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Ieai.

1. Enoi?ey acaeiinayce iaoe 2

2. Iaoaieciu nayce iaoee e i?aeoeee 5

3. Caaea/e e i?iaeaiu acaeiiaeaenoaey iaoe ia i?eia?a aeieiaee e oeceee
10

4. Iooe acaeiiaeaenoaey iaoe 15

5. Iiciaaaoaeueii-ineoieiae/aneee aa?uea? e aai i?aiaeieaiea 18

Nienie eeoa?aoo?u 19

Enoi?ey acaeiiaeaenoaey iaoe.

?acaeaeaiea iaoe, i?eaaaeoaa e aicieeiiaaieth ooiaeaiaioaeueiuo
io?aneae anoanoaiciaiey e iaoaiaoeee, ?acaa?ioeinue iieiui oiaeii
ia/eiay n yiioe Aic?iaeaeaiey (aoi?ay iieiaeia XVa.). Iauaaeeiaiea iaoe
nia/aea ionoonoaiaaei ii/oe iieiinoueth. Aaaeii auei enneaaeiaaoue
/anoiinoe, a aeey yoiai o?aaiaaeinue, i?aaeaea anaai, au?uaaoue eo ec eo
iauae nayce. Iaeiaei ai ecaaaeaiea oiai, /oiau ana iao/iia ciaiea ia
?annuiaeinue au ia ioaeaeueiua, ie/ai ia naycaiiua iaaeaeo niaie
io?anee, iiaeiaii aoneieai i?e ?ac?uaa ieoe, ia eioi?oth iie auee
iaiecaiu, oaea a XVII a. noaee i?aaeeaaaoueny iauea nenoaiu n oeaeueth
iauaaeeieoue ana iaoee a iaeii oeaeia. Iaeiaei ieeaeie aioo?aiiae nayce
iaaeaeo iaoeaie i?e yoii ia ?ane?uaaeinue; iaoee i?inoi i?eeeaaeuaaeenue
iaeia e ae?oaie neo/aeii, aiaoiei ia?acii. Iiyoiio e ia?aoiaeia iaaeaeo
ieie ia iiaei auoue.

Oae a i?eioeeia ianoiyei aeaei aei na?aaeeiu e aeaaea aei eiioea
o?aoueae /aoaa?oe XIXa. A yoeo oneiaeyo i?iaeieaeaaoaany ia?anoaaoeie
oaiiaie ?acaeaeaiea iaoe, eo ae?iaeaiea ia ana aieaa e aieaa iaeeea
?acaeaeu e iiae?acaeaeu auee oaiaeaioeeae, ia oieueei i?ioeaiiieiaeiie
oaiaeaioeee e eo iauaaeeiaieth, ii e cao?oaeiyaoae e ineiaeiyaoae yoo
iineaaeithth: /ai aieueoa iiyaeyeinue iiauo iaoe e /ai ae?iaiaa
noaiiaeeanue eo nianoaaiiay no?oeoo?a, oai o?oaeiaa e neiaeiaa
noaiiaeeinue eo iauaaeeiaiea a iauoth aaeeioth nenoaio. Aneaaenoaea
yoiai oaiaeaioeey e eo eioaa?aoeee ia iiaea ?aaeeciaaoueny a aeinoaoi/ii
caiaoiie noaiaie, ianiio?y ia oi, /oi iio?aaiinoue a aa inouanoaeaiee
aeaaaea naay ciaoue n ana ia?anoathuae neeie.

Ia/eiay n na?aaeeiu XIX a. oaiaeaioeey e iauaaeeiaieth iaoe aia?aua
ia?aea aiciiaeiinoue ec i?inoiai aeiiieiaiey e i?ioeaiiieiaeiie ae
oaiaeaioeee (e eo aeeooa?aioeeaoeee) i?eia?anoe naiiaeiaeathuaa
cia/aiea, ia?anoaoue iineoue iiae/eiaiiue oa?aeoa?. Aieaa oiai, ec
iiae/eiaiiie iia ana auno?aa e ana iieiaa noaiiaeeanue aeiieie?othuae,
ainiiaenoaothuae. Iaa i?ioeaiiieiaeiua oaiaeaioeee eae au iiiaiyeenue
naieie ianoaie: ?aiueoa eioaa?aoeey iaoe aunooiaea eeoue eae no?aieaiea
e i?inoiio oaea?aeaieth anao io?aneae ?acae?iaeaoaainy iao/iiai ciaiey;
oaia?ue aea aeaeueiaeoay aeeooa?aioeeaoeey iaoe aunooieea eeoue eae
iiaeaioiaea eo iiaeeeiiie eioaa?aoeee, eo aeaenoaeoaeueiiai
oai?aoe/aneiai neioaca. Aieaa oiai, ia?anoaaoaa iauaaeeiaiea iaoe noaei
inouanoaeyoueny naii /a?ac aeaeueiaeooth eo aeeooa?aioeeaoeeth e
aeaaiaea?y ae.

Iauyniyeinue yoi oai, /oi aiaeec e neioac aunooiatho ia eae aano?aeoii
i?ioeaiiinoaaeaiiua ae?oa ae?oao i?ioeaiiieiaeiua iaoiaeu iiciaiey, ii
eae neeoua i?aaie/anee aiaaeeii e niiniaiua ia oieueei aeiiieiyoue ae?oa
ae?oaa, ii e acaeiii iaoneiaeeaaoue ae?oa ae?oaa e ia?aoiaeeoue,
i?aa?auaoueny iaeei a ae?oaie. I?e yoii aiaeec noaiiaeony iiae/eiaiiui
iiiaioii neioaca e iiaeiuaaony ei a ea/anoaa naiae i?aaeiinueee, oiaaea
eae neioac iai?anoaiii iie?aaony ia aiaeec a oiaea naiaai inouanoaeaiey.

Ia?aay i?inoaeoay oi?ia acaeiiaeaenoaey iaoe – eo “oeaiaioaoeey”. Ai
aoi?ie iieiaeia XIX a. aia?aua ii?aaeaeeeanue oaiaeaioeey a ?acaeoee
iaoe io eo eciee?iaaiiinoe e eo naycuaaieth /a?ac i?iiaaeooi/iua iaoee.
A ?acoeueoaoa aeaenoaey yoie oaiaeaioeee a yaiethoeee iaoe ni aoi?ie
iieiaeiu XIX a. ia/aeinue iinoaiaiiia caiieiaiea i?aaeieo i?iaaeia e
?ac?uaia iaaeaeo ?acee/iuie e i?aaeaea anaai niaaeiuie a eo iauae
nenoaia iaoeaie. A nayce n yoei aeaeaeaieai iaoe io eo eciee?iaaiiinoe e
aicieeiiaaieth iaoe i?iiaaeooi/iiai, ia?aoiaeiiai oa?aeoa?a noaee
ia?aciauaaoueny naycothuea caaiuey (“iinou”) iaaeaeo ?aiaa ?aci?aaiiuie
e aiaoia niiieiaeaiiuie iaeia aicea ae?oaie iaoeaie. Iniiaie aeey aiiaue
aicieeaaoeo i?iiaaeooi/iuo io?aneae iao/iiai ciaiey neoaeeee ia?aoiaeu
iaaeaeo ?acee/iuie oi?iaie aeaeaeaiey iaoa?ee. A iai?aaie/aneie i?e?iaea
oaeea ia?aoiaeu auee iaia?oaeaiu aeaaiaea?y ioe?uoeth i?ioeannia
acaeiiiai i?aa?auaiey ?acee/iuo oi?i yia?aee. Ia?aoiae aea iaaeaeo
iai?aaie/aneie e i?aaie/aneie i?e?iaeie aue io?aaeai a aeiioaca
Yiaaeuena i oeie/aneii i?ienoiaeaeaiee aeecie ia Caiea. A nayce n yoei
Yiaaeuen auaeaeioe i?aaenoaaeaiea i aeieiae/aneie oi?ia aeaeaeaiey.
Iaeiiaoe, ia?aoiae iaaeaeo yoie iineaaeiae e iauanoaaiiie oi?iie
aeaeaeaiey (enoi?eae) Yiaaeuen inaaoee a naiae o?oaeiaie oai?ee
aio?iiiaaiaca.

A naiii anoanoaiciaiee aia?aua iaeei ec ia?aoiaeia iaaeaeo ?aiaa
?aciauaiiuie iaoeaie aue nicaeai ioe?uoeai niaeo?aeueiiai aiaeeca. Yoi
auea ia?aay i?iiaaeooi/iay io?aneue iaoee, naycaaoay niaie oeceeo
(iioeeo), oeieth e ano?iiiieth. A ?acoeueoaoa oaeiai eo naycuaaiey
aicieeea ano?ioeceea e a eaeie-oi noaiaie ano?ioeiey.

A iauai neo/aa aicieeiiaaiea oaeeo iaoe i?iiaaeooi/iiai oa?aeoa?a iiaeao
eiaoue ianoi, eiaaea iaoiae iaeiie iaoee a ea/anoaa iiaiai n?aaenoaa
enneaaeiaaiey i?eiaiyaony e eco/aieth i?aaeiaoa ae?oaie iaoee. Oae, a
iaoa a?aiy aicieeea ?aaeeiano?iiiiey eae /anoue nia?aiaiiie ano?ioeceee.

Anei?a iinea niaeo?aeueiiai aiaeeca aicieeea oeie/aneay oa?iiaeeiaieea,
niaaeeieaoay oeieth n ?aiaa oaea naycaiiuie iaaeaeo niaie iaoaieeie e
o/aieai i oaieioa (a aeaea oa?iiaeeiaieee). Caoai e iei i?eniaaeeieeinue
o/aiea i ?acaaaeaiiuo ?anoai?ao e yeaeo?ioeiey, a ?acoeueoaoa /aai
aicieeea oece/aneay oeiey.

Aieaa iiae?iaii y oioaea au ?anneacaoue ia enoi?ee aeioeceee. Aeioeceea
eae iaoea ia/aea oi?ie?iaaoueny aua a XIXa. Iiiaea oeceieiae oiai
ia?eiaea oaea ?aaioaee iaae aii?inaie, eioi?ua a ianoiyuaa a?aiy
yaeythony iauaeoii aeioece/aneiai enneaaeiaaiey. Oae, iai?eia?,
auaeathueeny oeceieia E.I.Na/aiia (1829-1905) yaeyeny ieiia?ii a yoie
iaeanoe.

Eniieuecoy iaoiaeu oece/aneie oeiee e iaoaiaoe/aneee aiia?ao, ii eco/ae
aeeiaieeo aeuoaoaeueiiai i?ioeanna e onoaiiaee i?e yoii eiee/anoaaiiua
caeiiu ?anoai?eiinoe aacia a aeieiae/aneeo aeeaeeinoyo. Ii aea
i?aaeeiaeee iacuaaoue iaeanoue iiaeiaiiai ?iaea enneaaeiaaiee
iieaeoey?iie oeceieiaeae.

A yoio aea ia?eiae ecaanoiue oecee Aaeueiaieueoe (1821-1894),
?ac?aaaouaay i?iaeaiu oa?iiaeeiaieee, iuoaeny iiaeieoe e iiieiaieth
yia?aaoeee aeeauo nenoai. A naiae yenia?eiaioaeueiie ?aaioa ii
aeaoaeueii eco/ae ?aaioo i?aaiia c?aiey, a oaeaea ii?aaeaeee nei?inoue
i?iaaaeaiey aicaoaeaeaiey ii ia?ao.

N ?acaeoeai oece/aneie e eieeieaeiie oeiee o?iio ?aaio a iaeanoe
aeioeceee ?anoe?yaony. Iiyaeythony iiiuoee iauynieoue n yoeo iiceoeee
iaoaieci ?aaeoeee aeeaiai i?aaiecia ia aiaoiea aicaeaenoaey. Aieueooth
?ieue a ?acaeoee aeioeceee nua?aea oeiea Eaaa. A ?aaioao Eaaa
(1859-1924) auee auyaeaiu oeceei-oeie/aneea iniiau yaeaiey ia?oaiiaaiaca
e iieiaeioai?aiey. Eiie?aoioth oeceei-oeie/aneoth eioa?i?aoaoeeth
iieo/eei yaeaiea aioaaiiecia eiiia. Iaiauathuay eieaa Eaaa “Aeeiaieea
aeeaiai aauanoaa” auea ecaeaia ia iiiaeo ycueao. A 1906a. ia?aaiae yoie
eieae aue ecaeai a ?innee. Iicaeiaa iiyaeeenue eeanne/aneea
enneaaeiaaiey Oaaea i ?iee eiiiuo e eieeieaeiuo i?ioeannia iaoieiaee
ainiaeaiey. A 1911-1912aa. a ?onneii ia?aaiaea auoiaeeo aai
ooiaeaiaioaeueiue o?oae “Oece/aneay oeiey ai aioo?aiiae iaaeeoeeia”.

