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yaeaea *iia, iaoaiaoeea e e?eioia?aoa, aaniieieea o a?ica, eioi?oth
ianao i?eaaoiinoe (i?aao ia oaeio ee/iie aeecie — a oceii niunea, eee
i?aao «ia oi, /oiau auoue inoaaeaiiui a iieia», ii ii?aaeaeaieth iaeiiai
aia?eeaineiai noaeuee, — a oe?ieii) ?ani?ino?aiaiea yeaeo?iiiuo
(eiiiuethoa?iuo) nenoai nai?a e iaeiieaiey eioi?iaoeee.

*ANOI OAEEA NENOAIU i?aaeoniao?eaatho eaeaioeoeeaoeeth
iieueciaaoaey/eeeaioa e aaoiiaoe/aneia nio?aiaiea eioi?iaoeee
i?aaiecaoeeae, n eioi?ie ii eiaao aeaei. I?aaiecaoeey iiaeao niae?aoue
ia?niiaeueioth eioi?iaoeeth a eioa?anao aieaa /aoeie io?aaioee naiae
aecian-eiaeee, a eioa?anao caueou nianoaaiiie aaciianiinoe eee aeaaea a
eioa?anao eo/oaai ianeoaeeaaiey naiaai eeeaioa.

Iaeiaei ca aeaeueiaeoae noaeueaie e eniieueciaaieai iaeiieaiiuo ianneaia
ia?niiaeueiuo aeaiiuooneaaeeoue auaaao neiaeii. I?aaiecaoeey eee aa
nio?oaeiee iiaeao ceioiio?aaeoue aeiaa?eai eeeaioa a ei?unoiuo oeaeyo,
eioi?iaoeey iiaeao iiianoue a ?oee iioaiieeia eee aaiaeeoia, iaeiiaoe,
aioiaua e aaoiiaoe/anee iiiieiyaiua aeinuea ia a?aaeaeai—aeaeaiiay
aeiau/aaeey niaoeneoaea.

*ii iaia?oaeee, /oi a aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa «oece/aneay» eaeaioeoeeaoeey
ia yaeyaony iaycaoaeueiie a aecian-eiaeea i?aaiecaoeee eee aeaaea a
eiaeea ooieoeeiie?iaaiey ainoaea?noaaiiuo no?oeoo?. Aeaeeioaea?th ia
iaycaoaeueii ciaoue aaoa eiy; aio ioaeii eeoue oaaaeeoueny a oii, /oi au
eiaaoa i?aai ia iieueciaaiea oiiaeii. Aaiee?o ia iaycaoaeueii ciaoue, n
eaeei a?iea?ii au ?aaioaaoa; aio eeoue ioaeii eiaoue aa?aioee iie?uoey
aaoeo oaeoueo ?anoiaeia aeaiiceoii. Aei?iaeiie neoaeaa ioaeii
iiaeoaa?aeaeaiea oiai, /oi aaoe i?aaa aeaenoaeoaeueiu, a ia aaoa
oaieeey…

I?e «oece/aneeo» acaeiiaeaenoaeyo oaeoth oaoiieiaeth, — *ii iacaae aa
«aaciianiinoueth aac eaeaioeoeeaoeee», — eaaei ?aaeeciaaoue iin?aaenoaii
aeieoiaioia ia i?aaeuyaeoaey (ia eiaiiuo), cae?aieythueo ii?aaeaeaiiua
i?aaa. ?aciaue eee iany/iue i?iacaeiie aeeao aeaao i?aai i?iacaea, ii ia
ianao eiaie. Eoiii, iioaeeeiaaiiue a aacaoa, aeaaoi?aaiianeeaeeo ethaiio
i?aaeuyaeoaeth. Iaeiiaoe, eoith?a eee iiiaoa eiioeaio?e?oao a naaa
«i?aai ia iieoieo», eioi?ia iiaeii ?aaeeciaaoue aiieia aiiieiii.

Aeieoiaiou ia i?aaeuyaeoaey ii-aiaeeenee iacuaathony eaa/”aanaa?;’ena?ac
eee Ueaaaaa naan1aiEa15, /oi iiaeii ia?aaanoe aua e eae «iineiua (n
niaie) aeieoiaiou». A yoii eo ioee/ea io caienae a aacao aeaiiuo,
eioi?ua

oiaea iiaoo oeene?iaaoue ii?aaeaeaiiua i?aaa, ii ia iaoiaeyony iiae
eiio?ieai oao, eiio yoe i?aaa i?eiaaeeaaeao.

ACEAO E IAAeAIEA AeI EIIOeA AINUeIEAeANssOUO AIAeIA aeieoiaiou «ia
i?aaeuyaeoaey» iiaee auoue oieueei oece/aneeie, a yeaeo?iiiua
«aeieoiaiou» (caiene a aacao aeaiiuo) iiaee auoue oieueei eiaiiuie.
Eiia/ii, aeaaiaea?y ecia?aoaieth a na?aaeeia naieaeanyouo oaoiieiaee
«oeeo?iaie iiaeiene» i?aaiecaoeee iiaee auaeaaaoue oeeo?iaua
«aeieoiaiou» ia ?oee, iaeiaei oeeo?iaay (oi anoue niaa?oaiii eiie?oaiay)
eo i?e?iaea o?aaiaaea iaeaaeeoue eaeie-eeai oeaio?aeeciaaiiue o/ao
eaaeaeiai auioneaaeieoiaioianoai, /oiau ecaaaeaoue «iiaoi?iie o?aou» eo—
i?iaeaiu, iaiuneeiie a ia?auaiee aeieoiaioia aoiaaeiuo.
Oeaio?aeeciaaiiue o/ao aea «niaoaao» iai?i/ue any eoth aiiieiiinoue e
i?eaaoiinoue.

Oaoia/*iia — /aeiaaea aa?iiaeneie e aia?eeaineie eoeueoo? (ii
aieeaiaeaoe n aia?eeaineei a?aaeaeainoaii) — iniaaiii aieiiaaea
i?eaaoiinoue oeiainiaay, neeueii iino?aaeaaoay a ?acoeueoaoa
ianne?iaaiiiai aiaae?aiey eiiiuethoa?iuo nenoai aaciaee/iuo ?an/aoia e
oaeaeiiioieeaoeee a aaieianeoth aeayoaeueiinoue, a oaeaea ioaaoa
aaciaee/iuie ?an/aoaie iaeeiai aeciana e /anoiuo eeoe.

Aeayoaeueiinoue «e?aaeeoiuo ath?i» (ecia/aeueii iai?aaeaiiay iacaueoo
aeoeaia oeiainiauo einoeoooia), o/auathueany neo/ae i?eioaeaeaiey
aaiee?ia e nio?oaeie/anoao n iieeoeeae (aeeth/ay oi?iu «nio?oaeie/anoaa»
— ii nooe,naiai?a, — i?ioeai?a/auea noieue ooiaeaiaioaeueiiio i?aaiaiio
i?eioeeio, eae i?acoiioeey iaaeiiaiinoe), ?ani?ino?aiaiea eiaiiuo
yeaeo?iiiuo ?an/aoiuo n?aaenoa (oaeeo, eae e?aaeeoiua e aeaaaoiaua
ea?ou) i?eaaee e oiio, /oi iiiyoea aaieianeie oaeiu ai iiiaeo no?aiao
noaei cao/aoue ecaeaaaoaeuenee. A aaaeue a aeaiaaeii i?eaioe?iaaiiii
iauanoaa aeinooi e en/a?iuaathuaio «oeiainiaiio i?ioeeth» eeoea oaea
icia/aao iieo/aiea cia/eoaeueiie /anoe «aeinuea» ia iaai.

Iinea ianeieueeeo eao iai?yaeaiiie enneaaeiaaoaeueneie ?aaiou a NOO1
(Oeaio? iaoaiaoeee e eioi?iaoeee a Ieaea?eaiaeao) *ii, aicaeaaeyaoee oai
ioaeae e?eioiei-ae/aneeo enneaaeiaaiee, ?ac?aaaouaaaooao-iieiaeth,
eacaaoothny iaaa?iyoiie: iieioth «yioeyoeeth» ia?auaiey aeieoiaioia ia
i?aaeuyaeoaey a oeeo?iaie n?aaea. Yoi oaeaeinue n iiiiuueth
caiaoaioiaaiiiai ei e?eioia?aoe/aneiai i?eaia «iiaeienue aneaioth»
(U1in1 c|aeia1eaa), iicaieythuaai «oeaio?o» ia?auaiey iiaeienuaaoue
oeeo?iaua aeieoiaiou, ia aeaey eo niaea?aeeiiai.

A ia/aea aeaayiinouo iniiaaiiay ei oe?ia I/ae/Nace Ue. v.
iineaaeiaaoaeueii ?aaeeciaaea eiioeaioeeth «aaciianiinoe aac
eaeaioeoeeaoeee» a niaoeeaeece?iaaiiie ieaoaaeiie nenoaia Ioe»’Na5/)
(aaneiioaeoiay iieaoa i?iacaea ii ieaoiui aaoino?aaeai) e
ania?o-ea?oi/iuo oaoiieiaeyo (i?iaeo NA?A, iiaeaea?aeaiiue a?aioii
Aa?inithca, — aaeeinoaaiiay, ianeieueei iai ecaanoii, ?aaeueii
caiouaiiay nenoaia ?aaioaao a a?thnnaeueneii ioena Aa?ieiiennee). E
IooNac^, e NA?A iicaieytho iieueciaaoaeth i?eaaoii (aiiieiii)
?aniea/eaaoueny n iiiiuueth oeeo?iauo aeieoiaioia, iiaeienaiiuo nenoaiie
«aneaioth». A 0;ae;Nac/7 iacaaee yoio i?eioeei «oeeo?iaie
iaee/iinoueth».

Ia aaca NA?A aue ?acaa?ioo oeaeue ?yae iiauo i?iaeoia AN; Ioe/Naa/7
(?ac?aaioaiioth ia?aiia/aeueii aeey Ieienoa?noaa o?ainii?oa
Ieaea?eaiaeia, ii oae e ia aiaae?aiioth ia ?iaeeia) ia/aee iieoiaoue
aia?eeaineea iia?aoi?u o?ainii?oiuo naoae, iaeiaei aI;’ae/Na5/7
iin/eoaee, /oi «oaieiia» i?eeiaeaiea aeey «oeeo?iaie iaee/iinoe» —
eiiia?oeey a 1i1aaia1. Ena?aaeeia aeaayiinouo eiiaiaea ?ac?aaio/eeia
eiioeaio?e?oao naie oneeey ia ON?E?-i?eeiaeaieyo e a 1994 aiaeo
caioneaao ieeioiue i?iaeo nenoaiu, iacaaiiie anaa/1, n «ea?ooa/iie»
«oeeo?iaie iaee/iinoueth». Ea?ooea eaeao ia?anoaao — a ana5/7 ea?aao ana
e?eioia?aoe/aneia niiauanoai, nenoaia iieo/aao ioee/ioth i?anno.
Aiaee/iue oano ia aucuaaao na?ueaciuo ia?aeaiee e eiioeaiooaeueiie
iniiaa; eiiiaiey niaa?oainoaoao y?aiiiieeo i?iaeoeoa e ioe?uaaao
aia?eeaineia aei/a?iaa i?aaei?eyoea 0;’ae;Na5/7,1in. aeey ia?eaoeiaa
i?iaeoeoa ca ieaaiii.

A 1995 aiaeo caioneaaony ia?aue «?aaeueiue» i?iaeo n ana5/7 —
ii?iaiaaoue ieiia?neoth oaoiieiaeth ?aoaao aia?eeaineee Iaa/n Ae/a/e
aae/n. Ca yoei ia i?ioyaeaiee o?ao eao neaaeoao aua ainaiue naeaeie i
ee-

oeaice?iaaiee oaoiieiaee n e?oiiaeoeie aa?iiaeneeieaaieaie,
aano?aeeeneei aaieii, aeeyoaeueiui oeineei i?iaaeaea?ii 1i1aaia1,
yiiineie ei?ii?aoeeae e, iaeiiaoe, — aa?o i?eciaiey — n eiina?aaoeaiui
oaaeoea?neei aaieii Na?nAE Cocca.

E aio «aieeaiaeneia /oaei»,eioi?ia, eacaeinue au, eiaei ana oainu
anoaoue a ?yae n iaeaieaa oaea/eeauie 1i1aaia1-eiiiaiey-ie,
iiaeiyaoeieny ia a?aaia aieiu eioa?ana e Naoe e yeaeo?iiiie eiiia?oeee,
iaiaeeaeaiii i?iaaeeaaaony a iieiue nooii?.

Oaooeiaa a ieaeaioaeeeoaiie noaoueaoii-ieiaaoyieciae n ?ac?uaii
eiio?aeoa iaaeaeo Iaa1 — iniiaaoaeue e eaeaieia Ei?ii?aoeee
iiaeienee ia i?aaeuyaeoaeueneea aeieoiaiou a 1i1aaia1 (1i1aaia1 Aaaaaa
eieaaaeaOiae Nia?iaa1thi, e/e/oo.|Ueen.nio, nicaeaiiie aeey iiaeienee ia
aeaoaaua a auionea e ia?auaiee oeeo?iaua oeiainiaua eino?oiaiou,
iniiaaiiua ia eniieueciaaiee nia?aiaiiuo oeiainiai-e?eioia?aoe/aneeo
i?ioieieia. E eiioeo neaaeothuaai aiaea eiiiaiey aeieaeia aaanoe a
ia?auaiea «ieie-iaee/iinoue» (n ae?iaiinoueth aei 0,001 aeieea?a).

Oaooeiaa oaeaea yaeyaony iniiaaoaeai eiiiaiee ?I|1in1io ?oai&a!
OanUeii1iaeo AoaiaeaIco ( niiauaiea ni
no?i/eie «oi 20ancUe» a oaea).

(eioi?ue, a iauai-oi, yaeyaony eneeth/eoaeueii oi?ioi naeaeaiiie
nenoaiie aeey iiaeaea?aeee iia?aoeee, iau/ii inouanoaeyaiuo n iiiiuueth
e?aaeeoiuo ea?o). A oi aea a?aiy o?oaeii iacaaoue iia?aoeee n
e?aaeeoiuie ea?oaie a Eaaia! ianoiyuei oi?aiaui eee?eiaii, a oai aieaa
?an/aoaie.

I?aaeei «a?eoau Ieeaia» aeaenoaoao a 1i1aaia1 oae aea, eae e aacaea, e
noieiinoue i?inoie nannee 881 aeano aai oio aea ?acoeueoao i?e iaiueoeo
cao?aoao, a i?e eniieueciaaiee 881 ia oneiaeyo IIOI aeaaea aua aeaoaaea,
/ai iaauaao, ii aua ia aeaeaao, nenoaia CAO i?e ?aaioa ia oneiaeyo
iia?aoeee n i?enoonoaeai ea?oi/ee5.

Yeiiiie/aneea a?aoiaiou

a iieueco ?an/aoia oeeo?iauie

i?aaeuyaeoaeueneeie eino?oiaioaie

I?eia?ii a oi aea a?aiy, eiaaea ?acai?aeny neaiaeae a aeooa A?aiaee a
aaiea Iaa/n Ooao, y i?aaeeiaeee naia ecaanoiia iuia n?aaiaiea
e?eioia?aoee n aaeaoeeae. Oae aea eae ethaee iiaeaaee, iiea o/eeenue
eaoaoue, aeaioo ethaee a ai?ueaa ca i?eaaoiinoue, e yoi iiaoo
canaeaeaoaeuenoaiaaoue ana, eoi caieiaeny enoi?eae e?eioia?aoee io
aioe/iinoe aei iaoeo aeiae. I?eaaoiinoue (eae e oiaiea eaoaoue), naia ii
naaa aeey iiiaeoyaeyaony oeaiiinoueth. Iaeiaei a iieueco oe?aieaiey
iniia i?eaaoiinoe aeieaeai iiyaeoueny yeiiiie/aneee a?aoiaio, eia/a
ie/aai ia eciaieony.

Aaeaoeey noaea aecianii ia iioiio, /oi iieao aeaaae aiciiaeiinoue
«iieeiooue i?aaeaeu caiee» a ianoa/ea Eeooe Oie, a i?inoi iioiio, /oi
ethaee auee niaeaniu ieaoeoue ca eiioi?oaaaeueiue ia?aeao ec Eeooe Oie
aei Aeaeoiia. Aaeaia?aeaou —yoi i?inoi naiue aeaoaaue niinia (anee
o/eouaaoue noieiinoue a?aiaie n?aaeiaai /aeiaaea) ia?aiauaoueny ia
neieue-ieaoaeue cia/eoaeueiua ?annoiyiey.

