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Iineianeee Einoeooo ?aaeeioaoieee Yeaeo?iieee e Aaoiiaoeee

Eo?niaay ?aaioa

ii eo?no AIOI

ia oaio :

“OEIAINIAIA IEAIE?IAAIEA”

Cooaeaioa a?oiiu ?E-3-90

Ieiyaaa E.A.

1995 aiae

Oeiainiaia ieaie?iaaiea.

Aaaaeaiea.

Oeiainiaia ieaie?iaaiea yaeyaony aaaeiui yeaiaioii ei?ii?aoeaiiai
ieaiiaiai i?ioeanna . Eaaeaeue iaiaaeaea?, iacaaeneii io naieo
ooieoeeiiaeueiuo eioa?ania, aeieaeai auoue ciaeii n iaoaieeie e niuneii
auiieiaiey e eiio?iey oeiainiauo ieaiia, ii e?aeiae ia?a ianoieueei,
ianeieueei yoi eanaaony aai aeayoaeueiinoe.

Iaeaieaa aaaeiui yaeythony neaaeothuea caaea/e :

Iaania/aiea iioeiaeueiiai aeeaaea oeiainiauo ieaiia a ei?ii?aoeaiua
oeaee. Yoi icia/aao, /oi oeiainiaua ieaiu niaianoeiu n ei?ii?aoeaiui
ieaiii.

Aeiiouaiey, ia eioi?uo iniiaaiu i?iaiicu, ynii noi?ioee?iaaiu, oeacaiu
yeaiaiou oianoiuo eciaiaiee a aoaeouai. Iie o/eouaatho ii?ie
eiioeeeoothuea eioa?anu o/anoaothueo a “aeiea” (aea?aeaoaee aeoeee,
aioo?aiiea e aiaoiea oi?iu a?oiiu aeaaeaiey).

Oeiainiaua iineaaenoaey i?eiyoey i?aaeeiaeaiee ii oneiaeyi i?eauee,
cao?ao, i?iaeaaeiuo oeai, iai?ioa e o.ae. aiaeece?othony e ooi/iythony.

Ieaie?iaaiea iioiea iaee/iuo n?aaenoa aeieaeii inouanoaeyoueny oae,
/oiau eiiiaiey auea a ninoiyiee oaeiaeaoai?youe ieaie?oaiua o?aaiaaiey.
Anee ia?eiaeu oeiainiauo o?oaeiinoae iaeeaeathony a aoaeouai, oeiaineno
aeieaeai oaaaeiieoue aunoaa ?oeiaiaenoai ia aeueoa?iaoeaiuo aa?eaioao
aeaenoaee, a /anoiinoe i nie?auaiee i?aaeeiaeaiiuo i?iaeoia aei o?iaiy,
niioiineiiai n nouanoaothueie oeiainiauie aiciiaeiinoyie, eee ia
oaaee/aiee aeiiieieoaeueiuo iaiaoiaeeiuo n?aaenoa.

Aiaeec e ioeaiea ethauo i?aaeeiaeaiee, i?iaiice?iaaiea aiciiaeiuo
iineaaenoaee i?eiyoey i?aaeeiaeaiee e eo aeueoa?iaoea, auai? iaeeo/oeo
aa?eaioia, i?aaeinoaaeaiea ?aeiiaiaeaoeee aeaeathony a oi?ia iiiyoiie e
ia oeiainenoai.

?an/aoiay ii?ia i?eauee

Oaeoi?u, aicaeaenoaothuea ia ii?io i?eauee. Nouanoaoao iiiaeanoai
oaeoi?ia, i?yii aicaeaenoaothueo ia ii?io i?eauee, iaeaieaa aaaeiuie ec
eioi?uo yaeythony iaeeaeaiea aea?aeaoaeae aeoeee, ioaea/a eiaanoeoeee,
aiciiaeiay yeiiiiey iiuiinoae, no?oeoo?a eaieoaea e o.i.

Iaeeaeaiea aea?aeaoaeae aeoeee. Yoio oaeoi? o?aaoao io eiiiaiee
onoaiiaeaiey ieieiaeueiie aeieain?i/iie ii?iu i?eauee, eioi?ay
iaania/eaaea au aea?aeaoaeyi aeoeee aeioiae, e i?eieiaao ai aieiaiea
?yae iiiaioia : iioaioeeaeueiua aeeaeaeaiaeu e aiciiaeiinoe aeey
iiauoaiey noieiinoe eaieoaea; yeaiaio ?enea a aeciana (a io?aneyo n
iaeie noaiaiueth ?enea aeioiae /eaiia AI aoeaeii oaeaea iecie e
iaiai?io); aaee/eio aeioiaea , eioi?ue aea?aeaoaee aeoeee iiaee au
iieo/eoue a ae?oaii ianoa io eiaanoeoeee ni n?aaieiui ?eneii.

Oae iiaeaaeythuaa aieueoeinoai aea?aeaoaeae aeoeee ia eiatho yniiai
i?aaenoaaeaiey i oaeoueo eee iioaioeeaeueiuo i?iaeaiao , n eioi?uie
noaeeeaaaony eiiiaiey , a eioi?oth iie aeiaeeee n?aaenoaa, eo
iaaeaaeaeu a ioiioaiee aeioiaea ii/oe anaaaea ia?aaeenoe/iu e caauoaiu.
Noaiaiue, aei eioi?ie iiaoo o/eouaaoueny eo iaeeaeaiey, caaeneo io oiai,
ianeieueei neeueii eo aicaeaenoaea ia eiiiaieth. Anee aea?aeaoaee
iaoaeiaeaoai?aiiu, iie iiaoo i?inoi i?iaeaoue aeoeee.

Ioaea/a io aeiaeaiiiai eaieoaea, eee aeioiae ia eaieoae. Iauai?eiyoue
?an/ao ioeaiee ioaea/e io aeiaeaiiiai eaieoaea i?iaiaeeony ii
neaaeothuae oi?ioea:

Oi?ioea i?inoa, ii eniieuecoaiua aeey ?an/aoa oeeo?u iiaoo ii-?aciiio
eioa?i?aoe?iaaoueny. I/aiue ?aaeei aiciiaeiui auaaao ?an/ao ii?iu
i?eauee (IAE) enoiaey ec aeaiiuo iaeiiai aiaea, iineieueeo ?aaeueiua
iinooieaiey io e?oiiuo eaieoaeiaeiaeaiee iau/ii iaoa?eaeecothony /a?ac
aeeeoaeueiia a?aiy.

