaeaii?ieaoia e i?.

4. Iaeia ia aeioiaeu aaieia, no?aoiauo i?aaiecaoeee e ae?aeaaoth
aeayoaeueiinoue.

?acaeae II. Iaeia ia iia?aoeee n oeaiiuie aoiaaaie.

?acaeae III. Iiaeioiaeiue iaeia n oece/aneeo eeoe, eioi?ue niae?atho:

ia?aa?ao 1 – I?aaei?eyoey e o/?aaeaeaiey;

ia?aa?ao 2 – Iaeiaiaua i?aaiu.

?acaeae IV. Aeioiaeu io aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe

ia?aa?ao 1 – io eiii?oiuo iia?aoeee;

ia?aa?ao 1 – io yenii?oiuo iia?aoeee;

ia?aa?ao 3 – iinooieaiey ii ainoaea?noaaiiui e?aaeeoai, i?aaeinoaaeaiiuo
iaie ae?oaei ainoaea?noaai;

ia?aa?ao 4 – iinooieaiey ca iao/aiea eiino?aiiuo a?aaeaeai a ?inneeneeo
Aocao (ii i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiie eeiee);

ia?aa?ao 5 – iinooieaiey ii eiiia?/aneei e?aaeeoai eiiia?/aneeo aaieia e
/anoiuo eeoe.

EIAe 11. Ainoaea?noaaiiua iioeeiu.

– ii aeaeai, ?anniao?eaaaiui a A?aeo?aaea;

– ii aeaeai, ?anniao?eaaaiui a ia?iaeiuo noaeao.

EIAe 12. I?i/ea iaeiae e iinooieaiey:

– nai?u einiaeoeee (aeeth/ay AAE);

– io ?aaeecaoeee i?i/aai ainoaea?noaaiiiai eiouanoaa;

– ca auaea/o ianii?oia;

– iaeia ia ?aeeaio;

– nai? ca i?aai oi?aiaee e o.i.

EIAe 21. IAeN.

EIAe 22. Aeoeecu:

– ieoueaaie nie?o;

– eeea?i-aiaei/iua ecaeaeey;

– oieieaae;

– ee?a, eaaeiaua aaoiiiaeee;

– neaa?aou;

– iaoiaua ecaeaeey e o.i.

EIAe 23. *enoue aeioiae io i?eaaoecaoeee.

– io i?eaaoecaoeee iauaeoia ainoaea?noaaiiie e ioieoeeiaeueiie
nianoaaiiinoe;

– io i?iaeaaee caiee.

EIAe 24. Eeoeaiceiiiue nai? ca i?aai i?iecaiaenoaa e oi?aiaee nie?oiuie
iaieoeaie. Iaeaaathony ana th?eaee/aneea e oece/aneea eeoea.

EIAe 31. Iinooieaiey io aeaiaaeii – aauaauo eioa?ae.

Iinooieaiey io ?aaeecaoeee ainoaea?noaaiiuo caeiia e ae?oaeo oeaiiuo
aoiaa.

ATHAeAEAOIUE AeAOEOeEO.

Athaeaeaoiue aeaoeoeeo – yoi oeiainiaia yaeaiea, i?e eioi?ii
iaaethaeaaony i?aauoaiea ?anoiaeiie /anoe athaeaeaoa iaae aai aeioiaeiie
/anoueth.

I. Eo/oee aa?eaio. ?ANOIAeU = AeIOIAeU (yoi naaeaine?iaaiiue athaeaeao
(Naeueaei = 0)).

II. ?ANOIAeU AeIOIAeU (aeaoeoeeo).

Ea/anoai naiiai aeaoeoeeoa iiaeao auoue ?acee/iui:

a) aeaoeoeeo iiaeao auoue naycai n iaiaoiaeeiinoueth inouanoaeaiey
e?oiiuo ainoaea?noaaiiuo aeiaeaiee a ?acaeoea yeiiiieee. A yoii neo/aa
ii io?aaeaao ia e?eceniia oa/aiea iauanoaaiiuo i?ioeannia, a
ainoaea?noaaiiia ?aaoee?iaaiea yeiiiie/aneie eiiuthieoo?u, no?aieaiea
iaania/eoue i?ia?anneaiua naeaeae a no?oeoo?a iauanoaaiiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa. Aua Aeae. I. Eaein iainiiaae aiciiaeiinoue aeiiouaiey
iia?aaeathuaai ?inoa ainoaea?noaaiiuo ?anoiaeia iaae aeioiaeaie ia
ii?aaeaeaiiuo yoaiao ?acaeoey iauanoaa;

a) aeaoeoeeou aicieeatho a ?acoeueoaoa /?acau/aeiuo ianoiyoaeuenoa
(aieiu, e?oiiuo noeoeeiuo aaaenoaee e o.i.), eiaaea iau/iuo ?aca?aia
noaiiaeony iaaeinoaoi/ii e i?eoiaeeony i?eaaaaoue e enoi/ieeai iniaiai
?iaea;

a) aeaoeoeeo iiaeao io?aaeaoue e?eceniua yaeaiey a yeiiiieea, aa ?acaae,
iayooaeoeaiinoue oeiainiai – e?aaeeoiuo naycae, ianiiniaiinoue
i?aaeoaeuenoaa aea?aeaoue iiae eiio?ieai oeiainiaoth neooaoeeth a
no?aia. A yoii neo/aa ii – yaeaiea, o?aaothuaa i?eiyoey ia oieueei
n?i/iuo e aeaenoaaiiuo yeiiiie/aneeo ia? (ii noaaeeecaoeee yeiiiieee,
oeiainiaiio icaei?iaeaieth oicyenoaa e o.i.), ii e niioaaonoaothueo
iieeoe/aneeo ?aoaiee.

Ionthaea ynii, /oi a oneiaeyo aeeiaie/ii ?acaeaathuaeny yeiiiieee n
onoie/eauie, a aeaaiia – yooaeoeaiuie iaaeaeoia?iaeiuie naycyie
athaeaeaoiue aeaoeoeeo (eiia/ii, a eiee/anoaaiii aeiionoeiuo a?aieoeao)
ia no?aoai. Iineaaeiaa a?aiy aeaoeoeeo noae iineoue o?iie/aneee
oa?aeoa?.

Iaoiaeu nieaeaiey athaeaeaoiiai aeaoeoeeoa:

1. ?anoiaeu = const, aeioiaeu ?anooo;

2. aeioiaeu = const, ?anoiaeu iaaeatho;

3. aeioiaeu ?anooo, ?anoiaeu iaaeatho (aeaoeoeeo nieaeaaony auno?aa a 2
?aca).

Eae i?ioeiaine?iaaoue inoaoie aeaoeoeeoa? Oeiaine?iaaiea aeaoeoeeoa –
aaea acyoue aeiiieieoaeueiua aeaiueae aeey iie?uoey athaeaeaoiiai
aeaoeoeeoa.

Iooe oeiaine?iaaiey athaeaeaoiiai aeaoeoeeoa:

1) Yienney aeaiaaeiuo ciaeia. Yoio iooue aaaeao e eioeyoeee. Aicieeatho
io?eoeaoaeueiua nioeeaeueii – yeiiiie/aneea iineaaenoaey.

2) Ainoaea?noaaiiua caeiu. A yoii neo/aa a oeiaine?iaaiee o/anoaotho
eiiiaiee, aaiee e o.i., o eioi?uo eiathony naiaiaeiua “eeoiea”
aeaiaaeiua n?aaenoaa. Nae/an iaeaieaa i?aeoeeoaiue iaoiae.

3) Eiino?aiiua caeiu. Eo i?aaeinoaaeyao IAO.

4) Eniieueciaaiea iaoeeiiaeueiiai aiaaonoaa.

Oaaee/aiea noaaie iaeiaia ia yaeyaony iaoiaeii oeiaine?iaaiey
athaeaeaoiiai aeaoeoeeoa, a niiniaii aai nie?auaiey.

Athaeaeaoiua aeioiaeu, ?anoiaeu e aeaoeoeeo ca 1994 – 96 aa.

1994 aiae aeioiaeu – 124, 5 o?ei. ?oa.

?anoiaeu – 194, 5 o?ei. ?oa.

aeaoeoeeo = 70, 0 o?ei. ?oa.

1995 aiae aeioiaeu – 175, 166 o?ei. ?oa.

?anoiaeu – 248, 344 o?ei. ?oa.

aeaoeoeeo = 73, 18 o?ei. ?oa.

1996 aiae aeioiaeu – 347, 2 o?ei. ?oa.

?anoiaeu – 435, 75 o?ei. ?oa.

aeaoeoeeo = 88, 55 o?ei. ?oa.

Aeioiaeu io i?eaaoecaoeee ainoaea?noaaiiiai eiouanoaa i?eia?ii ?aaia 12
o?ei. ?oa. (ieaie?iaaeinue ia 1995 aiae), a iieo/eee oieueei 4 o?ei.
?oa.

I?EIOeEIU IINO?IAIEss ATHAeAEAOA.

1. Aaeeinoai (yoio i?eioeei caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi a athaeaeaoa
nin?aaeioa/eaathony ana aeioiaeu e ?anoiaeu. Athaeaeao ninoaaeyaony ii
aaeeiie athaeaeaoiie eeanneoeeaoeee e ii aaeeiui aeieoiaioai).

2. Iieiiou (o.a. eaaeaeay noaouey ninoaaeyaony ii aeioiaeai e
?anoiaeai).

3. ?aaeueiinoe (i?aaaeeaia io?aaeaiea a athaeaeaoa oeiainiauo iia?aoeee,
niioaaonoaea athaeaeaoiuo noii eo eniieiaieth).

4. Aeaniinoe (I?aaeoaeuenoai iaycuaaao ioaeeeiaaoue athaeaeao. Yoio
i?eioeei iicaieyao ?ane?uoue noaouee athaeaeaoa e i?aaeoi?aaeeoue
ioeaee, eioi?ua iaia/athony a oicyenoaaiiie iieeoeea).

?aaeueii /anoi iooiaeyo io yoeo i?eioeeiia. Iai?eia?, a ?innee iooiaeyo
io i?eioeeia aaeeinoaa athaeaeaoa, oae eae iiyaeyaony aieueoia
eiee/anoai niaoeeaeueiuo e aiaathaeaeaoiuo oiiaeia. Oo?a/eaaao naia
cia/aiea e i?eioeei ?aaeueiinoe: nouanoaotho iiiai/eneaiiua nae?aoiua
niaoiua oiiaeu, ainoaea?noai no?aieoueny ne?uoue ?aaeueiua ?anoiaeu e
eniieueciaaoue oeaeaaua oiiaeu ia ii iacia/aieth.

?anoiaeiay /anoue Ainoaea?noaaiiiai athaeaeaoa ?innee ia 1996 aiae.

1. Ainoaea?noaaiiia oi?aaeaiea — 6 o?ei. ?oa.

2. Iaaeaeoia?iaeiia nio?oaeie/anoai — 28 o?ei. ?oa. (AYAe).

3. Eoeueoo?iua, iao/iua e eioi?iaoeeiiiua nayce

4. Aiaiiua ?anoiaeu — 80, 2 o?ei. ?oa.

a). no?ieoaeuenoai e niaea?aeaiea;

a). aiaiiua i?ia?aiiu;

a). iiaeaea?aeaiea e iiaeeecaoeey iiuiinoae.

5. I?aaiio?aieoaeueiay aeayoaeueiinoue- 35 o?ei. ?oa.

a). aioo?aiiea aienea;

a). oaieiaii – eniieieoaeueiay nenoaia;

a). i?aaiu iaeiaiaie iieeoeee, ONA, iia?aie/iua aienea;

a). oaiiaeaiiay neoaeaa;

ae). i?ieo?aoo?a;

a). oaaea?aeueiay noaeaeneay nenoaia — 2 o?ei. ?oa.

6. Ooiaeaiaioaeueiua enneaaeiaaiey e niaeaenoaea IOI — 11, 5 o?ei. ?oa.

7. Ia?aciaaiea — 15, 2 o?ei. ?oa.

8. I?iiuoeaiiinoue, yia?aaoeea, no?ieoaeuenoai — 49, 5 o?ei. ?oa.

9. Naeueneia oicyenoai — 14, 5 o?ei. ?oa.

– eae oaeiaia naeueneia oicyenoai — 12 o?ei. ?oa.;

– inoaeueiia — (?uaieianoai, iaeei?aoeey e o.i.)

