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Ieienoa?noai iauaai e i?ioanneiiaeueiiai ia?aciaaiey

?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee

Ainoaea?noaaiiue Oieaa?neoao Oi?aaeaiey

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Eaoaae?a I?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa

Aeenoeeieeia Oeiainu oe?iu

Eo?niaie i?iaeo

Oaia: “Aiaeec oeiainiaiai

ninoiyiey oe?iu”

Auiieiee: nooaeaio

3 eo?na EIeIY

a?oiiu i?aaei?-ai 3/2

Ieeeoei Ae.N.

I?iaa?ee: Neaiae E.A.

Iineaa 1999

Niaea?aeaiea

Aaaaeaiea

Aeaaa1

Oai?ey oeiainiaiai aiaeeca

* Aeeaaiinoeea aeayoaeueiinoe aeoeeiia?iiai iauanoaa

* *enoua aeoeau i?aaei?eyoey

Aeaaa 2

Aiaeec oeiainiaiai ninoiyiey CAI “IIO “Niaoena?aen”

1 Oi?ie?iaaiea aiaeeoe/aneiai aaeaina

2 Aiaeec aeeiaieee iieacaoaeae i?eaueueiinoe

2 Ioeaiea oaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiinoe no?oeoo?u aaeaina

3 Aiaeec oeiainiaiai ninoiyiey

* aiaeec iieacaoaeae eeeaeaeiinoe

* aiaeec iieacaoaeae oeiainiaie onoie/eainoe

4 Ioeaiea yooaeoeaiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa

* aiaeec iieacaoaeae ?aioaaaeueiinoe

5 Auaiae

Nienie eniieueciaaiiie eeoa?aoo?u

I?eeiaeaiey

* Oi?ia 1 (Aaeain)

* Oi?ia 2 (Io/ao i i?eaueyo e oauoeao)

Aeeaaiinoeea aeayoaeueiinoe aeoeeiia?iiai

iauanoaa

Aeaaiay caaea/a anao i?aaiia oi?aaeaiey aeoeeiia?iiai iauanoaa –
iaania/aiea aai onoie/eainoe, auaeeaaaiinoe a oneiaeyo ino?ie
eiieo?aioeee, a oaeaea aeinoaoi/iiai o?iaiy yooaeoeaiinoe,
?aioaaaeueiinoe. Aeinoeaeaiea yoeo yeaiaioa?iuo oeaeae i?aaeiieaaaao
/aoeoth i?aaiecaoeeth aeayoaeueiinoe iauanoaa, anao aai no?oeoo?iuo
iiae?acaeaeaiee, aunieee o?iaaiue aioo?eoe?iaiiiai ieaie?iaaiey.
Iaycaoaeueiie i?aaeiinueeie yooaeoeaiie i?aaiecaoeee aeayoaeueiinoe
ethaie oe?iu, ?ac?aaioee aeaenoaaiiuo ieaiia e i?ia?aii yaeyaony
nenoaiaoe/anee i?iaiaeeiue aiaeec eee aeeaaiinoeea aeayoaeueiinoe oe?iu,
aa oaeoe/aneeo ?acoeueoaoia e oaeoi?ia, ii?aaeaeythueo o?iaaiue e
aeeiaieeo yoeo ?acoeueoaoia. Iiiyoea aeeaaiinoeee, oe?iei i?eiaiyaiia a
ca?oaaaeiie i?aeoeea, aeeth/aao aiaeec aeayoaeueiinoe oe?iu, aa
?acoeueoaoia, auyaeaiea e ioeaieo iiaeeyaoeo ia ieo oaeoi?ia – eae
iieiaeeoaeueiuo, oae e io?eoeaoaeueiuo. Aeoeeiia?iiio iauanoao
oeaeaniia?acii eiaoue ?ac?aaioaiiia aai niaoeeaeenoaie eee i?eaea/aiiuie
eiinoeueoaioaie e ooaa?aeaeaiiia aaia?aeueiui aee?aeoi?ii Iieiaeaiea ia
oi?aaeai/aneii aiaeeca. Aaeeiiai noaiaea?oa oaeiai aiaeeca, eiia/ii,
iao, aea e ia aeieaeii auoue, oae eae ii aeieaeai o/eouaaoue niaoeeoeeo
oe?iu e ia iiaeao auoue iaeeiaeiaui, iai?eia?, aeey eiiaeeoa?neie
oaa?eee e iaoaeeo?ae/aneiai eiiaeiaoa, no?ieoaeueiie i?aaiecaoeee e
iaaaceia. I?eiaieoaeueii e oe?iai i?iiuoeaiiiai i?ioeey oeiiauie
iai?aaeaieyie yaeythony:

•aiaeec i?iecaiaenoaa e ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee;

•aiaeec oaoieei-i?aaiecaoeeiiiiai o?iaiy e ae?oaeo oneiaee
i?iecaiaenoaa;

•aiaeec cao?ao ia i?iecaiaenoai e ?aaeecaoeeth i?iaeoeoeee;

•aiaeec eiaanoeoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoe;

•aiaeec aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe;

•oeiainiaue aiaeec.

Aiaeec i?iecaiaenoaa e ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee (?aaio, oneoa) aeeth/aao
aiaeec auiieiaiey i?iecaiaenoaaiiie i?ia?aiiu, aeiaiai?ia n caeac/eeaie,
iieoiaoaeyie, ioeaieo eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoe i?iaeoeoeee.

I?e aiaeeca auiieiaiey i?iecaiaenoaaiiie i?ia?aiiu e aeiaiai?ia
(caeacia) auyaeythony ana aeiiouaiiua ioeeiiaiey io niaeaniaaiiuo n
caeac/eeaie oneiaee ii iauaio, anni?oeiaioo, iiiaieeaoo?a, n?ieai
iinoaaie, oneiaeyi ?aaeecaoeee e iieaou, eo i?e/eiu e eiie?aoiua
aeiiaieee. Iia?aoeaiue aiaeec aaaeaony iai?a?uaii a oa/aiea anaai aiaea
n iaiauaieai a aaeaiany/iuo aiaeeoe/aneeo naiaeeao, i?aaenoaaeyaiuo
aaia?aeueiiio aee?aeoi?o e i?aaeaieth. Ii e?oiiui caeacai aiaeec
aaaeaony ii yoaiai eo auiieiaiey e eiaao iniiaiie oeaeueth ia
iaoaie/aneia oeene?iaaiea ioeeiiaiee io ooaa?aeaeaiiuo a?aoeeia, a ii
aiciiaeiinoe nei?aeoaa eo ono?aiaiea aeey iaania/aiey aaconeiaiiai
auiieiaiey caeacia iieiinoueth e a onoaiiaeaiiua aeiaiai?aie n?iee. Ii
eaaeaeiio yoaio auiieiaiey aeiaiai?ia iacia/aaony ioaaonoaaiiue
eniieieoaeue, ioaa/athuee ca niaethaeaiea n?ieia e auiieiaiea
ioiinyueony e aeaiiiio yoaio o?aaiaaiee caeac/eea.

En/eneaiea iaiauathueo iieacaoaeae auiieiaiey i?iecaiaenoaaiiie
i?ia?aiiu ii anni?oeiaioo eee iiiaieeaoo?a i?iaeoeoeee, eae yoi
aeaeaeinue a i?ioeii, oaia?ue aieueoiai i?aeoe/aneiai cia/aiey ia eiaao,
?acaa oieueei aeey oeaeae iaoa?eaeueiiai noeioee?iaaiey niioaaonoaothueo
aeieaeiinoiuo eeoe. Iauaeoeaioth ioeaieo ?aaiou oe?iu aeatho ?uiie,
iieoiaoaee e caeac/eee, a n?ua aeiaiai?a n ethaui caeac/eeii iaeuecy
ia?ae?uoue oniaoiui auiieiaieai ae?oaeo aeiaiai?ia.

I?e auyaeaiee i?e/ei aeiiouaiiuo ia?ooaiee a?aoeeia, n?ieia e o.i.
aaaeii ?aca?aie/eoue aiaoiea e aioo?aiiea i?e/eiu, o.a. ia caaenyuea e
caaenyuea io eniieieoaey. Yoi iaiaoiaeeii, iioiio /oi aiaeec i?iaiaeeony
ia ?aaee aiaeeca, a ?aaee oao ioeaiie, auaiaeia e i?aaeeiaeaiee, eioi?ua
oi?ie?othony ia aai iniiaa. I?e/eiu ia?ooaiee oneiaee aeiaiai?ia
aeieaeiu auoue onoaiiaeaiu iacaaeneii io oiai, i?aaeoniio?aiu a
aeiaiai?a oo?aoiua naieoeee eee iao. Oaeeie i?e/eiaie iiaoo ieacaoueny
iaaeinoaoee i?iaeoii-oaoiieiae/aneie aeieoiaioaoeee e iiaeaioiaee
i?iecaiaenoaa i?iaeoeoeee, n?ua n?ieia iinoaaee eiiieaeoothueo ecaeaeee,
oceia e aeaoaeae niaaeieeaie, ia?ooaiey no?oeoo?iuie iiae?acaeaeaieyie
a?aoeeia auiieiaiey ?aaio, iaaeinoaoee a ?aaioa nauoiauo e o?ainii?oiuo
neoaea e ae?. Auyaeaiiua i?e/eiu n?uaia e ia?ooaiee aeieaeiu auoue
aeieoiaioaeueii ioi?ieaiu, oae eae ia oieueei neoaeao iauaeoii aiaeeca,
ii e o/eouaathony a nenoaia iieaou o?oaea e iaoa?eaeueiiai
noeioee?iaaiey ?aaioieeia, yaeythony iniiaaieai aeey i?aaeuyaeaiey
i?aoaicee aeiiaieeai e o.ae.

Ae?oaei iai?aaeaieai aeeaaiinoeee i?iecaiaenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe oe?iu
yaeyaony ioeaiea eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoe i?iaeoeoeee a niiinoaaeaiee n
aiaeiae/iie i?iaeoeoeeae oe?i-eiieo?aioia. I?iaeoeoeey aeieaeia auoue
eiieo?aioiniiniaiie a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue ia oieueei ii naiei ia?aiao?ai.
Aieueoia aeeyiea ia iauai ni?ina e, neaaeiaaoaeueii, i?iaeaae ieacuaatho
o?iaaiue oeai, oneiaey ?aaeecaoeee e ae?oaea oaeoi?u.

Eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoue ecaeaeee ii eo ia?aiao?ai ioeaieaaaony iooai
ninoaaeaiey ii eaaeaeiio ec ieo Eenoa ioeaiee eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoe, a
eioi?ii ii eaaeaeiio ia?aiao?o eee naienoao ecaeaeey i?iaiaeeony
niiinoaaeaiea n ecaeaeeyie oe?i-eiieo?aioia, caieiathueo iaeaieaa
neeueiua iiceoeee ia aeaiiii ?uiea eee aai ioaeaeueiii naaiaioa. Eeno
ioeaiee eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoe – eiioeaeaioeeaeueiue aioo?aiiee aeieoiaio
oe?iu. Ii eniieuecoaony oieueei aeey ?ac?aaioee ia?ii?eyoee ii
iiauoaieth eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoe i?iaeoeoeee, iiyoiio aeieaeai
ioee/aoueny iauaeoeaiinoueth, aani?eno?anoiinoueth, ethaia
i?eoe?aoeaaiea ?aaeueiiai iieiaeaiey iiaeao oieueei iaianoe a?aae oe?ia.

Enoiaey ec oiai /oi iaeaieaa iauaeoeaioth ioeaieo ethaiio oiaa?o aeaao
iieoiaoaeue, a Eeno ioeaiee eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoe aeeth/athony oieueei
oaeea iieacaoaee, eioi?ua i?aaenoaaeytho eioa?an aeey iio?aaeoaeae.
Iai?eia?, o?oaeiaieinoue ecaioiaeaiey ecaeaeey – i/aiue aaaeiue
iieacaoaeue aeey i?aaei?eyoey, ii iieoiaoaey ii ia eioa?anoao e iiyoiio
a Eeno ioeaiee eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoe ia aeeth/aaony.

Oioy aeey ethauo oiaa?ia eenou ioeaiee eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoe
ninoaaeythony ii aaeeiiio i?eioeeio, ia?a/ie aeeth/aiiuo a ieo
iieacaoaeae niaa?oaiii ?aciua, oae eae iaaiciiaeii iaeieie e oaie aea
iieacaoaeyie oa?aeoa?eciaaoue iio?aaeoaeueneea naienoaa iaaaee e
ia?othia?iuo ecaeaeee, ieuaauo i?iaeoeoia e eiiiuethoa?iie oaoieee e
o.i. Aaaeii onoaiiaeoue, /ai ?oeiaiaenoaoaony iieoiaoaeue, i?eia?aoay
ecaeaeea, ia eaeea aai naienoaa ii ia?auaao aieiaiea. A iaeioi?uo
caiaaeiuo no?aiao, iai?eia?, ia yoeeaoeao iiiaeo ieuaauo i?iaeoeoia
oeacuaaaony eo eaei?eeiinoue. A ?innee iia oeacuaaaony ia oiaeiaeao
iiiaeo iiei/iuo i?iaeoeoia, a a ae?oaeo neo/ayo iieoiaoaee a?yae ee
?oeiaiaenoaothony yoei e?eoa?eai. ?anniio?ei iieacaoaee,
oa?aeoa?ecothuea, aeiionoei, eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoue auoiaie oaoieee –
iueanina, oieiaeeeueieea, eiiaeeoeeiia?a e ae?.:

1) oaoie/aneea ia?aiao?u (iiuiinoue, i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue, iauai
iaiyoe, auno?iaeaenoaea e ae?.); ?aaeeiu ?aaiou – iaeei eee ianeieueei;
eiiaeeoeeiia? iiaeao ?aaioaoue a ?aaeeiao ioeaaeaeaiey e iaia?aaa
iiiauaiey, yoe ?aaeeiu iaycaoaeueiu, ii aiciiaeia oaeaea ?aaioa a
?aaeeiao inooaiey, aaioeeyoeee, /oi iiauoaao aai eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoue:

2) eieaeae oe?iu e i?anoeae ecaeaeey;

3) aiaoiee aeae, aeecaei, ynoaoe/iinoue ecaeaeey;

4) oiaeiaea ecaeaeey, aa i?i/iinoue e i?eaeaeaoaeueiinoue;

5) ?aiiioii?eaiaeiinoue; aeey oaoie/aneeo ecaeaeee yoi i?eia?ii ?aaiue
n?ie neoaeau iniiaiuo oceia, eo aeinooiiinoue aeey ?aiiioa. Ai iiiaeo
neo/ayo oe?iu i?eaioe?othony ia oaeea oaoie/aneea ?aoaiey, eiaaea n?ie
neoaeau anao oceia iaoeiu, aeaeaaoaey e ae?. ?aaai n?ieo neoaeau
ecaeaeey a oeaeii, /oi nouanoaaiii nieaeaao cao?aou ia ?aiiio;

6) n?ie aacioeaciie ?aaiou, o.a. ia?eiae, a oa/aiea eioi?iai iaoeia,
eiia oaoie/aneia ecaeaeea ia o?aaotho ?aiiioa;

7) n?ie aa?aioeeiiai ianeoaeeaaiey, a oa/aiea eioi?iai
oe?ia-ecaioiaeoaeue iaania/eaaao ii?iaeueiia ooieoeeiie?iaaiea iaoeiu,
eiiai ecaeaeey, i?iaiaeeo i?e iaiaoiaeeiinoe ?aiiio (ca?aiaa iiea/aiiue
iieoiaoaeai, iineieueeo cao?aou ii aa?aioe?iaaiiiio ?aiiioo ecaeaeee
aeeth/athony a eo naaanoieiinoue, a neaaeiaaoaeueii, io?aaeathony a
oeaia);

8) oieeaeueiinoue ecaeaeey, iaee/ea o iaai oaeeo naienoa, eioi?uie ia
iaeaaeatho aiaeiae/iua ecaeaeey, i?iecaiaeeiua ae?oaeie oe?iaie;
oieeaeueiui ecaeaeea yaeyaony, eiia/ii, e a oii neo/aa, eiaaea e?iia
aeaiiie oe?iu-ecaioiaeoaey ieeoi a ie?a aiaeiae/iuo ecaeaeee ia
auioneaao. Anoanoaaiii, oaeay neooaoeey aeieai i?iaea?aeaoueny ia
iiaeao, oae eae oe?ia-eiieo?aio iinoa?aaony a e?ao/aeoee n?ie
i?aiaeieaoue naia ionoaaaiea e inaieoue i?iecaiaenoai aiaeiae/iuo
ecaeaeee eee ecaeaeee n aiaeiae/iuie naienoaaie.

Oieeaeueiuie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie iiaoo iaeaaeaoue i/aiue iiiaea oiaa?u, yoi
aiana ia “iiiiiieey” neiaeiuo oaoie/aneeo ecaeaeee. Iai?eia?, a eenoao
ioeaiee eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoe naoa?a ioeaieaathony oaeea aai
oa?aeoa?enoeee, eae oeaao, ?annui/aoinoue, aeaaeiinoue, ?anoai?eiinoue a
aiaea, ionoonoaea ni?a, inaaeea eee ieaiee ia iiaa?oiinoe aeeaeeinoe.
Oieeaeueiuie ia ioaeaeueiuo ?aaeiiaeueiuo naaiaioao ?uiea iiaeii
n/eoaoue ni?oa /ay n oeaeaaiuie naienoaaie aeaaiaea?y niaea?aeaieth
yeaooa?ioeieea, eaeeiu, eeiiiieea e ae?. Oae eae eenou ioeaiee
eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoe ?ac?aaaouaathony ii naaiaioai ?uiea, oi naienoaa
oiaa?a, nouanoaaiiua ia iaeiii naaiaioa, iiaoo ieacaoueny
iaaino?aaiaaiiuie ia ae?oaii. E oiio aea naoa?o, iai?eia?, ?aciua
o?aaiaaiey i?aaeuyaeythony ia eaaeaeii ec o?ao iniiaiuo naaiaioia ?uiea:
iioiaay oi?aiaey, eiiaeeoa?neay e oeaaiiaea?iay i?iiuoeaiiinoue,
ianaeaiea. Iiyoiio iacaaiiua auoa oieeaeueiua naienoaa iiaoo
caeioa?aniaaoue oi?aiaeth e ianaeaiea, ii a?yae ee caeioa?anotho
eiiaeeoa?neoth i?iiuoeaiiinoue;

9) iiiaiaa?eaioiinoue eniieueciaaiey, ?anoe?aiea ooieoeeiiaeueiuo
aiciiaeiinoae ecaeaeey, noieue oa?aeoa?iia a iineaaeiea aiaeu aeey
o?ainoi?iaoeee oaeaoiiiuo aiia?aoia, ana aieaa i?aa?auathueony a
eiiioieeaoeeiiiua eee oaeaeiiioieeaoeeiiiua eiiieaenu, eiiiuethoa?ia,
eaeueeoeyoi?ia, iueaninia e ae?.;

10) o?iaaiue na?aeniiai ianeoaeeaaiey; eniieueciaaiea ecaeaeey ia
aeieaeii auoue naycaii aeey iieoiaoaey n eaeeie-eeai o?oaeiinoyie;
?aoaiea ethauo aicieeathueo a i?ioeanna yenieoaoaoeee i?iaeai aa?ao ia
naay oe?ia – ecaioiaeoaeue ecaeaeey;

11) eiaeeaeaeoaeueiinoue eniieiaiey, o/ao cai?inia e o?aaiaaiee
eiie?aoiiai caeac/eea, iieoiaoaey a i?aaeaeao eiathueony oaoie/aneeo
aiciiaeiinoae; yoe oa?aeoa?enoeee /aua anaai ano?a/athony i?e
i?iecaiaenoaa ii caeacai aaoiiiaeeae e ae?oaeo neiaeiuo oaoie/aneeo
ecaeaeee;

12) yia?aiaieinoue (iio?aaeyaiay iiuiinoue, ?anoiae ai?th/aai e o.i.); a
?yaea no?ai, a oii /enea a NOA, i?eiaiythony iia?aaeathuea noaiaea?ou
yia?aiaieinoe auoiaie oaoieee, i?eaioe?othuea ia aa nieaeaiea;

13) yeieiae/iinoue, ieieiecaoeey aua?inia, ethauo ae?oaeo caa?yciaiee
ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu; aeaaiia – niioaaonoaea aeaenoaothuei noaiaea?oai e
ii?iaoeaai yeieiae/iinoe:

14) y?aiiiieea, oaeianoai iieueciaaiey, aiciiaeiinoue i?eniiniaeaiey
ecaeaeey ii oi?ia, ?aniieiaeaieth n?aaenoa oi?aaeaiey e o.i. e
iniaaiiinoyi /aeiaa/aneiai i?aaiecia;

15) iaee/ea eee ionoonoaea na?oeoeeaoa niioaaonoaey, eiuo aeieoiaioia,
iiaeoaa?aeaeathueo niioaaonoaea ecaeaeey ioa/anoaaiiui, a oaeaea
ca?oaaaeiui noaiaea?oai;

16) ?acoeueoaou o/anoey a aunoaaeao, y?ia?eao e o.i. (aeeieiiu, iaaeaee
e ae?.).

Ana oa?aeoa?enoeee ecaeaeey, a oaeaea aiaeiae/iuo ecaeaeee aaaeoueo
oe?i-eiieo?aioia ioeaieaathony ii iyoeaaeeueiie eee aeanyoeaaeeueiie
Eoiaiaay ioeaiea iineo oneiaiue, oi?iaeueiue oa?aeoa?; aieaa aunieay
eoiaiaay ioeaiea ia iaania/eaaao aaoiiaoe/anee i?aeiouanoaa iaae
eiieo?aioaie a ai?ueaa ca iieoiaoaey, oae eae oa?aeoa?enoeee oiaa?a ia
acaeiicaiaiyaiu: aieaa i?eaeaeaoaeueiui aiaoiei aeaeii ecaeaeey iaeuecy
ia?ae?uoue ionoaaaiea ii oaoie/aneei ia?aiao?ai, a aeeieii ii
iaaeaeoia?iaeiie aunoaaea oioy e iiauoaao eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoue
ecaeaeey, ii ia iiaeao eiiiaine?iaaoue caauoaiiie yia?aiaieinoe e o.i.
E?iia oiai, cai?inu iieoiaoaeae eiaeeaeaeoaeueiu, e naienoai ecaeaeey,
i/aiue aaaeiia aeey iaeiiai ec ieo, iiaeao ia eiaoue nouanoaaiiiai
cia/aiey aeey ae?oaeo. Iiyoiio iacia/aiea eenoia ioeaiee
eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoe ecaeaeee a oii, /oiau auyaeoue neaaua ianoa,
onoaiiaeoue i?e/eiu ionoaaaiey io eiieo?aioia ii ioaeaeueiui
oa?aeoa?enoeeai ecaeaeey, ?ac?aaioaoue e inouanoaeoue niioaaonoaothuea
i?aaiecaoeeiiii-oaoie/aneea e eiua ia?ii?eyoey, niinianoaothuea
oaaee/aieth ni?ina, iauaia ?aaeecaoeee.

