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Aaaaeaiea

I?e oiaa?ii-aeaiaaeiuo ioiioaieyo, a i?ioeanna eoiee-i?iaeaaee e
ieacaiey oneoa, oaeiaeaoai?aiey ?acee/iiai ?iaea i?aoaicee e
iaycaoaeuenoa, a oaeaea ?ani?aaeaeaiey e ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiey aeaiaaeiuo
n?aaenoa aicieeatho aeaiaaeiua ?an/aou.

Iniiaioth /anoue aeaiaaeiuo ?an/aoia (80-90%) ninoaaeyao aaciaee/iue
aeaiaaeiue ?an/ao. Ii aicieeaao oiaaea, eiaaea aeaiaaeiua ?an/aou
i?iecaiaeyony aac iaiin?aaenoaaiiiai eniieueciaaiey iaee/iuo aeaiaa,
o.a. i?e ia?a/eneaiee aeaiaa ii n/aoai e?aaeeoiuo o/?aaeaeaiee eee
ca/aoao acaeiiuo o?aaiaaiee. Aaciaee/iue ?an/ao eniieuecoaony a oaeeo
noa?ao oicyenoaaiiuo ioiioaiee, eae ?aaeecaoeey i?iaeoeoeee, ?aaio e
oneoa; iieo/aiea e aica?ao aaieianeeo e?aaeeoia; auieaoa e
eniieueciaaiea oaeoe/aneeo aeioiaeia. Iaaeaeo iaee/ii-aeaiaaeiui e
aaciaee/iui ia?auaieai nouanoaoao oaniay e acaeiiay caaeneiinoue:
aeaiueae iinoiyiii ia?aoiaeyo ec iaeiie noa?u ia?auaiey a ae?oaoth,
iaiyy oi?io iaee/iuo aeaiaaeiuo ciaeia ia aeaiiceo a aaiea, e iaiai?io.

Iaeaieaa ino?ie i?iaeaiie ?inneeneie yeiiiieee yaeyaony i?iaeaia
iaieaoaaeae. Ia 1 yiaa?y 1999a. noiia?iay i?in?i/aiiay caaeieaeaiiinoue
ii iaycaoaeuenoaai i?aaei?eyoee e i?aaiecaoeee aeinoeaea 1390 ie?ae.
?oa. Ca 1998a. iia ninoaaeea 34% e AAI i?ioea 31% a 1997a.

Iiyoiio y n/eoath, /oi oaia aaciaee/iiai aeaiaaeiiai ?an/aoa a ianoiyuaa
a?aiy yaeyaony aeooaeueiie. Enoiaey ec auoaneacaiiiai, iiaeii
ii?aaeaeeoue caaea/e aeaiiie eo?niaie ?aaiou:

aeaoue iiiyoea nouiinoe aaciaee/iiai ?an/aoa, aai cia/aieth a aeaiaaeiii
iai?ioa no?aiu;

?anniio?aoue iniiaiua i?eioeeiu i?aaiecaoeee aaciaee/iiai ?an/aoa e
iniiaiua eeanneoeeaoeee aaciaee/iuo ieaoaaeae;

i?iaiaeece?iaaoue i?eiaiaiea ?acee/iuo oi?i aaciaee/iuo ?an/aoia a
nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo e aeeiaieeo no?oeoo?u aaciaee/iuo ieaoaaeae e
aeaiaaeiie iannu a 1996-2000aa.;

einiooueny iniiaiuo i?iaeai i?aaiecaoeee aaciaee/iuo ?an/aoia e
ia?niaeoea ioaeaeueiuo oi?i ieaoaaeae.

A naiae ?aaioa y eniieueciaaea iaoa?eae neaaeothueo aaoi?ia: I.E.
Eaa?ooeia, A.O. AEoeiaa, E.A. Ae?iaiceiie, A.A. Eaanaiei e ae?oaeo.

1. Niaea?aeaiea e i?aaiecaoeey aaciaee/iiai aeaiaaeiiai ?an/aoa.

1.1. Nouiinoue e cia/aiea aaciaee/iiai ?an/aoa.

N niaa?oainoaiaaieai ieaoaaeii-?an/aoiuo ioiioaiee iaiyeinue e
niioiioaiea iaaeaeo iaee/iuie e aaciaee/iuie noa?aie aeaiaaeiiai
ia?auaiey. Aei eiioea 19 a. i?aiaeaaeaee ieaoaaee iaee/iuie aeaiueaaie.
A nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo oaeaeueiue aan iaee/iuo aeaiaa, iniaaiii a
i?iiuoeaiii ?acaeouo ainoaea?noaao, iaaaeee, iai?eia?, a NOA ii
ninoaaeyao ieiei 10%.

Aaciaee/iua ?an/aou – yoi ?an/aou, inouanoaeyaiua aac eniieueciaaiey
iaee/iuo aeaiaa, iin?aaenoaii ia?a/eneaiey aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa ii n/aoai
a e?aaeeoiuo o/?aaeaeaieyo e ca/aoia acaeiiuo o?aaiaaiee. Aaciaee/iua
?an/aou eiatho aaaeiia yeiiiie/aneia cia/aiea a onei?aiee
iai?a/eaaaiinoe n?aaenoa, nie?auaiee iaee/iuo aeaiaa, iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey
ia?auaiey, nieaeaiee ecaea?aeae ia?auaiey.

Iniaaiiinoe aaciaee/iuo ?an/aoia i?iyaeythony a neaaeothuai:

a ?an/aoao iaee/iuie aeaiueaaie i?eieiatho o/anoea ieaoaeueuee e
iieo/aoaeue, ia?aaeathuea iaee/iua n?aaenoaa. A aaciaee/iuo aeaiaaeiuo
?an/aoao o/anoieeia o?ia: ieaoaeueuee, iieo/aoaeue e aaie, a eioi?ii
inouanoaeythony oaeea ?an/aou a oi?ia caiene ii n/aoai ieaoaeueueea e
iieo/aoaey;

o/anoieee aaciaee/iuo aeaiaaeiuo ?an/aoia ninoiyo a e?aaeeoiuo
ioiioaieyo n aaieii. Yoe ioiioaiey i?iyaeythony a noiiao inoaoeia ia
n/aoao o/anoieeia oaeeo ?an/aoia. Iiaeiaiua e?aaeeoiua ioiioaiey a
iaee/ii-aeaiaaeiii iai?ioa ionoonoaotho;

ia?aiauaiey (ia?a/eneaiey) aeaiaa, i?eiaaeeaaeaueo iaeiiio o/anoieeo
?an/aoia, a iieueco ae?oaiai i?iecaiaeyony iooai caienae ii eo n/aoai, a
?acoeueoaoa /aai eciaiythony e?aaeeoiua ioiioaiey aaiea n o/anoieeaie
oaeeo iia?aoeee. Ae?oaeie neiaaie, caeanue i?iecaiaeeony e?aaeeoiay
iia?aoeey, niaa?oaaiay n iiiiuueth aeaiaa. Oai naiui iai?io iaee/iuo
aeaiaa caiauaaony e?aaeeoiie iia?aoeeae.

Aaciaee/iua ?an/aou ianeoaeeaatho a iniiaiii noa?o oicyenoaaiiuo naycae
i?aaei?eyoee e eo acaeiiioiioaiey n oeiainiai-e?aaeeoiie nenoaiie. Oaeei
ia?acii, nouiinoue eo a oii, /oi oicyenoaaiiua i?aaiu i?iecaiaeyo
ieaoaaee ae?oa ae?oao ca oiaa?ii-iaoa?eaeueiua oeaiiinoe e ieacaiiua
oneoae, a oaeaea ii oeiainiaui iaycaoaeuenoaai iooai ia?a/eneaiey
i?e/eoathueony noii ni n/aoa ieaoaeueueea ia n/ao iieo/aoaey eee ca/aoa
acaeiiie caaeieaeaiiinoe.

Cia/aiea aaciaee/iuo ?an/aoia aaeeei, oae eae:

aaciaee/iua ?an/aou niinianoaotho eiioeaio?aoeee aeaiaaeiuo ?ano?nia a
aaieao. A?aiaiii naiaiaeiua aeaiaaeiua n?aaenoaa i?aaei?eyoee,
o?aiyueany a aaieao, yaeythony iaeiei ec enoi/ieeia e?aaeeoiaaiey;

aaciaee/iua ?an/aou niinianoaotho ii?iaeueiiio e?oaiiai?ioo n?aaenoa a
ia?iaeiii oicyenoaa;

/aoeia ?aca?aie/aiea aaciaee/iiai e iaee/iiai aeaiaaeiiai iai?ioia
nicaeaao oneiaey, iaeaa/athuea ieaie?iaaiea aeaiaaeiiai ia?auaiey e
aaciaee/iiai aeaiaaeiiai iai?ioa. ?anoe?aiea noa?u aaciaee/iiai iai?ioa
iicaieyao aieaa oi/ii ii?aaeaeyoue ?acia?u yiennee e ecuyoey iaee/iuo
aeaiaa ec ia?auaiey.

N iaeiie noi?iiu, ?acaeoea aaciaee/iuo ?an/aoia i?eaiaeeo e nie?auaieth
iio?aaiinoe a iaee/iuo aeaiueaao e e yeiiiiee ecaea?aeae ia?auaiey. *ai
e?oiiaa ieaoaae, oai neeueiaa i?iyaeythony yoe i?aeiouanoaa. Iaeiaei,
anee noiia oieaou iacia/eoaeueia, oi aieaa yeiiiie/ai aciin iaee/iuie.
Onoaiiaeoue oi/ii a?aiue, eiaaea i?aeiouanoaa iaee/iiai ieaoaaea
ia?aoiaeyo a aai iaaeinoaoee, aeiaieueii o?oaeii.

N ae?oaie noi?iiu, aaciaee/iua ?an/aou iiaoo caiaiyoue niaie aaieiioiia
ia?auaiea. Iniaia cia/aiea i?eia?aoatho aaciaee/iua ?an/aou i?e iiiuoeao
noaaeeecaoeee aaethou, oae eae iie iaeaa/atho ia?aoiae io «iaaeathueo»
aeaiaa e cieioiio ia?auaieth (eee e aaethoa, eiathuae cieioia
iaania/aiea). Noieue aea cia/eoaeueii aeeyiea aaciaee/iuo ?an/aoia ia
iieoiaoaeueioth niiniaiinoue aeaiaa aioo?e no?aiu. Eiaaea aaciaee/iua
?an/aou iieo/atho iauanoaaiiia i?eciaiea (iai?eia?, ?acaeoay /aeiaay
nenoaia), oiaaea /?acia?iia oi?ne?iaaiea eo, iiaeiaii /?acia?iiio
auioneo aaieiio, iiaeao aeaenoaiaaoue eioeyoeeiiii. Iiyoiio ?acaeoea
aaciaee/iiai iai?ioa aeieaeii iiaeaa?aaoueny oaeiio aea ?aaoee?iaaieth,
eae e yieoe?iaaiea aaieiio.

Oaeei ia?acii, iiaeii neacaoue, /oi aaciaee/iua ?an/aou – niaieoiiinoue
aaciaee/iuo aeaiaaeii-e?aaeeoiuo iia?aoeee a i?ioeanna ?aaeecaoeee
oiaa?ia e oneoa, ?ani?aaeaeaiey e ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiey iaoeeiiaeueiiai
aeioiaea. Eo iacia/aiea ninoieo a iiaaoaiee aeaiaaeiuo e e?aaeeoiuo
iaycaoaeuenoa th?eaee/aneeo e oece/aneeo eeoe ia iniiaa
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey aeaiaa eae aaciaee/iiai n?aaenoaa ieaoaaea.

I?eioeeiu i?aaiecaoeee aaciaee/iiai ?an/aoa.

Aaciaee/iue ?an/ao i?aaiecoaony ia iniiaa ii?aaeaeaiiuo i?eioeeiia.

I?eioeeiu i?aaiecaoeee ?an/aoia – iniiaiiieaaathuea ia/aea eo
i?iaaaeaiey. Niaethaeaiea i?eioeeiia a niaieoiiinoe iicaieyao
iaania/eoue niioaaonoaea ?an/aoia i?aaeuyaeyaiui o?aaiaaieyi:
naiaa?aiaiiinoe, iaaeaaeiinoe, yooaeoeaiinoe.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy i/aiue iiiai eeoa?aoo?u i i?eioeeiao aaciaee/iiai
?an/aoa e, niioaaonoaaiii eaaeaeue aaoi? eiaao naie iiaeoiae e
?anniio?aieth yoeo i?eioeeiia, iiyoiio ?anniio?aiea oieueei iaeiiai
aaoi?a ia aeano iieiia iiieiaiea nouiinoe i?eioeeiia aaciaee/iiai
?an/aoa.