10. Iieiaeaaeiay iieeoeea

11. N?aaenoaa ianniaie eioi?iaoeee — 2, 4 o?ei. ?oa.

– oaea- e ?aaeeiaauaiea;

– ecaeaoaeuenoaa;

– ia?eiaee/aneay ia/aoue.

12. Cae?aaiio?aiaiea e iaaeeoeeia — 7, 5 o?ei. ?oa.

13. Io?aia ie?oaeathuae N?aaeu — 2, 1 o?ei. ?oa.

14. Ianeoaeeaaiea ainoaea?noaaiiiai aeieaa — 58, 2 o?ei. ?oa.

a). aioo?aiiee — 14 o?ei. ?oa.

a). ia iiaaoaiea — 14 o?ei. ?oa.

a). aiaoiee — 28 o?ei. ?oa.

15. Eoeueoo?a e eneonnoai — 2, 7 o?ei. ?oa.

16. Eiathony ?anoiaeu oeaeaauo athaeaeaoiuo oiiaeia:

· oaaea?aeueiue aei?iaeiue oiiae;

· oaaea?aeueiue yeieiae/aneee oiiae;

· oeaio?aeeciaaiiue oiiae;

· oiiae ?acaeoey oaiiaeaiiie nenoaiu ?innee;

· ainoaea?noaaiiue oiiae ai?ueau n i?anooiiinoueth.

A athaeaeaoao nouanoaoao iiiyoea caueuaiiuo e iacaueuaiiuo noaoae. Yoe
noaouee iiaoo auoue eae a ainoaea?noaaiiii athaeaeaoa, oae e a ianoiii
athaeaeaoa.

Caueuaiiua noaouee – noaouee, eioi?ua ia iiaoo auoue ioiaiaiu.

A Oaaea?aeueiii athaeaeaoa /eneeony Oeiainiaay aeaaeaiey, o eioi?ie
nouanoaotho ?acee/iua ?anoiaeu, eioi?ua athaeaeao iiaeao “ioeiaeeoue”,
e?iia ?anoiaeia ii ca?aaioiie ieaoa (caueuaiiay noaouey). Ia 1996 aiae a
athaeaeaoa ai?iaea Iineau ia caueuaiiuo noaoueyo, eae iieaoa
aiaeieaiaeo, ca oai?eo niaaa, yeaeo?iyia?aee e o.i., iaoiaeeony ii?yaeea
47 o?ei. ?oa. Caueuaiiua noaouee iiaoo aicieeaoue e en/acaoue (eae
i?eaeaee, aaeoeeiaoeey e o.i. noaouee, eioi?ua iiaoo auoue ia ioaeiu
aneaaenoaea ionoonoaey iianiinoe). Iaeiaei anoue noaouee, eioi?ua ie a
eiai neo/aa ia iiaoo auoue eeeaeaee?iaaiu.

?anoiaeiua noaouee athaeaeaoa iiaoo iiaeaa?aaoueny naeaano?iaaieth,
eioi?ia caeeth/aaony a nie?auaiee ?anoiaeia ii anai noaoueyi a
ii?aaeaeaiiii aeieaaii eee i?ioeaioiii niioiioaiee.

Iai?eia?, iio?aaeoaeueneay ei?ceia ?aaia 296 oun. ?oa., neaaeiaaoaeueii,

a?oc/ee – 800 oun. ?oa. (nie?auaai ia 1/3) = 300 oun.

aiaeeoaeue–1 500 oun. ?oa. (nie?auaai ia 1/3) = 500 oun.

oai?ueoea – 300 oun. ?oa. (ia nie?auaai) = 300 oun.

Ca?aaioiay ieaoa e iainee, ii ooaa?aeaeaieth i?aiiaeaaaoaey
AEai/oaeieeiaa, auee auiea/aiu ca n/ao nai?a/eaaiey eiaanoeoeeiiiuo
i?ia?aii e i?ae?auaiey oeiaine?iaaiey *a/ie (a niunea ia auee iino?iaiu
aieueieoeu, aeiia e i?. nii?oaeaiey).

E caueuaiiui noaoueyi iiaeii ioianoe e ?anoiaeu ia anoanoaaiiua
iiiiiieee, eae aeaeaciay aei?iaa, iao?iiieeoai.

I?e au?aaioea no?aoaaee ai?ueau n athaeaeaoiui aeaoeoeeoii iaiaoiaeeii
?oeiaiaenoaiaaoueny neaaeothuei:

1) athaeaeaoiue aeaoeoeeo – cei, ii aua aieueoei ceii aeey yeiiiieee e
oeiainia no?aiu yaeyaony iieiia aai ono?aiaiea iooai /enoi
iaoaiaoe/aneeo iia?aoeee, eai a yoii neo/aa aianoi “ea/aiey” yeiiiieee
aa aieaciue ia?aoiaeeo a ne?uoua oi?iu, ai?ioueny n eioi?uie ai?acaei
o?oaeiaa;

2) aaeain athaeaeaoa e aeaaea i?aauoaiea athaeaeaoiuo aeioiaeia iaae
?anoiaeaie ia neaaeoao ?anniao?eaaoue a ea/anoaa iaiouaieaiie /a?ou
caei?iaie, aeeiaie/ii ?acaeaathuaeny yeiiiieee. Ie?iaie iiuo
oaaaeeoaeueii iieacuaaao, /oi ia ioaeaeueiuo yoaiao ?acaeoey iauanoaa a
oneiaeyo, niaoeeoe/aneeo aeey eaaeaeie no?aiu, aiieia aeiionoei
athaeaeaoiue aeaoeoeeo;

3) aaee/eia athaeaeaoiiai aeaoeoeeoa, i /ai naeaeaoaeuenoaoao ie?iaie
iiuo, ia aeieaeia i?aauoaoue i?aaeaeueii aeiionoeiiai ?acia?a,
ii?aaeaeyaiiai 1 – 3% aaeiaiai iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?iaeoeoa. Iaee/ea
aeaoeoeeoa, i?aauoathuaai i?aaeaeueii aeiionoeiua ?acia?u, o?aaoao
inouanoaeaiey oaeeo ia?, eioi?ua i?eaaee au e aai auno?aeoaio
nie?auaieth;

4) aeey iie?uoey athaeaeaoiiai aeaoeoeeoa iiaoo eniieueciaaoueny
?aciiia?aciua oi?iu ainoaea?noaaiiiai e?aaeeoa (eae aioo?aiiaai, oae e
aiaoiaai). ?aaioa ia/aoiiai noaiea, i?eaiaeyuay e yiennee, ia
iaoneiaeaiiie iio?aaiinoyie oiaa?iiai?ioa, aeieaeia ?anoeaieaaoueny eae
ia?a, a?oai ia?ooathuay caeiiu aeaiaaeiiai ia?auaiey, a iioiio
iaaeiionoeiay. Aeaoeoeeo iiaeao iie?uaaoueny oieueei ia caaiiie iniiaa
iooai ?aciauaiey ia oeiainiaii ?uiea ainoaea?noaaiiuo oeaiiuo aoiaa;

5) aeey i?aiaeieaiey athaeaeaoiiai aeaoeoeeoa iaiaoiaeeii “ea/aiea”
naiie yeiiiieee, eai aac iaania/aiey aeeiaiecia a aa ?acaeoee e ?aaeueii
iuooeiie yooaeoeaiinoe iaaiciiaeii aeiaeoueny oeiainiaie onoie/eainoe
no?aiu, eaeea au i?ia?anneaiua oeiainiaua ia?u ie i?eiaiyeenue i?e yoii.
Ia?a/eneaiiua i?eioeeiu aeieaeiu iaycaoaeueii ?aaeeciaaoueny i?e
?ac?aaioea eiie?aoiie i?ia?aiiu ia? ii nieaeaieth athaeaeaoiiai
aeaoeoeeoa e oi?aaeaieth ei.

A i?ia?aiio eiie?aoiuo ia?ii?eyoee ii nie?auaieth athaeaeaoiiai
aeaoeoeeoa neaaeoao aeeth/eoue e iineaaeiaaoaeueii i?iaiaeeoue a aeeciue
oaeea ia?u, eioi?ua, n iaeiie noi?iiu, noeioee?iaaee au i?eoie
aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa a athaeaeaoiue oiiae no?aiu, a n ae?oaie, –
niinianoaiaaee nie?auaieth ainoaea?noaaiiuo ?anoiaeia.

Nthaea ioiinyony:

– eciaiaiea iai?aaeaiee eiaanoe?iaaiey athaeaeaoiuo n?aaenoa a io?anee
ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa n oeaeueth cia/eoaeueiiai iiauoaiey oeiainiaie
ioaea/e io eaaeaeiai athaeaeaoiiai ?oaey;

– aa oe?ieia eniieueciaaiea oeiainiauo eueaio e naieoeee, iicaieythueo
iieiaa o/eouaaoue niaoeeoe/aneea oneiaey oicyenoaiaaiey e noeioee?othueo
?ino iauanoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa;

– aieaa oe?ieia nie?auaiea noa?u ainoaea?noaaiiie yeiiiieee e
ainoaea?noaaiiiai oeiaine?iaaiey; i?iaeaaea ia ie?iaii ?uiea /anoe
caaeieaeaiiinoe ae?oaeo no?ai auaoaio Niaaoneiio Nithco; iieiia
i?ae?auaiea i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiie iiiiue eiino?aiiui ainoaea?noaai;

– nieaeaiea aiaiiuo ?anoiaeia;

– nio?aiaiea oeiaine?iaaiey eeoue aaaeiaeoeo nioeeaeueiuo i?ia?aii;
ii?aoi?ee ia i?eiyoea iiauo nioeeaeueiuo i?ia?aii, o?aaothueo
cia/eoaeueiiai athaeaeaoiiai oeiaine?iaaiey;

– cai?auaiea Oeaio?aeueiiio Aaieo no?aiu i?aaeinoaaeyoue e?aaeeou
i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiui no?oeoo?ai ethaiai o?iaiy aac iaaeeaaeauaai
ioi?ieaiey caaeieaeaiiinoe ainoaea?noaaiiuie oeaiiuie aoiaaaie.

N iiiiuueth eiino?aiiiai eaieoaea ?aoaaony n?aco ianeieueei caaea/,
i?e/ai ia oieueei oeneaeueiiai, ii e yeiiiie/aneiai oa?aeoa?a;
nie?auathony athaeaeaoiua ?anoiaeu, i?aaeiacia/aiiua ia oeiaine?iaaiea
eaieoaeueiuo aeiaeaiee (a, cia/eo, oiaiueoaaony ?ac?ua iaaeaeo
aeioiaeaie e ?anoiaeaie), ?anoe?yaony aaca aeey i?iecaiaenoaa oiaa?ia e
oneoa, iiyaeyaony iiaue iaeiaiieaoaeueuee (neaaeiaaoaeueii,
oaaee/eaathony aeioiaeiua iinooieaiey a athaeaeao), oeo/oaaony ninoiyiea
ieaoaaeiiai aaeaina.

?ac?aaioea e iineaaeiaaoaeueiay ?aaeecaoeey ia?, iai?aaeaiiuo ia
oaaee/aiea aeioiaeia athaeaeaoa e nie?auaiea aai ?anoiaeia ,
?aaoee?iaaiea athaeaeaoiiai aeaoeoeeoa, oeaeaiai?aaeaiiia oi?aaeaiea aai
?acia?ii a niaieoiiinoe n ae?oaeie yeiiiie/aneeie aioee?eceniuie ia?aie
iicaieyao noaaeeece?iaaoue oeiainiaia iieiaeaiea, niinianoaoao aa
aica?auaieth ia iooue nioeeaeueii – yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey e
i?ioeaaoaiey.

