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В.И. Вернадский. Учение о ноосфере и современное глобальное мышление

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Iineianeee Ainoaea?noaaiiue aaeaoeeiiiue einoeooo (oaoie/aneee
oieaa?neoao)

Eaoaae?a Oeeinioee

?aoa?ao

ii oeeinioee

A.E. Aa?iaaeneee: O/aiea i iiinoa?a

e nia?aiaiiia aeiaaeueiia iuoeaiea

anie?aioa eaoaae?u 805

Aaa?e/aieiaa Eeuee Aiaoieueaae/a

Iineaa, 1997

Niaea?aeaiea

TOC \o “1-1”

Aaaaeaiea GOTOBUTTON _Toc388005100 PAGEREF _Toc388005100 3

Oeeinioneea iiaeoiaeu e anoanoaiciaieth GOTOBUTTON _Toc388005101
PAGEREF _Toc388005101 6

Iniiaiua iieiaeaiey o/aiey i iiinoa?a GOTOBUTTON _Toc388005102
PAGEREF _Toc388005102 12

Ia?aoiae aeinoa?u a iiinoa?o: i?iaiic e ?aaeueiinoue. GOTOBUTTON
_Toc388005103 PAGEREF _Toc388005103 19

Caeeth/aiea GOTOBUTTON _Toc388005104 PAGEREF _Toc388005104 25

Eeoa?aoo?a GOTOBUTTON _Toc388005105 PAGEREF _Toc388005105 26

Aaaaeaiea

Enoeiiia aaee/ea Aa?iaaeneiai auyniyaony oieueei oaia?ue. Iii – a aai
aeoaieeo oeeinioneeo eaeayo, caaeyaeuaathueo a aoaeouaa, aieioioth
cao?aaeaathueo noaeueau anaai /aeiaa/acoaa.

Ii ?iaeeeny a Iaoa?ao?aa a 1863 aiaeo, anaai /a?ac aeaa aiaea iinea
ioiaiu e?aiinoiiai i?aaa a ?innee, a naiuea i?ioanni?a iieeoe/aneie
yeiiiiee, y?eiai i?aaenoaaeoaey ?onneie eeaa?aeueiie eioaeeeaaioeee
i?ioeiai aaea. *a?ac iyoue eao naiuey Aa?iaaeneeo ia?aaoaea a Oa?ueeia,
aaea ia oi?ie?iaaiea ee/iinoe Aa?iaaeneiai iiaeeye aai aeaith?iaeiue
aeyaey – A.I.Ei?ieaiei, ioeoea? a ionoaaea, oaeaeathueeny
iao/ii-oeeinioneeie ecuneaieyie. Aieaa anaai aai eioa?aniaaee i?iaeaiu,
naycaiiua n aeeciueth eaaeaeiai /aeiaaea e /aeiaa/anoaa a oeaeii. Aiieia
aa?iyoii, /oi iaeioi?ua iunee A.I.Ei?ieaiei, iaeioi?ua ec aii?inia,
iinoaaeaiiua ei, nio?aieeenue a iaiyoe Aa?iaaeneiai e iniciaiii eee
aanniciaoaeueii iiaeeyee ia aai iao/iia oai?/anoai.

Iaoa?ao?aneay eeanne/aneay aeiiacey, aaea n o?aoueaai eeanna o/eeny
Aa?iaaeneee, auea iaeia ec eo/oeo a ?innee. Caeanue oi?ioi
i?aiiaeaaaeenue eiino?aiiua ycuee, enoi?ey, oeeinioey. A aeaeueiaeoai
Aa?iaaeneee naiinoiyoaeueii eco/ee ianeieueei aa?iiaeneeo ycueia. Ii
/eoae eeoa?aoo?o, i?aeiouanoaaiii iao/ioth, ia iyoiaaeoeaoe ycueao, a
iaeioi?ua naie noaouee ienae ii-o?aioeocnee, ii-aiaeeenee e ii-iaiaoeee.
Eioa?an e enoi?ee e oeeinioee o/aiue nio?aiee ia anth aeeciue.

Caoai Aa?iaaeneee iinooiee ia oeceei-iaoaiaoe/aneee oaeoeueoao
Iaoa?ao?aneiai oieaa?neoaoa, aaea n?aaee i?ioanni?ia iaoiaeeeenue
naaoeea ?onneie iaoee: Iaiaeaeaaa, Aaeaoia, Na/aiia, Aooea?ia. Iaeiaei
aieueoaa aeeyiea ia Aa?iaaeneiai ianiiiaiii ieacae Aeieo/aaa,
i?aiiaeaaaaoee a oieaa?neoaoa ieia?aeiaeth. Iieiaeie o/aiue
iaiaeiie?aoii i?eieiae o/anoea a yeniaaeeoeeyo ii eco/aieth ii/a
Ieaeaai?iaeneie aoaa?iee iiae ?oeiaiaenoaii Aeieo/aaaa. Ii noa?a iao/iuo
eioa?ania Aa?iaaeneiai a oi a?aiy ia ia?aie/eaaeanue ieia?aeiaeae. Ii
caieiaeny e aeinoea iaeioi?uo ?acoeueoaoia oaeaea a aaieiaee,
e?enoaeeia?aoee, enoi?ee.

A oi aea a?aiy Aa?iaaeneee ene?aiia oaeaeny o/aieai Oienoiai e ?acaeaeye
iiiaea aai niiiaiey. Iaeiaei Oienoie ia aa?ee a oi, /oi iaoea niiniaia
oaeiaeaoai?eoue no?aieaiea /aeiaaea iaeoe «niune aeecie», i?eie?eoueny n
iaecaaaeiinoueth nia?oe, iainiiaaoue aunieea ii?aeueiua i?eioeeiu. A?yae
ee iiaeiaiua eaeae auee aeecee Aa?iaaeneiio. A ioee/ea io Oienoiai ii
anth naith aeeciue nio?aiye aa?o a iao/iia ciaiea e no?aieeny iaeoe
ioaao ia iiiaeanoai aii?inia auoey ia iniiaa eiae/aneiai aiaeeca oaeoia,
aeinoiaa?iuo naaaeaiee i ie?a e /aeiaaea.

A 1885 aiaeo Aa?iaaeneee aue inoaaeai o?aieoaeai Ieia?aeiae/aneiai
eaaeiaoa Iineianeiai oieaa?neoaoa. ?aaioay ia yoii ianoa o/aiue iiiai
acaeeo, ?aaioaao a oeie/aneeo e e?enoaeeia?aoe/aneeo eaai?aoi?eyo,
niaa?oaao aaieiae/aneea yeniaaeeoeee. A 1897 aiaeo Aa?iaaeneee caueuaao
aeieoi?neoth aeenna?oaoeeth e noaiiaeony i?ioanni?ii Iineianeiai
oieaa?neoaoa. A 1906 aiaeo aai ecae?atho /eaiii Ainoaea?noaaiiiai niaaoa
io Iineianeiai oieaa?neoaoa. Aeaa aiaea nionoy ii aeaeaaony
yeno?ai?aeeia?iui aeaaeaieeii. Ii eieoeeaoeaa e iiae
i?aaenaaeaoaeuenoaii Aa?iaaeneiai a 1915 aiaeo nicaeaaony eiienney ii
eco/aieth anoanoaaiiuo i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee ?innee i?e Aeaaeaiee iaoe.
A eiioea 1921 aiaea Aa?iaaeneee iniiaae a Iineaa ?aaeeaaue einoeooo e
aue iacia/ai aai aee?aeoi?ii. A 1926 aiaeo auoiaeeo aai ciaiaieoay
?aaioa «Aeinoa?a», iinea /aai ii ieoao ianno enneaaeiaaiee i i?e?iaeiuo
aiaeao, e?oaiai?ioa aauanoa e aacao Caiee, i einie/aneie iuee, aaiiao?ee
i?iaeaia a?aiaie a nia?aiaiiie iaoea. Ii aeaaiie aeey iaai inoaaony oaia
aeinoa?u – iaeanoe aeecie e aaioeie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe aeeaiai
aauanoaa.

