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Финансово-промышленные группы как новое явление в финансовых отношениях

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Ieienoa?noai iauaai e i?ioanneiiaeueiiai ia?aciaaiey ?inneeneie
Oaaea?aoeee

Othiaineee ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao

Oeiainiaue oaeoeueoao

Eaoaae?a oeiainia, aeaiaaeiiai ia?auaiey e e?aaeeoa

Eo?niaay ?aaioa

ii i?aaeiaoo( Oeiainu

oaia( Oeiainiai-i?iiuoeaiiua a?oiiu eae iiaia

yaeaiea a oeiainiauo ioiioaieyo.

?oeiaiaeeoaeue:

Iauaiei Ia?aa?eoa
Ieeieaaaia

Aaoi? ?aaiou(

*oaeeiiaa Iaoaeuey,
a?.1241, 2 eo?n,

aeiaaiia ioaeaeaiea,

oeiainiaue oaeoeueoao.

Othiaiue, 1996.

Oeiainiai-i?iiuoeaiiua a?oiiu eae

iiaia yaeaiea a oeiainiauo ioiioaieyo.

Niaea?aeaiea.

no?.

Aaaaeaiea.
………………………………………………………………
…2

(. Iiiyoea oeiainiai-i?iiuoeaiiuo a?oii e

i?aaeiinueee eo nicaeaiey.
………………………………………3

1.1. I?e/eiu iiyaeaiey oeiainiai-

i?iiuoeaiiuo a?oii.
………………………………………3

1.2. I?iaeaiu, ?aoaaiua oeiainiai-

i?iiuoeaiiuie a?oiiaie.
………………………………5

1.3. Ie?iaie iiuo aeayoaeueiinoe oeiainiai-

i?iiuoeaiiuo a?oii.
……………………………………..6

((. No?oeoo?iua yeaiaiou oeiainiai-i?iiuoeaiiie

a?oiiu e eo acaeiinaycue.
…………………………………………9

2.1. O/anoieee oeiainiai-i?iiuoeaiiie

a?oiiu.
………………………………………………………………
9

2.2. No?oeoo?iua yeaiaiou oi?ie?othueony

oeiainiai-i?iiuoeaiiuo a?oii. ……………………10

2.3. ?ieue aaieia a aeayoaeueiinoe oeiainiai-

i?iiuoeaiiuo a?oii.
……………………………………..13

2.4. Eeanneoeeaoeey oeiainiai-i?iiuoeaiiuo

a?oii.
………………………………………………………………
.14

(((. Oeiainiai-i?iiuoeaiiua a?oiiu a ?innee:

i?iaeaiu e ia?niaeoeau ?acaeoey. …………………………17

3.1. Ia?aua oaae ii nicaeaieth oeiainiai-

i?iiuoeaiiuo a?oii a ?innee.
………………………..17

3.2. Oeiainiai-i?iiuoeaiiua a?oiiu e

ainoaea?noaaiiay iiaeaea?aeea.
………………………………18

3.3. Nicaeaiea oeiainiai-i?iiuoeaiiuo a?oii a

io?aneyo iai?iiiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe. ……………..20

3.4. Ianoiyuaa e aoaeouaa oeiainiai-

i?iiuoeaiiuo a?oii a ?innee.
…………………………22

Caeeth/aiea.
………………………………………………………………
23

I?eeiaeaiea 1.
…………………………………………………………..24

Nienie eniieueciaaiiie eeoa?aoo?u.
………………………..26

Aaaaeaiea.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy a ?acaeouo ?uii/iuo no?aiao aeoeaii i?ienoiaeeo
neeyiea oeiainiaiai eaieoaea n i?iiuoeaiiui. Ia yoie iniiaa i?ienoiaeeo
ia?aciaaiea oeiainiai-i?iiuoeaiiuo a?oii (OIA). Yoio i?ioeann io?aaeaao
iauaeoeaiua onoie/eaua oaiaeaioeee nia?aiaiiie ?acaeoie yeiiiieee.
Acaeiinaycue iniiaiuo aeaeia eaieoaeia (oeiainiaiai e i?iiuoeaiiiai)
aeinoeaea oaeie noaiaie, /oi eo ioaeaeueiia nouanoaiaaiea iaaiciiaeii.

A ca?oaaaeiie yeiiiieea i?yiia n?aueaaiea oeiainiaiai e i?iiuoeaiiiai
eaieoaeia iniaaiii ao?ii i?ioaeaao a iineaaeiaa iienoieaoea. Iaeiaei a
iaoae no?aia iaiaoeeenue iiia/aeo i?ioeaiiieiaeiua oaiaeaioeee –
iainiaeaiea iai?ioa oeiainiaiai io i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai eaieoaea. Ii
aic?iaeeaoeeny aa?oa?iue iaiai iiaeoaa?aeee aiiaue, /oi caieiooue
i?iecaiaenoaaiiue eaieoae ia i?iaeaeiaony a naiai ?acaeoee aac
ianeoaeeaaiey oeiainiaui eaieoaeii. Iiyoiio a oi?ie?iaaiee e?oiiuo OIA
oniao?eaaaony aiciiaeiinoue i?aiaeieaiey ia oieueei i?iaeai ioaeaeueiuo
oeiainiauo einoeoooia e i?iiuoeaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee, ii e i?aiaeieaiey
yeiiiie/aneiai e?ecena a iaoae no?aia.

Oeaeue aeaiiie ?aaiou – ?anniio?aoue, /oi i?aaenoaaeytho niaie
oeiainiai-i?iiuoeaiiua a?oiiu, auyaeoue eo cia/aiea e aeeyiea ia
yeiiiieeo no?aiu. Oaeaea ioaeii iiaeaa?aiooue aiaeeco iauaeoeaiua
oneiaey, aucaaaoea ino?oth iaiaoiaeeiinoue oi?ie?iaaiey
oeiainiai-i?iiuoeaiiuo a?oii a iaoae no?aia. Iaiaoiaeeii oaeaea
io?aceoue eo ?acaeoea a ?innee, ioiaoeoue nouanoaothuea i?iaeaiu e
iieacaoue ia?niaeoeau. Iniaaiii aaaeii i?e yoii ?oeiaiaenoaiaaoueny
iiuoii ca?oaaaeiuo no?ai, aaea n?aueaaiea oeiainiaiai e i?iiuoeaiiiai
eaieoaeia i?ienoiaeeo oaea aeiaieueii aeeeoaeueiia a?aiy.

(. Iiiyoea oeiainiai-i?iiuoeaiiuo

a?oii e i?aaeiinueee eo nicaeaiey.

*oiau ia/aoue ?anniio?aiea aeayoaeueiinoe oeiainiai-i?iiuoeaiiuo a?oii e
i?aaeiinueie eo nicaeaiey, iaiaoiaeeii aaanoe ii?aaeaeaiea yoiai
iiiyoey.

Niaeanii Oaaea?aeueiiio caeiio ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee io 30 iiya?y 1995
aiaea ? 190-OC “I oeiainiai-i?iiuoeaiiuo a?oiiao” oeiainiai-i?iiuoeaiiay
a?oiia – yoi niaieoiiinoue th?eaee/aneeo eeoe, aeaenoaothueo eae
iniiaiia e aei/a?iea iauanoaa eeai iieiinoueth eee /anoe/ii
iauaaeeieaoeo naie iaoa?eaeueiua e iaiaoa?eaeueiua aeoeau (nenoaia
o/anoey) ia iniiaa aeiaiai?a i nicaeaiee oeiainiai-i?iiuoeaiiie a?oiiu a
oeaeyo oaoiieiae/aneie eee yeiiiie/aneie eioaa?aoeee aeey ?aaeecaoeee
eiaanoeoeeiiiuo e eiuo i?iaeoia e i?ia?aii, iai?aaeaiiuo ia iiauoaiea
eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoe e ?anoe?aiea ?uieia nauoa oiaa?ia e oneoa,
iiauoaiea yooaeoeaiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa, nicaeaiea iiauo ?aai/eo iano.

1.1. I?e/eiu iiyaeaiey oeiainiai-i?iiuoeaiiuo

a?oii.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy a ioa/anoaaiiie yeiiiieea aicieeee ii?aaeaeaiiua
oneiaey, aucuaathuea iaiaoiaeeiinoue nicaeaiey oeiainiai-i?iiuoeaiiuo
a?oii.

No?oeoo?iua naeaeae a i?iiuoeaiiinoe iaoneaaeeaatho aeoeaiia
ia?ai?ioeee?iaaiea iiiaeo i?aaei?eyoee, oi?ie?iaaiea iiauo
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo eiiia?aoeeiiiuo naycae; anooieee a aeaenoaea ?uii/iua
iaoaieciu oeiaine?iaaiey i?iecaiaeeoaeae, iaino?eeanue eiieo?aioeey, a
ia?aoth i/a?aaeue n eiii?oiuie oiaa?aie.

?aaioa a oaeeo oneiaeyo o?aaoao ?ai?aaiecaoeee i?aaei?eyoee, eo
oaoiieiae/aneiai ia?aaii?oaeaiey e niioaaonoaaiii eiioeaio?aoeee
eiaanoeoeeiiiuo ?ano?nia.

I?iiuoeaiiua i?aaei?eyoey auioaeaeaiu eneaoue iiaua oi?iu eiiia?aoeee,
iaania/eaathuea aiciiaeiinoue ?aaeecaoeee aeieain?i/iuo
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo i?ia?aii. A oneiaeyo eioeyoeee ia?ai?ioeee?iaaiea
i?aaei?eyoee i?aaenoaaeyao cia/eoaeueioth o?oaeiinoue n oi/ee c?aiey
i?eaea/aiey aeieain?i/iuo eiaanoeoeee. Neaaay aeiaiai?iay aeenoeeieeia,
iaii?aaeaeaiiinoue ?acoeueoaoia i?eaaoecaoeee, ieii/aoaeueiiai
ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiey aeoeee e eiinieeaeaoeee eiio?ieueiuo iaeaoia aeaeatho
iiaaaeaiea iiiaeo i?aaei?eyoee i?inoi iai?aaeneacoaiui.

Iiyoiio aeey i?aaei?eyoee eaeay oi?ie?iaaiey ioiineoaeueii noaaeeueiuo
ia?aciaaiee n yooaeoeaiie aioo?aiiae nenoaiie oi?aaeaiey ieacaeanue
i?eaeaeaoaeueiie. A ?aieao oaeeo ia?aciaaiee i?iecaiaeeoaee eiia/iie
i?iaeoeoeee ieoatho iaaeaaeaeo ia oeo/oaiea aeenoeeieeiu e oneiaee
iinoaaie eiiieaeoothueo ecaeaeee, a iinoaaueee iaaeathony ia eo
noaaeeueiue nauo.

Oaeaea iaeiie ec i?e/ei, iiaeoieeioaoeo I?aaeoaeuenoai e nicaeaieth OIA,
yaeyaony iaaeinoaoie oeiainiauo ?ano?nia. Aiciiaeiinoue iiauneoue oaeei
ia?acii oi?aaeyaiinoue ?ano?naie, ecuneaoue aeiiieieoaeueiua n?aaenoaa
aeey oeiaine?iaaiey e ?acaeoey i?aaei?eyoee, aaconeiaii,
i?eaeaeaoaeueia. Anee aoaeoo nicaeaiu iiuiua OIA, eiaaea aieueoia
eiee/anoai aii?inia iiaeii aoaeao ?aoaoue ia i/aiue aieueoeie
aeaiueaaie, a eo i?aaeeueiui eniieueciaaieai, yoi aeano ?aaeueiue oain
niya/eoue neooaoeeth a yeiiiieea.