ENOI?Ess I AeAOEOeEOA ATHAeAEAOA. Aeae. Eaein aia?aua iainiiaae
aeaoeoeeo athaeaeaoa. Eaeina iacuaaee “ao?aeoaciui Ia?enii”. Ni/oanoaea
e o?oaeiaiio /aeiaaeo ?iaeeeinue ia a 1917 aiaeo, a iaiiiai ?aiueoa.
Ia?aui “iiaa?ioeny eeoeii e /aeiaaeo” E. Ia?en, aoi?ui – Aeae. Eaein.
Ia?en aeaeae auoiae e caiyoinoe, e i?iaeoeoo e ionoonoaeth aac?aaioeoeu
/a?ac iauanoaaiioth nianoaaiiinoue (e niaeaeaieth, iayooaeoeaii). Aeae.
Eaein aeaeae auoiae /a?ac /anoioth nianoaaiiinoue, ainoaea?noai ia
iiaeao ia aiaoeaaoueny a yeiiiieeo. Ii, eiaaea ainoaea?noai niaoeaaaony
a yeiiiieeo, iii aiaoeaaaony a yeiiiie/aneoth e oeiainiaoth aeecie
iauanoaa. Eaein aiai?ee, /oi iiaeii ?anoiaeiaaoue aeaiaa aieueoa, /ai
aeioiaeu, ii ia ii?aaaeaiioth oeaeue (a ?innee, iai?eia?, i?iecaiaenoai
aiaeee). Ioeueoeieeeaoi? – icia/aao, ai neieueei ?ac iiauneoueny
iaoeeiiaeueiue aeioiae, anee aeiaeeoue 1 ?oaeue (aeieea?). Aeeaaeuaaoue,
caeanue eiaaony a aeaeo ia a eaceii, a a no?ieoaeuenoai, i?iiuoeaiiinoue
(iai?eia?, eae a NOA a aaoiiiaeeueioth i?iiuoeaiiinoue).

Caaea/e athaeaeaoa ia 1996 aiae:

1) ia?aie/aiea o?iaiy eioeyoeee aac aeaiaaeiie yiennee;

2) aeinoeaeaiea ?aaeueiinoe iaaeaeo athaeaeaoiuie iaauaieyie e
athaeaeaoiui oeiaine?iaaieai; ?anoiaeu ?ann/eouaathony ec aeioiaeia;

3) aeaenoaea a ?aieao iauae iae?iyeiiiie/aneie i?ia?aiiu;

OAEOI?U:

a). nicaeaia ainoaea?noaaiiay iaeiaiaay nenoaia;

a). eniieueciaaiea iiaie athaeaeaoiie eeanneoeeaoeee;

a). io?aaeaiea a ninoaaa aeioiaeia e ?anoiaeia athaeaeaoa e
aiaathaeaeaoiuo oiiaeia.

Cia/aiea athaeaeaoa 1996 aiaea:

– iieeoe/aneay iai?aaeaiiinoue;

– yeiiiie/aneay iai?aaeaiiinoue (ninoaaeai athaeaeao n o/aoii iaeiaia,
aeaenoaiaaaoeo a 1996 aiaeo, ninoaaeai athaeaeao + ?aaeueii ecaanoiu
aeioiaeu, ?anoiaeu e iauaeou oeiaine?iaaiey).

Aeaoeoeeo aoaeao iie?uaaoueny ca n/ao aiaoieo (56 o?ei. ?oa.) e
aioo?aiieo enoi/ieeia (32 o?ei. ?oa., ii aac aeaiaaeiie yiennee
Oeaio?iaaiea ?O).

ATHAeAEAO 1995 ATHAeAEAO 1996

aeioiaeu – 160, 3 o?ei. ?oa.

?anoiaeu – 213, 9 o?ei. ?oa.

aeaoeoeeo – 71, 6 o?ei. ?oa.

Aeioiaeu:

– ?uiie oeaiiuo aoiaa (?anoe?aiea i?eaea/aiiuo n?aaenoa);

– aiaoiea caeinoaiaaiey (12 ie?ae. aeieea?ia);

– i?eaaoecaoeey (8, 73 o?ei. ?oa.);

– iiauoaiea oaiiaeaiiuo iioeei.

?anoiaeu:

– ia iiauoaiea oeiaine?iaaiey i?aaiio?aieoaeueiuo i?aaiia e i?aaiia
ainaaciianiinoe.

– ia nieaeaiea ainoaea?noaaiiiai aeieaa;

– ainoaea?noaaiiua eiaanoeoeeiiiua i?ia?aiiu. aeioiaeu – 347, 2 o?ei.
?oa.

?anoiaeu – 435, 75 o?ei. ?oa.

aeaoeoeeo – 88, 55 o?ei. ?oa.

Aeioiaeu:

– iaeiae (aeieaeai auoue i?eiyo Iaeiaiaue eiaeaen)

– i?eaaoecaoeey;

– ?ino AAI;

?anoiaeu:

– oeiaine?iaaiea nioeeaeueiie noa?u;

– eiaanoeoeee a yeiiiieeo;

Inoaeueiua ?anoiaeu aeieaeai auoue inouanoaeaiu ii i?eioeeio “?acoiiie
aeinoaoi/iinoe”:

– ?acaeoea eiaanoeoeeiiiuo i?ia?aii (2 o?ei. ?oa.);

– iiaeaea?aeaiea eiieo?aioeee (3 o?ei. ?oa.);

– no?ieoaeuenoai (1, 56 % io AAI);

OAIA 10

ATHAeAEAOIAss NENOAIA A ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee.

1. Athaeaeaoiay nenoaia, aa no?oeoo?a e iacia/aiea.

Athaeaeaoiay nenoaia – iniiaaiiay ia yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaieyo e
th?eaee/aneeo ii?iao niaieoiiinoue anao aeaeia athaeaeaoia a no?aia,
eiathueo iaaeaeo niaie onoaiiaeaiiua caeiiii acaeiiioiioaiey.

Aaeeinoai athaeaeaoiie nenoaiu iniiaaii ia acaeiiaeaenoaee athaeaeaoia
anao o?iaiae, inouanoaeyaiii /a?ac eniieueciaaiea ?aaoee?othueo
aeioiaeiuo enoi/ieeia, nicaeaiea oeaeaauo e ?aaeiiaeueiuo athaeaeaoiuo
oiiaeia, eo /anoe/iia ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiea. Yoi aaeeinoai ?aaeecoaony
/a?ac aaeeioth nioeeaeueii – yeiiiie/aneoth, aeeth/ay iaeiaiaoth,
iieeoeeo.

Athaeaeaoiay no?oeoo?a — iniiaaiiay ia yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaieyo e
th?eaee/aneeo ii?iao niaieoiiinoue anao aeaeia athaeaeaoia a no?aia.
Aeaaiue aeieoiaio a iino?iaiee athaeaeaoiie nenoaiu – Eiinoeoooeey ?O.
Ii iae nouanoaotho 2 aeaea ainoaea?noa:

a). Oieoa?iia;

a). Oaaea?aoeaiia.

Oieoa?iia ainoaea?noai eiaao 2 o?iaiy:

1). Iauee;

2). Ianoiue.

?inneeneay Oaaea?aoeey — oaaea?aoeaiia ainoaea?noai, eiathuaa 3 caaia.

E?iia Eiinoeoooeee, nouanoaoao a ?O caeii, eioi?ue ii?aaeaeyao
athaeaeaoiia ono?ienoai no?aiu.

I o?iaaiue – Oeaio?aeueiue athaeaeao (iaoiaeeony a Iineaa).

II o?iaaiue – ?aaeiiaeueiua athaeaeaou (?anioaeeee, iaeanoe, e?ay,
Iineaa, Naieo – Iaoa?ao?a).

III o?iaaiue – Ianoiua athaeaeaou (ai?iaea, ?aeiia, naeueneiai
ianaeaiiiai ioieoa e o.i.).

E?iia Eiinoeoooeee ?O e Caeiia i athaeaeaoiii ono?ienoaa i?eieiaaony
aaeaaiaeii Caeii i athaeaeaoa ia oaeouee aiae.

2. Athaeaeaoiia ?aaoee?iaaiea – nenoaia ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiey aeaiaaeiuo
n?aaenoa, ninoiyuay a ia?aaea/a /anoe ?ano?nia auoanoiyuaai athaeaeaoa
ieaeanoiyuaio a oeaeyo naaeaine?iaaiiinoe.

E iaoaiecio ?aaoee?iaaiey ioiinyony:

– noaneaeee;

– noaaaioeee;

– ?aaoee?othuea aeioiaeiua enoi/ieee.

NOANEAeEss – /anoue iaueo ainoaea?noaaiiuo iaeiaiauo aeioiaeia, eioi?ua
iinooiatho a ?anii?yaeaiea auoanoiyueo athaeaeaoia e ia?aaeaaaaiuo
ieaeanoiyuei athaeaeaoai a ii?yaeea ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiey (iniaay oi?ia
nayce iaaeaeo ioaeaeueiuie caaiueyie oaaea?aeueiie nenoaiu).

Noaneaeee auaatho:

a). oeaeaauie (ii?aaeaeyaony oeaeue);

a). oieaa?naeueiuie (aac oeacaiee).

Noaneaeee iiaoo eiaoue eae iaeii?aciaue oa?aeoa?, oae e n?i/iue (io
neiaa “n?ie”) oa?aeoa?.

NOAAAIOeEss – /anoue oeene?iaaiiiai iauaia ainoaea?noaaiiuo n?aaenoa,
eioi?ua auaeaeythony ieaeanoiyuei athaeaeaoai aeey oeiaine?iaaiey eo
?anoiaeia.

?aaoee?othuea aeioiaeiua enoi/ieee.

Aeioiaeu aeaeyony ia:

1). cae?aieaiiua (ca?aiaa cae?aieaiu);

2) ?aaoee?othuea (i?eeaeoo iicaea).

Cae?aieaiiua aeioiaeu — yoi aeioiaeu, eioi?ua iieiinoueth eee /anoe/ii
ia?aaeathony a ii?aaeaeaiiue aeae athaeaeaoa (22 % iaeiaa ia i?eaueue
iai?aaeyaony a ianoiua i?aaiu aeanoe).

?aaoee?othuea aeioiaeu — yoi aeioiaeu, eioi?ua eaeoo aeey iiaee?aieaiey
ieaeanoiyuaai athaeaeaoa, niaethaeay noai?aeeiaoeeth.

Ia?a/aiue cae?aieaiiuo e ?aaoee?othueo aeioiaeia oeene?oaony
niaoeeaeueiuie iaeiaiauie caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaaie e eiaeaenaie.

ATHAeAEAOIAss NAAEAINE?IAAIIINOUe.

Athaeaeaoiay nenoaia n/eoaaony naaeaine?iaaiiie ii aa?oeeaee, anee iauai
iinooieaiee a niaieoiiuo athaeaeaoao ia eaaeaeii o?iaia aeanoe a oeaeii
aeinoaoi/ai aeey inouanoaeaiey eo ooieoeee. Ai?eciioaeueiay
naaeaine?iaaiiinoue – iauaa niioaaonoaea aeioiaeia e ?anoiaeia a
athaeaeaoao ioaeaeueiuo ?aaeiiia e oa??eoi?ee ia niioaaonoaothueo
o?iaiyo aeanoe.

Aeinoeaeaiea aa?oeeaeueiie naaeaine?iaaiiinoe – I yoai iauae
naaeaine?iaaiiinoe, a aeinoeaeaiea ai?eciioaeueiie naaeaine?iaaiiinoe –
II yoai ai?eciioaeueiiai au?aaieaaiey, eioi?ia inouanoaeyaony n
iiiiuueth o?ainoa?oia.

O?ainoa?o – athaeaeaoiua io/eneaiey (iiiiuue), eioi?oth iieo/atho
?aaeiiu, aaea aeioiae ia iaeiiai /aeiaaea ieaea n?aaeiaai ii ?O.

Oi?ioea ?an/aoa iio?aaiinoae ?aaeiiia a oeaio?aeeciaaiiie iiiiue.

, aaea

O – noiia o?ainoa?oa ii ?aaeiio.

NAAe – n?aaeiee ii anai ?aaeiiai athaeaeaoiue aeioiae ia aeooo
ianaeaiey.

AeA? – aeooaaie athaeaeaoiue aeioiae ii aeaiiiio ?aaeiio.

I? – /eneaiiinoue ianaeaiey ?aaeiia.