Ia?aay ie?iaay aieia i?einoaiiaeea ia iaeioi?ia a?aiy ao?iia ?acaeoea
iaoee. Iaeiaei a ?innee oaea a ia?aua aiaeu iinea Aaeeeie Ieoya?ueneie
?aaiethoeee ?acaeoeth iaoee oaeaeyaony aieueoia aieiaiea. A 1922 a. a
NNN? ioe?uaaaony “Einoeooo aeioeceee”, eioi?ui ?oeiaiaeeo I.I.Eaca?aa. A
yoii einoeoooa aio oaeaaony iauaaeeieoue aieueoia eiee/anoai
auaeathueony o/aiuo. Caeanue N. E. Aaaeeia caieiaeny aii?inaie
i?aaeaeueiie /oanoaeoaeueiinoe /aeiaa/aneiai aeaca, I.A.?aaeiaea? e A.A.
Aoeiia eco/aee oeceei-oeie/aneea iaoaieciu i?iieoeaaiinoe e naycue
iaaeaeo i?iieoeaaiinoueth e iiaa?oiinoiui iaoyaeaieai. N.A.E?aaeia
eco/ae oeceei-oeie/aneea iniiau oeaaoiiai c?aiey e o.ae. Aieueooth ?ieue
a ?acaeoee aeioeceee nua?aea oeiea I.E.Eieueoeiaa. Aai o/aieee
?ac?aaaouaaee aii?inu aeeyiey oeceei-oeie/aneeo oaeoi?ia aiaoiae n?aaeu
ia eeaoee e eo no?oeoo?u. Ii eieoeeaoeaa I.E.Eieueoeiaa a Iineianeii
oieaa?neoaoa auea ioe?uoa eaoaae?a oeceei-oeie/aneie aeieiaee,
?oeiaiaeeiay aai o/aieeii N.I.Neaaeianeei.

A eiioea 30-o aiaeia oeceei-oeie/aneia iai?aaeaiea a aeieiaee
?acaeaaeinue a Einoeoooa aeioeiee ei.A.I.Aaoa AI NNN?. Ai Ananithciii
einoeoooa yenia?eiaioaeueiie iaaeeoeeiu ei.A.I.Ai?ueeiai nouanoaiaae
aieueoie Ioaeae aeioeceee, a eioi?ii ?aaioaee I.I.Eaca?aa, A.I.O?aie,
Ae.E.?oaeiooaei; iineaaeiei aue iaienai ?yae o/aaiuo ?oeiaiaenoa e
iiiia?aoee.

A ia/aea 50-o a.a. aue i?aaieciaai Einoeooo aeieiae/aneie oeceee e
eaoaae?a aeioeceee ia Aeieiai-ii/aaiiii oaeoeueoaoa IAO. Iicaeiaa
eaoaae?u aeioeceee auee nicaeaiu a Eaieia?aaeneii e iaeioi?uo ae?oaeo
oieaa?neoaoao.

Oaeie i?ioeann caiieiaiey i?iianoae iaaeaeo iaoeaie i?iaeieaeaeny e
iicaeiaa, i?e/ai a ia?anoaaoeo ianooaaao. A eoiaa aiiaue aicieeaaoea
iao/iua iai?aaeaiey ia?aoiaeiiai oa?aeoa?a aunooiaee eae oeaiaioe?othuea
niaie ?aiaa ?aciauaiiua, eciee?iaaiiua iniiaiua iaoee, iaiiaeiaea oeceee
e oeiee. Yoei niiauaeanue ana aieueoay naycaiiinoue anaio iao/iiio
ciaieth, /oi niinianoaiaaei i?ioeanno aai eioaa?aoeee. Eia/a aiai?y,
aeaeueiaeoay aeeooa?aioeeaoeey iaoe (iiyaeaiea iiiaeanoaa i?iiaaeooi/iuo
– iaaeaeenoeeieeia?iuo – iao/iuo io?aneae) i?yii aueeaaeanue a eo aieaa
aeoaieoth eioaa?aoeeth, oae /oi yoa iineaaeiyy niaa?oaeanue oaea
iaiin?aaenoaaiii /a?ac i?iaeieaeathuothny aeeooa?aioeeaoeeth iaoe.

Oaeiai auei iieiaeaiea aauae i?eia?ii e eiioeo ia?aie iieiaeiu OOa. A
iineaaeothuea aeanyoeeaoey i?iecioei oneeaiea acaeiiaeaenoaey iaoe e
aeinoeaeaiea aai iiauo, aieaa aunieeo e aieaa neiaeiuo oi?i.

Iaoaieciu nayce iaoee e i?aeoeee.

Aei iaaeaaiaai a?aiaie iniiaiui oeiii acaeiiaeaenoaey iaoee e i?aeoeee
auei aiaae?aiea oao eee eiuo oaea iieo/aiiuo ?acoeueoaoia iao/iiai
iienea a i?iiuoeaiiinoue, naeueneia oicyenoai e ae?oaea noa?u i?aeoeee.
A yoii neo/aa aanue oeeee – io ooiaeaiaioaeueiie eaeae aei aa
i?aeoe/aneiai aiieiuaiey ieacuaaaony i?aeiouanoaaiii iaeiiiai?aaeaiiui.
A ?acoeueoaoa iiae/an ?ac?aaaouaaaony e aiaae?yaony ia oi, /oi ioaeii
iio?aaeoaeth, a oi, /oi auaiaeiaa eee i?iua aeey oao, eoi nicaeaao
iiaoth oaoieeo.

Yoi nouanoaaiii cao?oaeiyao iioeiaeueiia eniieueciaaiea aeinoeaeaiee
iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai i?ia?anna. A oiaea i?aeoe/aneie ?aaeecaoeee eaeae, a
eiiaaea e iinea yoiai ia/eiatho auyaeyoueny iai?aaeaeaeaiiua – e aeaeaei
ia anaaaea aeaeaoaeueiua – yooaeou. Iie, eae i?aaeei, oai aieueoa, /ai
oaea e iaeiinoi?iiiaa ?anniao?eaaaony e ?aoaaony eiiieaeniay ii naiae
nooe i?iaeaia. Eeeaeaeaoeey oaeeo yooaeoia ioaeaeaao cia/eoaeueioth
/anoue iao/iiai e oaoie/aneiai iioaioeeaea.

Eiia/ii, naaiaeiy iu iiaeai ia ciaoue oi/ii, eaeeie eiaiii aoaeoo a
eaaeaeii eiie?aoiii neo/aa iaaeaeaoaeueiua iineaaenoaey i?aeoe/aneie
?aaeecaoeee iiauo iao/ii-oaoie/aneeo aeinoeaeaiee. Ii oaea eiaaony
aeinoaoi/iue iiuo aeey oiai, /oiau i?aaeaeaeaoue naio aiciiaeiinoue eo
aicieeiiaaiey e auoue aioiauie e eo eeeaeaeaoeee. ssnii, /oi aeey yoiai
iaiaoiaeeii iie?aoueny ia aeaiiua anaai eiiieaena iaoe. Iniaay ?ieue
i?eiaaeeaaeeo caeanue iaoeai iauanoaaiiui, i?ecaaiiui ioeaieaaoue (e ia
oieueei a oeaeii, ii e ia o?iaia ioaeaeueiuo, eiie?aoiuo
iao/ii-oaoie/aneeo iiaiaaaaeaiee) ?acoeueoaou e oaiaeaioeee
iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai i?ia?anna n oi/ee c?aiey eioa?ania ?acaeoey iauanoaa
e ee/iinoe.

Eiaaea iaoea ana aieueoa noaiiaeony iaiaoiaeeiui oneiaeai ?acaeoey, eae
i?iecaiaenoaa, yeiiiieee, oae e ae?oaeo noa? iauanoaaiiie aeecie, nai
i?ioeann i?aeoe/aneiai eniieueciaaiey (a a ii?aaeaeaiiie ia?a e
iieo/aiey) iao/ii-oaoie/aneeo ciaiee aeieiaeai noaoue /aoei ieaie?oaiui
e nioeeaeueii i?aaieciaaiiui. N oeaeueth ?aoaiey yoie i?iaeaiu
iinoaaeaii iiiai yenia?eiaioia, a oii /enea e?oiiiianooaaiuo. Iaeiaei
oi, /oi iu aei neo ii? iaoee e caionoeee a aeaei, aeaeaei ia anaaaea
oaeiaeaoai?eoaeueii.

O ian anoue i?eia?u nayce iaoee e i?iecaiaenoaa: EIII e “Yeaeo?ineea” a
Eaieia?aaea, einoeooo ei.A.I.Iaoiia a Eeaaa, Iineianeee aaoicaaiae
ei.E.A.Eeoa/aaa.

ssnii, /oi i?iaeaia aiaae?aiey, a oi/iaa, i?iaeaia nicaeaiey
nia?aiaiiiai iaoaiecia acaeiiaeaenoaey iaoee e i?aeoeee caneoaeeaaao – e
oaea aeaaii! – aeoaieiai e ananoi?iiiaai eiiieaeniiai enneaaeiaaiey. Aai
iaiaoiaeeii i?aaieciaaoue e ia/aoue eae iiaeii nei?aa, eai eaaeaeue
auea?aiiue aiae iaa?iaony iiiaeie nyeiiiieaiiuie ieeeea?aeaie $. E ia
oieueei oaie, eioi?ua iiea inaaeatho a iaoea ia?oaui eaieoaeii, ii e
oaie, iiiaie?aoii aieueoeie, eioi?ua iai iiaei au aeaoue oaaee/aiea
ooeeecaoeee i?aeoe/anee cia/eiuo iao/iuo ?acoeueoaoia.

Neacaiiia cao?aaeaaao e acaeiinayce iaoee n ae?oaeie noa?aie
nioeeaeueiie i?aeoeee, oaeeie, eae ainieoaiea e ia?aciaaiea,
cae?aaiio?aiaiea e ae?. Aaaeue iaiaoiaeeiinoue acaeiiaeaenoaey
iauanoaaiiuo, anoanoaaiiuo e oaoie/aneeo iaoe aicieeaao anyeee ?ac oai,
aaea i?eoiaeeony oi?aaeyoue iaoe?iie noa?ie niaianoiie e
oeaeaiai?aaeaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe ethaeae, aoaeue oi i?ia?aiia
?aaeiiaeueiiai ?acaeoey eee i?ia?aiia inaiaiey einiina, caueoa
ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu eee ecia?aiea, iioeiecaoeey e noeioee?iaaiea
o?oaeiaie aeayoaeueiinoe e o. i. Eiiieaeniue iiaeoiae caeanue ioaeai e
aeey ?ac?aaioee i?ia?aiia ?acaeoey niioaaonoaothuae noa?u, e aeey
?aaeecaoeee yoie i?ia?aiiu.

Oneeaiea naycae iaoee n i?aeoeeie aeeyao e ia ?acaeoea naiie iaoee,
ii?iaeaeay iiaua io?anee ciaiey ia nouea iauanoaaiiuo, anoanoaaiiuo e
oaoie/aneeo iaoe. Iaeaieaa oa?aeoa?iue i?eia? oiio yaeyao niaie
yeieiaey. Yeieiae/aneea i?iaeaiu aicieeee ia naaiaeiy. Eo aic?ano –
aic?ano oeeaeeecaoeee. Ii oieueei e na?aaeeia XX a. iie ec oaiaauo e
i?aeoe/anee ia?acee/eiuo i?aa?aoeeenue a ia?ainoaiaiiua. Oaeiai iaeii ec
aaaeiaeoeo neaaenoaee IO? – onoaiiaeaiey iiaiai oeia ioiioaiee i?e?iaeu
e iauanoaa.