Aeiaeea aei aeoaieie noa?inoe, Aa?iaaeneee neii/aeny a Iineaa anaai ca
ianeieueei ianyoeaa aei iiaaaeiiiniiai caaa?oaiey Aaeeeie Ioa/anoaaiiie
aieiu. Aio i?eoeinue ia?aaeeoue o?e ?aaiethoeee a ?innee e aeaa ie?iaua
aieiu. Ii ia aai aae auiaee e ia iaiaa ?aaiethoeeiiiua ioe?uoey a iaoea.

Ii naiia aaaeiia: aeey Aa?iaaeneiai iaoea auea n?aaenoaii iiciaiey
i?e?iaeu. Ii ia aue niaoeeaeenoii a eaeie-oi iaeiie iaoea eee aeaaea a
ianeieueeeo iaoeao. Ii aeanoyua ciae aeia?ue aeanyoie iaoe, ii eco/ae
i?e?iaeo, eioi?ay iaecia?eii neiaeiaa anao iaoe, aianoa acyouo. Ii
?aciuoeye e iaae i?e?iaeiuie iauaeoaie, e iaae eo acaeiinaycyie.

Eae e iiiaea anoanoaieniuoaoaee, aeiaeaoeany auaeathueony oniaoia a
niaoeeaeueiuo iaeanoyo, Aa?iaaeneee i?eoae e naiei oeeinioneei
iino?iaieyi ia neeiia eao, aeaey a ieo anoanoaaiiia iaiauaiea
ooiaeaiaioaeueiuo i?eioeeiia, eaaeaueo a iniiaa ie?icaeaiey. Ii aeaaea
n?aaee ei?eoaaa anoanoaiciaiey ii auaeaeyaony ia oieueei iiaaoi?noaii e
aeoaeiie eaeae, ii e eo ii?aceoaeueiie nia?aiaiiinoueth.

E a oeaio?a yoiai iiaaoi?noaa — aic?iaeaeaiea ae?aaiae eaeae i
oeaio?aeueiie ?iee /aeiaaea, aai ?acoia ai anae Anaeaiiie. Cia/eiinoue
aa aeey iaoae oeeaeeecaoeee aeieaia a?aiy iaaeiioeaieaaeanue. E aeaaiay
i?e/eia yoiai, eae ie ia?aaeienaeueii, ninoiyea, ii-aeaeeiiio, a naieo
oniaoao eeanne/aneie iaoee, oaai/aaoeony nicaeaieai A. Yeiooaeiii a 1916
a. iauae oai?ee ioiineoaeueiinoe,

Iiueyiaiiua iaaeaeaiiuie aeinoeaeaieyie, aieueoeinoai o/aiuo
o?aaeeoeeiiii aeaeaee a /aeiaaea anaai eeoue oaeaioeeaiai nica?oeaoaey
i?e?iaeu, niiniaiiai ?ane?uoue aa oaeiu e aaeiaieue oaeiaeaoai?eoue
aeaaeaeo iiciaiey. A Aa?iaaeneee i?i?i/anee oaeaeae a /aeiaaea oiaeiai
oai?oea i?e?iaeu, i?ecaaiiiai a eiioea eiioeia caiyoue ianoi o naiiai
ooo?aaea yaiethoeee.

Aa?iaaeneiio i?e anae aai aaieaeueiinoe e iaaa?iyoiie ?aaioiniiniaiinoe
iio?aaiaaeenue aeanyoeeaoey, /oiau ia?aa?ineoue iaaeaaeiue iino iaae
i?iianoueth, ioaeaeythuae anoanoaiciaiea io enoi?ee, oai?eiie naieie
ethaeueie. E iino yoio ninoiye a eeth/aaie eaeaa, /oi ia?aoiae aicieeoae
ia Caiea aeinoa?u a iiinoa?o, oi anoue oea?noai ?acoia, ia eieaeueiue
yieciae ia caaeai?eao aane?aeiae Anaeaiiie, a caeiiiia?iue e iaecaaaeiue
yoai ?acaeoey iaoa?ee, yoai anoanoaaiiienoi?e/aneee. «Iu oieueei
ia/eiaai niciaaaoue iai?aiaeieeioth iiuue naiaiaeiie iao/iie iunee,
aaee/aeoae oai?/aneie neeu Homo sapiens, /aeiaa/aneie naiaiaeiie
ee/iinoe, aaee/aeoaai iai ecaanoiiai i?iyaeaiey aa einie/aneie neeu,
oea?noai eioi?ie aia?aaee»,— aaeioiiaaiii ienae Aa?iaaeneee.

Oeeinioneea iiaeoiaeu e anoanoaiciaieth

Oeaio?aeueiie eaeaae, i?ioiaeyuae /a?ac ana oai?/anoai Aa?iaaeneiai
yaeyaony aaeeinoai aeinoa?u e /aeiaa/anoaa. Aa?iaaeneee a naieo ?aaioao
ii anoanoaiciaieth ?ane?uaaao ei?ie yoiai aaeeinoaa, cia/aiea
i?aaieciaaiiinoe aeinoa?u a ?acaeoee /aeiaa/anoaa. Oe?ie e?oa aii?inia,
cao?aaeaaaiuo Aa?iaaeneei a naieo ?aaioao. Ii aacaea ii iuoaeny iaeoe oi
aeaaiia, /oi, ii aai iiaieth, eiaao ioiioaiea e ono?ienoao ie?oaeathuaai
i?ino?ainoaa a aeiaaeueiii ianooaaa. Ec anaai /anoiiai ii iuoaeny
auaeaeeoue oi iauaa, /oi i?iyniyei au ea?oeio ie?a, a oeaio?a eioi?iai
iaoiaeeony /aeiaa/aneee ?acoi.

?anniio?ei, eaeea oeeinioneea iunee ano?a/athony a anoanoaaiiiiao/iuo
?aaioao o/aiiai.

I?e eco/aiee Aa?iaaeneei «ia?oaiai aauanoaa», e?enoaeeia e ieia?aeia, ii
noiae oeiaeoue oeaeueiinoue, ii iaiaeii?iaeiinoue ie?a (i?ino?ainoaa).
Ii enoiaeee ia ec iaueo ?annoaeaeaiee, a iniuneeaae eiie?aoiua iao/iua
aeaiiua e?enoaeeia?aoee. Aa?iaaeneee n/eoae, /oi e?enoaee – yoi iniaay
aeoeaiay n?aaea, iniaay oi?ia i?ino?ainoaa. Ae?oaeie neiaaie: iao
iaeii?iaeiiai i?ino?ainoaa ie?a (anaiauaai yoe?a), a anoue iiiaeanoai
aai oi?i, ninoiyiee. E?enoaee – iaeii ec ninoiyiee, aeey eioi?iai
oa?aeoa?ia iaiaeii?iaeiinoue oece/aneeo naienoa a ?aciuo iai?aaeaieyo.
Oi/ii oaeaea Aa?iaaeneee iuoaeny oaeaeaoue enoi?e/aneoth ?ieue
ieia?aeia. Ii n/eoae ieia?aeu inoaoeaie oao oeie/aneeo ?aaeoeee, eioi?ua
i?ienoiaeeee a ?aciuo oi/eao caiiiai oa?a; yoe ?aaeoeee eaeoo niaeanii
ecaanoiui caeiiai, e eioi?ua, nei?aa anaai, iaoiaeyony a oaniie nayce n
iaueie eciaiaieyie, eaeea i?aoa?iaaaao Caiey eae ieaiaoa. Aa?iaaeneee
iuoaeny naycaoue yoe ?aciua oacenu Caiee n iaueie caeiiaie iaaaniie
iaoaieee. Ia iniiaaiee yoeo neoiuo aeaiiuo a aeaea ineieeia ?acee/iuo
yeaiaioia ii i?iaoao iiiyoue ?acaeoea ieaiaou e einiina.