*ai aieaa eiieo?aioiiniiniaia io?aneue, oai aieueoa aeaaeaiea ia
aea?aeaoaeae aa aeoeee a /anoe eiaanoeoeee ia iaiiaeaiea e
iiaea?iecaoeeth iai?oaeiaaiey e nii?oaeaiee, enneaaeiaaiey, iao/aiea,
eiiiuethoa?ecaoeeth.

Ie ii iaeiiio ec oao iai?aaeaiee, aa?iyoii, ia aoaeao auno?ie ioaea/e
io eiaanoeoeee /a?ac aiae eee aeaaea /ooue aieueoa. Aieaa oiai,
iaii?aaeaeaiiinoue ni?ina, i?iyaeythuayny a eciaiaieyo iiaeu,
iiaaaeaiey iio?aaeoaeae, oaoiieiaee, a ia?aaoey?iinoe
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneiai oeeeea, eiieo?aioeee, aoaeao io?aaeaoueny a
ioeaeao, eioi?ua iau/ii nii?iaiaeaeatho i?ioeann ii?aaeaeaiey i?eauee.

I?e inouanoaeaiee oeiainiaiai ieaie?iaaiey iaiaoiaeeii ?aoeoue, eaeei
ia?acii ii?aaeaeyoue eae noieiinoue eaieoaea, i?eieiaaiiai ca aaco aeey
?an/aoia, oae e aai i?e?auaiea (auauoea). E aeiaeaiiue eaieoae, e
i?eaueue yaeythony aeiaieueii noauaeoeaiuie iiiyoeyie ec-ca iiiaeanoaa
aicaeaenoaothueo ia ieo oaeoi?ia, eioi?ua iiaeaa?aathony naiie ?acee/iie
eioa?i?aoaoeee. Aieueoeinoai oeeo?, i?aaenoaaeaiiuo a oeiiaii
aooaaeoa?neii aaeaina – eeoue enoiaeiua aeaiiua, ia eiathuea ioiioaiey e
?uii/iie noieiinoe. Caiey e nii?oaeaiey, eoieaiiua, e i?eia?o, a 1912
aiaeo, iiaoo e ia ia?aioeaieaaoueny. Aiaeiae/ii aeoeee iau/ii
ioeaieaathony ii ?uii/iie noieiinoe aeaaea i?e eioeyoeee eee ?inoa
oeai. Ii iaoaiou, oi?aiaua ia?ee e o.i. /anoi iieacuaathony oieueei ii
iiieiaeueiie noieiinoe. Oaeei ia?acii, i?e ninoaaeaiee aaeaina
iaiaoiaeeii niaethaeaoue inoi?iaeiinoue.

Anee oeeo?u aaeaina eciaiythony aeey io?aaeaiey oaeoueo oneiaee,
ioaea/a io eaieoaea , au?aaeaiiay a i?ioeaioao, aoaeao eciaiyoueny, ii
au?aaeaiiay a aaniethoiii ioiioaiee, aiciiaeii, inoaiaony oaeie aea.

Aiciiaeiay yeiiiiey iiuiinoae. A i?inoaeoai aeaea yoi icia/aao
?aca?aie/aiea ii?iu i?eauee e yeiiiiee iiuiinoae e aeoeaia eiiiaiee,
iaoneiaeeaathuee iaeiieaiea aeaiaaeiuo ?ano?nia.

No?oeoo?a eaieoaea. Oniao ieaia ei?ii?aoeee e oeiainiaiai ieaia i?yii
caaeneo io no?oeoo?u eaieoaea eiiiaiee. No?oeoo?a eaieoaea iiaeao
niinianoaiaaoue eee i?aiyonoaiaaoue oneeeyi eiiiaiee ii oaaee/aieth aa
aeoeaia. Iia oaeaea iioii aicaeaenoaoao ia ii?io i?eauee, iineieueeo
eiiiiiaiou i?eauee n oeene?iaaiiui i?ioeaioii, auiea/eaaaiua ii
aeieaiaui iaycaoaeuenoaai, ia caaenyo io i?iaiice?oaiiai o?iaiy
aeoeaiinoe eiiiaiee. Anee oe?ia eiaao aunieoth aeieth aeieaiauo auieao,
aiciiaeiu cao?oaeiaiey n iieneii aeiiieieoaeueiuo eaieoaeia.

N/eoaaony aeneiiie, /oi no?oeoo?a eaieoaea aeieaeia niioaaonoaiaaoue
aeaeo aeayoaeueiinoe e o?aaiaaieyi eiiiaiee. Niioiioaiea caaiiuo
n?aaenoa e ?eneiaiai eaieoaea aeieaeii auoue oaeei, /oiau iaania/eoue
aeoeeiia?ai oaeiaeaoai?eoaeueioth ioaea/o io eiaanoeoeee. Aeaeinoue a
eciaiaiee no?oeoo?u eaieoaea iiaeao auoue iaiaoiaeeiui yeaiaioii oniaoa.
Iau/ii eaa/a aeiaiai?eoueny i e?aoein?i/iuo caeiao /ai i n?aaeia- e
aeieain?i/iuo. E?aoein?i/iue eaieoae iiaeao iaania/eoue iaeeaeaaiua e
iaiaeeaeaaiua eieaaaiey iioiea iaee/iuo, oiaaea eae n?aaeia- e
aeieain?i/iue eaieoae o?aaoaony a iniiaiii aeey aeeeoaeueiuo i?iaeoia (
iai?eia?, i?ia?aiiu ca?oaaaeiie yeniainee ).

Eiaanoeoeee

Aiaeec eiaanoeoeee. Eaieoae, aeiaeaiiue a aeaei e aeiiieiaiiue /anoueth
iieo/aiiie i?eauee, ?aeiaanoe?oaony a aeoeau ( caiey, nii?oaeaiey,
iai?oaeiaaiea, i?ia?aiiu ?ac?aaioee iiaie i?iaeoeoeee) n oeaeueth
iieo/aiey aeioiaea e i?eauee a aoaeouai. Eaieoaeiaeiaeaiey ia aeieaeiu
aeaeaoueny aac ioeaiee ia?niaeoea eo i?eaueueiinoe.