*aeiaae aeieaia a?aiy ?anniao?eaae i?e?iaeo eae /oaeaeoth naaa neeo,
eioi?oth ioaeii iiei?youe, iiae/eiyoue. Ii ioiioaieth e iae ii aae naay
eae caaiaaaoaeue, ii ecia?ye i?ia?ann noaiaiueth ainiiaenoaa iaae
i?e?iaeie. Eia/a e auoue ia iiaei. Iaeiaei Caiey iiaea oa?iaoue ii?ie
oaioe/aneia e aacaeoiiia iiaaaeaiea naiaai “aunoaai i?iaeoeoa” aei oao
ii?, iiea iia auea niiniaia noeoeeii ieaaee?iaaoue iaaaoeaiua yooaeou
aai aeayoaeueiinoe, aaoiiaoe/anee aini?iecaiaeeoue anaiauea,
anoanoaaiiua oneiaey aeecie. Ii n i?aa?auaieai aeayoaeueiinoe ethaeae a
ieaiaoa?ioth, n ?inoii iiue yoie aeayoaeueiinoe, a noaei auoue, e iauaia
iaaaoeaiuo yooaeoia ia?ooaaony iaoaieci noeoeeiiai aini?iecaiaenoaa
anaiaueo oneiaee aeecie ia Caiea. ?aiaa iaei ?acee/eiua io?eoeaoaeueiua
yeieiae/aneea neaaenoaey aeayoaeueiinoe i?aa?auathony a aeiaaeueiua. Ia
iiaanoeo aeiy noaaeony iaiaoiaeeiinoue i?eioeeieaeueii eciaieoue
ioiioaiea /aeiaaea e i?e?iaea.

IO? canoaaeyao ioeacaoueny io ?anniio?aiey i?e?iaeu oieueei eae
n?aaenoaa, i?eo/aao ethaeae aini?eieiaoue aa eae oeaeue aeayoaeueiinoe.
Yoi cia/eo, /oi ioiuia ?acaeoea /aeiaaea e ?acaeoea i?e?iaeu ec aeaoo
/anoe/ii ia?anaeathueony i?ioeannia i?aa?auathony a aaeeiue einie/aneee
i?ioeann…

“Iu ioithaeue ia aeanoaoai iaae i?e?iaeie oae, – ienae O.Yiaaeuen, –
eae caaiaaaoaeue aeanoaoao iaae /oaeei ia?iaeii, ia aeanoaoai iaae iae
oae, eae eoi-eeai iaoiaeyueeny aia i?e?iaeu … iu, iaiai?io, iaoae
ieioueth, e?iaueth e iicaii i?eiaaeeaaeei ae e iaoiaeeiny aioo?e aa…
ana iaoa ainiiaenoai iaae iae ninoieo a oii, /oi iu, a ioee/ea io anao
ae?oaeo nouanoa, oiaai iiciaaaoue aa caeiiu e i?aaeeueii eo i?eiaiyoue”.
Niaa?oainoaoy naie oece/aneea e aeooiaiua iioaioeee, /aeiaae
iaeiia?aiaiii ?acaeaaao e iioaioeee inoaeueiie i?e?iaeu.

I?e anai aieiaiee e yeii?iaeaiai iu aua iaaeiioeaieaaai iianiinoe
ia?ooaiey ii?iaeueiiai oiaea acaeiiaeaenoaey iaaeaeo i?e?iaeie e
iauanoaii, ?acia?ia n?aaenoa, iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey ono?aiaiey yeiia?ooaiee.
Ananoi?iiiyy e i?aaeeueiay ioeaiea oaeeo ?anoiaeia, i?iaaaeaiiay n
iiceoeee naiuo ?acee/iuo iaoe, iiaea au iieacaoue, /oi yeii?iaeaiu oaea
naaiaeiy i?aaenoaaeytho niaie iaeaieaa eaieoaeiaieea ioieou
aeayoaeueiinoe. Iiyoiio yeiyiioa a ioee/ea io naieo i?aaeoanoaaiieoe
niiniaia nouanoaiaaoue oieueei a oneiaeyo ?aoeeiiaeueiiai iauanoaaiiiai
no?iy, oie/oiaeaiey anao oi?i nioeeaeueiiai ia?aceoecia e nioeeaeueiie
iaoieiaee.

Aa?oeia e enoiaeiue ioieo iiaiai ?aoeeiiaeecia – iniuneaiea oeaiiinoe
aeecie eaaeaeiai /aeiaaea a no?oeoo?a iauanoaaiiiai oeaeiai. Oaeia
eciaiaiea e anoue ia/aei iiaie oeeaeeecaoeee, a eioi?ie aeieaeii auoue
iaaeaaeii iaania/aii ia?aaeoaa i?aai /aeiaaea ia aeeciue, ia ie?, ia
o?oae.

Iu aeaeei, /oi eciaiaiea ?iee e cia/aiey /aeiaaea a nenoaia nioeeoia
neiiao?e/ii eciaiaieth oa?aeoa?a ioiioaiee iaaeaeo i?e?iaeie e
iauanoaii. Anee ia aaiaoe/aneie oaca /aeiaae neo/aai aeey oaeie nenoaiu,
a nouanoaaiii oieueei oeaeia (Aaaaeue au?acee yoi eaeaae aeiieie?iaaiey
oeaeiai iaae /anoueth; iocaoee yoie eaeae iu neuoei e naaiaeiy), oi ia
nia?aiaiiie oaca ?acaeoey iauanoaa aicieeea yniay e neeueiay oaiaeaioeey
naeaeaoue eaaeaeiai /aeiaaea noanoaioeeaeueiui yaeaieai a nenoaia
iauanoaaiiiai oeaeiai, yeaiaioii, ae oiaeaeanoaaiiui. Eia/a aiai?y,
i?aai ia aeeciue noaiiaeony aaniethoii iaiouaieaiui i?aaii eaaeaeiai
/aeiaaea. ssnii, /oi aeaoue neieueei-ieaoaeue iieioth ea?oeio noieue
iiuiiai i?e?iaeii-nioeeaeueiiai i?aia?aciaaiey niiniaia oieueei
eiiieaeniay iaoea.

Oaeei ia?acii, yeieiae/aneea caaea/e – eae iiceoeaiua (i?iaiic e
oi?aaeaiea iiaiaeie, yeiiiiey ?ano?nia e o.ae.), oae e iaaaoeaiua
(i/enoea e ainnoaiiaeaiea aicaeooa, aiaeu, ii/au e o.ae.) – o?aaotho
i?aaeaeueii aunieiai, o.a. ieaiaoa?iiai iaiauanoaeaiey o?oaea.
Iaaeaeoia?iaeiay eiiia?aoeey oneeee a naiuo ?acee/iuo iaeanoyo iaoee e
oaoieee noaiiaeony aeeciaiiie iio?aaiinoueth.

Nia?aiaiiay yeieiae/aneay neooaoeey e oaiaeaioeee aa ?acaeoey noaayo
ia?aae /aeiaa/anoaii iiiaeanoai iiauo, ino?uo e neiaeiuo i?iaeai. E
iiaeai ee iu neacaoue, /oi yeieiae/aneea i?iaeaiu oeaeeeii ioaaouaathony
noa?ie oieueei anoanoaaiiuo eeai oieueei iauanoaaiiuo eee oaoie/aneeo
iaoe? I/aaeaeii, iao. Eo ?aoaiea – eae ia o?iaia iino?iaiey aaeeiie
oai?ee acaeiiaeaenoaey iauanoaa e i?e?iaeu, oae e ia o?iaia ?ac?aaioee
aieaa eiie?aoiuo e /anoiuo aii?inia – i?aaeiieaaaao naiia
iaiin?aaenoaaiiia o/anoea i?aaenoaaeoaeae anao yoeo a?oii iaoe.

Niaa?oaiii ynii, /oi i?aaeeueiua ioeaiee e ?aoaiey yeii?iaeai iaiuneeiu
aac oaniiai acaeiiaeaenoaey anao aac eneeth/aiey nouanoaothueo iaoe, e a
ia?aoth i/a?aaeue iauanoaiaaaeaiey, oaoie/aneeo aeenoeeieei e
anoanoaiciaiey.

Eiaaea aea eneonnoaaiii ?ac?uaaaony naycue iaaeaeo ieie e e yeii?iaeaia
iiaeoiaeyo iaeiinoi?iiia, iieo/athony naiua ?acee/iua eaconu.

Eiiieaeniue iiaeoiae e eco/aieth anoanoaiciaiey e iauanoaiaaaeaiey
iicaieyao i?aaeeueii aeaeaoue, n iaeiie noi?iiu, iauanoaaiiua oi?iu
aiaea/aiey e ooieoeeiie?iaaiey iiauo i?e?iaeiuo i?ioeannia a i?aeoo
i?aeoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe, a n ae?oaie – anoanoaaiiiiao/iua e
oaoie/aneea niaea?aeaoaeueiua “iaiieieoaee” oao eee eiuo oi?i
nioeeaeueiinoe. Ae?oaeie neiaaie, oaeie acaeyae iicaieyao oaeaeaoue
nia?aiaiioth iauiinoue, aaeeinoai i?e?iaeu e iauanoaa, a ?aaii e
niaoeeoeeo oiai e ae?oaiai. Iiyoiio ii iaiaa anaai iioiae ia ia/oi
aii?oiia e ia?acee/eiia. Aaaeue ana aieueoaa aaeeinoai i?e?iaeu e
iauanoaa iaia?oaeeaaaony eaaeaeue ?ac oiaaea, eiaaea auyaeyaony
niaoeeoeea oiai e ae?oaiai. A yoi i?aaeiieaaaao aeaeueiaeoaa ?acaeaeaiea
iaoe, eioi?ia a naith i/a?aaeue /a?ac ii?aaeaeaiiia a?aiy iio?aaoao eo
neioaca. E iaaeiionoeii aaniethoece?iaaoue iaeei ec yoeo i?ioeannia e
i?ioeaiiinoaaeyoue aai ae?oaiio. O ian anoue iaiaei aaoi?ia,
niaethaeathueo e o?aaothueo oaao ia iiene iooae eioaa?aoeee iniiaiuo
anoanoaaiiiiao/iuo, oaoie/aneeo e iauanoaaiii-iao/iuo iiiyoee e caeiiia.
Ii aaaeue ?acaeaaoue oo eee eioth, a oii /enea iauanoaaiioth, iaoeo
iacaaeneii io ae?oaeo iaoe iiaeii oieueei a oao ?aieao, a eioi?uo iie
iaeaaeatho ioiineoaeueiie naiinoiyoaeueiinoueth. E ia aieaa oiai! Eae
oieueei oaeea ?aiee iauaeoeaii ieacuaathony iaeaeaiiuie, ia aicieeathuea
a yoi a?aiy aii?inu aeaiiay iaoea oaea ia niiniaia ioaaoeoue. Iia
auioaeaeaia ia?auaoueny e ae?oaei iaoeai. Oae, iaaeaeo anaie iaoeaie
iaecaaaeii aicieeaao e ioeuene?oao naiaia?aciue “eaeaeiue oie”. Ii e
i?aa?auaao ana iiiaiia?acea iao/iiai ciaiey a aaeeiia oeaeia, a aaeeioth
iaoeo. (?aciuoeaiey iaae caeiiaie aeaeaeaiey yoiai “eaeaeiiai oiea”
iicaieytho aeaeaoue iaeioi?ua iiaua iiiaiou ecaanoiie oai?aiu iaiieiiou
Aaaeaey.)

Ii aeaei ia oieueei a neioaoe/aneii oa?aeoa?a iauaeoa yeieiae/aneiai
enneaaeiaaiey. Aieaa nouanoaaiii oi, /oi eaaeaeay ec ?anniao?eaaaiuo
a?oii iaoe, aoiaey a aaeeioth nenoaio iaoee, aianoa n oai iaeaaeaao
naieie niaoeeoe/aneeie iniaaiiinoyie. Yoa niaoeeoeea aaaeao e
naiaia?aciie acaeiiaeiiieieoaeueiinoe iauanoaaiiuo, anoanoaaiiuo e
oaoie/aneeo iaoe.

Oae, ia?auaynue e acaeiiaeaenoaeth iauanoaa e i?e?iaeu, nioeeaeueiia
iiciaiea noaaeo e eco/aao aii?inu i oii, eaeiau oeaee, i?aneaaeoaiua
/aeiaaeii a yoii acaeiiaeaenoaee, ia eaeea oeaiiinoe ii iie?aaony eee
aeieaeai iie?aoueny a naiae i?aia?acothuae aeayoaeueiinoe, eaeeie aoaeoo
nioeeaeueiua iineaaenoaey a neo/aa, anee iauanoai auaa?ao oio eee eiie
eo?n aeaenoaee a naieo acaeiiioiioaieyo n i?e?iaeie.