Acaeyae iaoo?aeenoa i?iieeae a aeoaeiu aauanoaa, iaia?oaeeaae a yaeaieyo
aeaeeiiai ie?a ne?uoua niioaaonoaey, aucaaiiua acaeiiaeaenoaeai aoiiia.
?aaeeiaeoeaiua yeaiaiou, neea aoiiiie yia?aee, ii iiaieth Aa?iaaeneiai,
ii?aaeaeytho iniaaiiinoe iiaaaeaiey aauanoaa caiiie ei?u a aeoaieeo
ai?eciioao. A ia iiaa?oiinoe ieaiaou ?aoathuoth ?ieue a aaioeie/aneeo
i?ioeannao ea?atho aeeaua i?aaieciu e yia?aey Nieioea, Caiiay ei?a,
eaiaiiue iie?ia ieaiaou, eiaao n?aaieoaeueii iaaieueooth iiuiinoue — a
n?aaeiai ieiei o?eaeoeaoe eeeiiao?ia (/oi yoi a n?aaiaiee n aeeaiao?ii
Caiee — aieaa aeaaiaaeoeaoe ouny/ eeeiiao?ia!). Iaeiaei eiaiii caeanue,
a caiiie ei?a, inouanoaeythony iiao/ea e?oaiai?iou aauanoaa,
iai?aaeyaiua e aeaeaeeiua, n iaeiie noi?iiu (n iiaa?oiinoe ieaiaou),
eo/enoie yia?aeae Nieioea, n ae?oaie (ec aeoaei) — yia?aeae
?aaeeiaeoeaiiai ?aniaaea aoiiia. AEeaua nouanoaa caaea?aeeaatho /anoue
nieia/iie yia?aee, aeinoeaathuae iiaa?oiinoe ieaiaou. Caiiua ?anoaiey
eae au aieouaatho nieia/iua eo/e, ia?aaiaey a i?ioeanna oioineioaca
eo/enooth yia?aeth a yia?aeth neioaca neiaeiuo i?aaie/aneeo niaaeeiaiee.
Aeey Aa?iaaeneiai aeeaua i?aaieciu i?aaenoaee a iiaii naaoa — eae iniaay
aaioeie/aneay neea. Iuneeoaee i?ioeiai ii?ie n?aaieaaee aeeaua nouanoaa
n ieaieie, iie?uaathuae caiiie oa?, iiaeiaii ieanaie, iaaieaeeaathuae
e?oaeue ieiae. Iiae/a?eeaaeanue «ia?aceoe/aneay» ?ieue aeecie, eioi?ay
ieoaaony nieaie aaeeeieaiiiai einie/aneiai ieiaea, iacuaaaiiai Caieae. A
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe ?ieue aeecie ia Caiea eiay, ooaa?aeaeae Aa?iaaeneee.
Iaeioi?ay /anoue oeie/aneeo yeaiaioia ieaiaou iaoiaeeony a ninoiyiee
?annayiey. Aeey ieo oaeoe/anee ia eiaao cia/aiey yia?aey nayce,
iieaeoey?iay. Ia ia?aia ianoi o ieo auoiaeeo aoiiiay yia?aey. Ii aeaaiay
ianna yeaiaioia caiiie ei?u eiioeaio?e?oaony a aeaea ianoi?iaeaeaiee
iieaciuo eneiiaaiuo, iiuiuo ieanoia e ?oaeiuo oae. Cia/eo, nouanoaotho
eaeea-oi neeu, ii?aaeaeythuea iaeiieaiea oeie/aneeo yeaiaioia e
i?ioeaiaeaenoaothuea eo ?annaeaaieth. Iaeia ec aeaaiuo nee oaeiai ?iaea,
ii iiaieth Aa?iaaeneiai — aeeaua nouanoaa.

Aaeooi i?e aeecie Aa?iaaeneiai iiieiaeny i?aeiouanoaaiii eae ionoonoaea
a aeaiiii iauaia eaeeo-eeai /anoeoe (aoiiia, iieaeoe, eiiia aaca).
Iaeiaei Aa?iaaeneee n/eoae, /oi aaeooi ia anoue ionoioa n oaiia?aoo?ie
aaniethoiiai ioey, a anoue aeoeaiay iaeanoue iaeneiaeueiie yia?aee iai
aeinooiiiai Einiina. Oi anoue ionoiou iao. Iiae yoe ?aciuoeaiey
iiaeoiaeeo aeiioaca, i?aaeiieaaathuay naiii?iecaieueiia ?iaeaeaiea
aoiiia a einie/aneii aaeooia. Iia oi?ioi iauyniyao iaeioi?ua i?e?iaeiua
yaeaiey, ii o?aaoao ioeaca io caeiia nio?aiaiey yia?aee (oi/iaa,
ie/oiaeiuo ii aaee/eia ioeeiiaiee io caeiia). Iaeiaei ieeoi ia iaoaao
i?aaeiieiaeeoue, /oi yoa yia?aey, nin?aaeioi/aiiay a aaeooia, eiaao
i?eioeeieaeueii ae?oaoth i?e?iaeo. N yoeo iiceoeee i/aiue naiaa?aiaiii
cao/ao neiaa Aa?iaaeneiai: «Ia yoeo i?ino?ainoaao n ?annayiiuie aoiiaie
e iieaeoeaie i?aaeeueiaa iuneeoue ia eae i iaoa?eaeueiie ionoioa
«aaeooia», ii eae i eiioeaio?aoeee naiaia?aciie yia?aee, a ?annayiiii
aeaea niaea?aeauae eieinnaeueiua caianu iaoa?ee e yia?aee…»

N ia/aea XX aaea noaee i?aiaeaaeaoue iiiyoea i aaeeiii e ia?acaeaeeiii
i?ino?ainoaa-a?aiaie. Ii anee i?ino?ainoai e a?aiy — /anoe aaeeiiai
oeaeiai, oi iaeuecy aeaeaoue iao/iua auaiaeu i a?aiaie, ia ia?auay
aieiaiey ia i?ino?ainoai. Ana iniaaiiinoe i?ino?ainoaa io?aaeathony oae
eee eia/a ai a?aiaie. Iaeiiaoe, aicieeaao aii?in: ioaaouaaao ee
i?ino?ainoai-a?aiy anth iao/ioth ?aaeueiinoue? Anoue ee yaeaiey aia
i?ino?ainoaa-a?aiaie? Ii iiaieth Aa?iaaeneiai, oaeeie iauaeoaie iiaoo
auoue eaaiou — iaeue/aeoea iaaeaeeiua ii?oeee yia?aee. Iaoo?aeeno
iaaethaeaao ?aaeueiua iauaeou, iiaeaeanoiua a?aiaie, eciaiythueany
iai?aiaiii, eae ie iaaeeaiii i?ioiaeeee au iiaeiaiua eciaiaiey. Yoe
i?aa?auaiey /aua anaai ia naiaeeiu e iaoaie/aneiio ia?aiauaieth. Yoi
«aioo?aiiea» i?aia?aciaaiey, eioi?ua inoathony aia aieiaiey oeceeia,
au?aaaouaathueo naia i?aaenoaaeaiea i i?ino?ainoaa-a?aiaie ia iniiaa
oai?ee ioiineoaeueiinoe. Aa?iaaeneee i?eaeaaae iniaia cia/aiea i?eioeeio
aaeeinoaa i?ino?ainoaa-a?aiaie. Aaieiae/aneea iauaeou iaeaaeatho
?aciiia?aciuie naienoaaie, no?oeoo?iuie iniaaiiinoyie. Iaeii ec
i?iyaeaiee oaeie ?acii?iaeiinoe — ?acee/iua ?aaeueiua e?enoaeee/aneea
i?ino?ainoaa. A eo i?aaeaeao ii-?aciiio i?aaieciaaia iaoa?ey (aoiiu,
iieaeoeu), ii-?aciiio i?iyaeyaony neiiao?ey. ?aaeueiia i?ino?ainoai
ieaiaou e?aeia iaiaeii?iaeii, iicae/ii… Oaeay oi?ioee?iaea ii noa?eiea
i?aaeiieaaaao ?acaeaeaiea i?ino?ainoaa e a?aiaie. A anee iao/ii
aeieacaii eo aaeeinoai, oi neaaeoao aiai?eoue i iicae/iinoe
i?ino?ainoaa-a?aiaie. Eiaaea iu enneaaeoai no?oeoo?o ?acee/iuo aeaeia
?aaeueiiai i?ino?ainoaa, eae ooaa?aeaeaao Aa?iaaeneee, iaaei eiaoue a
aeaeo aiciiaeiinoue no?oeoo?iuo iniaaiiinoae a?aiaie aeey eaaeaeiai
oaeiai aeaea.