*oi iaoaao nicaeaieth oeiainiai-i?iiuoeaiiuo a?oii, i?eaea/aieth
eiaanoeoeee a i?iecaiaenoaaiioth noa?o? Ioaa/ay ia yoio aii?in,
aee?aeoi?a e?oiiuo ?inneeneeo i?aaei?eyoee e naea?aeeaathuei oaeoi?ai
ioiinyo neaaeothuaa: ionoonoaea eaeeo-eeai aa?aioee ia neo/ae ?enea,
ionoonoaea ianoiyuae nianoaaiiinoe ia caieth, i?oaeey i?iecaiaenoaa;
?uiea iniiaiuo oiiaeia eae aiciiaeiiai caeiaa iiae eiaanoeoeee.

Aeeyao oaeaea ia iaauaiaeiinoue aeiaeaiey aeaiaa a i?iecaiaenoai
eioeyoeey, ionoonoaea caeiiia, caueuathueo eiaanoi?ia, ianoaaeeueiay
iieeoe/aneay ianoaiiaea, a a ?acoeueoaoa yoiai – iaoaa?aiiinoue
“aea?aeaoaey aeaiaa” a caao?aoiai aeia: eo/oa naeaeaoue ei?ioeea
aeaiueae, eiiaa?oe?iaaoue eo e ioeeaaeuaaoue. Eoie-i?iaeae – yoi
?inneeneee iee eiaanoeoeee.

Ii ioeaieai naieo ?inneeneeo aaiee?ia, aeaaiua oaeoi?u, naea?aeeaathuea
aeoeaiinoue oeiainiauo einoeoooia, neaaeothuea: ionoonoaea iaaeaaeiuo
iaoaieciia aica?aoa e?aaeeoia, noi?ie?iaaaoaainy aeaiaaeiiai ?uiea;
ianiaa?oainoai caeiaiaiai i?aaa, i?ioeaioiie iieeoeee OeA ?O, nenoaiu
no?aoiaaiey aeeaaeia; iaiiaeaioiaeaiiinoue eeeaioia e eniieueciaaieth
oneoa e?aaeeoiuo o/?aaeaeaiee, a niaoeeaeenoia aaiea – e iiaiio
niaea?aeaieth ?aaiou e?aaeeoiuo einoeoooia.

Aianoa n oai, iaiaoiaeeiinoue o/anoey aaieia a oi?ie?iaaiee OIA
i?eia?aoaao ana aieaa ino?ue oa?aeoa? a nayce n oai, /oi eiaanoe?iaaiea
aaaeiuo i?iaeoia a i?iiuoeaiiinoe, iniaaiii a aiaiii-i?iiuoeaiiue
eiiieaen, o?aaoao aieueoeo iauaiia eaieoaea e iiae neeo eeoue e?oiiui
aaieai.

Oaeei ia?acii, i?e aiaeeca iuiaoiaai ninoiyiey i?iiuoeaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee
noaiiaeony i/aaeaeiui, /oi iniiaiie o?oaeiinoueth aeey ieo yaeyaony
i?eaea/aiea eiaanoeoeee. A ionoonoaea eiaanoeoeee ia oieueei oi?iiceo
iiaeuai i?iecaiaenoaa, ii e niinianoaoao aai aeaeueiaeoaio niaaeo.

1.2. I?iaeaiu, ?aoaaiua oeiainiai-i?iiuoeaiiuie a?oiiaie.

Eaeea aea aua i?iaeaiu iiaeii ?aoeoue n iiiiuueth oi?ie?iaaiey
oeiainiai-i?iiuoeaiiuo a?oii?

I?aaeaea anaai, n/eoaao aee?aeoi? iaaeaaaeiinoaaiiiai aiaeeoe/aneiai
oeaio?a A.E.Iiiiia?aa, yoi i?iaeaia ?inoa ecaea?aeae i?iecaiaenoaa ec-ca
iayooaeoeaiinoe i?aaiecaoeeiiiuo no?oeoo? e ianiaa?oainoaa yeiiiie/aneeo
ioiioaiee iaaeaeo i?aaei?eyoeyie. Yoi ino?aeoay i?iaeaia aeey
cia/eoaeueiie /anoe i?iiuoeaiiinoe.

Aeaeaa. Ianeii?aeeie?iaaiiay oeaiiaay iieeoeea i?aaei?eyoee aucuaaao
?ino oeai ia eiia/ioth i?iaeoeoeeth, ?anooo iaieaoaaee. I?aaiecaoeeiiiay
ianaycaiiinoue i?aaei?eyoee i?e acaeiiii iaaeiaa?ee oaaee/eaaao
iio?aaiinoue a e?aaeeoao eiiia?/aneeo aaieia iiae aunieea i?ioeaiou, /oi
aua aieaa acaei/eaaao oeaio e oneeeaaao iooie eaieoaea ec i?iiuoeaiiinoe
a noa?o ia?auaiey.

Aeey iiiaeo i?aaei?eyoee eaeay OIA i?aaenoaaeyao eioa?an n oi/ee c?aiey
?aoaiey eiaiii yoeo i?iaeai.

Iaeiaei ia ana i?eaea?aeeaathony iiaiey, /oi nicaeaiea
oeiainiai-i?iiuoeaiiuo a?oii a iaoae no?aia eiaao ino?oth
iaiaoiaeeiinoue.

A ea/anoaa aeaaiiai a?aoiaioa i?ioeaieeia OIA auaeaeaaaony oi, /oi
iauaaeeiaiea i?iecaiaenoaa e eaieoaea a e?oiiuo ianooaaao iiaeao neeueii
iaa?aaeeoue eeeiaoo eiieo?aioeee. A aoaeoueo OIA iaeioi?ua aeaeyo oaeaea
iiuiua no?oeoo?u, eioi?ua iiaoo eniieueciaaoue naia aeeyiea a oeaeyo
iieo/aiey eueaio iiae iayooaeoeaiua i?iaeou e i?iecaiaenoai
iaeiieo?aioiie i?iaeoeoeee.

E ana-oaee a ?innee iiea aieina “ca” cao/ao oaaaeeoaeueiaa.
Aeaenoaeoaeueii, iauaaeeiaiea eaieoaea e i?iecaiaenoaa aeaao
aiciiaeiinoe aieaa eioaineaiiai ?acaeoey eae eiaeono?eaeueiiai, oae e
oeiainiaiai naeoi?ia yeiiiieee. Aeaeaeouay neea nicaeaiey
oeiainiai-i?iiuoeaiiuo a?oii – no?aieaiea iaania/eoue aa?aioe?iaaiiue
aeinooi e oeiainiai-e?aaeeoiui e iaoa?eaeueii-oaoie/aneei ?ano?nai e
iaeaieaa iaaeaaeiia e i?eaueueiia ?aciauaiea eaieoaea.

Nae/an neiaeeeanue neooaoeey, eiaaea aieueoay /anoue oiaa?ia ia iaoai
?uiea i?eaacaia ec ae?oaeo no?ai, iaoe iaeeea i?aaei?eyoey ia iiaoo
auaea?aeaoue eiino?aiiie eiieo?aioeee. Oeiainiaue eaieoae ?aciauai.
Aeaiaaeiua n?aaenoaa ia iiiaaeatho a i?iecaiaenoai, a aeeoioee?othony a
?acee/iuo naaiaioao oeiainiaiai ?uiea (?uiie ainoaea?noaaiiuo
e?aoein?i/iuo iaeeaaoeee, aaethoiue ?uiie, ?uiie iaaeaaieianeeo
e?aaeeoia). Oeiainiaue ?uiie ioaeaeeeny io i?iecaiaenoaa, a
Oeaio?aeueiue aaie e I?aaeoaeuenoai ?O niinianoaotho yoiio io?uao,
iiiu?yy oeiainiaue eaieoae e /enoi niaeoeyoeaiui iia?aoeeyi. Aeaaioneay
ie?aieaea ainoaea?noaaiiiai aeieaa ?aca?auaao oeiainenoia, n/eoaao E.
Iaeaeeaa. A 1995 a., aiai?eo ii, au?iaiyee iieiaeaiea ?oaey, ii
iinoaiaiii oe?aieyaony. Iaeiaei ii ia iiaeao caueoeoue i?iiuoeaiiinoue,
oae aea eae e iioeeiu e oaiiaeaiiua aa?uea?u. Oaeoi? eiino?aiiie
eiieo?aioeee ia naaiaeiy yaeyaony ?aoathuei. Iu oaea iioa?yee iiiaeanoai
io?aneae – auoiaoth oaoieeo, ?aaeeiyeaeo?iieeo, ia i/a?aaee
iaoeiino?iaiea. Auoiae a neiaeeaoaeny neooaoeee iaeei – nicaeaiea
e?oiiuo no?oeoo?.

Iiaeaiaey eoiae ii aeaoi ?acaeaeai, neaaeoao iiae/a?eiooue neaaeothuaa:
nicaeaiea oeiainiai-i?iiuoeaiiuo a?oii a iaoae no?aia eiaao ino?oth
iaiaoiaeeiinoue. Oaeea no?oeoo?u niiniaiu ?aoeoue nouanoaothuea i?iaeaiu
e niinianoaiaaoue iiaeuaio e iineaaeothuaio ?acaeoeth ioa/anoaaiiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa.

1.3. Ie?iaie iiuo aeayoaeueiinoe

oeiainiai-i?iiuoeaiiuo a?oii.

A no?aiao n auniei ?acaeoie ?uii/iie yeiiiieeie OIA ea?atho aanueia
aaaeioth ?ieue e caieiatho cia/eoaeueiia ianoi a ia?iaeiii oicyenoaa.
Oeaeueth eo nicaeaiey yaeyaony no?aieaiea yooaeoeaii aicaeaenoaiaaoue ia
?uiie iin?aaenoaii eiio?iey iaae i?iecaiaenoaaiii-?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiui
oeeeeii ec iaeiiai oeaio?a. E i?eia?o, eiiieaen “?eaa?-?oae”, oicyeiii
eioi?iai aue Aai?e Oi?ae, a ia/aea (( aaea ioaaouaae aanue i?ioeann
i?iecaiaenoaa aaoiiiaeeae – io auieaaee noaee aei auionea aioiaie
iaoeiu.

Iniaaiii eioa?aniui yaeyaony ?aaoee?iaaiea aeayoaeueiinoe OIA a ?acaeouo
no?aiao, eioi?ia iiaeao i?eieiaoue ?acee/iua oi?iu:

1. Eii?aeeiaoeey aeayoaeueiinoe o/anoieeia iin?aaenoaii oieaeeiaiaie
eiiiaiee. I?eia? – eiioea?i O.Oeeea (O?A). A aai ninoaa aoiaeeo 49
eiiiaiee, a o./. 17 oeiainiauo. Ii i?aaenoaaeyao niaie a?oiie?iaeo
e?oiiuo oe?i ieeaiiieenoe/aneiai oeia. Eiioea?i ?aniieaaaao nianoaaiiie
aaieianeie eiiiaieae e iie?aaony a naiae aeayoaeueiinoe ia “Iaiaoeeee
aaie”.

2. ?ieue eii?aeeiaoi?a iiaoo auiieiyoue o?ano-oiiaeu e aaie (a?oiia
?ieoaeea?a, iai?eia?).

3. Aaeeinoai o/anoieeia OIA iaania/eaaaony /a?ac acaeiiia aeaaeaiea
aeoeeyie. Oaeay oi?ia ?ani?ino?aiaia a ssiiiee. Ia?ae?anoiia aeaaeaiea
aeoeeyie i?aaeioa?auaao caoaao ni noi?iiu eiino?aiiuo eaieoaeenoia.
Oeaio?aeueiue i?aai eii?aeeiaoeee aeayoaeueiinoe – niaauaiey
i?aceaeaioia oe?i, i?iaiaeyueany nae?aoii. Cae?uoinoue eanaaony aeaaea
iiaanoee aeiy.

Acaeiiioiioaiey o/anoieeia OIA a ?acaeouo no?aiao iiaeii naanoe e
nio?oaeie/anoao e eiieo?aioeee. O/anoea a a?oiia ia ono?aiyao
aiciiaeiinoe naiinoiyoaeueiiai ?acaeoey oe?i, a, neaaeiaaoaeueii, e
eiieo?aioiuo i?ioeainoiyiee iaaeaeo eie.