Anoanoaiciaiea ioe?uaaao i?eioeeieaeueii iiaua aiciiaeiinoe aeey
acaeiiaeaenoaey /aeiaaea n i?e?iaeie e aianoa n oai auyaeyao aeiionoeiua
ii oai eee eiui ia?aiao?ai i?aaeaeu aiaoaoaeuenoaa /aeiaaea a oiae
anoanoaaiiuo i?ioeannia. *oi eanaaony oaoie/aneeo iaoe, oi a noa?o eo
eioa?ania aoiaeeo i?aaeaea anaai nicaeaiea e niaa?oainoaiaaiea n?aaenoa
acaeiiaeaenoaey iauanoaa e i?e?iaeu, i?e/ai oaeeo n?aaenoa, eioi?ua auee
au ia oieueei yooaeoeaiu yeiiiie/anee, ii e i?eaieaiu n oi/ee c?aiey
nioeeaeueiie e yeieiae/aneie.

I/aaeaeii, oaeei ia?acii, /oi, anee aiai?eoue i aoaeouai, oi aeey
iino?iaiey aaeeiie oai?ee acaeiiaeaenoaey iauanoaa e i?e?iaeu, aeey
?aoeeiiaeueiiai oi?aaeaiey yoei acaeiiaeaenoaeai nouanoaaiii aaaeia
acaeiiaeiiieieoaeueiinoue iiciaaaoaeueiuo n?aaenoa e iiaeoiaeia
iauanoaaiiuo, anoanoaaiiuo e oaoie/aneeo iaoe. Ii ia iaiaa aaaeii e oi,
/oi oaeay acaeiiaeiiieieoaeueiinoue ieacuaaaony iaiaoiaeeiie e i?e
?aoaiee eiie?aoiuo e iaioeiaeiuo yeieiae/aneeo i?iaeai.

Noiaeiay neooaoeey neeaaeuaaaony e a oaeie n?aaieoaeueii iaaeaaii
aicieeoae e eioaineaii ?acaeaathuaeny io?anee ciaiey, eae y?aiiiieea. Aa
caaea/a – oeaeinoiia i?iaeoe?iaaiea e iioeiecaoeey o?oaeiaie
aeayoaeueiinoe /aeiaaea, iia?e?othuaai n nia?aiaiiuie oaoie/aneeie
ono?ienoaaie e nenoaiaie. Nouanoaoao iiiaeanoai iao/iuo aeenoeeieei,
caiyouo eco/aieai o?oaea. Caeanue e nioeeieiaey o?oaea, e eiaeaia?iay
ineoieiaey, e oaoie/aneay ynoaoeea, e oeceieiaey, e aeiiaoaieea, e
aeaeaia o?oaea. Ia?yaeo n yoei iiiaea anoanoaaiiua e oaoie/aneea iaoee
enneaaeotho e ?ac?aaaouaatho n?aaenoaa o?oaea, oaeea, eae nia?aiaiiua
aunieiiaoaiece?iaaiiua e aaoiiaoece?iaaiiua oaoie/aneea nenoaiu. *oi aea
eanaaony y?aiiiieee, oi iia, eiia/ii, iie?aaony ia aeaiiua anao iaoe:
iauanoaaiiuo, anoanoaaiiuo e oaoie/aneeo, oae eee eia/a eco/athueo
o?oae. Iaeiaei iia eiaao iniaue iauaeo enneaaeiaaiey: nenoaiu “/aeiaae –
iaoeia – ie?oaeathuay n?aaea”, eioi?ua iia ?anniao?eaaao a eo
oeaeinoiinoe, ai acaeiiaeaenoaee eo eiiiiiaioia. Oaeie eiiieaeniue
iiaeoiae – iaiaoiaeeiia oneiaea aeey nicaeaiey iiaie oaoieee, eioi?ay,
iaeaaeay aunieie i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoueth, iaaeaaeiinoueth e
yeiiiie/iinoueth, iiaeao niinianoaiaaoue aeinoeaeaieth nioeeaeueiuo
?acoeueoaoia – nio?aiaieth caei?iauey ethaeae e ?acaeoeth ee/iinoe a
i?ioeanna o?oaea, iiauoaieth niaea?aeaoaeueiinoe, yooaeoeaiinoe e
ea/anoaa /aeiaa/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe eae a noa?a o?oaea, oae e aacaea,
aaea /aeiaaeo i?eoiaeeony anooiaoue a eiioaeo n nia?aiaiiie oaoieeie.

Iaa ?anniio?aiiua i?iaeaiu iiaeii eioaa?e?iaaoue a ea/anoaa ninoaaiuo
/anoae noieue aeiaaeueiie i?iaeaiu, eae oi?aaeaiea oiaeii
iao/ii-oaoie/aneie ?aaiethoeee. Nthaea aoiaeeo auyaeaiea e eco/aiea
iniiaiuo oaiaeaioeee e aa?eaioia IO?, aiaeec e ioeaiea aa iiiaiia?aciuo
nioeeaeueiuo iineaaenoaee n oai, /oiau eiaoue aiciiaeiinoue ca?aiaa
i?aaeaeaeaoue e iaeo?aeeciaaoue aiciiaeiua iaaaoeaiua yooaeou
iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai i?ia?anna.

A aieaa eiie?aoiii au?aaeaiee yoa i?iaeaia aunooiaao eae i?iaeaia
ananoi?iiiae, eiiieaeniie ioeaiee nicaeaaaaiuo e i?iaeoe?oaiuo
oaoiieiae/aneeo i?ioeannia e iiauo oeiia iai?oaeiaaiey. I/aaeaeii, oaeay
eiiieaeniay ioeaiea aiciiaeia oieueei ia iniiaa oaniie acaeiinayce
iaaeaeo iniiaiuie a?oiiaie iaoe. Iniaay ?ieue i?eiaaeeaaeeo caeanue
iaoeai iauanoaaiiui, i?ecaaiiui ioeaieaaoue ia oieueei a oeaeii, ii e ia
o?iaia ioaeaeueiuo eiie?aoiuo iao/ii-oaoie/aneeo iiaiaaaaeaiee n oi/ee
c?aiey eioa?ania iauanoaaiiiai ?acaeoey e ?acaeoey ee/iinoe.

?acaeoea y?aiiiieee e yeieiaee – y?eea i?eia?u oiai, /oi o/aiua ana
/aua iaeiia?aiaiii n e?oiiuie iao/ii-oaoie/aneeie ia?iaeiioicyenoaaiiuie
i?iaeaiaie ?aoatho aii?inu aieueoiai nioeeaeueiiai cia/aiey. A yoii –
oa?aeoa?iay iniaaiiinoue iao/iiai iienea iaoeo aeiae.

A eoiaa i?ioeann aiaae?aiey oaia?ue oaea ia iiaeao auoue aeaeii
ioaeaeueiuo oaeaioia e oiaeueoeaa, eae e ia iiaeao ii iie?aoueny ia
noa?ua i?aaiecaoeeiiiua, oeiainiaua, yeiiiie/aneea e ae?oaea yeaiaiou
i?iecaiaenoaa. E iniuneeoue aai a iieiie ia?a aiciiaeii oieueei
eioaa?aeueiuie n?aaenoaaie iaoee, o?aaothuae eiiee onoa?aeuo i?eau/ae e
iieacaoaeae.

Oneeaiea acaeiiaeaenoaey iauanoaaiiuo, anoanoaaiiuo e oaoie/aneeo iaoe
oaea naaiaeiy noaaeo ia?aae iaoeie iiaua i?iaeaiu e iaoiaeieiae/aneiai,
e nioeeaeueii-i?aaiecaoeeiiiiai ii?yaeea. Ei?ioei inoaiiaeiny ia
iaeioi?uo ec ieo.

I?aaeaea anaai aicieeaao aii?in i oii, a eaeii ioiioaiee iaoiaeyony yoe
i?ioeannu e nouanoaothuaio aeenoeeieeia?iiio no?iaieth iaoee. Ii?ie
auneacuaaaony oi/ea c?aiey, niaeanii eioi?ie iie aaaeoo e iaeiae
anaiauaiethuae e oieoeoee?iaaiiie iaoea aoaeouaai. “I?e yoii,–
ni?aaaaeeeai ioia/aao I. I. Oaaeinaaa,– oi?iuaiii oieeoaony aoi?eci
E.Ia?ena ia iaeiie iaoea aoaeouaai. Any niaieoiiinoue oai?aoe/aneeo
niia?aaeaiee e any enneaaeiaaoaeueneay i?aeoeea E.Ia?ena, O.Yiaaeuena
naeaeaoaeuenoaotho i oii, /oi ?a/ue eaeao ia i caiaia anao iaoe iaeiie
iaoeie, a ia iauiinoe iaoiaeieiae/aneeo iniia iao/iuo iiiyoee e
iaecaaaeiinoe eo i?ia?anne?othuaai i?aaie/aneiai neioaca.”.

Aeaenoaeoaeueii, eae iu aeaeaee, acaeiiaeaenoaea iaoe inouanoaeyaony ia
“aiiaua”, a a nayce n eco/aieai eiie?aoiuo i?aeoe/aneeo e iao/iuo
i?iaeai e aaaeao e ia?aciaaieth iiauo aeieia, eiiieaenia
iauanoaaiii-iao/iiai, anoanoaaiiiiao/iiai e oaoie/aneiai ciaiey. Ca yoei
acaeiiaeaenoaeai, neaaeiaaoaeueii, noiyo i?ioeannu ia oieueei
eioaa?aoeee, ii e aeeooa?aioeeaoeee iao/iiai ciaiey, iiyaeaiey iiauo
enneaaeiaaoaeueneeo iaeanoae e iai?aaeaiee.

Iiaeii, oaeei ia?acii, ooaa?aeaeaoue, /oi oneeeaathuayny acaeiinaycue
iaoe ieeiei ia?acii ia niaiaaeaao n eeeaeaeaoeeae au?aaioaiiie a oiaea
iiiaiaaeiaiai ?acaeoey iaoee aeenoeeieeia?iie oi?iu i?aaiecaoeee iao/iie
aeayoaeueiinoe, oai aieaa /oi naia yoa oi?ia iaeaaeaao aeinoaoi/iie
aeaeinoueth aeey oiai, /oiau ia oieueei nouanoaiaaoue, ii e auoue
yooaeoeaiie a iiauo, auno?i iaiythueony oneiaeyo.

Ia ioiaiyy neiaeeaoaeny no?oeoo?u iao/iiai ciaiey, oneeeaathuaany
acaeiiaeaenoaea iauanoaaiiuo, anoanoaaiiuo e oaoie/aneeo iaoe ieacuaaao
ana aieaa caiaoiia aicaeaenoaea eae ia iaoiaeieiaeth iao/iiai iiciaiey,
oae e ia i?aaiecaoeeth iao/iuo enneaaeiaaiee.

Eiiieaeniinoue – aaaeiaeoay /a?oa nia?aiaiiie iaoee, iaiaoiaeeiaeoaa
oneiaea aeey oiai, /oiau oi/ii e iieii ioia?aceoue enneaaeoaiue iauaeo,
ioaaoeoue ana aai noi?iiu iaeiia?aiaiii, a eo acaeiinayce. A nia?aiaiiie
iaoea eco/aaiue iauaeo ?anniao?eaaaony, eae i?aaeei, ia n oi/ee c?aiey
ioaeaeueiuo, ioiineoaeueii iainiaeaiiuo aai noi?ii, a eiaiii eae aaeeiia
oeaeia. Caeanue o?aaoaony aaeeinoai aiaeeca e neioaca. Cia/eo, ana iaoee
aac eneeth/aiey, eco/ay eaeie-eeai iauaeo n ?aciuo noi?ii, aeieaeiu ana
a?aiy enoiaeeoue ec aai oeaeinoiinoe, o/eouaaoue ia?acaeaeueiinoue e
acaeiiaeeyiea anao aai aniaeoia e i?iyaeaiee.

Iaeei ec aaaeiuo e iieacaoaeueiuo ?acoeueoaoia oneeeaathuaainy
acaeiiaeaenoaey iaoe – aicieeiiaaiea e ?ani?ino?aiaiea a nia?aiaiiii
iiciaiee oe?ieeo iao/iuo iiaeoiaeia e iaoiaeia (eeaa?iaoeee, oai?ee
eioi?iaoeee, nenoaiiiai enneaaeiaaiey e o. ae.), eioi?ua iaoiaeyo
i?eiaiaiea a naiuo ?aciuo noa?ao iaoee, i?e eco/aiee iauaeoia naiiai
?acee/iiai niaea?aeaiey. Aeaeueiaeoaa ?acaeoea oaeeo iao/iuo iiaeoiaeia
e iaoiaeia, aaaaeaiea eo a iianaaeiaaiue iaeoiae – aua iaeei iooue e
oe?aieaieth acaeiinayce iauanoaaiiuo, anoanoaaiiuo e oaoie/aneeo iaoe.