Ii ecaeaeea aeieaeii auoue eiieo?aioiniiniaii ia oieueei ii
iio?aaeoaeueneei naienoaai, ii e ii oeaia e oneiaeyi ?aaeecaoeee.
I?aaeaea anaai n oeaiaie oe?i-eiieo?aioia n?aaieaaaony aaciaay oeaia.
Iia ia aeieaeia auoue nouanoaaiii auoa, anee iao cia/eoaeueiiai
i?aainoiaenoaa ii iio?aaeoaeueneei naienoaai, iinea /aai n?aaieaathony
ae?oaea oneiaey ?aaeecaoeee: aeaeay nenoaia neeaeie (neeaeea iioiaui
iieoiaoaeyi, iinoiyiiui iieoiaoaeyi, ca i?aaeiieaoo e ae?.), aanieaoiay
aeinoaaea, onoaiiaea, aaiae a aeaenoaea, nii?iaiaeaeaiea a ia?eiae
yenieoaoaoeee (nenoaia ia?aoiie nayce, o/ao aiciiaeiuo ioeeiiaiee e
iiiiuue a eo ono?aiaiee a ia?eiae iinea enoa/aiey aa?aioeeiiai n?iea e
ae?.).

I?e aiaeeca aeeiaieee iauaia ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee iaiaoiaeeii
ioaeaeeoue aeeyiea oeaiiinoiiai oaeoi?a io eiee/anoaaiiiai. Aeey yoiai
iaiaoiaeeii aiaeece?iaaoue aeeiaieeo iauaia ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee a
oaeoe/aneeo, aeaenoaothueo oeaiao e a niiinoaaeiuo oeaiao, o.a.
iaeeiaeiauo aeey iaieo n?aaieaaaiuo ia?eiaeia. Eiaaea ?a/ue eaeao i
n?aaiaiee iauaiia ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee aeaoo niaaeiuo ia?eiaeia
(oaeouaai eaa?oaea n i?aaeuaeouei eee oaeouaai aiaea n i?aaeuaeouei), oi
ia eiaao aieueoiai cia/aiey, eaeea eiaiii oeaiu i?eiaiythony a ea/anoaa
niiinoaaeiuo – oeaiu io/aoiiai eee i?aaeuaeouaai ia?eiaea, oioy
oai?aoe/anee i?aaeeueiaa iieueciaaoueny oeaiaie i?aaeuaeouaai ia?eiaea.
Anee, iai?eia?, iauai ?aaeeciaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee i?aaei?eyoey a oaeoueo
oeaiao ninoaaee 34 ie?ae ?oa., a a niioaaonoaothuai ia?eiaea i?ioeiai
aiaea – 29 ie?ae ?oa., oi i?e eiaeaena oeai, ?aaiii 109,6% (o.a. i?e
?inoa oeai a oaeouai ia?eiaea ii n?aaiaieth n niioaaonoaothuei ia?eiaeii
i?ioeiai aiaea ia 9,6%) oece/aneee eee ?aaeueiue iauai ?aaeeciaaiiie
i?iaeoeoeee a niiinoaaeiuo oeaiao aic?in ia 6,8%:

1) iauai ?aaeeciaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee niioaaonoaothuaai ia?eiaea i?ioeiai
aiaea a oeaiao oaeouaai ia?eiaea

29,0 ie?ae ?oa. o 1,096 = 31,784 ie?ae ?oa.;

2) aeeiaieea iauaia ?aaeeciaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee oaeouaai ia?eiaea ii
ioiioaieth e aa iauaio a niioaaonoaothuai ia?eiaea i?ioeiai aiaea a
niiinoaaeiuo oeaiao

34000 iei ?oa. : 31784 iei ?oa. = 1,07, eee 107%, o.a. a niiinoaaeiuo
oeaiao iauai ?aaeeciaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee aic?in ia 7%, a oi a?aiy eae a
oaeoueo oeaiao eaaeaeiai ia?eiaea ii oaaee/eeny ia 17,2% (34 ie?ae ?oa.
: 29 ie?ae ?oa. = 1,172).

*oiau auei aeaeii aeeyiea ia iauai ?aaeeciaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee e aai
aeeiaieeo eciaiaiey eiee/anoaa e oeai ioaeaeueiuo aeaeia ?aaeeciaaiiuo
oiaa?ia eee eo anni?oeiaioiuo a?oii, iiaeii i?iecaanoe ?an/ao ii
i?eia?iie noaia, i?eaaaeaiiie a oaae. 1.

?an/ao aeeyiey eiee/anoaa e ioioneiuo oeai ?aaeeciaaiiuo oiaa?ia ia
iauai au?o/ee io ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee

Oiaa?u?aaeeciaaii, oun. aae.Ioioneiay oeaia aaeeieoeu, oun. ?oa.Au?o/ea
io ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee, iei ?oa.Au?o/ea io ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoee e
a 1996 a. a oeaiao 1995 a.
*.?”199519961995199619951996q0q1?0P1qlpOqlplA3236160175512063005760A1618
240250384045004320A5048120130600062405760Eoiai—149601704015840Oaia?ue
ii i?eaaaeaiiui aeaiiui ?ann/eoaai i?iecaiaeiua iieacaoaee:

1) aeeiaieea au?o/ee io ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee a oaeoueo oeaiao

Cyiia(q,p,)/Cyiia(q„p„) = 17040/14960 = 1,139, eee 113,9%

Iauai ?aaeeciaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee a oaeoueo oeaiao oaaee/eeny a 1996 a. ii
n?aaiaieth n 1995 a. ia 13,9%, eee ia 2080 iei ?oa. a aaniethoiii
au?aaeaiee (17040 – 14960 = 2080 iei ?oa.);

2) aeeiaieea eiee/anoaa ?aaeeciaaiiuo oiaa?ia (oece/aneiai iauaia
?aaeeciaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee a niiinoaaeiuo oeaiao)

Noiia(/,?(,)/Noiia((1„?„) = 15840/14960 = 1,059, eee 105,9%

A iaoo?aeueiii au?aaeaiee iauai ?aaeecaoeee aeaiiie a?oiiu oiaa?ia
oaaee/eeny ca aiae ia 5,9%; yoi n?aaeiee iieacaoaeue, ii ioaeaeueiui
oiaa?ai aeeiaieea aoaeao eiie: ii oiaa?o “A” ?ino ?aaeecaoeee ia 12,5%
(36 : 32 = 1,125), oaeie aea ?ino ii oiaa?o “A” (18 : 16 = 1,125) i?e
nieaeaiee ?aaeecaoeee ii oiaa?o “A” ia 4% (48 : 50 = 0,96), i?e/eia
eioi?iai o?aaoao ioaeaeueiiai aiaeeca.

Iauai ?aaeeciaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee a iaeciaiiuo oeaiao (oeaiao i?ioeiai
aiaea) oaaee/eeny ia 880 iei ?oa. (15840 iei ?oa. – 14960 iei ?oa.);

3) aeeiaieea ioioneiuo oeai ?aaeeciaaiiuo oiaa?ia

Noiia(?,y,)/Noiia(?ae,) = 17040/15840 = 1,076, eee 107,6%

Oeaiu aic?inee a n?aaeiai ia 7,6%, /oi i?eaaei e oaaee/aieth iauaia
?aaeecaoeee ia 1200 iei ?oa. (17040 iei ?oa. – 15840 iei ?oa.).

Oaeei ia?acii, iauee i?e?ino au?o/ee io ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee ia 2080
iei ?oa. yaeeny ?acoeueoaoii aeeyiey aeaoo oaeoi?ia: oaaee/aiea
eiee/anoaa ?aaeeciaaiiuo oiaa?ia i?eaaei e ?inoo iauaia ?aaeecaoeee ia
880 iei ?oa., a iiauoaiea oeai i?eaaei e ?inoo iauaia ?aaeecaoeee ia
1200 iei ?oa.:

880 + 1200 = 2080 iei ?oa. Aiaeec oaoieei-i?aaiecaoeeiiiiai o?iaiy e
ae?oaeo oneiaee i?iecaiaenoaa aeeth/aao aiaeec i?aaiecaoeee
i?iecaiaenoaa e o?oaea, oaoie/aneiai ?acaeoey i?aaei?eyoey, ioeaieo
oaoieei-i?aaiecaoeeiiiiai o?iaiy i?iecaiaenoaa, oneiaee
i?e?iaeiiieueciaaiey e ae?oaeo oaeoi?ia.

Aiaeec cao?ao ia i?iecaiaenoai e ?aaeecaoeeth i?iaeoeoeee
i?aaeoniao?eaaao a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue n?aaiaiea oaeoe/aneie naaanoieiinoe
ioaeaeueiuo ecaeaeee e anae ?aaeeciaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee ni niaoiie,
ii?iaoeaiie eee ieaiiaie a caaeneiinoe io i?eiyoiai ia i?aaei?eyoee
ii?yaeea oi?aaeaiey cao?aoaie ia i?iecaiaenoai e ?aaeecaoeeth
i?iaeoeoeee. I?e yoii iaiaoiaeeii neaaeeoue ca oai, /oiau ioiineiua ia
naaanoieiinoue i?iaeoeoeee cao?aou niioaaonoaiaaee Iieiaeaieth i ninoaaa
cao?ao ii i?iecaiaenoao e ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee (?aaio, oneoa),
aeeth/aaiuo a naaanoieiinoue i?iaeoeoeee (?aaio, oneoa), e i ii?yaeea
oi?ie?iaaiey oeiainiauo ?acoeueoaoia, o/eouaaaiuo i?e iaeiaiiaeiaeaiee
i?eauee”, ooaa?aeaeaiiiio iinoaiiaeaieai I?aaeoaeuenoaa ?O io 5 aaaonoa
1992 a. No 552 n iaycaoaeueiui o/aoii eciaiaiee e aeiiieiaiee, aianaiiuo
a oeacaiiia Iieiaeaiea iinoaiiaeaieai I?aaeoaeuenoaa ?O io 1 ethey 1995
a. No 661. Iniaia aieiaiea neaaeoao ia?aoeoue ia oi ianoiyoaeuenoai, /oi
?yae cao?ao, aaee/eia eioi?uo ?aaeaiaioe?oaony i?e ?an/aoao iaeiaa ia
i?eaueue, a naaanoieiinoue i?iaeoeoeee ai anao inoaeueiuo neo/ayo (aeey
ii?aaeaeaiey oaeoe/aneie i?eauee, aeey oeaeae oeaiiia?aciaaiey, aeey
aiaeeca) aeeth/aaony iieiinoueth, a oaeoe/anee neiaeeaoeony ?acia?ao
(?anoiaeu ia ?aeeaio, i?aaenoaaeoaeueneea ?anoiaeu e ae?.).

Ii eaaeaeiio ecaeaeeth aai oaeoe/aneay naaanoieiinoue n?aaieaaaony n
ii?iaoeaiie eee niaoiie, iinea /aai onoaiaaeeaathony i?e/eiu
neiaeeaoeony ioeeiiaiee: oaei?iaeaiea iaoa?eaeia e yia?ai?ano?nia,
eciaiaiea cao?ao ia iieaoo o?oaea, oaaee/aiea eiiia?/aneeo ?anoiaeia e
ae?.

Iniaia aieiaiea oaeaeyaony aiaeeco eniieueciaaiey iaoa?eaeueiuo ?ano?nia
aaeaeo aunieiai oaeaeueiiai aana iaoa?eaeueiuo cao?ao a naaanoieiinoe
i?iaeoeoeee. Oaeoe/anee neiaeeaoeany oaeaeueiua iaoa?eaeueiua cao?aou
n?aaieaathony n ii?iaoeaiuie, n i?aaeoniio?aiiuie a niaoao e
aioo?eoe?iaiiuo ieaiao, ii?aaeaeythony ioeeiiaiey io ii?iaoeaia e
onoaiaaeeaathony eo i?e/eiu. Iaeiia?aiaiii aiaeece?othony e noieiinoiua
iieacaoaee iaoa?eaeiaieinoe, io?aaeathuea ia oieueei eciaiaiea
oaeaeueiuo ?anoiaeia iaoa?eaeia, ii e aeaeaeaiea oeai, a ii a?oiiai
oiaa?ia e anae ?aaeeciaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee oaeaea e no?oeoo?iua naeaeae a
anni?oeiaioa e iiiaieeaoo?a oiaa?ia. A iineaaeiaa a?aiy ia iiiaeo
i?aaei?eyoeyo ioia/aaony ?ino iaoa?eaeiaieinoe i?iaeoeoeee. A
aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa ii iauyniyaony oai, /oi ?ino oeai ia i?eia?aoaaiua
iaoa?eaeu iia?aaeaao eo ?ino ia i?iecaiaeeioth e ?aaeecoaioth
i?iaeoeoeeth. Oae, ii aeaiiui auai?i/iiai ianeaaeiaaiey 150 ?inneeneeo
i?iiuoeaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee a iiya?a 1996 a. iaeeaeaeinue iiauoaiea oeai
i?iecaiaeeiie eie i?iaeoeoeee ia 5%, a i?eia?aoaaiuo iaoa?eaeia,
eiiieaeoothueo ecaeaeee e ae?. – ia 13%. A ieoya?a 1996 a. ia 25%
iiaei?iaeae iaoaee, iio?aaeyaiue AI “AaoiAAC”, a oi a?aiy eae
nouanoaaiiia iiauoaiea ioioneiuo oeai ia aaoiiiaeee iaaiciiaeii.
Anoanoaaiii, /oi a oaeeo neooaoeeyo iaoa?eaeiaieinoue ?aaeeciaaiiie
i?iaeoeoeee iiauoaaony.

N o/aoii yoeo ianoiyoaeuenoa aeeiaieea iaoa?eaeiaieinoe ?aaeeciaaiiie
i?iaeoeoeee aiaeece?oaony a aeaoo ?ac?acao: a oaeoe/anee neiaeeaoeony
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo oneiaeyo, io?aaeathueo eciaiaiey oeai eae ia
?aaeecoaiua oiaa?u, oae e ia iio?aaeyaiua iaoa?eaeueiua e
oiieeaii-yia?aaoe/aneea ?ano?nu (iaoa?eaeueiua cao?aou); a niiinoaaeiuo
oeaiao, eiaaea io?aaeaaony aeeyiea eciaiaiey oeai e oa?eoia, o.a.
oieueei aioo?ei?iecaiaenoaaiiuo e no?oeoo?iuo oaeoi?ia. Aiaeec iiaeao
i?iaiaeeoueny ii i?eia?iie noaia, i?aaenoaaeaiiie a oaae. 2.

Oaaeeoea 2

?an/ao iaoa?eaeiaieinoe ?aaeeciaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee a

aeaenoaothueo e niiinoaaeiuo oeaiao

Iauai ?aaeeciaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee, iei ?oa.Iaoa?eaeueiua cao?aou ia
i?iecaiaenoai e ?aaeecaoeeth i?iaeoeoeee, iei ?oa.Iaoa?eaeiaieinoue
?aaeeciaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee1995 a.1996 a.1995 a.1996 a.1995 a.1996 a.a
aeaenoa ioioneiuo oeaiaoa oeaiao 1995 a. a aeaenoa ioioneiuo oeaiao a
oeaiao 1995 a.a aeaenoa ioioneiuo oeaiao a oeaiao 1995
a.149601704015840942511246101650,6300,6600,642

Iaoa?eaeiaieinoue ?aaeeciaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee ii?aaeaeaia eae ioiioaiea
iaoa?eaeueiuo cao?ao e aa iauaio:

1995 a. – 9425/14960 = 0,630, eee 63 ?oa. ia 100 ?oa. ?aaeeciaaiiie
i?iaeoeoeee 1996 a.

a) a oaeoe/aneeo oeaiao 11246/17040 = 0,660, eee 66 ?oa. ia 100 ?oa.
?aaeeciaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee;

a) a niiinoaaeiuo oeaiao 1995 a. 10165/15840 = 0,642, eee 64,2 ?oa. ia
100 ?oa. ?aaeeciaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee.

A ?an/aoa ia 100 ?oa. ?aaeeciaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee cao?aou
iaoa?eaeueiuo e oiieeaii-yia?aaoe/aneeo ?ano?nia aic?inee a
?aaeueiuo oneiaeyo i?iecaiaenoaa e ?aaeecaoeee ia 3 ?oa., yoi
cia/eoaeueiue ?ino, i?e oaeoe/anee neiaeeaoainy iauaia ?aaeeciaaiiie
i?iaeoeoeee ii icia/aao ia?a?anoiae cao?ao ia iaoa?eaeueiua ?ano?nu
aieaa /ai ia 500 iei ?oa. (a ?an/aoa ia ?aaiue iauai ?aaeecaoeee).
Eiia/ii, caeanue neacaeny iia?aaeathuee ?ino oeai ia i?eia?aoaaiua
iaoa?eaeueiua ?ano?nu, anee au yoe oeaiu ia eciaieeenue, oi i?e
oaeoe/aneeo ioioneiuo oeaiao iaoa?eaeiaieinoue ia oieueei au ia
aic?inea, ii aeaaea nieceeanue au e ninoaaeea 60 ?oa. ia 100 ?oa.
?aaeeciaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee:

10165/17040 = 0,66, eee 66 ?oa. ia 100 ?oa. ?aaeeciaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee.

Iaeiaei ?aaeueiia eniieueciaaiea iaoa?eaeueiuo ?ano?nia ia i?aaei?eyoee
oooaeoeeinue, oae eae iaeuecy i?eaioe?iaaoueny ia oaeoth “oaiee/ioth”
neooaoeeth, eiaaea i?aaei?eyoea eiaao aiciiaeiinoue iiauoaoue naie
ioioneiua oeaiu i?e iaeciaiiinoe oeai ia i?eia?aoaaiua nu?uea,
iaoa?eaeu, oiieeai. ?an/ao iieacuaaao, /oi anee au ia eciaieeenue oeaiu
ie ia ecaioiaeyaiua i?aaei?eyoeai oiaa?u, ie ia i?eia?aoaaiua ei
iaoa?eaeueiua ?ano?nu, oi iaoa?eaeiaieinoue i?iaeoeoeee aic?inea au ia
1,2 ?oa. a ?an/aoa ia 100 ?oa. iauaia ?aaeecaoeee. Aeaaea aac neiaeiuo
?an/aoia aeaeii, /oi eniieueciaaiea iaoa?eaeueiuo ?ano?nia oooaeoeeinue:
i?e ?inoa iauaia ?aaeecaoeee a niiinoaaeiuo oeaiao ia 5,9% (15840 :
14960 = 1,059), iaoa?eaeueiua cao?aou, oaeaea a niiinoaaeiuo oeaiao,
oaaee/eeenue ia 7,9% (10165 : 9425^1,079).

Oeaio?aeueiia ianoi a aeeaaiinoeea aeayoaeueiinoe aeoeeiia?iuo iauanoa a
nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo caieiaao oeiainiaue aiaeec, aeeth/athuee ?an/ao
aaeainiaie, aaeiaie, iaeiaiiaeaaaaiie e /enoie i?eauee, ii?aaeaeaiea
ii?iaa aacoauoi/iinoe e aai i?aauoaiey, iieacaoaeae ?aioaaaeueiinoe,
ioeaieo oeiainiaiai ninoiyiey iauanoaa, iai?a/eaaaiinoe iai?ioiiai
eaieoaea e ae?. Iniiaie ?an/aoa e aiaeeca oeiainiauo iieacaoaeae
yaeyaony aooaaeoa?neee aaeain e i?eeiaeaiey e iaio. Niaea?aeaiea aaeaina
e ae?oaeo io/aoiuo aeieoiaioia ia caaeneo io oi?iu nianoaaiiinoe eee
i?aaiecaoeeiii-i?aaiaie oi?iu oicyenoaiaaiey, ii aiaeec eo a oneiaeyo
aeoeeiia?iuo iauanoa eiaao ?yae nouanoaaiiuo iniaaiiinoae.

Enoiaeiua aeaiiua aeey ?an/aoa aiaeeoe/aneeo iieacaoaeae niaea?aeaony a
aooaaeoa?neii aaeaina i?aaei?eyoey e i?eeiaeaieyo e iaio. A ea/anoaa
i?eia?a i?eaaaeai ecaea/aiea ec aaeaina ioe?uoiai aeoeeiia?iiai iauanoaa
“Ieuaaee”.

I?aaeaea anaai ii?aaeaeyaony niioaaonoaea ?yaea iieacaoaeae AI
onoaiiaeaiiui caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii ii?iaoeaiui o?aaiaaieyi:

a) niioaaonoaea onoaaiiai eaieoaea iauanoaa onoaiiaeaiiiio
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii ieieiaeueiiio ?acia?o: aeey ioe?uoiai aeoeeiia?iiai
iauanoaa -ouny/ae?aoiie noiia ieieiaeueiiai ?acia?a iieaou o?oaea,
onoaiiaeaiiiai Oaaea?aeueiui caeiiii ia aeaoo ?aaeno?aoeee iauanoaa, a
aeey cae?uoiai – noie?aoiie noiia ieieiaeueiiai ?acia?a iany/iie iieaou
o?oaea. A iaieo neo/ayo ieieiaeueiue ?acia? iieaou o?oaea i?eieiaaony a
noiia, onoaiiaeaiiie ia aeaoo ?aaeno?aoeee iauanoaa, a ia ia aeaoo
i?iaaaeaiey aiaeeca (a iiya?a 1996 a., iai?eia?, iia auea ?aaia 75900
?oa.).

A IAI “Ieuaaee” onoaaiue eaieoae ninoaaeyao 2 ie?ae 690 iei ?oa.,
neaaeiaaoaeueii, ?anniao?eaaaiia o?aaiaaiea caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa iauanoaii
niaethaeaii;

a) niioaaonoaea ?aca?aiiai oiiaea ?acia?ai, onoaiiaeaiiui
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii e onoaaii iauanoaa.

?aca?aiue oiiae nicaeaaony a ?acia?a, i?aaeoniio?aiiii onoaaii iauanoaa,
ii ia iaiaa 15% aai onoaaiiai eaieoaea. A IAI “Ieuaaee” onoaaii
i?aaeoniio?aii oi?ie?iaaiea ?aca?aiiai oiiaea a ?acia?a 25% onoaaiiai
eaieoaea. Ia iiiaio i?iaaaeaiey aiaeeca yoi ninoaaeyao

2690 iei ?oa. o 15% = 403,5 iei ?oa.

Oaeoe/aneee ?acia? ?aca?aiiai oiiaea – 670 iei ?oa., neaaeiaaoaeueii,
o?aaiaaiea caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa e a yoii ioiioaiee niaethaeaii. Ii
o?aaiaaiea caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa a ioiioaiee ?acia?a ?aca?aiiai oiiaea ia
auei au ia?ooaii e i?e iaiueoai aai ?acia?a (aeiionoei, ii ninoaaeye au
300 iei ?oa., o.a. iaiueoa onoaiiaeaiiiai ieieiaeueiiai ?acia?a) i?e
oneiaee, /oi niaethaeaii ae?oaia o?aaiaaiea caeiia – ?acia? aaeaaiaeiuo
io/eneaiee a ?aca?aiue oiiae iauanoaa ia iiaeao auoue iaiaa 5% /enoie
i?eauee (aei aeinoeaeaiey ?acia?a, i?aaeoniio?aiiiai onoaaii iauanoaa).
Yoi aiieia anoanoaaiii, oae eae io aiiaue nicaeaiiiai AI iaeuecy
o?aaiaaoue, /oiau iii noi?ie?iaaei ?aca?aiue oiiae a iieiii iauaia a
ia?aue aea aiae ?aaiou;

a) neaaeothuaa o?aaiaaiea eanaaony ?acia?ia /enouo aeoeaia aeoeeiia?iiai
iauanoaa. Aeaei a oii, /oi onoaaiue eaieoae iauanoaa ii?aaeaeyao
ieieiaeueiue ?acia? eiouanoaa, aa?aioe?othuaai eioa?anu aai e?aaeeoi?ia.
A oaeea aa?aioee ?aaeueiu oieueei a oii neo/aa, anee onoaaiue eaieoae
iaania/ai nianoaaiiuie aeoeaaie iauanoaa, aai nianoaaiiui eiouanoaii,
naiaiaeiui io aeieaiauo iaycaoaeuenoa.