Ninoaa o/anoieeia OIA n oa/aieai a?aiaie eciaiyaony. Neeyiey e
iiaeiuaiey e?oiiaeoeo ei?ii?aoeee ?acei aeoeaece?iaaeenue ia Caiaaea a
70 – 90-o aiaeao. Iaeioi?ay /anoue neeyiee e iiaeiuaiee i?ienoiaeeo a
?aieao iaeiie e oie aea OIA.

Iainiiauaay iaycaoaeueiinoue OIA ioaeii ioi?aaeyoueny io iniaaiiinoae
?inneeneiai i?iecaiaenoaa e io ie?iaiai iiuoa. Ie?iaay i?aeoeea OIA
iieacaea: oeiainiai-i?iiuoeaiiua a?oiiu yeiiiie/anee oeaeaniia?aciu. Iie
iaania/eaatho naiei /eaiai iaeaa/aiiue aeinooi e oeiainiaui ?ano?nai e
iia?aoeeyi n oeaiiuie aoiaaaie, eiio?ieue iaae eniieueciaaieai yoeo
?ano?nia, eo/oaa ciaiea yeiiiie/aneie eiiuthieoo?u, eii?aeeiaoeeth
aeaenoaee, niaaeeiaiea n?aaenoa, iiiiuue oe?iai, ieacaaoeiny a oyaeaeii
iieiaeaiee.

Iaeiaei i?eiaieoaeueii e naaiaeiyoiae ?innee e oi?ie?iaaieth OIA
neaaeoao ioianoenue inoi?iaeii. Ia?acaeoinoue ?uii/iuo ioiioaiee e
eiieo?aioeee a ?acoeueoaoa nicaeaiey oaeeo a?oii iiaeao onoaoaeoueny. Ia
Caiaaea iie oi?ie?iaaeenue aeey oiai, /oiau ineaaeoue iaaaoeaiua
iineaaenoaey ?uii/iie noeoee e ia?aie/eoue eiieo?aioeeth; a ssiiiee,
iethn e oiio, – aua e aeey i?aaeioa?auaiey caoaaoa ei?ii?aoeee
eiino?aiiui eaieoaeii. O ian oaeoth iioeaaoeeth n/eoaoue ?aoathuae yaii
iao iniiaaiee.

Ii a oi aea a?aiy oi?ie?iaaiea OIA a ?innee oeaeaniia?acii. Iie neoaeao
iaania/aieth iaaeaaeiuo, ioaa/athueo o?aaiaaieyi ea/anoaa iinoaaie e
nauoa, oi anoue ?aoaieth i?iaeaiu, i/aiue aieaciaiiie e aaaeiie aeey
ioa/anoaaiiie yeiiiieee. Ie?iaay i?aeoeea naeaeaoaeuenoaoao, /oi
oeiainiai-i?iiuoeaiiua a?oiiu eiatho aieueoea aiciiaeiinoe a ?aoaiee ia
oieueei yoie i?iaeaiu, ii e a icaei?iaeaiee yeiiiieee a oeaeii.

((. No?oeoo?iua yeaiaiou oeiainiai-i?iiuoeaiiie

a?oiiu e eo acaeiinaycue.

2.1. O/anoieee oeiainiai-i?iiuoeaiiie

a?oiiu.

O/anoieee oeiainiai-i?iiuoeaiiie a?oiiu – th?eaee/aneea eeoea,
iiaeienaaoea aeiaiai? i nicaeaiee OIA, o/?aaeaeaiiay eie oeaio?aeueiay
eiiiaiey oeiainiai-i?iiuoeaiiie a?oiiu eeai iniiaiia e aei/a?iea
iauanoaa, ia?acothuea OIA.

A ninoaa OIA aoiaeyo eiiia?/aneea e iaeiiia?/aneea i?aaiecaoeee, a oii
/enea eiino?aiiua. Eneeth/aiea ninoaaeytho iauanoaaiiua e ?aeeaeiciua
i?aaiecaoeee. O/anoea aieaa /ai a iaeiie OIA ia aeiioneaaony.

N?aaee o/anoieeia OIA iaycaoaeueii iaee/ea i?aaiecaoeee, aeaenoaothueo a
noa?a i?iecaiaenoaa oiaa?ia e oneoa, a oaeaea aaieia e eiuo e?aaeeoiuo
i?aaiecaoeee.

A ninoaa o/anoieeia OIA iiaoo aoiaeeoue oaeaea eiaanoeoeeiiiua
einoeooou, iaainoaea?noaaiiua iaineiiiua e eiua oiiaeu, no?aoiaua
i?aaiecaoeee, o/anoea eioi?uo iaoneiaeaii eo ?ieueth a iaania/aiee
eiaanoeoeeiiiiai i?ioeanna a OIA.

Oeiainiai-i?iiuoeaiiua a?oiiu iaeaaeatho iaeiie oa?aeoa?iie
iniaaiiinoueth – yoi ionoonoaea eaeie au oi ie auei oi?iaeueii
cae?aieaiiie i?aaiecaoeeiiiie no?oeoo?u. Enneaaeoy nayce e caaeneiinoe
ei?ii?aoeee ii ninoaao iaeueeia e eo aeieyi a aeoeeiia?iii eaieoaea, ii
ninoaao /eaiia i?aaeaiee, niaaoia aee?aeoi?ia e o.ae., ii oa?aeoa?o e
oneiaeyi e?aaeeoiuo naeaeie, ii nenoaiaoe/aneei eiio?aeoiui niaeaoaieyi,
iiaeii i?eaeeceoaeueii i/a?oeoue a?aieoeu oie eee eiie OIA. Ii iaeuecy,
iai?eia?, a/eieoue ene eaeie-ieaoaeue OIA, oaeiai ioaao/eea ia
nouanoaoao. Iiaeii eeoue eiaoue aeaei n ioaeaeueiuie oe?iaie, aoiaeyueie
a a?oiio, ii ia n a?oiiie eae oaeiaie.

E?aeiyy caiooaiiinoue e ?acaaoaeaiiinoue aioo?aiiae no?oeoo?u OIA
aucaaia no?aieaieai iaeneiaeueii caiooaoue o/ao e ieieiece?iaaoue ia
yoie iniiaa iaeiaiaua ieaoaaee, a oaeaea iaieoe nouanoaothuea o?aaiaaiey
ainoaea?noaaiiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey, a oii /enea ia?aie/aiey ia
eiaanoeoeeiiioth aeayoaeueiinoue.

Neaaeoao oaeaea iiae/a?eiooue, /oi ia?aciaaiea OIA – yoi ia i?inoi
i?aaiecaoeeiiii-i?aaiaie i?ioeann ioi?ieaiey acaeiiaeaenoaey oeiainiauo
e i?iiuoeaiiuo eiiiaiee, yoi neeaaeuaathueany a oa/aiea aeeeoaeueiiai
a?aiaie nayce i?iiuoeaiiuo, oi?aiauo, oeiainiauo oe?i e i?aaiecaoeee.
Yoe nayce neeaaeuaathony iin?aaenoaii nenoaiu o/anoey ( a oii /enea
ia?ae?anoiiai aeaaeaiey aeoeeyie), ee/iie oiee, aeieain?i/iuo e?aaeeoiuo
iaycaoaeuenoa e eiuo oi?i caaeneiinoe.

2.2. No?oeoo?iua yeaiaiou

oi?ie?othueony ?inneeneeo OIA.

*oiau auaeaeeoue iniiaiua yeaiaiou eiie?aoii ioa/anoaaiiuo
oeiainiai-i?iiuoeaiiuo a?oii, iaiaoiaeeii i?ineaaeeoue, eae
oi?ie?iaaeenue e?oiiua /anoiua eaieoaeu, oae eae eiaiii oaeo iaee/ey
eaieoaea yaeyaony iniiaiui a oi?ie?iaaiee OIA.

Neaainoue ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe e caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa, ca/aoi/iia
ninoiyiea ?uii/iuo einoeoooia, auno?ua oaiiu i?eaaoecaoeee e ioe?uoey
yeiiiieee, iaiiuoiinoue ianaeaiey nicaeaee aeaaiaeaoioth ianoaiiaeo aeey
niiioaiiiai oi?ie?iaaiey e?oiiuo /anoiuo eaieoaeia. Auno?ua oaiiu
?acaeoey e?oiiaeoeo oeiainiauo no?oeoo? a ?innee – a iiaeaaeythuai
aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa ?acoeueoao eo oaniuo naycae n ainoaea?noaaiiui
naeoi?ii e iiiai/eneaiiuo iayaiuo eueaio, eioi?ua ei oaeaaony iieo/eoue
io i?aaeoaeuenoaa ia eiaeeaeaeoaeueiie iniiaa. Ainoaea?noaaiiue naeoi?
noae naiaai ?iaea eieoaaoi?ii aeey /anoiuo oe?i.

Eueaioiue, i?eaeeaae?iaaiiue aeinooi e ainoaea?noaaiiui ?ano?nai noae
iaiaoiaeeiui oneiaeai oniaoiiai ?acaeoey e?oiiiai /anoiiai aeciana.

Aeey aaieianeiai naeoi?a ?innee oa?aeoa?ai aunieee oaii ?uii/iuo
i?aia?aciaaiee. Ia i?ioyaeaiee 1988 – 1991 aa. ii aue ioe?uoui aeey
aoiaea ia ?uiie iiauo o/anoieeia. O?aaiaaiey e ieieiaeueiiio ?acia?o
onoaaiiai eaieoaea auee e?aeia iecee, aini?aaei?eyoey eiaee aieueoea
n?aaenoaa e noaiiaeeenue o/?aaeeoaeyie “naieo” aaieia.

Iaeiaei ianoiyuee ?anoeaao aaieia naycai n eeaa?aeecaoeeae a 1992 aiaeo.
Aaieianeee naeoi? aieueoa anao auea?ae io eioeyoeee. Neooaoeeth
onoaoaeee iayooaeoeaiay ieaoaaeiay nenoaia, ia?acaeoinoue aaethoiiai
?uiea e iaonoie/eaue aaethoiue eo?n ?oaey. Ana yoi aaiee eniieueciaaee a
naieo eioa?anao.

Iinoaiaiiia oaeanoi/aiea eiio?iey a 1993 aiaeo ni noi?iiu OeA ?O,
iiauoaiea ieieiaeueiie aaee/eiu onoaaiiai eaieoaea niinianoaiaaei
oeaio?aeecaoeee aaieianeiai eaieoaea. Oieueei ca ia?aua 8 ianyoeaa 1993
a. 73 eiiia?/aneeo aaiea (3,5% io eo iauaai /enea) auee i?aia?aciaaiu a
ioaeaeaiey eee aei/a?iea aaiee.

Yeniainey e?oiiuo aaieia aioo?e naiiai aaieianeiai naeoi?a, oi?ie?iaaiea
naoae noiee/iuo aaieia a ?aaeiiao – iaeia ec iniaaiiinoae iuiaoiaai
yoaia ?acaeoey OIA. Aaiee eaeoo ia yoi, /oiau iieo/eoue aeinooi e
ianoiui aeaiaaeiui ?ano?nai, oe?aieoue acaeiiioiioaiea n iaeeeie
aaieaie. Iiaeiuaiea aieaa iaeeiai aaiea ?anoeaieaaaony ?oeiaiaenoaii
aaiea eae aieaa yooaeoeaiua aeiaeaiey, /ai ioe?uoea oeeeaea “ia ionoii
ianoa”.

Neaaeoao oaeaea o/anoue, /oi aaiee eiatho aieaa eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiue
ia?niiae, /ai inoaeueiua yeiiiie/aneea noauaeou. Yoi iicaieyao ei
oi?ie?iaaoue nianoaaiiua eiaanoeoeeiiiua no?aoaaee, iaoeaeaiiua ia
i?eia?aoaiea nouanoaaiiie aeiee a naeoi?ao, eioi?ua eiatho aiciiaeiinoe
aeey ?inoa oaea a n?aaeian?i/iie ia?niaeoeaa.