I?eioeei i?aaiaiai ?aaeeia inouanoaeaiey ?an/aoia e ieaoaaeae
iaoneiaeai ?ieueth ieaoaaeiie nenoaiu eae iniiaiiai yeaiaioa ethaiai
nia?aiaiiiai iauanoaa. E aeaaiui caeiiiaeaoaeueiui enoi/ieeai
?aaoee?iaaiey ?an/aoia ioiinyony: A?aaeaeaineee eiaeaen ?O, OC «I
oeaio?aeueiii Aaiea ?O» io 26 ai?aey 1995 a., OC «I aaieao e aaieianeie
aeayoaeueiinoe» io 3 oaa?aey 1996 a., OC «I ia?aaiaeiii e i?inoii
aaenaea» io 11 ia?oa 1997 a. e ae?.

Iniai neaaeoao ioiaoeoue ?ieue AE ?O, /anoe aoi?ie, aaaaeaiiie a
aeaenoaea n 1 ia?oa 1996 a. A aeaaao 45 e 46 yoie /anoe oii?yaei/aiu
iiiaea aii?inu i?aaiecaoeee aaciaee/iuo ?an/aoia i?eiaieoaeueii e
?uii/iui oneiaeyi yeiiiieee: aeaenoaea aeiaiai?a e oaeia aaieianeiai
n/aoa, i/a?aaeiinoue nienaiey aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa ni n/aoa, oi?iu
?an/aoia e niiniau ieaoaaeae, ioaaonoaaiiinoue o/anoieeia ?an/aoia.

Aeaaiue ?aaoee?othuee i?aai ieaoaaeiie nenoaiu – OeA ?O. Niaeanii
auoaoeacaiiiio caeiio, a iai n?aaee o?ao aai iniiaiuo caaea/,
eceiaeaiiuo a ia/aea caeiia, cia/eony iaania/aiea yooaeoeaiiai e
aania?aaieiiai ooieoeeiie?iaaiey nenoaiu ?an/aoia. Ia Aaie ?innee
aiceiaeaiu:

onoaiiaeaiea i?aaee, n?ieia e noaiaea?oia inouanoaeaiey ?an/aoia e
i?eiaiyaiuo i?e yoii aeieoiaioia;

eii?aeeiaoeey, ?aaoee?iaaiea e eeoeaice?iaaiea i?aaiecaoeee ?an/aoiuo
nenoai.

Ii?yaeie aaciaee/iuo ?an/aoia a ia?iaeiii oicyenoaa ii?aaeaeai a
Iieiaeaiee i aaciaee/iuo ?an/aoao a ?O io 9 ethey 1992 a. ?14 n
iineaaeothueie eciaiaieyie e aeiiieiaieyie. Niaeanii yoiio iieiaeaieth
i?aaiecaoeey aaciaee/iuo ?an/aoia a ?O no?ieony ia neaaeothueo i?aaeeao:

1. I?e iiiaiia?acee oi?i nianoaaiiinoe, aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoee a
oneiaeyo ?acaeoey oiaa?ii-aeaiaaeiuo ioiioaiee ca i?aaei?eyoeyie
inoaaony i?aai naiaiaeiiai auai?a oi?i ?an/aoia e cae?aieaiey eo a
aeiaiai?ao. Ia?aie/aiea naiaiaeu auai?a ni noi?iiu eiiia?/aneiai aaiea
ia aeiioneaaony.

2. N?aaenoaa ni n/aoia i?aaei?eyoee nienuaathony ii ?anii?yaeaieth
aeaaeaeueoea n/aoia.

3. Ana ieaoaaee ni n/aoia i?aaei?eyoee inouanoaeythony ii i/a?aaeiinoe,
ii?aaeaeyaiie ?oeiaiaeeoaeai i?aaei?eyoey, anee eiia ia i?aaeoniio?aii
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii.

I?eioeei inouanoaeaiey ?an/aoia ii aaieianeei n/aoai. Iaee/ea
iineaaeieo eae o iieo/aoaey, oae e o ieaoaeueueea – iaiaoiaeeiay
i?aaeiinueea ?an/aoia. I?aaei?eyoey, i?aaiecaoeee, o/?aaeaeaiey,
iacaaeneii io eo i?aaiecaoeeiiii-i?aaiaie oi?iu, iaycaiu o?aieoue
aeaiaaeiua n?aaenoaa a o/?aaeaeaieyo aaiea ia ?an/aoiuo, oaeoueo,
athaeaeaoiuo n/aoao. N ieo inouanoaeythony ieaoaaee ca iaoa?eaeueiua
oeaiiinoe, oneoae e ii oeiainiai-aaieianeei iaycaoaeuenoaai.

Aeaiueae ni n/aoa ia n/ao ia?aaiaeyony aaieii ii iieo/aiiui io
oici?aaiia ?an/aoiui aeieoiaioai. Aaie ca/eneyao iinooiathuea ia yoe
n/aoa noiiu, auiieiyao ?anii?yaeaiey i?aaei?eyoee ia eo ia?a/eneaiee e
auaea/a ni n/aoia e inouanoaeyao i?iaaaeaiea ae?oaeo aaieianeeo
iia?aoeee, eioi?ua i?aaeoniio?aiu aaieianeeie i?aaeeaie e aeiaiai?aie ia
eniieueciaaiee oie eee eiie oi?iu aaciaee/iuo ?an/aoia.

I?eioeei iaania/aiiinoe ieaoaaea i?aaeiieaaaao iaee/ea o ieaoaeueueea
aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa, oi anoue ieaoaaee niaa?oathony ca n/ao nianoaaiiuo
n?aaenoa ieaoaeueueeia eee e?aaeeoia aaiea. Aeey yoiai ana ieaoaeueueee
(i?aaei?eyoey, aaiee e o.i.) aeieaeiu ieaie?iaaoue iinooieaiey, nienaiey
n?aaenoa ni n/aoia, i?aaeoniio?eoaeueii ecuneeaaoue iaaeinoathuea
?ano?nu.

I?eioeei ia?eiaee/aneie i/a?aaeiinoe ieaoaaeae. I/a?aaeiinoue ieaoaaeae
iiaeao auoue:

A) o?iiieiae/aneay – i?aoaicee oaeiaeaoai?ythony a oie
iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe, a eaeie ?an/aoiua aeieoiaiou iinooiatho a aaie,
iacaaeneii io oeaee ieaoaaea;

A) oeaeaaay – a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue niaa?oathony iaeaieaa aaaeiua ii
cia/aieth ieaoaaee.

N 1929 a. aei na?aaeeiu 1987 a. a auaoai NNN? aeaenoaiaaea a ?acee/iuo
iiaeeoeeaoeeyo oeaeaaay i/a?aaeiinoue ieaoaaeae. A ethea 1987 a. auei
onoaiiaeaii, /oi ana ieaoaaee ni n/aoia iauaaeeiaiee, i?aaei?eyoee e
i?aaiecaoeee, aeeth/ay io/eneaiey a athaeaeao e auieaoo ca?aaioiie
ieaou, inouanoaeythony a ii?yaeea i/a?aaeiinoe iinooieaiey a aaie
?an/aoiuo aeieoiaioia (ianooieaiey n?ieia ieaoaaeae). Ii a?aiaiaie
eaeaiaea?iay i/a?aaeiinoue ia?ooaeanue ia oieueei aaieaie, ii e
aeanoiuie no?oeoo?aie oi?aaeaiey. E iiyoiio n 1 ethey 1992 a.
eaeaiaea?iay i/a?aaeiinoue ieaoaaeae auea ioiaiaia Iieiaeaieai i
aaciaee/iuo ?an/aoao io 9 ethey 1992 a. ?14, e ieaoaeueueeai
i?aaeinoaaeaii i?aai ii eo oniio?aieth ii?aaeaeyoue i/a?aaeiinoue
ieaoaaeae n eo n/aoia. Ii oaea 10 ethey oiai aea aiaea iinoaiiaeaieai
Aa?oiaiiai Niaaoa ?O onoaiiaeaii, /oi ieaoaaee a ?anioaeeeaineee
athaeaeao e ai aiaathaeaeaoiua oiiaeu aiinyony a ia?aii/a?aaeiii
ii?yaeea. A ieoya?a 1993 a. I?aceaeaio ?O onoaiiaee ia?aii/a?aaeiinoue
ieaoaaeae a athaeaeao e ca oiaa?u e oneoae.

Oeacaie I?aceaeaioa ?O io 23 iay e 9 aaaonoa 1994 a., a oaeaea 24 yiaa?y
1995 a. aaaaeaia i/a?aaeiinoue ieaoaaeae, iaania/eaathuay
ia?aii/a?aaeiua auieaou aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa ia iaioeiaeiua ioaeaeu,
ieaoaaee a athaeaeao e a ainoaea?noaaiiua aiaathaeaeaoiua oiiaeu. Ana
inoaeueiua ieaoaaee ?aoaii inouanoaeyoue a ii?yaeea eaeaiaea?iie
i/a?aaeiinoe iinooieaiey a aaie ?an/aoiuo aeieoiaioia (ianooieaiey
n?ieia ieaoaaeae).

I?eioeei niaeaney (aeoeaioa) ieaoaeueueea. Aeaiiue i?eioeei ?aaeecoaony
iooai i?eiaiaiey:

eeai niioaaonoaothuaai ieaoaaeiiai eino?oiaioa (/aea, i?inoiai aaenaey,
ieaoaaeiiai ii?o/aiey), naeaeaoaeuenoaothuaai i ?anii?yaeaiee
aeaaeaeueoea ia nienaiea n?aaenoa;

eeai niaoeeaeueiiai aeoeaioa aeieoiaioia, auienaiiuo iieo/aoaeyie
n?aaenoa (ieaoaaeiuo o?aaiaaiee-ii?o/aiee, ia?aaiaeiuo aaenaeae).

Aianoa n oai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii i?aaeoniio?aiu neo/ae aannii?iiai (aac
niaeaney ieaoaeueueeia) nienaiey n?aaenoa: iaaeieiie ii iaeiaai e
ae?oaei iaycaoaeueiui ieaoaaeai – ia iniiaaiee eniieieoaeueiuo eenoia,
auaeaiiuo noaeaie, iaeioi?uo oo?aoia ii ?anii?yaeaieyi acuneaoaeae e
ae?., a oaeaea aacaeoeaioiiai nienaiey ca oaieiaoth e yeaeo?e/aneoth
yia?aeth, eiiioiaeueiua e ae?oaea oneoae.

I?eioeei n?i/iinoe ieaoaaea. ?an/aou inouanoaeythony no?iai a n?iee,
i?aaeoniio?aiiua a aeiaiai?ao, a eino?oeoeeyo Ieioeia e o.ae. Ieaoaae
iiaeao inouanoaeyoueny:

A) aei ia/aea oi?aiaie iia?aoeee (aaainiaue ieaoaae);

A) iaiaaeeaiii iinea niaa?oaiey oi?aiaie iia?aoeee;

A) /a?ac ii?aaeaeaiiue n?ie iinea niaa?oaiey oi?aiaie iia?aoeee;

A) ia oneiaeyo eiiia?/aneiai e?aaeeoa (aac ioi?ieaiey aeieaiaiai
iaycaoaeuenoaa eee n ienueiaiiui ioi?ieaieai aaenaey).

O/?aaeaeaiey aaieia iaycaiu ca/eneyoue ia n/ao i?aaei?eyoey (nienuaaoue)
i?e/eoathueany aio noiiu ia iicaeiaa neaaeothuaai ?aai/aai aeiy iinea
iieo/aiey niioaaonoaothuaai aeieoiaioa. Ca ianaiaa?aiaiiia (iicaeiaa
neaaeothuaai ?aai/aai aeiy iinea iieo/aiey aeieoiaioa) eee iai?aaeeueiia
nienaiea n?aaenoa ni n/aoa aeaaeaeueoea, a oaeaea ianaiaa?aiaiiia eee
iai?aaeeueiia ca/eneaiea aaieii noii, i?e/eoathueony aeaaeaeueoeo,
aeaaeaeaoe ai?aaa iio?aaiaaoue io aaiea oieaoeoue a naith iieueco oo?ao
a ?acia?a 0.5% ianaiaa?aiaiii ca/eneaiiie (nienaiiie) noiiu ca eaaeaeue
aeaiue caaea?aeee.