*enoua aeoeau iauanoaa – yoi e anoue noieiinoue aai eiouanoaa,
naiaiaeiiai io aeieaiauo iaycaoaeuenoa. *enoua aeoeau i?aaei?eyoee
ethauo i?aaiecaoeeiiii-i?aaiauo oi?i ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee,
oicyenoaaiiuo oiaa?euanoa e ae?. (e?iia aeoeeiia?iuo iauanoa)
ii?aaeaeythony a niioaaonoaee n ?acaeaeii 3 i?eeaca IO ?O io 28 ethey
1995 a. No 81 “I ii?yaeea io?aaeaiey a aooaaeoa?neii o/aoa ioaeaeueiuo
iia?aoeee, naycaiiuo n aaaaeaieai a aeaenoaea ia?aie /anoe
A?aaeaeaineiai eiaeaena ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee”. Ia aeoeeiia?iua
iauanoaa ?acaeae 3 aeaiiiai i?eeaca (”0 /enouo aeoeaao i?aaiecaoeee”) ia
?ani?ino?aiyaony. Ioeaiea noieiinoe /enouo aeoeaia aeoeeiia?iuo iauanoa
i?iecaiaeeony a niioaaonoaee n i?eeacii IO ?O io 5.08.96 a. No 71 “I
ii?yaeea ioeaiee noieiinoe /enouo aeoeaia aeoeeiia?iuo iauanoa”.
Iniaaiiinoe ii?aaeaeaiey noieiinoe /enouo aeoeaia a aeoeeiia?iuo
iauanoaao ninoiyo a oii, /oi e /enoui aeoeaai ia ioiinyony nianoaaiiua
aeoeee, aueoieaiiua o aeoeeiia?ia, a oaeaea caaeieaeaiiinoue
o/?aaeeoaeae (o/anoieeia) iauanoaa ii aciinai a aai onoaaiue eaieoae.

Noaouey 35 Oaaea?aeueiiai caeiia “Ia aeoeeiia?iuo iauanoaao”
i?aaeoniao?eaaao, /oi anee ii ieii/aiee aoi?iai e eaaeaeiai
iineaaeothuaai oeiainiaiai aiaea a niioaaonoaee n aiaeiaui aooaaeoa?neei
aaeainii eee ?acoeueoaoaie aoaeeoi?neie i?iaa?ee noieiinoue /enouo
aeoeaia iauanoaa ieacuaaaony iaiueoa aai onoaaiiai eaieoaea, oi iauanoai
iaycaii iauyaeoue ia oiaiueoaiee naiaai onoaaiiai eaieoaea aei aaee/eiu,
ia i?aauoathuae noieiinoue aai /enouo aeoeaia.

I?ioeaaeo?a yoa aeiaieueii neiaeiay. Aeaei ia noieueei a oii, /oi
?aoaiea ia oiaiueoaiee onoaaiiai eaieoaea iiaeao i?eiyoue oieueei iauaa
nia?aiea aeoeeiia?ia, neieueei a oii, /oi i ?aoaiee ia oiaiueoaiee
onoaaiiai eaieoaea iauanoai iaycaii a ienueiaiiie oi?ia oaaaeiieoue
naieo e?aaeeoi?ia, eioi?ua ai?aaa iio?aaiaaoue io iauanoaa i?ae?auaiey
eee aein?i/iiai eniieiaiey aai iaycaoaeuenoa (o.a. iiaaoaiey
e?aaeeoi?neie caaeieaeaiiinoe) e aiciauaiey naycaiiuo n yoei oauoeia.
Anoanoaaiii, iaeuecy aeiionoeoue, /oiau noieiinoue /enouo aeoeaia
ieacaeanue iaiueoa onoaaiiai eaieoaea.

?acia? /enouo aeoeaia eiaao cia/aiea e aeey ii?aaeaeaiey aiciiaeiinoe
auieaou (iauyaeaiey) aeeaeaeaiaeia ii aeoeeyi. Iauanoai ia ai?aaa
i?eieiaoue ?aoaiea i auieaoa (iauyaeaiee) aeeaeaeaiaeia ii aeoeeyi, anee
noieiinoue /enouo aeoeaia iauanoaa (A/) iaiueoa aai onoaaiiai eaieoaea
(Oe) e ?aca?aiiai oiiaea (?O) e i?aauoaiey iaae iiieiaeueiie
noieiinoueth (Iii) ii?aaeaeaiiie onoaaii eeeaeaeaoeeiiiie noieiinoe
(Eeea.) ?aciauaiiuo i?eaeeaae?iaaiiuo aeoeee eeai noaiao iaiueoa eo
noiia?iiai ?acia?a a ?acoeueoaoa auieaou aeeaeaeaiaeia, o.a.

A/ >= Oe + ?n? + (Eeea. – Iii.). Iineieueeo eeeaeaeaoeeiiiay noieiinoue
i?eaeeaae?iaaiiuo aeoeee a onoaaao aeoeeiia?iuo iauanoa, eae i?aaeei, ia
ii?aaeaeaia, i?aeoe/anee ?a/ue eaeao i oii, /oi noieiinoue /enouo
aeoeaia iauanoaa aeieaeia auoue ?aaia eee aieueoa noiiu aeaoo aaee/ei –
onoaaiiai eaieoaea e ?aca?aiiai oiiaea, o.a. A/ >= Oe+ ?n?.

Ii?aaeaeaiea oeacaiiuo iieacaoaeae e eo niioiioaiee iaiaoiaeeii e i?e
i?eiyoee ?aoaiey i aueoia iauanoaii ?aciauaiiuo nianoaaiiuo aeoeee:
iauanoai ia ai?aaa i?eia?aoaoue ?aciauaiiua ei iaueiiaaiiua aeoeee, anee
ia iiiaio eo i?eia?aoaiey noieiinoue /enouo aeoeaia iaiueoa aai
onoaaiiai eaieoaea, ?aca?aiiai oiiaea e i?aauoaiey iaae iiieiaeueiie
noieiinoueth ii?aaeaeaiiie onoaaii eeeaeaeaoeeiiiie noieiinoe
?aciauaiiuo i?eaeeaae?iaaiiuo aeoeee eeai noaiao iaiueoa eo ?acia?a a
?acoeueoaoa i?eia?aoaiey aeoeee.

Ii?aaeaeei noieiinoue /enouo aeoeaia IAI “Ieuaaee” ii aeaiiui
i?eaaaeaiiiai aaeaina.

*enoua aeoeau iauanoaa ii?aaeaeythony eae ?aciinoue iaaeaeo ?an/aoiie
noiiie aeoeaia aeoeeiia?iiai iauanoaa (aeoeaia, i?eieiaaiuo e ?an/aoo) e
?an/aoiie noiiie ianneaia (ianneaia, i?eieiaaiuo e ?an/aoo).

Aeoeau, i?eieiaaiua e ?an/aoo, – yoi eiouanoai aeoeeiia?iiai iauanoaa, a
ninoaa eioi?iai aeeth/athony aeaiiua neaaeothueo noaoae aeoeaa aaeaina:

/. Aiaiai?ioiua aeoeau. A eo ninoaa aoiaeyo: 1) iaiaoa?eaeueiua aeoeau,
ii a ?an/aoa /enouo aeoeaia iie o/eouaathony ia iieiinoueth. A ?an/ao
/enouo aeoeaia aeeth/athony iaiaoa?eaeueiua aeoeau, ioaa/athuea
neaaeothuei o?aaiaaieyi:

iaiin?aaenoaaiii eniieuecoaiua iauanoaii a iniiaiie aeayoaeueiinoe e
i?eiinyuea aeioiae (i?aaa iieueciaaiey caiaeueiuie o/anoeaie e
i?e?iaeiuie ?ano?naie, iaoaiou, eeoeaicee, iio-oao e o.i.);

eiathuea aeieoiaioaeueiia iiaeoaa?aeaeaiea cao?ao, naycaiiuo n eo
i?eia?aoaieai eee nicaeaieai; i?aai iauanoaa ia aeaaeaiea aeaiiuie
iaiaoa?eaeueiuie i?aaaie aeieaeii auoue iiaeoaa?aeaeaii aeieoiaioii
(iaoaioii, eeoeaiceae, aeoii, aeiaiai?ii e o.i.), auaeaiiui a
niioaaonoaee n caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii ?O. A iaoai i?eia?a iaiaoa?eaeueiua
aeoeau IAI “Ieuaaee” ioaa/atho oeacaiiui o?aaiaaieyi;

2) iniiaiua n?aaenoaa;

3) iacaaa?oaiiia no?ieoaeuenoai;

4) aeieain?i/iua oeiainiaua aeiaeaiey. Anee a eo noiia ia n/aoa 56
“Aeaiaaeiua aeieoiaiou” o/oaiu nianoaaiiua aeoeee aeoeeiia?iiai
iauanoaa, aueoieaiiua o aeoeeiia?ia, oi iie a ?an/ao /enouo aeoeaia ia
aeeth/athony. I?aaaea, a ea/anoaa iauaai i?aaeea, nianoaaiiua aeoeee,
aueoieaiiua o aeoeeiia?ia, o/eouaathony a noiia ia aeieain?i/iuo, a
e?aoein?i/iuo oeiainiauo aeiaeaiee, . Yoi iauyniyaony oai, /oi a
niioaaonoaee n Caeiiii “Ia aeoeeiia?iuo iauanoaao” (no. 72)
i?eia?aoaiiua iauanoaii ii ?aoaieth niaaoa aee?aeoi?ia
(iaaethaeaoaeueiiai niaaoa) aeoeee aeieaeiu auoue ?aaeeciaaiu ia
iicaeiaa iaeiiai aiaea n aeaou eo i?eia?aoaiey, a i?ioeaiii neo/aa iauaa
nia?aiea aeoeeiia?ia aeieaeii i?eiyoue ?aoaiea ia oiaiueoaiee onoaaiiai
eaieoaea iauanoaa iooai iiaaoaiey oeacaiiuo aeoeee. Iiaeii iieoe ae?oaei
iooai: ia oiaiueoaoue onoaaiue eaieoae, a oaaee/eoue iiieiaeueioth
noieiinoue inoaeueiuo (?aciauaiiuo) aeoeee. Ii a ethaii neo/aa
i?eia?aoaiiua iauanoaii, ii ia ?aaeeciaaiiua a oa/aiea aiaea aeoeee
iiaaoathony;

5) i?i/ea aiaiai?ioiua aeoeau; ii yoie noaouea a ?an/ao /enouo aeoeaia
aeeth/aaony caaeieaeaiiinoue aeoeeiia?iiai iauanoaa ca i?iaeaiiia aio
eiouanoai.

II. Iai?ioiua aeoeau – a ?an/ao aeeth/athony noiiu ii anai noaoueyi
aoi?iai ?acaeaea aooaaeoa?neiai aaeaina, ca eneeth/aieai io?aaeaiiuo a
aaeaina noii iaeiaa ia aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue (n/. 19 “Iaeia ia
aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue ii i?eia?aoaiiui oeaiiinoyi”), caaeieaeaiiinoe
o/anoieeia (o/?aaeeoaeae) ii aciinai a onoaaiue eaieoae e aaeainiaie
noieiinoe nianoaaiiuo aeoeee iauanoaa, aueoieaiiuo o aeoeeiia?ia (iie
o/eouaathony ii oeaia i?eia?aoaiey). Iineaaeiea o/eouaathony a ninoaaa
e?aoein?i/iuo eaieoaeueiuo aeiaeaiee.

Anee o aeoeeiia?iiai iauanoaa ia eiiaoe aiaea eiathony n?aaenoaa ia
n/aoa 82 “Ioeaii/iua ?aca?au”, oi iieacaoaee noaoae aaeaina, a nayce n
eioi?uie iie nicaeaiu (aeaaeoi?neay caaeieaeaiiinoue e ae?.), i?e
?an/aoa /enouo aeoeaia oiaiueoathony ia noiio oeacaiiuo ?aca?aia. Aeey
iieo/aiey eiia/iiai ?acoeueoaoa – noiiu /enouo aeoeaia – ia eiatho
cia/aiey, eaeei ia?acii aoaeao o/oaia noiia ioeaii/iuo ?aca?aia ii
niiieoaeueiui aeieaai eee iiae iaanoeaiaiea oeaiiuo aoiaa iooai
oiaiueoaiey aeoeaia, i?eieiaaiuo a ?an/ao, eee oaaee/aiey ianneaia,
i?eieiaaiuo a ?an/ao. Oauoee iauanoaa, anoanoaaiii, a ?an/ao /enouo
aeoeaia ia i?eieiathony. Enoiaey ec i?eaaaeaiiuo iieiaeaiee aeoeau
iauanoaa “Ieuaaee”, i?eieiaaiua a ?an/ao (A?an/.), ninoaayo:

A?an/. = 58293 – 307 – 180 – 30 = 57776 iei ?oa.

Oaia?ue ii?aaeaeei noiio ianneaia iauanoaa, i?eieiaaiuo a ?an/ao, eee
?an/aoioth noiio ianneaia, o.a. iaycaoaeuenoa iauanoaa (I?an/.).

A /aoaa?oii ?acaeaea aaeaina “Eaieoae e ?aca?au” aeieaiaua
iaycaoaeuenoaa ia io?aaeathony, ii i?e ?an/aoa /enouo aeoeaia e iei
i?e?aaieaathony “Oeaeaaua oeiaine?iaaiea e iinooieaiey”. ?a/ue eaeao ia
o/eouaaaiuo a e?aaeeoa n/aoa 96 “Oeaeaaua oeiaine?iaaiea e iinooieaiey”
noiiao n?aaenoa, iinooieaoeo io ae?oaeo i?aaei?eyoee, ec ianoiiai
athaeaeaoa e eiuo enoi/ieeia aeey inouanoaeaiey ia?ii?eyoee oeaeaaiai
iacia/aiey.

Noiiu, iaoaaeoea io?aaeaiea a iyoii ?acaeaea aaeaina “Aeieain?i/iua
ianneau”, iieiinoueth o/eouaathony a ninoaaa ianneaia, o/eouaaaiuo
(au/eoaaiuo) i?e ?an/aoa /enouo aeoeaia iauanoaa. Oanoie ?acaeae aaeaina
“E?aoein?i/iua ianneau” ia?yaeo n ?acee/iiai ?iaea aeieaiauie iayca
oaeuenoaaie iauanoaa (caaiiua n?aaenoaa, e?aaeeoi?neay caaeieaeaiiinoue
e ae?.) aeeth/aao e oaeea noaouee ianneaa, eioi?ua aeieaaie iauanoaa ia
yaeythony. Oaeeo noaoae a aiaeece?oaiii aaeaina aeaa: “Aeioiaeu aoaeoueo
ia?eiaeia” (n/. 83) e “Oiiaeu iio?aaeaiey” (n/. 88). *oi eanaaony noii
ii noaouea “?aca?au i?aaenoiyueo ?anoiaeia e ieaoaaeae” (n/. 89), oi iie
o/eouaathony a ninoaaa ianneaia, i?eieiaaiuo a ?an/ao i?e ii?aaeaeaiee
/enouo aeoeaia, oioy ?a/ue a aeaiiii neo/aa eaeao ia i aeieaao iauanoaa,
a i i?aaenoiyueo ?anoiaeao – ia iieaoo ioioneia, ia ?aiiio iniiaiuo
n?aaenoa e ae?.

Anee noiia ioeaii/iuo ?aca?aia ia auea eneeth/aia ec niioaaonoaothueo
noaoae aeoeaa, iiae eioi?ua yoe ?aca?au nicaeaiu, oi aeey iieo/aiey
i?aaeeueiiai eiia/iiai ?acoeueoaoa yoo noiio neaaeoao o/anoue aianoa n
ae?oaeie ianneaaie, i?eieiaaiuie a ?an/ao (au/eoaaiuie) i?e ii?aaeaeaiee
/enouo aeoeaia. A IAI “Ieuaaee”, a eioi?ii au?o/ea io ?aaeecaoeee
i?iaeoeoeee o/eouaaaony ii iaoiaeo ia/eneaiee, o.a. ii ioa?ocea, ii
noaouea “Ioeaii/iua ?aca?au” io?aaeaaony ?aca?a ii niiieoaeueiui
aeieaai.

Oaeei ia?acii, noiia ianneaia, i?eieiaaiuo a ?an/aoa (I?an/.),
ninoaaeyao (ia eiiaoe aiaea):

I?an/. = 64 + 240 + 6007 + 461 = 6772 iei ?oa.

Ii i?eaaaeaiiui e ?ann/eoaiiui aeaiiui noieiinoue /enouo aeoeaia
iauanoaa (A/) ninoaaeyao:

A/ = A?an/. – I?an/. = 57776 – 6772 = 51004 iei ?oa.

Noieiinoue /enouo aeoeaia iauanoaa cia/eoaeueii i?aauoaao noiio
onoaaiiai eaieoaea e ?aca?aiiai oiiaea, eioi?ay ninoaaeyao: 2690 + 670 =
3360 iei ?oa.

Aoi?ui iaycaoaeueiui yeaiaioii aiaeeca yaeyaony onoaiiaeaiea iaee/ey eee
ionoonoaey o aeoeeiia?iiai iauanoaa i?eciaeia ianinoiyoaeueiinoe
(aaie?ionoaa). Yoi iaiaoiaeeii ia oieueei aeey oa?aeoa?enoeee
oeiainiaiai ninoiyiey iauanoaa, ii e aeey ?aoaiey aii?inia i
aiciiaeiinoe auieaou aeeaeaeaiaeia ii aeoeeyi e i i?eia?aoaiee iauanoaii
nianoaaiiuo ?aciauaiiuo aeoeee. Iauanoai ia ai?aaa i?eieiaoue ?aoaiea i
auieaoa (iauyaeaiee) aeeaeaeaiaeia ii aeoeeyi, anee ia iiiaio auieaou
iii ioaa/aao i?eciaeai ianinoiyoaeueiinoe (aaie?ionoaa) eee oeacaiiua
i?eciaee iiyayony o iauanoaa a ?acoeueoaoa auieaou aeeaeaeaiaeia. Oi/ii
oae aea iauanoai ia ai?aaa i?eia?aoaoue ?aciauaiiua ei iaueiiaaiiua
aeoeee, anee ia iiiaio eo i?eia?aoaiey iauanoai ioaa/aao i?eciaeai
ianinoiyoaeueiinoe (aaie?ionoaa) eee oeacaiiua i?eciaee iiyayony a
?acoeueoaoa i?eia?aoaiey aeoeee. Yoi aiieia eiae/ii, oae eae a
?acoeueoaoa auieaou aeeaeaeaiaeia eee inouanoaeaiey cao?ao ia
i?eia?aoaiea nianoaaiiuo aeoeee oiaiueoaony /enoua aeoeau iauanoaa, o.a.
oooaeoeony oeiainiaia ninoiyiea iauanoaa, eioi?iio e aac oiai oa?iaeaao
aaie?ionoai.

Iaee/ea eee ionoonoaea i?eciaeia aaie?ionoaa onoaiaaeeaaaony a
niioaaonoaee n iinoaiiaeaieai I?aaeoaeuenoaa ?O io 20.05.94 a. No 498 “I
iaeioi?uo ia?ao ii ?aaeecaoeee caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa i ianinoiyoaeueiinoe
(aaie?ionoaa) i?aaei?eyoee” n o/aoii Iaoiaee/aneeo iieiaeaiee ii ioeaiea
oeiainiaiai ninoiyiey i?aaei?eyoee e onoaiiaeaieth
iaoaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiie no?oeoo?u aaeaina, ooaa?aeaeaiiuo ?anii?yaeaieai
oaaea?aeueiiai oi?aaeaiey ii aeaeai i ianinoiyoaeueiinoe (aaie?ionoaa) N
31 io 12.08.94 a.

*enoua aeoeau i?aaei?eyoey

Iiiyoea /enouo aeoeaia i?aaei?eyoey ia?ac?uaii naycaii n eciaiaieyie,
i?ienoiaeyueie a ?inneeneie yeiiiieea, eciaiaieyie oi?i nianoaaiiinoe,
acaeiiaeaenoaeyie iaaeaeo i?aaei?eyoeyie e aeoeeiia?aie
(nianoaaiieeaie), i?aaei?eyoeyie e aiaoieie i?aaiaie iaaeci?a e
oi?aaeaiey e o.i.

Neooaoeee, i?e eioi?uo aicieeaao iaiaoiaeeiinoue a ii?aaeaeaiee
noieiinoe /enouo aeoeaia, a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue, ii?aaeaeaiu o?aaiaaieyie
A?aaeaeaineiai Eiaeaena a /anoe o/aoa eioa?ania aeoeeiia?ia
(nianoaaiieeia) e e?aaeeoi?ia, a oii /enea ainoaea?noaaiiiai athaeaeaoa
a /anoe eniieiaiey iaycaoaeuenoa ii iaeiaiaui ecuyoeyi. Aeaeaa iu
?anniio?ei eiie?aoiua i?eia?u i?eiaiaiey iieacaoaey noieiinoe /enouo
aeoeaia e naycaiiuo n iei ia?aiao?ia. O/eouaay ioiineoaeueioth iiaecio
?anniao?eaaaiiai iaoa?eaeu e ?aciue o?iaaiue iiaeaioiaeaiiinoe
/eoaoaeae, i?eaaaeai iniiaiua ii?aaeaeaiey :

*enoua aeoeau – yoi aaee/eia, ii?aaeaeyaiay iooai au/eoaiey ec noiiu
aeoeaia aeoeeiia?iiai iauanoaa, i?eieiaaiuo e ?an/aoo, noiiu aai
iaycaoaeuenoa, i?eieiaaiuo e ?an/aoo.

Aeoeau, o/anoaothuea a ?an/aoa, – yoi aeaiaaeiia e iaaeaiaaeiia
eiouanoai aeoeeiia?iiai iauanoaa, a ninoaa eioi?iai aeeth/athony ii
aaeainiaie noieiinoe neaaeothuea noaouee:

– iniiaiua n?aaenoaa e eiua aiaiai?ioiua aeoeau, io?aaeaaiua a ia?aii
?acaeaea aeoeaa aaeaina, e?iia caaeieaeaiiinoe o/anoieeia (o/?aaeeoaeae)
ii eo aeeaaeai a onoaaiue eaieoae. Ii noaouea i?i/ea aiaiai?ioiua aeoeau
a ?an/ao i?eieiaaony caaeieaeaiiinoue aeoeeiia?iiai iauanoaa ca
i?iaeaiiia ei eiouanoai;

– caianu e cao?aou, io?aaeaaiua ai aoi?ii ?acaeaea aeoeaa aaeaina;

– aeaiaaeiua n?aaenoaa, ?an/aou e i?i/ea aeoeau, iieacuaaaiua a o?aoueai
?acaeaea aeoeaa aaeaina.

I?e iaee/ee o i?aaiecaoeee ia eiiaoe aiaea ioeaii/iuo ?aca?aia – ii
niiieoaeueiui aeieaai e iiae iaanoeaiaiea oeaiiuo aoiaa – iieacaoaee
noaoae, a nayce n eioi?uie iie nicaeaiu, i?eieiathony a ?an/aoa
(iieacuaathony a ?an/aoa) n niioaaonoaothuei oiaiueoaieai eo aaeainiaie
noieiinoe ia noieiinoue aeaiiuo ?aca?aia.