Oaeei ia?acii, iaeiei ec aaaeiaeoeo yeaiaioia oi?ie?othueony
ioa/anoaaiiuo oeiainiai-i?iiuoeaiiuo a?oii yaeythony aaiee.

Aoi?ay noa?a auno?iai iaeiieaiey eaieoaea – oi?aiaey. Aunieay
i?eaueueiinoue oi?aiaiai aeciana a ?innee naycaia n ia?iiiuie ?acee/eyie
a no?oeoo?ao aioo?aiieo e ie?iauo oeai, naeaeaaoeie aiaoithth oi?aiaeth
n?aco iinea ioeaca io ainoaea?noaaiiie iiiiiieee ia yoo noa?o aanueia
yooaeoeaiie.

Ai iiiaeo neo/ayo oi?aiaua no?oeoo?u iiyaeyeenue ?aiueoa, /ai
oeiainiaua, e aunooiaee iaoa?eineeie eiiiaieyie ii ioiioaieth e
iineaaeiei. Iaeiaei n o/aoii i?eaueueiinoe aaieianeiai aeciana
i?aeoe/anee ana caiaoiua oi?aiaua eiiiaiee ia oieueei ioe?uee
nianoaaiiua aaiee, ii e ?anniao?eaatho nianoaaiioth aaieianeoth
aeayoaeueiinoue a ea/anoaa i?ei?eoaoiiai iai?aaeaiey ?acaeoey.

A naith i/a?aaeue, aaiee iaiin?aaenoaaiii aiaae?ythony ia ?uiie oi?aiauo
oneoa, nicaeaaay aei/a?iea eiiiaiee. Aaiee oaeaea aeoeaii o/anoaotho a
i?eia?aoaiee aeoeee e?oiiaeoeo i?aaei?eyoee ?icie/iie oi?aiaee.

Oaeei ia?acii, aaiee e oi?aiaua eiiiaiee yaeythony a naaiaeiyoieo
oneiaeyo iniiaiuie no?oeoo?iia?acothueie yeaiaioaie OIA. Eiaiii caeanue
iniiaiie enoi/iee aeioiaeia a?oiiu (eioi?ua iiaoo /anoe/ii
ia?a?ani?aaeaeyoueny a iieueco ae?oaeo aoiaeyueo a a?oiio i?aaei?eyoee,
a oii /enea ia inaiaiea iiauo ?uieia).

E?iia oiai, a nia?aiaiiie no?oeoo?a OIA, eae i?aaeei, i?enoonoaotho aua
aeaa “oeiiauo” yeaiaioa – no?aoiaay eiiiaiey e /aeiaue eiaanoeoeeiiiue
oiiae. A oneiaeyo eioeyoeee e i?e ionoonoaee a iauanoaa o?aaeeoeee
iio?aaeaiey no?aoiauo oneoa ?acaeoea no?aoiaaiey noaeeeaaaony ni
ni?iniauie ia?aie/aieyie. Iaeiaei a ?aieao aieaa e?oiiuo no?oeoo?
no?aoiaua eiiiaiee ieacuaathony e?aeia iieaciuie, a oii /enea aeey
aaciaeiaiaiai oaaee/aiey iaee/iuo auieao ?aaioathuei a OIA (/a?ac
no?aoiaua ieaoaaee) e i?aaiecaoeee eaaaeueiiai auaica eaieoaea (/a?ac
ia?ano?aoiaaiea ca ?oaaaeii).

Eiaanoeoeeiiiua oiiaeu ecia/aeueii eniieueciaaeenue aeey aeeoioeyoeee
i?eaaoecaoeeiiiuo /aeia (ii aeaiiui Aineiieiouanoaa, ia ia/aei 1994
aiaea oiiaeu nia?aee ieiei 30% anao auiouaiiuo /aeia a ?innee), a
aiineaaenoaee – aeey niaeoeyoeaiie ea?u aao/a?aie. Iniaaiiinoue
?inneeneiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa iio?aaiaaea io aaieia nicaeaiey aei/a?ieo
no?oeoo? aeey aiaae?aiey ia yoio iiaue ?aiie. Eiaiii naaiaeiy
eiaanoeoeeiiiua oiiaeu ea?atho iniiaioth ?ieue a i?aeoe/aneii
inouanoaeaiee eiaanoeoeeiiiie no?aoaaee OIA a /anoe i?eia?aoaiey iaeaoia
aeoeee e ioaeaeueiuo i?aaei?eyoee a oiaea i?eaaoecaoeee. Caeanue iaaei
o/anoue, /oi ?inneeneia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai ia?aie/eaaao i?yiua
aaieianeea eiaanoeoeee a iaaaieianeea i?aaei?eyoey. Niinia iaoiaea
caeiia – o/?aaeaeaiea aei/a?ieo eiiiaiee, a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue
eiaanoeoeeiiiuo eiiiaiee e oiiaeia.

A iaiueoae noaiaie a no?oeoo?a nia?aiaiiuo OIA ?ani?ino?aiaiu oaeea
i?aia?aciaaiey, eae, iai?eia?, oe?iu ii ?aaioa n iaaeaeaeeiinoueth.
N?aaieoaeueii iiaay oaiaeaioeey, eioi?ay aoaeao oneeeaaoueny, –
oi?ie?iaaiea /anoiuo iaineiiiuo oiiaeia.

*oi eanaaony i?iiuoeaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee, oi oaeoe/anee
oeiainiai-i?iiuoeaiiay a?oiia auae?aao i?ei?eoaoiua iai?aaeaiey
eiaanoe?iaaiey ia iniiaa ni/aoaiey neaaeothueo e?eoa?eaa:

1) oieeaeueiinoue i?aaei?eyoee, eo iiiiiieueiia iieiaeaiea ia ?inneeneii
?uiea;

2) i?iaeoeoeey i?aaei?eyoey yaeyaony iniiaiie aeey aoiaeyueo a OIA
oi?aiauo eiiiaiee;

3) aeiaeaiey a naeoi?a, aeiiieiythuea io?aneaaoth no?oeoo?o a?oiiu;

4) iaee/ea ee/iuo naycae a naeoi?a, aioiaiinoue ?oeiaiaeeoaeae
i?aaei?eyoee e nio?oaeie/anoao n e?oiiui aaieii;

5) e?oiiay i?in?i/aiiay caaeieaeaiiinoue i?aaei?eyoee aaieo: a yoii
neo/aa ?oeiaiaenoai OIA iaaeaaony niaianoiuie oneeeyie ii?iaeeciaaoue
ianoaiiaeo, oae eae ia aeaeeo ae?oaiai niiniaa aa?iooue auaeaiiua
e?aaeeou.

Ia iniiaaiee anaai auoa neacaiiiai iiaeii naeaeaoue auaiae, /oi
o/anoieeaie oeiainiai-i?iiuoeaiiie a?oiiu iiaoo auoue ?acee/iua
i?iiuoeaiiua i?aaei?eyoey, oeiainiai-e?aaeeoiua o/?aaeaeaiey e i?i/ea
th?eaee/aneea eeoea. Iaeiaei a ianoiyuaa a?aiy iniiaiuie yeaiaioaie OIA
yaeythony aaiee, iiyoiio iaiaoiaeeii iiae?iaiaa io?aceoue ?ieue
oeiainiai-e?aaeeoiuo einoeoooia a oi?ie?iaaiee e ?acaeoee
oeiainiai-i?iiuoeaiiuo a?oii.

2.3. ?ieue aaieia a aeayoaeueiinoe oeiainiai-i?iiuoeaiiuo a?oii.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy iniiaiui no?oeoo?iia?acothuei yeaiaioii OIA yaeyaony,
eae yoi oaea ioia/aeinue auoa, oeiainiai-e?aaeeoiue einoeooo.

Nouanoaoao aeaaea iiaiea, /oi ii-ianoiyuaio yooaeoeaiuie e i?i/iuie
iiaoo noaoue eeoue oa OIA, eioi?ua eieoeee?iaaiu eiaiii aaieaie, a ia
a?oiiaie i?iiuoeaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee. Iiiuoee oaeeo i?aaei?eyoee
o/?aaeaeaoue nianoaaiiua aaiee iaeii?iaeoeoeaiu. A nayce n yoei
iaiaoiaeeii i?aiaeieaoue eae iiaeii nei?aa io/oaeaeaiiinoue e iaaeiaa?ea
iaaeaeo aaieaie e i?aaei?eyoeyie.

E /eneo iniiaiuo i?aaeiinueie e oneiaee aeoeaiiai o/anoey aaiea a
i?ioeanna oi?ie?iaaiey e ?acaeoey OIA ioiinyony:

1. Iaiin?aaenoaaiiia e aeoeaiia o/anoea niaoeeaeenoia aaiea a ?ac?aaioea
eiioeaioeee e iiaeaioiaea i?iaeoia ii?iaoeaiuo aeoia, iai?aaeaiiuo ia
oi?ie?iaaiea OIA.

2. Aeoeaiia acaeiiaeaenoaea i?aaenoaaeoaeae aaiea e aieiaiie
i?aaiecaoeee a oi?ie?oaiie eiiiaiee n ?oeiaiaeeoaeyie i?aaei?eyoee,
aeeth/aaiuie a aa ninoaa, oaea ia yoaia iiaeaioiaee nicaeaiey OIA.

3. I?aaiecaoeey a ?aieao eiiieaena iieiiai oeeeea ?anoe?aiiiai
aini?iecaiaenoaa e iaee/ea iioeiaeueiie i?iecaiaenoaaiiie no?oeoo?u n
o/aoii caeioa?aniaaiiinoe aaieia a eiaanoe?iaaiee i?aaei?eyoee, eiathueo
ii?aaeaeaiiua i?iecaiaenoaaiii-oaoie/aneea e
i?aaiecaoeeiiii-yeiiiie/aneea acaeiinayce.

4. Cae?aieaiea ca aaieii ooieoeee oeiainiai-?an/aoiiai oeaio?a OIA.

5. Oi?ie?iaaiea ia aaca aaiea oeaio?aeueiiai aeaiiceoa?ey,
ianeoaeeaathuaai auione e ?aciauaiea aeoeee eiiiaiee e aoiaeyueo a aa
ninoaa aeoeeiia?iuo iauanoa.

6. Iaiin?aaenoaaiiia o/anoea niaoeeaeenoia aaiea a ?ac?aaioea i?iaeoia
eiaanoeoeeiiiuo i?ia?aii.

7. O/anoea aaieianeeo niaoeeaeenoia a i?iaeoe?iaaiee e aiaae?aiee
nenoaiu oi?aaeaiey OIA, iaee/ea i?aaenoaaeoaeae aaiea a ninoaaa i?aaiia
oi?aaeaiey eiiiaieae (a ea/anoaa /eaiia niaaoa aee?aeoi?ia,
iaaethaeaoaeueiiai niaaoa).

Oaeei ia?acii, aaiee yaeythony iaiaoiaeeiui yeaiaioii
oeiainiai-i?iiuoeaiiie a?oiiu e aeoeaii o/anoaotho a eo nicaeaiee e
?acaeoee, eiay ia oi iauaeoeaiua i?aaeiinueee.

2.4. Eeanneoeeaoeey oeiainiai-i?iiuoeaiiuo

a?oii.

Oeiainiai-i?iiuoeaiiua a?oiiu iiaeii eeanneoeoee?iaaoue neaaeothuei
ia?acii, enoiaey ec oiai, /aai eiaiii oioyo o/?aaeeoaee OIA:

1. Ia?aue aeae OIA iiaeao oi?ie?iaaoueny ii eieoeeaoeaa oeiainiauo
einoeoooia, caeioa?aniaaiiuo a iaaeaaeiii e aeinoaoi/ii i?eaueueiii
aeiaeaiee n?aaenoa. Oeaeaiai?aaeaiii eiinieeaee?oy aeoeee oi?aiauo,
i?iiuoeaiiuo, o?ainii?oiuo i?aaei?eyoee (iaiin?aaenoaaiii eee /a?ac
nicaeaiea oieaeeiaiauo no?oeoo?), oeiainiaua eiiiaiee noaiiayony yae?ii
a?oiiu.