E, oai ia iaiaa, ianiio?y iaoi, /oi aeoeaio anaaaea noaaeeny ia
i?eaaoiinoe anaci (e aieaa /enouo oi?i /iiianeie iiaeiene aneaioth6),
anoue e yeiiiie/aneee a?aoiaio a iieueco i?eiaiaiey ?an/aoia n iiiiuueth
oaoiieiaee ia?auaiey oeeo?iauo na?oeoeeaoia ia i?aaeuyaeoaey oeia anaci.
Ii e?aeiae ia?a, oai?aoe/anee, ?an/aou a anaci iaeaaeatho iioaioeeaeii
noaoue aeaoaaea, /ai oaeea aea

5 O?aicaeoeee n iiiiuueth e?aaeeoiuo ea?o aeaeyony ia aeaa eaoaai?ee:
Naae ?aacai! (n oece/aneei i?enoonoaeai ea?oi/ee a aaieianeii eee
oi?aiaii oa?ieiaea) e IIOI (IaI iaeaa/ 1a1a?1thea iaeaa— caeac ii
ii/oa/oaeaoiio— i?e eioi?ii oi?aiaaoe iieo/aao eeoue iiia? ea?oi/ee).
O?aicaeoeee n ia?aaea/ae iiia?a ea?oi/ee /a?ac 1i1aaia1 ioiinyony e
iineaaeiae eaoaai?ee, e ana ?enee, naycaiiua n aiciiaeiui io?eoeaieai
eeeaioii oaeoa niaa?oaiey naeaeee, eaaeao ia oi?aiaoea. Naiaenoai
i?ioieieia 5AO (Caneaa A1an1aion Oaaican^iic—aaciianiua
yeaeo?iiiuao?aicaeoeee) auei ?ac?aaioaii e?aaeeoii-ea?oi/iuie
eiiiaieyie, a /anoiinoe, aeey oiai, /oiau i?eaeaoue o?aicaeoeeyi a
eiiiuethoa?iuo naoyo noaoon Naae ?aacaO. Iaeiaei aiaae?aiea CAO
noieeioeinue n na?ueaciuie oaoiieiae/aneeie e th?eaee/aneeie i?iaeaiaie.

6 A nenoaia ana$E aiiieiiinoue o?aicaeoeee yaeyaony iaeiinoi?iiiae;
eiioeaioeey “iiaeiene aneaioth” iicaieyao ?aaeeciaaoue e
aeaonoi?iiia-aiiieiiua ieaoaaee,

aaciaee/iua ?an/aou (iai?eia?, n eniieueciaaieai e?aaeeoiuo ea?o i?inoi
aeey ieaoaaeae eee aeaaea aeey iieoiie a e?aaeeo).

Iiniio?eoa ia oi, eae i?ienoiaeeo ia?aaioea ieaoaaea. A i?ioeanna
o/anoaoao io iyoe aei naie iin?aaeieeia, /a?ac eioi?uo i?ioiaeeo ?an/ao
ii e?aaeeoiie ea?oa, caoai eee?eia e nai ieaoaae. E ana yoi— ii
n?aaiaieth n aaeeinoaaiiui iin?aaeieeii i?e naeaeea n iiiiuueth
eino?oiaioa ia i?aaeuyaeoaey. Au naie iiaeaoa aeiaaaeaoueny, eaeie
niinia iaoiaeeony aeaoaaea. Ana i?ienoiaeeo eiaiii oae aeaaea a oii
neo/aa, eiaaea iia?aoeey n eino?oiaioii inouanoaeyaony a ?aaeeia ii-Iia,
e iaiaoiaeeii auioneaoue iiaue na?oeoeeao aeey eaaeaeie iia?aoeee. A
anee auiouaiiue i?aaeuyaeoaeueneee na?oeoeeao inoaaony a ia?auaiee, eee,
ae?oaeie neiaaie, a Naoe, aianoi

oiai, /oiau auoue iaiaiaiiui ia iaeoth oi?io aaciaee/iuo aeaiaa, eae yoi
i?ienoiaeeo a aaiea, aaea iaiyaony aaeain ia n/aoa, yeiiiiey iieo/aaony
a?aiaeeiciie.

Niioaaonoaaiii, noieiinoue o?aicaeoeee a eino?oiaioao ia i?aaeuyaeoaey,
i?e eioi?uo aeaiueae ia auoiaeyo ec iai?ioaaNaoe.aethaii neo/aa ?aaia
noiia noieiinoe iee?ii?ioeanni?iiai a?aiaie (a aai noieiinoue iaaeaao
aaeaia eaaeaeua 18 ianyoeaa) e noieiinoe i?iioneiie niiniaiinoe Naoe
(eioi?ay, oioeoa aa?ueoa, oioeoa iao, iaaeaao aua auno?aa).

Aieaa oiai, eiaiii aiiieiiinoue ?an/aoia n iiiiuueth oeeo?iaiai iineoaey
aeaeaao eo oaeeie aeaoaauie. Au iiaeaoa aanoe aeaea n niaa?oaiii
aiiieiiui ia?oia?ii e a oi aea a?aiy ia iiaeaoa ioaa?aiooue
ninoiyaoothny naeaeeo. Aieaa oiai, a nai iiiaio o?aicaeoeee iaaiciiaeii
aa io?eoeaoue, /oi yaeyaony eieinnaeueiui i?ia?annii ii n?aaiaieth n
oeiiauie aaciaee/iuie ?an/aoaie.

Oaeei ia?acii, eiaiii aiiieiiinoue, aia caaeneiinoe io oiai, n/eoaaoa au
aa oeaiiinoueth, ca eioi?oth ia aeaeei e oia?aoue, eee i?inoi
iioai?noaii aia?oee, iaania

/eaaao naioth aunieoth aaciianiinoue o?aicaeoeee e a oi aea a?aiy
nie?auaao ?anoiaeu aei naiiai ieceiai o?iaiy. Aaniethoiay oeiainiaay
i?eaaoiinoue yaeyaony iiai/iui i?iaeoeoii yooaeoeaiinoe ieaoaaeae n
iiiiuueth i?aaeuyaeoaeueneeo eino?oiaioia, eo yooaeoeaiinoe eae
iaoaiecia ia?aaiaea oeaiiinoae, a ia iniiaiie oeaeueth.

E?iia oiai, anoue aua e oaeie aniaeo, eae o?aiaiea aeaiiuo. I?e ?an/aoao
n iiiiuueth OeIOE, iaiaoiaeeii o?aieoue oieueei iaeio eiieth eaaeaeiai
na?oeoeeaoa. Iia iaoiaeeony eeai o iieoiaoaey, eeai o i?iaeaaoea, eeai,
iaeiiaoe (iineaoiai eae noiia iio?a/aia), o iiaeien/eea. E /a?ac
iaeioi?ia a?aiy, eioi?ia ii?aaeaeyaony a niioaaonoaee ni n?ieii ?enea
eee n?ieii aeaenoaey aeaiiiai oeiainiaiai eino?oiaioa, iiaeien/ee iiaeao
niieieiioaeaeeaue ana ec?an-

oiaeiaaiiua ?aiaa na?oeoeeaou, iineieueeo ia ieo ia o?aieony ieeaeie
oeaiiie aeey iaai eioi?iaoeee, e?iia oie, /oi iiiiaeao ecaaaeaoue
iiaoi?iiai eniieueciaaiey na?oeoeeaoa. I?aeoe/anee iao iaiaoiaeeiinoe
o?aieoue ia?iiiua oiia i?ioeuo aooaaeoa?neeo i?iaiaeie iieoiaoaey,
i?iaeaaoea e oao iyoe-naie iin?aaeieeia, eioi?ua iaiaoiaeeiu, /oiau
eniieiyoue, ca/eouaaoue e iiea/eaaoue naeaeee, a oa/aiea naie — eee
aieaa — eao ii enoa/aiee n?iea iieoiee.

Ana yoi, aeaaiui ia?acii, icia/aao, /oi n iiiiuueth OeIOE iiaeii
inouanoaeyoue ai?acaei aieaa iaeeea ?an/aou, /ai n eniieueciaaieai
ethaiai aaciaee/iiai iaoaiecia, ii, ia naiii aeaea, e e?oiiua,
iineieueeo neiaeiinoue iia?aoeee oiaiueoaaony ia ianeieueei ii?yaeeia.

Io, e, eiia/ii, iu iiea ia aoaeai aiai?eoue i oii, neieueei noieo (e a
nioeeaeueiii, e oeiainiaii niunea) «eoieoue» iiiiiieueiia i?aai ia
ianeeea, i?eiaaeeaaeauaa ainoaea?noao, eioi?ia yaeyaony iineaaeiei
iieioii ia iooe ioeaca io aaciaee/iuo o?aicaeoeee.

?acoiaaony, naaiaeiy nouanoaotho ae?oaea i?ioieieu eniieueciaaiey
oeeo?iauo iineoaeae, iiieii /iiianeie iiaeiene aneaioth, iaeie ec ieo —
aieaa, ae?oaea — iaiaa aiiieiiu, i?e eniieueciaaiee iaeieo ?ene
iiaoi?iiai eniieueciaaiey auoa, ae?oaeo— ieaea, a anoue e oaeea, eioi?ua
i?aoaiaeotho ia oi, /oiau iacuaaoueny ioeaeiiauie, oioy y aei neo ii? ia
aiieia iiieiath, eae yoi aiciiaeii, aeaaea iinea oiai eae i?iniio?ae
iioaeeeiaaiiua i?ioieieu7. E, oai ia iaiaa, y oaa?ai, /oi
auoai?eaaaeaiiua yeiiiie/aneea niia?aaeaiey aeaenoaeoaeueiu, a oie eee
eiie noaiaie, i?aeoe/anee aeey anao i?ioieieia ?an/aoia oeeo?iauie
na?oeoeeaoaie ia i?aaeuyaeoaey.

A ea/anoaa ionooieaiey caia/o, /oi, ia iie acaeyae, ioeaeiiaue i?ioieie
o?aicaeoeee n OeIOE eciaiee au ana i?aaeea aua ?ac, caiaiea iieaeiiaua
o?aicaeoeee: i?iecioei au aua iaeii nieaeaiea noieiinoe ia ii?yaeee.
Iaeiaei naaiaeiy iiea ieeoi ia ciaao, eae inouanoaeoue ioeaeiiaua
o?aicaeoeee, oae /oi aii?in inoaaony nii?iui.

Aeaa aeiioacu

Eoae, iiy aeiioaca i oii, /oi, n o/aoii ioeaiee anao ?eneia, oeeo?iaie
i?aaeuyaeoaeueneee oeiainiaue eino?oiaio ieaaeaony ia o?e ii?yaeea
aeaoaaea, /ai aiaeiae/iue eino?oiaio aooaaeoa?neie i?iaiaeee, nei?aa,
yaeyaony noaaeie, eioi?oth y aeaeath, iuoaynue auynieoue, /oi o?aaoaony
aeey caionea i?ioeanna niaiu yiio a oeiainiauo oaoiieiaeyo.

Niaiu, ii e?aeiae ia?a, ?aaiicia/iie eiaaea-oi i?iecioaaeoae caiaia
aeinoaaee oece/aneeo eino?oiaioia aaciaee/iuie ?an/aoaie. ss
ii?aaeaeaiii iieaaath, /oi oaeay noaaea ii?aaaeaiia.

ss oaeaea iieaaath, /oi ii ia?a oiai eae a?aiy iieaou e eee?eiaa aoaeao
no?aieony e ioeth, aieaa aeaoaaua oaoiieiaee ieaoaaeae n iiiiuueth
i?aaeuyaeoaeueneeo eino?oiaioia aoaeoo iinoaiaiii a?aoue aa?o iaae
aaciaee/iuie, iiea iieiinoueth ia caiaiyo eo.

IAEIOI?UA I?AAeIIEIAEAIEss EOAE, AeAAAEOA AA?IAINss e ?aciuoeaieth i
oii, ii/aio Iaae Oe/a1i Aaie ia oaeaeinue aiaae?eoue oeeo?iaua
i?aaeuyaeoaeueneea na?oeoeeaou a Naoe, e aeaaea ianiio?y ia oi, /oi
naaiaeiy i/aiue e?oiiua aaiee i?eia?aee oaoiieiaeth I/ae/Naci, ii/aio
iie ana aua ?anniao?eaathonaith iieoieo oaoiieiaee neaiie iiaeiene
nei?aa eae «no?aoiaeo ia aoaeouaa», /ai eae /oi-eeai eiia.

ss iieaaath, niiauaiea i oii, /oi Iaeonia aae/n iauyaee i aioiaiinoe
ieaoeoue ieeeeii

7 Ni. iaci? “oeeo?iiaee/iuo” oaoiieiaee a I. E. Aiioei e ae?.
E?eioia?aoey a aaieianeii aeaea, I,: IEOE, 1997.

aeieea?ia a ianyoe ca yeneethceaioth aeey Aa?iaiee iaiaoeeoth eeoeaiceth
iiaeiene aneaioth, — yoi ioee/iue i?eia?, oioy ia naiii aeaea y oaa?ai,
/oi iie ?aoeeenue ia iieoieo eeoeaicee oieueei iioiio, /oi yoi naiue
aeaoaaue niinia iaania/eoue naaa aiciiaeiinoue auai?a a aeieain?i/iie
ia?niaeoeaa.

ss ooaa?aeaeath — n oiai iiiaioa, eae iiyaeeanue yoa iiaeaeue, e aei neo
ii?, — /oi n oi/ee c?aiey oeiainiauo iia?aoeee e i?ioeannia ?an/aoa iao
ieeaeie ?acieoeu iaaeaeo iaoa?eaeueiui e oeeo?iaui na?oeoeeaoii ia
i?aaeuyaeoaey.

Yoi icia/aao, /oi i?e i?iaaaeaiee ieaoaaeae oeeo?iaie na?oeoeeao aaaeao
naay/oi”/-ae oaeaea, eae e oece/aneee, ca eneeth/aieai oiai, /oi i?e
eniieueciaaiee oeeo?iaiai iineoaey o?aaoaony iin?aaeie/anoai
iiaeien/eea, eioi?ue iia au oaeinoiaa?eoue aan eae iiaiai aeaaeaeueoea
na?oeoeeaoa ia iiiaio i?iaaaeaiey naeaeee, ai ecaaaeaiea iiaoi?iiai
eniieueciaaiey na?oeoeeaoa.

*OI ANA-OAEE OAEIA «I?AAeUssAEOAEUeNEEE»? YOI AEAAIAss I?IAEAIA ii/oe
aeey eaaeaeiai, eoi aiai?ee ni iiie ia yoii. Iniaaiii yoi aaaeii aeey
oao, eoi n/eoaao, /oi, aeaneaoue, ?ac i?e eaaeaeie o?aicaeoeee ioaeii
yieoe?iaaoue iiaue oeeo?iaie na?oeoeeao, oi nio?aiyoue aeoeau a
i?aaeuyaeoaeueneie oi?ia iaaiciiaeii. Ioiaoueoa, iaeiaei, /oi y oieueei
/oi i?iaae ?acee/ea iaaeaeo oie oi?iie, a eioi?ie o?aieony aeoea, e oai,
eaeei ia?acii i?ienoiaeeo iaiai na?oeoeeaoa, eioi?ue yoo oi?io niaie
i?aaenoaaeyao. ss ooaa?aeaeath, /oi anee au iaeaaeaaoa na?oeoeeaoii,
eioi?ue i?aaenoaaeyao niaie o?aaiaaiea e aeoeao, ii inoaaony
i?aaeuyaeoaeueneei, aeaaea anee yaeyaony iaeii?aciaui.

ss iieaaath, /oi eaeei-oi ia?acii aiiieiiinoue iaiaia e yoa oi?ia
i?aaenoaaeaiey o?aaiaaiey e aeoeao naycaiu iaaeaeo niaie. ss ia ?ac
eiaee naay ia iiaoi?aiee o?acu: «*ai aieueoa aiiieiiinoe, oai aieueoa
„i?aaeuyaeoaeueiinoe”», oioy yoi cao/eo, nei?aa, eae eaeay-ieaoaeue
o?aca ec oeeueia Niaeea Ee.

ss iaaeathnue, oaia?ue ynii, ii e?aeia ia?a, /oiy aioia eoiio, /oiau
auoue aeoui ii yoiio iiaiaeo iiiaeie iiiiiaioaie, iiiaea ec eioi?uo aua
aaeiaaaie e th?enou, iineieueeo iie oaea i?eaeoiaee naie iniaua
ii?aaeaeaiey oiai, /oi neiai «i?aaeuyaeoaeueneee» aeieaeii, ii eo
iiaieth, icia/aoue.