Eiaanoeoeeiiiua i?iaeou ioeaieaathony ?acee/iuie niiniaaie, ii aeaa
neaaeothueo aii?ina yaeythony oeie/iuie aeey ethaiai aiaeeca. Eaeie
o?iaaiue /enoiai aeioiaea iaania/eo eiaanoeoeey ? Eaeie ?acia?
aeiiieieoaeueiie /enoie i?eauee i?eianao eiiiaiee eiaanoeoeey ?

A aeieain?i/iii ieaia, i?eieiathuai ca iniiao aeeciaiiue oeeee
eiouanoaa eee i?iaeoeoa, iaa eiioeaioeee i?eianoo eaeaioe/iua
?acoeueoaou, ii a e?aoein?i/iii ieaia aiciiaeiu aieueoea ?acee/ey a
nayce n oai, /oi, eiaaea i?eia?aoaaony iiaia eiouanoai eee
?ac?aaaouaaaony iiaay i?iaeoeoeey, ?anoiae n?aaenoa iau/ii i?aauoaao eo
iinooieaiee. Nouanoaoao o?e iaoiaea ioeaiee eaieoaeiaeiaeaiee:

Iaoiae Pay-Back;

Iaoiae n?aaeiaai o?iaiy ioaea/e;

Iaoiae aeeneiioe?iaaiey n?aaenoa.

Yoe iaoiaeu iiaoo i?eiaiyoueny aeey ?ac?aaioee iiaie i?iaeoeoeee

Iaoiae ieoiaaiinoe ( Pay-Back ) – naiue i?inoie iaoiae, iniiaaiiue ia
i?eiaiaiee a ea/anoaa enoiaeiuo aeaiiuo a?aiaie ( eiee/anoai eao ),
iaiaoiaeeiiai aeey iie?uoey ia/aeueiuo eiaanoeoeee a i?iaeo; ?acia?ia
aaeaaiaeiiai aeeaaea, ?ann/eouaaaiuo eae ?aciinoue iaaeaeo aiaeiauie
aeioiaeaie e cao?aoaie.

Iaaeyaeii yoio iaoiae auaeyaeeo oae :

I?aeiouanoaii iaoiaea yaeythony i?inoioa iiieiaiey e ?an/aoia,
ii?aaeaeaiiinoue noiiu ia/aeueiuo eaieoaeiaeiaeaiee, aiciiaeiinoue
?aiaee?iaaiey i?iaeoia a caaeneiinoe io n?ieia ieoiaaiinoe.

Iaaeinoaoee aeaiiiai iaoiaea ?an/aoa a oii, /oi ii eaii?e?oao ioaea/o
io aeiaeaiiiai eaieoaea ( o.a. ia ioeaieaaao i?eaueueiinoue), aeaao
iaeeiaeiaoth ioeaieo o?iaiyi eiaanoeoeee iacaaeneii io n?iea ieoiaaiinoe
( o.a. 1 oun. F, iieo/aiiay nionoy aiae, ioeaieaaaony oae aea eae e 1
oun. F, iieo/aiiay /a?ac 4 aiaea ).

N?aaeiee o?iaaiue ioaea/e. Yoio iaoiae iioiae ia i?aaeuaeouee, ii
o/eouaaao aii?oecaoeeth e aeiaeaiiue eaieoae.

Ionthaea n?aaeiyy aaee/eia ioaea/e io aeiaeaiiiai eaieoaea i?e
iaeeaeaaiii aeeciaiiii oeeeea eiouanoaa ninoaaeo 4 oun. F.

Iaoiae aeeneiioe?iaaiey n?aaenoa ( iaoiae AeNA). Nouanoaoao ianeieueei
aa?eaioia aeaiiiai iaoiaea. Ana iie aace?othony ia aeiiouaiee, /oi
aeaiueae, iieo/aaiua (eee ?anoiaeoaiua) a aoaeouai, aoaeoo eiaoue
iaiueooth oeaiiinoue, /ai nae/an. Oi?ioea neiaeiiai i?ioeaioa,
iicaieythuay, ?ann/eouaaoue aeeneiioe?iaaiioth noieiinoue aoaeoueo
iinooieaiee, neaaeothuay :

aaea S – aaee/eia, iieo/aaiay a eiioea n – ai aiaea;

P – aeeneiioe?iaaiiay noieiinoue;

r – i?ioeaioiay noaaea;

n – eiee/anoai eao.

Oiaaea (1+r)n – oaeoi? aeeneiioe?iaaiiie noieiinoe.

I?eia? oneiaiiai ?an/aoa ii aeaiiiio aa?eaioo. Anee eiiiaiey iieo/aao
10% ioaea/e io eiaanoeoeee, oi aoaeao iaaac?acee/ii, iieo/eo ee iia 100
F n?aco, eeai 110 F nionoy aiae, eeai 121 F, – /a?ac aeaa aiaea. Ii
100 F, iieo/aiiuo ca aeaa aiaea, n o/aoii oaeoi?a aeeneiioe?iaaiiie
noieiinoe ninoaaeyao oieueei 82.645 F. Yoi aeaeii ec i?eia?iiai
?an/aoa:

Naiaeiue aaeain Ia/aeueiua cao?aou 82.645 F

(cross check) 10% ca ia?aue aiae 8.265 F

Aaeain ca ia?aue aiae 90.909 F

10% ca aoi?ie aiae 9.901 F

Aaeain ca aoi?ie aiae 100.000 F

Aieueoeinoai eiaanoeoeeiiiuo i?iaeoia aeeth/atho iioie n?aaenoa ia
?acee/iuo o?iaiyo a ?acee/iua ia?eiaeu, oae /oi ?an/aou
aeeneiioe?iaaiiie noieiinoe yaeythony ianianai i?yiieeiaeiuie.
Aeiionoei, /oi iaeeaeaaiua ca o?e aiaea iinooieaiey ninoaayo a eaaeaeue
aiae niioaaonoaaiii 4 oun., 6 oun., e 2 oun. F e /oi i?ioeaioiay noaaea
inoaiaony 10%, oiaaea oaeoi? aeeneiioe?iaaiiie noieiinoe aeey eaaeaeiai
aiaea ninoaaeo 0.909, 0.826 e 0.751

Aiae Noiia iinooieaiee Oaeoi? aeeneiioe?iaaiiie noieiinoe (eiyooeoeeaio)
Aeeneiioe?iaaiiay noieiinoue

1-e 4 000 0.909 3 636

2-e 6 000 0.826 4 936

3-e 2 000 0.751 1 502

Eoiai : 12 000 10 094

*enoay aeeneiioe?iaaiiay noieiinoue ( *AeN ). ?an/aou n ioeaieie /enoie
aeeneiioe?iaaiiie noieiinoe eiaanoeoeeiiiuo i?iaeoia a ianoiyuaa a?aiy
oe?iei i?eiaiythony. *AeN eiaanoeoeee anoue aaeain iaueo
aeeneiioe?iaaiiuo noieiinoae aeaiaaeiiai iioiea naa?o oiai, /oi
nicaeaaony i?e ieieiaeueiii o?iaia aeeneiioa (i?aaenoaaeythuai niaie
o?iaaiue ioaea/e, eioi?ue eiiiaiey aeieaeii aeinoe/ue io eiaanoeoeee,
i?aaeaea /ai oa noaiao aeecianiiniaiie).