OIA yoiai aeaea ioee/athony oe?ieei ?aciiia?aceai aoiaeyueo a ieo
i?aaei?eyoee, eioi?ua iiaoo auoue niaa?oaiii ia naycaiiuie ae?oa n
ae?oaii ie ii i?iecaiaenoaaiiie eiiia?aoeee, ie ii ae?oaei oicyenoaaiiui
eioa?anai. Yoio aeae OIA aicieeaao a ?acoeueoaoa aeeaa?neoeeaoeee
eaieoaea oeiainiai-e?aaeeoiuo o/?aaeaeaiee, iiauoathuae aai
iaaeaaeiinoue a eciai/eaie eiiuthieoo?a ?uiea. A naaiaeiyoieo oneiaeyo
ia?aciaaiey OIA oaeiai ?iaea niiieoaeueii, o.e. aaiee ecaaaatho
aeieain?i/iuo aeiaeaiee a i?iiuoeaiiua i?aaei?eyoey, iniaaiii e?oiiua.

2. Aoi?ie aeae OIA iiaeao aicieeiooue i?e iaiaoiaeeiinoe iaania/eoue
i?iecaiaenoaaiii-oaoie/aneia ?acaeoea a?oiiu i?iiuoeaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee e
iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneeo i?aaiecaoeee, eiathueo iauea eioa?anu a
oaoiieiae/aneii acaeiiaeaenoaee ii nicaeaieth ii?aaeaeaiiie i?iaeoeoeee
e inaiaieth iiauo oaoiieiaee. A iaaeaeaeii i?ioeii aeey yoeo oeaeae
nicaeaaaeenue e?oiiua i?iecaiaenoaaiii-oicyenoaaiiua eiiieaenu, eioi?ua
iiaee auoue i?aaiecaoeeiiii ioi?ieaiu a i?iecaiaenoaaiiua eee
iao/ii-i?iecaiaenoaaiiua iauaaeeiaiey, a oaeaea iooai onoaiiaeaiey
onoie/eauo eiiia?aoeeiiiuo naycae, ioi?ieaiiuo aeiaiai?iuie ioiioaieyie
ia iniiaa oiiaeiauo ia?yaeia e ?acia?yaeie. Ii naaiaeiy
ainoaea?noaaiiiai oeiaine?iaaiey e oiiaeiaiai iaoa?eaeueii-oaoie/aneiai
iaania/aiey iao. E oiio aea a ?acoeueoaoa aeoeeiie?iaaiey e
i?eaaoecaoeee i?aaei?eyoee aaeeinoaaiiie oi?iie oicyenoaaiiuo eiioaeoia
noaea nenoaia o/anoee, oi anoue acaeiii?iieeiiaaiey aeoeeiia?iie
nianoaaiiinoe ?acee/iuo i?aaei?eyoee.

I?aaiecaoi?aie yoie oi?iu OIA aunooiatho i?iiuoeaiiua i?aaei?eyoey, ii
iie ioaeaeathony a eiaanoeoeeyo, eioi?uie ?aniieaaatho aaiee, no?aoiaua
e eiaanoeoeeiiiua eiiiaiee.

Oae eae oeiainiai-e?aaeeoiua einoeooou iniai ia aeaeatho oeiaine?iaaoue
i?iiuoeaiiinoue, i?iiuoeaiiua i?aaei?eyoey auioaeaeaiu nicaeaaaoue naie
aaiee. Nae/an, aeaeay nicaeaoue OIA, iiiaea oaeaea niae?athony
o/?aaeaeaoue iiaua aaiee a ninoaaa yoeo a?oii. Yoe aaiee, eae i?aaeei,
iaeiiiuiu. E oiio aea nae/an Oeaio?aeueiue aaie ?O onoaiiaee aeey
eiiia?/aneeo aaieia ieaeiee i?aaeae onoaaiiai eaieoaea, eioi?ue o?oaeii
i?aiaeieei.

Yoe oeiu OIA i?eaioe?iaaiu ia eioa?anu /anoiuo i?aaei?eyoee e nianoaaiii
?uii/iua oneiaey eo ?aaiou.

3. Yoio aeae OIA i?ecaai niaeaenoaiaaoue oi?ie?iaaieth ainoaea?noaaiiiai
naeoi?a a yeiiiieea. Ca?iaeuoe oaeeo OIA oaea nicaeaiu a oi?ia
oieaeeiaiauo eiiiaiee. *oiau i?aa?aoeoue eo a OIA, ioaeii aaanoe a eo
ninoaa e?oiiia oeiainiai-e?aaeeoiia o/?aaeaeaiea.

Yoe OIA i?eaioe?iaaiu ia i?aaei?eyoey eeai ainoaea?noaaiiua, eeai
aeoeeiie?iaaiiua, ii n aunieei oaeaeueiui aanii oaaea?aeueiie
nianoaaiiinoe.

E yoiio aeaeo iiaeii ioianoe OIA, eioi?ua iaia?aiu nicaeaoue
?aaeiiaeueiua aaeieieno?aoeee a naieo e?ayo e iaeanoyo, aeaeay
eniieueciaaoue iiaoth no?oeoo?ioth oi?io aeey aeinoeaeaiey naieo oeaeae.

4. Yoio aeae i?aaeoniio?aii nicaeaaaoue ia iniiaa iaaei?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuo
niaeaoaiee. I?aaeiieaaaaony, /oi yoe OIA iaeaaeatho aeaoiy
iniaaiiinoyie: ai-ia?auo, nicaeathony n o/anoeai eiino?aiiiai eaieoaea,
i?eaeaeaaiiai iaaei?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuie niaeaoaieyie a ?acee/iuo oi?iao,
ai-aoi?uo, ia?a/aiue ?inneeneeo o/anoieeia OIA ii?aaeaeyaony
I?aaeoaeuenoaii ?O ec /enea i?aaei?eyoee n aeieae ainoaea?noaaiiie
nianoaaiiinoe a eo eaieoaea ia iaiaa 25%.

Iaeiaei iiiaea ia n/eoatho nicaeaiea OIA ia aaca ainoaea?noaaiiuo
i?aaei?eyoee ia?niaeoeaiui. Iaeaieaa i?aaeii/oeoaeai, iieaaaao
caaaaeothuee ioaeaeii i?aaiecaoeee oi?aaeaiey nianoaaiiinoueth e
i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa I?aaeoaeuenoaa ?O I?ioi?ia A.A., aa?eaio
i?aaiecaoeee OIA i?aaei?eyoeyie ?innee e no?ai NIA. Yoi iiiiaeao
ainnoaiiaeoue oaoiieiae/aneea nayce, iiaaneoue acaeiioth
caaeieaeaiiinoue, onoaiiaeoue oaniua eiioaeou, i?a?aaiiua a iineaaeiea
aiaeu.

Iiaeii i?eaanoe neaaeothuea oeiiaua aa?eaiou oi?ie?iaaiey
oeiainiai-i?iiuoeaiiuo a?oii:

1. “Eieiiaaie”. E?oiiue, auno?i ?anoouee aaie, eiae nenoaio aei/a?ieo
oeiainiauo, eiaanoeoeeiiiuo, no?aoiauo e ae?oaeo eiiiaiee, i?iaiaeyueo
niaeaniaaiioth iieeoeeo ia oeiainiauo ?uieao. N o/aoii eca?aiiuo
io?aneaauo i?ei?eoaoia aaie i?eia?aoae cia/eoaeueiua iaeaou aeoeee
?acee/iuo i?aaei?eyoee, i?e/ai iaiaycaoaeueii naieo eeeaioia. Aunieay
i?eaueueiinoue iniiaiiai aaieianeiai aeciana iicaieyea oeiaine?iaaoue
yeniaineth a i?iiuoeaiiinoue iooai iieoiee aao/a?ia e i?yiuo
i?eia?aoaiee aeoeee.

2. “Aeueoaaaie”. N?aaieoaeueii iaaieueoie aaie, eiio?iee?othuee iaeei ec
naiuo aieueoeo a no?aia /aeiauo eiaanoeoeeiiiuo oiiaeia. Aaieianeea
n?aaenoaa auee eiaanoe?iaaiu a iniiaiii a eioaineaioth noa?oiaoth
?aeeaiioth eiiiaieth ii aeeoioeyoeee /aeia ianaeaiey e ia/aeueioth
aeayoaeueiinoue oiiaea. Oaeouay aeayoaeueiinoue oiiaea oeiaine?iaaeanue
ca n/ao iia?aoeee ia /aeiaii ?uiea e ca n/ao iia?aoeee n aeoeeyie
i?eaaoece?iaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee. Iaeiia?aiaiii i?ienoiaeeei iinoaiaiiia
eiaanoe?iaaiea nianoaaiiuo /aeia a i?eaaoece?oaiua iauaeou.

3. “Aeii?ioeann” / IEIAE. Yoi a ai?acaei aieueoae noaiaie i?iiuoeaiiay
a?oiia, /ai i?aaeuaeouea. “Aeii?ioeann” – iaeei ec ia?auo e?oiiuo
eiiia?aoeaia a no?aia a iaeanoe aeioaoiieiaee e iaooaia?a?aaioee.
O/?aaeaeaiiay a?oiiie eiaanoeoeeiiiay eiiiaiey IEIAE noaea iaeiei ec
ia?auo a ?innee aeoeeiia?iuo iauanoa, aeoeaii i?eaeaeaaoeo aeaiueae
ianaeaiey. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy IEIAE i?aeoe/anee ?aaeecoao
eiaanoeoeeiiioth no?aoaaeth “Aeii?ioeanna”. Ca 1993 aiae a?oiiie auee
i?eia?aoaiu ia /aeiauo aoeoeeiiao aeoeee ieiei 100 i?iiuoeaiiuo
i?aaei?eyoee a oeie/aneie e iaooaia?a?aaaouaathuae i?iiuoeaiiinoe, a
oaeaea a naeoi?ao a?aaeaeaineiai iaoeiino?iaiey. N?aaee iaeaieaa
ecaanoiuo – iieoiea i?eia?ii 20% aeoeee iauaaeeiaiey O?aeiao. Aoiaeyuee
a a?oiio I?iiuoeaiii-eiaanoeoeeiiiue aaie n?aaee i?i/eo ooieoeee
oeiaine?iaae i?eia?aoaiea i?eaaoecaoeeiiiuo /aeia ca n/ao niaoeeaeueii
iieo/aiiuo iaaeaaieianeeo e?aaeeoia. Ianeoaeeaaiea e?aaeeoia
inouanoaeyeinue ca n/ao oaeouae i?eauee /eaiia a?oiiu.

(((. Oeiainiai-i?iiuoeaiiua a?oiiu a ?innee: i?iaeaiu e ia?niaeoeau
?acaeoey.

3.1. Ia?aua oaae ii nicaeaieth oeiainiai-i?iiuoeaiiuo a?oii a ?innee.

Oeiainiai-i?iiuoeaiiua a?oiiu – yaeaiea n?aaieoaeueii iiaia a ?inneeneie
yeiiiieea. Eo aicieeiiaaiea naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i oi?ie?iaaiee e?oiiiai
neiy oeiainiai-yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaiee. *oi oaeaeinue ia naaiaeiy
naeaeaoue ii nicaeaieth OIA? Eaeiaa ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaay aaca eo
aeayoaeueiinoe?