E – iii?aai/iue eiyooeoeeaio, eioi?ue ?ann/eouaaaony ii neaaeothuae
oi?ioea:

?ann/eoaiiua ii yoie oi?ioea aaniethoiua noiiu o?ainoa?oia
ia?a/eneythony ec auoanoiyueo athaeaeaoia a aeaiiue ?aaeii. ?acoeueoaou
i?eiaiaiey anao oi?i yoiai au?aaieaaiey iaiaeiicia/iu:

a). ia oaeaeinue aeiaeoueny ?aaeueiiai au?aaieaaiey (iai?eia?,
Oaoa?noai, Aaoei?oinoai, sseooey e o.i. ia ieaoyo a Oaaea?aeueiue
athaeaeao, a eiee/anoai ioaeaeathueony aic?anoaao);

a). ?acoeueoaou iaiaeiicia/iu ec-ca “?aniiecaiey” iniauo athaeaeaoiuo
?aaeeiia (oeiaine?iaaiea ?anioaeee Eiie, niaea?aeaiea NYC a Eiaooaoee);

a). naia oi?ioea eiaao iaaeinoaoee e o?aaoao aei?aaioee.

I?IAEAIU ?O A IAAEAthaeaeaoiuo IOIIOAIEssO:

i?iaeaia ? 1 – Aei neo ii? eiaao ianoi ianiaeaniaaiiinoue oeiainiauo
iieiiii/ee athaeaeaoia ?aciuo o?iaiae e iaania/aiey, eo iieiiii/ee e
aeioiaeia

i?iaeaia ? 2 – Neaaay iaeiaiaay aaca oa??eoi?eaeueiuo athaeaeaoia.

i?iaeaia ? 3 – Iaii?aaeaeaiiinoue a ia?a?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiie iieeoeea.

I?iaeaia ? 1 (ianiaeaniaaiiinoue) i?iyaeyaony a oii, /oi ?aoaiea
Oaaea?aeueiiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa ia eciaiaiee aeioiaeiie /anoe athaeaeaoia
ia i?iaiaeeony a niioaaonoaee n ?anoiaeiie /anoueth. Ia/eiay n 1992
aiaea oaeea ?anoiaeu, eae ?ino ca?ieaou ?aaioieeia athaeaeaoiie noa?u,
niaea?aeaiea o?ainii?oa, aeiieaoa ia i?iaeoeou ieoaiey aiciiaeiu auee
oieueei ia ianoao, aeioiaeia ia auei. IAeN aue nieaeai n 28 % aei 20 %,
/oi nieceei e aeioiaeu oa??eoi?eaeueiuo athaeaeaoia e ia?auaiey ?aaeiiia
e Oaaea?aeueiiio i?aaeoaeuenoao ca iiiiuueth. Iieeoeea “nieoeaaiey
aeioiaeia” i?iaeieaeaaony aei neo ii?. Iai?eia?, ia ?aaeiiu auee
ia?aeiaeaiu inouanoaeaiea Oaaea?aeueiuo i?ia?aii, aeioe?iaaiea Aa?i –
i?iiuoeaiiiai eiiieaena (AIE), o?ainii?oa, niaea?aeaiea iauaeoia nenoaiu
naiyieaeainoaioeee e niaea?aeaiea neoaea IAAe a iaeioi?uo ?aaeiiao. Yoio
i?ioeann iineo oaioe/aneee oa?aeoa?.

I?iaeaia ? 2 (neaaay iaeiaiaay aaca oa??eoi?eaeueiuo athaeaeaoia)
naycaia n aunieei o?iaiai ?aaoee?oaiuo aeioiaeia ii n?aaiaieth n
cae?aieaiiuie. ?acia?u io/eneaiee onoaiaaeeaathony ianoiuie i?aaiaie
aeanoe, aeey iaeanoae – Ieioei, aeey ai?iaeia e ?aeiiia – ai?iaeneea
(?aeiiiua) oeioi?aaeaiey. Aei 1992 aiaea iiaeioiaeiue iaeia, iaeia ia
i?eaueue, IAeN yaeyeenue ?aaoee?oaiuie iaeiaaie, a a 1992 aiaeo –
iiaeioiaeiue iaeia cae?aieai ca athaeaeaoaie n?aaeiaai o?iaiy. A 1994
aiaeo a ea/anoaa ?aaoee?oaiuo iaeiaia auee eniieueciaaiu aeoeecu.

A oeaeii oaeaeueiue aan cae?aieaiiuo iaeiaia ?aaai 26, 5 %, /oi
naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i neaainoe iaeiaiaie aacu oa??eoi?eaeueiuo athaeaeaoia
e caaeneiinoe ianoiuo i?aaiia io auoanoiyueo.

I?iaeaia ? 3 (iaii?aaeaeaiiinoue) naycaia n ionoonoaeai i?iaeoiaiiuo
e?eoa?eaa i?aaeinoaaeaiey oeiainiaie iiiiue oa??eoi?eyi.

Ii aeaiiui enneaaeiaaiey:

– aeioaoeee a ?an/aoa ia aeooo ianaeaiey auee auoa o oa??eoi?ee n
ieceeie iieacaoaeyie auionea i?iaeoeoeee ia aeooo ianaeaiey;

– aeioaoeee auee cia/eoaeueiu o oa??eoi?ee n aunieei o?iaiai ca?ieaou;

– aeioaoeee auee auoa o iaiaa o?aaiece?iaaiiuo oa??eoi?ee n iaiueoae
noaiaiueth e eiee/anoaii ianaeaiey.

Yoi aiai?eo i oii, /oi nouanoaoao au?aaieaaiea aiciiaeiinoae e
aioeau?aaieaathuay oaiaeaioeey.

Oaeei ia?acii, iaaeathaeaeaoiua ioiioaiey no?iyony ia oeaio?aeeciaaiiii
ooaa?aeaeaiee athaeaeaoia ieaeanoiyueo o?iaiae auoanoiyueie.

Oaeay iieeoeea i?eaioe?oao oa??eoi?ee ia auaeaaiea aieaa aunieeo
ii?iaoeaia. Auoanoiyuea i?aaiu i?aa?auathony a “aa?oeoaey noaeueau”, /oi
ninoaaeyao iniiao aeey ei??oioeee. A yoie neooaoeee iaiaoiaeeii
?anoe?youe i?aaa ianoiuo i?aaiia aeanoe, /oiau o iineaaeieo auee naie
iaeiae 3-ao iniiaiuo a?oii:

1) iaeiae, eioi?ua ea?atho iniiaioth ?ieue(

a). i?yiua:

– iieiouanoaaiiue;

– iicaiaeueiue;

– i?iiuneiaue;

a). einaaiiua:

– iaeia ia iieoiee;

– aeoeecu ia oiaa?u ianniaiai iio?aaeaiey);

2) iaeiae, eioi?ua onoaiaaeeaathony oeaio?aeueiuie aeanoyie a
ii?aaeaeaiiuo i?ioeaioao e ainoaea?noaaiiui, niae?aaiui ia oa??eoi?ee
ianoiuo i?aaiia.

3) i?i/ea ianoiua iaeiae:

– iaeiae ia aeaaeaeueoeaa aaoio?ainii?oa;

– eeoeaice?iaaiea aeayoaeueiinoe.

Ianoiuo iaeiaia a ie?a iiiai. Iai?eia?, a Aiaeee – 1 ianoiue iaeia, a a
Aaeueaee – 100.

Iaiaeiaiaua aeioiaeu, iinooieaiey io eioi?uo iaoiaeyony a ianoiuo
i?aaiao aeanoe:

– naea/a a a?aiaeo e i?iaeaaea caiee;

– naea/a a a?aiaeo eaniuo ianneaia;

– i?i/ea iinooieaiey.

Ia iaeiaiaua e iaiaeiaiaua aeioiaeu i?eoiaeeony i?eia?ii 60 – 70 % a
ianoiuo athaeaeaoao.

Oi?ioea au?aaieaaiey:

Aeey iiaen/aoa iio?aaiinoae iaiaoiaeeii ii?aaeaeeoue ia?a/aiue oneoa, ca
eioi?ua ianoo ioaaonoaaiiinoue ianoiua i?aaiu aeanoe (ia?aciaaiea,
i?anoa?aeua. eiaaeeaeu, ieeeoeey, iiaea?iua, niaea?aeaiea aei?ia e
o.i.).

Aeioiaeu – i?iecaiaeiay io iaeiaiaie aacu.

IAOAIECI ATHAeAEAOIUO IOIIOAIEE A 1996 AIAeO.

A athaeaeaoa auee ?aaeeciaaiu iaeioi?ua ia?niaeoeau, eioi?ua auee ia
?aaeeciaaiu ca i?aaeuaeoueo 4 aiaea.

Nouanoaotho neaaeothuea nenoaiu iaaeathaeaeaoiuo ioiioaiee:

1 – iiaeioiaeiay (ii?aaeaeythony iaeiae, eioi?ua ca/eneythony a
Oaaea?aeueiue athaeaeao, athaeaeaou noauaeoia Oaaea?aoeee; ii?iaoeau e
noaaee, ca/eneyaiua a athaeaeaou noauaeoia Oaaea?aoeee). N 1996 aiaea ia
3 aiaea onoaiaaeeaathony noaaeeueiua noaaee e ii?iaoeau io/eneaiee io
niioaaonoaothueo Oaaea?aeueiuo iaeiaia e aeioiaeia a iieueco athaeaeaoia
noauaeoia Oaaea?aoeee:

a). 50 % aeoeecia ia eeea?i – aiaei/iua ecaeaeey, i?iecaiaeeiua ia
oa??eoi?ee ?O;

a). 100 % aeoeecia ii inoaeueiui oiaa?ai, e?iia iai?aaeyaiui a
auoanoiyuee athaeaeao;

a). 22 % iaeiaa ia i?eaueue;

a). 90 % iiaeioiaeiiai iaeiaa n oece/aneeo eeoe.

2 – oiiae oeiainiaie iiaeaea?aeee noauaeoia Oaaea?aoeee (oi?ie?oaony a
?acia?a 15 % io anao noii iaeiaiauo iinooieaiee Oaaea?aeueiiai
athaeaeaoa, aeeth/ay yenii?oiua iioeeiu)

3 – ia?a/eneaiea o?ainoa?oia ec Oiiaea Oaaea?aeueiie iiaeaea?aeee
?aaeiiia (inouanoaeyaony aaeaiany/ii, enoiaey ec oaeoe/aneeo iaeiaiauo
iinooieaiee n o/aoii niioaaonoaothueo ei??aeoe?iaie. I?e yoii iaia/aaony
i?iecaiaeeoue ca/ao noii, i?e/eoathueony ?aaeiiai ec Oiiaea, ca n/ao
iinooieaiee ia niioaaonoaothuoth oa??eoi?eth IAeN a i?aaeaeao
onoaiiaeaiiie aeiee (oai naiui nie?auathony ano?a/iua iioiee).

4 – inouanoaeaiea aiciauaiey a iieiii iauaia ca n/ao Oaaea?aeueiiai
athaeaeaoa ia anaai oiai iaeiaa ia aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue, a /anoe ,
eioi?ay auiea/eaaaony i?e yenii?oa (780 ie?ae. ?oa.). A 1995 aiaeo
o?ainoa?oiuie ieaoaaeaie iieueciaaeenue 78 ec 89 noauaeoia, a a 1996
aiaeo – 75 noauaeoia.

2 aeaea ioaeaeathueony oa??eoi?ee:

a). ?aaeiiu, eioi?ua ioaeaeathony a iiaeaea?aeea;

a). ?aaeiiu, eioi?ua iniai ioaeaeathony a iiaeaea?aeea.

Iauay noiia oeiaine?iaaiey ii o?ainoa?oiui ieaoaaeai ninoaaeo 58, 6
o?ei. ?oa. ?anoiaeu ec Oaaea?aeueiiai athaeaeaoa aoaeoo ia?a/eneyoueny a
athaeaeaou noauaeoia Oaaea?aoeee ii 2-oi eaiaeai:

1 eaiae – a aeaea noaaaioeee, eioi?ua aoaeoo iai?aaeyoueny ia
oeiaine?iaaiea oaaea?aeueiuo i?ia?aii, cao?aou oaaea?aeueiiai oa?aeoa?a
(eo iacia/aiea caeeth/aaony a au?aaieaaiee nioeeaeueii – yeiiiie/aneiai
?acaeoey).