A?aiy — anaiauaiethuay eaoaai?ey. Iao ie iaeiiai ?aaeueiiai iauaeoa aia
a?aiaie, eae, ai?i/ai, iao a?aiaie aia ?aaeueiuo iauaeoia. Enneaaeoy
e?enoaeeu e ieia?aeu, Aa?iaaeneee inouanoaeye i?aaeaea anaai iao/iue
aiaeec, ?anniao?eaae e a?oiie?iaae ioaeaeueiua iauaeou naiaia?aciie
no?oeoo?u e oeie/aneiai ninoaaa. I?iaeaia a?aiaie o?aaiaaea
i?aeiouanoaaiii neioaca ciaiee. E, ia i?a?uaay aiaeeoe/aneeo
enneaaeiaaiee, Aa?iaaeneee ia?aoiaeee e iaiauaieyi. A ioee/ea io
aieueoeinoaa aaieiaia Aa?iaaeneee ni/aoay iao/iue aiaeec e neioac,
?anniao?eaae noaeueao e?enoaeeia e ieia?aeia a nayce n aeeciueth caiiie
ei?u, aoiinoa?u, i?e?iaeiuo aiae. Ii ?anniao?eaae ieia?aeu eae
iiaeaeaeiua, aeeiaie/iua no?oeoo?u, iiaeaeanoiua, eae e ana a i?e?iaea,
a?aiaie (oiaaea eae ieia?aeu e e?enoaeeu ii noa?ie o?aaeeoeee
i?aaenoaaeyeenue o/aiui iaiiaeaeaeiuie aaiiao?e/aneeie oeao?aie, ia
eiathueie enoi?ee, oi anoue iaoiaeyueieny «aia a?aiaie»). Iiyoiio ii ia
iia ia ioiaoeoue ?ieue aeecie ia Caiea: «I?aaie/aneee ie? eae oeaeia
yaeyaony oai naiaia?aciui oaeoi?ii, eioi?ue ?ac?ooaao ieia?aeueiua oaea
Caiee e eniieuecoao eo yia?aeth…» Oaeei ia?acii Aa?iaaeneee noaaee a
iaeei ?yae aeeaoth e iaaeeaoth i?e?iaeo, eae o/anoieeia aaeeiiai
aaieiae/aneiai i?ioeanna, oi anoue ii ?ane?uaae aeoaeiiua acaeiinayce
i?aaie/aneiai e iai?aaie/aneiai ie?ia.

A /anoiinoe, Aa?iaaeneee ?anniao?eaae aeinoa?o eae iniaia aaieiae/aneia
oaei, no?iaiea e ooieoeee eioi?iai ii?aaeaeythony iniaaiiinoyie Caiee
(ieaiaou Nieia/iie nenoaiu) e einiina. A aeeaua i?aaieciu, iiioeyoeee,
aeaeu e ana aeeaia aauanoai — yoi oi?iu, o?iaie i?aaiecaoeee aeinoa?u.
?acaeaay o/aiea i aeinoa?a, Aa?iaaeneee i?eoae e neaaeothuei auaiaeai
(aeiaaioeie/aneei i?eioeeiai): «Aeiaaiiay iea?aoeey oeie/aneeo yeaiaioia
a aeinoa?a no?aieony e iaeneiaeueiiio naiaio i?iyaeaieth». Aiaeaeay
iai?aaie/aneia aauanoai a «aeo?ue aeecie», a aeieiae/aneee e?oaiai?io,
aeeciue niiniaia ni a?aiaiai i?iieeaoue a ?aiaa iaaeinooiiua ae iaeanoe
ieaiaou e oaaee/eaaoue naith aaieiae/aneoth aeoeaiinoue. Yoio
aeiaaioeie/aneee i?eioeei Aa?iaaeneiai ooaa?aeaeaao aunieoth
i?eniinaaeeaaaiinoue aeeaiai aauanoaa, ieanoe/iinoue, eciai/eainoue ai
a?aiaie. E aua. Aa?iaaeneee naycae o/aiea i aeinoa?a n aeayoaeueiinoueth
/aeiaaea ia oieueei aaieiae/aneie, ii e aiiaua n iiiaiia?aciuie
i?iyaeaieyie auoey ee/iinoe e aeecie /aeiaa/aneiai iauanoaa: «A
nouiinoe, /aeiaae, yaeyynue /anoueth aeinoa?u, oieueei ii n?aaiaieth n
iaaethaeaaiuie ia iae yaeaieyie iiaeao noaeeoue i ie?icaeaiee. Ii aeneo
a oiieie ieaiea aeinoa?u e eeoue iuneueth i?iieeaao aaa?o e aiec». Ana
iu, ethaee — ia?ac?uaiay /anoue aeeaiai aauanoaa, i?eiauaiiay e aai
aannia?oeth, iaiaoiaeeiay /anoue ieaiaou e einiina, i?iaeieaeaoaee
aeayoaeueiinoe aeecie, aeaoe Nieioea. Ii a eaeayo i einie/aneii
«oi?aaeaiee» caiiuie i?ioeannaie eee i ?acoiiuo neeao ai Anaeaiiie (oai
aieaa i Ie?iaii ?acoia) ie/aai i?eaeiaeueiiai aeey Aa?iaaeneiai ia auei.
Ii ienae: «…iaeanoue /aeiaa/aneie eoeueoo?u e i?iyaeaiea /aeiaa/aneie
iunee — any iiinoa?a — eaaeeo aia einie/aneeo i?inoi?ia, aaea iia
oa?yaony eae aaneiia/ii iaeia…». Oi anoue, ii Aa?iaaeneiio, iu
(/aeiaa/anoai) – ia i?eaeaoie Anaeaineiai ?acoia, iu – /anoue aai.

Aeey Aa?iaaeneiai auei i/aiue aaaeii auaeaeeoue ?ieue iunee, ciaiee a
?acaeoee ieaiaou. Iuneue iai?aaeyao aeayoaeueiinoue /aeiaaea.
Aa?iaaeneee ?anniao?eaae /aeiaa/aneoth aeayoaeueiinoue eae aaieiae/aneee
oaeoi?, ai iiiaii ii?aaeaeythuee aeaeueiaeoaa ?acaeoea Caiee. Aeey
Aa?iaaeneiai /aeiaae aue i?aaeaea anaai iineoaeai ?acoia. Ii aa?ee, /oi
?acoi aoaeao ainiiaenoaiaaoue ia ieaiaoa e i?aia?aaeaoue aa ?acoiii,
i?aaeoniio?eoaeueii, aac oua?aa i?e?iaea e ethaeyi. Ii aa?ee a /aeiaaea,
a aai aeia?oth aieth. A /aeiaa/aneee ?acoi aini?eieiaeny Aa?iaaeneei eae
einie/aneia yaeaiea, anoanoaaiiay e caeiiiia?iay /anoue i?e?iaeu.
I?e?iaea nicaeaea ?acoiiia nouanoai, iinoeaay oaeei ia?acii naay.