Aei aeaeaa?y 1995 aiaea oeiainiai-i?iiuoeaiiua a?oiiu oi?ie?iaaeenue ia
iniiaaiee Oeaca I?aceaeaioa ?O io 5 aeaeaa?y 1993 a., a eioi?ii auee
i?aaeoniio?aiu ia?u ainoaea?noaaiiie iiaeaea?aeee a?oii e ii?aaeaeaiiua
ia?aie/aiey. Ai eniieiaiea Oeaca auee i?eiyou niioaaonoaothuea
iinoaiiaeaiey I?aaeoaeuenoaa 23 iay 1994 a. ?508 e 19 ethiy 1994 a.
?707, eioi?ua cao?oaeiyee nicaeaiea OIA iannie oi?iaeueiuo i?aiyonoaee.
Iai?eia?, cai?auaeinue aeeth/aiea a a?oiio e?oiiuo i?aaei?eyoee n
aieueoie /eneaiiinoueth caiyouo e o.i.

30 iiya?y 1995 aiaea aue i?eiyo Oaaea?aeueiue caeii ?O “I
oeiainiai-i?iiuoeaiiuo a?oiiao”, iniiauaathueeny ia oaea aeaenoaothueo
ii?iaoeaiuo aeoao. Iaeiaei yoio caeii eneeth/aao e caiaiyao eo iaeioi?ua
iieiaeaiey. I?eiyoea caeiia, i?ecaaiiiai ?aaoee?iaaoue aeayoaeueiinoue
OIA, iiaeao oieueei i?eaaonoaiaaoueny. O/eouaay cia/aiea OIA ca
?oaaaeii, anoue iniiaaiey iieaaaoue, /oi a ?innee OIA ia?aianoyony n
ai?eciioa a yieoeaio? yeiiiieee, /aio a iaiaeie noaiaie aoaeao
niaeaenoaiaaoue i?eiyoue caeii. Iaeiaei iaeioi?ua, a /anoiinoe,
eaiaeeaeao yeiiiie/aneeo iaoe A.A.Aieioei, n/eoatho, /oi ia ana ino?ua
aii?inu iaoee io?aaeaiea a auoaaeoai a naao caeiia, /oi ii ?yaeo
iai?aaeaiee ia oaeaeinue i?iaeaeiooueny aia?aae e o/anoue iiiaea
auneacuaaaiua a oiaea ianoaeaeaiey caia/aiey. Ii oai ia iaiaa,
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai i?iaeaeioeinue aeaeaei aia?aae a yoie iaeanoe, e
i?eiyoea caeiia, aaconeiaii, aoaeao niinianoaiaaoue aeaeueiaeoaio
oi?ie?iaaieth e ?acaeoeth oeiainiai-i?iiuoeaiiuo a?oii a ?innee.

Eaeea auaiaeu auee naeaeaiu ii eoiaai ia?auo eao aeayoaeueiinoe OIA?
Auaiaeu neaaeothuea:

1) Aac ainoaea?noaaiiiai aiaoaoaeuenoaa a i?aaiecaoeeth OIA ia
iaieoenue. Ii iaaei aei ieieioia nie?aoeoue aeeyiea /eiiaieeia a yoio
i?ioeann.

2) Iiiaea OIA nicaeaiu ia aaca oi?acaeiaiiuo oi?aaeaiee ieienoa?noa e
aaaeiinoa. Yoi aucuaaao iianaiea, o.e. yoi iiaoo auoue aeooua,
aooaoi?iua OIA, iayooaeoeaiua aeey yeiiiieee.

3) OIA, inouanoaeythuea eiaanoeoeeiiiua i?iaeou, iiaoo oaea/ii
aienaoueny a neooaoeeth, aicieeooth iinea eiaanoeoeeiiiuo oi?aia.
Ni/aoaiea yoeo i?ioeannia – i?iaaaeaiey eiaanoeoeeiiiuo oi?aia e
nicaeaiey OIA – iiaeao i?eianoe aieueooth iieueco yeiiiieea.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy ana nouanoaothuea oeiainiai-i?iiuoeaiiua a?oiiu
ioee/athony ae?oa io ae?oaa, ii iauaaeeiytho eo iauea iai?aaeaiey a
niaa?oaiee i?aeoeee oi?ie?iaaiey OIA:

1. Niyoea eneonnoaaiiuo ia?aie/aiee ia nicaeaiea yooaeoeaiuo
iauaaeeiaiee oeiainiaiai e i?iiuoeaiiiai eaieoaea.

2. ?ac?aaioea iaoaiecia iia?aoeaiie ainoaea?noaaiiie iiaeaea?aeee OIA a
i?ei?eoaoiuo iai?aaeaieyo.

3. Ioeac i eueaio e noeioeia OIA a ae?oaeo i?iiuoeaiiuo noa?ao.

4. Iiaeaioiaea eaae?ia oi?aaeaioeaa ea/anoaaiii iiaiai o?iaiy.

5. Au?aaioea aaeeiiai iaoiaeieiae/aneiai iiaeoiaea e ainoaea?noaaiiiio
?aaoee?iaaieth i?ioeannia oi?ie?iaaiey OIA.

Oaeei ia?acii, a iaoae no?aia nicaeaia iaiaoiaeeiay i?aaiaay aaca ii
aeayoaeueiinoe oeiainiai-i?iiuoeaiiuo a?oii e oaea eiaaony iaaieueoie
iiuo a iaeanoe oi?ie?iaaiey e ?acaeoey OIA. Iaaeaainy, /oi nouanoaothuea
iaaei?aaioee aoaeoo ono?aiaiu a aeeaeaeoaa a?aiy, e
oeiainiai-i?iiuoeaiiua a?oiiu aoaeoo niaeaenoaiaaoue noaaeeecaoeee
yeiiiie/aneie neooaoeee a no?aia.

3.2. Oeiainiai-i?iiuoeaiiua a?oiiu e

ainoaea?noaaiiay iiaeaea?aeea.

Iiiaea aaoi?u iiae/a?eeaatho, /oi nicaeaiea OIA ioaa/aao i?aaeaea anaai
eioa?anai ainoaea?noaa. Iineaaeiaa iieo/aao aiciiaeiinoue iaania/eoue
aieaa aunieee o?iaaiue yooaeoeaiinoe, aeeiaie/iinoe, naaeaine?iaaiiinoe
e oi?aaeyaiinoe yeiiiieee. Ii aaoi?u oaeaea ioia/atho, /oi eioa?anu
o/anoieeia OIA a naith i/a?aaeue, eae i?aaeei, niaiaaeatho n eioa?anaie
ainoaea?noaa.

A oaeie neooaoeee i/aaeaeii, /oi a i?ioeanna nicaeaiey OIA ainoaea?noai
aeieaeii ieacuaaoue iiaeaea?aeeo eo noaiiaeaiey e ?acaeoey. I?e yoii
?a/ue eaeao ia oieueei i i?aaeinoaaeaiee aeioaoeee e noaneaeee.

Iniiaiie aii?in acaeiiaeaenoaey ainoaea?noaa e OIA – ii?aaeaeaiea e
caaeaenoaiaaiea eiie?aoiuo ia? ainoaea?noaaiiie iiaeaea?aeee e
noeioee?iaaiey, iaania/eaathueo iieiaeeoaeueiue yooaeo. A yoie nayce
eiiieaen eiie?aoiuo ia?, iiaoueo iiceoeaii iiaeeyoue ia i?aaiecaoeeth
OIA, aeaeeony neaaeothuei ia?acii:

1. Iiaaoaiea caaeieaeaiiinoe oaaea?aeueiiai e ?aaeiiaeueiuo athaeaeaoia
ia?aae o/anoieeaie OIA a n/ao iaeiaia, iiaeeaaeaueo eie e oieaoa a
athaeaeaou.

2. Ioiaia aeey o/anoieeia OIA aaainiauo ieaoaaeae ii iaeiao ia i?eaueue.

3. Ca/ao oauoeia, iiianaiiuo o/anoieeaie OIA, i?e ii?aaeaeaiee
iaeiaiiaeaaaaiie i?eauee aieiaiiai i?aaei?eyoey.

4. ?ac?aoaiea i?iaeaaee o/anoieeaie a?oiiu naiae i?iaeoeoeee ae?oaei aa
/eaiai ii oeaiai ieaea naaanoieiinoe.

5. Aaeeiia?aiaiiia nienaiea cao?ao ii caeoiea iaoa?eaeueiuo ?ano?nia ia
naaanoieiinoue i?iaeoeoeee n ca/aoii IAeN, oiea/aiiiai iinoaaueeai
?ano?nia, i?e ii?aaeaeaiee noiiu IAeN, iiaeeaaeauae oieaoa a athaeaeao.

6. Inouanoaeaiea yenii?oii-eiii?oiuo iia?aoeee
i?aaei?eyoeyie-o/anoieeaie OIA aac aianaiey caeiaiauo noii ia n/aoa
oaiiaeai (i?e iaee/ee aa?aioee aaiea-/eaia OIA).

7. Iaaeaeaiea o/anoieeia OIA i?aaii yenii?oa no?aoaae/anee aaaeiuo
nu?ueaauo oiaa?ia ii i?iaeoeoeee, i?iecaiaeeiie a ?aieao OIA.

8. I?aaeinoaaeaiea ion?i/ee aei caaa?oaiey naeaeee ii oieaoa oaiiaeaiiuo
ieaoaaeae i?e i?iaaaeaiee yenii?oiuo e eiii?oiuo iia?aoeee.

9. Ia?aciaaiea eiaanoeoeeiiiuo e no?aoaae/aneeo oiiaeia OIA n
iai?aaeaieai a ieo /anoe io/eneaiee a io?aneaaua aiaathaeaeaoiua oiiaeu.

10. Nicaeaiea oiiaeia OIA (iaaeno?aoa, nioeno?aoa, caiyoinoe, IEIE?) n
iai?aaeaieai a ieo iaycaoaeueiuo io/eneaiee.

11. Aeiiouaiea ion?i/ee aei eiioea oaeouaai oeiainiaiai aiaea ii oieaoa
iaeiaa ia i?eaueue a /anoe, iai?aaeyaiie ia eiaanoeoeee a ioa/anoaaiioth
yeiiiieeo e iiaeeaaeauae iaeiaiiaeiaeaieth ii aeaenoaothuaio
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoao.

Anee oioy au iaeioi?ua ia?u aoaeoo aiieiuaiu a aeeciue, yoi ieaaeao
noeioee?othuea aicaeaenoaea ia oi?ie?iaaiea OIA a ?innee. Aiiaua, iiiaea
aaoi?u noaoae i?eaea?aeeaathony iiaiey, /oi nicaeaiea yooaeoeaiuo
oeiainiai-i?iiuoeaiiuo a?oii aiciiaeii oieueei i?e ianoiyoaeuenoaao,
eiaaea ainoaea?noai aeoeaii niaeaenoaoao i?ioeanno oi?ie?iaaiey e
?acaeoey OIA.

3.3. Nicaeaiea oeiainiai-i?iiuoeaiiuo a?oii

a io?aneyo iai?iiiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe.

A ?acoeueoaoa ?aceiai ia?aoiaea ia iiaua oneiaey oicyenoaiaaiey
i?aaei?eyoey iai?iiiiai eiiieaena eeoeeenue aeanoeiai ainoaea?noaaiiiai
?aaoee?iaaiey a noa?a i?iecaiaenoaa e ia?auaiey. Eeaa?aeecaoeey oeai e,
eae neaaenoaea, ana aic?anoathuay eioeyoeey iiaei?aaee eiaanoeoeeiiioth
aeoeaiinoue i?aaei?eyoee. Oaeaea iieiaeaiea onoaoaeyaony iaaaeueiie
eiiaa?neae e noeoeeiinoueth i?eaaoecaoeee ia ia/aeueiii yoaia.

N?aaenoaii aeey i?aiaeieaiey nouanoaothueo i?iaeai io?aneae iai?iiiie
i?iiuoeaiiinoe (III) yaeyaony nicaeaiea OIA. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy a III
aaaeoony ?aaiou ii nicaeaieth ieiei 20 OIA, eioi?ua aoaeoo
iaaeio?aneaauie iauaaeeiaieyie oeiainiauo, i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo, oi?aiauo
no?oeoo?, iaoeaeaiiuo ia auione eiieo?aioiniiniaiie aiaiiie e
a?aaeaeaineie i?iaeoeoeee.