Aeiionoei, /oi i?iaeo eiaanoeoeee iaauaao iinooieaiey a ?acia?a 45
oun., 75 oun. E 42 oun. F iinea ia?aiai, aoi?iai e o?aoueaai aiaeia
e /oi iinea ia/aeueiuo aeiaeaiee 120 oun. F naycaiiua eiaanoeoeee ii
eaaeaeiio aiaeo ninoaayo 5 oun., 8 oun. e

2 oun. F i?e ieieiaeueiii o?iaia aeeneiioa 10%.

Aiae *enoua n?aaenoaa Oaeoi? aeeneiioe?iaaiiie noieiinoe Yeaeaaeaio
aeeneiioe?iaaiiie noieiinoe

0 -120 000 1,0000 -120 000

1-e + 40 000 0,9091 + 36 364

2-e + 67 000 0,8264 + 55 369

3-e + 40 000 0,7513 + 30 052

*enoay aeeneiioe?iaaiiay noieiinoue 1785

Noiia 1 785 F naa?o o?aaoaiiai ieieiaeueiiai o?iaiy 10% iiaeao
?anniao?eaaoueny eae no?aoiaie caian. Eiaaea eiiiaiee i?eoiaeeony
auae?aoue ec ?acee/iuo aa?eaioia, oi iau/ii auae?aaony oio, eioi?ue
i?aaeeaaaao iaeaunoee o?iaaiue /enoie aeeneiioe?iaaiiie noieiinoe.

Eiaanoeoeeiiiua i?iaeou (ii/aio aeaiueae iaanoeaieaathony)

I?aaenoaaei ,/oi iu aeaee eo/oaio ae?oao 1 F a aeiea a iaiai ia IOU (
o.a. ia ii?aaeaeaiioth iaoa?eaeueioth oeaiiinoue ). Oae eae anoue iieiay
oaa?aiiinoue a ae?oaa, oi IOU aoaeao noieoue 1 F, aeaaea anee ae?oa ia
aa?iao aeaiueae a oa/aiee ianeieueeeo aeiae.

Oaia?ue ae?oaie aa?eaio, iu aeaee a aeiea 1 F ia?aiio ano?a/iiio a
iaiai ia IOU. A yoii neo/aa iiaeii neacaoue, /oi IOU ia noieo ie/aai.

N?aaeiee aa?eaio: iu aeaee a aeiea ciaeiiiio, eioi?ue ioee/aaony
e?aeiae caaua/eainoueth. Anee ?anniao?eaaoue naie oainu ia aica?ao
aeaiaa eae 1:2 eee 1:1, oi IOU aoaeao noieoue 1/2 F , e /ai aeieueoa
aeaeaoue ieaoaaea, oai aieueoa aoaeao iaaeaoue noieiinoue aica?auaaiie
noiiu aeieaa.

A aeciana aiaeiae/ii ana aoaeouea iinooieaiey naycaiu n ?eneii, eioi?ue
caaeneo io ?aiooaoeee aeaaeoi?a e i?i/eo oaeoi?ia, aeeth/ay oaeouea
i?ioeaioiua noaaee, eioi?ua, a naith i/a?aaeue, iiaeaa?aathony
eieaaaieyi ca n/ao ni?ina ia aeaiueae, e noaiaiue ?enea.

Anee iaaei o/anoue eioeyoeeth, oi neaaeoao i?iecaanoe iaeioi?oth
iiaeeoeeaoeeth ?an/aoia. Aeeneiioe?iaaiiay noieiinoue a ?aaeueiii
au?aaeaiee aoaeoueo aeaiaa oae aea nie?auaaony iiae aicaeaenoaeai
eioeyoeee, eae e noieiinoue i?aaeii?aaeaeaiiiai i?ioeaioa. Oaeei
ia?acii, anee o?iaaiue eioeyoeee 12% e i?ioeaioiua noaaee 10% a aiae, oi
aeeneiioe?iaaiiay noieiinoue aoaeoueo aeaiaa ?ann/eouaaaony ii oi?ioea:

aaea P – aeeneiioe?iaaiiay noieiinoue aoaeoueo aeaiaa;

S – noiia, iieo/aiiay a eiioea n – ai aiaea;

r – i?ioeaioiay noaaea;

F – o?iaaiue eioeyoeee.

Ionthaea ooi/iaiiue aeeneiioe?iaaiiue o?iaaiue ninoaaeo 22%, iiyoiio
100 F, iieo/aaiua /a?ac 4 aiaea, aoaeoo eiaoue aeeneiioe?iaaiioth
noieiinoue:

Eiaanoeoeeiiiua i?iaeou, aeeth/ay i?aaeeiaeaiey ii ?ac?aaioea iiaie
i?iaeoeoeee, aeieaeiu nenoaiaoe/anee aiaeece?iaaoueny, /oiau aunoaa
?oeiaiaenoai iiaei ii?aaeaeeoue eo iieaciinoue.

Yeiiiie/aneee aiaeec

A iniiao i?ia?aiiu iieiaeai iaoiae i?iaiice?iaaiey, ?ac?aaioaiiue
aia?eeaineei eiaeaia?ii Oieoa?ii ?aooaoo?aooii, iieo/eaoee oe?ieia
?ani?ino?aiaiea a caiaaeiie yeiiiieea e iicaieythuee aiaeece?iaaoue
yooaeoeaiinoue oi?aiauo, iin?aaeie/aneeo, aaieianeeo e eiuo iia?aoeee.
I?ia?aiia iicaieyao ii?aaeaeeoue, i?e eaeii iioeiaeueiii niioiioaiee
oeaiu e eiee/anoaa oiaa?ia (oneoa) iiaeii iieo/eoue aeaeaaioth i?eaueue.
Nouiinoue iaoiaea caeeth/aaony a ii?aaeaeaiee oi/ee e?eoe/aneiai iauaia
i?iecaiaenoaa (OEII), eioi?ay oaeaea iineo iacaaiea oi/ee e?eoe/aneeo
niioiioaiee eee oi/ee ioeaaie i?eauee — break-even point. Iia
ii?aaeaeyao niioiioaiea, ieaea eioi?iai i?aaei?eyoea i?e oeacaiiuo
cao?aoao ianao oauoee, a auoa — iieo/aao i?eaueue.