2 eaiae – a aeaea o?ainoa?oia, eioi?ua i?aaeiacia/aiu aeey ieacaiey
oaeouae oeiainiaie iiiiue. Eo caaea/a – iie?uoue ieieiaeueii
iainiiaaiiua ?anoiaeu.

I?IAEAIU ATHAeAEAOIA.

I. IAIEAOAAEE. Yoa i?iaeaia aicieeea aneaaenoaea iaaeinoaoea iai?ioiuo
n?aaenoa, eioi?ue i?iecioae ec-ca:

– onoaiiaeaiey eeaa?aeueiiai oeaiiia?aciaaiey;

– i?ae?auaiey auaea/e i?aaei?eyoeyie ae?oa ae?oao eiiia?/aneeo
e?aaeeoia;

– ioiaiu ieaoaaeiuo e ?an/aoiuo e?aaeeoia;

– eeaa?aeecaoeee oeai, eioi?ay i?ioea ia oiia ?ac?uaa iaaeio?aneaauo
naycae;

– iayooaeoeaiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa.

A 1992 aiaeo Aa?auaiei i?aaeeiaeee i?iaanoe:

a). acaeiica/aou (ec-ca iaoaaoee aeaiaa);

a). oaaee/aiea oaiiia ?inoa aeaiaaeiie iannu (/oi i?eaaei e eioeyoeee);

a). aaanoe eacia/aeneea aaenaey, eioi?ua auaeaaaeenue Ieioeiii
i?aaei?eyoeyi (yoe aaenaey caiaiyee iaee/iua aeaiueae, caaa?oay naia
nouanoaiaaiea inouanoaea 5 – 6 nooiaiae iai?ioa);

a). auione aaieaie nianoaaiiuo aaenaeae (eie iiaeii auei ?aniea/eaaoueny
n naeueneioicyenoaaiiuie i?aaei?eyoeyie. Iaeaieaa y?eee i?eia? – aaenaey
Oaa?ueoieaa?naeaaiea, n iiiiuueth eioi?uo ?ann/eouaaeinue aieaa 2 000
i?aaei?eyoee);

ae). n 1993 aiaea iaieaoaaee ioi?ieoue eae eiiia?/aneee e?aaeeo.

I?iaeaia iaieaoaaeae ?aoaeanue aei iaaeaaiaai a?aiaie auioneii yiennee
aeiiieieoaeueiuo ieaoaaeiuo n?aaenoa.

II. CAAeIEAEAIIINOUe II CA?IEAOA. Ia auiea/eaaeanue ii neaaeothuei
i?e/eiai:

1). iao aeaiaa;

2). oiuoeaiii aeaiueae i?iai?a/eaathony a eiiia?/aneeo no?oeoo?ao;

3). iaee/ea ianeieueeeo ?an/aoiuo n/aoia;

4). athaeaeaou ia aeiae?atho n?aaenoa.

Ana yoi i?eaaei e oiio, /oi I?aceaeaio ee/ii caiyeny yoie i?iaeaiie. A
?acoeueoaoa, auieaoeee /anoue caaeieaeaiiinoe (ii ia anae), /eiiaieee
noaee iieo/aoue ca?ieaoo iinea ?aai/eo.

Caeanue iniiaiay i?iaeaia – eaeoth eiioeaioeeth i?eiyoue athaeaeaoo? Ia
1 ianoa – oeneae aianoi oii?a ia yeiiiie/aneoth ooieoeeth
(?aaoee?othuoth e noeioee?othuoth) – yoi a ieaia ?anoiaeia. A ieaia
aeioiaeia – “eeaiaoue” aeu?u eee ?ac?aaaouaaoue i?ei?eoaou, /oiau yoeo
aeu? ia auei.

III. IAAeINOAOEE IAEIAIAIE NENOAIU. Eo iu iuoaainy ?aoeoue n iiiiuueth
iaeiaiaiai eiaeaena. Ii aai iaiaoiaeeii

ai – ia?auo, oi?inoeoue;

ai – aoi?uo, nieceoue eiee/anoai iaeiaia aiiaua e ia?aie/eoue ianoiia
“iaeiaioai?/anoai”;

a – o?aoueeo, iauaaeeieoue iaeioi?ua iaeiae e aciinu a iaeei iaeia.

IV. IAO ?ACAeAEAIEss A IIEIIII*EssO IAAEAeO OeAIO?II E IANOAIE. Yoi
iaiaoiaeeii aeey oiai. /oiau iaaeathaeaeaoiua ioiioaiey no?ieeenue
aeieaeiui ia?acii. Caeanue anoue ii?aaeaeaiiua eaeae. Iaeia ec ieo:
no?aia iaiaoiaeei iiuiue oeaio?, eioi?ue aeieaeai acyoue ia naay aeaaiua
iai?aaeaiey aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe ainoaea?noaa: yia?aaoeea, o?ainii?o,
iai?iia, eniieueciaaiea no?aoaae/aneeo ?ano?nia. Ni anai inoaeueiui
aeieaeiu ni?aaeyoueny ianoiua aeanoe.

Athaeaeaou aeieaeiu auoue iino?iaiu ia i?eioeeia athaeaeaoiiai
oaaea?aeecia, o.a. a niioaaonoaee n Oaaea?aeueiui ono?ienoaii e
oai?aoe/anee aeieaeai auoue ia iaeiieaiaeueiie, a o?aoeaiaeueiie
nenoaiie io/eneaiee aeioiaea.

OAIA 10

ATHAeAEAOIUE I?IOeANN.

Athaeaeaoiue i?ioeann – aeayoaeueiinoue i?aaiia aeanoe e oi?aaeaiey ii
ninoaaeaieth, ?anniio?aieth e ooaa?aeaeaieth athaeaeaoa. Yoa
aeayoaeueiinoue ?aaeaiaioe?oaony neaaeothueie caeiiaie: Caeii “Ia
iniiaao athaeaeaoiiai ono?ienoaa e athaeaeaoiii i?ioeanna”; ia
ieaeanoiyueo o?iaiyo – caeiiu ?anioaeee. Aeey ninoaaeaiey iaiaoiaeeii 18
ianyoeaa.

N?iee aeaenoaey athaeaeaoia:

?inney: 1 yiaa?y – 31 aeaeaa?y

NOA: 1 ieoya?y – 30 naioya?y

Aiaeey: 1 ai?aey – 31 ia?oa

Iaeenoai: 21 ia?oa – 20 ia?oa.

?anniio?ei athaeaeaoiue i?ioeann a ?innee. Ia iniiaaiee oeaca
I?aceaeaioa i?aaeoaeuenoai ia/eiaao ?ac?aaioeo athaeaeaoa.

Yoai 1 – aiaeece?othony iniiaiua iieiaeaiey a nioeeaeueii –
yeiiiie/aneie noa?a; ii?aaeaeythony naiaeiue aaeain oeiainiauo ?ano?nia,
iniiaiua iai?aaeaiey athaeaeaoiie iieeoeee, iinea /aai ?ann/eouaathony
eiio?ieueiua oeeo?u i?iaeoa athaeaeaoa (3 ianyoea).

Yoai 2 – oa??eoi?eaeueiua i?aaiu ainoaea?noaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey aaaeoo
i?i?aaioeo e niaeaniaaiea eiio?ieueiuo oeeo?.

Yoai 3 – iiaeaioiaea athaeaeaoiiai iineaiey, eioi?ia iai?aaeyaony
I?aceaeaioo e a Ia?eaiaio /a?ac I?aceaeaioa (2 ianyoea). N yoei
iineaieai I?aceaeaio aeieaeai aunooieoue a Ia?eaiaioa.

?acaeaeu iineaiey:

1) iniiaiua iieacaoaee nioeeaeueii – yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey;

2) naiaeiue oeiainiaue ieai;

3) iniiaiua iai?aaeaiey athaeaeaoiie iieeoeee;

4) aaeain aeioiaeia;

5) i?iaeo athaeaeaoa;

6) ioeaiea eniieueciaaiey athaeaeaoia oaeouaai e i?aaeuaeouaai eao.

Iinea aunooieaiey eiiennee e eiieoaou inouanoaeytho iinoaoaeiia
?anniio?aiea e auiinyo aa?aeeeo. Iinea yoiai i?iaeo athaeaeaoa auiineony
ia ?anniio?aiea Oaaea?aeueiiai nia?aiey: Ainoaea?noaaiiie aeoiu (450
/ae.) e Niaao Oaaea?aoeee (89 o 2 = 188 /ae.) Nia/aea ?anniio?aiea
i?ienoiaeeo a Ainoaea?noaaiiie aeoia, anee iia iaeia?yao (256 /ae.
“ca”), oi i?iaeo ia?aaeaaony a Niaao Oaaea?aoeee. Iineaaeiee iaycai
?anniio?aoue aai a oa/aiea ii?aaeaeaiiiai n?iea. Athaeaeao iiaeao auoue
ia ooaa?aeaeai, anee eaeoth – eeai ?anioaeeeo “iaeaeaee”. Aeiionoei. /oi
athaeaeao ooaa?aeaeai e a Niaaoa Oaaea?aoeee, aeaeaa ii eaeao e
i?aceaeaioo, eioi?ue aai iiaeienuaaao. Iinea iiaeiene I?aceaeaioa
athaeaeao noaiiaeony Caeiiii.

Anee athaeaeao ia ooaa?aeaeai a Niaaoa Oaaea?aoeee (anee ia
i?iaieiniaaee “ca” eae ieieioi 1/2 Niaaoa + 1 aiein = 90 /ae.), oi
i?ienoiaeeo aaeaine?iaea, neaaeiaaoaeueii, i?iaeo iai?aaeyaony a
nineaaaoaeueioth eiienneth, aaea i?aaenoaaeaii ianeieueei noi?ii:

– Ieioei (oa, eoi ni/eiee);

– Ainoaea?noaaiiay aeoia (eioi?ay i?iaieiniaaea “ca”);

– Niaao Oaaea?aoeee (eioi?ue i?iaieiniaae “i?ioea”);

– I?aceaeaio.

Iinea oo?ynee i?ienoiaeeo ia?aaieiniaea a Niaaoa Oaaea?aoeee.

Anee yoio i?iaeo ia ooaa?aeaeaao I?aceaeaio (eae i?aaeei, ianiioaaonoaea
Eiinoeoooeee), oi ii eeaaeao ia iaai aaoi. Oiaaea caeii ioi?aaeyaony a
Ainoaea?noaaiioth aeoio e Niaao Oaaea?aoeee. Ia?aay iiaeao i?aiaeieaoue
naiei iieiiii/eai aaoi (2/3 io 450 /ae = 300 /ae. “ca”).

A i?ioeanna eniieiaiey athaeaeaoa iiaee aicieeaoue neooaoeee, eiaaea ii
ia eniieiyaony, oiaaea i?eaaaatho e yeno?ai?aeeia?iui ia?ai:

– naeaanoe?iaaiea (nie?auaiea ?anoiaeia);

– oeiaine?iaaiea caueuaiiuo e iaoeiaine?iaaiea iacaueuaiiuo noaoae.

Iinea eniieiaiey athaeaeaoa i?iaiaeeony nia?aiea, ia eioi?ii
ooaa?aeaeaaony io/ao ia eniieueciaaiee athaeaeaoa (io/ao ooaa?aeaeaaony
i?aeoe/anee aaoiiaoe/anee).

NENOAIA EANNIAUO ENIIEIAIEE ATHAeAEAOA.

I nenoaia – aaieianeay. Ana aeaiaaeiua iioiee, eioi?ua aeieaeiu eaeoe
naa?oo aiec e iaiai?io (ec ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa a athaeaeao e iaiai?io)
iiaoo eaeoe /a?ac aaiee, eiaioaiua oiieiiii/aiiuie. Niune –
i?aaeoaeuenoai oiieiiii/eaaao ii?aaeaeaiiua aaiee inouanoaeyoue
ia?aaiaeu, ?an/aou e o.i. iia?aoeee. Anaai a ?innee ieiei 2 700 aaieia,
2 200 ec eioi?uo iaoiaeyony a Iineaa. Anaai eeoue 12 aaieia ec 2 200
yaeythony oiieiiii/aiiuie (n?aaee ieo NaN).