Oaeei ia?acii, iiyaeaiea a oai?/anoaa Aa?iaaeneiai eaeae i iiinoa?a –
noa?a ?acoia aiieia caeiiiia?ii. I?e ?anniio?aiee ethaiai aii?ina o/aiue
inoaaeye nouanoaaiiia ianoi ?acoio a aeiaaeenoe/aneii aai i?iyaeaiee. A
1938 aiaeo Aa?iaaeneee ienae:

«Iu i?enoonoaoai e aeeciaiii o/anoaoai a nicaeaiee a aeinoa?a iiaiai
aaieiae/aneiai oaeoi?a, iaauaaeiai a iae ii iiuiinoe…

Caeii/ai iinea iiiaeo nioai ouny/ eao iaoeeiiiuo noeoeeiuo no?aieaiee
ioaao anae iiaa?oiinoe aeinoa?u aaeeiui nioeeaeueiui aeaeii aeeaioiiai
oea?noaa — /aeiaaeii.

Iao ia Caiea oaieea, aeey iaai iaaeinooiiiai. Iao i?aaeaeia aiciiaeiiio
aai ?aciiiaeaieth. Iao/iie iuneueth e ainoaea?noaaiii i?aaieciaaiiie,
ath iai?aaeyaiie oaoieeie, naiae aeeciueth /aeiaae nicaeaao a aeinoa?a
iiaoth aeiaaiioth neeo…

AEeciue /aeiaa/anoaa, i?e anae aa ?acii?iaeiinoe, noaea iaaeaeeiie,
aaeeiie. Niauoea, i?ienoaaeoaa a caoieonoiii oaieea ethaie oi/ee ethaiai
eiioeiaioa eee ieaaia, io?aaeaaony e eiaao neaaenoaey — aieueoea e iaeua
— a ?yaea ae?oaeo iano, anthaeo ia iiaa?oiinoe Caiee. Oaeaa?ao, oaeaoii,
?aaeei, ay?iieaiu, ay?inoaou ioaaoeee aanue caiiie oa?.

…Nicaeaiea iiinoa?u ec aeinoa?u anoue i?e?iaeiia yaeaiea, aieaa
aeoaieia e iiuiia a naiae iniiaa, /ai /aeiaa/aneay enoi?ey…

Yoi iiaay noaaeey a enoi?ee ieaiaou, eioi?ay ia iicaieyao iieueciaaoueny
aeey n?aaiaiey, aac iii?aaie, enoi?e/aneei aa i?ioeui. Eai yoa noaaeey
nicaeaao ii nouanoao iiaia a enoi?ee Caiee, a ia oieueei a enoi?ee
/aeiaa/anoaa».

Eoae, noa?a ?acoia, iaeanoue ainiiaenoaa /aeiaa/aneie iunee, iniaay
noaaeey a enoi?ee Caiee. Eacaeinue au, ana ynii. Iaeiaei Aa?iaaeneiai ia
aiieia oaeiaeaoai?yee iiaeiaiua oi?ioee?iaee. Ii i?iaeieaeae ?aciuoeyoue
i iiinoa?a e a iineaaeiee aiae naiae aeecie eniuouaae ia oieueei
oaeiaeaoai?aiea io niciaiey aa?iinoe naieo eaeae, ii e na?ueaciua
niiiaiey. A aai noaouea «Ianeieueei neia i iiinoa?a» anoue oaeea neiaa:
«Iuneue ia anoue oi?ia yia?aee. Eae aea iiaeao iia eciaiyoue
iaoa?eaeueiua i?ioeannu? Aii?in yoio aei neo ii? iao/ii ia ?ac?aoai».

Aeaenoaeoaeueii, iiinoa?a iaeaaeaao no?aiiui naienoaii: inoaaaynue
iaeanoueth iunee, ?acoia, iia iaeiia?aiaiii aeoeaii o/anoaoao a
ia?ano?ieea ieaiaou.

«Iao/iay iuneue /aeiaa/anoaa ?aaioaao oieueei a aeinoa?a e a oiaea
naiaai i?iyaeaiey a eiioea eiioeia i?aa?auaao aa a iiinoa?o,
aaieiae/anee ioaaouaaao aa ?acoiii».

Aa?iaaeneee ienae i iaiaoiaeeiinoe auaeaeyoue a aeinoa?a oea?noai
?acoia, eioi?ia ni a?aiaiai ioaaouaaao anth iaeanoue aeecie e auoiaeeo a
einiin.

Iiaeao iieacaoueny no?aiiui, /oi ii iinoiyiii iiae/a?eeaaao,
ooaa?aeaeaao eaeath iiinoa?u, ia oiiieiay, neaaeai, i noa?a /aeiaaea eee
/aeiaa/anoaa, ia yiioa /aeiaaea. Oiaaea ia aicieeei au ieeaeeo
iaaeioiaiiuo aii?inia i ?iee ?acoia a i?aia?aciaaiee i?e?iaeu: aaaeue
/aeiaae niaaeeiyao a naaa aeaa ie?a, aeaa «noa?u»— ie? iuneae, ?acoia e
ie? aeaenoaey, ?aaiou. Iuneue /aeiaa/aneay iaioaeaeeia io aeayoaeueiinoe
iicaa. Iica /aeiaaea ioi?ieyeny a i?ioeanna o?oaeiaie aeayoaeueiinoe e
nai, a naith i/a?aaeue, oi?aaeye ?aaioie /aeiaa/aneiai i?aaiecia.

?acoi iiaeiaai enoi/ieeo naaoa: ii inaauaao ana aie?oa. Ionaaou ?acoia
nio?aiytho oai?aiey /aeiaaea: ia?aaioaiiue eaiaiue eee einoue,
eneonnoaaiii auaaaeaiiua ?anoaiey eee aeeaioiua, no?iaiey, ea?ooee,
iaeaaeaeo, iiey, eana…

Ii ia aa?iaa ee aiai?eoue i oii, /oi nicaeaiey /aeiaaea aiieiuatho ia
oieueei aai ?acoi, ii e /oanoaa, aieth, oiaiea, neeo, nii?iaeo? Iaeiei
eeoue iai?yaeaieai oia iaaiciiaeii naeaeiooue aeaaea nie/eo. ?acoi
auiieiyao ?ieue i?aaiecaoi?a, ?oeiaiaeeoaey, i?iaeaeoea. Ii niaa?oaiii
iaiaoiaeei, ii iaaeinoaoi/ai aeey eciaiaiey iaoa?eaeueiuo i?ioeannia.

E ana-oaee aeaaiay ioee/eoaeueiay /a?oa /aeiaaea — ?acoi, aaneiia/ii
oaaee/eaathuee aiciiaeiinoe ethaeae. «…Ana /aeiaa/anoai, aianoa
acyoia,— ienae Aa?iaaeneee,— i?aaenoaaeyao ie/oiaeioth ianno aauanoaa
ieaiaou. Iiuue aai naycaia ia n aai iaoa?eae, ii n aai iicaii, n aai
?acoiii e iai?aaeaiiui yoei ?acoiii aai o?oaeii… Iiinoa?a anoue iiaia
aaieiae/aneia yaeaiea ia iaoae ieaiaoa. A iae aia?aua /aeiaae noaiiaeony
e?oiiaeoae aaieiae/aneie neeie. Ii iiaeao e aeieaeai ia?ano?aeaaoue
naiei o?oaeii e iuneueth iaeanoue naiae aeecie…»

Iniiaiua iieiaeaiey o/aiey i iiinoa?a

Aaeeinoai aeinoa?u e /aeiaaea

Oeaio?aeueiie oaiie o/aiey i iiinoa?a yaeyaony aaeeinoai aeinoa?u e
/aeiaa/anoaa. Aa?iaaeneee a naieo ?aaioao ?ane?uaaao ei?ie yoiai
aaeeinoaa, cia/aiea i?aaieciaaiiinoe aeinoa?u a ?acaeoee /aeiaa/anoaa.
Yoi iicaieyao iiiyoue ianoi e ?ieue enoi?e/aneiai ?acaeoey /aeiaa/anoaa
a yaiethoeee aeinoa?u, caeiiiia?iinoe aa ia?aoiaea a iiinoa?o.