Aoiae a i?ia?aiio

Aoiae a i?ia?aiio «Yeiiiie/aneee aiaeec» inouanoaeyaony onoaiiaeie
naaoiaiai ia?ea?a ia oaee POINT.EXE n iineaaeothuei iaaeaoeai eeaaeoe
(eiaaony a aeaeo ?aaioa a n?aaea «Norton Commander»).

*a?ac iaeioi?ia a?aiy a oeaio?a ye?aia iiyaeony oe?iaiiay canoaaea n
oeacaieai iacaaiey i?ia?aiiu, ?ac?aaio/eea, aiaea nicaeaiey i?ia?aiiiiai
i?iaeoeoa e eiioaeoiuo oaeaoiiia ?ac?aaio/eea. A i?aaii aa?oiai oaeo Au
oaeaeeoa niiauaiea i caa?ocea aeaiiuo.

AIEIAIEA!

I?e iaiaoiaeeiinoe auoiaea ec i?ia?aiiu iaaeieoa iaeiia?aiaiii aeaa
eeaaeoe e eaoeineiai aeoaaeoa eeai ainiieuecoeoanue ioieoii
iaith “Auoiae”. Ia aueeth/aeoa eiiiuethoa?, ia caeii/ea ?aaioo n
i?ia?aiiie! A i?ioeaiii neo/aa a iineaaeothuai aiciiaeiu naie a aa
?aaioa.

Ii ieii/aiee i?ioeanna caa?ocee ia ye?aia iiyaeony ?aai/aa ieii
i?ia?aiiu (?en. 7-1).

A aa?oiae no?iea ?aai/aai ye?aia ?aniieaaaaony iniiaiia iaith
i?ia?aiiu, aieoe a eioi?ia iiaeii, iaaeaa eeaaeoo eee . I?e
yoii naaoiaie ia?ea? ie?aneo ioieo iaith “Na?aen” a y?ei-aieoaie oeaao.
Ia?aiauaoue ia?ea? ii ioieoai iaith Au iiaeaoa n iiiiuueth
eeaaeo-no?aeie. Aieoe a ioieo iaith “Na?aen” iiaeii, onoaiiaea ia iai
naaoiaie ia?ea? e iaaeaa eeaaeoo , iinea /aai i?ienoiaeeo aai
“ioe?uoea”. I?e yoii ia?aae Aaie iiyaeyaony niaea?aeaiea ioieoa — oae
iacuaaaiia “iiaeiaith”, aa?oithth no?ieo eioi?iai ia?ea? ie?aneo oaeaea
a y?ei-aieoaie oeaao (?en. 7-2).

Iciaeiieoueny n niaea?aeaieai ioieoia iiaeiaith iiaeii neaaeothueie
niiniaaie:

onoaiiaeoue ia?ea? ia niioaaonoaothuai ioieoa e iaaeaoue eeaaeoo
;

iaaeaoue ii?aaeaeaiiua eeaaeoe eee eo eiiaeiaoeee, anee iie oeacaiu a
iiaeioieoao iaith;

onoaiiaeoue eo?ni? “iuoe” ia niioaaonoaothuai ioieoa e iaaeaoue eaaoth
eeaaeoo “iuoe”.

Iai?eia?, eaeueeoeyoi? iiaeii aucaaoue ia ye?ai, onoaiiaea naaoiaie
ia?ea? ia no?iea ”Eaeueeoeyoi? Ctrl+K” e iaaeaa eeaaeoo ,
i?aaeaa?eoaeueii aieaey a ioieo “Na?aen” iniiaiiai iaith, eeai
iaeiia?aiaiii iaaeeiay eeaaeoe e eaoeineiai aeoaaeoa.

AIEIAIEA!

Aua?aa eaeie-eeai ioieo (iiea) n iiiiuueth ia?ea?a, ia caaoaeueoa
iaaeaoue eeaaeoo . A aeaeueiaeoai neiaa “Aua?aoue ioieo” eee
“Aua?aoue eeaaeoo” (eiathony aaeaeo “eeaaeoe” auai?a), aoaeoo
iiae?acoiaaaoue onoaiiaeo ia?ea?a n iineaaeothuei iaaeaoeai eeaaeoe
.

Eniieueciaaiea oaenoa “Iiiiuue”

Anee ia oii eee eiii yoaia ?aaiou n i?ia?aiiie «Yeiiiie/aneee aiaeec»
Au ii/oanoaoaoa naay iaoaa?aiii e eniuoaaoa iio?aaiinoue a
eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiii niaaoa, ainiieuecoeoanue ioieoii “Iiiiuue”
iiaeioieoa “Na?aen” aeaaiiai iaith eee eeaaeoae (?en. 7-3).

Ia ye?aia iiyaeony ieii “Iiiiuue”, niaea?aeauaa iienaiea ?acee/iuo
yoaiia i?ia?aiiu. Ia?aiauaoueny ii no?ieai ieia Au iiaeaoa i?e iiiiue
eeaaeo-no?aeie,

, (?en. 7-4).

Aaiae enoiaeiie eioi?iaoeee

I?aaeaea anaai iaiaoiaeeii oeacaoue a niioaaonoaothueo iieyo
aeaenoaothuea ii?iaoeau iaeiaa ia i?eaueue e IAeN. Caoai aaanoe
naaaeaiey ia iauaeoa aiaeeca (oiaa?, oneoae). Aeey yoiai iaiaoiaeeii
aua?aoue ioieo “Ecaeaeea”. Ia ye?aia iiyaeony ieii, a eaaie /anoe
eioi?iai aoaeao niaea?aeaoueny nienie iacaaiee ecaeaeee. A i?aaie /anoe
ieia iaoiaeyony eeaaeoe, n iiiiuueth eioi?uo iiaeii aiineoue a nienie
iiaua iauaeou aiaeeca, eiie?iaaoue e oaeaeyoue aeaiiua ii ?aiaa
caaaaeaiiui ecaeaeeyi, caienuaaoue aiiaue aaaaeaiioth eioi?iaoeeth eee
aica?auaoueny e i?aaeiaio aa?eaioo. Ia?aoiae e oeacaiiui eeaaeoai e
ia?aoii inouanoaeyaony i?e iiiiue eeaaeo e i?aaie (eaaie) no?aeie
(?en. 7-5).