II nenoaia – eacia/aeneay. Ieioei iiaeao ia aeiaa?youe aaieai, a
nicaeaoue naie i?aaiu ia ianoao aeey i?ioiaeaeaiey athaeaeaoiie nayce.
?aiueoa yoa i?aaiecaoeey iacuaaeanue Ainaaie NNN?, oaia?ue Oeaio?iaaie
?O. Yoa nenoaia i?enoonoaoao a 70 noauaeoao Oaaea?aoeee. Auea ?ac?ooaia
e iiea aua ia aei eiioea ainnoaiiaeaia.

III nenoaia – niaoaiiay

Iineaaeiyy i?ioeaaeo?a athaeaeaoiiai i?ioeanna – ooaa?aeaeaiea
eniieiaiiiai athaeaeaoa. Iia inouanoaeyaony oiaaea, eiaaea ieieno?
oeiainia aunooiaao n ooaa?aeaeaieai iiaiai athaeaeaoa.

OAIA 11

AIAATHAeAEAOIUA OIIAeU (NIAOeOIIAeU)

Aiaathaeaeaoiua oiiaeu – niaieoiiinoue aeaiaaeiuo ?ano?nia, eioi?ua
iaoiaeyony a ?anii?yaeaiee ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaiia e eiatho oeaeaaia
iacia/aiea.

Ii?yaeie ia?aciaaiey e eniieueciaaiey yoeo oiiaeia ?aaeaiaioe?oaony
oeiainiaui i?aaii. A caaeneiinoe io oeaeaaiai iacia/aiey aiaathaeaeaoiua
oiiaeu iiae?acaeaeythony ia yeiiiie/aneea e nioeeaeueiua, a a
caaeneiinoe io o?iaiy oi?aaeaiey – ia ainoaea?noaaiiua e ?aaeiiaeueiua.

Yeiiiie/aneea oiiaeu – oiiaeu, i?aaeiacia/aiiua aeey ?aoaiey i?iaeai n
yeiiiie/aneei ?acaeoeai. Nioeeaeueiua oiiaeu – oiiaeu, i?aaeiacia/aiiua
aeey ?aoaiey iauanoaaiiuo aii?inia.

Ainoaea?noaaiiua oiiaeu – oiiaeu, eioi?ua oi?ie?othony ia
ainoaea?noaaiiii o?iaia; ?aaeiiaeueiua oiiaeu – ia ?aaeiiaeueiii o?iaia.

Enoi/ieee yoeo oiiaeia iiaoo auoue iinoiyiiuie e a?aiaiiuie.

Iniiaiua iai?aaeaiey ?anoiaeiaaiey aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa neaaeothuea:

– onoaaiay aeayoaeueiinoue;

– ii?aaeaeaiiay aeiey eceeoieo aeaiaa eiaanoe?oaony a ainoaea?noaaiiua
oeaiiua aoiaae;

– eiiia?/aneay aeayoaeueiinoue.

Aiaathaeaeaoiua oiiaeu yaeythony iaeiei ec caaiueaa ainoaea?noaaiiuo
oeiainia. Ii naiae nouiinoe aiaathaeaeaoiua oiiaeu – yoi oi?ia
ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiey e eniieueciaaiey oeiainiauo ?ano?nia, i?eaeaeaaiuo
ainoaea?noaii aeey oeiaine?iaaiey iaeioi?uo iauanoaaiiuo iio?aaiinoae e
eiiieaenii ?anoiaeoaiuo ia iniiaa iia?aoeaiie naiinoiyoaeueiinoe.

Iacia/aiea – oeiaine?iaaiea oeaeaauo ia?ii?eyoee ca n/ao niaoeeaeueiuo
oeaeaauo io/eneaiee:

a). niaoeeaeueiuo oeaeaauo iaeiaia a Iaineiiiue oiiae;

a). ca n/ao caeiia e i?iaaaeaiey aeaiaaeii – aauaauo eioa?ae;

a). ca n/ao noaneaeee ec athaeaeaoa;

a). aeiiieieoaeueii auyaeaiiuo aeioiaeia e nyeiiiieaiiuo oeiainiauo
?ano?nia;

ae). aeia?iaieueiuo aciinia e iiaea?oaiaaiee th?eaee/aneeo e oece/aneeo
eeoe.

N iiiiuueth aiaathaeaeaoiuo oiiaeia iiaeii:

– aeeyoue ia i?ioeann i?iecaiaenoaa iooai oeiaine?iaaiey,
noaneaee?iaaiey, e?aaeeoiaaiey ioa/anoaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee;

– iaania/eaaoue i?e?iaeiio?aiiua ia?ii?eyoey, oeiaine?oy eo ca n/ao
niaoeeaeueii ii?aaeaeaiiuo enoi/ieeia e oo?aoia ca caa?yciaiea
ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu;

– ieacuaaoue nioeeaeueiua oneoae ianaeaieth iooai auieao iiniaee,
iainee, noaneaee?iaaiey e oeiaine?iaaiey nioeeaeueiie eio?ano?oeoo?u a
oeaeii;

– i?aaeinoaaeyoue caeiu, a oii /enea ca?oaaaeiui ia?oia?ai, aeeth/ay
eiino?aiiua ainoaea?noaa.

I?aaiecaoeey ooieoeeiie?iaaiey aiaathaeaeaoiuo oiiaeia iaoiaeeony a
aaaeaiee ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaiia aeanoe – oeaio?aeueiuo,
?anioaeeeaineeo e ianoiuo.

Aiaathaeaeaoiua oiiaeu eiatho ii?aaeaeaiiua eueaiou:

a). inaiaiaeaeaiey io oieaou iaeiaia;

a). inaiaiaeaeaiea io oieaou oaiiaeaiiuo iioeei (iaiaoiaeeii, /oiau ia
auei eueaio ii eiiia?/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe

Enoi/ieee oi?ie?iaaiey aiaathaeaeaoiuo oiiaeia ai iiiaii
i?aaeii?aaeaeythony oa?aeoa?ii e ianooaaiinoueth caaea/, aeey
?aaeecaoeee eioi?uo iie nicaeathony. Ia ?aciiia?acea enoi/ieeia e eo
aaee/eio ieacuaaao aeeyiea yeiiiie/aneia e oeiainiaia iieiaeaiea no?aiu
ia oii eee eiii yoaia ?acaeoey.

Oaeei ia?acii, enoi/ieee oi?ie?iaaiey aiaathaeaeaoiuo oiiaeia eiatho eae
ioiineoaeueii iinoiyiiue, oae e a?aiaiiue oa?aeoa?. Iie iiaoo auoue
?aciuie ia oa??eoi?ee ainoaea?noaa, ?acee/aynue ii aaeieieno?aoeaii –
oa??eoi?eaeueiui aaeeieoeai. Iai?aaeaiea ?anoiaeiaaiey n?aaenoa,
iinooiathueo ai aiaathaeaeaoiua oiiaeu, iaoneaaeeaaaony iacia/aieai
oiiaeia, eiie?aoiuie yeiiiie/aneeie oneiaeyie e niaea?aeaieai
?ac?aaioaiiuo e ?aaeecoaiuo i?ia?aii. *anoue n?aaenoa iai?aaeyaony ia
o/?aaeeoaeueneoth aeayoaeueiinoue, a oaeaea aeeaaeuaaaony a oeaiiua
aoiaae. Aiaathaeaeaoiua oiiaeu iiaoo aunooiaoue eiaanoi?aie e
o/anoieeaie oeiainiaiai ?uiea a nayce n oai, /oi, ai-ia?auo, ia?aaeei
eniieueciaaiea aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa ia niaiaaeaao ni a?aiaiai eo
ia?aciaaiey, a, ai-aoi?uo, aeioiaeu io eiaanoeoeee yaeythony
aeiiieieoaeueiuie enoi/ieeaie oeiaine?iaaiey cao?ao niioaaonoaothuaai
oiiaea.

I?aaii ia?aciauaaoue aiaathaeaeaoiua oiiaeu iaeaaeatho eae oaaea?aeueiua
aeanoe, oae e ?anioaeeeaineea e ianoiua i?aaiu. Aiaathaeaeaoiua oiiaeu,
nicaeaaaaiua ia oaaea?aeueiii o?iaia, eae i?aaeei, oa?aeoa?ecothony
auaeaeaieai /anoe ia?aaeaaaaiie a ?anii?yaeaiea oa??eoi?eaeueiu o
aeanoiuo no?oeoo?. Yoi aeinoeaaaony iooai ii?aaeaeaiey aeiee iaeiaia,
iinooiathuae a ?anioaeeeaineee, iaeanoiie e ianoiua aiaathaeaeaoiua
oiiaeu. Ii oaeiio oeio no?iyony Iaineiiiue oiiae, oiiae
ainoaea?noaaiiiai nioeeaeueiiai no?aoiaaiey, Ainoaea?noaaiiue oiiae
caiyoinoe ianaeaiey e ae?oaea. Ia ?aaeiiaeueiii o?iaia oi?ie?othony naie
aiaathaeaeaoiua oiiaeu ca n/ao ianoiuo enoi/ieeia. N?aaee ieo iiaeii
auaeaeeoue: oiiaeu ?acaeoey oa??eoi?ee, oiiaeu i?e?iaeiio?aiiuo
ia?ii?eyoee, oiiaeu nioeeaeueiie iiaeaea?aeee iaeieioueo
neiaa ianaeaiey, aaethoiua oiiaeu.

Oeaeaaua aiaathaeaeaoiua oiiaeu iaoiaeyony, eae i?aaeei, a ?anii?yaeaiee
ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaiia aeanoe, ii iia?aoeaiia oi?aaeaiea eie
inouanoaeyaony ?acee/iui, a oii /enea niaoeeaeueii nicaeaaaaiui
aaeieieno?aoeaiui aiia?aoii. Oi?aaeai/aneea no?oeoo?u eiatho
ii?aaeaeaiiua i?aaa e iaycaiiinoe ii eniieueciaaieth oiiaeia,
iaiai?aiiua caeiiii.

Iniiaiua aeaeu aiaathaeaeaoiuo oiiaeia:

1 ianoi – ainoaea?noaaiiia nioeeaeueiia no?aoiaaiea. Yoio oiiae
nicaeaaony no?aoiauie iaoiaeaie. E nicaeaieth yoiai oiiaea i?eaeaeathony
ana, eoi caieiaaony eiiia?/aneie aeayoaeueiinoueth.

Enoi/ieee ia?aciaaiey:

1). no?aoiaua aciinu i?aaei?eyoee e i?aaiecaoeee (28 % io ca?ieaou);

2). n?aaenoaa ainoaea?noaaiiiai athaeaeaoa;

3). aeioiae io ?aaeecaoeee iooaaie;

4) i?i/ea.

?anoiaeiaaiea i?ienoiaeeo ia:

I – auieaoo iiniaee:

a). ii a?aiaiiie iao?oaeiniiniaiinoe;

a). ii aa?aiaiiinoe e ?iaeai;

a). ii ooiaeo ca ?aaaieii aei eniieiaiey aio 3 eao (ia ?aaeiiaeueiii
o?iaia)$

a). e oiio iiaeiaiua.

II – oeiaine?iaaiea naiaoi?ii – eo?i?oiiai ianeoaeeaaiey.

III – iaoa?eaeueiia iaania/aiea aeayoaeueiinoe i?ionithcia.

2 ianoi – iaineiiiue oiiae. Oeaio?aeueiia oi?aaeaiea iaoiaeeony a
Iineaa, a ?oeiaiaeyuea i?aaiu ?aniieiaeaiiua ia ianoao.

Caaea/e iaineiiiiai oiiaea:

a). nai? n?aaenoa aeey auieaou iainee e iiniaee, a oaeaea i?aaiecaoeey
iaineiiiiai aeaea.

a). o/anoea a oeiaine?iaaiee ?aaeiiaeueiuo i?ia?aii.

N?aaenoaa iaineiiiiai oiiaea ia?acothony ec neaaeothueo enoi/ieeia:

1). No?aoiaua aciinu, eioi?ua ieaoyo ana i?aaei?eyoey, iacaaeneii io
oi?iu nianoaaiiinoe.

2). Ca?ieaoa ?aaioieea.

3). No?aoiaua aciinu a?aaeaeai, caieiathueony eiaeeaeaeoaeueiie
o?oaeiaie aeayoaeueiinoueth.

4). N?aaenoaa ec auoanoiyueo i?aaiia.