I?eioeei eiio?iey ca i?iaaaeaieai iia?aoeee. Eiio?ieue iiae?acaeaeyaony
ia i?aaeaa?eoaeueiue, oaeouee e iineaaeothuee. Eiathony ii?aaeaeaiiua
iniaaiiinoe a i?iaaaeaiee eiio?iey ni noi?iiu i?aaei?eyoee e aaieia. A
/anoiinoe, aaiee, aunooiay iin?aaeieeaie iaaeaeo i?iaeaaoeaie e
iieoiaoaeyie, iaeiaiauie i?aaiaie, ianaeaieai, athaeaeaoii,
aiaathaeaeaoiuie i?aaiaie, eiio?iee?otho niaethaeaiea eie onoaiiaeaiiuo
i?aaee ?an/aoia.

I?eioeei eiouanoaaiiie ioaaonoaaiiinoe ii aeiaiai?o. Nooue yoiai
i?eioeeia caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi ia?ooaiey aeiaiai?iuo iaycaoaeuenoa a
/anoe ?an/aoia aeaeoo i?eiaiaiea a?aaeaeainei-i?aaiaie ioaaonoaaiiinoe a
oi?ia aiciauaiey oauoeia, oieaou iaonoieee (oo?aoa, iaie), a oaeaea eiuo
ia? ioaaonoaaiiinoe. Iaaeeaaeauee eiio?ieue iicaieyao i?aaeioa?aoeoue
iaeniieiaiea iaycaoaeuenoa eae naieo, oae e eiio?aaaioia, a anee iie ia
auiieiaiu iineaaeieie, – i?aeoe/anee iieiinoueth aicianoeoue i?e/eiaiiua
oauoee e oai naiui ineaaeoue iaaaoeaiua iineaaenoaey.

Aeaeueiaeoaa ?acaeoea iieo/eei i?aaiaia ?aaoee?iaaiea i?ioeanna
acuneaiey iaaeieiie ii iaeiaai: ioianaiea e /eneo ia?aii/a?aaeiuo
ieaoaaeae; onoaiiaeaiea iaie ca i?in?i/eo ieaoaaea 0,3% noiiu ca
eaaeaeue aeaiue i?in?i/ee; i?eiyoea ii?yaeea aannii?iiai acuneaiey
iaaeieiee ii ieaoaaeai a athaeaeao a aeaea ia?auaiey ia noiiu,
i?e/eoathueany io aai aeaaeoi?ia, a oaeaea eiouanoai iaaeieiueeia e ae?.

2. Oi?iu aaciaee/iuo ?an/aoia

Ia iniiaaiee aeaenoaothuaai Iieiaeaiey aaciaee/iua ?an/aou a ?innee
iiaoo inouanoaeyoueny n iiiiuueth ieaoaaeiuo ii?o/aiee, ieaoaaeiuo
o?aaiaaiee-ii?o/aiee, /aeia e aee?aaeeoeaia. I?eiaiaiea oie eee eiie
oi?iu ?an/aoia ii?aaeaeyaony aeiaiai?ii iaaeaeo ieaoaeueueeii e
iieo/aoaeai n?aaenoa. Iiciaeiieiny n iniaaiiinoyie eaaeaeie oi?iu
aaciaee/iuo ?an/aoia, i?eiaiyaiuo a nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo.

2.1. ?an/aou ieaoaaeiuie ii?o/aieyie

Iiaeii n?aco aea ioiaoeoue, /oi a ianoiyueo oneiaeyo a ?innee
i?aiaeaaeathuae oi?iie ?an/aoia yaeyaony ia?aaiae, aieaa oiai –
e?aaeeoiaue ia?aaiae. Ii i?aaeinoaaeyao ieaoaeueueeo (aeaaeoi?o)
aiciiaeiinoue aeaoue ?anii?yaeaiea e?aaeeoiaaoue n/ao iieo/aoaey
(e?aaeeoi?a). Nouanoaaiiui naienoaii oaeie iia?aoeee yaeyaony aa
i?inoioa, /oi, a /anoiinoe, iicaieeei aaieai onei?eoue ia?aoiae io
ii/oiaie e oaeaa?aoiie e yeaeo?iiiie oi?ia ia?aaiaea.

Oii?yaei/aiiinoue aeieoiaioiiai?ioa iaania/eaaaony eniieueciaaieai
ieaoaaeiuo ii?o/aiee i aeaaaoiauo nienaieyo. Ieaoaaeiia ii?o/aiea – yoi
ii?o/aiea i?aaei?eyoey ianeoaeeaathuaio aaieo i ia?a/eneaiee ni naiaai
n/aoa ii?aaeaeaiiie noiiu ia n/ao ae?oaiai i?aaei?eyoey – iieo/aoaey
n?aaenoa a oii aea eee ae?oaii o/?aaeaeaiee aaiea.

I?eiaiaiea yoiai oeiainiaiai eino?oiaioa iiaeao auoue naycaii eae n
oiaa?iuie, oae e iaoiaa?iuie iia?aoeeyie, i?e/ai iaoiaa?iua ieaoaaee,
iai?eia? a athaeaeao, inouanoaeythony eneeth/eoaeueii ieaoaaeiuie
ii?o/aieyie.

A ea/anoaa i?eia?ia iaoiaa?iuo iia?aoeee iiaeii i?eaanoe:

ieaoaaee a athaeaeao,

iiaaoaiey aaieianeeo nnoae e i?ioeaioia ii nnoaeai,

ia?a/eneaiey n?aaenoa no?aoiaui i?aaiai ainoaea?noaaiiiai e
nioeeaeueiiai no?aoiaaiey,

aciinu n?aaenoa a onoaaiua oiiaeu i?e o/?aaeaeaiee AI,

i?eia?aoaiea oeaiiuo aoiaa,

oieaoa iaie, oo?aoia, iaonoiae e o.i.

Ia?aaiaeu ieaoaaeiuie ii?o/aieyie aeey ieaoaaeae ca oiaa?u e oneoae
eniieuecothony:

ca iieo/aiiua oiaa?u e ieacaiiua oneoae (ni nnueeie ia iiia? e aeaoo
oiaa?ii-o?ainii?oiiai aeieoiaioa);

a ii?yaeea i?aaeaa?eoaeueiie iieaou oneoa (ni nnueeie ia iiia?
aeiaiai?a);

aeey iiaaoaiey e?aaeeoi?neie caaeieaeaiiinoe ii oiaa?iui iia?aoeeyi;

i?e ?an/aoao ii ?aoaieth noaea e a?aeo?aaea;

aeey a?aiaeiie ieaou ca iiiauaiey;

a ?an/aoao n eiiioiaeueiuie, o?ainii?oiuie, auoiauie i?aaei?eyoeyie e
o.i.

Iie iiaoo auoue eae n?i/iuie, oi anoue n?aco iinea ioa?ocee oiaa?a, oae
e aeieain?i/iuie eee ion?i/aiiuie a ?aieao aeiaiai?iuo ioiioaiee.

Aeey iaaeyaeiiai i?aaenoaaeaiey i?ioeanna aeieoiaioiiai?ioa oaeiaii
ainiieueciaaoueny noaiie, a eioi?ie caaeaenoaiaaiu neaaeothuea
iaicia/aiey:

F1 – i?aaei?eyoea-iieoiaoaeue, F2 – i?aaei?eyoea-iinoaauee,

B1 – aaie iieoiaoaey, B2 – aaie iinoaaueea.

Iia?aoeee e aicieeathuea a nayce n ieie ioiioaiey aoaeai ecia?aaeaoue
no?aeeaie n oeeo?aie, ii eioi?ui iiaeii ninoaaeyoue oeaii/ee ioiioaiee.

Noaia 1

Oaeei ia?acii, iieo/aai:

–oiaa? eee oneoae, iieo/aaiua iieoiaoaeai F1 io iinoaaueea F2,

– n/ao-oaeoo?a,

– ieaoaaeiia ii?o/aiea i?aaei?eyoey-iieoiaoaey F1 ia nienaiea ni naiaai
n/aoa a aaiea B1 noiiu ca oiaa? eee oneoae,

– aeieoiaiou i ia?a/eneaiee niioaaonoaothueo noii ec aaiea B1 a aaie
iinoaaueea B2 ia n/ao i?aaei?eyoey F2.

I?e yoii aaie iieoiaoaey i?iecaiaeeo nienaiea n?aaenoa ni n/aoa
i?aaei?eyoey-iieoiaoaey F1, a aaie iinoaaueea i?iecaiaeeo ca/eneaiea
niioaaonoaothueo noii ia n/ao i?aaei?eyoey-iinoaaueea F2.

*aoeinoue i?eaaaeaiiie oeaii/ee ioiioaiee ia aa?aioe?oao aa o/anoieeia
io aicieeiiaaiey ?eneia. Ca/anooth oaeay oi?ia ?an/aoia ia iieiinoueth
oaeiaeaoai?yao iinoaaueeia, oae eae iie iiiaaeatho a caaeneiinoue io
i?aaei?eyoee-iieoiaoaeae. Aeaenoaeoaeueii, ieaoaeueuee iiaeao a aeaiiii
neo/aa caaea?aeaoue auieneo ieaoaaeiiai ii?o/aiey ec-ca ionoonoaey eee
iaaeinoaoea n?aaenoa. A oaeii neo/aa aaie iieoiaoaey ia i?eiao
ieaoaaeiia ii?o/aiea e eniieiaieth.

E?iia oiai, ianaiaa?aiaiiia iinooieaiea n?aaenoa ia n/ao iinoaaueea
iiaeao i?iecieoe e ii aeia niioaaonoaothueo aaieia, eee naycaiiuo n ieie
i?aaiecaoeee (iai?eia?, ?EOe).

Oai naiui oianoii oeacaoue aua ?ac ia iaiaoiaeeiinoue ouaoaeueiie
i?i?aaioee oneiaee ?an/aoia, io?aaeaaiuo a aeiaiai?a, a oaeaea o/aoa
ioaaonoaaiiinoe aaieia ca iaiaaeeaaeauaa eniieiaiea ii?o/aiey a
niioaaonoaee n caeiiiaeaoaeueiuie ii?iaie.

I?aaei?eyoea-iieoiaoaeue aeieaeii o/eouaaoue ?ene ianaiaa?aiaiiie
iinoaaee oiaa?a i?e aein?i/iuo ieaoaaeao e ?ene ioaea/aiey ec iai?ioa
aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa.

Ieaoaaeiia o?aaiaaiea-ii?o/aiea i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ?an/aoiue aeieoiaio,
niaea?aeauee o?aaiaaiea iinoaaueea F2 e iieoiaoaeth F1 iieaoeoue ia
iniiaaiee i?eeiaeaiiuo ioa?oci/iuo e oiaa?iuo aeieoiaioia noieiinoue
iinoaaeaiiuo ii aeiaiai?o i?iaeoeoeee, auiieiaiiuo ?aaio e ieacaiiuo
oneoa.

I?aeiouanoai oaeie oi?iu ?an/aoia ninoieo a oii, /oi iia oaeiaia
iinoaaueeo, oae eae aaie aeeth/ai a onoaiiaeaiiua ioiioaiey,
inouanoaeyao eieanne?iaaiea ieaoaaeiuo o?aaiaaiee e neaaeeo ca
acuneaieai aeaiaa n iieoiaoaey.

I?aaei?eyoea-iieoiaoaeue, niioaaonoaaiii, eiaao aiciiaeiinoue
eiio?iee?iaaoue ii aeieoiaioai niaethaeaiea iinoaaueeii aeiaiai?iuo
oneiaee. A /anoiinoe, i?e ianiaethaeaiee oneiaee iiaeii ioeacaoueny io
aeoeaioa (niaeaney) iieaou aeieoiaioia. Aieaa oiai, ia i?aeoeea
aeiioneathony naiua ?aciua oi?iu aeoeaioa: iieiaeeoaeueiue e
io?oeaoaeueiue, i?aaeaa?eoaeueiue e iineaaeothuee, iieiue e /anoe/iue.
Aeey iainiiaaiey i?ioeaaeo?u ieaoaaeiua o?aaiaaiey-ii?o/aiey
?aaeno?e?othony a aaiea iieoiaoaey B1 a niaoeeaeueiii aeo?iaea e
ia?aaeathony iaiin?aaenoaaiii ieaoaeueueeo F1 iiae ?anieneo aeey
aeoeaioa.

Ia inoaiaaeeaaynue ia aeaoaeyo, i?eaaaeai noaio aeieoiaioiiai?ioa i?e
?an/aoao o?aaiaaieyie-ii?o/aieyie, a eioi?ie eniieuecothony oa aea
iaicia/aiey, /oi e a noaia 1.