I?e ?an/aoa aaee/eiu /enouo aeoeaia i?eieiathony o/eouaaaiua a ia?aii
?acaeaea aooaaeoa?neiai aaeaina iaiaoa?eaeueiua aeoeau, ioaa/athuea
neaaeothuei o?aaiaaieyi:

a) iaiin?aaenoaaiii eniieuecoaiua iauanoaii a iniiaiie aeayoaeueiinoe e
i?eiinyuea aeioiae (i?aaa iieueciaaiey caiaeueiuie o/anoeaie,
i?e?iaeiuie ?ano?naie, iaoaiou, eeoeaicee, iio-oao, i?ia?aiiiua
i?iaeoeou, iiiiiieueiua i?aaa e i?eaeeaaee, aeeth/ay eeoeaicee ia
ii?aaeaeaiiua aeaeu aeayoaeueiinoe, i?aaiecaoeeiiiua ?anoiaeu, oi?aiaua
ia?ee, oiaa?iua ciaee e o.i.);

a) eiathuea aeieoiaioaeueiia iiaeoaa?aeaeaiea cao?ao, naycaiiuo n eo
i?eia?aoaieai (nicaeaieai);

a) i?aai iauanoaa ia aeaaeaiea aeaiiuie iaiaoa?eaeueiuie i?aaaie
aeieaeii auoue iiaeoaa?aeaeaii aeieoiaioii (iaoaioii, eeoeaiceae, aeoii,
aeiaiai?ii e o.i.), auaeaiiui a niioaaonoaee n caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii
?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee;

I?e iaee/ee o aeoeeiia?iiai iauanoaa ia eiiaoe aiaea ioeaii/iuo ?aca?aia
ii niiieoaeueiui aeieaai e iiae iaanoeaiaiea oeaiiuo aoiaa – iieacaoaee
noaoae, a nayce n eioi?uie iie nicaeaiu, i?eieiathony a ?an/aoa
(iieacuaathony a ?an/aoa) n niioaaonoaothuei oiaiueoaieai eo aaeainiaie
noieiinoe ia noieiinoue aeaiiuo ?aca?aia.

Ianneau, o/anoaothuea a ?an/aoa, – yoi iaycaoaeuenoaa i?aaiecaoeee, a
ninoaa eioi?uo aeeth/athony neaaeothuea noaouee:

– noaouee ia?aiai ?acaeaea ianneaa aaeaina, oa?aeoa?ecothuea
iaycaoaeuenoaa i?aaiecaoeee (oeaeaaua oeiaine?iaaiea e iinooieaiey;
a?aiaeiua iaycaoaeuenoaa);

– noaouee aoi?iai ?acaeaea ianneaa aaeaina -aeieain?i/iua e
e?aoein?i/iua iaycaoaeuenoaa aaieai e eiui th?eaee/aneei e oece/aneei
eeoeai; ?an/aou e i?i/ea ianneau, e?iia noii, io?aaeaiiuo ii noaoueyi
“?aca?au ii niiieoaeueiui aeieaai” e “Aeioiaeu aoaeoueo ia?eiaeia”.

Ioeaiea noaoae aaeaina, o/anoaothueo a ?an/aoa noieiinoe /enouo aeoeaia,
i?iecaiaeeony a aaethoa ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee ii ninoiyieth ia 31
aeaeaa?y io/aoiiai aiaea. (a ?aaeaeoeee <1>, i?eiaieoaeueii e no?oeoo?a
aaeaina aeaenoaiaaaoae aei 01.04.96 a.)

A ianneau, o/anoaothuea a ?an/aoa, aeeth/athony noaouee ec neaaeothueo
?acaeaeia:

– noaouey /aoaa?oiai ?acaeaea aooaaeoa?neiai aaeaina – oeaeaaua
oeiaine?iaaiea e iinooieaiey;

– noaouee iyoiai ?acaeaea aaeaina – aeieain?i/iua iaycaoaeuenoaa aaieai
e eiui th?eaee/aneei e oece/aneei eeoeai;

– noaouee oanoiai ?acaeaea aaeaina – e?aoein?i/iua iaycaoaeuenoaa aaieai
e eiui th?eaee/aneei e oece/aneei eeoeai; ?an/aou e i?i/ea ianneau,
e?iia noii, io?aaeaiiuo ii noaoueyi “Aeioiaeu aoaeoueo ia?eiaeia” e
“Oiiaeu iio?aaeaiey”.

Ioeaiea noaoae aaeaina, o/anoaothueo a ?an/aoa noieiinoe /enouo aeoeaia,
i?iecaiaeeony a aaethoa ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee ii ninoiyieth ia 31
aeaeaa?y io/aoiiai aiaea. (a ?aaeaeoeee <2>, i?eiaieoaeueii e no?oeoo?a
aaeaina aeaenoaothuae n 01.04.96 a.)

Ii?aaeaeei oaeaea iieacaoaee oanii naycaiiua ni noieiinoueth /enouo
aeoeaia:

Eiyooeoeeaio oaeouae eeeaeaeiinoe [E,,] oa?aeoa?ecoao iauoth
iaania/aiiinoue i?aaei?eyoey iai?ioiuie n?aaenoaaie aeey aaaeaiey
oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe e naiaa?aiaiiiai iiaaoaiey n?i/iuo
iaycaoaeuenoa i?aaei?eyoey.

Eiyooeoeeaio oaeouae eeeaeaeiinoe ii?aaeaeyaony eae ioiioaiea
oaeoe/aneie noieiinoe iaoiaeyueony a iaee/ee o i?aaei?eyoey iai?ioiuo
n?aaenoa a aeaea i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo caiania, aioiaie i?iaeoeoeee,
aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa, aeaaeoi?neeo caaeieaeaiiinoae e i?i/eo iai?ioiuo
aeoeaia e iaeaieaa n?i/iui iaycaoaeuenoaai i?aaei?eyoey a aeaea
e?aoein?i/iuo e?aaeeoia aaieia, e?aoein?i/iuo caeiia e ?acee/iuo
e?aaeeoi?neeo caaeieaeaiiinoae.

Eiyooeoeeaio iaania/aiiinoe nianoaaiiuie n?aaenoaaie [K^j oa?aeoa?ecoao
iaee/ea nianoaaiiuo iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa o i?aaei?eyoey, iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey
aai oeiainiaie onoie/eainoe. Eiyooeoeeaio iaania/aiiinoe nianoaaiiuie
n?aaenoaaie ii?aaeaeyaony eae ioiioaiea ?aciinoe iaaeaeo iauaiaie
enoi/ieeia nianoaaiiuo n?aaenoa e oaeoe/aneie noieiinoueth iniiaiuo
n?aaenoa e i?i/eo aiaiai?ioiuo aeoeaia e oaeoe/aneie noieiinoe
iaoiaeyueony a iaee/ee o i?aaei?eyoey iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa a aeaea
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo caiania, iacaaa?oaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa, aioiaie
i?iaeoeoeee, aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa, aeaaeoi?neeo caaeieaeaiiinoae e i?i/eo
iai?ioiuo aeoeaia.

Eiyooeoeeaio ainnoaiiaeaiey (oo?aou) ieaoaaeaniiniaiinoe oa?aeoa?ecoao
iaee/ea ?aaeueiie aiciiaeiinoe o i?aaei?eyoey ainnoaiiaeoue eeai
oo?aoeoue naith ieaoaaeaniiniaiinoue a oa/aiea ii?aaeaeaiiiai ia?eiaea.

Eiyooeoeeaio ainnoaiiaeaiey (oo?aou) ieaoaaeaniiniaiinoe ii?aaeaeyaony
eae ioiioaiea ?an/aoiiai eiyooeoeeaioa oaeouae eeeaeaeiinoe e aai
onoaiiaeaiiiio cia/aieth. ?an/aoiue eiyooeoeeaio oaeouae eeeaeaeiinoe
ii?aaeaeyaony eae noiia oaeoe/aneiai cia/aiey eiyooeoeeaioa oaeouae
eeeaeaeiinoe ia eiiaoe io/aoiiai ia?eiaea e eciaiaiey cia/aiey yoiai
eiyooeoeeaioa iaaeaeo ieii/aieai e ia/aeii io/aoiiai ia?eiaea a
ia?an/aoa ia onoaiiaeaiiue ia?eiae ainnoaiiaeaiey (oo?aou)
ieaoaaeaniiniaiinoe.

Iniiaaieai aeey i?eciaiey no?oeoo?u aaeaina i?aaei?eyoey
iaoaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiie, a i?aaei?eyoey — iaieaoaaeaniiniaiui yaeyaony
auiieiaiea iaeiiai ec neaaeothueo oneiaee:

•eiyooeoeeaio oaeouae eeeaeaeiinoe ia eiiaoe io/aoiiai ia?eiaea eiaao
cia/aiea iaiaa 2;

•eiyooeoeeaio iaania/aiiinoe nianoaaiiuie n?aaenoaaie ia eiiaoe
io/aoiiai ia?eiaea eiaao cia/aiea iaiaa 0,1.

I?e iaee/ee iniiaaiee aeey i?eciaiey no?oeoo?u aaeaina
iaoaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiie, a neo/aa, anee eiyooeoeeaio ainnoaiiaeaiey
(oo?aou) ieaoaaeaniiniaiinoe, ii?aaeaeaiiue enoiaey ec cia/aiey ia?eiaea
ainnoaiiaeaiey ieaoaaeaniiniaiinoe, ?aaiiai oanoe ianyoeai, e
onoaiiaeaiiiai cia/aiey eiyooeoeeaioa oaeouae eeeaeaeiinoe, ?aaiiai
aeaoi, eiaao cia/aiea aieueoa aaeeieoeu, iiaeao auoue i?eiyoi ?aoaiea i
iaee/ee ?aaeueiie aiciiaeiinoe o i?aaei?eyoey ainnoaiiaeoue naith
ieaoaaeaniiniaiinoue.

I?e ionoonoaee iniiaaiee aeey i?eciaiey no?oeoo?u aaeaina
iaoaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiie, a neo/aa, anee eiyooeoeeaio ainnoaiiaeaiey
[E.^] (oo?aou[E^]) ieaoaaeaniiniaiinoe, ii?aaeaeaiiue enoiaey ec
cia/aiey ia?eiaea oo?aou ieaoaaeaniiniaiinoe, ?aaiiai o?ai ianyoeai, e
onoaiiaeaiiiai cia/aiey eiyooeoeeaioa oaeouae eeeaeaeiinoe, ?aaiiai
aeaoi, eiaao cia/aiea iaiueoa aaeeieoeu, iiaeao auoue i?eiyoi ?aoaiea i
oii, /oi i?aaei?eyoea a aeeaeaeoaa a?aiy ia niiaeao auiieieoue naie
iaycaoaeuenoaa ia?aae e?aaeeoi?aie <3>.

AIAEEC I?EIAIAIEss IIEACAOAEss NOIEIINOE *ENOUO AEOEAIA E NAssCAIIUO N
IEI AAEE*EI.

?anniio?ei eiie?aoiua neooaoeee, aicieeathuea a i?aeoeea i?eiyoey
?aoaiee aeey i?aaei?eyoee n iaoaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiie no?oeoo?ie aaeaina.

Aeey aiaeeca aicueiai /anoe/ii naa?iooue aaeain i?aaei?eyoey n
io?aaeaieai niaea?aeaiey noaoae aaeaina a i?ioeaioao e aaethoa aaeaina .

Iao?oaeii aeaeaoue, /oi o i?aaei?eyoey, eiaaony e?aaeeoi?neay
caaeieaeaiiinoue, caianu oiaa?ia e aioiaie i?iaeoeoeee, aeiaeaiey a
aei/a?iea e caaeneiua oe?iu, i?e yoii noieiinoue /enouo aeoeaia yaeyaony
io?eoeaoaeueiie aaee/eiie, /oi iiaeao auoue iaeiicia/ii enoieeiaaii eae
i?eciae iaiaoiaeeiinoe noi?iiiaai aiaoaoaeuenoaa e iaiaoiaeeiinoe
icaei?iaeaiey i?aaei?eyoee.

Aica?auaynue e ?aiaa aeaiiui ii?aaeaeaieyi, caiaoei, /oi oeeoe?iaaiiua
aeieoiaiou i?aaeienuaatho i?iecaiaeeoue ii?aaeaeaiey ?aaeueiuo
iieacaoaeae noieiinoe a oa?ieiao aaeainiauo iieacaoaeae. N oi/ee
c?aiey auyaeaiey oeiainiaiai “iacaei?iauey” i?aaei?eyoey – yoi
aaconeiaii i?aaeeueiue iiaeoiae, ii /aua anaai caaea/a ninoieo ia
oieueei e ia noieueei a eiinoaoaoeee yoiai iai?eyoiiai oaeoa, neieueei a
auai?a n?aaenoa “ea/aiey”. E a yoii neo/aa neaaeoao i?iaiaeece?iaaoue
aiciiaeiinoue ainnoaiiaeaiey ieaoaaeaniiniaiinoe (Eainn), e anee
?acoeueoao ieaaeaony iaoaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiui, oi i?eieiaoue ?aoaiea i
?aaeecaoeee eiouanoaa e aeoeaia ia iie?uoea aeieaia. Ia yoii yoaia
i?eaioe?iaea oieueei ia aaeainiaua iieacaoaee iiaeao i?eaanoe e
na?ueaciui i?in/aoai. Aeey eeethno?aoeee yoiai aa?iainy e iaoaio
i?eia?o. A niioaaonoaee n aeaenoaothueie ii?iaie e i?aaeeaie o/aoa e
io/aoiinoe, eceiaeaiiuie a IAO, ?yae iauaeoia io?aaeathony a aaeaina ii
o/aoiui oeaiai -yoi iaiaoa?eaeueiua aeoeau, iniiaiua oiiaeu,
iacaaa?oaiiia i?iecaiaenoai, aioiaay i?iaeoeoeey e oiaa?u, aeieain?i/iua
aeiaeaiey, aeaaeoi?neay caaeieaeaiiinoue, ?anoiaeu aoaeoueo ia?eiaeia.
I/aaeaeii, i?e i?eiyoee ?aoaiey i aaie?ionoaa e ?aaeecaoeee
i?aaei?eyoey, eeeaeaeiua oeaiu ii yoei iieacaoaeyi iiaoo cia/eoaeueii
ioee/aoueny io aaeainiauo. Iai?eia?: i/aiue neiaeii ?aaeeciaaoue
iaiaoa?eaeueiua aeoeau, noieiinoue iniiaiuo oiiaeia iiaeao ioee/aoueny
eae a aieueooth oae e a iaiueooth

noi?iio io o/aoiie aaee/eiu, aioiaay i?iaeoeoeey e oiaa?u, a caaeneiinoe
io eiie?aoiuo oneiaee, oaeaea iiaoo ioee/aoueny io iiieiaea a oo eee
eioth noi?iio, ?anoiaeu aoaeoueo ia?eiaeia e iacaaa?oaiiia
i?iecaiaenoai, eae i?aaeei, ia iiaoo auoue ?aaeeciaaiu aiiaua, a
aeieain?i/iua aeiaeaiey a aei/a?iea e/eee caaeneiua i?aaei?eyoey,
io?aaeaaiua ii ia?aiia/aeueiie noieiinoe, iiaoo oaeaea cia/eoaeueii
eciaieoue iauoth no?oeoo?o oeaiiauo niioiioaiee (aei/a?iea eee caaeneiua
i?aaei?eyoey iiaoo ?aaioaoue e oi?ioi e ieioi, iiyoiio yoa /anoue
aeoeaia aeieaeia, ii iaoaio iiaieth, auoue ?ann/eoaia n o/aoii
eaieoaeecaoeee aeioiaeia yoeo i?aaei?eyoee).

E?iia oiai, ?an/aou iieacaoaey noieiinoe /enouo aeoeaia e
eiyooeoeeaioia, n?aaieaaaiuo n e?eoa?eaeueiuie cia/aieyie – anoue
oeie/iua i?eia?u noaoenoe/aneeo caaea/, naycaiiuo n i?eiyoeai ?aoaiey,
i?e eioi?uo aeaeaoaeueii iaeneiaeueii nieceoue aa?iyoiinoue ioeaie
ia?aiai e aoi?iai ?iaea

Oaeei ia?acii, iinea onoaiiaeaiey oaeoa oeiainiaiai “iacaei?iauey”
i?aaei?eyoey ii o/aoiui aeaiiui (ii aaeaino), iu n/eoaai oeaeaniia?aciui
i?iecaanoe ?an/aou yoeo aea iieacaoaeae iaoiaeaie ioeaiee e
?aeiino?oe?iaaoue aaeain n o/aoii yoeo ?acoeueoaoia. Aa?iainy oaia?ue e
iaoei i?eia?ai (oaae.1 e oaae. 1a). Ioeaiuee onoaiiaee, /oi
eaieoaeece?iaaiiay noieiinoue aei/a?ieo e caaeneiuo i?aaei?eyoee
cia/eoaeueii i?aauoaao o/aoioth noieiinoue aeoeee, oiaa?u e aioiaay
i?iaeoeoeey yaeyaony aunieieeeaeaeiuie, ia iaa nouanoaoao onoie/eaue
ni?in, iiyoiio aeey oeaeae ?aeiino?oeoeee aaeaina, eo noieiinoue iiaeao
auoue acyoa n iainiiaaiiie iiauoathuae oi?aiaie ia?aeae; iniiaiua
oiiaeu, i?e eo ?aaeecaoeee, iiaoo auoue i?iaeaiu ca 70-80% io o/aoiie
inoaoi/iie noieiinoe; iacaaa?oaiiia i?iecaiaenoai e ?anoiaeu aoaeoueo
ia?eiaeia iai?aaeaiu ia auione aunieieeeaeaeiie i?iaeoeoeee aiaeiae/iie
eiathuaeny ia neeaaea, iiyoiio eo eeeaeaeiay noieiinoue iiaeao auoue
i?eiyoa a niioaaonoaee n i?ioeaioii aioiaiinoe i?iaeoeoeee a
i?iecaiaenoaaiiii oeeeea (a aeaiiii eiie?aoiii neo/aa -30%). Neaaeothuei
oaaii ioeaiuee i?iecaae eaieoaeecaoeeth aeioiaeia e iaeeaeaaioth
?aaa?neth /a?ac 10 eao. A ?acoeueoaoa iauaeo aue ioeaiai (eae iauaeo
aeciana), eiathuee eiie?aoioth iieiaeeoaeueioth noieiinoue n aaee/eiie
noieiinoe /enouo aeoeaia aieaa 25% io aaethou aaeaina.

AeAOAEECE?IAAIIUE AIAEEC OEIAINIAIAI NINOIssIEss

Aai oeaeue — aieaa iiae?iaiay oa?aeoa?enoeea eiouanoaaiiiai e
oeiainiaiai iieiaeaiey oicyenoaothuaai noauaeoa, ?acoeueoaoia aai
aeayoaeueiinoe a enoaeoai io/aoiii ia?eiaea, a oaeaea aiciiaeiinoae
?acaeoey noauaeoa ia ia?niaeoeao.

I?aaeaea /ai i?enooieoue e i?iaaaeaieth aiaeeca, iaiaoiaeeii a naeaoii
aeaea aeaoue ii?aaeaeaiea iniiaiuo iieacaoaeae, eioi?ua aoaeoo
eniieueciaaiu i?e ?an/aoa eiyooeoeeaioia, oa?aeoa?ecothueo oeiainiaia
ninoiyiea i?aaei?eyoey.

Aeoeau — yoi noieiinoue n?aaenoa, eioi?uie aeaaeaao i?aaei?eyoea. Aeoeau
?acaeaeythony ia oaeouea aeoeau (iai?ioiua aeoeau) e iaaeaeaeeiia
eiouanoai (aiaiai?ioiua aeoeau).

Oaeouea aeoeau — yoi n?aaenoaa, i?aaeiacia/aiiua aeey e?aoein?i/iiai
eniieueciaaiey e ia?auaaiua a aeaiaaeioth iaee/iinoue a oa/aiea
oicyenoaaiiiai oeeeea, ia i?aauoathuaai iaeei aiae. Oaeouea aeoeau
io?aaeathony ai aoi?ii ?acaeaea aaeaina, iacuaathony eia/a iai?ioiuie
n?aaenoaaie eee iai?ioiui eaieoaeii.

Eeeaeaeiua aeoeau (eaaei?aaeecoaiua aeoeau) – yoi oaeea aeoeau, eioi?ua
iiaeii auno?i i?aa?aoeoue a aeaiaaeiua n?aaenoaa. Eeeaeaeiua aeoeau
?aaiu oaeouei aeoeaai ca au/aoii oiaa?ii-iaoa?eaeueiuo caiania.
Eeeaeaeiua aeoeau iieacuaathony ai aoi?ii ?acaeaea aeoeaiie /anoe
aaeaina. I?aaeaea anaai yoi aeaiaaeiua n?aaenoaa, aeeth/ay e?aoein?i/iua
oeaiiua aoiaae, e caaeieaeaiiinoue aeaaeoi?ia (ieaoaaee ii eioi?ie
iaeeaeathony ia aieaa /ai /a?ac 12 ianyoeaa iinea io/aoiie aeaou).

Iaoa?eaeueii-i?iecaiaenoaaiiua caianu — aeoeau, caieiathuea ii noaiaie
eeeaeaeiinoe i?iiaaeooi/iia iieiaeaiea iaaeaeo eaaei?aaeecoaiuie
aeoeaaie e iaaeaeaeeiuie n?aaenoaaie. Iaoa?eaeueii-i?iecaiaenoaaiiua
caianu io?aaeathony ai aoi?ii ?acaeaea aeoeaiie /anoe aaeaina. I?aaeaea
anaai yoi iaoa?eaeu, iacaaa?oaiiia i?iecaiaenoai, aioiaay i?iaeoeoeey e
oiaa?u aeey ia?ai?iaeaaee.

Iaaeaeaeeiinoue – yoi aeoeau, i?aaeiacia/aiiua aeey n?aaieoaeueii
aeieain?i/iiai eniieueciaaiey a i?iecaiaenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe
i?aaei?eyoey (aieaa iaeiiai aiaea). Iacuaathony eia/a aiaiai?ioiuie
aeoeaaie, iaaeaeaeeiuie eee eiiiaeeeciaaiiuie n?aaenoaaie.
Iaaeaeaeeiinoue io?aaeaaony a 1 ?acaeaea aeoeaiie /anoe aaeaina. E iae
ioiinyony iniiaiua n?aaenoaa (caeaiey, nii?oaeaiey, iai?oaeiaaiea),
iaiaoa?eaeueiua aeoeau, iacaaa?oaiiia no?ieoaeuenoai e aeieain?i/iua
oeiainiaua aeiaeaiey.

Iauay noiia eaieoaea — yoi noieiinoue n?aaenoa (aeoeaia) i?aaei?eyoey.
Iia ?aaia iaycaoaeuenoaai a noiia n nianoaaiiui eaieoaeii. Iacuaaaony
eia/a aaethoie aaeaina iaooi.

?aaeueiua aeoeau – yoi noiia inoaoeia (naeueaei) iniiaiuo n?aaenoa (ca
ieionii eciina), i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo caiania, iacaaa?oaiiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa, iaeioeaiiuo e auno?ieciaoeaathueony i?aaeiaoia. ?aaeueiua
aeoeau oa?aeoa?ecotho i?iecaiaenoaaiiua iiuiinoe i?aaei?eyoey.