5). Eceeoee (iie iiaoo auoue eniieueciaaiu aeey iieo/aiey i?eauee io AEI
e ae?. oeaiiuo aoiaa e aeaiiceoia).

6). Aciinu a aeia?iaieueiii ii?yaeea.

Iaineiiiue aic?ano:

NOA ioae/eiu – 65, aeaiueiu – 62;

?O ioae/eiu – 60, aeaiueiu – 55.

Aeaeu iainee:

1. Ai a?aiaia NNN? nouanoaiaaea anaai iaeia iainey – o?oaeiaay iainey
(oieueei ia ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoeyo). Iia nae/an oiaea anoue,
aeey aa iieo/aiey iaiaoiaeeii io?aaioaoue 20 eao aeey aeaiuei e 25 eao
aeey ioae/ei (ia a?aaeiuo i?iecaiaenoaao – 10 eao).

Ieieiaeueiue ?acia? o?oaeiaie iainee – 55 % io anae ca?ieaou.

Iaeneiaeueiue ?acia? o?oaeiaie iainee – 75 % io anae ca?ieaou.

A Iineaa a 1996 aiaeo ieieiaeueiay iainey – 210 oun. ?oa. (a n?aaeiai ii
?O – 138 oun. ?oa.). N 1 iay 1996 aiaea iaia/aaony iiauoaiea aei 230
oun. ?oa. (?aaeueii – 213 oun. ?oa.).

2. Nioeeaeueiay iainey. Auiea/eaaaony ca auiieiaiey nioeeaeueiuo
ooieoeee. Oaeie aeae iainee a NOA iieo/atho ana a?aaeaeaia, a ?O –
iao?oaeiniiniaiua a?aaeaeaia i?e aeinoeaeaiee ii?aaeaeaiiiai aic?anoa
iacaaeneii io o?oaeiaiai noaaea (Caeii “I ainoaea?noaaiiuo iaineyo a ?O”
aeaenoaoao n 20 iiya?y 1990 aiaea):

a). eiaaeeaeu I e II a?oii;

a). eiaaeeaeu n aeaonoaa;

a). ae?oaea.

Iai?aaeaiey ?anoiaeiaaiey:

1). Ia auieaoo iainee a niioaaonoaee n Caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii:

a). ii aic?anoo;

a). ii eiaaeeaeiinoe;

a). ii neo/ath iioa?e ei?ieeueoea;

a). ca auneoao eao

Oaeaea inouanoaeythony auieaou iainee a?aaeaeaiai, iaoiaeyueiny ca
a?aieoeae (iai?eia?, a Oeieyiaeee).

2). Ia auieaoo iiniaee ii ooiaeo ca ?aaaieii n 1, 5 eao.

3). Aaeeiia?aiaiiua auieaou iaoa?eaeueiie iiiiue.

4). ?anoiaeu, naycaiiua n iiauoaieai iainee a nayce n eo eiaeaenaoeeae.

5). ?aciauaiea ?aca?aia a e?aoein?i/iua e aeieain?i/iua aoiaae, ia
?acaeoea iao/ii – oaoie/aneie aacu e o.i.

I?aaiu iaineiiiiai oiiaea:

– oi?aaeaiea;

– eniieieoaeueiua i?aaiu;

– ?aaeceiiiay eiienney;

– ?aaeiiaeueiua ioaeaeaiey oiiaea.

Iniiaiay i?iaeaia – iaoaaoea aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa (iaieaoaaee), a
?acoeueoaoa oiiae ieacaeny ia ioea e auea auaeaia nnoaea Oeaio?iaaiea ia
4, 3 o?ei. ?oa.

Iau/ii ai anai ie?a iaineiiiua oiiaeu naiua aiaaoua; iaiaoiaeeia
iacaaeneiinoue io i?aaeoaeuenoaa e eniieueciaaiea naieo ?ano?nia ia
oeaeaaua ioaeaeu.

3 ianoi – ainoaea?noaaiiue oiiae caiyoinoe.

Anaai a ?O ?aaioatho ia eaeii – eeai i?iecaiaenoaa ii?yaeea 80 iei. /ae.
2 – 3 % yaeythony aac?aaioiuie, eioi?uo iaiaoiaeeii ei?ieoue, iiea iie
euoo iiaeoiaeyuoth ?aaioo. Aeey yoiai iaiaoiaeei ainoaea?noaaiiue oiiae
caiyoinoe. Ii nicaeai caeiiii “I caiyoinoe ianaeaiey ?NON?”.

Aeey iieo/aiey iiniaey iaiaoiaeeii:

1). i?e/eia, iacaaenyuay io ?aaioieea (eeeaeaeaoeey eee ?ai?aaiecaoeey
i?aaei?eyoey);

2). iaiaoiaeeii iaoiaeeony ia o/aoa a ainoaea?noaaiiii oiiaea caiyoinoe
e inouanoaeyoue iiene ?aaiou;

3). iao/aiea.

A ?innee ia 1 ianoa iaoiaeyony auieaoa iiniaee ii aac?aaioeoea ii ia?aie
i?e/eia. A NOA – auieaoa iiniaey ii aac?aaioeoea a neo/aa iao/aiey.

Ana i?aaei?eyoey io/eneytho 5, 4 % a ainoaea?noaaiiue oiiae caiyoinoe.

Iiniaea ?ann/eoaii ia 1 aiae. Anee a oa/aiea yoiai aiaea aac?aaioiue ia
iaoiaeeo ?aaioo, oi iii i?inoi ia?anoaao auiea/eaaoueny.

?acia?u iiniaey:

A ?O — 45 % io ?aiaa iieo/aaiiai ca?aaioea;

A NOA — 60 – 65 %.

A ?innee iiniaea auiea/eaaaony iinoaiaiii:

1 nooiaiue – iiniaea ii aac?aaioeoea eae oaeiaia;

2 nooiaiue – iiiiuue ii aac?aaioeoea;

3 nooiaiue – aniiiiuanoaiaaiea.

3 ianoi – oiiae iaycaoaeueiiai iaaeeoeeineiai no?aoiaaiey.

Ia aanieaoioth iaaeeoeeio ?inney ia?aoea n 1993 aiaea n Caeiia “I
iaaeeoeeineii no?aoiaaiee a?aaeaeai ?O”.

Nae/an anoue o ?inneyieia neaaeothuea i?aaa a yoie iaeanoe:

– auai?a a?a/a;

– auai?a iieeeeeieee;

– auai?a aieueieoeu.

Oaia?ue iaaeaeo aieueiui e iieeeeeieeie iaoiaeeony no?aoiaay eiiiaiey.

Yoio oiiae oi?ie?oaony neaaeothuei ia?acii:

1). aciinu i?aaei?eyoee (3, 6 %);

2). n?aaenoaa auoanoiyueo athaeaeaoia;

3). aacaiciacaeiua aciinu e iiaea?oaiaaiey;

4). e?aaeeou aaieia (eniieuecoaony ?aaeei)

Inoaoee e eceeoee n?aaenoa iiaoo auoue eiaanoe?iaaiu a oeaiiua aoiaae
ainoaea?noaa.

E?iia yoeo oiiaeia nouanoaotho iiiaeanoai oiiaeia, eae aei?iaeiue oiiae
(n 1, 5 aei 2 %). Aiaathaeaeaoiua oiiaeu iiaoo aeiiieieoaeueii
nicaeaaaoueny.

Aiaathaeaeaoiua oiiaeu aa?aioe?otho oeaeaaia eniieueciaaiea ?ano?nia a
iieiii iauaia eo iinooieaiey e naiaa?aiaiiia oeiaine?iaaiea aaaeiaeoeo
nioeeaeueiuo ia?ii?eyoee. Aiaathaeaeaoiua oiiaeu auiieiytho ?ieue
oeiainiaiai ?aca?aa, e eioi?iio i?eaaaatho i?aaiu ainoaea?noaaiiie
aeanoe a neo/aa cao?oaeiaiey. Iiyoiio, aeaaiaea?y aiaathaeaeaoiui
oiiaeai, iiauoaaony iaiaa?aiiinoue oeiainiauo ?ano?nia a ?aieao
oeiainiaie nenoaiu ainoaea?noaa.

OAIA 12

AINOAeA?NOAAIIUE E?AAeEO.

Aeaoeoeeo ainoaea?noaaiiiai athaeaeaoa i?eaiaeeo e oiio, /oi aicieeaao
iaiaoiaeeiinoue i?eaea/aiey naiaiaeiuo oeiainiauo ?ano?nia ianaeaiey e
th?eaee/aneeo eeoe ia aai iie?uoea, e aeaaiui niiniaii i?eaea/aiea yoeo
n?aaenoa yaeyaony ainoaea?noaaiiue e?aaeeo.

Ainoaea?noaaiiue e?aaeeo – yeiiiie/aneea ioiioaiey, eioi?ua
caeeth/athony a oii, /oi ainoaea?noai aunooiaao ia ?uiea nnoaeiuo
eaieoaeia a ianeieueeeo ea/anoaao. Yoi yeiiiie/aneea ioiioaiey iaaeaeo
ainoaea?noaii e oece/aneeie e th?eaee/aneeie eeoeaie.

Ainoaea?noaaiiue e?aaeeo – aeaiaaeiua ioiioaiey, aicieeathuea o
ainoaea?noaa n th?eaee/aneeie e oece/aneeie eeoeaie a nayce n
iiaeeecaoeeae a?aiaiii naiaiaeiuo aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa a ?anii?yaeaiea
i?aaiia ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe e eo eniieueciaaiea ia oeiaine?iaaiea
ainoaea?noaaiiuo ?anoiaeia.

Ainoaea?noai iiaeao aunooiaoue a neaaeothueo ?ieyo:

– e?aaeeoi?a;

– caaiueea;

– aa?aioa (icia/aao ii?o/eoaeuenoai ainoaea?noaa ca eeeaioa).

Ioee/ey ainoaea?noaaiiiai e?aaeeoa io /anoiiai:

*anoiue e?aaeeo Ainoaea?noaaiiue e?aaeeo

1). Iiaeeecoaony aeey i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo ioaeae. 1). Iiaeeecoaony aeey
iai?iecaiaenoaaiiuo ioaeae.

2). Iiaeeecoaony nnoaeiue eaieoae. 2). Iiaeeecothony ieaoaaeiua e
iieoiaoaeueneea n?aaenoaa.

3). Iiaaoaiea i?iecaiaeeony ec i?eaaai/iiai i?iaeoeoa eee noieiinoe,
eioi?ay aicieeaao a i?ioeanna i?iecaiaenoaa. 3). Iiaaoaiea i?iecaiaeeony
ec athaeaeaoiuo aeioiaeia (a iniiaiii ca n/ao iaeiaiauo iinooieaiee).

4). ?anoe?yao noa?o i?eiaiaiey eaieoaea (i?iecaiaenoaaiioth noa?o) 4).
Noaeaao noa?o i?eiaiaiey eaieoaea

Ainoaea?noaaiiue e?aaeeo iiaeao auoue aioo?aiiei e aiaoiei.

Oi?iu ainoaea?noaaiiiai e?aaeeoa (aioo?aiiee):

1. Auione ainoaea?noaaiiuo caeiia e ia?auaiea /anoe aeeaaeia ianaeaiey a
Naa?aaieao a ainoaea?noaaiiua caeiu.

2. eacia/aeneea nnoaeu.

Eacia/aeneea nnoaeu au?aaeatho aeaiaaeiia ioiioaiea ieacaiey oeiainiaie
iiiiue i?aaei?eyoeth eee i?aaiecaoeee i?aaiaie ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe e
oi?aaeaiey ca n/ao athaeaeaoiuo n?aaenoa, a noaaeeueiie ?aaioa eioi?iai
caeioa?aniaaii ainoaea?noai. Ii yoi inouanoaeyaony ia oneiaeyo
n?i/iinoe, ieaoiinoe e aica?aoiinoe.

Ainoaea?noaaiiua caeiu inouanoaeythony a aeaea i?iaeaaee
ainoaea?noaaiiuo oeaiiuo aoiaa, caeiia aiaathaeaeaoiuo oiiaeia e a
ii?yaeea iieo/aiey e?aaeeoia o aaieia.