Noaia 2

A aeaiiii neo/aa eiaai:

1. –oiaa?, iieo/aaiue iieoiaoaeai F1 io iinoaaueea F2,

2. – n/aoa e ieaoaaeiia ii?o/aiea iinoaaueea F2 naiaio aaieo B2,

3. – ieaoaaeiia o?aaiaaiea e n/aoa io aaiea B2 aaieo iieoiaoaey B1,

4. – ieaoaaeiia o?aaiaaiea e n/aoa aeey ecaauaiey i ieaoaaea e aeoeaioa
io aaiea B1 naiaio eeeaioo – i?aaei?eyoeth F1,

5. – aeoeaio i?aaei?eyoey F1 ia nienaiea ni naiaai n/aoa a aaiea B1
noiiu ca oiaa?,

6. – aeieoiaiou i ia?a/eneaiee niioaaonoaothueo noii ec aaiea B1 a aaie
B2.

I?e yoii aaie iieoiaoaey B2 i?iecaiaeeo nienaiea n?aaenoa ni n/aoa
i?aaei?eyoey-iieoiaoaey F1, a aaie iinoaaueea B1 i?iecaiaeeo ca/eneaiea
niioaaonoaothueo noii ia n/ao i?aaei?eyoey-iinoaaueea F2.

Iaaeinoaoie i?eaaaeaiiie noaiu ?an/aoia caeeth/aaony a ii?aaeaeaiiie
aeeeoaeueiinoe iia?aoeee e aiciiaeiinoe aicieeiiaaiey iaieaoaaeae ec-ca
ionoonoaey n?aaenoa o ieaoaeueueea.

2.2. Aaenaeueiua iia?aoeee, i?inoie e ia?aaiaeiie aaenaeue

?anniao?eaay ?aciua oeiainiaua eino?oiaiou, ia eioi?ua i?aaei?eyoea
iai?aaeyao naia aieiaiea, iaaiciiaeii iaieoe noi?iiie aaenaeue.
Aeinoaoi/ii /anoi eiiia?/aneay aeayoaeueiinoue auaaao naycaia n oaeie
neooaoeeae, eiaaea aicieeaao iaaeinoaoie oeiainiauo ?ano?nia e
iaiaoiaeeii i?eaaaiooue e ion?i/ea ieaoaaea ca i?iaeaiiua oiaa?u. ?a/ue
eaeao, oaeei ia?acii, i eiiia?/aneii e?aaeeoa, eioi?ue i?aaei?eyoea –
iinoaauee iiaeao i?aaeinoaaeoue i?aaei?eyoeth – iieoiaoaeth n iieo/aieai
io iaai aeieaiaiai iaycaoaeuenoaa. A ea/anoaa n?aaenoaa ioi?ieaiey
iaycaoaeuenoaa, i?aaeinoaaeyaiiai a oiaa?iie oi?ia, aunooiaao aaenaeue.

Aaenaeue – yoi ninoaaeaiiia ii onoaiiaeaiiie caeiiii oi?ia aaconeiaiia
ienueiaiiia aeieaiaia aeaiaaeiia iaycaoaeuenoai eee i?aaeeiaeaiea
oieaoeoue ii?aaeaeaiioth aeaiaaeioth noiio. I?eiaieoaeueii e iaauaieth
oieaou aeaiaaeiie noiiu aaenaeue iacuaaaony i?inoui. A neo/aa
i?aaeeiaeaiey oieaou iu eiaai ia?aaiaeiue aaenaeue.

I?inoie aaenaeue – aeieoiaio, ii eioi?iio caaiuee (aaenaeaaeaoaeue)
iaauaao, oi anoue iaycoaony, oieaoeoue aaenaeaaea?aeaoaeth
(aaiaoeoeea?o) eee ii aai oeacaieth o?aoueaio eeoeo ii?aaeaeaiioth noiio
a ii?aaeaeaiiue n?ie. Ii nouanoao i?inoie aaenaeue yaeyaony aeieaiaie
?anieneie.

A iaoae no?aia a iniiaiii eniieuecoaony oi?ia i?inoiai aaenaey, a
eioi?ie iieaoa i?iecaiaeeony oaie aea i?aaei?eyoeyie, eioi?ua eo
auienaee. Aeaaiaea?y naiae iaaeaaeiinoe e aeaeinoe, ca ?oaaaeii
ieacaeenue aieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiiuie oae iacuaaaiua ia?aaiaeiua aaenaey.

Ia?aaiaeiue aaenaeue i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ienueiaiiia i?aaeeiaeaiea
aaenaeaaeaoaey (e?aaeeoi?a, eiaioaiiai o?annaioii), niaea?aeauaa
aaconeiaiue i?eeac ae?oaiio eeoeo – caaiueeo (eiaioaiiio o?annaoii),
oieaoeoue ii?aaeaeaiioth noiio o?aoueaio eeoeo, aaenaeaaea?aeaoaeth
(eiaioaiiio ?aieoaioii).

Ia?aaiaeiue aaenaeue iaycaoaeueii aeieaeai auoue aeoeaioiaai
ieaoaeueueeii (o?annaoii), e oieueei iinea yoiai ii i?eia?aoaao neeo
eniieieoaeueiiai aeieoiaioa. Aeoeaio aaenaey iau/ii ioia/aaony a eaaie
/anoe eeoeaaie noi?iiu aaenaey e au?aaeaaony neiaaie “aeoeaioiaai”,
“i?eiyo”, “caiea/o” e o.i. Caiaoei, /oi aeoeaioaio ia?aaiaeiiai aaenaey
yaeyaony aeaaiui aaenaeueiui aeieaeieeii e ianao ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca
iieaoo aaenaey a onoaiiaeaiiue n?ie.

Niaea?aeaiea e aeaeaeaiea ia?aaiaeiiai aaenaey iiaeao auoue io?aaeaii,
iai?eia?, a aeaea neaaeothuae noaiu, ia eioi?ie eniieuecothony
neaaeothuea iaicia/aiey:

F1 – aeieaeiee (aaenaeaaeaoaeue);

B – e?aaeeoi? (aaenaeaiieo/aoaeue);

F2 – ieaoaeueuee ii ia?aaiaeiiio aaenaeth.

Noaia 3

Caeanue:

1. – aeaiaaeiua n?aaenoaa, oiaa?u, oneoae e o.i.;

2. – ia?aaiaeiie aaenaeue;

3. – i?aaeuyaeaiea ia?aaiaeiiai aaenaey aeey aeoeaioa;

4. – aeoeaioiaaiiue ia?aaiaeiie aaenaeue.

Ia noaia 3, a /anoiinoe, aeaeii, /oi A, ?aniieaaay ia?aaiaeiui aaenaeai
io F1, ia iiaeao auoue oaa?ai a oii, /oi ieaoaae ninoieony, iiea F2 ia
aeoeaiooao aaenaeue ( i?ioeaaeo?a aeoeaioa ia noaia ia ioia?aaeaia).

Iiieii ?anniio?aiiuo, iiaoo auaeaeyoueny niaoeeoeeie ioee/ee ae?oa io
ae?oaa e ae?oaea aeaeu aaenaeae. Iaeiaei iaaei iiiieoue, /oi, eae au oi
ie auei, e ianiio?y ia aano?aeoiue oa?aeoa? aaenaey, a aai iniiaa
anaaaea eaaeeo ?aaeueiay naeaeea. Eiay yoi a aeaeo, ioiaoei, /oi
aaenaey, aicieeathuea a i?ioeanna caeiia, /anoi iacuaathony oeiainiauie,
a a ?acoeueoaoa ?aaeueiuo naeaeie – eiiia?/aneeie eee oiaa?iuie
aaenaeyie.

Eiaaea aiai?yo i aaieianeii aaenaea, oi iau/ii eiatho a aeaeo aaenaeue,
auaeaiiue aaieii. A oaeii neo/aa aaie yaeyaony aaenaeaaeaoaeai. Aiiaua
aiai?y, aaieianeee aaenaeue iiaeao eiaoue oeiainiaoth i?e?iaeo eee
oiaa?ioth. Ia?aay i?aaenoaaeyaony, iai?eia?, auioneii aaenaey a ea/anoaa
aeaiiceoiiai eino?oiaioa n oeaeueth i?eaea/aiey aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa.
Aoi?ay aiciiaeiinoue iiaeao auoue ?aaeeciaaia aaenaeaaeaoaeueneei
e?aaeeoii.

Ciaeiinoai n iia?aoeeyie aaieia n aaenaeyie iiaeao i?eaanoe e iiieiaieth
oiai, eae iaeaieaa yooaeoeaii eniieueciaaoue oeiainiaua aiciiaeiinoe
i?aaei?eyoey. Yoi neaaeothuea iia?aoeee:

o/ao aaenaeae;

auaea/a nnoae aei aino?aaiaaiey ii niaoeeaeueiiio nnoaeiiio n/aoo iiae
iaania/aiea aaenaeae;

i?eiyoea aaenaeae ia eieanni aeey iieo/aiey ieaoaaeae e aeey iieaou
aaenaeae a n?ie.

O/ao aaenaeae ninoieo a oii, /oi aaenaeaaea?aeaoaeue i?iaeaao aaenaey
aaieo aei ianooieaiey n?iea ieaoaaea e iieo/aao ca yoi aaenaeueioth
noiio ca au/aoii ii?aaeaeaiiiai i?ioeaioa io yoie noiiu. Yoio i?ioeaio
iacuaaaony aeeneiioii eee o/aoiui i?ioeaioii.

I?aaei?eyoea, o/eouaay aaenaeue, nieiaao oeaeue ?yae i?iaeai, naycaiiuo
n aica?aoii aaieo iieo/aiiuo ii o/aoo noii. Aaaeue aaie nai iieo/aao eo
iaiin?aaenoaaiii io aaneneaaeaoaeae. Iaeiaei ia?auaiea e i?aaeuyaeoaeth
ana aea aiciiaeii, iai?eia? i?e ieioii oeiainiaii iieiaeaiee
aaenaeaaeaoaey.

Aaie, inouanoaeyy aeeneiioe?iaaiea ?acee/iuo aaenaeae, iiaeao
eniieueciaaoue ?aciua o/aoiua noaaee a caaeneiinoe io iiiaeanoaa
aeiiieieoaeueiuo ianoiyoaeuenoa: ecaanoiie i?aeoeee ae?oaeo aaieia,
o?iaiy iaaeaaeiinoe ieaoaeueueea ii aaenaeth, n?ieia aaenaeae e o.i.
Caaea/a aaiea inoaaony i?aaeiae – iaeaieaa oi/ii ii?aaeaeeoue
e?aaeeoiniiniaiinoue i?aaei?eyoey, eee, a oa?ieiao ?enea, – iaeneiaeueii
nieceoue ?ene i?e o/aoa aaenaeae. Ioeac aaiea a i?eaia aaenaeae e o/aoo
ia aeieaeai nii?iaiaeaeaoueny oi?iaeueiui iauyniaieai i?e/ei oaeiai
?aoaiey.

E?aaeeou ii o/aoo aaenaeae aeaeyony ia i?aaeuyaeoaeueneea e
aaenaeaaeaoaeueneea. Ia?aue aa?eaio eniieuecotho i?aaiecaoeee,
iaeaaeathuea aieueoei eiee/anoaii aaenaeae, ia?aaeaaaaiuo ia o/ao a
aaie. Aoi?ie naycai n i?aaei?eyoeyie, eioi?ua iiae iaai auaeatho aaenaey
aeey iieaou oiaa?ii-iaoa?eaeueiuo oeaiiinoae, ?aaio e oneoa ae?oaeo
i?aaiecaoeee.

Aeey aaenaeueii-e?aaeeoiuo iia?aoeee a aaiea o/ao aaenaeae i?aaenoaaeyao
eeoue iaeio ec oi?i inouanoaeaiey. Ae?oaie oi?iie yaeyaony niaoeeaeueiue
nnoaeiue n/ao iiae iaania/aiea aaenaeae. A oeaeyo aa?aioee
naiaa?aiaiiiai iiaaoaiey nnoaeu a e?aaeeoiii aeiaiai?a iaiaa?eaaaony
i?aai aaiea ia?auaoue a iiaaoaiea aeieaa noiiu, aiineiua
aaenaeaaeaoaeyie aeey iieaou aaenaeae.