Ianneau – yoi iaycaoaeuenoaa (caaiiua n?aaenoaa) i?aaei?eyoey ii iieaoa
iethn nianoaaiiue eaieoae.

Iaycaoaeuenoaa – ?acaeaeythony ia e?aoein?i/iua (oaeouea) e
aeieain?i/iua, io?aaeathony a iyoii e oanoii ?acaeaeao ianneaiie /anoe
aaeaina.

E?aoein?i/iua iaycaoaeuenoaa — yoi caaeieaeaiiinoue i?aaei?eyoey,
eioi?ay aeieaeia auoue iiaaoaia a oa/aiea aiaea. I?aaeaea anaai yoi
caaeieaeaiiinoue e?aaeeoi?ai, e?aoein?i/iua e?aaeeou e caeiu, iieo/aiiua
aaainu.

Aeieain?i/iua iaycaoaeuenoaa — yoi caaeieaeaiiinoue i?aaei?eyoey,
eioi?ay aeieaeia auoue iiaaoaia a oa/aiea ia?eiaea, i?aauoathuaai iaeei
aiae, aeeth/atho a naay aeieain?i/iua e?aaeeou e caeiu.

Nianoaaiiue iaieoae — yoi noieiinoue aeoeaia, i?eiaaeeaaeaueo
nianoaaiieeai i?aaei?eyoey (aeoeeiia?ai). Noieiinoue nianoaaiiiai
eaieoaea ii?aaeaeyaony eae ?aciinoue iaaeaeo iauae noieiinoueth aeoeaia
(aaethoie aaeaina) e iaycaoaeuenoaaie. Nianoaaiiue eaieoae iacuaaaony
eia/a aeoeeiia?iui eaieoaeii.

Nianoaaiiue eaieoae = aeoeau – iaycaoaeuenoaa

I?e aiaeeca aaeaina eiiaaea eniieuecothony iiiyoey /enouo aeoeaia,
/enouo eeeaeaeiuo aeoeaia e nianoaaiiuo oaeoueo aeoeaia.

*enoua aeoeau — yoi ?anniio?aiiue auoa nianoaaiiue eaieoae.
Ii?aaeaeyaony iauae noieiinoueth aeoeaia ca au/aoii e?aoein?i/iuo e
aeieain?i/iuo iaycaoaeuenoa.

*enoua aeoeau = aeoeau – iaycaoaeuenoaa

*enouie eeeaeaeiuie aeoeaaie iacuaathony eeeaeaeiua aeoeau ca au/aoii
e?aoein?i/iuo iaycaoaeuenoa. A oi?ioi ?aaioathuae oe?ia noieiinoue
eeeaeaeiuo aeoeaia anaaaea auoa aaee/eiu e?aoein?i/iuo iaycaoaeuenoa.
Yoi iaania/eaaao onoie/eainoue aa ooieoeeiie?iaaiey e niiniaiinoue
iiaaoaoue naie e?aoein?i/iua iaycaoaeuenoaa a n?ie (iieiinoueth ca n/ao
eeeaeaeiuo aeoeaia).

*enoua eeeaeaeiua aeoeau =

= eeeaeaeiua aeoeau – e?aoein?i/iua iaycaoaeuenoaa

Nianoaaiiua oaeouea aeoeau – yoi aaee/eia oaeoueo aeoeaia ca au/aoii
e?aoein?i/iuo iaycaoaeuenoa. Eia/a aiai?y, nianoaaiiua oaeouea aeoeau
ninoaa-tho aaee/eio oaeoueo aeoeaia, inoathuothny iinea iiaaoaiey anao
e?aoein?i/iuo iaycaoaeuenoa. Nianoaaiiua oaeouea aeoeau iacuaatho
eiiaaea ?aai/ei eaieoaeii: aei?iaeiue eiaanoi? anaaaea neaaeeo ca oai,
/oiau oe?ia, a eioi?oth ii aeeaaeuaaao n?aaenoaa, eiaea cia/eoaeueiua
nianoaaiiua oaeouea aeoeau. E?iia oiai, aeey ?anoe?aiey i?iecaiaenoaa
aaaeii, /oiau nianoaaiiua oaeouea aeoeau a yoii aiaeo auee aieueoa, /ai
a i?aaeuaeouai.

Nianoaaiiua oaeouea aeoeau =

= oaeouea aeoeau – e?aoein?i/iua iaycaoaeuenoaa

Nianoaaiiua oaeouea aeoeau iacuaatho oaeaea nianoaaiiuie iai?ioiuie
n?aaenoaaie eee /enoui eaieoaeii.

I?e i?iaaaeaiee aiaeeca noaiaiue aa?aae?iaaiey eioi?iaoeee auae?aao
aiaeeoee. Iaeaieaa iauay a?oiie?iaea niioaaonoaoao ?acaeaeai aaeaina.
Aeoeau ?acaeaeythony ia eeeaeaeiua aeoeau, oiaa?ii-iaoa?eaeueiua caianu,
iaaeaeaeeiia eiouanoai. Ianneau — ia caaiiua n?aaenoaa (e?aoein?i/iua
iaycaoaeuenoaa, aeieain?i/iua iaycaoaeuenoaa) e nianoaaiiue eaieoae.

OI?IE?IAAIEA AIAEEOE*ANEIAI AAEAINA

Ianiiiaiii, /oi aiaeec oeiainiaiai ninoiyiey aeieaeai i?iaiaeeoueny ia
iniiaa aaeaina-iaooi, i/euaiiiai io ?aaoee?othueo noaoae. Iaeiaei e
yoiai iaaeinoaoi/ii. Aeaenoaothuay a ianoiyuaa a?aiy io/aoiay oi?ia a
ioaeaeueiuo neo/ayo ioiineo neioaoe/aneea n/aoa e ?acaeaeai aaeaina
iaaeinoaoi/ii ei??aeoii. Oaeei ia?acii, i?aaeaea /ai i?iaiaeeoue aiaeec
oeiainiaiai ninoiyiey i?aaei?eyoey, neaaeoao noi?ie?iaaoue aiaeeoe/aneee
(i?eaiaeiue aeey aiaeeca) aaeain.

Ia?a/aiue i?ioeaaeo? i?aia?aciaaiey io/aoiie oi?iu aaeaina a
aiaeeoe/aneee aaeain caaeneo io eiie?aoiuo oneiaee. Yoio ia?a/aiue
iaeuecy ca?aiaa ii?aaeaeeoue ia ana neo/ae. Eaaeaeue aiaeeoee a
niioaaonoaee ni naiae eaaeeoeeaoeeae e iiuoii ?aoaao yoo i?iaeaio
ii-naiaio. Aaaeii, /oiau auee iii?aaeaiu iieacaoaee, iaeaieaa
nouanoaaiii eneaaeathuea ?aaeueioth ea?oeio. I?eaaaeai iaeioi?ua
?aeiiaiaeaoeee:

* iaiaoiaeeii oiaiueoeoue iauoth noiio eaieoaea (aaethou aaeaina) ia
aaee/eio oauoeia, caienaiiuo a aeoeaiie /anoe aaeaina. Iaeiia?aiaiii
oiaiueoeoue ia oo aea noiio nianoaaiiue eaieoae;

* eneeth/eoue ec iauae noiiu eaieoaea (aaethou aaeaina) aaee/eio
“?anoiaeia aoaeoueo ia?eiaeia”. Ia yoo aea noiio iaiaoiaeeii oiaiueoeoue
?acia?u nianoaaiiiai eaieoaea e iaoa?eaeueii—i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo caiania;

* oaaee/eoue ?acia?u iaoa?eaeueii-i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo caiania ia noiio
iaeiaa ia aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue ii i?eia?aoaiiui oeaiiinoyi;

* eneeth/eoue ec noiiu iaoa?eaeueii-i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo caiania
noieiinoue oiaa?ia ioa?oaeaiiuo. Ia yoo aea noiio iaiaoiaeeii oaaee/eoue
?acia?u aeaaeoi?neie caaeieaeaiiinoe;

Neaaeoao ia?aoeoue aieiaiea ia noiio caaeieaeaiiinoe o/anoieeia ii
aeeaaeai. Iaeaieaa nouanoaaiiia eneaaeaiea iiaeao iaaethaeaoueny a
aeoeeiia?iuo iauanoaao ioe?uoiai oeia i?e ia?ae/iii ?aciauaiee aeoeee. A
niioaaonoaee n ii?iaoeaiuie aeieoiaioaie a onoaaiue eaieoae caienuaaaony
any noiia yiennee a iiiaio ?aaeno?aoeee onoaaiiai eaieoaea, aei
?aaeueiie iiaeienee ia aeoeee. Eia/a aiai?y, noieiinoue aeoeaia e
noieiinoue nianoaaiiiai eaieoaea iiauoaaony a aaeaina i?aaeaeaa?aiaiii.
Aeey iieo/aiey ?aaeueiie ea?oeiu iaiaoiaeeii oiaiueoeoue nianoaaiiue
eaieoae, aaethoo aaeaina e aiaiai?ioiua aeoeau ia noiio ia i?iaeaiiuo e
ia iaania/aiiuo iiaeieneie aeoeee.

neaaeoao auaeaeeoue a noaouea oeaeaaiai oeiaine?iaaiey e iinooieaiee
noiiu, iieo/aiiua aacaiciacaeii ia ?acaeoea i?iecaiaenoaa (iai?eia?,
noaneaeey ianoiiai athaeaeaoa ia ?aeiino?oeoeeth iaiuao?aieeeua), e
noiiu, iieo/aiiua aeey aiai?iecaiaenoaaiiiai iio?aaeaiey (iai?eia?,
ieaoa ?iaeeoaeae ca niaea?aeaiea aeaoae a aeaoneii naaea). Ia?aue oei
noii neaaeoao inoaaeoue a ninoaaa nianoaaiiiai eaieoaea, a aoi?ii –
ia?aaanoe ec nianoaaiiiai eaieoaea a e?aoein?i/ioth caaeieaeaiiinoue eee
aiiaua auaanoe ec aaethou aaeaina (ca n/ao oiaiueoaiey eeeaeaeiuo
n?aaenoa e nianoaaiiiai eaieoaea);

a neo/aa i?aauoaiey iieo/aiiuo ?aaioieeaie i?aaei?eyoee aeieaia?aiaiiuo
nnoae iaae e?aaeeoaie aaieia aeey ?aaioieeia iaiaoiaeeii auyaeaiioth
noiio aeoeaa ia?aaanoe a iaaeaeaeeiia eiouanoai (eiiiaeeeciaaiiua
n?aaenoaa), iaeiia?aiaiii oaaee/ea ia oo aea noiio aeieaia?aiaiiua
iaycaoaeuenoaa e oiaiueoea ia oo aea noiio nianoaaiiue eaieoae
(iai?eia?, ca n/ao ia?ani?aaeaeaiiie i?eauee). Aoi?ie niinia – iieiia
eneeth/aiea auyaeaiiie noiiu ec aaethou aaeaina ca n/ao
niioaaonoaothuaai oiaiueoaiey eeeaeaeiuo n?aaenoa e nianoaaiiiai
eaieoaea;

* neaaeoao ia?aaanoe ec aeieain?i/iuo iaycaoaeuenoa a
e?aoein?i/iua oa noiiu aeieaia?aiaiiuo e?aaeeoia e caeiia, eioi?ua
aeieaeiu auoue iiaaoaiu a ianooiathuai aiaeo, aeeth/ay nnoaeu, ia
iiaaoaiiua a n?ie;

* oiaiueoeoue noiio e?aoein?i/iuo iaycaoaeuenoa (caaiiuo n?aaenoa)
ia aaee/eio “?an/aoia ii aeeaeaeaiaeai”, “Aeioiaeia aoaeoueo ia?eiaeia”,
“Oiiaeia iio?aaeaiey” e “?aca?aia i?aaenoiyueo ?anoiaeia e ieaoaaeae”.
Ia yoo aea noiio iaiaoiaeeii oaaee/eoue ?acia?u nianoaaiiiai eaieoaea;

* ii aiciiaeiinoe (ia iniiaa aeaiiuo aioo?aiiaai aiaeeca)
neaaeoao auyaeoue eiiiaeeecaoeeth n?aaenoa, ne?uooth a ninoaaa
aeaaeoi?neie caaeieaeaiiinoe e i?i/eo oaeoueo aeoeaia. E?eoa?eai caeanue
aeieaeia neoaeeoue ieceay eeeaeaeiinoue eee iieiay iaeeeaeaeiinoue
iaia?oaeaiiuo niiieoaeueiuo noii. Yoe noiiu aeieaeiu auoue ia?aaaaeaiu a
?acaeae iaaeaeaeeiinoe n iaeiia?aiaiiui ia?aiauaieai niioaaonoaothueo
noii ec nianoaaiiiai eaieoaea a aeieaia?aiaiioth caaeieaeaiiinoue, eee
iieiinoueth eneeth/aiu ec aaethou aaeaina, eeeaeaeiuo n?aaenoa e
nianoaaiiiai eaieoaea:

neaaeoao ia?aaanoe aeaaeoi?neoth caaeieaeaiiinoue, eioi?ay iiaeao auoue
iiaaoaia ia ?aiaa /ai /a?ac aiae, a ?acaeae iaaeaeaeeiinoe. N o/aoii
yoeo ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ?an/ao iieacaoaeae ia iniiaa aeaiiuo aaeaina aoaeao
inouanoaeyoueny neaaeothuei ia?acii:

Oaeouea aeoeau

O1.290 – O1.21 – O1.230

ia ia/aei aiaea: 60934;

ia eiiaoe aiaea: 654620.

Eeeaeaeiua aeoeau

O1.216 + O1.240 + O1.250 + O1.260

ia ia/aei aiaea: 6309;

ia eiiaoe aiaea: 356354.

Aeaiaaeiua n?aaenoaa e e?aoein?i/iua oeiainiaua aeiaeaiey

O1.240 + O1.250

ia ia/aei aiaea: 6309;

ia eiiaoe aiaea: 356354.

Iaoa?eaeueii-i?iecaiaenoaaiiua caianu

O1.210 – O1.216 – O1.217 + O1.220

ia ia/aei aiaea: 1230;

ia eiiaoe aiaea: 47456.

Iaaeaeaeeiinoue eee eiiiaeeeciaaiiua n?aaenoaa

O1.190+O1.230

ia ia/aei aiaea: 2356;

ia eiiaoe aiaea: 31091.

Iauay noiia eaieoaea

O1.399 – O1.217 – O1.390

ia ia/aei aiaea: 63290;

ia eiiaoe aiaea: 685711.

?aaeueiua aeoeau

O1.120 + O1.130 + O1.211 + O1.213 + O1.214

ia ia/aei aiaea: 54625;

ia eiiaoe aiaea: 28295.

Iaycaoaeuenoaa (caaiiua n?aaenoaa)

O1.590 + O1.690 – O1.630 – O1.640 – O1.650 – O1.660

ia ia/aei aiaea: 60277;

ia eiiaoe aiaea: 356955.

Aeieain?i/iua iaycaoaeuenoaa

O1.590

ia ia/aei aiaea: —;

ia eiiaoe aiaea: —.

E?aoein?i/iua iaycaoaeuenoaa

O1.690 – O1.630 – O1.640 – O1.650 – O1.660

ia ia/aei aiaea: 60277;

ia eiiaoe aiaea: 356955.

Nianoaaiiue eaieoae

O1.699 – O1.217 – O1.390 – “Iaycaoaeuenoaa”

ia ia/aei aiaea: 3013;

ia eiiaoe aiaea: 328756.

*enoua eeeaeaeiua aeoeau

“Eeeaeaeiua aeoeau” – “E?aoein?i/iua iaycaoaeuenoaa”

ia ia/aei aiaea: -53968;

ia eiiaoe aiaea: – 601.

Nianoaaiiua oaeouea aeoeau

“Oaeouea aeoeau” – “E?aoein?i/iua iaycaoaeuenoaa”

ia ia/aei aiaea: 657;

ia eiiaoe aiaea: 297665.

Oieioiaiiue aiaeeoe/aneee aaeain, ninoaaeaiiue ia iniiaaiee oi?iu ?1 n
o/aoii anao auoaia?a/eneaiiuo i?ioeaaeo?, a oaeaea iaeioi?ua ae?oaea
iieacaoaee, oi?ioeu aeey ?an/aoa eioi?uo i?eaaaeaiu aeaeaa, naaaeaiu a
neaaeothuoth oaaeeoeo:

IieacaoaeueIa ia/aei aiaeaIa eiiaoe aiaeaaan. eciai.eciai.
(?ac.)AEOEAEeeaeaeiua aeoeau 6,309.0 356,354.0 350,045.0
56.483 Iaoa?eaeueii-i?iecaiaenoaaiiua caianu 1,230.0
47,456.0 46,226.0 38.582 Iaaeaeaeeiia eiouanoai 2,356.0
31,091.0 28,735.0 13.197 IANNEAE?aoein?i/iua
iaycaoaeuenoaa 60,277.0 356,955.0 296,678.0 5.922
Aeieain?i/iua iaycaoaeuenoaa – –
– Nianoaaiiue eaieoae 3,013.0 328,756.0 325,743.0
109.113 AAEAIN 64,077.0 686,498.0 622,421.0 10.714
Oaeouea aeoeau 60,934.0 654,620.0 593,686.0 10.743
Aeaiaaeiua n?aaenoaa e e?aoein?i/iua oeiainiaua aeiaeaiey 6,309.0
356,354.0 350,045.0 56.483 Iaoa?eaeueii-i?iecaiaenoaaiiua
caianu 1,230.0 47,456.0 46,226.0 38.582
Iaaeaeaeeiinoue 2,356.0 31,091.0 28,735.0 13.197
Iauay noiia eaieoaea 63,290.0 685,711.0 622,421.0 10.834
?aaeueiua aeoeau 54,625.0 Iaycaoaeuenoaa (caaiiua n?aaenoaa)
60,277.0 356,955.0 296,678.0 5.922 Aeieain?i/iua
iaycaoaeuenoaa – – –
E?aoein?i/iua iaycaoaeuenoaa 60,277.0 356,955.0 296,678.0
5.922 Nianoaaiiue eaieoae 3,013.0 328,756.0 325,743.0
109.113 *enoua eeeaeaeiua aeoeau (53,968.0) (601.0)
53,367.0 0.011 Nianoaaiiua oaeouea aeoeau 657.0
297,665.0 297,008.0 453.067 *enoue iauai ?aaeecaoeee –
1,454,934 – -Aaeainiaay i?eaueue – 417,600.0 – -*enoay i?eaueue –
348,088.0 – -N?aaeiaaiaeiaay noieiinoue aeoeaia374,500.5 –
-N?aaeiaaiaeiaay noieiinoue nianoa. eai.165,884.5 – -Ia iniiaaiee
aiaeeoe/aneiai aaeaina i?iaiaeeony ?an/ao e ioeaiea aeeiaieee ?yaea
eiyooeoeeaioia, oa?aeoa?ecothueo eeeaeaeiinoue, oeiainiaoth
onoie/eainoue, yooaeoeaiinoue i?iecaiaenoaa. Ii ?acoeueoaoai aiaeeca
inouanoaeyaony i?iaiic aa?iyoiinoe aaie?ionoaa i?aaei?eyoey e aeaaony
ioeaiea aai e?aaeeoiniiniaiinoe. Caeeth/eoaeueiui yoaiii i?iaaaeaiey
?aaio ii oeiainiaiio aiaeeco yaeyaony ?ac?aaioea i?ia?aiiu oeiainiaiai
“icaei?iaeaiey”.

AIAEEC OAeIAEAOAI?EOAEUeIINOE NOOEOO?U AAEAINA

Aeey ioeaiee oaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiinoe no?oeoo?u aaeaina iaiaoiaeeii
i?iecaanoe ieaeaneaaeothuea aeaenoaey: (aeaiiua i?eaaaeaiu ia eiiaoe
aiaea)

1) A caaeneiinoe io noaiaie eeeaeaeiinoe aeoeau a?oiie?othony a
neaaeothuea a?oiiu

A1 – iaeaieaa eeeaeaeiua aeoeau – aeaiaaeiua n?aaenoaa e e?aoein?i/iua
oeiainiaua aeiaeaiey (356 354)

A2 – auno?i ?aaeecoaiua aeoeau – iai?ioiua aeoeau ca au/aoii
aaciaaeaaeiie aeaaeoi?neie caaeieaeaiiinoe. (654 620)

A3 – iaaeeaiii ?aaeecoaiua aeoeau (47 456)

A4 – o?oaeii ?aaeecoaiua aeoeau. (31 091)

Ianneau aaeaina i?aaei?eyoey a?oiie?othony ii n?i/iinoe eo iieaou.

I1 – iaeaieaa n?i/iua iaycaoaeuenoaa – O1620 + O1670 (356 955)

I2 – e?aoein?i/iua ianneau – e?aoein?i/iua e?aaeeou e caaiiua n?aaenoaa.

(0)

I3 – aeieain?i/iua ianneau – aeieain?i/iua e?aaeeou e caaiiua n?aaenoaa.

(0)

I4 – iinoiyiiua ianneau – noaouee ?acaeaea 4 ianneaa aaeaina. (329 543)

356354 356955

654620
0

47456
0

31091
329 543

Ia iie acaeyae iiaeii i?eciaoue no?oeoo?o aaeaina oaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiie.
Yoi iauyniyaony oai, /oi iacia/eoaeueiia ianiioaaonoaea ii ia?aie a?oiia
aeoeaia – ianneaia “ia?ae?uaaaony” cia/eoaeueiuie i?aainoiaenoaaie ii
inoaeueiui a?oiiai.

Eiyooeoeeaio ainnoaiiaeaiey (oo?aou) ieaoaaeaniiniaiinoe

Oa?aeoa?ecoao iaee/ea ?aaeueiie aiciiaeiinoe o i?aaei?eyoey
ainnoaiiaeoue eee oo?aoeoue naith ieaoaaeaniiniaiinoue a oa/aiea
ii?aaeaeaiiiai ia?eiaea.

E1O + I A(O) / O * (E1O – E 1I)

E AINNO = ———————————————-

E 1 II?I

aaea:

E1O – oaeoe/aneia cia/aiea eiyooeoeeaioa oaeouae eeeaeaeiinoe ia
eiiaoe ia?eiaea

I A(O) – onoaiiaeaiiue ia?eiae ainnoaiiaeaiey (oo?aou)
ieaoaaeaniiniaiinoe a ianyoeao

O – io/aoiue ia?eiae a ianyoeao

E 1I- cia/aiea eiyooeoeeaioa oaeouae eeeaeaeiinoe a ia/aea io/aoiiai
ia?eiaea

E 1 II?I – ii?iaoeaiia cia/aiea eiyooeoeeaioa oaeouae eeeaeaeiinoe

E AINNO = 1,74

?ann/eoaiiue eiyooeoeeaio oo?aou ieaoaaeaniiniaiinoe naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i
oii, /oi a aeeaeaeoea iieaiaea i?aaei?eyoea ia iioa?yao naith
ieaoaaeaniiniaiinoue.

AIAEEC OEIAINIAIAI IIEIAEAIEss

Oeiainiaia iieiaeaiea i?aaei?eyoey oa?aeoa?ecoaony aeaoiy a?oiiaie
iieacaoaeae:

a) iieacaoaee eeeaeaeiinoe

a) iieacaoaee oeiainiaie onoie/eainoe

Iieacaoaee eeeaeaeiinoe

Iieacaoaee eeeaeaeiinoe iicaieytho ii?aaeaeeoue niiniaiinoue
i?aaei?eyoey iieaoeoue naie e?aoein?i/iua iaycaoaeuenoaa, ?aaeecoy naie
oaeouea aeoeau.