Caaea/e e i?iaeaiu acaeiiaeaenoaey iaoe ia i?eia?a aeieiaee e oeceee.

A iiciaiee naienoa aeeaie iaoa?ee a iineaaeiaa a?aiy ana aieueooth e
aieueooth ?ieue ea?atho oeiey e oeceea. A eiioea XIX aaea ?acaeoea
i?aaie/aneie oeiee i?eaaei e aicieeiiaaieth aeioeiee, eioi?ay
noi?ie?iaaeanue a naiinoiyoaeueioth iaoeo, aeinoeaooth a ianoiyuaa a?aiy
aunieiai o?iaiy ?acaeoey.

O?oaeiaa i?iieeaea a aeieiaeth oeceea. Aua a i?ioeii noieaoee, ii ia?a
?acaeoey oeceee, aeaeaeenue iiiai/eneaiiua iiiuoee eniieueciaaoue aa
iaoiaeu e oai?ee aeey eco/aiey e iiieiaiey i?e?iaeu aeieiae/aneeo
yaeaiee. I?e yoii ia aeeaua oeaie e eeaoee niio?aee eae ia oece/aneea
nenoaiu e ia o/eouaaee oiai, /oi iniiaioth ii?aaeaeythuoth ?ieue a yoeo
nenoaiae ea?aao oeiey. Eiaiii iiyoiio iiiuoee iiaeieoe e aeieiae/aneei
iauaeoai n /enoi oece/aneeo iiceoeee iineee iaeaiue oa?aeoa?.

Iniiaiui iaoiaeii yoiai iai?aaeaiey yaeyeenue iienee aiaeiaee.

Aeieiae/aneea yaeaiey, noiaeiua aiaoia n yaeaieyie /enoi oece/aneeie,
o?aeoiaaeenue, niioaaonoaaiii, eae oece/aneea. Iai?eia? yooaeo iuoa/iiai
nie?auaiey iauyniyee iueaciyeaeo?e/aneei iaoaieciii ia iniiaaiee oiai,
/oi i?e iaeiaeaiee iioaioeeaea ia e?enoaeeu i?ienoiaeeei eciaiaiea eo
aeeeiu. Ia ?ino eeaoie niio?aee eae ia yaeaiea, aiieia aiaeiae/iia ?inoo
e?enoaeeia. Eeaoi/iia aeaeaiea ?anniao?eaaee eae yaeaiea, iaoneiaeaiiia
eeoue iiaa?oiinoii aeoeaiuie naienoaaie ia?oaeiuo neiaa i?ioiieaciu.
Aiaaieaeiia aeaeaeaiea eeaoie ?anniao?eaaee eae ?acoeueoao eciaiaiey eo
iiaa?oiinoiiai iaoyaeaiey e, niioaaonoaaiii, iiaeaee?iaaee aeaeaeaieai
?oooiie eaiee e ?anoai?a eeneiou.

Aeaaea cia/eoaeueii iicaea, a aeaaaeoeaouo aiaeao iaoaai noieaoey,
aeaoaeueii ?anniao?eaaee e eco/aee iiaeaeue ia?aiiai i?iaaaeaiey, oae
iacuaaaioth iiaeaeue Eeeee, i?aaenoaaeyaooth niaie aeaeacioth i?iaieieo,
eioi?ay iia?oaeaeanue a ?anoai? eeneiou e iie?uaaeanue i?e yoii ieaieie
ieene. I?e iaianaiee ia iiaa?oiinoue oea?aieiu ieenue ?ac?ooaeanue, a
caoai ainnoaiaaeeaaeanue, ii iaeiia?aiaiii ?ac?ooaeanue a ninaaeiai
o/anoea e o.ae. Ae?oaeie neiaaie, iieo/eeinue ?ani?ino?aiaiea aieiu
?ac?ooaiey e ainnoaiiaeaiey, i/aiue iioiaeaa ia ?ani?ino?aiaiea aieiu
yeaeo?iio?eoeaoaeueiinoe i?e ?acae?aaeaiee ia?aa.

Aicieeiiaaiea eaaioiaie oai?ee i?eaaei e iiiuoea iauynieoue aeaenoaea
eo/enoie yia?aee ia aeieiae/aneea iauaeou n iiceoeee noaoe/aneie oeceee.
Iiyaeeanue oi?iaeueiay oai?ey, eioi?ay iauyniyea eo/aaia ii?aaeaiea eae
?acoeueoao neo/aeiuo iiiaaeaiee eaaioa (eee yaea?iie /anoeoeu) a iniai
oycaeiua eeaoi/iua no?oeoo?u. I?e yoii niaa?oaiii oioneaeenue ec aeaeo
oa eiie?aoiua oioioeie/aneea e iineaaeothuea oeie/aneea i?ioeannu,
eioi?ua ii?aaeaeytho ?acaeoea eo/aaiai ii?aaeaiey ai a?aiaie.

Aua iaaeaaii ia iniiaaiee oi?iaeueiiai noiaenoaa caeiiiia?iinoae
yeaeo?ii?iaiaeiinoe aeeauo oeaiae e yeaeo?ii?iaiaeiinoe iieoi?iaiaeieeia
iuoaeenue i?eiaieoue oai?eth iieoi?iaiaeieeia aeey iauyniaiey
no?oeoo?iuo iniaaiiinoae oeaeuo eeaoie.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy ?ac?aaaouaathony iiaeaee, eioi?ua a eaeie-oi ia?a
aini?iecaiaeyo iiaaaeaiea oeaeuo aeeauo i?aaieciia. Oae auee nicaeaiu
yeaeo?iiiay iuoue e yeaeo?iiiay /a?aiaoa. Iie aeaenoaeoaeueii auiieiytho
iaeioi?ua aeou, i?enouea aeeaui i?aaieciai. Ii iaoaieciu, eaaeauea a
iniiaa eo ?aaiou, ioee/iu io iaoaieciia i?ioeannia aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe.
Iiciaaaoaeueiia cia/aiea iiaeiaiuo iiaeaeae aeey aeioeceee ia?aie/aii.

A iauai, iaaei ioiaoeoue, /oi iai?aaeaiea, aace?othuaany ia iiaeaeyo e
aiaeiaeyo, oioy e iiaeao i?eaea/ue e ?aaioa aanueia niaa?oaiiue
iaoaiaoe/aneee aiia?ao, a?yae ee i?eaeeceo aeieiaia e iiieiaieth
nouiinoe aeieiae/aneeo i?ioeannia. Iiiuoee eniieueciaaiey /enoi
oece/aneeo i?aaenoaaeaiee aeey iiieiaiey aeeciaiiuo yaeaiee e i?e?iaeu
aeeaie iaoa?ee aeaee aieueoia eiee/anoai niaeoeyoeaiuo oai?ee e ynii
iieacaee, /oi i?yiie iooue oeceee a aeieiaeth ia i?iaeoeoeaai, oae eae
aeeaua i?aaieciu noiyo ian?aaiaiii aeeaea e oeie/aneei nenoaiai, /ai e
oece/aneei .

Cia/eoaeueii aieaa ieiaeioai?iui ieacaeinue aiaae?aiea oeceee a oeieth.
I?eiaiaiea oece/aneeo i?aaenoaaeaiee nua?aei aieueooth ?ieue a iiieiaiee
iaoaieciia oeie/aneeo i?ioeannia. Aicieeiiaaiea oece/aneie oeiee nua?aei
a oeiee ?aaiethoeeiiioth ?ieue. Ia iniiaa oaniiai eiioaeoa oeceee e
oeiee aicieeee nia?aiaiiay oeie/aneay eeiaoeea e oeiey iieeia?ia.
Iaeioi?ua ?acaeaeu oece/aneie oeiee, a. eioi?uo oeceea iieo/eea
aeiieie?othuaa cia/aiea, noaee iacuaaoueny oeie/aneie oeceeie.

Iaiaoiaeeiinoue aicieeiiaaiey oece/aneie oeiee e oeie/aneie oeceee
aeeeoiaaeanue oai, /oi e eiioeo XIXa. oeiey iaeiieea ia?iiiue
oaeoe/aneee iaoa?eae. Noaee ecaanoiu aeanyoee ouny/ ?aciiia?aciuo
niaaeeiaiee e iiyoiio aicieeea iaiaoiaeeiinoue onoaiiaeoue iauea
caeiiiia?iinoe, eioi?ua iieacaee au naycue no?iaiey iieaeoe n eo
?aaeoeaiie niiniaiinoueth. Oaeoth naycue iiaeii onoaiiaeoue oieueei i?e
iiiiue oeceee.

Eiaiii n aicieeiiaaieai oece/aneie oeiee naycaii ?acaeoea aeioeceee.
Iiiaea aaaeiua aeey aeieiaee i?aaenoaaeaiey i?eoee a iaa ec oece/aneie
oeiee. Iai?eia?, iiyaeaiea a oece/aneie oeiee oai?ee ?anoai?ia e
onoaiiaeaiea oaeoa, /oi niee a aiaeiuo ?anoai?ao ?aniaaeathony ia eiiu,
i?eaaei e i?aaenoaaeaieth i aaaeiie ?iee eiiia a iniiaiuo i?ioeannao
aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe.

Auei onoaiiaeaii, /oi a yaeaieyo aicaoaeaeaiey e i?iaaaeaiey ?aoathuay
?ieue i?eiaaeeaaeeo eiaiii eiiai. Oae aicieeee eiiiua oai?ee
aicaoaeaeaiey, ?ac?aaioaiiua Ia?inoii e I.I.Eaca?aaui.

N oniaoaie eieeieaeiie oeiee naycaiu enneaaeiaaiey, a eioi?uo auei
iieacaii, /oi a iniiaa iia?aaeaeaiey i?ioiieaciu ?acee/iuie oaeoi?aie
eaaeeo eiaaoeyoeey aeieieeieaeia. A nayce n aicieeiiaaieai o/aiey i
iieeia?ao eieeieaeiay oeiey i?ioiieaciu ia?a?inea a aeioeceeo iieeia?ia
e, iniaaiii, iieeyeaeo?ieeoia.

Iiyaeaiea oeie/aneie eeiaoeee oaeaea aucaaei iiyaeaiea aiaeiae/iiai
iai?aaeaiey a aeieiaee. Aua A??aieon – iaeei ec iniiaaoaeae oeie/aneie
eeiaoeee, iieacae, /oi iauea caeiiiia?iinoe oeie/aneie eeiaoeee
i?eiaieiu e eco/aieth eeiaoe/aneeo caeiiiia?iinoae a aeeauo i?aaieciao
ee ioaeaeueiui aeioeie/aneei ?aaeoeeyi.

Oniaoe i?eiaiaiey oece/aneie e eieeieaeiie oeiee i?e iauyniaiee ?yaea
aeieiae/aneeo yaeaiee iaoee io?aaeaiea e a iaaeeoeeia. Auea auyaeaia
?ieue eiiiuo e eieeieaeiuo yaeaiee a ainiaeeoaeueiii i?ioeanna.
Oeceei-oeie/aneoth eioa?i?aoaoeeth iieo/eee caeiiiia?iinoe eeaoi/iie
i?iieoeaaiinoe e aa eciaiaiee i?e iaoieiae/aneeo i?ioeannao. Oaeei
ia?acii ioe?ueanue iiaay aeaaa iaoieiaee – oeceei-oeie/aneay iaoieiaey.

Iiaia iai?aaeaiea a aeieiaee, aace?othuaany ia oeceea e oece/aneie
oeiee, noaee iacuaaoue oeceei-oeie/aneie aeieiaeae, aeieiae/aneie
oeceei-oeieae, aeioece/aneie oeieae. Iicaea ana yoe oa?ieiu auee
iauaaeeiaiu iaeiei oa?ieiii – aeioeceea. Ii nouanoao aeioeceea – yoi
oece/aneay oeiey e oeie/aneay oeceea aeieiae/aneeo nenoai.