I/aaeaeii, /oi aai iao iaiaoiaeeiinoe iaiyoue oeeo?iaie iineoaeue
na?oeoeeaoa eaaeaeue ?ac i?e i?iaaaeaiee ?an/aoiie iia?aoeee, e?iia oie,
/oi naycaia n (aiieia i?in/eouaaaiui) ?eneii oiai, /oi ii iiaeao
ieacaoueny «iio?a/aiiui» eae ?ac a

oio iiiaio, eiaaea au naie caoioeoa ei ainiieueciaaoueny. I?e
ii?aaeaeaiiuo ianoiyoaeuenoaao, oaeeo, iai?eia?, eae iieaoa o?aoeea,
eioi?ay i?iaiaeeony n iaeiie iaoeiu ia ae?oaoth, ?anoiaeu ia i?iaaaeaiea
aaciaee/iuo ?an/aoia aethaii neo/aa ieaaeoony auoa noiiu ?enea
iee?i?an/aoia, e oiaaea ioeac a i?eiyoee iieaou ec-ca aeaieiiai
eniieueciaaiey na?oeoeeaoa ia au?anoao a na?ueacioth i?iaeaio. Iaeiaei
i?e ?an/aoao iaaeaeo aaniethoii aiiieiiuie /aeiaa/aneeie eiaeeaeaeaie
(iniaaiii anee iie ia ciatho ?aiooaoeee ae?oa ae?oaa n aaeaiiauo
a?aiai), eioi?ua iia?e?otho ia?iiiuie noiiaie ia ?uiea eaieoaeia, auei
au iaeeoia auioneaoue i?e eaaeaeie naeaeea iiaua na?oeoeeaou, iaeei,
i?aaenoaaeythuee aeaiueae, e ae?oaie —i?aaenoaaeythuee aeoeee,
iaeeaaoeee eee aea?e-aaoeau, yaeythueany i?aaeiaoii naeaeee.

Aieaa oiai, y oaaaeeeny, /oi aeey ethauo oeaeae yoio iiiaioa «iaiaiii»
(iiaoi?iui auioneii na?oeoeeaoia, iicaieythuei ecaaaeaoue iiaoi?iiai
eniieueciaaiey)yaeyaony noieue aea iaeicia/eoaeueiui a oeiainiaii
niunea, eae e i?iaa?ee, eioi?ui iu iau/ii iiaeaa?aaai, iniciaiii eee
iao, aeieea?iaoth aoiaaeeo i?e iieo/aiee, eoiio aea, e noieiinoue yoiai
i?eia?ii oa aea.

Iinea oiai eae aai oaeaeinue naeaeaoue yoio eiioeaiooaeueiue oaa, au
oaeaeeoa ie? aeeaouei ii oai aea naiui caeiiai, eioi?ua ecaanoiu n oao
ii?, eae ouny/e eao iacaae a Ianiiioaiee iiyaeeny ia?aue
i?aaeuyaeoaeueneee eino?oiaio.

Aieaa oiai, aooaaeoa?neea ?an/aou, eee?eiae ieaoaaee naie ii naaa
noaiiayony iioiaeeie ia aaa??aoeeth, iiyaeaoothny e ?ani?ino?aieaoothny
a iineaaeiea iieaaea, iineieueeo aei 1985 aiaea iu ia oiaee iinueaoue
i?aaeuyaeoaeueneea eino?oiaiou ii i?iaiaeai.

EA?IEE

EOAE, n o/aoii ia?iiiiai iiuoa ?aaiou n ieaoaaeaie oece/aneeie
i?aaeuyaeoaeueneeie eino?oiaioaie, oaeanony ee iai i?aaieciaaoue iieaoo
n iiiiuueth OeIOE oaeei ia?acii, /oiau ia ia?ooeoue acaeiiaeaenoaey n
aooaaeoa?neie nenoaiie ?an/aoia e, oai ia iaiaa, auea?aoue io
eieinnaeueiiai nie?auaiey ?anoiaeia, eioi?ia noeeo aiaae?aiea oeeo?iauo
i?aaeuyaeoaeueneeo eino?oiaioia?

Ia/iai noiai, /oi acaeyiai iao/anoie-eia yoiai ?uiea.

Iieoiaoaeue

Ia?aui ea?ieii yaeyaony iieoiaoaeue. Yoi eeoei, eioi?ia aeey eaeeo-oi
naieo oeaeae i?e-ia?aaaaaoeeo?iaie na?oeoeeao ia i?aaeuyaeoaey o
oeiainiaiai iin?aaeieea, iiaeien/eea, a iaiai ia eaeie-oi ae?oaie oei
aeaiaa, n oai, /oiau inouanoaeyoue ieaoaaee a Naoe.

Oi?aiaaoe

Yoi eeoei, eioi?ia i?eieiaao oeeo?iaie na?oeoeeao ia i?aaeuyaeoaey a
iaiai ia /oi-oi aua. Iii iiaeao auoue eiiia?/aneie i?aaiecaoeeae,
oi?aothuae ni iiiaeie iaecaanoiuie ia?oia?aie, eioi?ie iaiaoiaeeii
eiaoue aiciiaeiinoue iaiaiyoue yoio na?oeoeeao ia iiaue a iieaeiiaii
?aaeeia iauaiey n iiaeien/eeii, n oai /oiau i?aaeioa?aoeoue iiaoi?iia
eniieueciaaiea iaee/iuo e nie?aoeoue oaeei ia?acii ?ene. Eeai yoi iiaeao
auoue ae?oa (eee eae aai aua iiaeii iacaaoue), eioi?ue oioae au
inouanoaeoue ioeaeiiaoth iia?aoeeth ii eaeei-oi naiei i?e/eiai, aeeth/ay
nianoaaiiua oaeianoaa eee iaaeinooiiinoue iiaeeeth/aiey e aeaenoaothuae
naoe. ?acoiaaony, i?e yoii aeaenoaoao i?aaeei: Naoaa! oaiaia”. Ee/ii y
aeoiath, /oi eo/oee niinia nio?aieoue ae?ocae, yoi iaiaieaaoueny
na?oeoeeaoaie eiaiii a ioeaeiiaii ?aaeeia.

Eiia/ii,y oa?iaoue ia iiao eniieueciaaoue neiaa «iieoiaoaeue»,
«oi?aiaaoe», ii a aaieianeii ie?a eo iiieiatho eneeth/eoaeueii oi?ioi,
oae aea eae e neiaa «iiaeien/ee», «aeiaa?aiiia eeoei» eee «iiaeoi». A
ioiioaiee neia «iieoiaoaeue» e «oi?aiaaoe» iu ana — e i?iaeaaoeu, e
iieoiaoaee a niunea aaiaeace/aneie yeiiiieee, iau/ii yoi eanaaony
iieoiee e i?iaeaaee i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey, eioi?iaoeee eee iaoeo
iiaiee ii iiaiaeo oiai eee ae?oaiai. ss iieaaath, /oi eiioeaioeee
iioiaie eee ?icie/iie oi?aiaee yaeythony iaiin?aaenoaaiiuie neaaenoaeyie
ea?a?oee naoe eiaeono?eaeueii i?aaieciaaiiiai nauoa, ii yoi oaea ieua
aeey ioaeaeueiie aeeneonnee, eioi?ie iai, ai?i/ai, oiaea ia oaeanony
ecaaaeaoue.

Iiaeien/ee

Yoi eeoei, eioi?ia auioneaao na?oeoeeaou e ioaa/aao ia iniiaa
iauanoaaiiiai aeiaa?ey ca eo iaiai ia ae?oaea oi?iu aeaiaa, a aeaiiii
ecia/aeueiii neo/aa, ia caienue ia aaieianeii n/aoa, io, a aiineaaenoaee
— ia ae?oaea aeoeau a oeeo?iaie i?aaeuyaeoaeueneie oi?ia. Aoi?ia aaaeiia
aeaei, eioi?ia aeaeaao iiaeien/ee, yoi iiaeoaa?aeaeaiea oiai, /oi
na?oeoeeao, aunoaaeaiiue aeey iieaou a Naoe, ia aue oaea eniieueciaai.

Naiia aaaeiia, /oi aeaeaao iiaeien/ee, — yoi ?ani?ino?aiaiea naieo
na?oeoeeaoia. Eiaiii yoi yaeyaony, anee au iiniio?eoa ia ?aaioo
iiaeien/eeia (aiaea??aeoa?ia) ia ?uieao eaieoaea, aai iniiaiie
ooieoeeae:

nicaeaiea ia?ae/iiai ?uiea i?e auionea iiaie oeaiiie aoiaae e
iiaeaea?aeaiea eeeaeaeiinoe aoi?e/iiai ?uiea iinea caaa?oaiey auionea.
ss i/aiue iaaeathnue, /oi iiaeien/eee aoaeoo ieiaeeoueny, eae e?ieeee,
ii-

I?iaeaaaoe aea iiinoa?aaeaony (eao,).

neieueeo eo ooieoeey ia aaiaeace/aneii ?uiea iaoiaeeony a
iaiin?aaenoaaiiie caaeneiinoe io noieiinoe aoiaea ia ?uiie yoeo oneoa.
Eioi?ay, a naith i/a?aaeue,caaeneo io caeiia Io?a, /oi a eiia/iii n/aoa
nicaeaao eieinnaeueiua «oauoee io ianooaaa» (nEcani-iiaoac i^ 5na1a) ai
anaiauaiethuae naoe 1i1aaia1. Ecia/aeueii «iiiaou» a aaiea
IaEOoi/a-eaieea iaoeiea n i?ioeanni?ii 1486, yoi e naaaeaieth, /oiau
oeacaoue ia ii?yaeie noieiinoe iai?oaeiaaiey aeey iiaeien/eea.

Iiia/eoaeue/ aeiaa?aiiia eeoei

Iiia/eoaeue, eee aeiaa?aiiia eeoei nio?aiyao aeaiueae aeey iiaeien/eea,
iiea iiaeienaiiue eino?oiaio ia?auaaony a Naoe. Eae e iiia/eoaee i?e
iia?aoeeyo n iaeeaaoeeyie eee iiia/eoaee acaeiiuo oiiaeia,
aeiaa?ai-iiaeeoeiaaeaenoae-oaeueiinoe ?aaioaao ia«aeoeeiia?ia», oi anoue
aea?aeaoaeae oeeo?iauo na?oeoeeaoia, a niioaaonoaee n niaeaoaie-ai
iaaeaeo iiaeien/eeii e aeaaeaeueoeaie na?oeoeeaoia.

Ia ?aiieo noaaeeyo iiaeienee ia OeIOE a ea/anoaa iiia/eoaey aunooiaao
aeaenoaothuee aaie, a eioi?ii iaoiaeeeny aeaiiceo, iineieueeo eiaiii oai
neiioeaio?e?iaaiu cia/eoaeueiua n?aaenoaa, eioi?ua

^^^^?aoeia niaea?aeaiea i?aaeuaeouae na?ee: Ca?iaeaeaiea ii-^» aeaee:
oeeo?iaua i?aaeuyaeoaeueneea eino?oiaiou ia neeo-o ^) eii ioee/athony io
oece/aneeo; Yoi aea i?inoi aeaiueae!:

yeiiiie/aneea a?aoiaiou a iieueco ?an/aoia oeeo?iauie
i?aaeuyaeoaeueneeie eino?oiaioaie; Aeaa aeiioacu: n o/aoii ioeaiee anao
?eneia oeeo?iaie i?aaeuyaeoaeueneee oeiainiaue eino?oiaio ieaaeaony ia
o?e ii?yaeea aeaoaaea, /ai aiaeiae/iue aaciaee/iue eino?oiaio, a ii ia?a
oiai, eae a?aiy iieaou e eee?eiaa aoaeao no?aieoueny e ioeth, aieaa
aeaoaaua oaoiieiaee ieaoaaeae n iiiiuueth i?aaeuyaeoaeueneeo
eino?oiaioia aoaeoo iinoaiaiii a?aoue aa?o iaae aaciaee/iuie, iiea
iieiinoueth ia caiaiyo eo; *oi ana-oaee oaeia «i?aaeuyaeoaeueneee»?:
cia/aiea eiaao oaoiieiaey naeaeee, a ia oi?ia o?aiaiey aeoeaa; Ea?iee:
iieoiaoaeue, oi?aiaaoe, iiaeien/ee, iiia/eoaeue / aeiaa?aiiia eeoei,
ecia?aoaoaee e ?ac?aaio/eee.

CAEIIIAOEAEOAE IEE?IIIIN?AAeIAAIEA NAE*AN OAEA I*AAEAeII, /oi ia?aae
iaie eeanne/aneee neo/ae caeiia Iaoeaeoa:

/ai aieueoa eeoe i?enoonoaoao ia ?uiea (a Naoe), oai aieueooth
oeaiiinoue ?uiie (Naoue) i?aaenoaaeyao e oai ii (iia) onoie/eaaa.

Niioaaonoaaiii, caeanue neaaeoao i?aaenoaaeyoue ie? ni naycyie
«iiiaea-ni-iii-aeie», ninoiyuee ec acaeiicaaeneiuo

iiaeien/eeia, iiia/eoaeae, ecia?aoaoaeae i?ia?aii e i?ioieieia. Ana iie
noa?athony ia?auaaieyoue eiieo?aioia, i?aaeeaaay ieceea oeaiu, oaa?aeoth
?aiooaoeeth, ea/anoai oneoa e i?i/aa.

Eaeay caeeth/aaony a oii, /oiau nicaeaoue anaioaaoiue aaiaeace/aneee
?uiie eaieoaeia, i?aaenoaaeaiiue yooaeoeaiuie e iiiaioaeueiuie
aoeoeeiiaie n eniieueciaaieai iaee/iuo ?an/aoia, ia eioi?uo oi?aotho
oeeo?iauie i?aaeuyaeoaeueneeie oeiainiauie eino?oiaioaie (OeIOE) n
a?aaeoe?iaaiiui ?eneii eee naoaauie oneoaaie, eee aeaaea inycaaiuie
aeoeaaie.

Ae?oaeie neiaaie, /ai aeaeueoa, oai aanaeaa.

Iiea ana auoaia?a/eneaiiia ieioi oaycuaaaony n oai, /oi iau/ii
i?aaenoaaeytho naaa eae oeiainiaia ?aciiin?aaei-aaiea1. Iiae
?aciiin?aaeiaaieai iiieiatho oi, iai?eia?, /oi naeaeaea IaaOo n ianoiui
aaieii e a?iea?neie eiioi?ie.

Eee i?ioeann, eioi?ue, eaaeaony, caaa?oatho a ii?uaa aa?oeeaeueiie
eioaa?aoeee aaiee iaoeeiiaeueiiai ianooaaa. Oi anoue oaeie, a oiaea
eioi?iai ?yae iin?aaeieeia i?inoi ia?anoaao nouanoaiaaoue.

Ana, neiaii a ianauoi/iii nia oeiainiaiai ieeaa?oa, aeieaeiu ia?auaoueny
oieueei e iaeiiio aaeeinoaaiiiio eeoeo, eioi?ia e eniieiyao ana naeaeee
ni anaie eino?oiaioaie.

Eiia/ii, noa?ua ea?a?oe/aneea oeaii/ee aeeno?eaooeee oeiainiauo aeoeaia
«io oi?aiaoea e oi?aiaoeo» oaea ooiaeyo (anee ia nianai ooee), e a yoii
niunea ?uiee noaiiayony ana iaiaa iiin?aaeiaaiiuie.

Ii nouanoaiaaiea iaeiiai aeaaioneiai «aiaeanoaaiiiai iin?aaeieea» a ie?a
aaiaeace/aneeo naoae e caeiia Io?a ia naiii aeaea iaaiciiaeii. Ie iaeei
i?ioeanni? ia iiaeao auaea?aeaoue a iaeeii/eo iaa?oceo aeaaea iaeiiai
iaaieueoiai aeoeaiiai ?uiea. Aio ii/aio caeii Io?a nicaeaao
aaiaeace/aneea, a ia ea?a?oe/aneea naoe.

A eiia/iii n/aoa, nei?aa anaai, i?iecieaeao eae ?ac oi, /oi iacuaaaony
?aciiin?aaeiaaieai, ii i?e iiyaeaiee aieueoiai /enea iaeeeo oeiainiauo
iin?aaeieeia, eioi?ua aeaenoaotho i?yii iaaeaeo iieoiaoaeyie e
i?iaeaaoeaie (oi/ii oae aea, eae e a ia/oao ieeaa?oa), iaeiaei, a neeo
caeiia Io?a, iie aoaeoo «niaoeeaeece?iaaiu» a niioaaonoaee n ieoae ?uiea
(eae aeieiae

/aneea aeaeu niaoeeaeece?othony a niioaaonoaee n yeieiae/aneie ieoae),
eioi?oth iie caieiatho: ii oeio eeeaioa eee iia?aoeee, ii oeio
eino?oiaioa e oiio iiaeiaiia.

Eiuie neiaaie, iiyayony iee?iiin?aaeieee. Eiaaea-ieaoaeue iiiaeanoai
«?i-aioia»-iiaeien/eeia, eaaeaeue ec eioi?uo iaania/eaaao eaeie-oi iaeei
oei eino?oiaioa, iai?yioth aoaeoo naycuaaoue iieoiaoaeae e i?iaeaaoeia n
OeIOE.