I?aaeiieaaaaony, /oi nicaeaiea OIA ia aaca i?aaei?eyoee III:

1) iiauneo yeiiiie/aneoth e oeiainiaoth onoie/eainoue i?aaei?eyoee –
/eaiia OIA;

2) ?anoe?eo naiinoiyoaeueiinoue i?aaei?eyoee III, iie aoaeoo
?ann/eouaaoue ia naie neeu e iaiueoa iie?aoueny ia iiaeaea?aeeo
ainoaea?noaa;

3) aoaeao niinianoaiaaoue iiaea?iecaoeee i?iecaiaenoaa III ca n/ao
i?eaea/aiey aaieianeiai eaieoaea;

4) nieceo aa?iyoiinoue aaie?ionoaa i?aaei?eyoee e niinianoaoao eo
auoiaeo ia i?eaueueioth ?aaioo;

5) aoaeao niinianoaiaaoue ia?a?ani?aaeaeaieth oi?aaeai/aneeo ooieoeee.
*anoue ooieoeee Aineiiiai?iii?iia ?O e Aeaaiuo oi?aaeaiee niiniaiu
acyoue ia naay OIA;

6) aoaeao niinianoaiaaoue no?oeoo?iie ia?ano?ieea yeiiiieee III,
?acaeoeth i?iecaiaenoaaiii-oeiainiauo ioiioaiee;

7) i?aaeioa?aoeo iaaeaiea i?iecaiaenoaa a III, i?einoaiiaeo ?ac?ooaiea
e?oiiuo oaoiieiae/aneeo eiiieaenia.

I?e oi?ie?iaaiee OIA ia aaca i?aaei?eyoee III aeieaeiu o/eouaaoueny eo
iniaaiiinoe, aeeth/ay iaiaoiaeeiinoue nio?aiaiey iao/iiai, i?iiuoeaiiiai
e eaae?iaiai iioaioeeaea, nio?aiaiey e ?acaeoey iiaeeecaoeeiiiuo
iiuiinoae e o.ae.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy oaea nicaeaiu e ooieoeeiie?otho OIA “O?aeueneea
caaiaeu”, “Nieie”, “Nei?inoiie oeio”, oieaeeiaiaua eiiiaiee –
“Eaieiaoe”, “A?naiae”, “Aaeai?eai?-oieaeeia” e ei?ii?aoeee – “Ooiieaa”,
Eeuethoei” e ae?. Aeoeaece?iaaeanue ?aaioa ii i?iaeoe?iaaieth ?yaea
iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo OIA.

Aeaaiaea?y nicaeaieth OIA a III aeinoeaaaony ?yae i?aeiouanoa, oaeeo
eae:

1) nio?aiaiea oaoiieiae/aneeo e i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo naycae iaaeaeo
i?aaei?eyoeyie iinea i?eaaoecaoeee e eo iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai iioaioeeaea;

2) aiciiaeiinoue i?eaea/aiey aiaathaeaeaoiuo enoi/ieeia oeiaine?iaaiey
aeey inouanoaeaiey eiiaa?nee e aeeaa?neoeeaoeee i?iecaiaenoaa;

3) iaania/aiea i?eaea/aiey iaiaoiaeeiuo oeiainiauo e iaoa?eaeueiuo
?ano?nia aeey iaeaaeeaaiey auionea neiaeiie eiieo?aioiniiniaiie
i?iaeoeoeee;

4) ?aoaiea i?iaeaiu acaeiiuo iaieaoaaeae a ?aieao nicaeaiey
eioaa?e?iaaiiuo a?oii;

5) iaania/aiea aa?aioee nio?aiaiey e iiaeaea?aeaiey iiaeeecaoeeiiiuo
iiuiinoae.

Iaeaieueoea o?oaeiinoe i?e oi?ie?iaaiee e ooieoeeiie?iaaiee OIA a III
iau/ii naycaiu n i?eaea/aieai caaiiuo n?aaenoa. Eiaaony aeaa iooe
i?eaea/aiey aiaathaeaeaoiuo n?aaenoa o/anoieeaie OIA – /a?ac aaiee e
/a?ac oiiaeiaue ?uiie. Iaeiaei /aoaa?oay /anoue ?inneeneeo aaieia
oauoi/ia, a oiiaeiaue ?uiie iaoiaeeony ia noaaeee naiaai oi?ie?iaaiey.
Aeey i?eaea/aiey eiino?aiiuo eiaanoi?ia ia nicaeaiu eueaioiua oneiaey. A
oi aea a?aiy ca n/ao nicaeaiey OIA a III iiaeao auoue iaania/ai iiaeuai
eae a iaeanoe i?iiuoeaiiinoe, oae e a iaeanoe iaeiieaiey eaieoaea.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy ioaeii ?aoeoue aicieeathuea i?iaeaiu e ono?aieoue
aeeyiea naea?aeeaathueo oaeoi?ia, a /anoiinoe, niyoue aeanoeea
ia?aie/aiey ia ia?aciaaiea OIA. Oiaaea iiaeii iaeeaeaoue iiauoaiey
acaeiiie caeioa?aniaaiiinoe i?iiuoeaiiiai e oeiainiaiai naeoi?ia a
nicaeaiee OIA, ?anoe?aiey i?eaaoecaoeee aaieianeie noa?u, nicaeaiey
yeaiaioia i?aaiaie eio?ano?oeoo?u. A ?acoeueoaoa iiaeao auoue
inouanoaeaia na?ueaciay no?oeoo?iay ia?ano?ieea i?iiuoeaiiinoe.

3.4. Ianoiyuaa e aoaeouaa ?acaeoey oeiainiai-

i?iiuoeaiiuo a?oii a ?innee.

Ia 1 yiaa?y 1996 a. ioeoeeaeueii nicaeaiu 28 OIA, i?e/ai /anoue eo
ia?aciaaia ii eieoeeaoeaa ainoaea?noaa, iaeiaei /enei ia?aciaaiee,
yaeythueony ii nooe OIA, aeaeaei ia en/a?iuaaaony ca?aaeno?e?iaaiiuie.
N?aaee oaeeo, a /anoiinoe, a?oiiu, nicaeaiiua aie?oa e?oiiuo aaieia.

Ii aeaiiui Aineiii?iia ?O, ia ca?aaeno?e?iaaiiua OIA i?eoiaeeony ieiei
190 eiaanoeoeeiiiuo i?iaeoia n aiaeiaie iio?aaiinoueth a oeiaine?iaaiee
ieiei 4 ie?ae. aeieea?ia.

A noaaeee ?ac?aaioee e niaeaniaaiey iaoiaeeony ieiei 10 i?iaeoia, ieiei
100 eieoeeaoeaiuo a?oii cayaeee i aeaeaiee i?aaieciaaoue OIA. A ninoaa
aeaenoaothueo 28 OIA aioee 450 i?aaei?eyoee e i?aaiecaoeee, n?aaee ieo –
67 oeiainiai-e?aaeeoiuo o/?aaeaeaiee, aeeth/ay eiiia?/aneea aaiee,
no?aoiaua eiiiaiee, eiaanoeoeeiiiua einoeooou. Iauay /eneaiiinoue
caiyouo a OIA ninoaaeyao 2,5 iei. /aeiaae. E?aoeea aeaiiua i ?yaea OIA
i?eaaaeaiu a i?eeiaeaiee 1.

Acyoue a 1993 a. eo?n ia oi?ie?iaaiea a ?inneeneie yeiiiieea
eioaa?e?iaaiiuo no?oeoo? aeieacuaaao naith yooaeoeaiinoue ia oiia
anaiauaai niaaea i?iecaiaenoaa. Aiaeec ?acoeueoaoia aeayoaeueiinoe ?yaea
OIA iicaieyao naeaeaoue auaiae i iieiaeeoaeueiii aeeyiee eioaa?aoeee
i?iiuoeaiiiai e aaieianeiai eaieoaeia ia ?acoeueoaou eo aeayoaeueiinoe.
A ?aieao OIA iiauoaaony iaaeaaeiinoue eiaanoeoeeiiiuo i?iaeoia – aieaa
aunieee o?iaaiue oeiainiaie, oaoiieiae/aneie e i?aaiecaoeeiiiie
onoie/eainoe i?eaiaeeo e nieaeaieth eiaanoeoeeiiiuo ?eneia. I?aaei?eyoey
OIA oaaee/eee iauaiu i?iiuoeaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa a 1994 a. ia 4% ii
n?aaiaieth n 1993a., i?e yoii ia 20% aic?in iauai ?aaeeciaaiiie
i?iaeoeoeee, ia 30% – iauai yenii?oa, a i?in?i/aiiay caaeieaeaiiinoue
nie?aoeeanue ia 15%. a 1995 a. ii n?aaiaieth n 1994 a. iauai
i?iiuoeaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa ii ?acee/iui OIA aic?in ia 5 – 10%.

Ii i?iaiicai Aineiii?iia, oaea a 1997 aiaeo a ?innee aoaeao
ca?aaeno?e?iaaii 150 oeiainiai-i?iiuoeaiiuo a?oii, i?e/ai ii e?aeiae
ia?a 20 ec ieo aoaeoo aaee/eiaie caiaoiuie aeaaea ia oiia ie?iauo
aeaaioia. Iaeiaei, eae n/eoaao A. Eooe, iiea ia noieo iuneeoue neeoeii
aeiaaeueii. Aieaa neiiaoe/iu i?iaeou iine?iiiaa. Iai?eia?,
Iiioaaeniaoeaaie iauaaeeiee aie?oa naay 20 ?acee/iuo i?iiuoeaiiuo e
oi?aiauo i?aaei?eyoee, oaea caiyo auiieiaieai caaeoiaiiiai, oioy iiea
yoa a?oiia ia ca?aaeno?e?iaaia.

Oaeei ia?acii, aicieeoea a ?innee oeiainiai-i?iiuoeaiiua a?oiiu aeoeaii
caieiathony oe?ieiianooaaiie aeayoaeueiinoueth, i?eiinyuae ii?aaeaeaiiua
oniaoe. Aiaeece?oy oaiaeaioeee ?acaeoey ioa/anoaaiiuo
oeiainiai-i?iiuoeaiiuo a?oii, iiaeii naeaeaoue auaiae, /oi a
aeaeueiaeoai iaeeaeaaony oaaee/aiea /enea yooaeoeaii ?aaioathueo OIA,
eioi?ua aoaeoo niinianoaiaaoue ?acaeoeth yeiiiieee.

Caeeth/aiea.

?acoeueoaou ?yaea i?iaaaeaiiuo enneaaeiaaiee, iaiaueaoeo ie?iaie e
ia?aue ioa/anoaaiiue iiuo ?acaeoey oeiainiai-i?iiuoeaiiuo a?oii,
iieacuaatho: oe?ieiianooaaiia noaiiaeaiea iiaeiaiuo e?oiiuo
i?aaiecaoeeiiii-oicyenoaaiiuo no?oeoo? – iaeii ec eeth/aauo iai?aaeaiee
auaaaeaiey ?inneeneie yeiiiieee ec e?ecena e aa ?aoi?ie?iaaiey ia
iiaeeeiii ?uii/iuo ia/aeao.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy aicieeee iauaeoeaiua oneiaey aeey oi?ie?iaaiey e
aeayoaeueiinoe oeiainiai-i?iiuoeaiiuo a?oii a iaoae no?aia. A
nicaeaaoeony oneiaeyo oi?ie?iaaiea OIA – iaeei ec iooae auaeeaaiey
i?iiuoeaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee. Aieueoea iaaeaaeaeu aiceaaathony ia
aeayoaeueiinoue oeiainiai-i?iiuoeaiiuo a?oii a io?aneyo
aiaiii-i?iiuoeaiiiai eiiieaena.