Ainoaea?noaaiiua caeiu – e?aaeeoiua ioiioaiey iaaeaeo ainoaea?noaii e
th?eaee/aneeie e oece/aneeie eeoeaie, a ?acoeueoaoa eioi?uo ainoaea?noai
iieo/aao ii?aaeaeaiiua noiiu aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa ia ii?aaeaeaiiue n?ie
ca ii?aaeaeaiioth ieaoo.

Ioee/ea caeiia eio iaeiaia:

CAEIU IAEIAE

1). Aeia?iaieueiue oa?aeoa?. 1). I?eioaeeoaeueiue oa?aeoa?.

2). Ne?uoay oi?ia i?eioaeaeaiey. 2). ssaiay oi?ia i?eioaeaeaiey.

Enoi/ieee ainoaea?noaaiiiai e?aaeeoa – a?aiaiii naiaiaeiua n?aaenoaa,
eioi?ua iiyaeythony o:

· i?aaei?eyoee;

· aaieia;

· iaineiiiuo oiiaeia;

· no?aoiauo oiiaeia;

· ianaeaiey.

E?aaeeo aa?aony aeey:

1. Oeiaine?iaaiey athaeaeaoiiai aeaoeoeeoa.

2. Oeiaine?iaaiey eaieoaeueiuo aeiaeaiee a iaoeeiiaeece?iaaiiua e
niaoaiiua i?aaei?eyoey.

3. Oeiaine?iaaiea i?aaei?eyoee ianoiuo i?aaiia aeanoe.

4. ?aaoee?iaaiey aeaiaaeiiai ia?auaiey no?aiu.

Eeanneoeeaoeey iiaeao i?iecaiaeeony a niioaaonoaee:

I. ni n?ieaie iiaaoaiey;

II. n aeioiaeiinoueth;

III. n aaethoie caeia;

IV. n ianoii e niiniaii ?aciauaiey.

Caeiu auaatho iaoo?aeueiuie e aeaiaaeiuie. Ii i?aao yiennee –
ainoaea?noaaiiua e ianoiua.

Ii ianoo ?aciauaiey:

a). aioo?aiiea;

a). aiaoiea.

Ii aeioiaeiinoe:

a). oaeouea (1, 3, 6 ianyoeaa);

a). e?aoein?i/iua (1 – 3 aiaea);

a). n?aaeian?i/iua (3 – 10 eao);

a). aeieain?i/iua (10 – 50 eao).

Ii iaoiaeai ?aciauaiey:

– aeia?iaieueiua;

– i?eioaeeoaeueiua.

Caeiu iiaoo ?aciauaoueny ia oiiaeiaii ?uiea, nouanoaothuai a ?innee n
1982 aiaea (oiaaea ii nouanoaiaae aeey ianaeaiey e ?aciauae
o?aoi?ioeaioiua caeiu). A 1990 aiae – iaeeaaoeee 5 % caeia aeey
ianaeaiey , i?aaei?eyoee e i?aaiecaoeee. Aeey iaai auee i?eaea/aiu
a?iea?neea oe?iu.

Ooieoeee ii ?ani?ino?aiaieth ainoaea?noaaiiuo caeiia auee cae?aieaiu ca
Oeaio?iaaieii ?O, a ia ca a?iea?neeie eiioi?aie.

A ia?oa 1993 aiaea ninoiyeny I auione iiaiai eino?oiaioa –
ainoaea?noaaiiuo e?aoein?i/iuo aaceoiiiiuo iaycaoaeuenoa ia 3 e 6
ianyoeaa. Eaaeaeue auione iacuaaeny o?aioae, eioi?ua nouanoaotho a aeaea
caienae ia n/aoao (caeanue i?enoonoaoao aeeneiio).

?uiie AEI iiaeaa?aeai eieaaaieyi. ii auoaniyao /anoiuo eiaanoi?ia,
eioi?ua iiaee au eniieueciaaoue naie aeaiueae aeey i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo
ioaeae.

N oaa?aey 1996 aiaea ia ?uiie AEI noaee aeiioneaoueny eiino?aioeu.
Iaeiaei ?uiie AEI aeieaeai “ecaiaoue” aaiee, eae yoi naeaeae aaethoiue
ei?eaei? ni naiaai ?uiea. Iaiaoiaeeiinoue ninoieo a oii, /oi AEI
aeieaeiu auoue eniieueciaaiu aeey eiaanoe?iaaiey i?iiuoeaiiinoe.

Aeey eiaanoe?iaaiey i?iiuoeaiiinoe auioneathony:

– AEI;

– aaethoiua iaeeaaoeee Ieioeia;

– cieioie na?oeoeeao Ieioeia;

– EI (e?aoein?i/iua iaycaoaeuenoaa – oeaiiua aoiaae ainoaea?noaa,
i?aaeiacia/aiiua oieueei aeey i?aaei?eyoee).

IAEEAAOeEE:

– ?uii/iua (iia?aoeee ia oiiaeiaii ?uiea);

– ia?uii/iua;

– niaoeeaeueiua.

Iaeeaaoeee eiatho ia?eoeaoaeueioth noieiinoue e i?iaeathony ia ae?aea.

Ainoaea?noaaiiue aeiea – noiia auiouaiiuo, ii ia iiaaoaiiuo
ainoaea?noaaiiuo caeiia n ia/eneaiiuie i?ioeaioaie, eioi?ay aeieaeia
auoue auiea/aia aianoa n i?ioeaioaie e ii?aaeaeaiiie aeaoa eee /a?ac
ii?aaeaeaiiue n?ie. Ii noaiiaeony no?oeoo?iui yeaiaioii oeiainiaie
nenoaiu (nouanoaoao Aeaia?oaiaio ainoaea?noaaiiiai aeieaa e oeaiiuo
aoiaa).

Ianeoaeeaaiea ainoaea?noaaiiiai aeieaa – niaieoiiinoue ioiioaiee ii
iiaaoaieth aeieaa e iiaui caeiai.

Aeey oiai, /oiau ainoaea?noai niiaei ?anieaoeoueny n aeieaaie iii iiaeao
ooi/iyoue caeiu. Ooi/iaiea iiaeao eanaoueny:

a). aeioiaeiinoe caeiia (nieaeaiea i?ioeaioa) – eiiaa?ney;

a). oneiaee, eanathueony n?ieia – eiinieeaeaoeey;

a). iauaaeeiaiey ianeieueeeo caeiia a iaeei caai – oieoeeaoeey.

Ainoaea?noai iiaeao auoue aaie?ioii e iauyaeoue i naiai aaie?ionoaa.

A NNN? ainoaea?noaaiiue aeiea nouanoaiaae a 2-oo oi?iao:

– aioo?aiiee aeiea i?aaeoaeuenoaa ia?aae Oeaio?iaaieii a aeaea oiaa?ia
ia?iaeiiai iio?aaeaiey (OII);

– aiaoiee aeiea ia?aae no?aiaie – e?aaeeoi?aie.

Ainoaea?noaaiiue aioo?aiiee aeiea:

I. Caaeieaeaiiinoue i?aaeoaeuenoaa ?O: yiaa?ue 96 aiaea – 86. 591 ie?ae.
?oa.

1). caaeieaeaiiinoue Oeaio?iaaiea ii e?aaeeoai ia iie?uoea athaeaeaoiiai
aeaoeoeeoa (59. 749 ie?ae. ?oa.)

2). caaeieaeaiiinoue i?aaeoaeuenoaa ia?aae i?aaei?eyoeyie e ianaeaieai:

a). AEI – 11. 000 ie?ae. ?oa.;

a). EI – 5. 500 ie?ae. ?oa.;

a). ainoaea?noaaiiue eacia/aeneea aaenaey – 1 540 ie?ae. ?oa.;

a). caaeieaeaiiinoue ii AIE, ia?aioi?ieaiiay a eacia/aeneea aaenaey –
5600 ie?ae. ?oa.;

ae). cieioua na?oeoeeaou – 49, 1 ie?ae. ?oa.;

a). i?i/ea ainoaea?noaaiiua caeiu – 3202 ie?ae. ?oa.

II. Caaeieaeaiiinoue Oeaio?iaaiea ?O – 1427 ie?ae. ?oa.

III. I?i/ay caaeieaeaiiinoue – 383 ie?ae. ?oa.

Anaai 90 000 ie?ae. ?oa.

Ainoaea?noai eae e?aaeeoi?.

1. Ainoaea?noaaiiia e?aaeeoiaaiea – yoi oi?ia noaneaee?iaaiey e
n?aaenoai ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiey oeiainiauo ?ano?nia ii e?aaeeoiui eaiaeai.

2. Iniiaiay noa?a ainoaea?noaaiiiai e?aaeeoiaaiey – eaieoaeiaeiaeaiey:

– oeiaine?iaaiea naeueneiai oicyenoaa;

– oeiaine?iaaiea aeeeeuiiai no?ieoaeuenoaa;

– oeiaine?iaaiea io?aneae yeiiiie/aneie e nioeeaeueiie eio?ano?oeoo?u.

3. Ainoaea?noai eae aa?aio ia ?uiea nnoaeiuo eaieoaeia. Yoi iniaay oi?ia
ainoaea?noaaiiiai e?aaeeoiaaiey:

– ?enee ii caaea?aeea ieaoaaea;

– aaie?ionoai;

– iieeoe/aneea aanii?yaeee;

– i?i/aa.

Ainoaea?noaaiiue e?aaeeo e NII (niaieoiiue iauanoaaiiue i?iaeoeo).

Iaiaoiaeeii i?ineaaeeoue acaeiinaycue ainoaea?noaaiiiai e?aaeeoa e NII.

a). eae oi?ie?othueeny nnoaeiue oiiae:

N – nnoaeiue oiiae.

a). /anoue ca?aaioiie ieaou:

V – nnoaeiue oiiae.

a). /anoue i?eauee

Yeiiiie/aneea e nioeeaeueiua iineaaenoaey

aic?anoaiey ainoaea?noaaiiiai aeieaa.

?ino aeieaa i?eaiaeeo e:

1) ?inoo caeinoaiaaiee (a ?acoeueoaoa auoaniyaony /anoiue eaieoae n
?uiea nnoaeiiai eaieoaea);

2) iai?iecaiaeeoaeueiue oa?aeoa? eniieueciaaiey iieo/aiiuo n?aaenoa;

3). oaaee/eaaaony iaa?ocea ia ainoaea?noaaiiue athaeaeao iin?aaenoaii
?inoa aaee/eiu i?ioeaioia ii e?aaeeoai.

Oi?aaeaiea ainoaea?noaaiiui aeieaii:

a). ainoaea?noaaiiue aeiea aeieaeai auoue aia?aiy iiaaoai;

a). auieaoa i?ioeaioia;

a). i?iaaaeaiea eiiaa?nee, eiinieeaeaoeee, oieoeeaoeee caeiia;

a). auione iiauo caeiia;

ae). i?iaaaeaiea aeaiaaeii -e?aaeeoiie iieeoeee;

a). i?i/aa.

Niaieoiiinoue aeaenoaee ainoaea?noaa, naycaiiuo n ia?a/eneaiiuie
aeaenoaeyie, iacuaaaony oi?aaeaiea ainoaea?noaaiiui aeieaii.

Iaaeaeoia?iaeiue e?aaeeo naycai n ainoaea?noaaiiui aeieaii. Enoi/ieeaie
iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai e?aaeeoa yaeythony:

– niaoeeaeueiua i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiua oiiaeu;

– athaeaeaoiua n?aaenoaa ainoaea?noaa;

– niaoeeaeueiua aaiee (iai?eia?, yenii?oii – eiii?oiue aaie NOA);

– niaoeeaeueiua iaaeaeoia?iaeiua e?aaeeoiua einoeooou (iaoeeiiaeueiua,
?aaeiiaeueiua, iaaeaeoia?iaeiua).

Oi?iu iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai e?aaeeoa:

1) nianoaaiii e?aaeeo:

a). naycaiiue (aaea e?aaeeo aue iieo/ai, oai e aeieaeai auoue iio?a/ai);

a). naiaiaeiue (oeiainiaue)

2). iiiiuue.

Aeoeaiia naeueaei ieaoaaeiiai aaeaina aeaao aiciiaeiinoue auieaou aeieaa
(10 – 12 ie?ae. a aiae iai?aaeyoue ia auieaou).

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