Iaeiie ec eeth/aauo eaeae, eaaeaueo a iniiaa oai?ee Aa?iaaeneiai i
iiinoa?a, yaeyaony oi, /oi /aeiaae ia yaeyaony naiiaeinoaoi/iui aeeaui
nouanoaii, aeeaouei ioaeaeueii ii naiei caeiiai, ii ninouanoaoao aioo?e
i?e?iaeu e yaeyaony /anoueth aa. Yoi aaeeinoai iaoneiaeaii i?aaeaea
anaai ooieoeeiiaeueiie ia?ac?uaiinoueth ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu e /aeiaaea,
eioi?oth iuoaeny iieacaoue Aa?iaaeneee eae aeiaaioeiee. *aeiaa/anoai
naii ii naaa anoue i?e?iaeiia yaeaiea e anoanoaaiii, /oi aeeyiea
aeinoa?u neacuaaaony ia oieueei ia n?aaea aeecie ii e ia ia?aca iunee.

Ii ia oieueei i?e?iaea ieacuaaao aeeyiea ia /aeiaaea, nouanoaoao e
ia?aoiay naycue. I?e/ai iia ia iiaa?oiinoiay, io?aaeathuay oece/aneia
aeeyiea /aeiaaea ia ie?oaeathuoth n?aaeo, iia ai?acaei aeoaaea. Yoi
aeieacuaaao oio oaeo, /oi a iineaaeiaa a?aiy caiaoii aeoeaece?iaaeenue
ieaiaoa?iua aaieiae/aneea neeu. «…iu ana aieueoa e y?/a aeaeei a
aeaenoaee ie?oaeathuea ian aaieiae/aneea neeu. Yoi niaiaei, aaeaa ee
neo/aeii, n i?iieeiiaaieai a iao/iia niciaiea oaaaeaeaiey i
aaieiae/aneii cia/aiee Homo sapiens, n auyaeaieai iiaiai ninoiyiey
aeinoa?u — iiinoa?u — e yaeyaony iaeiie ec oi?i aa au?aaeaiey. Iii
naycaii, eiia/ii, i?aaeaea anaai n ooi/iaieai anoanoaaiiie iao/iie
?aaiou e iunee a i?aaeaeao aeinoa?u, aaea aeeaia aauanoai ea?aao
iniiaioth ?ieue». [1, c. 26] Oae, a iineaaeiaa a?aiy ?acei iaiyaony
io?aaeaiea aeeauo nouanoa ia ie?oaeathuae i?e?iaea. Aeaaiaea?y yoiio
i?ioeann yaiethoeee ia?aiineony a iaeanoue ieia?aeia. ?acei iaiythony
ii/au, aiaeu e aicaeoo. Oi anoue yaiethoeey aeaeia naia i?aa?aoeeanue a
aaieiae/aneee i?ioeann, oae eae a i?ioeanna yaiethoeee iiyaeeanue iiaay
aaieiae/aneay neea. Aa?iaaeneee ienae: «Yaiethoeey aeaeia ia?aoiaeeo a
yaiethoeeth aeinoa?u». [1, c. 27]

Caeanue anoanoaaiii iai?aoeaaaony auaiae i oii, /oi aaieiae/aneie neeie
yaeyaony nianoaaiii aiana ia Homo Sapiens, a aai ?acoi, iao/iay iuneue
nioeeaeueiiai /aeiaa/anoaa. A «Oeeinioneeo iuneyo iaoo?aeenoa»
Aa?iaaeneee ienae: «Iu eae ?ac ia?aaeeaaai aa y?eia aoiaeaeaiea a
aaieiae/aneoth enoi?eth ieaiaou. A iineaaeiea ouny/aeaoey iaaethaeaaony
eioaineaiue ?ino aeeyiey iaeiiai aeaeiaiai aeeaiai aauanoaa —
oeeaeeeciaaiiiai /aeiaa/anoaa — ia eciaiaiea aeinoa?u. Iiae aeeyieai
iao/iie iunee e /aeiaa/aneiai o?oaea aeinoa?a ia?aoiaeeo a iiaia
ninoiyiea — a iiinoa?o». [1, c. 27]

Iu yaeyainy iaaethaeaoaeyie e eniieieoaeyie aeoaieiai eciaiaiey
aeinoa?u. I?e/ai ia?ano?ieea ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu iao/iie /aeiaa/aneie
iuneueth iin?aaenoaii i?aaieciaaiiiai o?oaea a?yae ee yaeyaony noeoeeiui
i?ioeannii. Ei?ie yoiai eaaeao a naiie i?e?iaea e auee caeiaeaiu aua
ieeeeiiu eao iacaae a oiaea anoanoaaiiiai i?ioeanna yaiethoeee. «*aeiaae
… ninoaaeyao iaecaaaeiia i?iyaeaiea aieueoiai i?e?iaeiiai i?ioeanna,
caeiiiia?ii aeeyuaainy a oa/aiea, ii e?aeiae ia?a, aeaoo ieeeea?aeia
eao». [1, c. 28]

Ionthaea, enoaoe, iiaeii caeeth/eoue /oi auneacuaaiey i naiieno?aaeaiee
/aeiaa/anoaa, i e?ooaiee oeeaeeecaoeee ia eiatho iiae niaie aaneeo
iniiaaiee. Auei au ii iaiueoae ia?a no?aiii, anee au iao/iay iuneue –
ii?iaeaeaiea anoanoaaiiiai aaieiae/aneiai i?ioeanna i?ioeai?a/eea au
naiiio i?ioeanno. Iu noiei ia ii?iaa ?aaiethoeeiiiuo eciaiaiee a
ie?oaeathuae n?aaea: aeinoa?a iin?aaenoaii ia?a?aaioee iao/iie iuneueth
ia?aoiaeeo a iiaia yaiethoeeiiiia ninoiyiea – iiinoa?o.

Canaeyy ana oaieee iaoae ieaiaou, iie?aynue ia ainoaea?noaaiii
i?aaieciaaiioth iao/ioth iuneue e ia aa ii?iaeaeaiea, oaoieeo, /aeiaae
nicaeae a aeinoa?a iiaoth aeiaaiioth neeo, iiaeaea?aeeaathuoth
?aciiiaeaiea e aeaeueiaeoaa canaeaiea ?acee/iuo /anoae aeinoa?u. I?e/ai
aianoa n ?anoe?aieai iaeanoe aeeoaeuenoaa, /aeiaa/anoai ia/eiaao
i?aaenoaaeyoue naay ana aieaa niei/aiioth ianno, oae eae ?acaeaathuea
n?aaenoaa nayce – n?aaenoaa ia?aaea/e iunee ieoouaatho aanue Caiiie oa?.
«Yoio i?ioeann – iieiiai canaeaiey aeinoa?u /aeiaaeii – iaoneiaeai
oiaeii enoi?ee iao/iie iunee, ia?ac?uaii naycai ni nei?inoueth niioaiee,
n oniaoaie oaoieee ia?aaeaeaeaiey, n aiciiaeiinoueth iaiiaaiiie
ia?aaea/e iunee, aa iaeiia?aiaiiiai ianoaeaeaiey anthaeo ia ieaiaoa».
[1, c. 34]