Oa?aeoa?iie /a?oie aeioeceee, ioee/athuae aa io aeioeiee, yaeyaony oi,
/oi iia ?anniao?eaaao oeaeinoiua nenoaiu, ia ?aceaaay eo ii aiciiaeiinoe
ia ioaeaeueiua oeie/aneea eiiiiiaiou Aeioecee anaaaea aeieaeai eiaoue a
aeaeo, /oi yeaiaioa?iua aeeciaiiua i?ioeannu i?ioaeatho a neiaeiuo
aunieiiieeia?iuo eiiieaenao. I?e auaeaeaiee aea a /enoii aeaea
ioaeaeueiuo eiiiiiaioia oo?a/eaathony, eae i?aaeei, aaaeiaeoea naienoaa
aeeaiai. Ii?iaeueii ooieoeeiie?iaaoue aeiiieeia?u niiniaiu oieueei a
oneiaeyo iaia?ooaiiie aeeaie nenoaiu. Iiyoiio ia?aae aeioeceeie anoaao
caaea/a iieo/aiey eioi?iaoeee i oeceei-oeie/aneii no?iaiee eeaoee e aa
aeiiieeia?ia eiaiii a oaeii aeaea, a eioi?ii iie nouanoaotho i?e aeecie.
Iieo/aiea aea naaaeaiee io aeeaie ooieoeeiie?othuae nenoaiu o?aaoao
i?eiaiaiey oaeeo oece/aneeo iaoiaeia e a oaeeo oneiaeyo, i?e eioi?uo iie
naie ia aiinyo eaeeo-eeai eciaiaiee a enneaaeoaioth nenoaio. Iaaeaeo oai
iiiaea i?eiaiyaiua a yenia?eiaioaeueiie aeieiaee aicaeaenoaey
i?iecaiaeyo a aeeauo nenoaiao iaia?aoeiua eciaiaiey. Iai?eia?, eciaiaiey
oaiia?aoo?u, ?acee/iua ?anoai?eoaee, niee, eeneiou e o.i. i?eaiaeyo e
?ac?ooaieth aunieiiieeia?iuo eiiieaenia, oioy aiaoiyy oi?ia eeaoee e aa
i?aaiieaeia i?e yoii iiaeao nio?aiyoueny.

I ia?ooaiee aeeciaiiuo i?ioeannia iiaeii i?aaeaea anaai noaeeoue ii
eciaiaieth oece/aneeo ia?aiao?ia, oa?aeoa?iuo aeey aeeauo eeaoie. I?e
anao auoaoiiiyioouo aicaeaenoaeyo eeaoee oa?ytho iai?eia?, niiniaiinoue
e iiey?ecaoeee. Yoi aiai?eo i oii, /oi oeceei-oeie/aneea naienoaa,
oa?aeoa?iua aeey aeeaie eeaoee, nouanoaaiii iaiythony i?e iia?aaeaeaiee.
E?iia oiai, i?e ?acee/iuo aicaeaenoaeyo ia eeaoeo iiaoo aicieeaoue e
a?oaoaeou – ia?aciauaaoueny no?oeoo?u e niaaeeiaiey, eioi?uo iao a
iaiia?aaeaeaiiuo eeaoeao. A coii ioiioaiee e?eoe/aneiai iiaeoiaea
o?aaoao, iai?eia?, yeaeo?iiiay iee?ineiiey, yaeythuayny iiuiui
iiciaaaoaeueiui n?aaenoaii aeey aeieiaee. N aa iiiiuui oeeoieiaey e
ae?onieiaey neeueii ?anoe?eee naie ai?eciiou. Iaeiaei, eiaaea i?e iiiiue
oieueei yeaeo?iiiie iee?ineiiee iuoathony ane?uoue aeaoaee oiieiai
iieaeoey?iiai no?iaiey aeeaiai aauanoaa, enneaaeiaaoaee eiiaaea
noaeeeaathony n a?oaoaeoaie, /oi iiaeao i?eaiaeeoue e ioeai/iui
auaiaeai.

Aieueoay neiaeiinoue e aunieay eaaeeueiinoue aeeauo iauaeoia noaaeo
aeioeceea a o?oaeiua oneiaey e auioaeaeaao aai ia?a?aaaouaaoue
oece/aneea iaoiaeu, nicaeaaay niaoeeaeece?iaaiiua aeioece/aneea iaoiaeu
e i?eaiu. No?aieaiea eco/aoue ii aiciiaeiinoe iaia?ooaiioth eee eeoue
ieieiaeueii eciaiaiioth aeeaoth nenoaio auioaeaeaao aeioeceeia
iieueciaaoueny i/aiue neaauie enoi/ieeaie eceo/aiey i?e enneaaeiaaiee
iioe/aneeo naienoa eeaoie, neaauie yeaeo?e/aneeie oieaie i?e ecia?aiee
yeaeo?e/aneeo ia?aiao?ia e o.i. Iiyoiio aea a naieo enneaaeiaaieyo
aeioeceee aeieaeiu oe?iei eniieueciaaoue oneeeoaeueioth oaoieeo.

Ca iineaaeiaa a?aiy /aoei auyaeeny ?yae oai?aoe/aneeo e i?aeoe/aneeo
i?iaeai, eioi?ua iiaoo e aeieaeiu ?aoaoueny eiaiii aeioeceeie. Aeioeceea
caieiaaony, a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue, aii?inaie ?aciaia yia?aee a
aeieiae/aneii noano?aoa, enneaaeiaaieai ?iee noaiee?ineiie/aneeo e
oeceei-oeie/aneeo no?oeoo? a aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe eeaoie e oeaiae,
aicieeiiaaieai aicaoaeaeaiey e i?ienoiaeaeaieai aeiyeaeo?e/aneeo
iioaioeeaeia, aii?inaie aaoi?aaoee?iaaiey oeceei-oeie/aneeo i?ioeannia a
aeeauo i?aaieciao. Eiie?aoiua caaea/e nia?aiaiiie aeioeceee aanueia
?aciiia?aciu.

Iaeia ec iniiaiuo caaea/ aeioeceee – auyaeaiea oece/aneeo e
oeceei-oeie/aneeo ia?aiao?ia, oa?aeoa?iuo aeey aeeauo iauaeoia.
Ecaanoii, /oi oa?aeoa?iui naienoaii aeeauo eeaoie yaeyaony iaee/ea
yeaeo?e/aneiai iioaioeeaea iaaeaeo eeaoeie e ie?oaeathuae n?aaeie;
niiniaiinoue oaea?aeeaaoue eiiiue a?aaeeaio ii eaeeth e iao?eth iaaeaeo
eeaoeie e n?aaeie; niiniaiinoue iiey?eciaaoue yeaeo?e/aneee oie. I?e
aeaaee aeeaiai iauaeoa yoe naienoaa en/acatho. A caoeene?iaaiiuo
aenoieiae/aneeo i?aia?aoao auyaeythony iaaeiieaeoey?iua no?oeoo?u,
ionoonoaothuea a aeeauo iaiia?aaeaeaiiuo eeaoeao. A oi aea a?aiy oiieea
iieaeoey?iua no?oeoo?u eeaoee, iaania/eaathuea aa iniiaiua i?eaeeciaiiua
naienoaa, ieacuaathony ia?ooaiiuie. Iiyoiio eiaiii aii?in i auyaeaiee
enoeiiuo iieaeoey?iuo no?oeoo? e ii?aaeaeaiea i?eaeeciaiiuo
oeceei-oeie/aneeo ia?aiao?ia aeieiae/aneeo iauaeoia i?eia?aoaao ia?iiiia
cia/aiea.

Iaeiei ec aaaeiaeoeo iai?aaeaiee aeioeceee yaeyaony eco/aiea
aeieiae/aneiai aeaenoaey eiiece?othueo eceo/aiee. Yoa i?iaeaia
?aciinoi?iiia eco/aaony ?acee/iuie aeenoeeieeiaie (oeceieiaeae,
aeioeieae, iaoieiaeae e ae?.), ii naiay nouanoaaiiay ?ieue ioaiaeeony
caeanue aeioeceea. Aaaeiaeoei iiiaioii a aeaenoaee eo/enoie yia?aee ia
aeieiae/aneee noano?ao yaeyaony ia?ae/iue ia?aoiae oece/aneie yia?aee,
iiaeiuaiiie aeieiae/aneei noano?aoii, a oiie/aneoth yia?aeth e ?acaeoea
ia?ae/iuo oeie/aneeo ?aaeoeee. I?e yoii i?ienoiaeeo ia?aciaaiea
aunieiaeoeaiuo ?aaeeeaeia e eiiia, eioi?ua e neoaeao oeaio?aie ia?ae/iuo
?aaeoeee. Ia?ae/iue auoiae aeoeaiuo oeie/aneeo i?iaeoeoia ii?aaeaeyao
ana aeaeueiaeoaa ?acaeoea eo/aaiai ii?aaeaiey. Iiyoiio a ianoiyuaa a?aiy
ia?ainoaiaiiia cia/aiea i?eia?aoaao enneaaeiaaiea oeie/aneie i?e?iaeu
ia?ae/iuo ?aaeeeaeia e eeiaoeee ?aaeeeaeueiuo ?aaeoeee. Ionthaea
auoaeaao e aaaeiay caaea/a oi?iiaeaiey ?aaeeaoeeiiii-oeie/aneeo ?aaeoeee
?acee/iuie eiaeaeoi?aie i?e?iaeiiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey.

Ineaaeaiea ?aaeeaoeeiiiiai yooaeoa – aiieia ?aaeueiay caaea/a. I?e
aaaaeaiee a i?aaieci ia?aae iaeo/aieai iaeioi?uo aauanoa-eiaeaeoi?ia
inouanoaeyaony oae iacuaaaiay oeie/aneay caueoa. Aeioeceea auyaeyao
oeceei-oeie/aneea naienoaa iieaeoe aauanoa-eiaeaeoi?ia e ia iniiaa iaueo
i?eioeeiia aeaao iaoiaeu

iiaeai?a iaiaoiaeeiuo niaaeeiaiee.

Aii?in ?aciaia e ia?aaea/e yia?aee i?e oioioeie/aneeo i?ioeannao noieo
a iniiaa ae?oaie aaaeiie aeioece/aneie i?iaeaiu – i?iaeaiu iaoaiecia
oioineioaca. N yoie i?iaeaiie naycai oaeaea aua iaeei i?eioeeieaeueiue
aeey aeioeceee aii?in: aii?in i aiciiaeiinoe iea?aoeee yia?aee e i
iaoaiecia oaeie iea?aoeee. Anoue iniiaaiey iieaaaoue, /oi oeie/aneay
?aaeoeey i?e oioineioaca i?ioaeaao ia a oii ianoa, aaea inouanoaeyaony
ia?ae/iue i?ioeann acaeiiaeaenoaey eaaioia naaoa n aauanoaii, a ia
iaeioi?ii ?annoiyiee , o.a. oai, eoaea ia?aiineony iiaeiuaiiay yia?aey.

A oaeii aea aniaeoa eco/athony aeioeceeie ia?ae/iua iaoaieciu ,
eaaeauea a iniiaa c?eoaeueiiai aeoa, enneaaeothony i?iaeoeou
oioioeie/aneeo ?aaeoeee, i?ienoiaeyueo i?e iiaeiuaiee yia?aee naaoa
ieaiaioaie c?eoaeueiuo ?aoeaioi?ia.

Neaaeothuei aaaeiui iai?aaeaieai aeioeceee yaeyaony enneaaeiaaiea
i?iieoeaaiinoe eeaoie e oeaiae. Oeceei-oeie/aneay aeieiaey oaea aeaaii
caieiaaony auyaeaieai caeiiiia?iinoae i?iieeiiaaiey aauanoaa a aeeaua
eeaoee. Yoi i?aeoe/anee aaaeiue aii?in, oae eae n i?iieoeaaiinoueth
naycaii oa?iaeieiae/aneia :aeaenoaea eaea?noaaiiuo aauanoa e oiene/aneia
aeaenoaea ?acee/iuo yaeia. I?iieeiiaaiea aauanoa a eeaoee caaeneo a
ia?aoth i/a?aaeue io oeceei-oeie/aneeo naienoa iieaeoe, eo
?anoai?eiinoe, eo yeaeo?e/aneeo naienoa – ?ani?aaeaeaiey ca?yaeia.
Aeioeceea aeieaeia onoaiiaeoue ei??aeyoeaioth naycue iaaeaeo yoeie
naienoaaie aauanoaa e aai niiniaiinoueth i?iieeaoue a eeaoee. N ae?oaie
noi?iiu , i?iieoeaaiinoue naycaia ni niiniaiinoueth iiaa?oiinoiuo
eeaoi/iuo iaia?ai i?iioneaoue oa eee eiua aauanoaa. Iiyoiio aeioeceea
eco/aao e oeceei-oeie/aneea naienoaa aeieiae/aneeo iaia?ai e niiniau
iiauoaiey eee iiieaeaiey i?iieoeaaiinoe aeaenoaeai ?acee/iuo aaaioia.
Iineaaeiaa eiaao aieueoia cia/aiea aeey ea/aaiuo ia?ii?eyoee, aeey
i?eiaiaiey yaeiaeouo einaeoeoeeaeia a naeueneii oicyenoaa, i?e
aeaceioaeoeee e o. i.