I?aaei?eyoea iiaeao auoue eeeaeaeiui a aieueoae eee iaiueoae noaiaie,
iineieueeo a ninoaa oaeoueo aeoeaia aoiaeyo ?acii?iaeiua iai?ioiua
n?aaenoaa, n?aaee eioi?uo eiathony eae eaaei?aaeecoaiua , oae e
o?oaeii?aaeecoaiua aeey iiaaoaiey aiaoiae caaeieaeaiiinoe.

Ii noaiaie eeeaeaeiinoe noaouee oaeoueo aeoeaia oneiaii iiaeii
?acaeaeeoue ia o?e a?oiiu:

1) eeeaeaeiua n?aaenoaa, iaoiaeyueany a iaiaaeeaiiie aioiaiinoe e
?aaeecaoeee (aeaiaaeiua n?aaenoaa, aunieieeeaeaeiua oeaiiua aoiaae);

2) eeeaeaeiua n?aaenoaa, iaoiaeyueany a ?anii?yaeaiee i?aaei?eyoey
(iaycaoaeuenoaa iieoiaoaeae, caianu oiaa?ii-iaoa?eaeueiuo oeaiiinoae);

3) iaeeeaeaeiua n?aaenoaa (o?aaiaaiey e aeaaeoi?ai n aeeeoaeueiui n?ieii
ia?aciaaiey (niiieoaeueiay aeaaeoi?neay caaeieaeaiiinoue), iacaaa?oaiiia
i?iecaiaenoai).

I?iii?oeey, a eioi?ie yoe a?oiiu aeieaeiu iaoiaeeoueny ii ioiioaieth
ae?oa e ae?oao, ii?aaeaeyaony: oa?aeoa?ii e noa?ie aeayoaeueiinoe
i?aaei?eyoey; nei?inoueth iai?ioa n?aaenoa i?aaei?eyoey; niioiioaieai
oaeoueo e aeieain?i/iuo aeoeaia; noiiie e n?i/iinoueth iaycaoaeuenoa, ia
iie?uoea eioi?uo i?aaeiacia/aiu noaouee aeoeaa; “ea/anoaii” – noaiaiueth
eeeaeaeiinoe oaeoueo aeoeaia.

Ioianaiea oao eee eiuo noaoae iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa e oeacaiiui a?oiiai
iiaeao iaiyoueny a caaeneiinoe io eiie?aoiuo oneiaee: a ninoaaa
aeaaeoi?ia i?aaei?eyoey /eneyony aanueia ?acii?iaeiua noaouee
aeaaeoi?neie caaeieaeaiiinoe, e iaeia aa /anoue iiaeao iiianoue ai
aoi?oth a?oiio, ae?oaay – a o?aoueth; i?e ?acee/iie aeeeoaeueiinoe
i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai oeeeea iacaaa?oaiiia i?iecaiaenoai iiaeao auoue
ioianaii eeai ei aoi?ie, eeai e o?aoueae a?oiia e o.ae.

A ninoaaa e?aoein?i/iuo ianneaia iiaeii auaeaeeoue iaycaoaeuenoaa ?aciie
noaiaie n?i/iinoe. Iiyoiio iaeiei ec niiniaia ioeaiee eeeaeaeiinoe ia
noaaeee i?aaeaa?eoaeueiiai aiaeeca yaeyaony niiinoaaeaiea ii?aaeaeaiiuo
yeaiaioia aeoeaa n yeaiaioaie ianneaa. N yoie oeaeueth iaycaoaeuenoaa
i?aaei?eyoey a?oiie?otho ii noaiaie eo n?i/iinoe, a aai aeoeau — ii
noaiaie eeeaeaeiinoe (?aaeecoaiinoe). Oae, iaeaieaa n?i/iua
iaycaoaeuenoaa i?aaei?eyoey (n?ie iieaou eioi?uo ianooiaao a oaeouai
ianyoea) niiinoaaeytho n aaee/eiie aeoeaia, iaeaaeathueo iaeneiaeueiie
eeeaeaeiinoueth (aeaiaaeiua n?aaenoaa, eaaei?aaeecoaiua oeaiiua aoiaae).
I?e yoii /anoue n?i/iuo iaycaoaeuenoa, inoathueony iaiie?uouie, aeieaeia
o?aaiiaaoeaaoueny iaiaa eeeaeaeiuie aeoeaaie – aeaaeoi?neie
caaeieaeaiiinoueth i?aaei?eyoee n onoie/eaui oeiainiaui iieiaeaieai,
eaaei?aaeecoaiuie caianaie oiaa?ii-iaoa?eaeueiuo oeaiiinoae e ae?.
I?i/ea e?aoein?i/iua iaycaoaeuenoaa niioiinyony n oaeeie aeoeaaie, eae
i?i/ea aeaaeoi?u, aioiaay i?iaeoeoeey, i?iecaiaenoaaiiua caianu. Io
oiai, ianeieueei iaania/aii niioaaonoaea iaaeaeo aeaiiuie a?oiiaie
aeoeaia e ianneaia, ai iiiaii caaeneo ieaoaaeaniiniaiinoue i?aaei?eyoey
eee aai iaieaoaaeaniiniaiinoue n aiciiaeiui aicaoaeaeaieai aeaea i
aaie?ionoaa i?aaei?eyoey. Aeaei a oii, /oi iaieaoaaeaniiniaiui
i?aaei?eyoea iiaeao auoue i?eciaii aeaaea i?e aeinoaoi/iii i?aauoaiee
noaoae aeoeaa iaae aai iaycaoaeuenoaaie, anee eaieoae aeiaeai a
o?oaeii?aaeecoaiua noaouee aeoeaa. E oioy caaea?aeea a ieaoaaeao, aiiaua
aiai?y, yaeaiea a?aiaiiia, iia iiaeao iineoaeeoue ia/aeii i?ae?auaiey
anao ieaoaaeae a neo/aa noaaeeueiiai ianiioaaonoaey n?ieia
iai?a/eaaaiinoe iaycaoaeuenoa i?aaei?eyoey e aai eiouanoaa.

A i?aeoeea i?iaaaeaiey oeiainiaiai aiaeeca eniieuecothony neaaeothuea
iieacaoaee:

* eiyooeoeeaio oaeouae (iauae) eeeaeaeiinoe eee eiyooeoeeaio iie?uoey;

* eiyooeoeeaio auno?ie eeeaeaeiinoe eee “e?eoe/aneie ioeaiee”;

* eiyooeoeeaio aaniethoiie eeeaeaeiinoe.

Eiyooeoeeaio oaeouae (iauae) eeeaeaeiinoe io?aaeaao, aeinoaoi/ii ee o
i?aaei?eyoey n?aaenoa, eioi?ua iiaoo auoue eniieueciaaiu ei aeey
iiaaoaiey naieo e?aoein?i/iuo iaycaoaeuenoa a oa/aiea i?aaenoiyuaai
aiaea.

oaeouea aeoeau

E oae. eeeaeaeiinoe = —————————————-

e?aoein?i/iua iaycaoaeuenoaa

Niaeanii noaiaea?oai n/eoaaony, /oi yoio eiyooeoeeaio aeieaeai
iaoiaeeoueny a i?aaeaeao iaaeaeo 1 e 2 (eiiaaea 3). Ieaeiyy a?aieoea
iaoneiaeaia oai, /oi oaeoueo aeoeaia aeieaeii auoue ii iaiueoae ia?a
aeinoaoi/ii aeey iiaaoaiey e?aoein?i/iuo iaycaoaeuenoa, eia/a
i?aaei?eyoea iiaeao ieacaoueny iaieaoaaeaniiniaiui, ii yoiio aeaeo
e?aaeeoa. I?aauoaiea iai?ioiuo aeoeaia iaae e?aoein?i/iuie
iaycaoaeuenoaaie aieaa /ai a aeaa ?aca n/eoaaony oaeaea iaaeaeaoaeueiui,
iineieueeo naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i ia?aoeeiiaeueiii aeiaeaiee eiiiaieae
naieo n?aaenoa e iayooaeoeaiii eo eniieueciaaiee. Iaeiaei, aeey aieaa
oi/iiai aiaeeca, eioi?ue au o/eouaae niaoeeoeeo i?aaei?eyoey, nouanoaoao
oi?ioea aeey ?an/aoa eiyooeoeeaioa ii?iaoeaiie oaeouae eeeaeaeiinoe. N
iei a aeaeueiaeoai aoaeoo n?aaieaaoueny eiyooeoeeaiou eeeaeaeiinoe ia
ia/aei e eiiaoe aiaea.

CE + IIC + AeCA

E ii?iao. oae. eeea. = —————————————-

e?aoein?i/iua iaycaoaeuenoaa

aaea:

CE – e?aaeeoi?neay caaeieaeaiiinoue

IIC – iaoa?eaeueii-i?iecaiaenoaaiiua caianu

AeCA – aaciaaeaaeiay aeaaeoi?neay caaeieaeaiiinoue

Iaeiaei, eae oeacuaaeinue auoa, ia ana aeoeau eiatho iaeeiaeiaoth
noaiaiue eeeaeaeiinoe, a neaaeiaaoaeueii, ia iiaoo auoue ?aaeeciaaiu a
n?i/iii ii?yaeea. A ?acoeueoaoa aicieeaao oa?ica oeiainiaie
noaaeeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey.

Eiyooeoeeaio auno?ie eeeaeaeiinoe eee “e?eoe/aneie” ioeaiee
ii?aaeaeyaony eae ioiioaiea eeeaeaeiie /anoe iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa (o.a.
aac o/aoa iaoa?eaeueii-i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo caiania) e oaeouei
iaycaoaeuenoaai. Iiaen/ao yoiai iieacaoaey aucaai oai, /oi eeeaeaeiinoue
ioaeaeueiuo eaoaai?ee iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa aeaeaei ia iaeeiaeiaa, e anee,
iai?eia?, aeaiaaeiua n?aaenoaa iiaoo neoaeeoue iaiin?aaenoaaiiui
enoi/ieeii auieaou oaeoueo iaycaoaeuenoa, oi caianu iiaoo auoue
eniieueciaaiu aeey yoie oeaee eeoue iinea eo ?aaeecaoeee, /oi
i?aaeiieaaaao ia oieueei iaee/ea iieoiaoaey, ii e iaee/ea o iieoiaoaey
aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa. ?aeiiaiaeoaiia cia/aiea aeaiiiai iieacaoaey – ia
ieaea 1.

eeeaeaeiua aeoeau

E auno?ie eeeaeaeiinoe =
—————————————-

e?aoein?i/iua iaycaoaeuenoaa

Iaeaieaa eeeaeaeiuie noaoueyie iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa yaeythony aeaiaaeiua
n?aaenoaa, eioi?uie ?aniieaaaao i?aaei?eyoea ia n/aoao a aaiea e a
eanna, a oaeaea a aeaea oeaiiuo aoiaa. Ioiioaiea aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa e
e?aoein?i/iui iaycaoaeuenoaai iacuaaaony eiyooeoeeaioii aaniethoiie
eeeaeaeiinoe. Yoi iaeaieaa aeanoeee e?eoa?ee ieaoaaeaniiniaiinoe,
iieacuaathuee, eaeay /anoue e?aoein?i/iuo iaycaoaeuenoa iiaeao auoue
iiaaoaia iaiaaeeaiii.

aeaiaaeiua + e?aoein?i/iua
oeiainiaua

n?aaenoaa
aeiaeaiey

E aaniethoiie eeeaeaeiinoe =
—————————————————–

e?aoein?i/iua iaycaoaeuenoaa

N/eoaaony, /oi cia/aiea yoiai eiyooeoeeaioa ia aeieaeii iioneaoueny
ieaea 0,2.

Naiaeiay oaaeeoea iieacaoaeae

eeeaeaeiinoe

Iieacaoaeue Cia/aiea iieacaoaey?aeiiaiaeoaiia cia/aieaIa ia/aei aiaeaIa
eiiaoe aiaea(ia iaiaa)Eiyooeoeeaio iauae eeeaeaeiinoe1.0111.834I.a.
1.020

E.a. 1.132 Eiyooeoeeaio auno?ie eeeaeaeiinoe0.1051.7011Eiyooeoeeaio
aaniethoiie eeeaeaeiinoe0.1050.9980.2I?eaaaeaiiua a
oaaeeoea iieacaoaee naeaeaoaeuenoaotho i ii?iaeueiii ninoiyiee
i?aaei?eyoey. Iacia/eoaeueiia ioeeiiaiea eiyooeoeeaioa iauae
eeeaeaeiinoe ia ia/aei aiaea (-0,009) iauyniyaony ioiineoaeueii
iaaieueoei i?aauoaieai e?aaeeoi?neie caaeieaeaiiinoe iaae oaeoueie
aeoeaaie. Iaeiaei, anee ?anniio?aoue no?oeoo?o oaeoueo aeoeaia, iiaeii
auaeaeeoue aeiieie?othuaa cia/aiea (87,6%) ?anoiaeia aoaeoueo ia?eiaeia
a iauae niaieoiiinoe aeoeaia. Yoi iiaeoaa?aeaeatho aeaa ae?oaeo
eiyooeoeeaioa yoie a?oiiu. A aeaiiie oaaeeoea cia/aiey yoeo
eiyooeoeeaioia noiaee iineieueeo eiyooeoeeaio auno?ie eeeaeaeiinoe
o/eouaaao aaee/eiu “oiaa?u ioa?oaeaiiua” e “aeaaeoi?neay
caaeieaeaiiinoue n iiaaoaieai a oa/aiee 12 ian.”, a eiyooeoeeaio
aaniethoiie eeeaeaeiinoe ia o/eouaaao yoe aaee/eiu, iaeiaei a aeaiiii
aaeaina iaa iie ?aaiu 0.

E eiioeo aiaea ia oe?ia iaaethaeaaony cia/eoaeueiia iiauoaiea o?iaiy
eeeaeaeiinoe. Yoi iauyniyaony oaaee/aieai oaeeo iieacaoaeae eae,
“aioiaay i?iaeoeoeey”, “aeaaeoi?neay caaeieaeaiiinoue” e oaaee/aiea
noiiu aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa ia ?an/aoiii n/aoa. Oae aea cia/eoaeueii
oaaee/eeanue e aaee/eia e?aaeeoi?neie caaeieaeaiiinoe a /anoe auaeaiiuo
aaainia, eiaiii yoe aeaiueae e noaee iniiaiie /anoueth aeaiaa
iinooieaoae ia ?an/aoiue n/ao eee ia n/ao aeaaeoi?neie caaeieaeaiiinoe.
Iaeiaei yoi oaaee/aiea ia niiaei “ia?ae?uoue” oaaee/aiey aeoeaia. Ii
yoiio ana iieacaoaee eeeaeaeiinoe ia eiiaoe aiaea cia/eoaeueii
i?aainoiaeyo naie ii?iaoeaiua cia/aiey.

Iieacaoaee oeiainiaie onoie/eainoe

I?e aicieeiiaaiee aeiaiai?iuo ioiioaiee iaaeaeo i?aaei?eyoeyie o ieo
iiyaeyaony iaithaeiue eioa?an e oeiainiaie onoie/eainoe ae?oa ae?oaa eae
e?eoa?eth iaaeaaeiinoe ia?oia?a.

Noaaeeueiinoue ?aaiou i?aaei?eyoey naycaia n iauae aai oeiainiaie
no?oeoo?ie, noaiaiueth aai caaeneiinoe io aiaoieo e?aaeeoi?ia e
eiaanoi?ia. Oae, iiiaea i?aaei?eyoey a i?ioeanna naiae aeayoaeueiinoe
iiieii nianoaaiiiai eaieoaea i?eaeaeatho cia/eoaeueiua n?aaenoaa, acyoua
a aeiea. Iaeiaei anee no?oeoo?a “nianoaaiiue eaieoae – caaiiua
n?aaenoaa” eiaao cia/eoaeueiue ia?aein a noi?iio aeieaia, i?aaei?eyoea
iiaeao iaaie?ioeoueny, anee n?aco ianeieueei e?aaeeoi?ia iio?aaotho
aica?ao naieo aeaiaa a “iaoaeiaiia” a?aiy.

Oeiainiaay onoie/eainoue oa?aeoa?ecoaony, neaaeiaaoaeueii, niioiioaieai
nianoaaiiuo e caaiiuo n?aaenoa. Iaeiaei yoio iieacaoaeue aeaao eeoue
iauoth ioeaieo oeiainiaie onoie/eainoe. Iiyoiio a ie?iaie e
ioa/anoaaiiie o/aoii-aiaeeoe/aneie i?aeoeea ?ac?aaioaia nenoaia
iieacaoaeae, oa?aeoa?ecothueo ninoiyiea e no?oeoo?o aeoeaia i?aaei?eyoey
e iaania/aiiinoue eo enoi/ieeaie iie?uoey (ianneaaie).

Eo iiaeii ?acaeaeeoue ia aeaa a?oiiu: iieacaoaee, ii?aaeaeythuea
ninoiyiea iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa, e iieacaoaee, ii?aaeaeythuea ninoiyiea
iniiaiuo n?aaenoa.

Iieacaoaee eeeaeaeiinoe e oeiainiaie onoie/eainoe acaeiiaeiiieiytho
ae?oa ae?oaa e a niaieoiiinoe aeatho i?aaenoaaeaiea i aeaaiiieo/ee
oeiainiaiai ninoiyiey i?aaei?eyoey: anee o i?aaei?eyoey iaia?oaeeaathony
ieioea iieacaoaee eeeaeaeiinoe, ii oeiainiaay onoie/eainoue ei ia
iioa?yia, oi o i?aaei?eyoey anoue oainu aueoe ec cao?oaeieoaeueiiai
iieiaeaiey. Ii anee iaoaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiu e iieacaoaee eeeaeaeiinoe e
iieacaoaee oeiainiaie onoie/eainoe, oi oaeia i?aaei?eyoea – aa?iyoiue
eaiaeeaeao a aaie?iou. I?aiaeieaoue oeiainiaoth iaonoie/eainoue aanueia
iai?inoi: ioaeii a?aiy e eiaanoeoeee. Aeey o?iie/anee aieueiiai
i?aaei?eyoey, iioa?yaoaai oeiainiaoth onoie/eainoue, ethaia iaaaoeaiia
noa/aiea ianoiyoaeuenoa iiaeao i?eaanoe e ?ieiaie ?acaycea.

Eae oeacuaaeinue auoa, aaaeiaeoei iieacaoaeai, oa?aeoa?ecothuei
oeiainiaoth onoie/eainoue i?aaei?eyoey, yaeyaony iieacaoaeue oaeaeueiiai
aana iauae noiiu nianoaaiiiai eaieoaea a eoiaa anao n?aaenoa,
aaaine?iaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoeth, o.a. ioiioaiea iauae noiiu nianoaaiiiai
eaieoaea e eoiao aaeaina i?aaei?eyoey. A i?aeoeea yoio ioiineoaeueiue
iieacaoaeue iieo/ee iacaaiea eiyooeoeeaio aaoiiiiee. Ii iaio noaeyo,
ianeieueei i?aaei?eyoea iacaaeneii io caaiiiai eaieoaea.

nianoaaiiue eaieoae

E aaoiiiiee = —————————————-

iauay noiia eaieoaea

*ai aieueoa o i?aaei?eyoey nianoaaiiuo n?aaenoa, oai eaa/a aio
ni?aaeoueny n iao?yaeeoeaie yeiiiieee, e yoi ioee/ii iiieiatho
e?aaeeoi?u i?aaei?eyoey e aai oi?aaeythuea. Aio ii/aio iineaaeiea
no?aiyony e ia?aueaaieth ec aiaea a aiae aaniethoiie noiiu nianoaaiiiai
eaieoaea i?aaei?eyoey. Oaeea aiciiaeiinoe eiathony i?aaeaea anaai o
oi?ioi ?aaioathueo i?aaei?eyoee. Eiay aieueoea i?eauee, iie noa?athony
oaea?aeaoue cia/eoaeueioth eo /anoue a iai?ioa i?aaei?eyoey iooai
nicaeaiey anaaiciiaeiuo ?aca?aia ec aaeiaie e /enoie i?eauee eee i?yiiai
ca/eneaiey a nianoaaiiue eaieoae ia?ani?aaeaeaiiie ia aeeaeaeaiaeu /anoe
/enoie i?eauee.

Aeey eiyooeoeeaioa aaoiiiiee aeaeaoaeueii, /oiau ii i?aauoae ii naiae
aaee/eia 50%. A yoii neo/aa aai e?aaeeoi?u /oanoaotho naay niieieii,
niciaaay, /oi aanue caaiiue eaieoae iiaeao auoue eiiiaine?iaai
nianoaaiiinoueth i?aaei?eyoey.

I?iecaiaeiuie io eiyooeoeeaioa aaoiiiiee yaeythony oaeea iieacaoaee eae
eiyooeoeeaio oeiainiaie caaeneiinoe e eiyooeoeeaio niioiioaiey caaiiuo e
nianoaaiiuo n?aaenoa.

Eiyooeoeeaio oeiainiaie caaeneiinoe ii nouanoao yaeyaony ia?aoiui e
eiyooeoeeaioo aaoiiiiee. ?ino yoiai iieacaoaey a aeeiaieea icia/aao
oaaee/aiea aeiee caaiiuo n?aaenoa a oeiaine?iaaiee i?aaei?eyoey. Anee
aai cia/aiea nieaeaaony aei aaeeieoeu (100%), oi cia/eo, i?aaei?eyoea
iieiinoueth oeiaine?oaony ca n/ao nianoaaiiuo n?aaenoa.

Eiyooeoeeaio niioiioaiey caaiiuo e nianoaaiiuo n?aaenoa – yoi ioiioaiea
anaai i?eaea/aiiiai eaieoaea e nianoaaiiiio:

iaycaoaeuenoaa

E CAAIIUO N?AAeNOA =
—————————————-

nianoaaiiue eaieoae

Niuneiaia cia/aiea ia?auo aeaoo iieacaoaeae (eiyooeoeeaioa aaoiiiiee e
eiyooeoeeaioa niioiioaiey caaiiuo e nianoaaiiuo n?aaenoa) i/aiue aeecei.
I?aeoe/anee aeey ioeaiee oeiainiaie onoie/eainoe iiaeii iieueciaaoueny
iaeiei ec ieo (ethaui).