I?e yoii /aeiaae aia?aua ?aaeueii iiiye, /oi ii aeeoaeue ieaiaou e
iiaeao e aeieaeai iuneeoue e aeaenoaiaaoue a iiaii aniaeoa, ia oieueei a
aniaeoa ioaeaeueiie ee/iinoe, naiuee eee ?iaea, ainoaea?noa eee eo
nithcia, ii e a ieaiaoiii aniaeoa. Ii, eae e ana aeeaia, iiaeao iuneeoue
e aeaenoaiaaoue a ieaiaoiii aniaeoa oieueei a iaeanoe aeecie — a
aeinoa?a, a ii?aaeaeaiiie caiiie iaiei/ea, n eioi?ie ii ia?ac?uaii,
caeiiiia?ii naycai e oeoe ec eioi?ie ii ia iiaeao. Aai nouanoaiaaiea
anoue aa ooieoeey. Ii ianao aa n niaie anthaeo. E ii aa iaecaaaeii,
caeiiiia?ii, iai?a?uaii eciaiyao. Iioiaea, /oi aia?aua iu iaoiaeeiny a
oneiaeyo aaeeiiai aaieiae/aneiai enoi?e/aneiai i?ioeanna, ioaaoeaoaai
iaeiia?aiaiii anth ieaiaoo. XX aae oa?aeoa?ai oai, /oi ethaua
i?ienoiaeyuaa ia ieaiaoa niauoea naycuaathony a aaeeiia oeaeia. E n
eaaeaeui aeiai nioeeaeueiay, iao/iay e eoeueoo?iay naycaiiinoue
/aeiaa/anoaa oieueei oneeeaaaony e oaeoaeyaony. «Oaaee/aiea
anaeaineinoe, niayiiinoe anao /aeiaa/aneeo iauanoa iai?a?uaii ?anoao e
noaiiaeony caiaoiui a iaiiiaea aiaeu /ooue ia aaeaaiaeii». [1, c. 88]

?acoeueoao anao auoaia?a/eneaiiuo eciaiaiee a aeinoa?a ieaiaou aeae
iiaiae o?aioeocneiio aaieiao Oaey? aea Oa?aeaio caeeth/eoue, /oi
aeinoa?a a ianoiyuee iiiaio auno?i aaieiae/anee ia?aoiaeeo a iiaia
ninoiyiea – a iiinoa?o, oi anoue oaeia ninoiyiea a eioi?ii /aeiaa/aneee
?acoi e iai?aaeyaiay ei ?aaioa i?aaenoaaeytho niaie iiaoth iiuioth
aaieiae/aneoth neeo. Yoi niaiaei, aeaeeii ia neo/aeii, n oai iiiaioii
eiaaea /aeiaae canaeee anth ieaiaoo, ana /aeiaa/anoai yeiiiie/anee
iauaaeeieeinue a aaeeiia oeaeia e iao/iay iuneue anaai /aeiaa/anoaa
neeeanue aiaaeeii, aeaaiaea?y oniaoai a oaoieea nayce.

Oaeei ia?acii:

*aeiaae, eae ii iaaethaeaaony a i?e?iaea, eae e ana aeeaua i?aaieciu,
eae anyeia aeeaia aauanoai, anoue ii?aaeaeaiiay ooieoeey aeinoa?u, a
ii?aaeaeaiiii aa i?ino?ainoaa-a?aiaie;

*aeiaae ai anao aai i?iyaeaieyo i?aaenoaaeyao niaie /anoue aeinoa?u;

I?i?ua iao/iie iunee iiaeaioiaeai anai i?ioeui aeinoa?u e eiaao
yaiethoeeiiiua ei?ie. Iiinoa?a – yoi aeinoa?a, ia?a?aaioaiiay iao/iie
iuneueth, iiaeaioaaeeaathuaeny anai i?ioeui ieaiaou, a ia
e?aoeia?aiaiiia e ia?aoiaeyuaa aaieiae/aneia yaeaiea.

Aa?iaaeneee iaiaeiie?aoii ioia/ae, /oi «oeeaeeecaoeey «eoeueoo?iiai
/aeiaa/anoaa» — iineieueeo iia yaeyaony oi?iie i?aaiecaoeee iiaie
aaieiae/aneie neeu, nicaeaaoaeny a aeinoa?a,— ia iiaeao i?a?aaoueny e
oie/oiaeeoueny, oae eae yoi anoue aieueoia i?e?iaeiia yaeaiea,
ioaa/athuaa enoi?e/anee, aa?iaa, aaieiae/anee neiaeeaoaeny
i?aaieciaaiiinoe aeinoa?u. Ia?acoy iiinoa?o, iia anaie ei?iyie
naycuaaaony n yoie caiiie iaiei/eie, /aai ?aiueoa a enoi?ee /aeiaa/anoaa
a neieueei-ieaoaeue n?aaieiie ia?a ia auei». [1, c. 46]

Iiiaia ec oiai, i /ai ienae Aa?iaaeneee, noaiiaeony aeinoiyieai
naaiaeiyoiaai aeiy. Nia?aiaiiu e iiiyoiu iai aai iunee i oeaeinoiinoe,
iaaeaeeiinoe oeeaeeecaoeee, i aaeeinoaa aeinoa?u e /aeiaa/anoaa.
Ia?aeiiiue iiiaio a enoi?ee /aeiaa/anoaa, i /ai naaiaeiy aiai?yo o/aiua,
iieeoeee, ioaeeoeenou, aue oaeaeai Aa?iaaeneei.

Aa?iaaeneee aeaeae iaecaaaeiinoue iiinoa?u, iiaeaioaaeeaaaiie eae
yaiethoeeae aeinoa?u, oae e enoi?e/aneei ?acaeoeai /aeiaa/anoaa. N oi/ee
c?aiey iiinoa?iiai iiaeoiaea ii-eiiio aeaeyony e nia?aiaiiua aieaaua
oi/ee ?acaeoey ie?iaie oeeaeeecaoeee. Aa?aa?neia ioiioaiea e aeinoa?a,
oa?ica ie?iaie yeieiae/aneie eaoano?iou, i?iecaiaenoai n?aaenoa
ianniaiai oie/oiaeaiey — ana yoi aeieaeii eiaoue i?aoiaeyuaa cia/aiea.
Aii?in i ei?aiiii iiai?ioa e enoieai aeecie, e i?aaieciaaiiinoe aeinoa?u
a nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo aeieaeai cao/aoue eae iaaao, i?ecua e oiio, /oiau
iuneeoue e aeaenoaiaaoue ,a aeinoa?iii — ieaiaoiii aniaeoa.

Iaoea eae iniiaiie oaeoi? iiinoa?u

Ianeieueei iaiau/ai iiaeoiae Aa?iaaeneiai e iaoea. Ii aa ?anniao?eaae
eae aaieiae/aneoth e enoi?e/aneoth neeo, eciaiythuoth aeinoa?o e aeeciue
/aeiaa/anoaa. Iia yaeyaony oai iniiaiui caaiii, iin?aaenoaii eioi?iai
oaeoaeyaony aaeeinoai aeinoa?u e /aeiaa/anoaa.

Iniaia ianoi Aa?iaaeneee ioaiaeeo iaoea XX noieaoey. Eiaiii a yoi a?aiy
iaaethaeaaony aa iaauaaeue ?anoeaao, naiaai ?iaea ac?ua iao/iiai
oai?/anoaa. Iaoea noaiiaeony anaeaineie, ie?iaie iaoeie, ioaaouaathuae
anth ieaiaoo.

Aa?iaaeneee ia?auae aieueoia aieiaiea ia aoiaienoe/aneia niaea?aeaiea
iaoee, ia aa ?ieue a ?aoaiee caaea/ /aeiaa/anoaa, ia ioaaonoaaiiinoue
o/aiuo ca i?eiaiaiea iao/iuo ioe?uoee. Yoe e iiiaea ae?oaea eaeae
Aa?iaaeneiai i ?iee iaoee a ?acaeoee /aeiaa/anoaa, a ia?aoiaea aeinoa?u
a iiinoa?o eiatho aeooaeueiia cia/aiea aeey iaoaai a?aiaie.