AeEIAIEEA

EOAE, aeaaaeoa iiniio?ei, eae yoi ana ?aaioaao a neo/aa n oeeo?iaie
i?aaeuyaeoaeueneie «iaee/iinoueth» nieco aaa?o,ia/eiay n iiiaioa
ecia?aoaiey iiaiai i?ioieiea i?aaeuyaeoaeueneeo ?an/aoia.

1. Ecia?aoaiea i?ioieiea

Ecia?aoaoaeue i?eaeoiuaaao i?ioieie na?oeoeeaoa oeeo?iaiai iineoaey. Ii
iauyaeyao ia yoii, iaoaiooao (anee a oi a?aiy aua aoaeao nouanoaiaaoue
einoeooo iaoaioia—iiy iiaeaeue ?aaioaao e aac yoiai, eae y oaea ioiaoee
?aiueoa), iiiaeanoai e?eioia?a-oia yenia?oe?otho aai e iaoiaeyo
i?eaieaiui. Eneaaeay iiaiai?eo, iiaeii neacaoue:

«Ana i/aiue i?inoi, anee au ia ciaaoa eae».

2. Ia?eaoeia i?ioieiea

Ecia?aoaoaeue e caeioa?aniaaiiua ?ac?aaio/eee i?aa?auatho i?ioieie a
?aaioathuee nioo.

N yoiai iiiaioa ecia?aoaoaeue iiaeao aceiaoue ieaoo ca aaoi?neoth
na?oeoeeaoeeth ei??aeoiinoe ?aaeecaoeee (/oi, ia iie acaeyae, aoaeao
aieaa aaaeii ia ?aiiae noaaeee ioaee/iiai i?eiyoey i?ioieiea, /ai ia
aieaa iicaeieo). Eae yoi anaaaea auaaaoia aaiaeace/aneii ?aeo?neaiii
?uiea eiiiaaoeee, iiaia aeaao naioth aieueooth i?eaueue, e iau/ii yoa
i?eaueue aeinoaaony oiio, eoi yoi iiaia aeaeaao.

Eoae, ecia?aoaoaeue caeeth/aao naeaeee n ?ac?aaio/eeaie, ?ac?aaio/eee
aeiaiaa?eaathony n iiaeien/eeaie, iiaeien/eee aeiaiaa?eaathony n
iiia/eoaeyie.

ss iieaaath, /oi ?ac?aaio/eee e iiaeien/eee caeeth/ao naeaeee n
ecia?aoaoaeai, a iiia/eoaeue aoaeao iaaethaeaoue ca niaethaeaieai
oneiaee e auiea/eaaoue i?ioeaiou, iineieueeo ia/aeueiua auieaou e
i?ioeaiou ii i?ioieieo ieaaeoony aeey iiaeien/eeia e ?ac?aaio/eeia
iaiueoeie, a iauee aeioiae ecia?aoaoaey io oniaoii aiaae?aiiiai
i?ioieiea aoaeao auoa. —————————————^——————

1 ?oaioa! eayEaaoaUaIii — nie?auaiea /enea oeiainiauo iin?aaeieeia. —
Caeanue e aeaeaa i?ei. I.I.

3. Ia?eaoeia eino?oiaioia

Iiiaeanoai naiuo ?aciuo iiaeien/eeia auoiaeyo a Naoue e ia/eiatho
i?aaeeaaaoue na?oeoeeaou, i?aaenoaaeythuea ?acee/iua aeaeu OeIOE n
eniieueciaaieai iiaiai i?ioieiea.

Iiea, iaeiaei, ?a/ue eaeaooieueei i «oeeo?iauo iaee/iuo». *ooue iicaea
iu ei?ioei neaaeai e i ae?oaeo eino?oiaioao, iineieueeo ?ani?ino?aiaiea
«iaee/iiai» ia?auaiey ia ieo o?eaeaeueii.

4. Ia?ae/iue ?uiie

Iio?aaeoaeue iieoiaaoo ?ac?aaio/eea i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey eee
iieo/aao o iiaeien/eea «aoiaaeiee» (eeeaioneia i?eeiaeaiea, eioi?ia
iicaieyao o?aieoue e ?anii?yaeaoueny OeIOE). Aoiaaeieee oieaa?naeueiu,
i/aaeaeii, oieueei ia iniiaa i?ioieiea, ii ie/oi ia iaoaao yoei
«aoiaaeieeai» auoue «ieaaeiaie» e ae?oaei oeiainiaui i?ia?aiiai.

Iio?aaeoaeue caoiaeeo ia caueuaiioth EIEEE/-no?aieoeo. Iiaeii aeoiaoue i
oaeie no?aieoea e naycaiiii n iae na?aa?a, /aeaiyuai «oeeo?iaua iiiaou»,
eae ia yeaeaaeaioa aaieiiaoa.

Eioi?iaoeey i n/aoa eeeaioa, aa?iyoii, cae?uaaaony ii i?ioieieo oeia
i?ioieiea «ooiiaee?iaaiey» o?aicaeoeee NoUeaa-Na5/7, oae /oi aa ia
aeaeyo ie iiaeien/ee, ie iiia/eoaeue i?e aa i?ioiaeaeaiee /a?ac
iineaaeiaai e aeaeaa, a aaieiiaoioth naoue aeey aaoi?ecaoeee.

Anee ia eiiiuethoa?a eeeaioa anoue ea?ae-?eaea?, eeeaio iiaeao anoaaeoue
ea?oi/eo e aaanoe ?1I.

Aeaeaa yoo eioi?iaoeeth iiaeii o?aieoue a caoeo?iaaiiii aeaea ia aeenea
e, a oio iiiaio, eiaaea iia iiiaaeiaeony, ?anoeo?iauaaoue aaiaeii
ia?iey. Ana caaeneo io nia?o-ea?ou. Iiaeii o?aieoue eioi?iaoeeth ia iae
iinoiyiii eee aaanoe aa a iaeia aieaa caueuaiiia ono?ienoai.

Ia aaaeii, eaeay iiaeaeue ieaaeaony ?aai/ae: eiaaea iiyaeony ni?in ni
noi?iiu iieueciaaoaeae, iiaeien/eeia e iiia/eoaeae,

eiaeaia?u e i?ia?aiienou aai oaeiaeaoai?yo. A aeaeueiaeoai iu eaii?e?oai
yoio aii?in.

Eoae, /a?ac Naoue (a caoeo?iaaiiii e «neaiii»2 aeaea) i?iecaiaeeony
cai?in ia «iaee/iinoue» e aaoi?ecoaony /a?ac iiaeien/eea e iiia/eoaey
aaieii eeeaioa. Iineaaeiee ionueaaooaaaeiieaiea ia aaoi?ecaoeee
iiia/eoaeth, eioi?ue niiauaao ia yoii iiaeien/eeo, a oio oaea auaeaao
«iiiaou» «oeeo?iaie iaee/iinoe» a iaiaoiaeeiii eiee/anoaa.

Ana yoi aeaeaaony n i?aieae iiaeien/eeo, oae aea, eae, iai?eia?,
aei?iaeiua /aee i?iaeathony n i?aieae e?aaeeoiie annioeeaoeee, eaeiaay
i?aiey e iiea/eaaao aa oneoae. Eee — oae aea, eae aaiee aceiatho
i?ioeaio ca auaea/o iau/iuo iaee/iuo ii e?aaeeoiie ea?oa n «/oaeeo»
eeeaioia.

Ii iaeioi?iio aoaeouaio noeaia?eth, aa?iyoii, e aaie eeeaioa, e
iiaeien/ee aoaeoo

iaoiaeeoueny a Naoe.Oaeei ia?acii, e naia aaoi?ecaoeey niiaeao
i?iecaiaeeoueny «ia auoiaey ec 1i1aaia1».

Aaie e iiaeien/ee ?ann/eouaathony iin?aaenoaii aaieianeiai ia?aaiaea,
/oi a aoaeouai, eiia/ii aea, oaeaea iiaeao inouanoaeyoueny /a?ac Naoue,
a eioi?ie aoaeao ?aaioaoue eaeie-ieaoaeue eee?eiaiaue oeaio?… Ionthaea
oaea ?oeie iiaeaoue aei ?an/aoia, io ia/aea aei eiioea inouanoaeyaiuo
iin?aaenoaii OeIOE. A oai e iiia/eoaeue niiaeao auoue naoaaui aecianii n
aeoeaaie, oaeaea i?aaenoaaeaiiuie OeIOE.

Ii aeaaea iiea ca noeaiie auioaeaeaiii aoaeoo i?ienoiaeeoue aaciaee/iua
?an/aou, ana yoi caeai/eaaaony auaea/ae iiaeien/eeii eeeaioo oeeo?iaiai
na?oeoeeaoa o?aaoaiiai aeinoieinoaa.

Aeaiueae ec aaiea eeeaioa (aeeth/ay onoaiiaeaiioth i?aieth) ia?aaiaeyony
ia n/ao iiaeien/eea a aaiea, aunooiathuai a ea/anoaa iiia/eoaey (eioi?ue
eiaao naith auaiaeo a aeaea i?ioeaioa ii yoiio n/aoo).

A «oeeo?iaua iiiaou» ia?auathony a ea/anoaa o?aaiaaiey e iiaeien/eeo aei
oao ii?,

iiea eiaaea-ieaoaeue ia «oeaeoo ec Naoe», aoaeo/e i?aaeuyaeaiu e
iiea/aiu aeaiueaaie a ae?oaie oi?ia ii ia?eoeaoaeueiie noieiinoe.

5. Aoi?e/iue ?uiie (iieoiee a Naoe)

Iieoiaoaeue (eeeaio) iiaeao /oi-oi eoieoue iieaei (eee aeaaea ioeaei) o
ae?oaiai oaeiai aea eeeaioa.

Eee (/oi ni a?aiaiai noaiao ana aieaa e aieaa ?aaeeei) o i?iaeaaoea,
eioi?ue ia iiaeao iicaieeoue naaa i?enoonoaey iieaei, ii n/eoaao, /oi
?ene i?eiyoey «iiiaou» aac aaoi?ecaoeee iiaeien/eeii i?eaieai.
Aniiiieoa, /oi y aiai?ee i i?eioeeia naoaa1 ao?1ia e aeiaa?ee e
ae?ocueyi, e, oai ia iaiaa…

I?iaeaaaoe, eaei/a?aaeiie aeaaeaeaoe eeth/a, iiaeao caoai iio?aoeoue
«iiiaou» aaea-oi a ae?oaii ianoa, e ia yoio ?ac niaa?oaiii aanieaoii
(aac i?aiee iiaeien/eeo), iineieueeo /ai aeieueoa na?oeoeeao inoaaony a
Naoe, oai aieueoea i?ioeaiou i?eiineo ?aca?aiue n/ao iiaeien/eea i?e
ieieiaeueiie noieiinoe o?aicaeoeee aeey iaai.

Eeai i?iaeaaaoe i?iaeaao na?oeoeeao ii iiieiaeueiie noieiinoe /a?ac
iiaeien/eea, eioi?ue, a naith i/a?aaeue, i?ineo iiia/eoaey ia?a/eneeoue
aeaiueae a aaie i?iaeaaoea e oae aeaeaa… Oi anoue i?ioeann
«aa?anu-aaiey» aeaiaa a Naoue iiaoi?yaony n oi/iinoueth aei iaiai?io.

*oi aeaenoaeoaeueii caei?iai ai anai yoii, oae yoi oi, /oi aia?aua eiaao
niune aeaiiie?iaaoue aeaiueae a «/oaeii» aaiea, a aeaiiii neo/aa —
aaiea-iiia/eoaea.

Yoi auei i?iaeaiaoe/ii a neo/aa n oece/aneeie aeaiueaaie, a a neo/aa
/aeiaiai aeaiiceoa— ooieoeeiiaeueii iaaiciiaeii ec-ca noieiinoe
ia?aaioee anao iaiaoiaeeiuo aoiaa.

«CIAE NAIAAI EEEAIOA»3 IAIAOIAeEII ioiaoeoue ianeieueei iniaaiiinoae
iaoaiecia yoie iiaeaee. Ai-ia?auo, ana, eoi aaiaeeo aeaiueae a Naoue eee
auaiaeeo eo ioooaea, eaeaioeoeoee?othony a niioaaonoaee n o?aaiaaieyie
i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuo ?aaoeyoi?ia a naieo no?aiao.

Iaee/iua ia oeeo?iauo iineoaeyo auaeyaeyo a aeacao ?aaoeyoi?ia oi/ii oae
aea, eae e oece/aneea aeaiueae, e, neaaeiaaoaeueii, iie iiaeaa?aeaiu oai
aea i?aaeeai ?aaoee?iaaiey. Ooieoeeiiaeueiiai ioee/ey iaaeaeo
iiaeien/eeii ia oeeo?iaua iineoaee e aaieiiaoii ia nouanoaoao.

Niio?aoue ia yoi eae-oi eia/a — icia/aao ienoeoeoee?iaaoue
oaoiieiae/aneee i?ioeann n ?eneii aeey aaoaai nianoaaiiiai aeioiaea, —
aoaeue au /eai nouanoaothuaai aaieianeiai niiauanoaa eeai, oai aieaa,

2 Eiaaony a aeaeo oaoiieiaey «iiaeiene aneaioth”.

3 «/?ie/ oiea ne5ioaa» — nenoaia ?aaoee?iaaiey, ia?aie/eaathuay naiaiaeo aaieia eniieiyoue iaycaoaeuenoaa ii auiieiaieth ii?o/aiee naieo eeeaioia. iiiyoey yeaeo?iiiie eiiia?oeee Oeeo?iaua i?aaeuyaeoaeueneea ?an/aou (nIaeEa! Ueaaaaa caOaoaia) Oeeo?iaay i?aaeuyaeoaeueneay o?aicaeoeey eiaao ianoi i?e ia?aaea/a iaeiie noi?iiie ae?oaie a naeaeea e?eioia?aoe/anee caueuaiiiai iauaeoa, i?aaenoaaeythuaai noieiinoue, auiouaiiiai e iiaeienaiiiai o?aoueae noi?iiie, iau/ii—a ioaee/ii aeinooiiie naoe. Ia?aaea/a oaeiai iauaeoa a iaiai ia /oi-eeai ae?oaia i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ?an/ao, eee?eia e ieii/aoaeueiue ieaoaae ii naeaeea, inouanoaeyaiue iiiaioaeueii, aaciianii e, eae i?aaeei, aiiieiii. E, a oi aea a?aiy, ni cia/eoaeueii iaiueoeie o?aicaeoeeiiiu-ie ecaea?aeeaie a n?aaiaiee n «aaciaee/iuie» o?aicaeoeeyie, inouanoaeyaiuie n eniieueciaaieai e?aaeeoiuo e aeaaeoiauo ea?o, /aeia, a oaeaea nouanoaothueo nenoai ?an/aoia ii aacaeieoiaioa?iui oeaiiui aoiaaai. Iiaen/eoaii, /oi a 1i1aaia1 aaeaaiaeii i?iaiaeyony o?aicaeoeee ia noiio 100 ie?ae. aeieea?ia. Iai?eia?, ec Naoe naaiaeiy eieoeee?oaony 40 i?ioeaioia anao ?icie/iuo naeaeie n oeaiiuie aoiaaaie*. Anee — n iaeioi?ie aeieae oneiaiinoe — n/eoaoue, /oi ?an/aou e eee?eia i?e eniieueciaaiee e?aaeeoiie ea?ou e 831 inouanoaeythony a naiie Naoe, oiaaea 10 i?ioeaioia yoie noiiu (10 ie?ae. aeieea?ia) iiaeii n/eoaoue i?ioiaeyueie /a?ac Naoue. N?aaieoa yoi n o?aiy o?eeeeiiaie aeieea?ia, i?ioiaeyueie /a?ac noaiaea?oiua naoe aaciaee/iuo ?an/aoia aaeaaeiaaii, anee aiai?eoue oieueei i naeaeeao ia aaethoiii ?uiea. Nae/an ?ac?aaioea /aeiauo e ae?oaeo aeaaeoiauo i?ioieieia iaoiaeeony a yenia?eiaioaeueiie noaaeee, ii iineieueeo a?aiy i?iaaaeaiey o?aicaeoeee no?aieony e ioeth, oai aieaa noieiinoue, aaciianiinoue e aacioeaciinoue noaiiayony auea?uoiuie aeey oeeo?iauo i?aaeuyaeoaeueneeo ?an/aoia. Aiieia anoanoaaiii ia?aoeoue aieiaiea ia oi, eae ?aaeeeaeueii iiaoo auoue nieaeaiu ecaea?aeee i?e eniieueciaaiee OeIOE, aiciiaeii, aeaaea ia ianeieueei ii?yaeeia ii n?aaiaieth n aaciaee/iuie oaoiieiaeyie. Niaa?oaiii i?aaaeiiiaeiaii, /oi oeeo?iaua i?aaeuyaeoaeueneea o?aicaeoeee anao oeiia e ?acia?ia, io iae?iaiiaeia aei iee?iieaoaaeae, aoaeao aiciiaeii niaa?oaoue, eee?eoue e iiea/eaaoue a iauaaeinooiiie aeiaaeueiie Naoe, e n oa/aieai a?aiaie yoio niinia noaiao iniiaiui o?aicaeoeeiiiui iaoaieciii a yoeo naoyo e, eae neaaenoaea, ai anai aeiaaeueiii oicyenoaa. Yoio iiaeao i?iecieoe aeaaea auno?aa, /ai iu aeoiaai. Naiiio niiniao yeaeo?iiiuo aaciaee/iuo ieaoaaeae anaai 40 eao (a eo/oai neo/aa), a oaiiiai oeiainiaie e?eioia?aoee a 1i(aaia1 e ieaoaaeae n iiiiuueth oeeo?iauo iineoaeae aieueoa naycaiu n iaaeaieai oeai ia iee?ii?ioeanni?u, /ai auee n yoei naycaiu aaciaee/iua ieaoaaee. Aaciaee/iua ?an/aou (Ueii1 — iniiaaoaeue e
aeaaa oe?iu Aoaaai-/nc, O. (Aaeeeia?eoaiey).