Eaaeaeay ec ?anniio?aiiuo oi?i oa?aeoa?ecoaony oaeaea ?acia?ii
iieo/aaiie noiiu. I?e inouanoaeaiee aeeneiioiie iia?aoeee i?aaei?eyoea
iieo/aao iieioth noiio aaenaey ca au/aoii i?ioeaioia ii o/aoo. I?e
e?aaeeoiaaiee iiae caeia aaenaeae ?a/ue eaeao eeoue i /anoe iauae noiiu
(iau/ii 60 – 79%). E oiio aea, aaenaeue ia?aaeaaony aaieo iiae
iaania/aiea e?aaeeoa eeoue a?aiaiii, a ia a nianoaaiiinoue.

Ii?aaeaeaiiue eioa?an iiaoo i?aaenoaaeyoue e eiienneiiiua iia?aoeee
aaiea, eioi?ua ii iiaeao inouanoaeyoue n aaenaeyie ii ii?o/aieth
i?aaei?eyoey-eeeaioa. Eo nienie iiaeao auoue aeinoaoi/ii iaoe?ai e
aeeth/aoue naiua ?aciua aeaenoaey io eiio?iey ca iinooieaieai noii ii
aaenaeyi aei eo iiaaoaiey. Naeaeee niaa?oathony io eiaie aaiea, ii ca
n/ao e a eioa?anao i?aaei?eyoey.

Oae, i?e eieanne?iaaiee aaenaeae ii?o/aiea aaieo iiaeao caeeth/aoueny a
iieo/aiee ieaoaaeae ii aaenaeyi a n?ie. Anee i?e o/aoa aaenaeae aaie
eaeao ia ii?aaeaeaiiue ?ene, oi i?e eieanne?iaaiee ii i?eieiaao ia naay
iaycaoaeuenoai iieo/eoue i?e ianooieaiee n?iea niioaaonoaothuee ieaoaae
e ia?aaeaoue i?aaei?eyoeth o?aaoaioth noiio. ?ieue aaiea naiaeeony e
oi/iiio auiieiaieth eino?oeoeee. Auaiaea i?aaei?eyoey i?e yoii
caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi eiienneiiiua ca eieanni ieacuaathony iaiueoa
o?aaoaiuo ?anoiaeia ia iaaeaaeiia naiinoiyoaeueiia ianeoaeeaaiea anao
iaiaoiaeeiuo aeaenoaee aaenaeueiiai ia?auaiey.

Aiaeiae/iui ia?acii aaie iiaeao auoue iacia/ai ia iieo/aoaeai ieaoaaea,
eae i?e eieanne?iaaiee, a ieaoaeueueeii. Oaeia ii?o/aiea iineo iacaaiea
aeiieoeeeyoeee. Aiaoiei i?eciaeii aeiieoeeee?iaaiiiai aaenaey neoaeao
neiaa “ieaoaae a …. aaiea”. Ca iieaoo aaenaey iau/ii ian/eouaatho
iaaieueooth eiienneth, a iiea/aiiua aaenaey ionueathony i?aaei?eyoeth.
Aeey i?aaei?eyoee, eiathueo a aeaiiii aaiea ?an/aoiue n/ao, iieaoa
aeiieoeeee?iaaiiuo aaenaeae i?iecaiaeeony aanieaoii. Iie
inaiaiaeaeathony, oaeei ia?acii, io ?aaiou ii eiio?ieth ca n?ieaie
i?aaeuyaeaiey aaenaeae e ieaoaaeo, a naia i?ioeaaeo?a ieaoaaea
oi?iuaaony e onei?yaony.

2.3. ?an/aou /aeaie, aee?aaeeoeaaie e ii eieanni

Iauay eaeay ia?aaiaeiiai aaenaey i?eaiaeeo e iiieiaieth oiai, eaeea
ooieoeee auiieiyao /ae. *ae – yoi oeaiiay aoiaaa, auiieiaiiay
aeaaeaeueoeai n/aoa a aaiea ia aeaiea onoaiiaeaiiiai ia?acoea,
niaea?aeauay ii?o/aiea aaieo i?iecaanoe ii aa i?aaeuyaeaiee ieaoaae
oeacaiiie noiiu o?aoueaio eeoeo. Ii aeaiaaeiui /aeai ec aaiea auaeathony
iaee/iua aeaiueae, a ii ?an/aoiui /aeai inouanoaeythony aaciaee/iua
ieaoaaee.

Aeieoiaioiiai?io i?e /aeiaie iia?aoeee iiaeao auoue i?aaenoaaeai
neaaeothuae noaiie:

Noaia 4.

Iaiiiiei iaicia/aiey, eioi?uie iu oaea iieueciaaeenue:

F1 – iieoiaoaeue; F2 – iinoaauee;

B1 – aaie iieoiaoaey; B2 – aaie iinoaaueea;

A aeaiiii neo/aa eiaai neaaeothuea ioiioaiey:

– cayaeaiea F1 ia iieo/aiea /aeiaie eieaeee a aaiea A1 e aeaiiie?iaaiea
niioaaonoaothueo aeaiaaeiuo noii;

– auaea/a /aeiaie eieaeee F1;

– iieo/aiea oiaa?a;

– auienea /aea;

– naea/a /aea; aaie iinoaaueea B2 i?iecaiaeeo ca/eneaiea aeaiaa ia n/ao
F2;

– aeieoiaiou ia nienaiea n?aaenoa; B1 i?iecaiaeeo nienaiea noiiu /aea ec
aeaiiie?iaaiiuo n?aaenoa.

I?eaaaeaiiay noaia iiaeao auoue iiaeeoeoee?iaaoueny, iai?eia?, eiaaea
aaie ecae?aao aeey i?aaei?eyoee, naiaa?aiaiii auiieiythueo naie
iaycaoaeuenoaa, oi?io niaeaoaiey i auaea/a /aeiauo eieaeae aac
aeaiiie?iaaiey n?aaenoa. A yoii neo/aa aaie aa?aioe?oao (ca naie n/ao)
ieaoaaee ii /aeai aeaaea a neo/aa ionoonoaey n?aaenoa o /aeiaeaoaey.

Oaeei ia?acii, eaaei aeiaaaeaoueny, /oi i?e ?an/aoao /aeaie aiciiaeiu
neo/ae ionoonoaey n?aaenoa, oiaaea eae, iai?eia?, ieaoaaeiua ii?o/aiey
i?eieiathony aaieii oieueei i?e iaee/ee n?aaenoa ia n/aoa.

Aiciiaeiinoe eniieueciaaiey /aea a ea/anoaa ieaoaaeiiai n?aaenoaa iiaoo
aic?anoe ca n/ao oaaee/aiey aai ia?auaaiinoe. Niiniaii ia?aaea/e i?aaa
ia iieo/aiea aeaiaa ii /aeo yaeyaony oae iacuaaaiue eiaeinnaiaio. Oaeay
aiciiaeiinoue niioaaonoaoao i?aaeeai aaenaeueiiai ia?auaiey, aaea oaeaea
oe?iei i?eiaiyaony.

I?eaaaeai /aou?a aeaea eiaeinnaiaioia.

I?e iiiiue aeaieiaiai eiaeinnaiaioa /ae noaiiaeony i?aaeuyaeoaeueneei
aeieoiaioii e ethaie caeiiiue aeaaeaeaoe iiaeao iieo/eoue ii iaio
aeaiueae a aaiea. Oaeie eiaeinnaiaio ninoieo ec iaeiie iiaeiene
aea?aeaoaey /aea ia iai?ioa.

Eiaiiie eiaeinnaiaio iicaieyao oeacaoue eiy eeoea, eioi?iio ia?aaeaaony
i?aai iieo/aiey aeaiaa ii /aeo. Yoi eiy noaaeony ?yaeii n iiaeienueth
aea?aeaoaey /aea.

Oeaeaaie eiaeinnaiaio au?aaeaao ia?aie/aiey aiciiaeiinoae iieo/aiey
aeaiaa ii /aeo. Ia iai?ioa oeacuaaaony oeaeue ia?aaea/e /aea ae?oaiio
eeoeo, iai?eia?, a aeaea “oieueei aeey aeaiiie?iaaiey”. Eiiaaea yoio
aeae eiaeinnaiaioa iiaeao ni/aoaoueny n eiaiiui, iai?eia?, “ieaoeoa
Aaeaioeio Eaaiiae/o Eaaaaeaao, oieueei aeey aeaiiie?iaaiey”.

Aaciai?ioiue eiaeinnaiaio i?aaenoaaeyao ia?aie/aiea eee eneeth/aiea
aiciiaeiinoe i?aaeuyaeaiey i?aoaicee ii /aeo a neo/aa aai iaiieaou. A
oaeii neo/aa eniieuecoaony au?aaeaiea “aac iai?ioa”. Iaeiaei oaeay oi?ia
o?aaoao aeey naiae aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe i?eciaiey aaiea, eoaea
ia?a/eneythony aeaiueae ii /aeo, n iiiiuueth aai nianoaaiiiai
eiaeinnaiaioa.

Ii?yaeie eiaeinnaiaioa no?iai oi?iaeeciaai, e aaie iaycai i?iaa?youe eo
iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue, ii neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi ii ia ioaa/aao ca eo
ea/anoai, oi anoue ca aiciiaeiinoue iiaeaeaeee iiaeienae eiaeinnaioia.

Eoae, aeey iieo/aiey ?an/aoiuo /aeia a ianeoaeeaathuai aaiea ioi?ieyaony
cayaeaiea ii onoaiiaeaiiie oi?ia, iiaeienaiiia ?oeiaiaeeoaeai
i?aaei?eyoey, aeaaiui aooaaeoa?ii e caaa?aiiia ia/aoueth. A cayaeaiee
oeacuaathony eiee/anoai /aeia e noiia iauae iio?aaiinoe a ?an/aoao
/aeaie, /oi iicaieyao ii?aaeaeeoue eeieo iaeiiai /aea, eioi?ue aeieaeai
auoue i?inoaaeai ia iai?ioiie noi?iia eaaeaeiai /aea.

Ae?oaie aa?aioe?iaaiiie oi?iie ?an/aoia yaeyaony aee?aaeeoeaiay. A
ioee/ea io ae?oaeo oi?i aaciaee/iuo ?an/aoia iia aa?aioe?oao ieaoaae
iinoaaueeo eeai ca n/ao nianoaaiiuo n?aaenoa iieoiaoaey, eeai ca n/ao
n?aaenoa aai aaiea. Aee?aaeeoea – yoi ii?o/aiea aaiea iieoiaoaey aaieo
iinoaaueea ia iieaoa iinoaaueeo oiaa?ia e oneoa ia oneiaeyo,
i?aaeoniio?aiiuo a aee?aaeeoeaiii cayaeaiee iieoiaoaey i?ioea
i?aaeinoaaeaiiuo iinoaaueeii niioaaonoaothueo aeieoiaioia.

Noaia aeieoiaioiiai?ioa i?aa?auaaony a oaeii neo/aa a neaaeothuoth:

Noaia 5.

Caeanue i?e inouanoaeaiee iia?aoeee ii aee?aaeeoeao o/anoaotho:

F1 – iieoiaoaeue (ieaoaeueuee, aee?aaeeoeaiaeaoaeue);

F2 – iinoaauee (aaiaoeoeea? ii aee?aaeeoeao);

B1 – aaie-yieoaio, ioe?uaathuee aee?aaeeoea;

B2 – aaie iinoaaueea (aaie-ei??aniiiaeaio ii ianoo iaoiaeaeaiey
aaiaoeoeea?a).

Ioiioaiey, neeaaeuaathueany a i?ioeanna aunoaaeaiey e eniieiaiey
aee?aaeeoeaa:

– ia?auaiea F1 a aaie A1 n i?inueaie ia ioe?uoee aee?aaeeoeaa;
aeaiiie?iaaiea niioaaonoaothueo aeaiaaeiuo noii;

– aee?aaeeoeaiay oaeaa?aiia eee ii/oiaue aee?aaeeoea;

– ecaauaiea ia ioe?uoee aee?aaeeoeaa;

– oiaa?;

– ?aano? n/aoia, oiaa?ii-o?ainii?oiua aeieoiaiou; ca/eneaiea n?aaenoa ia
n/ao a A2;

– ?aano? n/aoia, oiaa?ii-o?ainii?oiua aeieoiaiou; nienaiea noiiu ni
n/aoa aeaiiie?iaaiiuo n?aaenoa a A1.