I?ioiieacia eeaoie ninoieo ec aunieiiieeia?iuo aauanoa, a iniiaiii
iieeyeaeo?ieeoia, e iaeaaeaao naienoaaie, i?enoueie yoiio eeanno
niaaeeiaiee. Oaeoaeaiiua enneaaeiaaiey a yoie iaeanoe ioe?uaatho iiaua
aiciiaeiinoe aeey eco/aiey naienoa i?ioiieaciu. A /anoiinoe, a ianoiyuaa
a?aiy oaea oaeaeinue cia/eoaeueii i?eaeeceoueny e iiieiaieth aii?ina ia
ecae?aoaeueiii iiaeiuaiee eaeey aeeauie eeaoeaie.

Eco/aiea oeceei-oeie/aneeo i?aa?auaiee aeiiieeia?ia a eeaoea oanii
naycaii n auyaeaieai iaoaiecia aicieeiiaaiey aicaoaeaeaiey e
aeiyeaeo?e/aneeo iioaioeeaeia eae a iaaeeooa?aioee?iaaiiuo eeaoeao, oae
e a niaoeeaeece?iaaiiuo ia?aiuo e iuoa/iuo yeaiaioao. Oeceieiaey oaea
aeaaii eniieuecoao aeiyeaeo?e/aneea iioaioeeaeu aeey ioeaiee
oeceieiae/aneeo e iaoieiae/aneeo ninoiyiee i?aaiecia. Ia?aae aeioeceeie
noieo ae?oaay aieueoay caaea/a – auyaeoue oeceei-oeie/aneea i?e/eiu
iiyaeaiey e ?acaeoey aeiyeaeo?e/aneeo iioaioeeaeia, ii?aaeaeeoue eo
yia?aaoe/aneea enoi/ieee e yoei ioe?uoue iooue aeey aieaa aeoaieiai
aiaeeca oeceei-oeie/aneiai ninoiyiey eeaoie a ii?ia e iaoieiaee.

Aeioeceea aianoa n ae?oaeie aeenoeeieeiaie i?eieiaao nae/an o/anoea a
?anoeo?iaea aaaeiaeoeo aii?inia i oeceei-oeie/aneeo iaoaieciao ia?aaea/e
ianeaaenoaaiiuo naienoa e eco/aao iaoaieciu, ii?aaeaeythuea
onoie/eainoue aeaea e aai eciai/eainoue. I?e yoii aiaeece?othony oa
neeu, eioi?ua aucuaatho aeaeaiea e ?anoiaeaeaiea o?iiinii,
oeceei-oeie/aneea iniiau acaeiiaeaenoaey ioeeaeiiauo eeneio,
oeceei-oeie/aneay i?e?iaea aaia e o.ae.

Iaeiiaoe, a ianoiyuaa a?aiy aieueoia aieiaiea aeioeceee i?eaeaeaao
i?iaeaia aaoi?aaoeyoeee. A eco/aiee aaoi?aaoeyoeee caeioa?aniaaia ia
oieueei aeieiaey, ii e oaoieea, oae eae iaeioi?ua iaoaieciu
aaoi?aaoee?iaaiey, nouanoaothuea o aeeauo i?aaieciia, iiaoo iineoaeeoue
enoi/ieeii iiauo eaeae aeey ?acee/iuo iaeanoae oaoieee. Aeaenoaeoaeueii,
a aeieiae/aneeo nenoaiao nouanoaotho aanueia niaa?oaiiua iaoaieciu aeey
?aaoee?iaaiey oeie/aneeo ?aaeoeee, eaaeaueo a iniiaa yia?aaoe/aneiai
iaiaia aauanoa. A eeaoeao n oaeeaeoaeueiui iinoiyinoaii
iiaeaea?aeeaathony aaee/eiu ?I e eiiiue aaeain eaeey e iao?ey aeaaea i?e
cia/eoaeueiuo eciaiaieyo eiioeaio?aoeee ai aiaoiae n?aaea. Aeieiae/aneea
nenoaiu i/aiue oi?ioi eii?aeeie?otho o?iaie i?ioaeaiey yia?aaoe/aneeo
i?ioeannia. I?e yoii, ianiio?y ia aunieoth eaaeeueiinoue e niiniaiinoue
?aaae?iaaoue ia iacia/eoaeueiua eciaiaiey ai aiaoiae n?aaea,
aeieiae/aneea nenoaiu iaeaaeatho aunieie iaaeaaeiinoueth.
Aaoi?aaoee?othuea iaoaieciu ea?atho aieueooth ?ieue a i?eniiniaeaiee
aeeaioiuo e ?anoaiee e eciaiythueiny oneiaeyi aiaoiae n?aaeu. Aeey
iiieiaiey aii?inia aaoi?aaoee?iaaiey o?aaoaony ?ac?aaioea oa?iiaeeiaieee
e eeiaoeee aeieiae/aneeo i?ioeannia, /oi e ninoaaeyao aaaeiaeooth
caaea/o aeioeceee.

Iooe acaeiiaeaenoaey iaoe.

Aeaa neaaeothuea oi?iu acaeiinayce iaoe – eo “ia?aieaoaiea” e
“noa?aeiacaoeey”. Aiaeec i?ioeanna acaeiiaeaenoaey iaoe a iaoa a?aiy
iicaieyao naeaeaoue neaaeothuee auaiae: iniiaiuie oaiaeaioeeyie a
yaiethoeee nia?aiaiiuo iaoe ia/eiay i?eia?ii n na?aaeeiu OOa.– n iiiaioa
iieiiai ?acaa?ouaaiey iao/ii-oaoie/aneie ?aaiethoeee – noaei aeaeaeaiea
a noi?iio eo “ia?aieaoaiey” e eo “noa?aeiacaoeee”. Iaeiaei a naiie
no?oeoo?a iao/iiai ciaiey, a aai a?oeoaeoiieea aua neeueiu e aeatho naay
ciaoue aai “?iaeeiua iyoia”, naeaeaoaeuenoaothuea i ?iaeaeaiee iaoe a
ia?eiae ainiiaenoaa iaeiinoi?iiia-aiaeeoe/aneiai iaoiaea enneaaeiaaiey.
A naiii aeaea, ia/eiay n XVI – XVIII aa. ana iao/iia ciaiea auei
?an/eaiaii ia ?yae ooiaeaiaioaeueiuo io?aneae, ?acei iainiaeaiiuo
iaaeaeo niaie. Yoi iiaeaeei ca niaie aeaa neaaenoaey:

ia?aia – /eaiaiea ciaiey ia aai ioaeaeueiua io?anee , o.a. oceoth
niaoeeaeecaoeeth;

aoi?ia – ia?aciaaiea iaaeaeo yoeie io?aneyie ?aceeo ?ac?uaia, o.a.
iieiia iainiaeaiea iaeiie niaoeeaeueiinoe io ae?oaie.

Iineaaeothuaa ?acaeoea iaoe a noi?iio onoaiiaeaiey eo acaeiinayce
/anoe/ii i?aiaeieaei, oi/iaa neacaoue, noaei i?aiaeieaaaoue yoe
neaaenoaey iaeiinoi?iiia i?eiaiaiiiai aiaeeca: ia?aia neaaenoaea,
iaeiaei, inoaeinue, a nouiinoe, iacao?iiooui, e aanue iao/iue i?ia?ann
niaa?oaeny e ia?aaeei niaa?oaaony iiea a ?aieao i?aaeieo ioaeaeueiuo
iaoe. I?aiaeieaii eeoue aoi?ia neaaenoaea aeaaiaea?y aicieeiiaaieth iaoe
i?iiaaeooi/iiai oa?aeoa?a. Anoaao aii?in: ia iaiaoeeenue ee oaea a
ianoiyuaa a?aiy oaiaeaioeee e i?aiaeieaieth ia?aiai neaaenoaey, e
eioi?iio i?eaaei iaeiinoi?iiiaa i?eiaiaiea aiaeeca?

Oaeea oaiaeaioeee ia/eiatho i?iyaeyony neaaeaeui aeiai ana neeueiaa.
Iie iai?aaeaiu io i?aiaeieaiey inoaoeia aueie iainiaeaiiinoe e
caieiooinoe iaoe e eo acaeiiaeaenoaeth. A i?ioeii aioo?aiiyy naycue iaoe
iaia?oaeeeanue eae aicieeiiaaiea ia?aoiaeiuo “iinoia” iaaeaeo ?aiaa
?aciauaiiuie iaaeaeo niaie iaoeaie. Ii ca i?aaeaeaie yoeo “iinoia”, o.a.
ca i?aaeaeaie i?iiaaeooi/iuo io?aneae iao/iiai ciaiey, eaaeaeay
ooiaeaiaioaeueiay iaoea i?iaeieaeaea caieiaoueny naiei nianoaaiiui
i?aaeiaoii – naiae niaoeeoe/aneie oi?iie aeaeaeaiey eee niaoeeoe/aneie
noi?iiie iauaeoa eco/aiey, ioai?aaeeaaynue io ae?oaeo iaoe. Ii oaea
iiyaeaiea i?iiaaeooi/iuo io?aneae iaoee aianei nthaea na?ueaciua
ei??aeoeau: a ano?ioeceea niaaeeieeenue i?e eco/aiee iauaai aeey ieo
e?oaa yaeaiee oeceea e ano?iiiiey; a aaioeiee – aaieiaey e oeiey; a
aeioeiee – aeieiaey e oeiey; a aei- aaioeiee – ana yoe o?e iaoee e o.ae.

Iaeiaei ca i?aaeaeaie oaeeo “iinoia” naie iao/iua “aa?aaa”,
niaaeeiyaiua yoeie “iinoaie”, inoaaaeenue ii-i?aaeiaio iainiaeaiiuie
ae?oa io ae?oaa, caieioouie a naaa. A aeaeueiaeoai yoe ?aiaa
iainiaeaiiua iaoee i?eaiaeyony ai ana aieaa aeoeaiia acaeiiaeaenoaea, ai
acaeiiue eiioaeo. Nia/aea yoi auee ?acee/iua anoanoaaiiua iaoee,
inoaaaaoeany a iniiaiii ana aua iainiaeaiiuie iaeia io ae?oaie e
caieioouie

ii-i?aaeiaio a naaa; oae yoi i?ienoiaeeei, iai?eia?, i?e iaeiia?aiaiiii
eco/aiee ia oieueei aeecie, ii e ae?oaeo iauaeoia i?e?iaeu, neaaeai,
iaioee yaiiie ei?u eee aea einiina. Anai yoei aue naeaeai nouanoaaiiue
oaa a noi?iio i?aiaeieaiey aueie caieiooinoe iaoe e aeeth/aiey eo a
iauaa, iauaaeeiythuaa eo enneaaeiaaiea i?e?iaeiuo aauae e i?ioeannia.
I?e yoii iauaaeeiythuei eo ia/aeii, noeioeii, aucuaathuei
iaiaoiaeeiinoue e aiciiaeiinoue eo acaeiiaeaenoaey, neoaeeei oi, /oi iie
eco/aee iaeei e oio aea iauee aeey ieo iauaeo i?e?iaeu. Iinoaiaiii oaeia
acaeiiaeaenoaea iaoe oneeeaaeinue a a?iiaaeiie noaiaie, ieacuaay naia
aeeyiea ia anth no?oeoo?o nia?aiaiiiai iao/iiai ciaiey.