Iaiieiaiiaaiiay a noaouea «oeiainiaay nenoaia a ei?iaea» — yoi
niaieoiiinoue Nao?Eo, 50O e ss/naaa/i, iie aeinooiiu n naeoa
ioioo.5o81ao!n5.nio.

Iieiaeaiea aeae

?ani?ino?aiaiea eioi?iaoeee

I?inoaeoaa eniieueciaaiea 1i1aaia1 — yoi ?ani?ino?aiaiea eioi?iaoeee,
/oi aei neo ii? aeaeaeinue n iiiiuueth aoiaae e ii/ou.

^O^^^AO iaeaaeaao aiciiaeiinoueth i?aaenoaaeyoue ?yaeiaiio
iieueciaaoaeth ia?iiiia eiee/anoai oi?ioi oii?yaei/aiiie eioi?iaoeee,
i?e/ai ii i?aaeaeueiie noieiinoe, no?aiyuaeny e ioeth. I?e iaeioi?uo
ooeu?aieyo aa oaeaea iiaeii i?eniiniaeoue e aeey i?eaia i?inoie
eioi?iaoeee. A ni/aoaiee yoe aeaa ea/anoaa aeaeatho ^OOOOO aoi-?ui
«oaieiui i?eeiaeaieai» 1i1aaia( (ia?aui oaeei i?eeiaeaieai noaea
yeaeo?iiiay ii/oa).

Eniieuecoy ONO^ e yeaeo?iiioth ii/oo, iiaeii ?ani?ino?aiyoue a iaieo
iai?aaeaieyo ethaoth iae?eoe/aneoth eioi?iaoeeth. Yoi iicaieyao
aaoiiaoece?iaaoue neaaeothuea i?ioeannu:

* iiiaauaiea i oeaiao;

* ioe?uoea o?aeaeeiaiaiai n/aoa;

» ia?aaea/a ?anii?yaeaiee i naeaeeao;

* enneaaeiaaiey;

» i?aaiecaoeey iieueciaaoaeueneeo niiauanoa (/ao-a?oiiu, aeinee
iauyaeaiee);

» ?annueea oi?iaeueiuo oaaaeiieaiee;

« ?annueea i?iniaeoia e ioeue-oeiaaeeeiuo i?acaioaoeee.

Aiciiaeiinoe aeinoaaee oaeiai ?iaea eioi?iaoeee, n iaeiie noi?iiu,
i/aaeaeiu, a n ae?oaie — iaoiaeyony a i?aaeaeao aiciiaeiinoae
eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiiai ?ac?aaio/eea naeoia.

Eioa?aeoeaiua oeiainiaua i?eeiaeaiey

Niaea?aeaiea oeiainiauo naeoia, eae auei ioia/aii Aeaioiiao [OaUeUe],
aieueoa ia naiaeeony e yeae-

o?iiiui iauyaeaieyi. N i?eia?aoaieai iaaueia ?aaiou a 1i1aaia1,
oeiainiaua einoeooou ia/eiatho yenia?eiaioe?iaaoue n iiaeaeyie
oeaiiia?aciaaiey e ii?ooaeueiiai aiaeeca ?eneia, ii?ooaeueiui o/aoii e
aacaie aeaiiuo o?aeaeeiaiaie eioi?iaoeee.

A yoio nienie aoiaeyo iiiaea ec aeayoaeueiinoae, inouanoaeyaiua
oeiainiauie einoeoooaie. I?e yoii aeaaiui yaeyaony ia iaeeea i?iaeai n
aaciianiinoueth e i?iioneiie niiniaiinoueth naoae, a oi, /oi ana
eioi?iaoeeiiiua yeaiaiou oeiainiaie nenoaiu iiaoo, oai?aoe/anee, auoue
ia?aianaiu a 1i1aaia1. Anee i?aau oa, eoi ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi 1i1aaia1
niiniaai cia/eoaeueii nieceoue noieiinoue eioi?iaoeeiiiuo nenoai, oi
aii?inu i n?ieao e iaoiaeao noaiiayony oaoie/aneeie.

Iieaeiiaua oi?ae

N eniieueciaaieai 851 (i?ioieiea, caueuathuaai io oaea?ia naainu
ia?aaea/e aeaiiuo) noaiiaeony aiciiaeiui aaciianii cai?aoeaaoue eiaia e
ia?iee, a oaeaea iaania/eaaoue aieueooth oaa?aiiinoue a oii, /oi
iieueciaaoaeue — aaoi?eciaaiiia eeoei. Iaeaaeay aeinoaoi/iie
eioi?iaoeeae, iieueciaaoaeue iiaeao ioaeaaaoue ?anii?yaeaiey ‘O^-neoaeaa
ii e?ae

iae ia?a noieue aea aaciianii, neieue ii oaeaoiio eee oaeno.

Eae oieueei iu aeinoeaaai yoiai o?iaiy aaciianiinoe, /a?ac 1i1aaia1
iiaeii auiieiyoue e ioaaonoaaiiua iia?aoeee, oaeea eae o?aeaeeia e
ia?aiauaiea n?aaenoa. Yoi iaoiae, eniieuecoaiue aeey i?eaia
?anii?yaeaiee iiiaeie a?iea?aie.

Iaeei ec ?aaoeyoi?iacaiaoee, /oi naii ii naaa yoi ia neeoeii aeanoyuaa
ecia?aoaiea. A nouiinoe, ^O^O^-o?aeaeeia i?inoi aeiaaaeyao aua iaeei
niinia ia?aaea/e eino?oeoeee a?iea?o. Aianoa n oaeaoiiii e oaenii OOOO^O
anaai eeoue aeaao aiciiaeiinoue nieceoue ecaea?aeee ia ia?aaea/o
eioi?iaoeee ?OaEoai].

Ianiio?y ia oaeie neaioeoeeci ioiineoaeueii i?inoiou iiaie iiaeaee,
nieaeaiea ecaea?aeae ii?aaeaao. Oaeea a?iea?u, eye0a1a1a IiEia,
i?aaeeaaatho naaiaeiy naeaeee anaai ca aao I?aaeuaeouee i?eia? ioiineony e
aoi?e/iiio ?uieo—?uieo aeoeee, oaea iaoiaeyueony a ia?auaiee.
Aiciiaeiinoue eniieueciaaiey 1i1aaia1 a ea/anoaa ia?ae/iiai ?uiea aeey
aiiaue auioneaaiuo aeoeee ia aiaeece?iaaeanue na?ueacii, iiea OUea 8?ii§
Oaaa1 Aaaoaao ia i?iaaea ia?ae/iiai ?aciauaiey, eiiaeie?oy
1i1aaia1-ia?eaoeia e ?ani?ino?aiaiea eioi?iaoeee, ?aeeaio ia i?iaeoeoa e
iiaua i?aaeea 1?I aeey iaeuo i?aaei?eyoee.

Yoa enoi?ey ia/aeanue a 1992 a., eiaaea Yiae?th Eeaei (Ai(1aaoE1ao)
inoaaee ?aaioo a iaioyooaineie th?eaee/aneie oe?ia NaaonIUe, 5aeaoa &
Iiiaa, /oiau ioe?uoue

ieaiie ieie-caaiae, i?iecaiaeyuee aaeueaeeneia ieai OE.

I?iaaaeaiiay Caeiiii i oeaiiuo aoiaaao 1993 a. ?aoi?ia iicaieeea /anoiui
eiiiaieyi i?iaeaaaoue aeoeee ia noiio aei iyoe ieeeeiiia aeieea?ia
iaiin?aaenoaaiii ioaeeea. A 1995 a. Eeaei iiiye, /oi yoa aiciiaeiinoue,
a ni/aoaiee n ?aeeaiie i?iaeoeoa e ?ani?ino?aiaieai e yeiiiie/aneie
yooaeoeaiinoueth 1i1aaia1, aeaao aio oain iieo/eoue aeinooi e

aeinoaoi/ii aieueoiio eiee/anoao iaeeeo eiaanoi?ia.

Eeaei iiaeae cayaeo ia 1?I iau/iui iooai: ia?aaeaa aeieoiaiou a
Eiienneth ii oeaiiui aoiaaai e ae?aeai (5AN) e aeanoyi ooaoa. Iaeiaei,
eiaaea aeaei aeioei aei ia?eaoeiaa ?aciauaiey, ii ia/ae ?aeeaie?iaaoue
aeoeee a 1i1aaia1, a oaeaea ia aooueeao n ieaii. I?iniaeo yiennee iiaeii
auei iiaea?oceoue, a aeey iauaiey n iioaioeeaeueiuie eiaanoi?aie
eniieueciaaeanue yeaeo?iiiay ii/oa. A niiauanoaa iaioyooaineeo
eiaanoi?ia, ethayueo eae iieaceoue a Naoe, oae e iiieoue ieaa, Eeaei
iaoae aiieia noi?ie?iaaaoeeny ni?in.

?aciauaiea ia/aeinue a oaa?aea 1996 a., e eiiiaiey nia?aea ss,a iei.,
i?iaeaa 844 581 aeoeee 3 500 /anoiui eeoeai ii ss,85.

Eiiiaiey oaeaea i?aaieciaaea U-Ooea – i?inooth Ooo-no?aie-oeo a noeea
aeinee iauyaeaiee, aaea eiaanoi?u iiaee iauyaeyoue ia eioa?ana e iieoiea
eee i?iaeaaea aeoeee. Iaecaanoii, eae ia?aiia/aeueii ioianeanue e yoiio
oaao 5AN. Ii i/aiue auno?i Eeaeia i?eaeaneee a 8AN, e ii niaeaneeny
«aeia?iaieueii i?einoaiiaeoue O7!1-Oaan1a’>, a iaeeaeaiee ?acoeueoaoia
ianoaeaeaiey.

5AN — ecaanoiue iiai?iee eiiiaaoeee, iiyoiio iinea o?ao iaaeaeue

aeeneonnee iiyaeeanue i?aaeaa?eoaeueiay eino?oeoeey, iicaieythuay
i?iaeieaeeoue o?aeaeeia i?e oneiaee aianaiey ?yaea eciaiaiee, aeaaiui ec
eioi?uo auea ia?aaea/a naeaeie ca?aaeno?e?iaaiiiio a?iea?o.

Noiie?iaaoue iniiaiua /a?ou yoiai ?aciauaiey iiaeii oae:

« Eeaei nai i?iaae ?aciauaiea;

* aeey ?aeeaiu aeoeee auea eniieueciaaia i?iaeoeoeey naiie oe?iu —
ecaanoiue iio?aaeoaeueneee i?iaeoeo;

» ca n/ao aeinoaaee aeieoiaioia e ?aeeaiu ii 1i1aaia1 auea aeinoeaiooa
cia/eoaeueiay yeiiiiey;

» oeaia aeoeee iiaeiyeanue ca n/ao ooieoe (ieiei 2 000 niiauaiee
iiainoae e ioieo 1Oea?’o nii1 ia naeoa Na^5na?a’)•,

» i?inoay aeinea iauyaeaiee a ^OOO^ aeaea aiciiaeiinoue aeaaeaeueoeai
aeoeee cayaeyoue ia eioa?ana e oeaiao.

Eeaei aeaeae ii?aaeaeaiiua ?an/aou, ii iiaeii i?aaeiieiaeeoue, /oi
?oeiaiaenoaiaaeny ii eneeth/eoaeueii naiei aeaeaieai, e ia noaaee
caaea/o iaeoe yeiiiie/anee yooaeoeaiia ?aoaiea. E?iia oiai, iaaei eiaoue
a aeaeo, /oi Eeaei

— niaoeeaeeno a th?eaee/aneeo aii?inao eiaanoeoeeiiiiai aeciana e
iaaeno? aeaeiaiai aaeieieno?e?iaaiey n iiuoii, a i?ioeii, eenoeiaa
oeaiiuo aoiaa.

Iinea OUea 5?ii§ Oaaa1 Aaaoaao auei aua iiiai iiaeiaiuo ?aciauaiee. A
aieueoeinoaa ecaanoiuo onaoioeo^TH(n^^^an^?eUei/aii§5

— i?yiua ioaee/iua ?aciauaiey) oaeiai ?iaea ?aaioa aicaeaaeyeanue
iiuoiuie th?enoaie e oeiainenoaie, eioi?ua auaiaeeee ia ?uiie aeoeee
iaaieueoeo i?aaei?eyoee.

Cia/eoaeueioth /anoue ?aaiou ninoaaeyao i?ioiaeaeaiea oi?iaeueiie
i?ioeaaeo?u a 5AN. Noieo ioiaoeoue,

/oi I?I aeaoaaea, ii nai i?ioeann iaiaiiiai auno?aa, /ai iau/iia 1?I.
Iaeiaei, a?aiy iiaeii nie?aoeoue, anee eniieueciaaoue i?ia?aiiiia
iaania/aiea oeia Na?5na?a, aaoiiaoece?othuaa caiieiaiea oi?i 5AO.
Aiciiaeii, iii nie?aoeony aua aieueoa, anee ?aaoeyoi?ai oaeanony
i?eaanoe iauai o?aaoaiie aeieoiaioaoeee a niioaaonoaea n ianooaaaie
?aciauaiey.

Aieueoia aieiaiea i?eaeaeea ae?oaay eiiiaaoeey. I?aaieciaaoue a ^IOOO
ieiuaaeeo aeey oi?aia – yoi aeinoeaeaiea aeey ieaiiai caaiaea eee
eiaanoeoeeiiiiai aaiee?a, ii nouee ionoye aeey n?aaeiaai niaoeeaeenoa ii
i?iaeoe?iaaieth ‘O^^O-nae-oia. Iineieueeo aiciiaeiinoue yoiai oaea
iieacaia, neaaeoao iaeeaeaoue, /oi a?iea?u, eiinoeueoaiou e o.i. ia/ioo
iaia?aaie i?aaeeaaaoue oaeea oneoae.

E ana aea, naiui cia/eoaeueiui ?acoeueoaoii yoiai ?aciauaiey noaei oi,
/oi iia?aoeey, o?aaeeoeeiiii auiieiyaiay eiaanoeoeeiiiui aaieii, aueoa
auiieiaia eai-oi ae?oaei. ?acoiii i?aaeiieiaeeoue, /oi iu iaaethaeaai
?iaeaeaiea iiaiai naaiaioa ?uiea oeiainiauo oneoa — I?I.

Ana yoi ia oiaeyao cia/aiey i?iaaaeaiiiai Eeaeiii ?aciauaiey. Iii
o?aaiaaei oe?iou aiia?aaeaiey, /?acau/aeiie i?aaeoniio?eoaeueiinoe, e
Eeaei aiieia caneoaeaiii aue ioia/ai i?annie e aai/o?iuie eaieoaeenoaie.

Oniao Eeaeia nouanoaaiii «au?iaiye ieiuaaeeo»: caueoieee oai?ee
niaa?oaiiiai ?uiea aeieaeiu caiaoeoue, /oi noieiinoue ?aciauaiey
nieceeanue ia ii?yaeie:

aa ieaeiee i?aaeae ninoaaeyao oaia?ue ia »500 000, a i?eaeeceoaeueii »50
000,

Neo/ae 3: Oa’a Na?Ea1

Aua eioa?aniaa neaaeothuee oaa Eeaeia. Ia aieia ooieoe e iinea 500
io/ayiiuo caiieia n i?inueaaie i eiinoeueoaoeee, ni?in ia iiaeiaiua
oneoae noae i/aaeaeai, Eeaei iaia?oaeee iacaiyoue naaiaio ia ?uiea
oeiainiauo oneoa e ioe?ue oeiainiaoth oe?io OOENa?IaTHia?.