Ia naaiaeiyoiee aeaiue a iaoae no?aia nicaeaia iaiaoiaeeiay i?aaiaay
aaca ii nicaeaieth oeiainiai-i?iiuoeaiiuo a?oii e oaea eiaaony
iaaieueoie iiuo a iaeanoe eo aeayoaeueiinoe. Iaaeaainy, /oi
oeiainiai-i?iiuoeaiiua a?oiiu i?e iiiiue ainoaea?noaa aoaeoo
niaeaenoaiaaoue noaaeeecaoeee yeiiiie/aneie neooaoeee a no?aia.

Iaeiaei iaeuecy i?aa?auaoue oi?ie?iaaiea a?oii a i/a?aaeioth
aiethioa?enoneoth eaiiaieth, iaaycuaaoue yoo oi?io i?aaei?eyoeyi.
Ia?aciaaiea OIA e auai? eo eiie?aoiiai aa?eaioa – aeaei naieo
i?aaei?eyoee.

E iineaaeiaa. Auei au iai?aaeeueii neacaoue, /oi e?oiiua ei?ii?aoeee e
OIA ia caeeth/atho a naaa iaaaoeaiuo noi?ii e oaiaeaioeee. Aeaei,
iaeiaei, a oii, /oi eaeaaeueiuo iauanoaaiiuo oi?i, eioi?ua ia
niaea?aeaee au io?eoeaoaeueiuo iioaioeee, aiiaua ia nouanoaoao. Aaaeii
iiyoiio i?aaeaea anaai o?acai ii?aaeaeeoue, /oi eiie?aoii oi?ie?iaaiea
oeiainiai-i?iiuoeaiiuo a?oii iiaeao aeaoue ?inneeneie yeiiiieea a aa
iuiaoiai ninoiyiee.

Aoaeai iaaeayoueny ia oi, /oi oi?ie?iaaiea iiauo i?aaiecaoeeiiiuo
no?oeoo? a iaoae no?aia, a /anoiinoe, oeiainiai-i?iiuoeaiiuo a?oii,
iicaieeo i?aiaeieaoue no?oeoo?iue e?ecen e noaoue ia iooue noaaeeecaoeee
ioa/anoaaiiie yeiiiieee.

I?eeiaeaiea 1.

I?iaeieaeaiea.

Nienie eniieueciaaiiie eeoa?aoo?u.

1. Aneaiia E.A., Iaiueia E.A., Naaeieia A.A. Oeiainiai-i?iiuoeaiiua
a?oiiu a ?innee // Aeaiueae e e?aaeeo, ?6, 1996.

2. Aaoece Y. Oiieiiii/aiiua aaiee e oeiainiai-i?iiuoeaiiay eioaa?aoeey
// ?inneeneee yeiiiie/aneee aeo?iae, ?10, 1994.

3. Aao/eeia N., Iao?ia TH. Oi?ie?iaaiea oeiainiai-i?iiuoeaiiuo a?oii e
ainoaea?noai // ?inneeneee yeiiiie/aneee aeo?iae, ?2, 1995.

4. Aaoiaa?oai E. Iniaaiiinoe nicaeaiey OIA a io?aneyo iai?iiiie
i?iiuoeaiiinoe // Oeiainiaue aecian, ?7, 1995.

5. Aieioei A.A. Oeiainiai-i?iiuoeaiiua a?oiiu: aiciiaeiinoe,
?aaeueiinoue e ii?iioai?/anoai // Oeiainu, ?7,1995.

6. Aieioei A.A. Caeii i OIA i?eiyo: aii?inu inoathony // Oeiainu, ?7,
1996.

7. Ai?aaoiaa E.A. Aaiee e i?iiuoeaiiinoue: iaeioi?ua aniaeou
acaeiiaeaenoaey // YEI, ?11, 1994.

8. Ai?aoiia A. Oi?ie?iaaiea oeiainiai-i?iiuoeaiiuo a?oii e inaiaiea
iiauo yeiiiie/aneeo iaoaieciia // Oeiainiaue aecian, ?9, 1994.

9. A?a/aaa E. Oeiainiai-i?iiuoeaiiua a?oiiu // Oeiainiaue aecian, ?7,
1995.

10. A?aiaye A., Nieiiaiieeiaa A. OIA: ?inneeneay eioa?i?aoaoeey // YEI,
?8, 1994.

11. Aeoiaaa Y.I. Nicaeaiea oeiainiai-i?iiuoeaiiuo a?oii a ?innee //
Aanoiee Iineianeiai oieaa?neoaoa, na?ey Yeiiiieea, ?4, 1994.

12. Eaeei A. I?iiuoeaiiay iieeoeea, i?aaiecaoeeiiiua i?aia?aciaaiey //
Yeiiiieno, ?10, 1994.

13. Eocueiei A.E. ?ieue aaiea a i?ioeanna oi?ie?iaaiey e ?acaeoey
oeiainiai- i?iiuoeaiiuo a?oii // Oeiainu, ?1, 1995.

14. Eoeeeia A., Eaouoaaa A., Ieeieaaa A. Ia?aciaaiea
oeiainiai-i?iiuoeaiiuo a?oii (iaiaoiaeeiinoue, oeaee e iaoaieciu) //
?inneeneee yeiiiie/aneee aeo?iae, ?1, 1994.

15. Eoeeeia A. Ia ei??aeoe?iaea, a ia?aoiae e iiaie iiaeaee
?aoi?ie?iaaiey // ?inneeneee yeiiiie/aneee aeo?iae, ?1, 1993.

16. Eoeeeia A., Eaouoaaa A., Ieeieaaa A. ?inneeneay i?eaaoecaoeey: neiaa
e aeaea // ?inneeneee yeiiiie/aneee aeo?iae, ?7, 1993.

17. Eooe A. OIA: yaiethoeey eee i?eioaeeoaeueiay eieeaeoeaecaoeey //
Oeiaineno, ?26, 1995.

18. Ethaeiei A. ?ai?aaiecaoeey aeoeeiia?iuo iauanoa e noaiiaeaiea
oeiainiai-i?iiuoeaiiuo a?oii // ?inneeneee yeiiiie/aneee aeo?iae, ?11,
1994.

19. Iaea?aae/ E.I. I?iaeaiu nicaeaiey OIA a ?innee // Aaieianeia aeaei,
?12, 1995.

20. Ia?aieeo A. Nicaeaiea oeiainiai-i?iiuoeaiiuo a?oii a ?innee //
I?iaeaiu oai?ee e i?aeoeee oi?aaeaiey, ?4, 1994.

21. Iaiueoeeiaa I., Iiiiaa O. Ainoaea?noaaiiay iiaeaea?aeea OIA //
Yeiiiieea e aeeciue, ?33, 1995.

22. Iaeaeeaa E. Nicaeaiea OIA a ?innee – o?oaeiue i?ioeann // Yeiiiieno,
?2, 1996.

23. Iaoeoeeia N. ?ieue aaieia a oi?ie?iaaiee OIA // Oeiainiaue aecian,
?11, 1995.

24. Iiiiia?aa A.E. I?iaeaiu e ia?niaeoeau nicaeaiey
oeiainiai-i?iiuoeaiiuo a?oii // Yeiiiieno, ?12, 1994.

25. I?iiuoeaiiinoue e aaiee: ie?aiioo ee ocu? // Yeiiiieea e aeeciue,
?37, 1995.

26. N?aaenoai niya/aiey neooaoeee (eioa?aueth n A.A.I?ioi?iaui,
A.E.Iiaeeiaie) // YEI, ?8, 1994.

27. O?e aii?ina i OIA (ia aii?inu ioaa/atho TH.Ae.Aiinoieia, A.A.Aaaa,
A.O.Aaoe, A.I.A?aeei, A.E.Aoeueoei, A.A.I?eeaineee) // YEI, ?8, 1994.

28. Oaaea?aeueiue caeii ?O io 30 iiya?y 1995 aiaea ? 190-OC “I
oeiainiai-i?iiuoeaiiuo a?oiiao” // Oeiainiaay aacaoa, ?1, 1996.

29. O?aeieiai E. Oeiainiaue eaieoae e oi?ie?iaaiea iiaie i?iiuoeaiiie
no?oeoo?u a ?innee // YEI, ?10, 1994.

30. *ea?eeia A. I oeiainiai-i?iiuoeaiiuo a?oiiao // ?inneeneee
yeiiiie/aneee aeo?iae, ?2, 1994.

Oaaea?aeueiue caeii ?O io 30 iiya?y ? 190-OC “I oeiainiai-i?iiuoeaiiuo
a?oiiao” // Oeiainiaay aacaoa, ?1, 1996.

Iiiiia?aa A. I?iaeaiu e ia?niaeoeau nicaeaiey oeiainiai-i?iiuoeaiiuo
a?oii // Yeiiiieno, ?12, 1994.

O?e aii?ina i OIA (ia aii?inu ioaa/atho TH.Ae.Aiinoieia, A.A.Aaaa,
A.O.Aaoe, A.I.A?aeei, A.E.Aoeueoei, A.A.I?eeaineee) // YEI, ?8, 1994.

Iiiiia?aa A. I?iaeaiu e ia?niaeoeau nicaeaiey oeiainiai-i?iiuoeaiiuo
a?oii // Yeiiiieno, ?12, 1994.

Iaeaeeaa E. Nicaeaiea oeiainiai-i?iiuoeaiiuo a?oii a ?innee – o?oaeiue
i?ioeann // Yeiiiieno, ?2, 1996.

*ea?eeia A. I oeiainiai-i?iiuoeaiiuo a?oiiao // ?inneeneee
yeiiiie/aneee aeo?iae, ?2, 1994.

O?aeieiai E. Oeiainiaue eaieoae e oi?ie?iaaiea iiaie i?iiuoeaiiie
no?oeoo?u a ?innee // YEI, ?10, 1994.

O?aeieiai E. Oeiainiaue eaieoae e oi?ie?iaaiea iiaie i?iiuoeaiiie
no?oeoo?u a ?innee // YEI, ?10, 1994.

Ethaeiei A. ?ai?aaiecaoeey aeoeeiia?iuo iauanoa e noaiiaeaiea
oeiainiai-i?iiuoeaiiuo a?oii // ?YAE, ?11, 1994.

Iaoeoeeia N. ?ieue aaieia a oi?ie?iaaiee OIA // Oeiainiaue aecian, ?11,
1995.

A?aiaye A., Nieiiaiieeiaa A. OIA: ?inneeneay eioa?i?aoaoeey // YEI, ?8,
1994.

N?aaenoai niya/aiey neooaoeee (eioa?aueth n A.A.I?ioi?iaui,
A.E.Iiaeeiaie) // YEI, ?8, 1994.

Aieioei A.A. Caeii i OIA i?eiyo: aii?inu inoathony // Oeiainu, ?7,
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Aao/eeia N., Iao?ia TH. Oi?ie?iaaiea oeiainiai-i?iiuoeaiiuo a?oii e
ainoaea?noai // ?inneeneee yeiiiie/aneee aeo?iae, ?2, 1995.

Aaoiaa?oai E. Iniaaiiinoe nicaeaiey OIA a io?aneyo iai?iiiie
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Aneaiacia E.A., Iaiueia E.A., Naaeieia A.A. Oeiainiai-i?iiuoeaiiua
a?oiiu a ?innee // Aeaiueae e e?aaeeo, ?6, 1996, n. 66.

Aneaiacia E.A., Iaiueia E.A., Naaeieia A.A. Oeiainiai-i?iiuoeaiiua
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18 Eooe A. OIA: yaiethoeey eee i?eioaeeoaeueiay eieeaeoeaecaoeey //
Oeiaineno, ?26, 1995.

PAGE

PAGE 11

i?aaeiao: Oeiainu

oaia: Oeiainiai-i?iiuoeaiiua a?oiiu
*oaeeiiaa Iaoaeuey

eae iiaia yaeaiea a oeiainiauo ioiioaieyo.
a?. 1241.

PAGE

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