Ecaeaeea

Aeey aaiaea a aaco aeaiiuo iacaaiey ecaeaeey ioaeii aua?aoue eeaaeoo
“Aeiaaaeoue”. I?e yoii ia ye?aia iiyaeony ieii, cai?aoeaathuaa
iaeiaiiaaiea ecaeaeey, naeaeee eee iia?aoeee (?en. 7-6). I?e auai?a
eeaaeoe “Caiiiieoue” iiaia iacaaiea aaoiiaoe/anee aiineony a nienie
ecaeaeee (?en. 7-7). I?aaeoniio?aia aiciiaeiinoue aiaeeca i?iecaiaenoaa
ianeieueeeo ecaeaeee. Aeey yoiai a ioieoa “Ecaeaeea” iaiaoiaeeii n
iiiiuueth eeaaeoe “Aeiaaaeoue” iineaaeiaaoaeueii caienaoue eo
iaeiaiiaaiey (?en. 7-8). Aiciiaeai aiaeec ianeieueeeo aa?eaioia iaeiie
iia?aoeee. Aeey yoiai, onoaiiaea ia?ea? ia iacaaiee, iiaeeaaeauai
eiie?iaaieth, auaa?eoa eeaaeoo “Eiie?iaaoue”. Neaaeoao eiaoue a aeaeo,
/oi i?e eiie?iaaiee iacaaiey aaoiiaoe/anee eiie?oaony e any eioi?iaoeey,
?aiaa caaaaeaiiay ii niioaaonoaothuaio ecaeaeeth. Ai ecaaaeaiea
iooaieoeu aa?eaioia iiaeii, iai?eia?, i?iioia?iaaoue iineaaeiaaoaeueii
iacaaiey, aeey /aai, i?aaeaa?eoaeueii onoaiiaea ia?ea? ia iacaaiee
i/a?aaeiiai aa?eaioa, aua?aoue eeaaeoo “Aa?ii”. Eo?ni? ieaaeaony a iiea
iaeiaiiaaiey ecaeaeey ?aai/aai ieia i?ia?aiiu. Inoaaony eeoue aianoe
iaiaoiaeeiua eciaiaiey e n?aaieoue aa?eaiou aiaeeca.

Anee ii eaeei-eeai i?e/eiai Au oioeoa oaeaeeoue eioi?iaoeeth ii
ecaeaeeth, onoaiiaeoa ia?ea? ia niioaaonoaothuai iaeiaiiaaiee e
ainiieuecoeoanue eeaaeoae “Oaeaeeoue”. Iinea no?aoothuaai
i?aaeoi?aaeaeaiey ia oaeaeaiee aeaiiuo eioi?iaoeey aoaeao oaeaeaia (?en.
7-9).

A?oiiu cao?ao

Ia eiia/iue oeiainiaue ?acoeueoao iaiin?aaenoaaiiia aeeyiea ieacuaaao
naaanoieiinoue, eioi?ay neeaaeuaaaony ec iinoiyiiuo e ia?aiaiiuo
?anoiaeia. Iinoiyiiuie iacuaathony ?anoiaeu, ia caaenyuea io iauaia
i?iecaiaenoaa (eiiia?/aneie naeaeee). E iei iiaeii ioianoe ?anoiaeu ii
niaea?aeaieth oi?aaeai/aneiai ia?niiaea, a?aiaeioth ieaoo, ?anoiaeu ia
?aeeaio, enneaaeiaaiey e o. ae. Ia?aiaiiuie iacuaathony ?anoiaeu,
caaenyuea io iauaia i?iecaiaenoaa e nauoa i?iaeoeoeee. E iei ioiinyony
ca?ieaoa i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo ?aai/eo, cao?aou ia iaoa?eaeu, nu?uea,
oiieeai, yeaeo?iyia?aeth, o?ainii?oe?iaeo e o. ae. Neaaeoao eiaoue a
aeaeo, /oi noiiu iinoiyiiuo e ia?aiaiiuo ?anoiaeia aeieaeiu
niioaaonoaiaaoue aiaeece?oaiiio ia?eiaeo. Auaa?eoa ioieo “A?oiia cao?ao”
(eeaaeoa ). A iiyaeaoaeny oaaeeoea oeaaeeoa iaeiaiiaaiey /aou?ao
a?oii ia?aiaiiuo cao?ao enoiaey ec oiai, eaeei ia?acii Au oioeoa
?ani?aaeaeeoue ia?aiaiiua ?anoiaeu (?en. 7-10). Oae, i?e aiaeeca
?aioaaaeueiinoe oaaeiiai i?iecaiaenoaa, ia?aiaiiua cao?aou iiaoo auoue
?ani?aaeaeaiu neaaeothuei ia?acii:

ca?ieaoa — e yoie a?oiia ia?aiaiiuo cao?ao ioiineony ca?aaioiay ieaoa
iniiaiuo ?aai/eo (oaae) ia aaeeieoeo i?iaeoeoeee;

cu?uea e iaoa?eaeu — nthaea ioiineony noieiinoue nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia,
aeeth/aaiuo a naaanoieiinoue i?iecaiaenoaa eiie?aoiiai ecaeaeey
(iai?eia?, noieiinoue oeaiae, ieoie, oo?ieoo?u e o. i. ia aaeeieoeo
i?iaeoeoeee);

eiiia?/aneea ?anoiaeu — e yoie a?oiia iiaoo auoue ioianaiu cao?aou ia
aaeeieoeo i?iaeoeoeee, naycaiiua n ?aaeecaoeeae aioiauo ecaeaeee
(iai?eia?, iieoiaoaeyi a ?aeeaiiuo oeaeyo eaaeaeia 10-a ecaeaeea
i?aaeeaaaaony aanieaoii ca n/ao oe?iu);

i?i/ea — caeanue io?aaeathony ia?aiaiiua cao?aou, eioi?ua ia ioiinyony
e ia?aui o?ai a?oiiai (iai?eia?, cao?aou ia yeaeo?iyia?aeth,
o?ainii?oe?iaeo, o?aiaiea

e o. i. ia aaeeieoeo i?iaeoeoeee). Caienue oeacaiiie eioi?iaoeee
inouanoaeyaony auai?ii eeaaeoe “Caiiiieoue”.