Ia?aiia/aeueiue ieai caeeth/aeny a oii, /oiau nicaeaoue eiiiaieth,
eioi?ay i?aaeeaaaea au oneoae ii ?aciauaieth a 1i1aaia1 (o/eouaay iiuo
5?ii§ 81aaa1), a oaeaea ?yae niioonoaothueo oneoa. Io eaeae 1i1aaiaI?I
eae oneoae e i/aaeaeiie yeiiiiee ia ianooaaao i?e

i?aaiecaoeee ?uiea-aeinee iauyaeaiee aeey nianoaaiiuo aeoeee — eeoue
iaeei oaa aei eaeae i?aaiecaoeee iieiioeaiiie 1i1aaia1-ae?aee.

Anee ?aciauaiea cayaie e yeaiaioa?iay i?ia?aiia eo niiinoaaeaiey
?aaeeciaaiu, inoaaony oieueei ?aaeeciaaoue ?an/aou ii naeaeeai. ?an/aou
ii naeaeeai — n?aaieoaeueii i?inoay caaea/a, eioi?ay noaiiaeony
o?eaeaeueiie, anee iaa noi?iiu aea?aeao n/aoa o iaeiiai a?iea?a.

Iinea oiai, eae iu ?aoeee oaoie/aneea aii?inu, noaiiaeony i/aaeaeii, /oi
eeth/aaie iiiaio a ia?eaoeiaa -i?eaea/aiea aeinoaoi/iiai eiee/anoaa
eeeaioia. Yoi, a naith i/a?aaeue, i?eaaaeao eaieueoaio ni?ino ia
ia?ae/iua ?aciauaiey, e a eiioea eiioeia aoaeao iino?iaia ?uii/iay
ieiuaaeea, eee ae?aea.

Oaeie ieai iiiia OAe Na?Ea1 nia?aoue cia/eoaeueiue eaieoae. *oiau
ioaaoeoue ia aucia e iino?ieoue ia?aue eiaanoeoeeiiiue aaie e ia?aoth
oiiaeiaoth ae?aeo a 1i1aaia1, OI Na?Ea1 i?aaei?eiye neaaeothuea oaae:

» anooiee a ia?oia?noai n eiiiaieae ii ia?eaoeiao a 1i1aaia1, /oiau
iieo/eoue aeinooi e oaoiieiaee;

« i?eia?ae ae?aeaaoth oaoiieiaeth o eiiaiaeu, eioi?ay ?aaioaea ia
*eeaaneoth e Iueth-ei?eneoth oiiaeiaua ae?aee;

» iaania/ee oeiainiaoth eiiiaoaioiinoue Niaaoa;

« i?eia?ae a?iea?neoth oaoiieiaeth o oe?i, niaoeeaeece?othueony a
i?ia?aiiiii iaania/aiee aeey yoie aeayoaeueiinoe;

» iiaeienae niaeaoaiea n eee?eiaiaui oeaio?ii;

» iiaeae a NA5^ cayaeo i i?aaeinoaaeaiee eeoeaicee.

Oaeaeinueeeeioainaiui nia?aoue ana /anoe aeey iino?iaiey nianoaaiiie
oeiainiaie nenoaiu n eiaanoi?aie, ae?aeae e yieoaioaie?

Ieai OI Na?Ene aue ia neeoeii oaea/ai, anee noaeeoue ii cia/eoaeueiiio
n?ieo, i?ioaaeoaio n ia/aea i?iaeoa aei caionea ia?aie neoaeau. Ii/aio?
Nua?aee naith ?ieue neaaeothuea oaeoi?u. » Eeeaioneay aaca. Oneeey,
iai?aaeaiiua ia ?aaeno?aoeeth cay-aieaei ia/aea iia?aoeee, ieacaeenue
iaaeinoaoi/iuie. I?iaanoe naia I?I – yoi iaeii, a ieacuaaoue oneoae ii
i?iaaaeaieth I?I aeey ae?oaeo — nianai ae?oaia. E?iia oiai, nieneaoue
oaaaeaiea ni noi?iiu i?annu

e oeiainiaiai niiauanoaa ca ioe?uoea iiaiai naaiaioa — aua ia cia/eo
eiaoue eeeaioia (eae yieoaioia, oae e eiaanoi?ia) a yoii naaiaioa.

» Iaoieeaeueiinoue, oa Na?ene — ia aaeeinoaaiiua, eoi iuoaaony
iino?ieoue eeeaioneoth aaco e ?aiooaoeeth a noa?a I?I. Iao i?e/ei, ii
eioi?ui oaeie ieai ia iiaeao auoue iiaoi?ai ethaui eiaanoeoeeiiiui
aaieii eee a?iea?neie eiioi?ie ia Oiee-No?eo. Aieaa oiai, anee OI Na?O
i?aoniaao oioue iaiiiai, yoi noaiao iaaeaaeiie e i?iaa?aiiie iiaeaeueth
ia?aiina aeciana a 1i1aaia1 aeey e?oiiuo ea?ieia, noaea eiathuaeny
eeeaioneie aacie. * ?aciao aeayoaeueiinoe. Oe?ioa eo aeayoaeueiinoe
/?acia?ia. Iuoaynue nicaeaoue eiaanoeoeeiiiue aaie, a?iea?neoth eiioi?o
e ae?aeo, 1OI Na?Ea1 caiaoeaaaony ia oeaeoth io?aneue. Aeaei aeaaea ia a
naiiiaaeayiiinoe, a a eiee/anoaa ?aaoeyoi?ia e ?acia?a nenoai, n
eioi?uie i?e yoii i?eoiaeeony eiaoue aeaei. N auyaeaieai eaaeaeiai
iiaiai aniaeoa aicieeaao ioaeaea a iiaie a?oiia niaoeeaeenoia, e iiaie
eiiaiaea th?enoia. » Ioeai/iia iiceoeeiie?iaaiea. Oieone?iaaoueny ia
ae?aea – n aeo?iaeenoneie oi/ee c?aiey ainoeoeoaeueii, ii ia naiii aeaea
aania?niaeoeaii. Iacia/aiea ae?aee, anee aieiaoaeueii iiniio?aoue ia aa
ono?ienoai — a oii, /oiau aeaoue aiciiaeiinoue ea?oaeth a?iea?ia
iiiiiieece?iaaoue aeayoaeueiinoue e canoaaeoue anao i?iaiaeeoue naeaeee
/a?ac ieo. Ni a?aiaiai, oiiaeiaua ae?aee noaee aei iaeioi?ie noaiaie
eiieo?aioiuie, aeaaiaea?y eiio?ieth ni noi?iiu oicyaa, eciaiaieth i?aaee
e i?inoi eiieo?aioeee ae?ae iaaeaeo niaie. A?iea?neea eiioi?u, iai?ioea,
auea?uaatho io oaeiai ea?oaey. Ianiio?y ia eaaeouothny iaaieueooth
i?eaueueiinoue ae?ae, naeoi? ia?aiieiai, e enneaaeiaaiey 5AN
iieacuaatho, /oi nouanoaoao aieaa 140 aeueoa?iaoeaiuo ?uieia aeey
oeaiiuo aoiaa, iiaeaea?aeeaaaiuo, a /anoiinoe, a?iea?neeie eiioi?aie.
Aeaeaa, ae?aea, /oiau iaania/eaaoue eeeaeaeiinoue, aeieaeia auoue
aieueoie, e iau/ii eeoue iaiiiaea ec ieo aei?anoatho aei oaeiai
ianooaaa. Eeaei i?eciaao yoi, aiai?y: «Oi, /oi iu iuoaainy aeaeaoue, ia
i?ieaeao a iaeii ianooaaa». Ii i?inoi

i?eciaoue ianooaa auciaa aua ia cia/eo naeaeaoue oeaeue aeinoeaeeiie. »
Iiaae eo e i?eniaaeeienue e iei. Ethaiio iieiaeiio i?aaei?eyoeth aeai
eeoue iaeei oain iaiaeeaeaiiie aoaee. Eeaei eniieueciaae naie, eiaaea
i?aaieciaae aeineo iauyaeaiee oa-Aeiyai!. Ia?yaeo n oaaaeaieai ni
noi?iiu 8AN ca iiaaoi?noai, yoi i?eaeaeei e iaio iinoiyiiia aieiaiea
?aaoeyoi?ia e inoaeueiiai oeiainiaiai niiauanoaa. Ai anao inoaeueiuo
ioiioaieyo (oaeeo, eae iaei eiiaiaeu, ?ac?aaioaaoae nioo aeey aeaoo
ae?ae, e aeeth/aiea a Niaao aieueoiai eiee/anoaa oeiainenoia) OI? Na?Ea1
aioae a niiauanoai. Yoi iioiaea ia oi, eae anee au iiaue ea?ie aioae a
io?aneue ca n/ao iiaeiuaiee e oeiainiaie iiue. A oaeeo neo/ayo iaeaieaa
oaea/iie no?aoaaeae auaaao eiioi?iiinoue, a ia iiaaoi?noai.

Iai?ioea, A*EAAA neiioeaio?e?iaaeanue ia a?iea?neie aeayoaeueiinoe: oie
/anoe io?anee, aaea eiieo?e?otho aieueoea e iaeua ea?iee, oae /oi e
iaeue ea?ie iiaeao naeaeaoue /oi-oi iiaia aaciaeacaiii. Yoi oaeaea oa aa
/anoue, aaea inaaeaao cia/eoaeueiay i?eaueue, e caeanue n?aaioaea
aiciiaeiinoue A*OEAIA nieaeaoue i?aaeaeueiua ecaea?aeee.

E?iia oiai, iieaei-a?iea?u, oaeea, ea.eA*OEAAA e a5nUeeaUe *a?eueca
Oaaaa (NUeaeay OnUeoaUe), ai?acaei eo/oa iiceoeeiie?iaaiu aeey oiai,
/oiau aieoe ia ia?ae/iue e aoi?e/iue ?uiee: iaeaaeay eeeaioneie aacie e
ioeaaeaiiie o?aeaeei-aiaie nenoaiie, iie eaa/a iiaoo aeiaaaeoue ooieoeee
?aeeaiu aeoeee e aioo?aiiaai eee?eiaa naeaeie.

E iie oaea aeaeatho yoi: iaa oe?iu cayaeytho i naiaiaeaeaiee
i?eniaaeeieoueny e nieneai e?oiiuo ia?ae/iuo ?aciauaiee. *oi eanaaony
1i1aaia1-ae?ae, oi 5AN iioaeeeiaaea i?eaeaoaiea e aeeneonnee ii ?yaeo
aii?inia, naycaiiuo n ?aaoee?iaaieai o.i. (“?uieia aeueoa?iaoeaiiai
eee?eiaa».

Iiuo o?aeaeeiaa

oeeo?iauie

na?oeoeeaoaie

Aeaioiiao inoi?iaeii i?aaeiieiaeee, /oi «aiciiaeii, i?eaeao e o?ae-aeeia
a ?aaeueiii a?aiaie». A yoii ?acaeaea iienuaaaony iiuo oeeo?iaiai
o?aeaeeiaa a ?aaeueiii a?aiaie, iaeiieaiiue 8o$1aoe5O., iaaieueoie iiaie
eiiiaieae, inii

aaiiie aaoi?ii. Yoi ia?aay e, i neieueei iai ecaanoii, iiea aaee
noaaiiay nenoaia o?aeaeeiaa oee| ?iauie na?oeoeeaoaie.

No?oeoo?a o?aeaeeiaiaie nenoa»

I?aaeaea, /ai iienuaaoue iiuo, no eo ?anneacaoue iaiiiai i oii, e iu a
5o51aoe5 niio?ei ia ie?

*oi oaeia nia?aiaiiay oeia niaay nenoaia? Aeoaieia ?annin ?aiea yoiai
aii?ina aeinoaoi/] o?oaeii, iineieueeo nia?aiaii! i?eia?u neeoeii
neiaeiu ae. aieueoeinoaa, a oii /enea e aeey i.

Iaeiaei, ai anao oeiainia;

nenoaiao, aoaeue oi Ainoa?aeai ] ca?a ?acaeoey oeiainia, eee n
aiaeiyoiea iaaeaeoia?iaeiua ?u ee, anoue iauea yeaiaiou:

* n?aaenoai iaiaia, eee ieaoaaee nenoaia, eee, aua i?iua, aeaiueae

• n?aaenoaa i?aa?auaiey caaei aeaiiinoae a iai?ioiua eino? iaiou
(aaenaey e aeoeee eae na oeoeeaou eee caiene a aaciaee iie nenoaia);

« i?ino?ainoai oi?aia oeiain auie eino?oiaioaie (i?eiyo:

aeaiaa a aeiea);

« nenoaia eee?eiaa neiaeiue naeaeie;

» iiiaeanoai yieoaioia e ii aeanoai eiaanoi?ia.

Nouanoaotho e ae?oaea yeaia ou, oaeea, eae ?aiooaoeee, ?aaoe ?iaaiea e
iin?aaeieee, ii caea iu eo ia ?anniao?eaaai.

I?eaee?/eaue enoi?ee caiao:

oaeaea, /oi a ?aiieo nenoaiao ] auei eee?eiaa eae oaeiaiai, i neieueeo
ana eino?oiaiou eia;

oi?io aoiaaeiuo na?oeoeeaoia i?enoonoaiaaee ia ?uii/iie ie uaaeea. Yoio
iaoiae onoa?ae iin ecia?aoaiey oaeaa?aoa n aai ai iiaeiinoueth iaaiiyoue
aeinoaaeo a iaa, /oi iiaeaeei ?acaeaeaiea o?a:

aeeiaa ia ia?aaea/o eino?oeoeee iineaaeothuaa eo eniieiaiea.

Oaia?ue i?aaeiieiaeei, /oi o?a] aeeiaiaay nenoaia, n oi/ee c?ao
«aiaoiaai» o?aeaea?a, ninoieo naiai yae?a ec o?ao eiiiiiaio: ae] aee,
eee?eiaiaiai aeiia e a?iea?

Noaiaea?oiue aiaeec no?oeoo? cao?ao ia i?iaaaeaiea naeaeee iie cuaaao,
/oi aeaa eiiiiiaiou – a iiaiua, a iaeia — n?aaieoaeueii i;

eiaaaeiay. Aaaeue oeaia i?iaaaeaie naeaeee ia ae?aea ioiineoaeueii u
auniea (ii?yaeea $2). Oeaia aea inoua noaeaiey eee?eiaa iaoiaeeony oaea]

i?aaeaeao ssI-30, iethn i?ioeaiou ca e?aaeeo. Oeaia oneoa a?iea?a
eieaaeaony io ss 0 (aeey ‘OO^-a?iea?a) aei ss 00 (aeeyuee caona
a?iea?a).

Ae?aeaaay naeaeea naia ii naaa iai?eaeaeaoaeueia eae oi/ea nieaeaiey
ecaea?aeae. A aio a?iea?neay eiiiiiaioa e eee?eia — ae?oaia aeaei.

Aeaaea iiaa?oiinoiue acaeyae ia i?ioeann iieacuaaao, /oi naeaeea
i?enoonoaoao ia ae?aea eeoue a oa/aiea iacia/eoaeueiiai a?aiaie, a caoai
ooiaeeo a eee?eia. Ia nia?aiaiiie ae?aea ia i?enoonoaotho ie aeaiueae,
ie aoiaae, e ae?aeaaay naeaeea eae oaeiaay ia naycaia ni cia/eoaeueiui
?eneii, iineieueeo eiio?aaaio, eae i?aaeei, caiauai eee?eiaiaui aeiiii.
I?ioiaeaeaiea naeaeee /a?ac ae?aeo – cia/eoaeueii iaiaa neiaeiue
i?ioeann, /ai aa i?ioiaeaeaiea /a?ac eee?eiaiaue aeii.

I?e oi?ie?iaaiee acaeyaea 8o51aoe5 ia «aaiaeace/aneoth oeiainiaoth
nenoaio» [IaOi§a] (AON), aeey ?ac?aaioee oeiainiauo eino?oiaioia,
aeiioneathueo iaiaaeeaiiua ?an/aou, auea eniieueciaaia oaoiieiaey
oeeo?iauo na?oeoeeaoia. Yoi iicaieeei aeeth/eoue a cayaeo,
aua?anuaaaioth o?aeaea?ii ia ?uiie, naie eino?oiaiou e i?aa?aoeei
o?ae-aeeia a aaeeiia aoiia?iia aeaenoaea.