Iai i?aaenoaaeyaony, /oi aieaa /aoei noaiaiue caaeneiinoe i?aaei?eyoey
io caaiiuo n?aaenoa au?aaeaaony a eiyooeoeeaioa niioiioaiey caaiiuo e
nianoaaiiuo n?aaenoa. Ii iieacuaaao, eaeeo n?aaenoa o i?aaei?eyoey
aieueoa – caaiiuo eee nianoaaiiuo. *ai aieueoa eiyooeoeeaio i?aauoaao
aaeeieoeo, oai aieueoa caaeneiinoue i?aaei?eyoey io caaiiuo n?aaenoa.
Aeiionoeiue o?iaaiue caaeneiinoe ii?aaeaeyaony oneiaeyie ?aaiou
eaaeaeiai i?aaei?eyoey e, a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue, nei?inoueth iai?ioa
iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa. Iiyoiio aeiiieieoaeueii e ?an/aoo eiyooeoeeaioa
iaiaoiaeeii ii?aaeaeeoue nei?inoue iai?ioa iaoa?eaeueiuo iai?ioiuo
n?aaenoa e aeaaeoi?neie caaeieaeaiiinoe ca aiaeece?oaiue ia?eiae. Anee
aeaaeoi?neay caaeieaeaiiinoue iai?a/eaaaony auno?aa iaoa?eaeueiuo
iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa, yoi icia/aao aeinoaoi/ii aunieoth eioaineaiinoue
iinooieaiey aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa ia n/aoa i?aaei?eyoey, o.a. a eoiaa –
oaaee/aiea nianoaaiiuo n?aaenoa. Iiyoiio i?e aunieie iai?a/eaaaiinoe
iaoa?eaeueiuo iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa e aua aieaa aunieie iai?a/eaaaiinoe
aeaaeoi?neie caaeieaeaiiinoe eiyooeoeeaio niioiioaiey caaiiuo e
nianoaaiiuo n?aaenoa iiaeao cia/eoaeueii i?aauoaoue aaeeieoeo.

Eiyooeoeeaio iie?uoey eiaanoeoeee oa?aeoa?ecoao aeieth nianoaaiiiai
eaieoaea e aeieain?i/iuo iaycaoaeuenoa a iauae noiia aeoeaia
i?aaei?eyoey:

aeieain?i/iua +
nianoaaiiue

iaycaoaeuenoaa eaieoae

E IIE?. EIA. =
————————————————–

nianoaaiiue eaieoae

Yoi aieaa iyaeee iieacaoaeue ii n?aaiaieth n eiyooeoeeaioii aaoiiiiee. A
caiaaeiie i?aeoeea i?eiyoi n/eoaoue, /oi ii?iaeueiia cia/aiea
eiyooeoeeaioa ?aaii ieiei 0,9, e?eoe/aneei n/eoaaony aai nieaeaiea aei
0.75.

Ninoiyiea iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa a iniiaiii io?aaeaaony a iieacaoaeyo
iaania/aiiinoe iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa e eo ninoaaeythueo nianoaaiiuie
iai?ioiuie n?aaenoaaie.

A oeiainiaii aiaeeca iaeaieaa /anoi iaoiaeeo i?eiaiaiea eiyooeoeeaioa
iaania/aiiinoe oaeoueo aeoeaia nianoaaiiuie iai?ioiuie n?aaenoaaie,
iieacuaathuaai eaeay /anoue iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa i?aaei?eyoey auea
noi?ie?iaaia ca n/ao nianoaaiiiai eaieoaea. Ii?iaoeaiia cia/aiea
iieacaoaey ia ieaea 0,1.

nianoaaiiua iai?ioiua n?aaenoaa

E iaania/. oae. aeoeaia =
———————————————–

oaeouea aeoeau

Iaania/aiiinoue iaoa?eaeueiuo caiania nianoaaiiuie iai?ioiuie
n?aaenoaaie – yoi /anoiia io aeaeaiey nianoaaiiuo iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa ia
aaee/eio iaoa?eaeueiuo caiania, o.a. iieacaoaeue oiai, a eaeie ia?a
iaoa?eaeueiua caianu iie?uou nianoaaiiuie enoi/ieeaie e ia ioaeaeathony
a i?eaea/aiee caaiiuo. N/eoaaony, /oi ii?iaoeaiia aai cia/aiea aeieaeii
auoue ia iaiaa 0.5

nianoaaiiua iai?ioiua n?aaenoaa

E iaania/. IIC =
———————————————————

iaoa?eaeueii-i?iecaiaenoaaiiua caianu

Ae?oaei iieacaoaeai, oa?aeoa?ecothuei ninoiyiea iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa,
yaeyaony eiyooeoeeaio niioiioaiey iaoa?eaeueii-i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo caiania
e nianoaaiiuo iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa.

Ii nooe yoio iieacaoaeue – ia?aoiue iieacaoaeth iaania/aiiinoe
iaoa?eaeueiuo caiania.

Iieacaoaeue niioiioaiey iaoa?eaeueii-i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo caiania e
nianoaaiiuo iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa iaoiaeeo i?eiaiaiea a yeiiiie/anee
?acaeouo no?aiao. Aai ii?iaoeaiia cia/aiea, eae i?aaeei, aieueoa 1, a n
o/aoii ii?iaoeaiiai cia/aiey i?aaeuaeouaai iieacaoaey ia aeieaeii
i?aauoaoue 2. Cia/eoaeueiia i?aauoaiea yoiai e?eoa?ey naeaeaoaeuenoaoao
ia oooaeoaiee iieiaeaiey, iineieueeo yoi icia/aao, /oi eiaao ianoi
iaiiia?ii aunieay aeiey iia?oaeaiiiai a caianao eaieoaea.

Eae oeacuaaeinue ?aiaa, iaoa?eaeueii-i?iecaiaenoaaiiua caianu
oi?ie?othony eae ca n/ao nianoaaiiuo iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa, oae e ca n/ao
e?aoein?i/iuo nnoae e caeiia, a oaeaea e?aaeeoi?neie caaeieaeaiiinoe ii
oiaa?iui iia?aoeeyi. N o/aoii yoiai aeey aiaeeca i?aaenoaaeyao eioa?an
iieacaoaeue iie?uoey caiania.

Nianoaaiiua iai?ioiua n?aaenoaa

+ E?aoein?i/iua e?aaeeou aaieia e caeiu

+ E?aaeeoi?neay caaeieaeaiiinoue ii oia.
iia?.

E iie?. caiania =
————————————————————-

Iaoa?eaeueii-i?iecaiaenoaaiiua caianu

Neaaeothuei iieacaoaeai, oa?aeoa?ecothuei ninoiyiea iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa,
yaeyaony iieacaoaeue iaiaa?aiiinoe nianoaaiiiai iaieoaea.

Nianoaaiiua iai?ioiua
n?aaenoaa

E iaiaa?aiiinoe =
————————————————-

nianoa. eaieoaea Nianoaaiiue eaieoae

Eiyooeoeeaio iaiaa?aiiinoe iieacuaaao, eaeay /anoue nianoaaiiuo n?aaenoa
i?aaei?eyoey iaoiaeeony a iiaeeueiie oi?ia, iicaieythuae ioiineoaeueii
naiaiaeii iaiaa?e?iaaoue yoeie n?aaenoaaie. Iaania/aiea nianoaaiiuo
oaeoueo aeoeaia nianoaaiiui eaieoaeii yaeyaony aa?aioeae onoie/eainoe
oeiainiaiai ninoiyiey i?e iaonoie/eaie e?aaeeoiie iieeoeea. Aunieea
cia/aiey eiyooeoeeaioa iaiaa?aiiinoe iieiaeeoaeueii oa?aeoa?ecotho
oeiainiaia ninoiyiea.

Iaeioi?ua aaoi?u n/eoatho iioeiaeueiui cia/aiea yoiai iieacaoaey, ?aaiia
0.5, a aeey iieacaoaey iaania/aiiinoe nianoaaiiuie iai?ioiuie
n?aaenoaaie iaoa?eaeueiuo caiania i?aaeeaaaaony e?eoa?ee ia o?iaia ia
ieaea 0,6. Iaeiaei, yoe i?aaeiieaaaaiua e?eoa?ee iiaoo auoue acyou iiae
niiiaiea.

O?iaaiue iieacaoaey iaania/aiiinoe iaoa?eaeueiuo caiania nianoaaiiuie
ia?ioiuie n?aaenoaaie ioeaieaaaony i?aaeaea anaai a caaeneiinoe io
ninoiyiey iaoa?eaeueiuo caiania. Anee eo aaee/eia cia/eoaeueii auoa
iainiiaaiiie iio?aaiinoe, oi nianoaaiiua iai?ioiua n?aaenoaa iiaoo
iie?uoue eeoue /anoue iaoa?eaeueiuo caiania, o.a. iieacaoaeue aoaeao
iaiueoa aaeeieoeu. Iaiai?io, i?e iaaeinoaoi/iinoe o i?aaei?eyoey
iaoa?eaeueiuo caiania aeey aania?aaieiiai inouanoaeaiey aeayoaeueiinoe,
iieacaoaeue iiaeao auoue auoa aaeeieoeu, ii yoi ia aoaeao i?eciaeii
oi?ioaai oeiainiaiai ninoiyiey i?aaei?eyoey.

O?iaaiue eiyooeoeeaioa iaiaa?aiiinoe caaeneo io oa?aeoa?a aeayoaeueiinoe
i?aaei?eyoey: a oiiaeiaieeo i?iecaiaenoaao aai ii?iaeueiue o?iaaiue
aeieaeai auoue ieaea, /ai a iaoa?eaeiaieeo (o.e. a oiiaeiaieeo
cia/eoaeueiay /anoue nianoaaiiuo n?aaenoa yaeyaony enoi/ieeii iie?uoey
iniiaiuo i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo oiiaeia). N oeiainiaie oi/ee c?aiey /ai auoa
eiyooeoeeaio iaiaa?aiiinoe, oai eo/oa oeiainiaia ninoiyiea.

A /eneeoaea iaieo iieacaoaeae — nianoaaiiua iai?ioiua n?aaenoaa, iiyoiio
a oeaeii oeo/oaiea ninoiyiey iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa caaeneo io
iia?aaeathuaai ?inoa noiiu nianoaaiiuo iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa ii n?aaiaieth
n ?inoii iaoa?eaeueiuo caiania e nianoaaiiuo enoi/ieeia n?aaenoa.
Caaeneiinoue iiaeii ii?aaeaeeoue e enoiaey ec oiai, /oi nianoaaiiuo
iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa o i?aaei?eyoey oai aieueoa, /ai iaiueoa iniiaiuo
n?aaenoa e aiaiai?ioiuo aeoeaia i?eoiaeeony ia ?oaeue enoi/ieeia
nianoaaiiuo n?aaenoa. Iiiyoii, /oi no?aieoueny e oiaiueoaieth iniiaiuo
n?aaenoa e aiaiai?ioiuo aeoeaia (eee e ioiineoaeueii iaaeeaiiiio eo
?inoo) ia anaaaea oeaeaniia?acii.

Ia iaiaa aaaeii eiaoue i?aaenoaaeaiea i naieo iai?ioiuo n?aaenoaao, a
oi/iaa ia eo ninoaaa. Aeey yoiai iniaue eioa?an i?aaenoaaeyao
iieacaoaeue iaiaa?aiiinoe ooieoeeiiaeueiiai eaieoaea (nianoaaiiuo
iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa).

E?aoein?i/iua oeiainiaua
aeiaeaiey

+ Aeaiaaeiua n?aaenoaa

E iaiaa?aiiinoe =
———————————————————

Ooieoe. eaieoaea Nianoaaiiua iai?ioiua n?aaenoaa

Iieacaoaeue oa?aeoa?ecoao oo /anoue nianoaaiiuo iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa,
eioi?ay iaoiaeeony a oi?ia aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa e auno?i?aaeecoaiuo
oeaiiuo aoiaa, o.a. n?aaenoa, eiathueo aaniethoioth eeeaeaeiinoue. Aeey
ii?iaeueii ooieoeeiie?othuaai i?aaei?eyoey yoio iieacaoaeue iaiyaony a
i?aaeaeao io ioey aei aaeeieoeu. I?e i?i/eo ?aaiuo oneiaeyo ?ino
iieacaoaey a aeeiaieea ?anniao?eaaaony eae iieiaeeoaeueiay oaiaeaioeey.

Neaaeothuay a?oiia iieacaoaeae, oa?aeoa?ecothueo oeiainiaoth
onoie/eainoue i?aaei?eyoey, aeeth/aao iieacaoaee ii?aaeaeythuea
ninoiyiea iniiaiuo n?aaenoa.

Eiaeaen iinoiyiiiai aeoeaa — eiyooeoeeaio, oa?aeoa?ecothuee aeieth
iniiaiuo n?aaenoa e aiaiai?ioiuo aeoeaia a enoi/ieeao nianoaaiiuo
n?aaenoa.

iaaeaeaeeiinoue

I iinoiyiiiai = ————————————————-

aeoeaa enoi/ieee nianoaaiiuo
n?aaenoa

I/aiue aaaeiui iieacaoaeai oeiainiaie onoie/eainoe yaeyaony eiyooeoeeaio
?aaeueiie noieiinoe eiouanoaa (ii iacuaaaony aua eiyooeoeeaioii
?aaeueiie noieiinoe iniiaiuo e iaoa?eaeueiuo iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa a
eiouanoaa i?aaei?eyoey). Ii ii?aaeaeyao, eaeoth aeieth a noieiinoe
eiouanoaa ninoaaeytho n?aaenoaa i?iecaiaenoaa. Iaeaieaa eioa?anai yoio
eiyooeoeeaio aeey i?aaei?eyoee, i?iecaiaeyueo i?iaeoeoeeth, oioy a
ecaanoiie noaiaie ii aaaeai e aeey oi?aiaee. Eiyooeoeeaio ?ann/eouaaaony
aeaeaieai noiia?iie aaee/eiu iniiaiuo n?aaenoa (ii inoaoi/iie
noieiinoe), i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo caiania, iacaaa?oaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa e
iaeioeaiiuo e auno?ieciaoeaathueony i?aaeiaoia (ii inoaoi/iie noieiinoe)
ia noieiinoue aeoeaia i?aaei?eyoey (aaethoo aaeaina).

?aaeueiua aeoeau

E ?aaeueiie = ——————————————-

noiei. ei-aa iauay noiia
eaieoaea

Ii nouanoao, yoio eiyooeoeeaio ii?aaeaeyao o?iaaiue i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai
iioaioeeaea i?aaei?eyoey, iaania/aiiinoue i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai i?ioeanna
n?aaenoaaie i?iecaiaenoaa. Ii i/aiue aaaeai, anee aeaiiia i?aaei?eyoea
i?aaeiieaaaao onoaiiaeoue aeiaiai?iua ioiioaiey n iiauie ia?oia?aie —
iinoaaueeaie eee iieoiaoaeyie. Eiyooeoeeaio ?aaeueiie noieiinoe
eiouanoaa o oaeeo iinoaaueeia eee iieoiaoaeae iiiiaeao i?aaei?eyoeth
nicaeaoue i?aaenoaaeaiea ia eo i?iecaiaenoaaiiii iioaioeeaea e
oeaeaniia?aciinoe caeeth/aiey aeiaiai?ia n ieie n yoie oi/ee c?aiey.

Ia iniiaa aeaiiuo oicyenoaaiiie i?aeoeee ii?iaeueiui n/eoaaony
ia?aie/aiea, eiaaea ?aaeueiay noieiinoue eiouanoaa ninoaaeyao aieaa 0,5
io iauae noieiinoe aeoeaia. A neo/aa nieaeaiey cia/aiey iieacaoaey ieaea
e?eoe/aneie a?aieoeu oeaeaniia?acii “I?eaea/aiea aeieain?i/iuo caaiiuo
n?aaenoa aeey oaaee/aiey eiouanoaa i?iecaiaenoaaiii iacia/aiey (anee
oeiainiaua ?acoeueoaou aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey a io/aoiii ia?eiaea
ia iicaieytho nouanoaaiii iiiieieoue oaeea aeoeau ca n/ao nianoaaiiuo
n?aaenoa).

Eiyooeoeeaio iaeiieaiey aii?oecaoeee ii?aaeaeyao ioiioaiea noiiu eciina
ii iniiaiui n?aaenoaai e iaiaoa?eaeueiui aeoeaai e noiia ia?aiia/aeueiuo
noieiinoae niioaaonoaaiii iniiaiuo n?aaenoa e iaiaoa?eaeueiuo aeoeaia.

Eciin iniiaiuo n?aaenoa

e iaiaoa?eaeueiuo aeoeaia

E iaeiieaiey = ——————————————-

aii?oecaoeee ia?aiia/aeueiay
noieiinoue

ini. n?aaenoa e iaiao.
aeoeaia

Neaaeoao ia?aoeoue aieiaiea ia ia aaee/eio eciina iniiaiuo n?aaenoa.
Oioy aaniethoiay aaee/eia yoiai iieacaoaey nianai ia icia/aao, /oi
i?aaei?eyoea i/aiue onoa?aei, cia/eoaeueiay aaee/eia yoie aeiee io
ia?aiia/aeueiie noieiinoe (20-25%) aiai?eo i oii, /oi iai?oaeiaaiea,
caeaiey e nii?oaeaiey eiiiaiee neeueii eciioaiu, e o?aaotho iaiiaeaiey.
Neaaeoao ioeaieoue aeeiaieeo aeiee aii?oecaoeee a noieiinoe iniiaiuo
n?aaenoa. Oaiaeaioeey e aa nie?auaieth aiai?eo i oii, /oi ?oeiaiaenoai
i?aaei?eyoey caaioeony i aoaeouai e i?eieiaao aeoeaiua ia?u ii
oaoie/aneiio ia?aaii?oaeaieth iniiaiuo oiiaeia.

Iiieii ia?a/eneaiiuo iieacaoaeae, iiaeii auaeaeeoue aua iaeei
iainiaeaiiue iieacaoaeue, oa?aeoa?ecothuee oeiainiaoth onoie/eainoue.
Yoi eiyooeoeeaio niioiioaiey oaeoueo aeoeaia e iaaeaeaeeiinoe. Ii
ii?aaeaeyaony eae /anoiia io aeaeaiey noieiinoe oaeoueo aeoeaia ia
noieiinoue iaaeaeaeeiiai eiouanoaa.

Oaeouea aeoeau

E niioiio oae. = —————————-

aeoeaia e iaaeaeae
Iaaeaeaeeiinoue

Iioeiaeueiay e e?eoe/aneay aaee/eia niioiioaiey oaeoueo aeoeaia e
iaaeaeaeeiinoe iaoneiaeaia io?aneaauie iniaaiiinoyie i?aaei?eyoee.
Enoiaey ec niia?aaeaiey, /oi ieieiaeueiay oeiainiaay noaaeeueiinoue
i?aaei?eyoey aeinoeaaaony a neo/aa, eiaaea iaycaoaeuenoaa aa?aioe?iaaii
iie?uaathony oaeoueie aeoeaaie, i?eciaeii oaeie noaaeeueiinoe yaeyaony
auiieiaiea oneiaey: eiyooeoeeaio niioiioaiey oaeoueo aeoeaia e noieiinoe
iaaeaeaeeiiai eiouanoaa aieueoa eiyooeoeeaioa ioiioaiey caaiiuo e
nianoaaiiiio eaieoaeo.