Eaaeaeue aee?aaeeoea eiaao oa?aeoa?ioth noaiaiue iaania/aiey e ii oi?ia
niaea?aeeo oeacaiea ia iiiaio i?eiyoey ?enea. Oae, aeieaeii auoue ynii,
yaeyaony ee ii iocuaiui eee aaciocuaiui (i?e ionoonoaee yaiiai oeacaiey
aee?aaeeoea n/eoaaony, niaeanii AE ?O, iocuaiui).

Iocuaiue aee?aaeeoea iiaeao auoue eciaiai eee aiioee?iaai a ethaie
iiiaio aaieii-yieoaioii A1 (ii oeacaieth iieoiaoaey F1) aac
i?aaeaa?eoaeueiiai niaeaniaaiey n iinoaaueeii F2.

Aaciocuaiue aee?aaeeoea ia iiaeao auoue eciaiai aac niaeaney
aaiaoeoeea?a F2 e ioaaonoaaiiuo aaieia, anee auiieiaiu oneiaey
aee?aaeeoeaa.

I/aaeaeii, /oi aeey iinoaaueea iaeaieaa iaaeaaeiui yaeyaony aaciocuaiue
aee?aaeeoea, iiaeoaa?aeaeaiiue e oiio aea ianeoaeeaathuei aaieii. Yoi
icia/aao iaycaoaeuenoai aaiea A2 a aeiiieiaiea e iaycaoaeuenoao aaiea A1
ii ieaoaaeo, oi anoue aa?aioee iacaaeneii io oiai, iiaeao ee
aaie-yieoaio i?aaenoaaeoue aiciauaiea. E?iia oiai, aee?aaeeoeau iiaoo
ioe?uaaoueny aeaoo aeaeia: iie?uoua e iaiie?uoua.

Iie?uoue aee?aaeeoea (aeaiiie?iaaiiue) niioaaonoaoao i?aaeaa?eoaeueiiio
i?aaenoaaeaieth a ?anii?yaeaiea aaiea-ei??aniiiaeaioa A2 iie?uoey a
noiia aee?aaeeoeaa ia n?ie aeaenoaey iaycaoaeuenoa. A yoii neo/aa
aeaiiie?iaaiea n?aaenoa aiciiaeii oaeaea ca n/ao nnoaeu iieoiaoaey a
naiai aaiea. Ioiaoei, /oi ia i?aaeoniio?aii aunoaaeaiea aee?aaeeoeaa
/anoe/ii ca n/ao nianoaaiiuo n?aaenoa e /anoe/ii ca n/ao aaieianeie
nnoaeu A.

?anniao?eaaaiay oi?ia ?an/aoia a iaaeaeoia?iaeiie i?aeoeea i?aaenoaaeaia
a iniiaiii iaiie?uouie (aa?aioe?iaaiiuie) aee?aaeeoeaaie, eiaaea
ieaoaaee iinoaaueeo aa?aioe?otho aaiee. N i?aaei?eyoeyie-ieaoaeueueeaie,
naiaa?aiaiii auiieiythueie iaycaoaeuenoaa ia?aae aaieaie e iinoaaueeaie,
iiaoo caeeth/aoueny aeiaiai?u ia ioe?uoea aa?aioe?iaaiiuo aee?aaeeoeaia.
Aaie-yieoaio a oaeii neo/aa i?aaeinoaaeyao eniieiythuaio aaieo i?aai
nienuaaoue ieaoaaee ii aee?aaeeoeao a iieueco iinoaaueea ni naiaai
ei??aniiiaeaioneiai n/aoa.

Neaaeoao neacaoue, /oi i?eiaiaiea aee?aaeeoeaia e a ?innee iiaeao
ieacaoueny aiieia ia?niaeoeaiui aeaeii. Ii e?aeiae ia?a iii auaeyaeeo
yooaeoeaiaa ii n?aaiaieth n i?aaeaa?eoaeueiie iieaoie, eioi?ay
i?aa?aoeeanue ii nouanoao a i?aiaeaaeathuoth oi?io aa?aioee ieaoaaea. A
oi aea a?aiy iaiaoiaeeii o/eouaaoue neiaeiinoue e aunieoth noieiinoue
aee?aaeeoeaiie oi?iu ?an/aoia.

I?aeiouanoaa aeey o/anoaothueo a ?an/aoao noi?ii oaeaea aeinoaoi/ii
i/aaeaeiu. Aeey iinoaaueea ?a/ue eaeao i aa?aioeyo naiaa?aiaiiinoe e
iieiiou iieo/aiey ieaoaaea, a aeey iieoiaoaey – iieo/aiey caeacaiiie
i?iaeoeoeee a niioaaonoaee n i?aaeoniio?aiiuie aeiaiai?ii oneiaeyie.

Oaia?ue ?anniio?ei oaeea aeaiaaeiua iia?aoeee, eae eieanne?iaaiea
(iia?aoeee ii eieanni). Iiae ieie iiieiatho aaieianeea iia?aoeee, i?e
eioi?uo aaie aa?ao iaycaoaeuenoai iieo/eoue io eiaie e ca n/ao eeeaioa
aeaiueae e (eee) aeoeaio ieaoaaea io o?aoueaai eeoea ii i?aaenoaaeaiiui
ia eieanni aeieoiaioai. Iai?eia?, i?eai n?i/iuo i?ioeaioiuo e
aeeaeaeaiaeiuo eoiiiia, aaenaeae eee /aeia aeey iieo/aiey ieaoaaeae ii
iei.

Iia?aoeee ii eieanni iiaeii auei au i?iecaiaeeoue, e ia i?eaaaay e
iiiiue aaieia, iaeiaei oaoie/aneia iniauaiea e iaee/ea a?aiioiiai
ia?niiaea aiieia ii?aaaeuaatho ia?auaiea e eo iin?aaeie/anoao. Eiio?ieue
iaae neooaoeeae iniaaiii aaaeai oiaaea, eiaaea ieaoaae aeieaeai auoue
niaa?oai a ae?oaii ianoa.

Anee ia?aoeoueny e iniiaa eieanniauo iia?aoeee, oi iiaeii aeaeaoue, /oi
aa ninoaaeyao aeiaiai? ii?o/aiey, oi anoue eino?oeoeee eeeaioa aaiea.
Iai?eia?, ia aaenaeyo, ia?aaeaaaaiuo ia eieanni, ia yoii
naeaeaoaeuenoaoao eiaeinnaiaio “aeaiueae ia eieanni”, “aeey
eieanne?iaaiey” e o.i.

Ae?oaei i?eia?ii iiaeao auoue eieanniaia ii?o/aiea ia aannii?iia
(aacaeoeaioiia) nienaiea n?aaenoa. Iii iiaeao inouanoaeyoueny eeai ii
ii?o/aieth acuneaoaeae, eeai enoiaey ec eniieieoaeueiuo aeieoiaioia.
Ioiaoei, /oi aannii?iia nienaiea n?aaenoa aeiioneaaony oieueei ia
iniiaaiee ?aoaiee niioaaonoaothueo i?aaiia e eniieieoaeueiuo
aeieoiaioia.

Iniiaiuie aeaeaie eieanniauo iia?aoeee yaeythony i?inoia (/enoia)
eieanni e aeieoiaioa?iia (eiiia?/aneia). A ia?aii neo/aa aaie iaycoaony
iieo/eoue aeaiueae n o?aoueaai eeoea ia iniiaaiee ieaoaaeiiai
o?aaiaaiey, ia nii?iaiaeaeaaiiai eiiia?/aneeie aeieoiaioaie, a ai aoi?ii
– aaie aeieaeai i?aaeuyaeoue iieo/aiiua io naiaai eeeaioa eiiia?/aneea
aeieoiaiou. E /eneo eiiia?/aneeo aeieoiaioia ioiinyony n/aoa,
o?ainii?oiua e no?aoiaua aeieoiaiou, aeieoiaiou i i?aaa nianoaaiiinoe e
ethaua eiua aeieoiaiou, ia yaeythueany oeiainiauie.

Aiiaua, ?an/aou a oi?ia eieanni ?ani?ino?aiaiu a iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo
ieaoaaeao aeinoaoi/ii oe?iei. Ieaoaaee ii eiio?aeoai inouanoaeythony ia
oneiaeyo eiiia?/aneiai e?aaeeoa, e ca?oaaaeiua aaiee i?eieiatho ia
eieanni ?acee/iua aeieoiaiou, a oii /enea, e?iia oiiiyioouo auoa
aaenaeae e /aeia, aeoeee, iaeeaaoeee e ae?oaea.

Ai aioo?aiiai iai?ioa eieanne?iaaiea aaenaeae e /aeia ?acaeoi a
iaaeinoaoi/iie ia?a, oioy noaia aai i?eiaiaiey aeinoaoi/ii i?ic?a/ia.
Iai?eia?, i?aaei?eyoea ca ii?aaeaeaiiia eiienneiiiia aiciaa?aaeaeaiea
ia?aaeaao aei n?iea ieaoaaea eiathueany o iaai aaenaey naiaio aaieo.
Oaia?ue aaie aa?ao ia naay oeiiiou ii iieo/aieth ieaoaaea e
i?aaeinoaaeaieth a ?anii?yaeaiea naiaai eeeaioa aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa.
Ia?aaea/a aaenaeae nii?iaiaeaeaaony ienueiaiiui ?anii?yaeaieai –
eieanniaui ii?o/aieai.

N eieanniauie iia?aoeeyie naycaiu ?an/aou ieaoaaeiuie
o?aaiaaieyie-ii?o/aieyie e ieaoaaeiuie o?aaiaaieyie. Ieaoaaeiua
o?aaiaaiey-ii?o/aiey aeeth/atho ioa?oci/iua aeieoiaiou e n/aoa,
ia?aaeaaaaiua ieaoaeueueeo i?ioea aeoeaioa. Ieaoaaeiua o?aaiaaiey
niaea?aeao ana iaiaoiaeeiua ?aeaeceou, iicaieythuea ii?aaeaeeoue aeae
oiaa?a, oeaio, a?aiy ioa?ocee e o.i.

Oeacaiiua o?aaiaaiey aunoaaeythony ia eieanni iinoaaueeii iinea ioa?ocee
oiaa?a e auienee oiaa?iuo aeieoiaioia. Aaie A2 iaycai ia?aneaoue
aeieoiaiou a aaie ieaoaeueueea A1, acuneaoue n iaai n?aaenoaa e
ia?a/eneeoue ia ?an/aoiue n/ao iinoaaueea. A naith i/a?aaeue, aaie A1,
iieo/ea aeieoiaiou, eioi?ie?oao ieaoaeueueea e i?eieiaao eo e iieaoa
oieueei iinea iieo/aiey io iaai i?aaeaa?eoaeueiiai aeoeaioa.

Iiaeiaiay oi?ia ?an/aoia i?aaeiieaaaao ii?aaeaeaiiua ?enee e aeieaeia
iiaeno?aoiauaaoueny aeiaa?eoaeueiuie ioiioaieyie eiio?aaaioia. A oaeii
eiioaenoa, iai?eia?, eniieueciaaiea iieoiaoaeai o?aaiaaiee-ii?o/aiee
inaiaiaeaeaao aai io iaiaoiaeeiinoe ca?aiaa ioaeaeaoue n?aaenoaa ec
naiaai iai?ioa. Aeey iinoaaueea ?ene ianaiaa?aiaiiie iieaou n/aoia
iiaeao auoue oiaiueoai ca n/ao iieo/aiey ii?aaeaeaiiuo aa?aioee io
iieoiaoaey. A aeiaiai?a iiaeii eniieueciaaoue a oaeii neo/aa ?acee/iua
i?aaiaua n?aaenoaa iaania/aiey iaycaoaeuenoa ii iieaoa (ii?o/eoaeuenoaa,
aaieianeie aa?aioee, caeia e o.i.).

N oao ii?, eae iieo/eee ?acaeoea n?aaenoaa nayce, onei?ythuea aeinoaaeo
aeieoiaioia, ia/aeinue nieaeaiea o?iaiy ?eneia, naycaiiuo n caiaaeeaieai
iai?a/eaaaiinoe n?aaenoa ec-ca ?ac?uaa ai a?aiaie iaaeaeo ioa?oceie
oiaa?a e iieo/aieai au?o/ee.

N iiceoeee oi?aaeaiey oeiainaie ei?ii?aoeee, iiaeii ioiaoeoue
aiciiaeiinoe ?anniio?aiiuo oi?i ?an/aoia aeey iaeo?aeecaoeee ?enea
ioeaca iieoiaoaey io iieaou iinoaaeaiiie aio i?iaeoeoeee, onei?aiea
eieannaoeee aeaiaa ii iiiaei oeeeaeai aeey yooaeoeaiiai iauaaeeiaiey
?ano?nia ia aaeeiii n/aoa e ae?oaea.