Iau/iue iiaeoiae e oeeo?iaiio o?aeaeeiao caeeth/aeny a oii, /oiau
onei?eoue i?ioeann ia?aaea/e cayaee, a caoai iuoaoueny nyeiiiieoue ii
iaei/ai ia ae?oaeo eioi?iaoeeiiiuo i?ioeannao. Iiaeoiae aea 8o5aoe5,
iai?ioea, caeeth/aaony a oii, /oiau ono?aieoue eee?eia eae naiue
aei?iainoiyuee eiiiiiaio naeaeee. Iao iiaeoiae nieiaao ?acaeaeaiea
eee?eiaa e ia?aaea/e eino?oeoeee, eioi?ia ia/aeinue n ecia?aoaieai
oaeaa?aoa, iicaieeaoaai ia?aaeaaaoue eino?oeoeee auno?aa, /ai aoiaaeiua
na?oeoeeaou.

*oi iu naeaeaee

5o51aoe5 i?aaieciaaea «aioo?aiiee» ?uiie oeeo?iauo na?oeoeeaoia ia
aeoeee, eioi?uie iaeaaeatho eiaanoi?u iaoae eiiiaiee. Yoi iioiaea ia
ieeioiue caione i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey aeey oanoe?iaaiey. Iao ?uiie
oaeaea eioaa?e?iaai n oi?aiaie nenoaiie, yaeythuaeny a oi aea naiia
a?aiy ieaoaaeiie nenoaiie.

Nenoaia aeeth/aao yieoaioia oeeo?iauo na?oeoeeaoia e ?uiie aeey oi?aiaee
eie. Auee auiouaiu na?oeoeeaou ia ?acee/iua aaethou e ?acee/iua
oeiainiaua eino?oiaiou. Ia yoaia aiaee/iiai oanoe?iaaiey auee caiouaiu a
ia?auaiea na?oeoeeaou aaneoiiiiuo aeanyoeaeieea?iauo iaeeaaoeee,
eioi?uie oi?aotho ca aeieea?u NOA.

Eiiaiaea

Eaeea niaoeeaeenou o?aaothony aeey iino?iaiey oeiainiaie nenoaiu? Iu
eaeaioeoeoee?iaaee neaaeothuea aeenoeeieeiu:

» o/ao e aoaeeo;

» i?ia?aiie?iaaiea;

» nenoaiiay a?oeoaeoo?a;

» e?eioia?aoey;

» yeiiiieea;

» oeiainu e aaieianeia aeaei;

» oi?aaeaiea ?eneaie;

» ia?eaoeia e ?ani?ino?aiaiea;

» oi?aaeaiea oeaio?aeueiuie aaieaie.

Aeaaea iiaa?oiinoiue acaeyae ia ethaoth oeiainiaoth nenoaio yoi
iiaeoaa?aeaeaao, e, ciae iu ia yoii ca?aiaa, iu, aiciiaeii, aua?aee au
naaa ae?oaoth caaea/o. Ii auoei oae, /oi aeiiieieoaeueiuo niaoeeaeenoia
iu iaae?aee,eae oieueei a ieo iaia?oaeeaaeanue iaiaoiaeeiinoue. Aoaeouei
?ac?aaio/eeai iiaeii oieueei iiniaaoiaaoue n naiiai ia/aea nia?aoue
oaeoth ioeue-oei?aaeiaoioth eiiaiaeo.

Eioaa?aoeey

Eae oieueei i?ia?aiiiia iaania/aiea auei iaienaii, e ana i?ioeaaeo?u
?aaeeciaaiu, yeiiiiey ia ianooaaao iicaieeea nicaeaoue «oeiainiaoth
nenoaio a ei?iaea».

Oioy yoa caaea/a aeinoeaeeia (e aeinoeaiooa), aioiaay e i?iaeaaea

caeii/aiiay nenoaia — ia naiay iiaeoiaeyuay oeaeue aeey iaaieueoie
eiiaiaeu. Iaia?oaeeeinue, /oi aeaaea aeeceea ia?oia?u eniuouaatho
caiaoaoaeuenoai, ia?aaeaaay e?oiiua noiiu a ?oee i?ia?aiienoia. I?e
yoii, iaaaaeii, neieueei oeiainiauo ae?iieiia oiiieiaaony.

A i?eioeeia, ethaay oeiainiaay nenoaia ?ani?aaeaeyao ioaaonoaaiiinoue
iaaeaeo ?acee/iuie noi?iiaie n ?aciie niaoeeaeecaoeeae, oaeie, eae
?ac?aoaiea nii?ia (noaeu), yne?io -oneoae (aaiee), iia?e?iaaiea
(i?ia?aiienou) e o?aeaeeia (nai ?uiie).

?acaeaeaiea ioaaonoaaiiinoe iaiaoiaeeii, eae oieueei neiaeiinoue

nenoaiu i?aauneo o?iaaiue iiieiaiey n?aaeiaai o/anoieea. Io eaaeaeiai
o/anoieea o?aaoaony ia iiieiaiea anao aniaeoia auyaeaiey e ?aoaiey
i?iaeai, ii eeoue ciaiea iieoaethaeeiu iniiaiuo aeieia e oiai, eae iie
acaeiiaeaenoaotho ae?oa n ae?oaii, ia?acoy iaaeaaeii ooieoeeiie?othuoth
nenoaio.

Oi/ea, a eioi?ie yoi noaiiaeony iaiaoiaeeiui, aeinoeaaaony i/aiue
auno?i. 5o51aoe5 aeioea aei iaa, eae oieueei iu noiaee
i?iaeaiiino?e?iaaoue ia?aua eioa?aniua o?aicaeoeee.

I?eioeei ?acaeaeaiey ioaaonoaaiiinoe iiaeao auoue i?aaeeiaeai e eae
aieaa iauaa i?aaeei (aeey ian yoi — ?acoeueoao iao/aiey ia ioeaeao, ii,
aiciiaeii, aeey /eoaoaey iii e oae i/aaeaeii). Oae /oi iai i?eaeaony a
aoaeouai ?ac?aaioaoue nenoaio eiiia?aoeee iaaeaeo einoeoooaie, /oi,
ianiiiaiii, ai?acaei neiaeiaa ia?aiia/aeueiie ?ac?aaioee i?ia?aiiiiai
iaania/aiey.

E?iia iniciaiey iaiaoiaeeiinoe ?acaeaeaiey ioaaonoaaiiinoe,

aaaeiui ?acoeueoaoii noaei iiieiaiea oiai, /oi ?acee/ea iaaeaeo
aeaiueaaie e oeiainiauie eino?oiaioaie — ai iiiaii iaaeoiaiiia, anee
iiianoeoue aai a oaoie/aneee eiioaeno.

Aia/aea iu enoiaeeee ec oiai, /oi aeaiueae (eee ieaoaaeiay nenoaia)
ioee/athony io oeiainiauo eino?oiaioia, e yoio acaeyae io?aaeae
nouanoaothuea oaoiieiaee. Oiaaea *oeioea oioaea aunei/eoue ec
ia?aiieiaiiie io?anee yeaeo?iiiie eiiia?oeee e noieone?iaaoueny ia
o?aeaeeiaa. Iiyoiio nenoaia ?ac?aaaouaaeanue oae, /oiau iicaieeoue
o?aeaea?ai eioaa?e?iaaoue aeaiueae, ia?auathueany a ae?oaeo ieaoaaeiuo
nenoaiao, n aeoeeyie e iaeeaaoeeyie, ia?auaiea eioi?uo iiaeaea?aeeaaaony
iaoeie i?ia?aiiaie.

A iaeioi?ii niunea, i?eeiaeaiea i?eaiia oeiainiaie e?eioia?aoee e
o?aeaeeiao oeeo?iauie na?oeoeeaoaie naii ii naaa i?aaeiieaaaao
eniieueciaaiea iaee/iinoe. Eiaaea auee iino?iaiu e caiouaiu ia?aua
i?ioioeiu, ieacaeinue, /oi iaaeaeo na?oeoeeaoiuie eino?oiaioaie e
iaee/iuie aeaiueaaie aieueoa noiaenoaa, /ai eiaaea-eeai auei ?acee/ee!

Yieoe?iaaa iaee/iinoue eae iaeei ec eino?oiaioia e aiany eciaiaiey,
io?aaeathuea yoi aeiiieiaiea, iu niiaee ecaaaeoueny io iaeiiai ec
iniiaiuo eiiiiiaioia nenoaiu, /oi i?eaaei ecia/eoaeue-iiio nie?auaieth
ecaea?aeae ia anao yoaiao i?iaaaeaiey naeaeee.

Aieaa oiai, iu iaia?oaeeee, /oi nenoaia i?e yoii i?eia?aea
caaa?oaiiinoue, eioi?ay ioe?uea iooue e iiaui aiciiaeiinoyi. 5oc1aoe5
ieacaeanue a naiii oeaio?a io?anee yeaeo?iiiie eiiia?oeee.

Iu iaia?oaeeee, /oi iaee/iinoue anoue i?inoi oeiainiaue eino?oiaio
ii?aaeaeaiiiai oeia. Ieaoaaeiua 1i1aaia1-nenoaiu nooue, oaeei ia?acii,
nenoaiu oi?aaeaiey oeiainiauie eino?oiaioaie, ?aaeecothueie eeoue iaeei
oei iineaaeieo: iaee/iinoue aeey ?icie/iuo naeaeie. Oeiainiaay nenoaia,
iai?ioea, anoue aeaaioneay oeaeinoiay naoue o?aicaeoeee e ioiioaiee, e
ieaoaaeiua nenoaiu aeieaeiu io?aaeaoue eiioeaiooaeueiua iniiau
oeiainiauo o?aicaeoeee, a ia iayaiua aeiiouaiey eo ?ac?aaio/eeia.

*oi a aoaeouai

I?aaenoaaueoa naaa…

Ay?e Oyiae e N.E.I?ayeaae [Iaoa! & ?aaUea1a(1] i?aaeiieaaatho, /oi iu
aeieaeiu eneaoue cia/eoaeueiua ?ac?uau e iuoaoueny i?aaenoaaeoue naaa
ie?, a eioi?ii iie ono?aiaiu.

Aio ianeieueei oaeeo ?ac?uaia:

» 1i[aaia1: naiaiaeiue e ioe?uoue aeinooi anao eeoe e eioi?iaoeee e
aeayoaeueiinoe. » Aeiaaeecaoeey e ?aaeiiaeecaoeey:

ia?aoiae io iaoeeiiaeueiuo oicyenoa e ?aaeiiaeueiui aeieai a aeiaaeueiii
eiiia?/aneii ie?oaeaiee. » Oeiainiaay e?eioia?aoey:

?ac?aaioea iaai?a i?eaiia aeey inouanoaeaiey iaaeaaeiuo o?aica-eee ii
iaiaaeaaeiui naoyi, oaeei, eae 1i1aaia1.

I?aaenoaaueoa aoaeouaa, a eioi?ii oeeo?iaie o?aeaeeia noaiao ii?iie.
Naeaeea ie/aai ia noieo, auiieiyaony iiiaioaeueii e aaciiania.
Oi?aiaaoue iiaeao eoi oaiaeii, ana iaeaaeatho i?yiui aeinooiii e ?uieo
aac iin?aaeieeia, oae aea, eae naaiaeiy ana iaeaaeatho aeinooiii e
‘*OOOI^ e iieuecothony yeaeo?iiiie ii/oie.

Iacaae a aoaeouaa

Anee /anoii, oi iu oaea iieacaee — ana yoi oaoie/anee aiciiaeii. Oae /oi
iu ia noieue acaieiiaaiu yoei, eae Oyiae e I?ayeaae. Ii aa?iooueny e
yoiio aii?ino aua ?ac ana aea noieo, iineieueeo caione — yoi aua ia
aanue aecian.

Iiai?io, iiaeiaiue oiio, /oi ian iaeeaeaao, neo/aaony ia aia?aua. *oiau
oaeaeaoue, ianeieueei naiaiaeiui aue o?aeaeeia ?aiueoa, iai ioaeii
aa?iooueny ia ianeieueei aaeia iacaae, a yiioo ia?auo ae?ae.

«Ia?aiia/aeueii, oiiaeiaua ae?aee auee ioe?uou aeey anao iieoiaoaeae e
i?iaeaaoeia, e iie (iai?eia?, Ia?eaeneay ae?aea) no?ieeenue ia
iauanoaaiiua n?aaenoaa. ?uiie aue aienoeio ioe?uoui. A eieiieaeueiii
Iueth-Ei?ea eaieoaeenou niae?aeenue iiae aieueoei aea?aaii, “o noaiu”, e
oi?aiaaee aeoeeyie iiauo i?aaei?eyoee» [2§ia2?5EA].

O?aeaea?u noiyee e?oaii n ii?ooaeyie, iaaeouie aoiaaaie,
i?aaenoaaeythueie aeiee a aeoeeiia?iuo i?aaei?eyoeyo. *oiau oi?aiaaoue,
ioaeii auei i?inoi oai auoue. Naeaeea inouanoaeyeanue iaaeaeo
i?iaeaaoeii e iieoiaoaeai, e ?an/aou iau/ii i?iaiaeeeenue ia ianoa:
aoiaaa

i?ioea ieaoaaea. Iaaeaaeiinoue auea aunieie (ii e?aeiae ia?a, a oi?iooth
iiaiaeo). Aaciianiinoue iieieeanue ia iiiyoeyo aeiaa?ey e iiea/aiiia™
aoiaa, ii/oe eae nae/an.

Eiia/ii, /oiau i?aaenoaaeoue naaa iiaeiaiia a nia?aiaiiii eiioaenoa,
ioaeii ioaea/ueny io iiiaeo ia?aie/aiee, oaeeo, eae ?annoiyiea.
Aaciianiinoue a i/aiue aieueoie noaiaie caaenaea io aeaeaioeueiaineiai
iiaaaeaiey. Ecaea?aeee auee ieceeie, oioy e i?eoiaeeeinue iaieiaoue
iaeue/eea, eioi?ue ian ii?ooaeue. E nouanoaiaaea ecaa/iay oa?ica
iiiiiieecaoeee,

«A iaa 1792 a. auea oi?iaeueii ioe?uoa ae?aea n 24 a?iea?aie. Ana
iieoiee e i?iaeaaee aeieaeiu auee i?ioiaeeoue /a?ac iaeiiai ec yoeo
iin?aaeieeia. Ii/oe 200 eao… eneonnoaaiiay oeenaoeey oeai
i?aiyonoaiaaea eiieo?aioeee iaaeaeo /eaiaie yoiai yeneethceaiiai eeoaa»
[2§in12o5e1].

?uiee

Aac aiciiaeiinoe eiio?iee?iaaoue naeaeee, aieueoea oeaio?aeeciaaiiua
einoeooou, oaeea, eaeEiiaeii-neay eee Iueth-ei?eneay ae?aee,
ia?aaioiniiniaiu.

Iaeiaei, eeeaeaeiinoue ioaeia a ethaii neo/aa, oae /oi /oi-oi aeieaeii
inoaaaoueny aieueoei. Yoei «/ai-oi» iiaeao auoue oieueei aeiaaeueiue
?uiie /anoiuo aeoeeiia?ia, i?aaieciaaiiue a niioaaonoaee n iaai?ii
i?ioieieia. I?ioioeiii iiaeao neoaeeoue nenoaia NA5^A^, ieiuaaeeie a
eioi?ie yaeyaony iaai? ye?aiia, iieacuaathueo ia?eao-iaeea?ia,
caeioa?aniaaiiuo a eioe?iaeao aeoeee.

Ianeieueei ii?aaaeaia aiaeiaey? ^A^ oaea aienuaaaony a oaeoth no?oeoo?o,
aoaeo/e iaai?ii nnueie ia eioa?aniua ianoa.

1i1aaia1 oaea iieacae, /oi niiauanoai iaiioiaeeo ae?oa ia ae?oaa, ii
?aaii i?eaioe?iaaiiuo ia aoaeouaa oaoiie?aoia, iiaeao yooaeoeaii
i?aaieciaaoue naay n iiiiuueth eii?aeeiaoiie naoee, niaa?oaiii
iaiiiyoiie aeey iau/iuo eiiia?naioia eee ainoaea?noaaiiuo ?aaoeyoi?ia.
Iino?iaiea AON iiaeao auoue naaaeaii e iaienaieth ianeieueeeo E?N.

Niooaa?iua oe?iu

Aeaiueae aeaeathony a iniiaiii ia aeiaaaeaiiie noieiinoe, ii a?i

ea?neie eiioi?a eee eee?eiaiaiio aeiio ioaeii i?aaeaea anaai eiaoue oi,
e /aio aa aeiaaaeyoue. Anee o a?iea?ia caa?aoue naeaeee, o ieo inoaiaony
eeoue iaeei iooue e ea?iaio eeeaioa: i?ia?aiiiia iaania/aiea. Anee
?an/aou caa?aoue o eee?eiaiauo aeiiia, iie aoaeoo eiieo?e?iaaoue ca oi
aea naiia i?ia?aiiiia iaania/aiea.