E niioiio oae. >
E oeiainiaie

aeoeaia e iaaeaeae
caaeneiinoe

ia/aei aiaea

25.863 > 21.006

eiiaoe aiaea

21.055 > 2.086

Caiaeiay oaaeeoea iieacaoaeae oeiainiaie onoie/eainoe

Iieacaoaeue Cia/aiea iieacaoaey?aeiiaiaeoaiia cia/aieaIa ia/aei aiaeaIa
eiiaoe aiaeaOa?aeoa?ecothuea niioiioaiea nianoaaiiuo e caaiiuo
n?aaenoaEiyooeoeeaio
aaoiiiiee 0.048 0.479 >0.5Eiyooeoeeaio
oeiainiaie caaeneiinoe 21.006 2.086
2Eiyooeoeeaio caaiiuo
n?aaenoa 20.006 1.086 >0.5Eiyooeoeeaio
iie?uoey eiaanoeoeee 0.048 0.479
>0.75Oa?aeoa?ecothuea ninoiyiea iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa
Eiyooeoeeaio iaania/aiiinoe oaeoueo aeoeaia nianoaaiiuie
iai?ioiuie n?aaenoaaie 0.011 0.455 >0.1Eiyooeoeeaio
iaania/aiiinoe IIC nianoaaiiuie iai?ioiuie n?aaenoaaie 0.534
6.272 >0.6Eiyooeoeeaio niioiioaiey IIC e nianoaaiiuo iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa
1.872 0.159 >1<2Eiyooeoeeaio iie?uoey IIC 0.534 6.272 >1<2Eiyooeoeeaio iaiaa?aiiinoe nianoaaiiiai eaieoaea 0.218 0.905 >0.5Eiyooeoeeaio
iaiaa?aiiinoe ooieoeeiiaeueiiai eaieoaea 9.603 1.197
>0Oa?aeoa?ecothuea ninoiyiea iniiaiuo n?aaenoa
Eiaeaen
iinoiyiiiai aeoeaaEiyooeoeeaio
?aaeueiie noieiinoe eiouanoaa 0.863 0.041
>0.5Eiyooeoeeaio
iaeiieaiey aii?oecaoeee<0.25Eiyooeoeeaio niioiioaiey oaeoueo aeoeaia e iaaeaeaeeiinoe 25.863 21.055 Aeaiiua oaaeeoeu naeaeaoaeuenoaotho i oii, /oi a ia/aea aiaea oeiainiaia iieiaeaiea oe?iu auei e?aeia iaonoie/eaui. Ia yoii aiai?yo eiyooeoeeaiou ia?aie /anoe oaaeeoeu (aaee/eia caaiiuo n?aaenoa aieaa /ai a aeaaaeoeaoue ?ac i?aauoaea ?acia? nianoaaiiuo n?aaenoa). E eiioeo aiaea oeiainiaia iieiaeaiea noaaeeece?iaaeinue, i /ai iiaeii neacaoue i?iaiace?iaaa aeeiaieeo iieacaoaeae ia?aie a?oiiu. (ana eiyooeoeeaiou oaaee/eeenue a aeanyoue e aieaa ?ac e ii/oe aeinoeaee naieo ii?iaoeaiuo cia/aiee. Ioeeiiaiea eiyooeoeeaioa aaoiiiiee ia eiiaoe aiaea io naiaai ii?iaoeaiiai cia/aiey ninoaaeyao anaai 0,021). Yoe eciaiaiey iauyniythony iiiaie?aoiuie oaaee/aieyie eae nianoaaiiiai eaieoaea, oae e ae?oaeo iieacaoaeae.Eae iieacuaatho ?an/aou ia enneaaeoaiii i?aaei?eyoee ca n/ao nianoaaiiuo n?aaenoa a ia/aea aiaea aue noi?ie?iaai eeoue 1.1% iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa. E eiioeo aiaea aeaiiue iieacaoaeue ninoaaee 45.5% e i?aaunee naia ii?iaoeaiia cia/aiea a 4.5 ?aca. Yoa aeeiaieea io?aaeaao iieiaeeoaeueiua eciaiaiey a aeayoaeueiinoe oe?iu.A ia/aea aiaea ia i?aaei?eyoee ii/oe ana IIC auee iie?uou nianoaaiiuie iai?ioiuie n?aaenoaaie. Ia yoii naeaeaoaeuenoaoao eiyooeoeeaio iaania/aiiinoe IIC nianoaaiiuie iai?ioiuie n?aaenoaaie. (aai cia/aiea ia ia/aei aiaea ninoaaeyei 0,534 i?e ii?iaoeaiii cia/aiee 0,6). E eiioeo aiaea cia/aiea eiyooeoeeaioa oaaee/eeinue aieaa /ai a 10 ?ac. Yoi iauyniyaony ii/oe ni?ieie?aoiui oaaee/aieai caiania e oaaee/aieai nianoaaiiiai eaieoaea aieaa /ai a 100 ?ac, iaeiaei aaniethoiua aeaeueou yoeo iieacaoaeae ia oae cia/eoaeueiu.?an/eoaiiue eiyooeoeeaio iaiaa?aiiinoe nianoaaiiiai eaieoaea iieacuaaao, /oi ia oe?ia a ia/aea aiaea eeoue 20% nianoaaiiiai eaieoaea iaoiaeeeinue a iiaeeueiie oi?ia. E eiioeo aiaea yoio iieacaoaeue aic?in aei 90% e aiai?eo i oii, /oi ii/oe aanue nianoaaiiue eaieoae iaoiaeeoueny a iiaeeueiie oi?ia.IOeAIEA YOOAEOEAIINOE I?IECAIAeNOAAAeey ioeaiee oeiainiaiai ninoiyiey i?aaei?eyoey iaiaoiaeeii i?iaanoe aiaeec, eioi?ue iicaieyao auyaeoue, ianeieueei yooaeoeaii i?aaei?eyoea eniieuecoao naie n?aaenoaa. E iieacaoaeyi, oa?aeoa?ecothuei yooaeoeaiinoue i?iecaiaenoaa, ioiinyony eiyooeoeeaiou iai?a/eaaaiinoe, ?aioaaaeueiinoe, i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe. A aeaiiie ?aaioa aoaeoo ?ann/eoaiu oieueei iieacaoaee ?aioaaaeueiinoe a neeo oiai, /oi iie aeatho iaeaieaa iieiia i?aaenoaaeaiea ia yooaeoeaiinoe aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey.I?aaeaea /ai i?enooieoue e ?anniio?aieth aii?inia aiaeeca ninoiyiey ia iniiaa io/aoa i oeiainiauo ?acoeueoaoao e eo eniieueciaaiee, neaaeoao aeaoue iiiyoey iniiaiuo oa?ieiia e ii?aaeaeaiee.Aaeiaie iauai ?aaeecaoeee (aaeiaie aeioiae) — yoi noieiinoue ioa?oaeaiiie i?iaeoeoeee e auiieiaiiuo ?aaio, aeeth/ay iaeiae e i?i/ea ieaoaaee.*enoue iauai ?aaeecaoeee — yoi aaeiaie iauai ?aaeecaoeee ca au/aoii einaaiiuo iaeiaia e nai?ia, aeeth/aiiuo a i?iaeaaeioth oeaio oiaa?a (O 2.010). *enoue iauai ?aaeecaoeee iacuaatho eia/a au?o/eie io ?aaeecaoeee eee /enoui aeioiaeii.Aaeiaay (aaeainiaay) i?eaueue — yoi ?aciinoue iaaeaeo /enoui iauaiii ?aaeecaoeee e naaanoieiinoueth ?aaeeciaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee, aeeth/ay eiiia?/aneea e oi?aaeai/aneea ?anoiaeu O2. 050*enoay i?eaueue — yoi ?aciinoue iaaeaeo aaeiaie aaeainiaie i?eaueueth e iaeiaii ia i?eaueue (O 2.050 — O 2.150). Aieaa oi/iia cia/aiea /enoie i?eauee iieo/aaony, anee ec aaeainiaie i?eauee au/anoue ia oieueei noiio iaeiaa ia i?eaueue, ii e ae?oaea ieaoaaee a athaeaeao ca n/ao /enoie i?eauee (auaeaeaiea oaeeo ieaoaaeae a oi?iao oeiainiaie io/aoiinoe ia i?aaeoniio?aii, iiyoiio yoo eioi?iaoeeth neaaeoao iieo/aoue ec iai?ioii-naeueaeiaiai aaeaina i?aaei?eyoey i?e oneiaee, /oi oaeea ieaoaaee niae?athony ia ioaeaeueiii noan/aoa).Iieacaoaee ?aioaaaeueiinoe?aioaaaeueiinoue ?aaiou i?aaei?eyoey ii?aaeaeyaony i?eaueueth, eioi?oth iii iieo/aao. Iieacaoaee ?aioaaaeueiinoe io?aaeatho, ianeieueei yooaeoeaii i?aaei?eyoea eniieuecoao naie n?aaenoaa a oeaeyo iieo/aiey i?eauee.Nouanoaotho aeaa a?oiiu eiyooeoeeaioia ?aioaaaeueiinoe: *?aioaaaeueiinoue eaieoaea*?aioaaaeueiinoue i?iaeaae.Eiyooeoeeaiou ?aioaaaeueiinoe eaieoaea.I?e ?an/aoa eiyooeoeeaioia eniieuecoaony aaeainiaay i?eaueue e /enoay i?eaueue (ca ieionii ieaoaaeae a athaeaeao). ?aioaaaeueiinoue anao aeoeaia ii aaeainiaie i?eauee iieacuaaao, neieueei aeaiaaeiuo aaeeieoe i?eauee (eii.) iieo/aii i?aaei?eyoeai n aaeeieoeu noieiinoe aeoeaia (1 ?oa.) iacaaeneii io enoi/ieeia i?eaea/aiey n?aaenoa.Aaeainiaay i?eaueue? aeoeaia = ---------------------------------------------------ii aaeainiaie i?eauee n?aaeiaaiaeiaay noieiinoue aeoeaiaAeiae/ii ?ann/eouaaaony ?aioaaaeueiinoue aeoeaia ii /enoie i?eauee. aeey i?aaei?eyoee, ?aaioathueo ia i?aaao aeoeeiia?iuo eiiiaiee, iniiaiui iieacaoaeai ioeaiee noaiaie aeioiaeiinoe aeiaeaiiuo eaieoaeia i?eiyoi n/eoaoue i?ioeaioiia ioiioaiea /enoie i?eauee i?aaei?eyoey e aai nianoaaiiiio eaieoaeo. Eiaiii yoio iieacaoaeue, iieo/eaoee iacaaiea eiyooeoeeaio ?aioaaaeueiinoe nianoaaiiiai iaieoaea, ea?aao aaaeioth ?ieue i?e ioeaiea o?iaiy eioe?iaee aeoeee aeoeeiia?iuo eiiiaiee ia ae?aea.Aaeainiaay i?eaueue? nianoaaiiiai = -------------------------------------------------------------eaieoaea n?aaeiaaiaeiaay noieiinoue nianoa. eaieoaea?acieoea iaaeaeo iieacaoaeyie ?aioaaaeueiinoe anao aeoeaia e nianoaaiiiai eaieoaea iaoneiaeaia i?eaea/aieai i?aaei?eyoeai aiaoieo enoi/ieeia oeiaine?iaaiey. Anee caaiiua n?aaenoaa i?eiinyo aieueoa i?eauee, /ai oieaoa i?ioeaioia ia yoio caaiiue eaieoae, oi ?acieoea iiaeao auoue eniieueciaaia aeey iiauoaiey ioaea/e nianoaaiiiai eaieoaea. Iaeiaei a oii neo/aa, anee ?aioaaaeueiinoue aeoeaia iaiueoa, /ai i?ioeaiou, oiea/eaaaiua ia caaiiua n?aaenoaa, aeeyiea i?eaea/aiiuo n?aaenoa ia aeayoaeueiinoue i?aaei?eyoey aeieaeii auoue ioeaiaii io?eoeaoaeueii. E iaeiiaoe, iiaeao auoue ?ann/eoaia ?aioaaaeueiinoue eiaanoeoeee.Aeioiaeu ii oeaiiui + aeioiaeu io aeieaaiaiAoiaaai o/anoey a NI? eiaanoeoeee = -------------------------------------------------------------n?aaeiaaiaeiaay aaee/eia aeieain?i/iuo ee?aoein?i/iuo oeiainiauo aeiaeaieeYoio iieacaoaeue iieacuaaao, ianeieueei yooaeoeaii i?aaei?eyoea aaaeao eiaanoeoeeiiioth aeayoaeueiinoue.Eiyooeoeeaiou ?aioaaaeueiinoe i?iaeaae.Iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiiui yaeyaony iieacaoaeue iauae ?aioaaaeueiinoe eee eiyooeoeeaio ?aioaaaeueiinoe anao aeaeia aeayoaeueiinoe ii aaeainiaie i?eauee.Aaeainiaay i?eaueueE ?aio. ii = ---------------------------------------------------- *100%aaeainiaie i?eauee /enoay au?o/ea io ?aaeecaoeee+ aeioiaeu io i?i/ae ?aaeecaoeee eaia?aaeecaoeeiiiuo iia?aoeeeYoio iieacaoaeue iieacuaaao, ianeieueei yooaeoeaii e i?eaueueii i?aaei?eyoea aaaeao naith aeayoaeueiinoue.Aiaeiae/ii ?ann/eouaaaony eiyooeoeeaio ?aioaaaeueiinoe ii /enoie i?eauee. Aai cia/aiea ieaea i?aaeuaeouaai iieacaoaey, iineieueeo io?aaeaaony “aeaaeaiea iaeiaiaiai i?anna” ia aeioiaeu i?aaei?eyoey. ?acieoea iaaeaeo ieie iacuaaaony eiyooeoeeaioii iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey i?eauee.E?iia oiai, ?ann/eouaaaony eiyooeoeeaio ?aioaaaeueiinoe iniiaiie aeayoaeueiinoe (ii?ia i?eauee)I?eaueue io ?aaeecaoeeeE ?aio. ini. = ---------------------------------------------------- *100%aeayoaeueiinoe /enoay au?o/ea io ?aaeecaoeeeNaiaeiay oaaeeoea iieacaoaeae ?aioaaaeueiinoeIieacaoaeue Cia/aiea iieacaoaeyEciaiaieaCa i?ioeue aiaeCa io/aoiue aiae?aioaaaeueiinoue aeoeaia (eii. ia aeiaeaiiue ?oaeue)Aeoeaia ii aaeainiaie i?eauee106ii /enoie i?eauee88Nianoaaiiiai eaieoaea ii aaeainiaie i?eauee239ii /enoie i?eauee198?aioaaaeueiinoue i?iaeaae (eii. ia aeiaeaiiue ?oaeue)Iauay (ii anai aeaeai aeayo-oe) ii aaeainiaie i?eauee27 ii /enoie i?eauee22 Ii iniiaiie aeayoaeueiinoe ii aaeainiaie i?eauee29 ii /enoie i?eaueeE ?aio. Ii aaeainiaie i?eauee 0.13 0.22 0.09 E ?aio. Ii iniiaiie aeayo-oe 0.22 0.29 0.07I?iecaanoe aiaeec iieacaoaeae ?aioaaaeueiinoe a aeaiiii neo/aa ia i?aaenoaaeyaony aiciiaeiui. Aiaeec aeeiaieee aaniethoiuo iieacaoaeae iaaiciiaeai iioiio /oi a i?ioeanna ?an/aoa iieacaoaeae i?eaueue i?eaiaeeoueny e n?aaeiaaiaeiaie aaee/eia oiai eee eiiai iieacaoaey. Noaoe/aneee aiaeec iieacaoaeae oae aea ia i?aaenoaaeyaony aiciiaeiui oae eae aeey ieo ionoonoaotho ii?iaoeaiua cia/aiey, a oaaee/aiea iieacaoaeae a aeeiaieea ioeaieaaaony eae iieiaeeoaeueiay oaiaeaioeey. Iaeiaei noieue aunieea iieacaoaee ?aioaaaeueiinoe aeoeaia e nianoaaiiiai eaieoaea iauyniyaony oai, /oi n?aaeiaaiaeaay aaee/eia nianoaaiiai eaieoaea o/eouaaao aai aaee/eio ca i?aaeuaeouee ia?eiae (cia/aiea ia ia/aei aiaea), a i?eaueue aa?aony ca io/aoiue ia?eiae. Eae auei neacaii ?aiaa, i?e aiaeeca iieacaoaeae oeiainiaie onoie/eainoe, ana iieacaoaee ca io/aoiue ia?eiae au?inee a aeanyoue e aieaa ?ac. Ii aeaaea ia o/eouaay aaniethoiiai eciaiaiey (aiaieec eiyooeoeeaioia ?aioaaaeueiinoe) iiaeii neacaoue i iieiaeeoaeueiuo eciaiaieyo ia oe?ia.AuaiaeI?iaaaey aeaoaeece?iaaiiue aiaeec oeiainiaiai ninoiyiey e yooaeoeaiinoe i?iecaiaenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe CAI “IIO “Niaoena?aen” iiaeii eiinoaoe?iaaoue aunieea oaiiu ?inoa. Ia yoii naeaeaoaeuenoaotho eae aaniethoiua cia/aiey iieacaoaeae eeeaeaeiinoe, oeiainiaie onoie/eainoe, ?aioaaaeueiinoe ia eiiaoe aiaea (ii/oe ana cia/aiey i?aainoiaeyo naie ii?iaoeaiua cia/aiey), oae e eo aeeiaie/aneea eciaiaiey.Oaeea eciaiaiey oa?aeoa?iu aeey iaeiie ec ia?auo noaaeee ?acaeoey i?aaei?eyoey eee iinea aai ?ano?oeoo?ecaoeee.Iaeiaei any enoiaeiay eioi?iaoeey auea acyoa ec ioaee/iie io/aoiinoe, eioi?ay i?aaeinoaaeyaony a Ainoaea?noaaiioth Iaeiaiaoth Einiaeoeeth, e iaa?yoee io?aaeaao ?aaeueioth neooaoeeth ia oe?ia. Ii yoiio neiaeii aeaeaoue eaeea eeai auaiaeu, aeaeaoue i?iaiicu e aeaaaoue ?aeiiaiaeaoeee. Anee aea i?aaeiieiaeeoue, oeeo?u caienaiiua a oi?iao 1 e 2 io?aaeatho ?aaeueioth neooaoeeth, iiaeii i?iaiice?iaaoue ?ino i?aaei?eyoey, iiauoaiey o?iaiy eeeaeaeiinoe, oeiainiaie onoie/eainoe. Iaeiaei e yoio i?iaiic ia iiaeao a iieiie noaiaie i?aaeneacaoue oaiaeaioeee ?acaeoey oe?iu. I?e/eiie yoiio – iaonoie/eaay aiaoiyy n?aaea. Eae aeaeii ec oi?i io/aoiinoe ia oe?ia aieueoea eciaiaiey, e anee iia ia iaoiaeeony ia noaaeee ?acaeoey iie i/aiue iaoa?aeoa?iu. I?e/eiie yoiio iiaoo auoue e eciaiaiey aiaoiae n?aaeu, eioi?ua ?oeiaiaenoai oe?iu niiaei eniieueciaaaoue n naith iieueco. Aiieia aiciiaeii, /oi neaaeothuaa eciaiaiea aiaoiae n?aaeu oe?ia ia niiaeao eniieueciaaoue e aaniethoiua eciaiaiey aoaeoo oaea n io?eoeaoaeueiui ciaeii. Ii anee i?aaenoaaeoue, /oi oe?ia aeaenoaeoaeueii ?acaeaaaony, e ni?iaoee?iaaoue cia/aiey eiyooeoeeaioia ia a?aoeee, oi iiaeii aeaoue iieiaeeoaeueioth ioeaieo oaiaeaioeeyi ?acaeoey oe?iu.Nienie eniieueciaaiiie eeoa?aoo?u1. “Oeiainu i?aaei?eyoee”Oa?aiao A.Ae. Naeooeei ?.N. I. Eio?a-I 982. “Aiaeec oeiainiaiai ninoiyiey i?aaei?eyoey”Eiaaeaa A.I. I?eaaeia Ae.N. I 983. “Oeiainu i?aaei?eyoee”Iaaeiaa E.I. I. THieoe 984. “Oeiainu” o/aaieeEiaaeaaa A.I. 3 ecae. I. 98I?eeiaeaiea 1 Oi?ia 1 (Aaeain)AEOEAEiae. no? Ia ia/aei aiaeaIa eiiaoe aiaeaaan. eciai.eciai. (?ac.)1. Aiaiai?ioiua aeoeauIaiaoa?. Aeoeau a o./.110 2,356 4,851 2,495 2.059 I?aaiecaoeeiiiua ?anoiaeu111 - iaoaiou, eeoeaicee, oia. Ciaee112 2,356 4,851 2,495 2.059 Iniiaiua n?aaenoaa a o./.120 26,240 26,240 Caiaeueiua o/anoee 121 - caeaiey, nii?oaeaiey, iaoeiu e iai?oae.122 - Iacaaa?oaiiia no?ieoaeuenoai130 - Aeieain?i/iua oei. aeiaeaiey a o./.140 - Eiaanoeoeee a aei/a?iea iauanoaa141 - Eiaanoeoeee a caaeneiua iauanoaa142 - Eiaanoeoeee a ae?oaea i?aaiecaoeee143 - caeiu, i?aaeinoaaeai. aieaa /ai ia aiae144 - i?i/ea aeieain?i/i-a oei. Aeiaeaiey145 - I?i/ea aiaiai?ioiua aeoeau150 - Eoiai ii ?acaeaeo 1190 2,356 31,091 28,735 13.197 - 2. Iai?ioiua aeoeau - Caianu a o./210 1,230 47,456 46,226 38.582 nu?uea, iao-eu e ae?oaea oeaiiinoe211 1,230 AEeaioiua ia au?aueaaiee e ioei?ia212 - IAI213 2,055 2,055 cao?aou a iacaaa?oaiiii i?iecaiaenoaa214 53,395 (53,395) aioiaay i?iaeoeoeey e oiaa?u aeey ia?ai?215 45,401 45,401 oiaa?u ioa?oaeaiiua216 - ?anoiaeu aoaeoueo ia?eiaeia217 - i?i/ea caianu e cao?aou218 - IAeN ii i?eia?aoaiiui oeaiiinoyi220 - Aeaaeoi?neay caaeieaeai. (iinea 12 ian.) 230 - Iieoiaoaee e caeac/eee231 - aaenaey e iieo/aieth232 - Caaeieaeai. Aei/a?ieo e caaen iauanoa233 - aaainu auaeaiiua234 - i?i/ea aeaaeoi?u235 - Aeaaeoi?neay caaeieaeai. (a oa/. 12 ian.) ao./240 250,810 250,810 Iieoiaoaee e caeac/eee241 - aaenaey e iieo/aieth242 - Caaeieaeai. aei/a?ieo e caaen-o iauanoa243 - Caaeieaeai. o/ano. ii aciinai a ono. eai. 244 - aaainu auaeaiiua245 - i?i/ea aeaaeoi?u246 250,810 250,810 E?aoein?i/iua oei. Aeiaeaiey a o./.250 - Eiaanoeoeee a caaeneiua iauanoaa251 - nianoaai. aeoeee, aueoieaiiua o aeoeeii 252 - i?i/ea e?aoein?i/iua oei aeiaeaiey253 - Aeaiaaeiua n?aaenoaa a o./.260 6,309 356,354 350,045 56.483 Eanna261 718 127 (591) 0.177 ?an/aoiua n/aoa262 5,591 356,227 350,636 63.714 Aaethoiua n/aoa263 - i?i/ea aeaiaaeiua n?aaenoaa264 - I?i/ea iai?ioiua aeoeau270 - Eoiai ii ?acaeaeo 2290 60,934 654,620 593,686 10.743 3. Oauoee - Iaiie?uoua oauoee i?ioeuo eao310 787 787 - 1.000 Oauoie io/aoiiai aiaea320 - Eoiai ii ?acaeaeo 3390 787 787 - 1.000 AAEAIN399 64,077 686,498 622,421 10.714 IANNEAEiae. no? Ia ia/aei aiaeaIa eiiaoe aiaeaaan. eciai.eciai. (?ac.)4 Eaieoae e ?aca?auOnoaaiue eaieoae410 3,800 7,600 3,800 2.000 Aeiaaai/iue eaieoae420 - ?aca?aiue eaieoae a o./.430 - ?aca?aiua oiiaeu431 - ?aca?au, ia?acia-a a niioa. n o/a?. aeie.432 - Oiiaeu iaeiieaiey440 - Oiiae nioeeaeueiie noa?u450 - Oeaeaaua oeiaine?iaaiey e iinooieaiey460 - Ia?ani?aaeaeaiiay i?eaueue i?ioeuo eao470 - Ia?ani?aaeaeaiiay i?eaueue io/aoi. aiaea480 321,943 321,943 Eoiai ii ?acaeaeo 4490 3,800 329,543 325,743 86.722 5 Aeieain?i/iua ianneau - Caaiiua n?aaenoaa a o./.510 - e?aaeeou aaieia n iiaaoai /a?ac 12 ian. 511 - i?i/ea caeiu n iiaaoai /a?ac 12 ian. 512 - I?i/ea aeieain?i/iua ianneau520 - Eoiai ii ?acaeaeo 5590 - 6 E?aoein?i/iua ianneau - Caaiiua n?aaenoaa a o./.610 - e?aaeeou aaieia611 - i?i/ea caeiu612 - E?aaeeoi?neay caaeieaeaiiinoue a o./.620 60,277 356,955 296,678 5.922 Iinoaaueee e iiae?yae/eee621 - aaenaey e oieaoa622 - caaeieaeai. ia?aae aei/a?i. e caaen. iau.623 - ii iieaoa o?oaea624 283 5,548 5,265 19.604 ii nioe. No?aoiaaieth e iaania/aieth625 57 1,881 1,824 33.000 Caaeieaeaiiinoue ia?aae athaeaeaoii626 1,737 42,068 40,331 24.219 aaainu iieo/aiiua627 57,547 281,730 224,183 4.896 i?i/ea e?aaeeoi?u628 653 25,728 25,075 39.400 ?an/aou ii aeeaeaeaiaeai630 - Aeioiaeu aoaeoueo ia?eiaeia640 - Oiiaeu iio?aaeaiey650 - ?aca?au i?aaenoiyueo ?anoiaeia e ieaoaaeae660 - I?i/ea e?aoein?i/iua ianneau670 - Eoiai ii ?acaeaeo 6690 60,277 356,955 296,678 5.922 AAEAIN699 64,077 686,498 622,421 10.714I?eeiaeaiea 2 Oi?ia 2 (Io/ao i i?eaueyo e oauoeao)IAEIAIIAAIEA IIEACAOAEssEiae. no?.Ca io/aoi. Ia?eiaeCa ia?eiae i?ioeiai aiaeaAaniethoi. EciaiaieaEciaiaiea (?ac)Au?o/ea io ?aaeecaoeee -IAeN e aeoeecu10 1,454,934.0 5,285.0 1,449,649.0 275.29 Naaanoieiinoue ?aaeecaoeee20 1,037,334.0 4,134.0 1,033,200.0 250.93 Eiiia?/aneea ?anoiaeu30 - Oi?aaeai/aneea ?anoiaeu40 - I?eaueue (oauoie) io ?aaeecaoeee50 417,600.0 1,151.0 416,449.0 362.81 I?ioeaiou e iieo/aieth60 - I?ioeaiou e oieaoa70 - Aeioiaeu io o/anoey a ae?. i?aaiecaoeeyo80 - I?i/ea iia?aoeeiiiua aeioiaeu90 1,792.0 1,792.0 I?i/ea iia?aoeeiiiua ?anoiaeu100 22,178.0 22,178.0 I?eaueue (oauoie) io OOAe110 397,214.0 1,151.0 396,063.0 345.10 I?i/ea aia?aaeecaoeeiiiua aeioiaeu120 - I?i/ea aia?aaeecaoeeiiiua ?anoiaeu130 85.0 (85.0) - I?eaueue (oauoie) io/aoiiai ia?eiaea140 397,214.0 1,066.0 396,148.0 372.62 Iaeia ia i?eaueue150 69,512.0 373.0 69,139.0 186.36 Ioaea/aiiua n?aaenoaa160 5,759.0 5,759.0 Ia?ani?aaeaeaiiay i?eaueue (oauoie) io/aoiiai ia?eiaea170 321,943.0 693.0 321,250.0 464.56

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