3. I?iaeaiu i?aaiecaoeee e ia?niaeoeau ?acaeoey aaciaee/iiai
iai?ioa

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy iaeaieaa neiaeiie noaea i?iaeaia iaeaaeeaaiey
?an/aoii-ieaoaaeiie nenoaiu e i?iaeaia iaieaoaaeae a yeiiiieea.
Iaieaoaaee yaeythony iaeiie ec i?e/ei oaaee/aiey aeaoeoeeoa athaeaeaoa.

Ca iineaaeiea aiaeu, iaeiaei, oaiiu ?inoa iaieaoaaeae nieceeenue. Anee a
1997 a. noiia?iay i?in?i/aiiay caaeieaeaiiinoue ?inea aeinoaoi/ii
aunieeie oaiiaie (6,6% a ianyoe i?e n?aaeiaiany/iii oaiia eioeyoeee
1,65%), oi a 1999a. oaii i?e?inoa ninoaaee 3,1% (/oi iaiueoa
n?aaeiaiany/iiai oaiia eioeyoeee). Noaaeeecaoeey oaiiia ?inoa
iaieaoaaeae iaoneiaeaia i?aaeaea anaai ?acei oaaee/eaoaeny aeieae
aa?oa?iuo iia?aoeee. A yiaa?a-oaa?aea 2000 a. i?iecioei aeaeueiaeoaa
nieaeaiea oaiiia ?inoa iaieaoaaeae (aei 1% a n?aaeiai ca ianyoe),
i?aaeaea anaai iiae aicaeaenoaeai /anoe/iiai ainnoaiiaeaiey
ieaoaaeii-?an/aoiie nenoaiu e ioiineoaeueii iaiueoaai «aeaiaaeiiai
aieiaea». Yeiiiieea aioea a naiaai ?iaea «?aaiiaaniue», ii iacaei?iaue
?aaeei ooieoeeiie?iaaiey. A aeaiiuo oneiaeyo niaa?oainoaiaaiea
aaciaee/iuo ?an/aoia, ?ac?aaioea eo ii?i e niiniaia – iaeia ec aeaaiuo
caaea/ ?inneeneie yeiiiieee.

Inoaiiaeiny iiae?iaiaa ia neaaeothueo i?iaeaiao: caaea?aeee ?an/aoia
aaieaie, i?aaei?eyoeyie, ?EOe; nei?inoue niaa?oaiey ieaoaaeae;
i/a?aaeiinoue ieaoaaeae; i?iaeaiu aaenaeueiiai ia?auaiey.

Caaea?aeee ?an/aoia aaieaie e ?EOe. N aaaaeaieai ?an/aoia aaieia /a?ac
ei?n/aoa iiyaeyaony iiiai i?iaeai: naie e caaea?aeee ?an/aoia a ?EOe,
naycaiiua a iniiaiii n aieueoei iioieii aoiaaeiuo iineoaeae n
oeiainiai-aeaiaaeiie eioi?iaoeeae; ia?ooaiey a ?an/aoao ii aeia naieo
EA.

I?aaenoaaea a aaie ieaoaaeiia ii?o/aiea i ia?a/eneaiee n?aaenoa a o?ao
yecaiiey?ao, i?aaei?eyoea iieo/aao io aaiea o?aoee yecaiiey? n ?anieneie
a i?eaia ii?o/aiey e ooaiiii aaiea. Caoai i?aaei?eyoea ii auienea ec
naiaai eeoeaaiai n/aoa iiaeao oaeinoiaa?eoueny a nienaiee ni n/aoa
ia?a/eneaiiie noiiu. Ii anee aaie aaaeao ?an/aou /a?ac ?EOe, oaeea
aooaaeoa?neea i?iaiaeee – eeoue i?aaeiinueee iaaeaaieianeeo ieaoaaeae,
eioi?ua niaa?oathony ?EOe e ia/eiathony a oio iiiaio, eiaaea oai
i?iecaiaeeony nienaiea n?aaenoa n ei?n/aoa aaiea. A aeieoiaioiiai?ioa
eiiaaea i?ienoiaeyo caieiee. Ecaanoii, /oi iaeioi?ua aaiee
caaea?aeeaatho ieaoaaeiua ii?o/aiey ia noaaeee ia?aaea/e eo a ?EOe e a
oa/aiea eaeiai-oi a?aiaie eniieuecotho n?aaenoaa, i?aaeiacia/aiiua aeey
ia?aaiaea, a ea/anoaa e?aaeeoiiai ?ano?na. E iaiai?io, iinooieaoei /a?ac
?EOe ia n/ao i?aaei?eyoey n?aaenoaai aaie iiaeao caaea?aeaoue
aooaaeoa?neoth i?iaiaeeo ii eo ca/eneaieth ia ?an/aoiue n/ao
i?aaei?eyoey. Oaeea oaeou ia aaeeie/iu. Aeaaeaeueoeu n/aoia aeaeaei ia
ai anao neo/ayo eniieuecotho naia i?aai o?aaiaaoue io aaiea oieaoo 0,7%
ianaiaa?aiaiii ca/eneaiiie (nienaiiie) noiiu ca eaaeaeue aeaiue
i?in?i/ee.

I?iaeaia nei?inoe niaa?oaiey ieaoaaeae. Nei?inoue ieaoaaea a
cia/eoaeueiie ia?a iaoneiaeaia aai n?i/iinoueth. I?aaeiieiaeei, /oi i?e
n?iea iieaou iaycaoaeuenoaa 20 ethiy e n?iea ca/eneaiey n?aaenoa ia n/ao
iieo/aoaey 28 ethiy oaeoe/anee iaa noaaeee ieaoaaea niaa?oaiu a yoe
n?iee. Ii i?e yoii n?aaenoaa iaoiaeeeenue a oa/aiea iaaeaee a ?an/aoao,
o.a. auee ecuyou ec iieaciiai oicyenoaaiiiai iai?ioa.

Nia?aiaiiay yeaeo?iiiay oaoieea e iniaaiii aaoiiaoece?iaaiiua eaiaeu
nayce i?eaeatho iiaia ea/anoai iiiyoeth n?i/iinoe ieaoaaea: nicaeaaony
aiciiaeiinoue niaaeeieoue n?iee ioaeaeueiuo noaaeee ieaoaaea aiaaeeii.
Iai?eia?, i?e ?an/aoao ca oiaa? nei?inoue ieaoaaea ii?aaeaeyaony
acaeiicaaeneiuie iieacaoaeyie a?aiaie iieo/aiey oiaa?a iieoiaoaeai,
n?iea aai iieaou e a?aiaie ca/eneaiey n?aaenoa ia n/ao iinoaaueea.
Iioeiaeueiay nei?inoue aaciaee/iuo ?an/aoia aeinoeaaaony niaiaaeaieai
o?ao ia?a/eneaiiuo iieacaoaeae.

Nie?auaiea a?aiaie i?ioiaeaeaiey ieaoaaeae aeinoeaaaony ?yaeii
eiiia?/aneeo aaieia iooai aiaae?aiey oaoiieiaee, iiauo ieaoaaeiuo
eino?oiaioia, aeoeaecaoeee aiaae?aiey yeaeo?iiiiai aeieoiaioiiai?ioa e
ae?.

I/a?aaeiinoue ieaoaaeae. ?aaoee?iaaiea i/a?aaeiinoe ieaoaaeae – iaeei ec
ino?uo aii?inia aeaiaaeii-e?aaeeoiie iieeoeee. Nouanoaotho ?acee/iua
iiaiey ii i?iaeaia i/a?aaeiinoe ieaoaaeae. Aiaoia nicaeaaony
aia/aoeaiea, /oi i/a?aaeiinoue ieaoaaeae ii oniio?aieth ieaoaeueueeia,
oe?aieyy eo naiinoiyoaeueiinoue, a iaeaieueoae ia?a niioaaonoaoao
oneiaeyi ?uiea. Iaeiaei oaeay i/a?aaeiinoue iiaeao iaiineoue oua?a ?yaeo
e?aaeeoi?ia, o?aaiaaiey eioi?uo, ianiio?y ia eo aeeeoaeueiinoue,
ioeeaaeuaathony ieaoaeueueeii.

Iaeioi?ua aaoi?u, iai?eia?, A.I. Einie, i?aaeeaaatho ia?eiaee/aneoth
i/a?aaeiinoue. Ieaoaaee iiae?acaeaeythony ia o?e aeaea: ia?eiaee/aneea
ieaoaaee a aeioiaeu athaeaeaoa, ii ca?ieaoa, yeaeo?iyia?aeth e ae?oaea
ieaoaaee ii ia?auaiiie e?aaeeoi?neie caaeieaeaiiinoe; oaeouea ieaoaaee a
iiaaoaiea e?aaeeoi?neie caaeieaeaiiinoe; aaainiaua ieaoaaee. A eaaeaeie
ec o?ao a?oii ?an/aoiua aeieoiaiou ?aniieaaathony a eaeaiaea?iie
iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe, oae eae eaaeaeay a?oiia i?aaenoaaeaia a iniiaiii
iaeiioeiiuie ieaoaaeaie.

Aaenaeueiia ia?auaiea. Aiaae?aiea a no?aia aaenaeueiiai ia?auaiey
naycaii n ?yaeii i?iaeai. Ia ?aoaiu i?aaiaua aii?inu, ii?iaoeaiay aaca
iinoiyiii ?anoe?yaony. Iayooaeoeaai iaoaieci acuneaiey aeaiaaeiuo
n?aaenoa ii aaenaeyi, oae eae ia niioaaonoaoao caaea/ai, eioi?ua ii
aeieaeai auiieiyoue: iia?aoeaiinoe e i?inoioa ia?auaiey
aeaiaaeii-e?aaeeoiuo n?aaenoa. Ionoonoaotho e iaoiaeeee aeey aaieia
i?e i?aaeinoaaeaiee e?aaeeoa a oi?ia aaenaeueiiai.

Iiaeii iacaaoue aua ?yae i?iaeai a iaeanoe ?an/aoia: nicaeaiea
niaoeeaeueiie aaieianeie ii/ou, caueoa iaaeaaieianeeo ia?aaiaeia io
ianaieoeeiie?iaaiiiai aeinooia e o.ae.

Oaeaea iaiaoiaeeii ?anniio?aoue ia?niaeoeau aaciaee/iuo ?an/aoia, a
/anoiinoe iaeioi?uo oi?i. ?anniio?ei neaaeothuea oi?iu ?an/aoia:
aee?aaeeoeaiay oi?ia, ?an/aou n iiiiuueth ieanoeeiauo ea?oi/ae.

Aee?aaeeoeau. A ia?eiae e?ecena i/aiue aaaeiu iaaeaaeiinoue e auno?ioa
i?iaaaeaiey ieaoaaeae. Iaeiaei ia eaaeaeue ?inneeneee aaie a ninoiyiee
neaaeiaaoue yoei i?eioeeiai. A oneiaeyo e?ecena nenoaia ?an/aoia
caei?iai aoenoao ec-ca iaaeiaa?ey aaieia ae?oa e ae?oao. Yoi io?aaeaaony
ia anao aeaeao aaciaee/iuo ?an/aoia. A naaiaeiyoieo oneiaeyo, eiaaea
o/anoieee naeaeie ia aeiaa?ytho ae?oa ae?oao, ?an/aou n iiiiuueth
aee?aaeeoeaa yaeythony auoiaeii ec ooieea. N iaeiie noi?iiu, aee?aaeeoea
eiio?iee?oao auiieiaiea aeiaiai?a iinoaaee oiaa?ia, a n ae?oaie –
aa?aioe?oao ieaoaaee i?e auiieiaiee anao oneiaee iinoaaee.

Iaeiaei aeey ianooaaiiai aiaae?aiey aee?aaeeoeaa iaiaoiaeeia nenoaia
e?aaeeoiuo eeiee iaaeaeo aaieaie. *oiau aee?aaeeoeaiua iia?aoeee
iieo/eee ?ani?ino?aiaiea a ?innee, iaiaoiaeeii nicaeaiea
niioaaonoaothuae eio?ano?oeoo?u. Aa niiniaiu nicaeaoue iaeaieaa iiuiua
aaieianeea ?an/aoiua oeaio?u (I?Oe), iaeaaeathuea nia?aiaiiuie
yeaeo?iiiuie oaoiieiaeyie ia?aaioee oeiainiauo aeieoiaioia e
?acaaoaeaiiie nenoaiie ei?n/aoia.