O?aeaea?neia iaania/aiea neiaeii e aei?iai. Iieueciaaoaee aoaeoo eneaoue
iioeiaeueiue aeinooi e oi?ioaio iaania/aieth aeey oi?aaeaiey naieie
aeoeaaie. Iaeii?aciaay iieoiea — ia eo/oee aa?eaio, e ai ana aieaa
eiieo?aioiii ie?a o?aeaeeiaa naay ia ii?aaaeuaaao. Iniiaioth ?ieue
nua?aao naiaiaeii ?ani?ino?aiyaiia iaania/aiea, ii eae oaeiaia iii ia
iiiiaaao a i?eiyoee ?aoaiee e inoaaeyao ia?aoaiiui aii?in i
iiaeaea?aeea.

A?iea?u ?aciauetho na?aenu, i?aaeinoaaeythuea iaania/aiea e, a
eii-oea-eiioeia, i?aa?aoyony a niooaa?iua oe?iu, caiyoua eae
?ac?aaioeie, oae e naoaaie einoaeeyoeeae. Iinea yeeieiaoeee eee?eiaa,
oe?iu, caiyoua yenieoaoaoeeae aye-ioenia, ono?aiyony a oio aea naaiaio.

Ia aieia yoiai i?ioeanna iiiaea iiaua niooaa?iua eiiiaiee ia/ioo
i?iaeaaaoue aeiiieieoaeueiua oneoae, oaeea eae ?uiee, yienneth
oeiainiauo eino?oiaioia e aeaiaa. Ii iie noieeioony n /?acau/aeii
aunieie eiieo?aioeeae ia ?uiea, aaea ethaie iaeeee ea?ie niiaeao
i?aaeinoaaeyoue ana yoe oneoae, i?inoi iiaea?ocea eiiiiiaiou
iaania/aiey, ?aaeecothuea aaciaua i?ioieieu, e caionoea eo.

Eiaanoeoeeiiiua aaiee aoaeoo ii-i?aaeiaio ea?aoue naith ?ieue i?e 1?I,
ii iia noaiao iaiiiai aieaa oaoie/aneie, n yienneae oeiainiauo
eino?oiaioia ai aeaaa oaea.

Iaeeea a?iea?u-iin?aaeieee en/acioo, onooiea oiiaeai, i?iaeathuei /enoia
ciaiea, oiaeiaaiiia a niaoeeaeece?iaaiiua oeiainiaua eino?oiaiou.
Yeiiiiey ia ianooaaao i?e 1i1aaia1-a?ieeiaa iiiai auoa, /ai yoi
aiciiaeii a naaiaeiyoiae a?iea?neie aeayoaeueiinoe, oae eae
o?aeaeeiaiaia iaania/aiea neiaeii. Iiiaea a?iea?u ia niiaoo oaea?aeaoue
eeeaioneoth aaco, ioyaaea-ynue a oi aea a?aiy a eiaanoeoeeyo aeey
?ac?aaioee iaania/aiey.

E, iiyoue-oaee, aieueoay /anoue iooe a yoii iai?aaeaiee oaea i?ie

aeaia: eioi?iaoeeiiiua aaaionoa (iai?eia?, Eae1ai) e eee?eiaa aua aeiia
(iai?eia?, Aaaa, 81ao5 (. Ni.) oaea eiieo?e?otho a naaiaio iinoaaie
iaania/aiey e i?iaiaei iia?aoeee aeey iaeeeo a?iea?ia.

Caueoa i?aa eiaanoi?a

Ia ?uiea 1i1aaia1 aicieeath neiaeiua aii?inu, naycaiiua caueoie
eiaanoi?a. » Eaeeo eiaanoi?ia ain?aaoey oi? aeieaeai caueuaoue, e io
eiai:

« Ioaeii ee caueuaoue ca?oaaae iuo eiaanoi?ia io ianoiuo ii oaiieeia, a
ianoiuo eiaanoi?a:

– io eiino?aiiuo? (Enoaoe, ea] ii?aaeaeeoue th?enaeeeoeeth?) »
?acee/athony ee eioi?iaoeey i?aaenoaaeaiiay a 1i1aaia1, e i?i niaeo
yiennee? (Enoaoe, eae ?aao eyoi?o iieo/eoue aeinooi e eioi? iaoeee,
?ani?ino?aiyaiie ii /a noiui eaiaeai?)

Aeey ie?a, aaea eiaanoi? iiaea’ auoue aiiieiiui «naoyieiii» aa;

a?aaeaeainoaa, aaea /anoiue aeinooi I eaiaeai yaeyaony ii?iie, aaea an(
i?aaeea «caoi/aiu» aeey i?eaea/a’ iey aiaaouo eiino?aioeaa, a iano’ iui
eiaanoi?ai auaiaeiaa iia?e?iaaoue a ninaaeiae no?aia, o?oaeii
i?eaeoiaoue iiaeaeue aeanoeie caueou eiaanoi?a.

?aoaieai yaeyaony ia?niiaeueiay ioaaonoaaiiinoue e i?inaauaiea: ana
eiaanoi?u iiauoathony a ?aiaa aei oiai, /oi 5AN ciaao «i?iaeaeiooui
eiaanoi?ii», i?aaeiieaaay, /oi oaea naiei aoiaeaeaieai a nenoaio oaeie
eiaanoi? i?eie iaao anth iieiioo ioaaonoaaiiia oe ia naay. Oiaaea ?ieue
aaaionoa ii caueoa i?aa eiaanoi?a ecia iyaony, e aeieaeia aeeth/aoue:

« iaania/aiea iauae o?aeaeeia a?aiioiinoe;

» onoaiiaeaiea ieieiaeueiu noaiaea?oia ?ane?uoey eioi? iaoeee;

* i?iaaaeaiea ieaoiie na?oeo:

eaoeee ia aeia?iaieueiie iniiaa;

» iaania/aiea oeaio?aeueiie oi1 ee aeey nai?a eioi?iaoeee i ii
oaiie/anoaa.

Iineieueeo i?aaeiieaaaaony, / einoeooou ?aaoee?othony a iniia iii a
oeaeyo caueou eiaanoi?) ie? ioaaonoaaiiuo eiaanoi?! ia?aie/eaaao iieueco
eiio?iey» iaua. Oaeay o?ainoi?iaoeey o i?ienoiaeeo a aaieianeie noa|
Iiiaea oeaio?aeueiua aaiee e

I?eeiaeaiea e aaeaiaaeaeueieeo «Eiiiuethoa??a’# I 2 (240)

EIIIUeTHIIIEEA

Ii1n1!a-3ni1, Ieinai, Aia?ana II O1a1ea1 ?oaina ?a?ia!, Iaan(1 1997.

Iaoa!, Iaao & ?aaUeaa6, N.E. Nio?aIiae (ia Ea ?e1eaa — O^a Iai/aae

Aeaiayc Cnithi! ?aaac, 1994

Ia?iaea, IiUeaa!, E/Eaay a eain1aa1N Aniiioo? II a$ IaOa, 6 ^ia 1997.

(Ni. oae.: Oaooeiaa ?., «Aaiaeace/aneia oicyenoai e oeiainiaay

e?eioia?aoey» //«Eiiiuethiiieea», 0.1, oaa?aeue 1998—i?ei.I.I.)

Ia)a1[,Aaa,1iaaia8THn1‘, a eioi?ii
I’ ^ I.

2.3. Noaaeo iiaeienue 8 iiae iaycaoaeuenoaii o, I].

2.4. Caiiieiaao, /oi iaycaoaeuenoai /, 0 auei ei iiaeienaii,

2.8, Ia?aaeaao iiaeienue $ i?eia?aoaoaeth.

$. I?eia?aoaoaeue.

C.O. I?iaa?yao, /oi 5 yaeyaony aeaenoaeoaeueiie iiaeienueth yieoaioa
iiae iaycaoaeuenoaii /, 0.

3-2. N/eouaaao n ea?ou aa?eoeeaoi? V.

3.3. Ia?aaeaao aa?eoeeaoi? V yieoaioo.

4, Yieoaio.

4.1. I?iaa?yao, /oi aa?eoeeaoi? V niioaaonoaoao eaeaioeoeeaoi?o /.

4.2. I?eciaao iaycaoaeuenoai /, I.

?acee/iua naainu i?ioieiea (aaoae A), a eioi?uo o/anoaoao iaeei e oio
aea eaeaioeoeeaoi? /, aeieaeiu auoue niaeaniaaiu (i?aaeei ie?iiai
ninouanoaiaaiey naainia): yieoaio ia aeieaeai i?enooiaoue e oaao 2.2
aaoae A aei oao ii?, iiea a ae?oaii naaina aaoae A eaeao auiieiaiea
oaaia 2.2-2.4.

Anee ii eaeei-eeai i?e/eiai yieoaio e6 iiaeao auiieieoue naie i/a?aaeiie
oaa a ?aieao aaoae A eee anee i/a?aaeiay i?iaa?ea aeaao io?eoeaoaeueiue
?acoeueoao, yieoaio i?a?uaaao auiieiaiea aaoae, oi anoue ioeacuaaaony
i?eciaaaoue iaycaoaeuenoai.

Anee ii eaeei-eeai i?e/eiai i?eia?aoaoaeue ia iiaeao eaee ia oi/ao
auiieieoue naie i/a?aaeiie oaa a ?aieao aaoae

A eaee anee i/a?aaeiay i?iaa?ea aeaao io?eoeaoaeueiue ?acoeueoao, oi
i?eia?aoaoaeue iiaeao eieoeee?iaaoue i?ioeaaeo?o ?ac?aoaiey eiioeeeoia
(aaoaue A) n oeaeueth aeiaeoueny io yieoaioa i?eciaiey iaycaoaeuenoaa,
naycaiiiai i ea?oie (e aeiiieiaiiiai iaeioi?ui oeacaieai). A ioee/ea io
aaoae A aaoaue A o?aaoao oece/aneiai i?aaeuyaeaiey eiioeeeoiie ea?ou.
Iaeia e oa aea ea?oa ia iiaeao o/anoaiaaoue a aeaoo naainao aaoae A.
Aaoaue A iiaeao i?iaiaeeoueny iiae iaaethaeaieai e n iiiiuueth a?aeo?a.

Eieoeee?oy aaoaue 6, i?eia?aoaoaeue aeieaeai auoue a ninoiyiee
i?aaeuyaeoue:

1 eeai ea?oo n cae?uoui ianee?othuei i?eniiniaeaieai

aa?eoeeaoi?a,

1 eeai ea?oo / e aeaenoaeoaeueioth iiaeienue yieoaioa iiae

iayyaoaaeuenoaii /, I.

Aaaaue 6 eiaao aeaa iiae&aoae, iaeio ec eioi?uo i?eia?aoaoaeue auae?aao
a caaeneiinoe io oiai, eaeea aeaiiua ii oi/ao e iiaeao i?aaeueyayoue.

Iiaeaaoaue A1-

1. I?eia?aoaoaeue i?aaeuyaeyao ea?oo / n cae?uoui ianee?othuei
i?eniiaiaeaieai aa?eoeeaoi?a e oeacaiea I’.

2. Yieoaio.

2.1. Ecuiaao ea?oo I.

2.2. Oaeinoiaa?yaony a oii, /oi ianee?othuaa i?eniiniaeaiea aa?eoeeaoi?a
iaoiaeeony a cae?uoii ninoiyiee.

2.3. I?eciaao iaycaoaeuenoai /, I’. Iiaeaaoaue A2.

1. I?eia?aoaoaeue i?aaeuyaeyao ea?oo / e aeaenoaeoaeueioth iiaeienue
yieoaioa iiae iaycaoaeuenoaii (/, I].

2. Yieoaio.

2.1. Ecuiaao ea?oo /.

2.2. I?iaa?yao naith iiaeienue iiae iaycaoaeuenoaii /, I.

2.3. I?eciaao iaycaoaeuenoai /, I.

Iiiaeanoai oeacaiee ii eniieiaieth iaycaoaeuenoaa, aeiionoeiuo a ?aieao
iiaeaaoae A1, iiaeao ioee/aoueny io iiiaeanoaa oeacaiee, aeiionoeiuo a
?aieao aaoae A. Iai?eia?, i?aaeinoaaeaiiia i?eia?aoaoaeai a iiaeaaoae A1
oeacaiea iiaeao aeeth/aoue o?aaiaaiea aica?aoa aeaiaa, caiea/aiiuo ca
ea?oo.

YEAEO?IIIUA NENOAIU AeAIAAEIUO ?AN*AOIA

Aieueoia aeeyiea ia i?aaiecaoeeth e oaoieeo iaaeaaieianeeo ?an/aoia
ieacuaaao oe?ieia eniieueciaaiea oae iacuaaaiuo «yeaeo?iiiuo aeaiaa» —
yeaeo?iiiuo ono?ienoa e nenoai nayce aeey ia?aaiaea aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa,
inouanoaeaiey e?aaeeoiuo e eiuo iia?aoeee, a oaeaea aeey eio ?iey ca
ninoiyieai aeaiaaeiuo n/aoia iin?aaenoaii ia?aaea/e yeaeo?iiiuo neaiaeia
aac o/anoey aoiaaeiuo iineoaeae eioi?iaoeey.

Iaiin?aaenoaaiiui oie/eii e aiaae?aieth a aaieianeoth i?aeoeeo
yeaeo?iiiuo n?aaenoa aeey aeaiaaeiuo ia?aaiaeia iineoaeee aeaaioneee
?ino /aeiaiai ia?auaiey a caiaaeiuo no?aiao. Iai?eia?, a NOA
ia?aaaouaaeinue a 1974 aiaeo 24,4 ie?ae. /aeia, a a 1980 aiaeo oaea aei
30 ie?ae. N 1986 ii 1992 aiae eiee/anoai /aeia, auaeaiiuo ca aiae
aeaaeaeueoeaie aaieianeeo oaeoueo n/aoia, aic?inei n 47 aei 57 ie?ae.
I?e/ai iieiaeia anao auienuaaaiuo /aeia yaeyaony ia?niiaeueiuie /aeaie,
a 45% i?eiaaeeaaeeo oe?iai. ?anoiaeu aaieia ii ianeoaeeaaieth
/aeiiai?ioa aanueia aaeeee. ?ino iia?aoeee ii eieannaoeee /aeia nicaeae
o?oaeiinoe a iia?aoeeiiiie ?aaioa, ii?iaeee iaoaaoeo aaieianeiai
ia?niiaea. A 1959 a. a iaeiii ec ioaeaeaiee Ayee io Aia?eea ia/aea
?aaioaoue ia?aay a ie?a iieiinoueth aaoiiaoece?iaaiiay yeaeo?iiiay
onoaiiaea aeey ia?aaioee /aeia e aaaeaiey oaeoueo n/aoia Y?IA. A a 1970
a. auee aaaaeaiu ia?aua aaoiiaoece?iaaiiua oaeea?iua iaoeiu.

A aeaeueiaeoai i?ienoiaeeee ia oieueei ?anoe?aiea noa?u i?eiaiaiey
yeaeo?iiiuo aeaiaa, ii e iinoiyiiia iaiiaeaiea eiiiuethoa?iie
oaoiieiaee.

?an/aou i?e iiiiue yeaeo?iiiuo n?aaenoa aeaiaaeiuo ia?aaiaeia
inouanoaeythony iaiin?aaenoaaiii iaaeaeo aaieaie. Yoi iicaieyao
cia/eoaeueii onei?eoue ?an/aou ii ca?aaioiie ieaoa e iaineyi, naanoe e
ieieioio aeaeaeaiea iaee/iuo aeaiaa, eneeth/eoue aeoaee?iaaiea
o?aaiaaiee ia auieaoo iaee/iuo e a eiia/iii n/aoa iiauneoue o?iaaiue
eeeaeaeiinoe eae aeaeiauo i?aaei?eyoee, oae e eiiia?/aneeo aaieia.

Ana iuia aeaenoaothuea yeaeo?iiiua nenoaiu aaieianeeo iia?aoeee
iiae?acaeaeythony ia nenoaiu aaieianeeo niiauaiee e nenoaiu ?an/aoia.
?acee/ey iaaeaeo ieie caeeth/athony a oii, /oi a ?aieao ia?auo
inouanoaeythony oieueei iia?aoeaiay ia?anueea e o?aiaiea iaaeaaieianeeo
aeieoiaioia, a ?aaoee?iaaiea ieaoaaeae i?aaeinoaaeaii aaieai-o/anoieeai,
ooieoeee aea aoi?uo iaiin?aae

noaaiii naycaiu n auiieiaieai acaeiiuo o?aaiaaiee e iay oaeuenoa /eaiia.

Oneiaeyie i?iaaaeaiey yeaeo?iiiuo ?an/aoia yaeythony:

— iaee/ea i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey Oeaio?aeueiiai aau ?innee aeey
iai?oaeiaaiey;

— iaania/aiea noiiu ieaoaaea inoaoeii n?aaenoa ia ei??

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