Neacaiiia ia eco/aiee i?e?iaeiuo iauaeoia iooai acaeiiaeaenoaey iaoe
eanaaony eco/aiey oaeaea e nioeeaeueiuo yaeaiee. Oae eco/aiea yaeaiee
i?anooiiinoe iaeieaoieo e ?ane?uoea i?e/ei yoeo ino?i iaaaoeaiuo
nioeeaeueiuo yaeaiee iaaiciiaeii inouanoaeoue iaeiie eaeie-eeai
io?aneueth iauanoaaiiuo iaoe eee ianeieueeeie, ii ?aciauaiiuie iaaeaeo
niaie iauanoaaiiuie iaoeaie. Oieueei a eo oaniaeoai acaeiiaeaenoaee
iaaeaeo niaie iiaoo auoue iiciaiu yoe yaeaiey, i?aaeeueii ane?uou eo
i?e/eiu e iaeaeaiu aeaenoaaiiua i?aeoe/aneea iooe e niiniau eo
enei?aiaiey. A aeaiiii neo/aa a oaeia acaeiiaeaenoaea n i?aaiauie
iaoeaie aeieaeiu auoue i?eaaaeaiu iaoee:

yeiiiie/aneea, eco/athuea iaoa?eaeueiua oneiaey aeecie iaeieaoieo;

iaaeaaiae/aneea, eco/athuea aeaei oeieueiiai ainieoaiey e iao/aiey;

nioeeieiae/aneea, eco/athuea naiaeioth aeeciue e ianoaiiaeo;

yoe/aneea, eco/athuea aii?in n aai ii?aeueiie noi?iiu, aii?in i /oanoaa
ioaaonoaaiiinoe ca iauaa aeaei;

oeeinioneea, eco/athuea eaeaieiae/aneoth noi?iio aii?ina, ?ieue
iauanoaaiiiai niciaiey a aeecie iauanoaa;

ineoieiae/aneea, eco/athuea ineoeeo iiae?anoathuaai iieieaiey, e o.ae.

Neaaeiaaoaeueii, iaiaoiaeeii i?aaie/aneia acaeiiaeaenoaea anao aac
eneeth/aiey aoiaieoa?iuo iaoe, aeeth/ay iauanoaaiiua, a oaeaea,
aiciiaeii, e iaeioi?ua aeieiae/aneea, iai?eia? aaiaoeeo.

“Ia?aieaoaiea” iaoe icia/aao oaeia eo acaeiiaeaenoaea, eiaaea
ianeieueei iaoe aoiaeyo iaaeaeo niaie a aieaa eee iaiaa aeeeoaeueiue
eiioaeo a oeaeyo ?aoaiey eaeie-eeai neiaeiie iao/iie i?iaeaiu eee
?ac?aaioee eaeiai-eeai iiiaia?aiiiai iai?aaeaiey. Oaeea noaaoea oai
naiui iaaeaeenoeeieeia?iuie i?iaeaiu e iai?aaeaiey aneaaenoaea eo
neiaeiinoe e iiiaia?aiiinoe ia iiaoo auoue ?aoaiu e ?ac?aaioaiu ii?iciue
ioaeaeueiuie iaoeaie, e oieueei a oaniaeoai acaeiiaeaenoaee anao
eiathueo nthaea ioiioaiea iaoe iinoaaeaiiay oeaeue iiaeao auoue
aeinoeaiooa.

A ioee/ea io i?aaeuaeouae oi?iu acaeiinayce iaoe, eiaaea a ?acoeueoaoa
eo “oeaiaioe?iaaiey” aicieeatho i?iiaaeooi/iua iaoee, niaaeeiythuea
niaie ia?o niaaeiuo ooiaeaiaioaeueiuo iaoe, a neo/aa “ia?aieaoaiey”
iaoe, eae iniaie oi?iu eo acaeiinayce, acaeiiaeaenoaea iaoe iineo
iiaeaeaeiue, aeeiaie/aneee oa?aeoa?. Ia?eiaee/anee oi ooo, oi oai a
naiuo ?acee/iuo ioieoao e a eiiaeiaoeee naiuo ?acee/iuo iaoe aicieeatho
?acee/iua iaaeaeenoeeieeia?iua neooaoeee, i?e/ai iaeia e oa aea iaoea
iiaeao o/aanoaiaaoue iaeiia?aiaiii eee a iineaaeiaaoaeueiii ii?yaeea a
naiuo ?acee/iuo oaeeo neooaoeeyo. Eiaiii oaeay iiaeaeaeiinoue
acaeiiaeaenoaothueo iaaeaeo niaie iaoe naienoaaiia aeey eo
“ia?aieaoaiey”. Oa?aeoa?ii, /oi a iiaeiaiii eo “ia?aieaoaiee” i?eieiatho
o/anoea ia oieueei iaeie ooiaeaiaioaeueiua iaoee, ii e aianoa n ieie
oaeaea i?eeeaaeiua e oaoie/aneea iaoee, aeaaiaea?y /aio
iaaeaeenoeeieeia?iinoue iaoe i?eieiaao iniaaiii naiaia?aciue e
iiiaieeeee oa?aeoa?.

Iaaeaeenoeeieeia?iua iai?aaeaiey e io?anee iaoee aicieeaee ia oieueei a
oi?ia caiieiaiey i?iianoae iaaeaeo ?aiaa ?aciauaiiuie, eciee?iaaiiuie
iaoeaie a ?acoeueoaoa i?yiiai “ia?aieaoaiey” yoeo iaoe iaaeaeo niaie, ii
e a oi?ia aicieeiiaaiey oaeeo iaoe, eioi?ua i?iiecuaatho niaie eae
noa?aeiai iiiaea ae?oaea io?anee iao/iiai ciaiey. Oaeiaa eeaa?iaoeea,
i?iiecaaoay niaie iaoee, eiathuea aeaei n oi?aaeyaiuie e
naiioi?aaeythueieny nenoaiaie (aeeciue, iauanoai, oaoieea). Oae,
“noa?aeiacaoeey” iaoe aeiiieiyao eo “ia?aieaoaiea” e ia?anaeaaony n iae,
ia?acoy a eoiaa neiaeioth nenoaio ?acee/iuo oi?i e iooae ?acaeoey
i?ioeannia acaeiiaeaenoaey nia?aiaiiuo iaoe.

Aieaa neiaeiua oi?iu acaeiinayce iaoe – eo “ia?aieaoaiea” e eo
“noa?aeiacaoeey”. Iaoee ooiaeaiaioaeueiua, i?iiaaeooi/iua e i?eeeaaeiua
n oaoie/aneeie ia/eiatho “ia?aieaoaoueny” iaaeaeo niaie naiui ?acee/iui
ia?acii e i?iiecuaathony noa?aeiaauie iaoeaie.

Aunoay oi?ia acaeiiaeaenoaey iaoe – eo eiiieaeniia?aciaaiea. I?e yoii
ai acaeiiaeaenoaea anooiatho ia oieueei iaoee iaeiiai i?ioeey, ii e
iaoee anao io?aneae. A i?aaeaeao anoanoaaiiuo iaoe iaoeie eiiieaeniiai
oa?aeoa?a yaeyaony iieaeoey?iay aeieiaey. Eiiieaeniinoue a iao/iii
iiieiaiee – yoi ia i?inoia neiaeaiea iaoiaeia ?acee/iuo iaoe, ia i?inoia
neaaeiaaiea neioaca ca aiaeecii, a neeyiea iaoe aiaaeeii i?e eco/aiee
iauaai aeey ieo iauaeoa.

Iiciaaaoaeueii-ineoieiae/aneee aa?uea? e aai i?aiaeieaiea.

A caeeth/aiea inoaiiaeiny ia aa?uea?a, aicieeathuai ia iooe ?aaeecaoeee
iniiaiuo i?ia?anneaiuo oaiaeaioeee a yaiethoeee nia?aiaiiuo iaoe, eo
aeiaaeueiie no?oeoo?u. Oaeie aa?uea? iineo
iiciaaaoaeueii-ineoieiae/aneee oa?aeoa?. Ii ninoieo a aeaaii
oei?aieaoaeny i?eau/ea, oaa?aei cae?aieaiiie a aeanyoeao iieieaiee
o/aiuo, aeaeeoue e no?ieoue iaoee, ii i?aeiouanoao ?oeiaiaenoaoynue
ooieoeeiiaeueiui i?eioeeiii. Ia/eiay n yiioe Aic?iaeaeaiey e aieioue aei
na?aaeeiu iaoaai aaea ec iieieaiey a iieieaiea ia?aaeaaaeinue iaeciaiii
iaeii e oi aea: ano?iiii, e oieueei ii, aeieaeai eco/aoue iaaaniua oaea,
e oieueei eo; oeiee, e oieueei ii, aeieaeai enneaaeiaaoue ea/anoaaiiua
i?aa?auaiey aauanoa, e oieueei eo; aeieia, e oieueei ii, aeieaeai
eco/aoue aeeciue, e oieueei aa e o. ae. E oae yoi i?iaeieaeaeinue a
oa/aiea ianeieueeeo noieaoee. Aiieia iiiyoii, eaeie i?i/iie o?aaeeoeeae
aeieaeai aue noaoue oaeie acaeyae ia oceoth niaoeeaeecaoeeth o/aiuo, a
eaeie iai?aiaeieeiue aa?uea? i?aa?aoeeenue yoe iiceoeee aeey ?aaeecaoeee
iniiaiie oaiaeaioeee a yaiethoeee nia?aiaiiuo iaoe e eo acaeiiaeaenoaee.
Noi eao iacaae, aua aei aicieeiiaaiey oece/aneie oeiee eae
iaaeaeenoeeieeia?iie io?anee ciaiey, Yiaaeuen ienae ii iiaiaeo
oeie/aneiai aeaenoaey, aucaaiiiai yeaeo?e/aneie ene?ie, /oi oecee
cayaeyao, aoaeoi yoi eanaaony nei?aa oeiee, a oeiee – oeceee. Yoi
icia/aei, /oi oio e ae?oaie a neeo i?eioeeia n/eoaee naay
iaeiiiaoaioiuie ioiineoaeueii nii?eeiniiaaiey iaaeo iaoe. A Yiaaeuen
i?aaeneacuaae oiaaea, /oi eiaiii caeanue iaaei iaeeaeaoue iaeaieueoeo
?acoeueoaoia. Oae yoi anei?a e neo/eeinue, iiaeoaa?aeea aai i?iaiic;
i?iiaaeooi/iua e iaaeaeenoeeieeia?iua io?anee iaoee n yoiai iiiaioa
noaee auno?i caiieiyoue niaie ionoiaaaoea aei oao ii? “ianoa
nii?eeiniiaaiey” iaaeaeo iaoeaie.

Aaaeii ioiaoeoue, /oi a aeaiiii neo/aa aue neiieai e i?aiaeieai, oioy e
a ia?aie/aiiuo ianooaaao, eiaiii oio naiue
iiciaaaoaeueii-ineoieiae/aneee aa?uea?, i eioi?ii aiai?eeinue auoa.

Naaiaeiy caaea/a aai i?aiaeieaiey anoaea ai?acaei oe?a e ino?aa, a
iineieueeo yoiai o?aaoao naii i?ia?anneaiia ?acaeoea iaoe, iao niiiaiey
a oii, /oi a eiioea eiioeia, ?aii eee iicaeii, yoio aa?uea? aoaeao
i?aiaeieai, eae i?aiaeieaaaaony anyeay onoa?aaoay o?aaeeoeey, anyeee
ecaeeaoee naay eiina?aaoeci. A iaoea oae auaaao anaaaea, ianiio?y ia
eaaeouothny iai?aiaeieeiinoue aicieeathueo ia aa iooe aa?uea?ia
iiciaaaoaeueii-ineoieiae/aneiai oa?aeoa?a.

Nienie eeoa?aoo?u.

“Acaeiinaycue iaoe. Oai?aoe/aneea e i?aeoe/aneea aniaeou.”– I. “Iaoea”,
1984a.

“Acaeiiaeaenoaea iaoe eae oaeoi? eo ?acaeoey. Nai?iee iao/iuo o?oaeia.”
– Iiaineae?ne, “Iaoea”, 1988a.

Aaneeueaa E.A. Acaeiinaacue oaoie/aneeo e iauanoaaiiuo iaoe
(iaoiaeieiae/aneee aniaeo) E. 1982a.

Eiiae?aoueaa I.I. eaeoeee, 1997a.

?ocaeei A.E. “Eiioeaioeey nia?aiaiiiai anoanoaiciaiey” I. 1997a.

Oa?onia A.I.,

Aioiiia A.O. e ae?. “Aeioeceea” (o/aaiia iiniaea), “Aunoay oeiea”, I.
1968a.

Ia?en E., Yiaaeuen O., Ni/. 2-a ecae., o. 20, n.496

Oaaeinaaa I.I. Aii?inu oeeinioee, 1978, ?7, n.23

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