Eiiiiiaiou cao?ao

Auaa?eoa ioieo “Eiiiiiaiou cao?ao” (eeaaeoa ). Ia ye?aia iiyaeony
ionoay oaaeeoea, a eioi?ie aiineaaenoaee aoaeoo niaea?aeaoueny
iaeiaiiaaiey eiiiiiaioia cao?ao n oeacaieai noiiu e a?oiiu cao?ao (?en.
7-11). Aeey aaaaeaiey a oaaeeoeo aeaiiuo eniieuecoaony eeaaeoa . Ia
ye?aia iiyaeyaony ieii aaiaea enoiaeiie eioi?iaoeee, ia?aiauaiey ii
iieyi eioi?iai inouanoaeythony i?e iiiiue eeaaeoe . Caeanue
iaiaoiaeeii oeacaoue: iacaaiea eiiiiiaioa cao?ao; noiio cao?ao; oei
cao?ao. Oei cao?ao onoaiaaeeaaaony eeaaeoae a niioaaonoaee n
a?oiiaie cao?ao, oeacaiiuie ?aiaa

AIEIAIEA!

Noiiu eiiiiiaioia cao?ao, ioiinyueony e ia?aiaiiui ?anoiaeai,
oeacuaathony ec ?an/aoa ia aaeeieoeo i?iaeoeoeee.

Iinea aaiaea anae iaiaoiaeeiie eioi?iaoeee Aaoaio aieiaieth aoaeao
i?aaenoaaeaia oaaeeoea, niaea?aeauay iieiue nienie oeacaiiuo eiiiiiaioia
cao?ao (?en. 7-13). Anee a i?ioeanna ?aaiou iio?aaoaony eciaieoue
aeaiiua, oi, onoaiiaea ia?ea? ia iacaaiee iiaeeaaeauaai ei??aeoe?iaea
eiiiiiaioa cao?ao, iaaeieoa eeaaeoo . Ia ye?aia iiyaeony ieii,
niaea?aeauaa aeaiiua, eioi?ua Au iiaeaoa nei??aeoe?iaaoue (ni. ?en.
7-12).

Ei??aeoe?iaea oaeaea iiaeao i?iecaiaeeoueny iino?i/ii iaiin?aaenoaaiii
a oaaeeoea “Cao?aou”.

Ioeai/ii aaaaeaiiua aeaiiua iiaeii oaeaeeoue iaaeaoeai eeaaeoe ,
i?aaeaa?eoaeueii onoaiiaea ia?ea? ia no?iea, iiaeeaaeauae oaeaeaieth.
I?e yoii neaaa io oaeaeyaiie no?iee iiyaeony oi/ea — i?eciae oaeaeaiey.
Iinea auoiaea ec ?aaeeia “Eiiiiiaiou cao?ao” ioia/aiiua aeaiiua
aoaeoo oaeaeaiu. Onoaiiaeo ia oaeaeaiea iiaeii ioiaieoue iiaoi?iui
iaaeaoeai eeaaeoe (?en. 7-14). Aeey auoiaea ec ?aaeeia “Eiiiiiaiou
cao?ao” iaaeieoa eeaaeoo .

Aiaeec enoiaeiie eioi?iaoeee

Aieaeeoa a ioieo “Aiaeec oeaiu”. Aaoaio aieiaieth aoaeao i?aaeeiaeai
nienie aiaeece?oaiuo ia?aiao?ia (?en. 7-15 ).

Aiaeec oeaiu

Ioieo “Aiaeec oeaiu” onoaiaaeeaaaony ii oiie/aieth i?e aoiaea a
i?ia?aiio. I?e yoii aiaeece?othony oeaia, oeaia n IAeN, naaanoieiinoue,
iaeia ia i?eaueue, IAeN e ?aioaaaeueiinoue i?e ei??aeoe?oaiuo ia?aiao?ao
eiee/anoaa e /enoie i?eauee. Aua?aa yoio ioieo, Au iiaeaoa oeacaoue
eiee/anoai ecaeaeee (?acia? ia?oee) e ?acia? aeaeaaiie i?eauee.
Aica?auaynue e iaoaio i?eia?o, i?eiai eiee/anoai ecaeaeee 50 e
ieaie?oaioth i?eaueue 4 iei ?oa. I?e yoii ?an/ao inoaeueiuo ia?aiao?ia
aoaeao i?iecaaaeai aaoiiaoe/anee (?en. 7-16).

Aiaeec i?eauee

I?e auai?a ioieoa “Aiaeec i?eauee” i?iecaiaeeony aiaeec /enoie i?eauee,
naaanoieiinoe, iaeiaa ia i?eaueue, IAeN e ?aioaaaeueiinoe i?e
ei??aeoe?oaiuo ia?aiao?ao eiee/anoaa, oeaiu e oeaiu n IAeN. Caeanue Au
iiaeaoa eciaieoue cia/aiey eiee/anoaa e oeaiu. Oeaaeai, iai?eia?,
eiee/anoai ecaeaeee ?aaiui 80 e oeaio ecaeaeey 150 oun. ?oa. Cia/aiey
inoaeueiuo ia?aiao?ia eciaiyony aaoiiaoe/anee a niioaaonoaee n
aianaiiuie eciaiaieyie (?en. 7-17).

Aiaeec eiee/anoaa

I?e auai?a ioieoa “Aiaeec eiee/anoaa” i?iecaiaeeony aiaeec eiee/anoaa,
naaanoieiinoe, iaeiaa ia i?eaueue, IAeN e ?aioaaaeueiinoe i?e
ei??aeoe?oaiuo ia?aiao?ao /enoie i?eauee, oeaiu e oeaiu n IAeN. Caeanue
Au iiaeaoa eciaieoue cia/aiey i?eauee e oeaiu. Iai?eia?, iu oioei
ociaoue, i?e eaeii eiee/anoaa ecaeaeee i?aaei?eyoea iiaeao iieo/eoue
i?eaueue 4 iei ?oa., anee oeaia ecaeaeey inoaeanue i?aaeiae — 150 oun.
?oa. N eciaiaieai i?eauee inoaeueiua ia?aiao?u aoaeoo ia?an/eoaiu
aaoiiaoe/anee (?en. 7-18).