?an/aou n iiiiuueth aee?aaeeoeaa iicaieytho i?aaei?eyoeyi oaaee/eaaoue
nei?inoue ieaoaaeae, oae eae a ?aaioo aeeth/aaony naoue
aaieia-ei??aniiiaeaioia, ?aaioathueo a nenoaia aaiea-yieoaioa e
ianeoaeeaathueo aunoaaeaiiua aee?aaeeoeau. I?e iaee/ee aunieie noaiaie
caueou yeaeo?iiiiai oi?iaoa aeieoiaioia i?iaaaeaiea ?an/aoiuo iia?aoeee
iiaeiaiiai oeia niiaeao oioy au /anoe/ii ?aoeoue i?iaeaio ieaoaaeae
iaaeaeo i?aaei?eyoeyie.

?an/aou n iiiiuueth ieanoeeiauo ea?oi/ae. ?acaeoea yeaeo?iiiie oaoieee
iicaieeei oe?iei eniieueciaaoue aaciaee/iua ?an/aou a oi?ia ieanoeeiauo
ea?oi/ae, niaea?aeaueo caoeo?iaaiioth eioi?iaoeeth, iicaieythuoth eo
aeaaeaeueoeai inouanoaeyoue ieaoaaee e iieo/aoue iaee/iua aeaiueae. Yoi
cia/eoaeueii iaeaa/aao acaeii?an/aou e inaiaiaeaeaao /aeiaaea io
iaiaoiaeeiinoe iineoue n niaie e?oiiua noiiu aeaiaa. Aei iaaeaaiaai
a?aiaie a ?innee aieueoeie aeaiaaeiuie n?aaenoaaie iaeaaeaee oieueei
th?eaee/aneea eeoea, e aaiee auee ia caeioa?aniaaiu a ?aaioa n /anoiuie
aeeaae/eeaie. Ii a?aiaia iaiythony, oaia?ue aeaiueae anoue o iiiaeo, e
aaiee ?acei ia?ai?eaioe?iaaee iai?aaeaiea naiae aeayoaeueiinoe.

Naiuie i?inouie a ecaioiaeaiee e eniieueciaaiee yaeythony ieanoeeiaua
ea?oi/ee, a eae ?aciiaeaeiinoue eo – iaaieoiay ea?oa. Yoi iaeaieaa
?ani?ino?aiaiiua e?aaeeoiua ea?oi/ee. Aaie aa?aioe?oao ioe?uoea e?aaeeoa
aeaaeaeueoeo ea?oi/ee. Aea?aeaoaeue ea?oi/ee aaeaiany/ii iieo/aao
niiauaiea ec eiiiaiee, auaeaaoae eaoo. Oai iiaeaiaeyony eoiae ?anoiaeia
i?aaeuaeouaai ianyoea. Iieaoa aeieaa aeieaeiu auoue i?iecaaaeaia aei
eiioea ianyoea, a eioi?ii iieo/aii niiauaiea. N aeaaeaeueoeaa aaeaaiaeii
aceiaaony aciin ca ea?oi/eo, iaeioi?ua aeaeu ea?o yaeythony aanieaoiuie.
Iaeioi?ua iaaieoiua ea?ou eniieuecothony eae «aeaaaoiua ea?ou». Iie
i?eiaiythony ii oeio e?aaeeoiuo. ?acieoea a oii, /oi ai a?aiy iieoiee
ieaoa aceiaaony iaiin?aaenoaaiii ni n/aoa aeaaeaeueoea a aai aaiea.

Nae/an i?ioeann ?acaeoey a iaoae no?aia ieanoeeiauo aeaiaa eaeao ana
aieaa no?aieoaeueiuie oaiiaie. Ii anoue e i?iaeaiu. Ai-ia?auo, ?yaeiaiio
iio?aaeoaeth /enoi ineoieiae/anee i?eyoiaa eiaoue ooai iaaeoue
aoiaaeiee, a ia ieanoeeiaoth ea?oi/eo. Ai-aoi?uo, – e yoi i/aiue aaaeii
– i?aaeinoaaeoue aa?aioee naiae aoaeouae ieaoaaeaniiniaiinoe eeeaioai
aeinoaoi/ii neiaeii. Eiaiii iiyoiio aieueoeinoai ea?oi/ae a ?innee
?aaioaao eae aeaaaoiua e ii iei iaeuecy iieo/eoue a e?aaeeo.

N o/aoii anaai neacaiiiai iiaeii i?aaeiieiaeeoue, /oi ieanoeeiaua
ea?oi/ee yaeythony naiie ia?niaeoeaiie oi?iie aaciaee/iuo ?an/aoia.

Caeeth/aiea.

A caeeth/aiea aeaiiie ?aaiou iiaeii naeaeaoue neaaeothuea auaiaeu.

I?aaiecaoeey aeaiaaeiuo ?an/aoia n eniieueciaaieai aaciaee/iuo aeaiaa
ai?acaei i?aaeii/oeoaeueiaa ieaoaaeae iaee/iuie aeaiueaaie, iineieueeo a
ia?aii neo/aa aeinoeaaaony cia/eoaeueiay yeiiiiey ia ecaea?aeeao
ia?auaiey. Oe?ieiio i?eiaiaieth aaciaee/iuo ?an/aoia niinianoaoao
?acaaoaeaiiay naoue aaieia, a oaeaea caeioa?aniaaiiinoue ainoaea?noaa a
eo ?acaeoee eae ii auoaioia/aiiie i?e/eia, oae e n oeaeueth eco/aiey e
?aaoee?iaaiey iae?iyeiiiie/aneeo i?ioeannia.

Aaciaee/iua ?an/aou — yoi aeaiaaeiua ?an/aou iooai caienae ii n/aoai a
aaieao, eiaaea aeaiueae nienuaathony ni n/aoa ieaoaeueueea e
ca/eneythony ia n/ao iieo/aoaey. Aaciaee/iua ?an/aou a oicyenoaa
i?aaieciaaiu ii ii?aaeaeaiiie nenoaia, iiae eioi?ie iiieiaaony
niaieoiiinoue i?eioeeiia i?aaiecaoeee aaciaee/iuo ?an/aoia, o?aaiaaiee,
i?aaeuyaeyaiuo e eo i?aaiecaoeee, ii?aaeaeaiiuo eiie?aoiuie oneiaeyie
oicyenoaiaaiey, a oaeaea oi?i e niiniaia ?an/aoia e naycaiiiai n ieie
aeieoiaioiiai?ioa.

I?eioeeiu e oi?iu i?aaiecaoeee ?an/aoia, ieaoaaeiua eino?oiaiou, niiniau
ieaoaaeae e aicieeathuea i?e eo i?iaaaeaiee ?enee i?aaenoaaeytho niaie
ioaeaeueiua yeaiaiou ieaoaaeiie nenoaiu. I?aeiouanoai oie eee eiie
ieaoaaeiie nenoaiu ninoieo i?aaeaea anaai a oii, ianeieueei auno?i,
iaaeaaeii e yeiiiie/ii i?iaiaeyony ?an/aou e ieaoaaee.

Iniiaiie oi?iie ?an/aoia a ?O yaeythony a ianoiyuaa a?aiy e?aaeeoiaua
ia?aaiaeu n eniieueciaaieai ieaoaaeiuo ii?o/aiee. Eo i?eiaiaiea iiaeao
auoue naycaii eae n oiaa?iuie, oae e iaoiaa?iuie iia?aoeeyie.

Cia/eiuie yeaiaioaie aaenaey yaeythony oi?ia, aaconeiaiue oa?aeoa?
o?aaiaaiee, oi/iinoue oeacaiey noiiu, ianoa e a?aiaie ieaoaaea. Aiiaua,
neaaeoao /?acau/aeii aieiaoaeueii ioianoenue ei anaio iaai?o aaenaeueiuo
?aeaeceoia.

I?aaei?eyoey aeieaeiu auoue a ninoiyiee oe?iei eniieueciaaoue ?acee/iua
aiciiaeiinoe aaenaeae (o/ao, auaea/o nnoae, i?ai ia eieanni) e
i?eniinaaeeaaoue eo aeey oeaeae oeiainiaiai iaiaaeaeiaioa.

E n?aaenoaai iaoneiaeeaathuei ?acaeoea nenoaiu aeaiaaeiuo ?an/aoia
i?aaei?eyoey, ioiinyony ?an/aou /aeaie, aee?aaeeoeaaie e ii eieanni. Ai
iiiaeo neo/ayo iie iiaoo ieacaoueny aieaa yooaeoeaiuie ii n?aaiaieth n
i?aaeaa?eoaeueiie iieaoie.

?aaioathuay eiiiuethoa?iay nenoaia “eeeaio – aaie” iicaieyao
oi?ie?iaaoue, iiaeeoeoee?iaaoue e eniieueciaaoue aacu aeaiiuo,
oi?ie?oaiua ia iniiaa ieaoaaeiuo aeieoiaioia, e eaiaeu nayce aeey
onei?aiey iia?aoeee e oeo/oaiey aaieianeiai ianeoaeeaaiey.

*oiau i?aoniaoue a aeciana, ?oeiaiaeeoaee e aaiea, e i?aaei?eyoey
aeieaeiu iiieiaoue e i?eieiaoue a ?an/ao ana i?aeiouanoaa e ecaea?aeee
aiaae?aiey aaoiiaoece?iaaiiuo ieaoaaeiuo nenoai.

Eeoa?aoo?a.

«Iieiaeaiea i aaciaee/iuo ?an/aoao a ?O» io 9/07/1992a. ?14
//Yeiiiieno.-1992,?11.- n.2-4.

Aa?aceia I.I. «Aii?inu oai?ee aaciaee/iuo ?an/aoia»//Aaieianeia
aeaei.-1998,?8.-n. 26-32.

Aa?aceia I.I. «Ieaoaaeiay nenoaia ?innee e i?eioeeiu aa
i?aaiecaoeee»//Oeiainu.-1998,?3.-n. 22-28.

Aa?aceia I.I. «I?iaeaiu i?aaiecaoeee aaciaee/iuo ?an/aoia»
//Oeiainu.-1997,?3.-n. 17-26.

Aoeaoia I.A. «Niaa?oainoaiaaiea aaciaee/iuo ?an/aoia» //Aooaaeoa?ey e
aaiee.-1996,?4.-n. 30-34.

Aanoiee yeiiiieee.-2000,?3.-n. 23-24.

Aeaniaa N. «Aaieianeea oneoae a ia?eiae e?ecena»//Aiaeeoe/aneee
aaieianeee aeo?iae.-1999,?4.-n. 80-84.

Ai?iiei Ae.A. «Aaenaeueiue ?uiie ?innee»//Aaieianeia aeaei.-1998,?10.-
n. 11-13.

«Aiaeiaie io/ao OeA ?O ca 1997a.».- OeA ?O,1998.- 170n.

«Aiaeiaie io/ao OeA ?O ca 1998a.».- OeA ?O,1999. – 180n.

«Aeaiueae. E?aaeeo. Aaiee» iiae ?aaeaeoeeae Eaa?ooeia I.E.- I.: Oeiainu
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Eaanaiei A.A. «Aaciaee/iua ?an/aou: nouiinoue, i?iaeaiu, ia?niaeoeau
?acaeoey». IAAYeO.- Iiaineae?ne,1996a.- 106 n.

Einie A.I. «I?eioeeiu aaciaee/iuo ?an/aoia»//Aeaiueae e e?aaeeo.-
1995,?6.- n. 54-64.

Iantheiaa O.Ae. «Aeieoiaioa?iue aee?aaeeoea a iaaeaeoia?iaeiie oi?aiaea:
neeueiua e neaaua noi?iiu» //Eiinoeueoaio.-1998,?8.-n. 55-62.

Iiainaeiaa E.A. «Aeaiaaeiua ?an/aou a i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie
aeayoaeueiinoe».- I.: Aea-TH?a,1996.- 190 n.

«Iauay oai?ey aeaiaa e e?aaeeoa» iiae ?aaeaeoeeae A.O. AEoeiaa.- I.:
THieoe, 1995.- 304 n.

«I?aaiaia ?aaoee?iaaiea aaciaee/iuo ?an/aoia a ?O».- I.: Aea-TH?a,
1995.- 340 n.

Nieioeaa I.A. «I?iaeaiu aeaiaaeiiai iai?ioa e aaieianeie nenoaiu»
//Aaieianeia aeaei.-1997a,?4.- n. 2-9.

«Oeiainu. Aeaiaaeiia ia?auaiea. E?aaeeo» iiae ?aaeaeoeeae E.A.
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