A?aoee ii?aaeaeaiey oi/ee e?eoe/aneiai iauaia i?iecaiaenoaa

Aeey iaaeyaeiie ioeaiee ?acoeueoaoia au/eneaiee eniieuecoaony a?aoee,
iciaeiieoueny n eioi?ui iiaeii, eniieuecoy ioieo “A?aoee” eeai eeaaeoo
(?en. 7-19). Onoaiiaea “iuoueth” (eee n iiiiuueth eeaaeo-no?aeie)
eo?ni?, eiathuee oi?io iaeeiiiie no?aeee, ia i?ioeaioioth oeaeo oie eee
eiie ninoaaiie /anoe iauae au?o/ee e iaaeaa eeaaeoo , iiaeii
aucaaoue ia ye?ai oaeno “Iiiiuue”, niaea?aeauee e?aoeoth oa?aeoa?enoeeo
aua?aiiiai ia?aiao?a. Aiaeiae/ii iiaeii aucaaoue oaeno n iienaieai
e?eoe/aneie oi/ee, i?aaeaa?eoaeueii onoaiiaea eo?ni? ia iineaaeiae.

Ia a?aoeea ai?eciioaeueiay eeiey niioaaonoaoao eeiee iinoiyiiuo
?anoiaeia. Eeiey, auoiaeyuay ec oi/ee «0» niioaaonoaoao eeiee au?o/ee.
Inoaeueiua eeiee ia a?aoeea no?iyony, enoiaey ec aaee/ei oeacaiiuo Aaie
ia?aiaiiuo ?anoiaeia. Niune a?aoeea a neaaeothuai. *oiau i?e caaeaiiuo
ia?aiao?ao naaanoieiinoe e i?eauee auionoeoue eiee/anoai i?iaeoeoeee,
niioaaonoaothuaa e?eoe/aneiio iauaio i?iecaiaenoaa (aanue iauai
i?iaeoeoeee i?eieiaaony ca 100 % e oeacuaaaony ia ai?eciioaeueiie ine
a?aoeea), iaiaoiaeeii cao?aoeoue aeaiaaeiua n?aaenoaa a noiia, oeacaiiie
ia aa?oeeaeueiie ine a?aoeea.

Oaeei ia?acii, anee e?eoe/aneee iauai i?iecaiaenoaa ?aaai O %, oi
i?aaei?eyoea ia/iao iieo/aoue i?eaueue i?e iauaia i?iecaiaenoaa,
i?aauoathuai e?eoe/aneee. A iaoai i?eia?a e?eoe/aneay oi/ea iauaia
i?iecaiaenoaa ?aaia 31 %, /oi ninoaaeyao 33 ecaeaeey, ia auione eioi?uo
iaiaoiaeeii cao?aoeoue 4,99 iei. ?oa. N i?iecaiaenoaa 34-ai ecaeaeey,
i?aaei?eyoea ia/iao iieo/aoue i?eaueue. Ieaie?oaioth i?eaueue 4 iei.
?oa. i?aaei?eyoea iieo/eo i?e auionea 107 ecaeaeee (100%-y iiuiinoue
i?iecaiaenoaa).

Eeoa?aoo?a

A.Oineeia “Eo?n I?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa ”, Ecaeaoaeuenoai “
Iaaeaeoia?iaeiua ioiioaiey ” 1993 aiae.

Super Manager 3.0 “ ?oeiaiaenoai iieueciaaoaey ”, Iaaeaeoia?iaeiue
Oeaio? Oeiainiai Yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey “ Eaien ”, 1994 aiae.

A.A.O?ooeeee “Eae aeiaeoueny oniaoa” , ?inneeneee ainoaea?noaaiiue
eioi?iaoeeiiii-ecaeaoaeueneee Oeaio? “?anioaeeea”.

Iaeaaeaiea

TOC \o “1-3” Oeiainiaia ieaie?iaaiea. GOTOBUTTON _Toc324596770
PAGEREF _Toc324596770 2

Aaaaeaiea. GOTOBUTTON _Toc324596780 PAGEREF _Toc324596780 2

?an/aoiay ii?ia i?eauee GOTOBUTTON _Toc324596781 PAGEREF
_Toc324596781 2

Eiaanoeoeee GOTOBUTTON _Toc324596782 PAGEREF _Toc324596782 3

Eiaanoeoeeiiiua i?iaeou (ii/aio aeaiueae iaanoeaieaathony) GOTOBUTTON
_Toc324596783 PAGEREF _Toc324596783 6

Yeiiiie/aneee aiaeec GOTOBUTTON _Toc324596784 PAGEREF _Toc324596784
7

Aoiae a i?ia?aiio GOTOBUTTON _Toc324596785 PAGEREF _Toc324596785 7

Eniieueciaaiea oaenoa “Iiiiuue” GOTOBUTTON _Toc324596786 PAGEREF
_Toc324596786 8

Aaiae enoiaeiie eioi?iaoeee GOTOBUTTON _Toc324596787 PAGEREF
_Toc324596787 8

Ecaeaeea GOTOBUTTON _Toc324596788 PAGEREF _Toc324596788 8

A?oiiu cao?ao GOTOBUTTON _Toc324596789 PAGEREF _Toc324596789 8

Eiiiiiaiou cao?ao GOTOBUTTON _Toc324596790 PAGEREF _Toc324596790 9

Aiaeec enoiaeiie eioi?iaoeee GOTOBUTTON _Toc324596791 PAGEREF
_Toc324596791 10

Aiaeec oeaiu GOTOBUTTON _Toc324596792 PAGEREF _Toc324596792 10

Aiaeec i?eauee GOTOBUTTON _Toc324596793 PAGEREF _Toc324596793 10

Aiaeec eiee/anoaa GOTOBUTTON _Toc324596794 PAGEREF _Toc324596794
10

A?aoee ii?aaeaeaiey oi/ee e?eoe/aneiai iauaia i?iecaiaenoaa GOTOBUTTON
_Toc324596795 PAGEREF _Toc324596795 10

Eeoa?aoo?a GOTOBUTTON _Toc324596796 PAGEREF _Toc324596796 12

Iaeaaeaiea GOTOBUTTON _Toc324596797 PAGEREF _Toc324596797 13

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