Eae oaea oeacuaaeinue, Aa?iaaeneee ?anniao?eaae iaoeo a ea/anoaa
n?aaenoaa ?acaeoey /aeiaa/anoaa. Iiyoiio i/aiue aaaeii, /oiau iaoea ia
i?eieiaea oi?io aano?aeoiie, eiathuae naia iacaaeneiia nouanoaiaaiea
nouiinoe. Iaoea – nicaeaiea /aeiaa/anoaa e aeieaeia neoaeeoue ia aeaai
/aeiaa/anoaa. «Aa niaea?aeaiea ia ia?aie/eaaaony iao/iuie oai?eyie,
aeiioacaie, iiaeaeyie, nicaeaaaaiie eie ea?oeiie ie?a: a iniiaa iia
aeaaiui ia?acii ninoieo ec iao/iuo oaeoi?ia e eo yiie?e/aneeo iaiauaiee,
e aeaaiui — aeeaui niaea?aeaieai yaeyaony a iae iao/iay ?aaioa aeeauo
ethaeae…» [2, c. 252] Oae /oi iaoea – nioeeaeueiia ana/aeiaa/aneia
ia?aciaaiea, a iniiaa eioi?uo eaaeeo neea oaeoia, iaiauaiee e, eiia/ii,
/aeiaa/aneiai ?acoia.

Iu iaaethaeaai, eae iaoea ana neeueiaa e aeoaaea ia/eiaao eciaiyoue
aeinoa?o Caiee, iia iaiyao oneiaey aeecie, aaieiae/aneea i?ioeannu,
yia?aaoeeo ieaiaou. Cia/eo, e naia iao/iay iuneue yaeyaony i?e?iaeiui
yaeaieai. A ia?aaeeaaaiue iaie iiiaio nicaeaiey iiaie aaieiae/aneie
neeu, iao/iie iunee, ?acei aic?anoaao aeeyiea aeeaiai aauanoaa a
yaiethoeee aeinoa?u. Aeinoa?a, ia?a?aaaouaaynue iao/iie iuneueth Homo
Sapiens, ia?aoiaeeo a naia iiaia ninoiyiea – a iiinoa?o.

Enoi?ey anae iao/iie iunee – nooue enoi?ey nicaeaiey a aeinoa?a iiaie
aaieiae/aneie neeu – iao/iie iunee, ?aiaa ionoonoaothuae. E yoio
i?ioeann ia neo/aai, ii caeiiiia?ai eae anyeia i?e?iaeiia yaeaiea.
«Aeinoa?a XX noieaoey i?aa?auaaony a iiinoa?o, nicaeaaaaioth i?aaeaea
anaai ?inoii iaoee, iao/iiai iiieiaiey e iniiaaiiiai ia iae
nioeeaeueiiai o?oaea /aeiaa/anoaa». [1, c. 44] Iaiaoiaeeii iiae/a?eiooue
ia?ac?uaioth naycue nicaeaiey iiinoa?u n ?inoii iao/iie iunee,
yaeythuaeny ia?aie iaiaoiaeeiie i?aaeiinueeie yoiai nicaeaiey. Iiinoa?a
iiaeao nicaeaaaoueny oieueei i?e yoii oneiaee.

Cia/aiea i?ienoiaeyueo ia ieaiaoa a XX aaea eciaiaiee ianoieueei aaeeei,
/oi ?aaiua ii ?iee i?ioeannu iiaeii iaeoe ?acaa oieueei a aeaeaeii
i?ioeii. A ianoiyuee iiiaio a?yae ee aiciiaeii ioeaieoue anth iao/ioth e
nioeeaeueioth aaaeiinoue yoiai yaeaiey, iioiio /oi iao/ii iiiyoue –
cia/eo iinoaaeoue yaeaiea a ?aiee ?aaeueiie einie/aneie ?aaeueiinoe. Ii
oi /oi iu iiaeai oaeaeaoue – yoi oi, /oi iaoea ia?ano?aeaaaony ia iaoeo
aeacao. Aeiaaiiue yooaeo ?aaiou iao/iie iunee ?aaeueii niiaoo oaeaeaoue
oieueei iaoe ioaeaeaiiua iioiiee: ii i?iyaeony y?ei e ynii oieueei /a?ac
nioie eao.

Iiyaeaiea ?acoia e ?acoeueoaoa aai aeayoaeueiinoe – i?aaiecaoeey iaoee –
aaaeiaeoee oaeo a ?acaeoee ieaiaou, aiciiaeii aeaaea i?aauoathuee ana,
iaaethaeaaiia aei ianoiyuaai a?aiaie. Iao/iay aeayoaeueiinoue nae/an
i?eia?aea oaeea /a?ou, eae auno?ue oaii, ioaao aieueoeo oa??eoi?ee,
aeoaeio enneaaeiaaiee, iiuiinoue i?iaiaeeiuo i?aia?aciaaiee. Yoi
iicaieyao i?aaeaeaeaoue iao/iia aeaeaeaiea, ?aciaoa eioi?iai a aeinoa?a
aua ia auei.

Ii aua aieaa ?aceia eciaiaiea i?ienoiaeeo nae/an a iniiaiie iaoiaeeea
iaoee. Caeanue a neaaenoaee aiiaue ioe?uouo iaeanoae iao/iuo oaeoia
aucaaee iaeiia?aiaiiia eciaiaiea naiuo iniia iaoaai iao/iiai iiciaiey,
iiieiaiey ie?oaeathuaai. Oaeeie niaa?oaiii iaiaeeaeaiiuie e iiauie
iniiaiuie neaaenoaeyie iiauo iaeanoae iao/iuo oaeoia yaeythony
ane?uaoeany ia?aae iaie iaiaeii?iaeiinoue Einiina, anae ?aaeueiinoe e
iaiaeii?iaeiinoue iaoaai iiciaiey. Aa?iaaeneee ienae, /oi nae/an iaaei
?acee/aoue o?e ?aaeueiinoe: ?aaeueiinoue a iaeanoe aeecie /aeiaaea, oi
anoue iaaethaeaaioth ?aaeueiinoue; iee?ineiie/aneoth ?aaeueiinoue
aoiiiuo yaeaiee, ia iaaethaeaaioth /aeiaa/aneei aeacii; ?aaeueiinoue a
aeiaaeueiii einie/aneii ianooaaa. «?acee/aiea o?ao ?aaeueiinoae eiaao
iaioeaieiia cia/aiea eae aeey iiieiaiey nayce /aeiaa/anoaa n aeinoa?ie,
oae e aeey aiaeeca caeiiiia?iinoae ?acaeoey iaoee». [1, c. 74]

*aeiaae iaioaeaeei io aeinoa?u, ii a iae aeeaao e oieueei aa e aa
iauaeou iiaeao enneaaeiaaoue iaiin?aaenoaaiii naieie i?aaiaie /oanoa.
«Ca i?aaeaeu aeinoa?u ii iiaeao i?iieeaoue oieueei iino?iaieyie ?acoia,
enoiaey ec ioiineoaeueii iaiiiaeo eaoaai?ee aan/eneaiiuo oaeoia, eioi?ua
ii iiaeao iieo/eoue a aeinoa?a c?eoaeueiui enneaaeiaaieai iaaaniiai
naiaea e eco/aieai a aeinoa?a aea io?aaeaiee einie/aneeo eceo/aiee eee
iiiaaeathuaai a aeinoa?o einie/aneiai aiacaiiiai aauanoaa…» [1, c.
128] Oaeei ia?acii, iao/iay iuneue /aeiaa/anoaa, ?aaioay oieueei a
aeinoa?a, a oiaea naiaai i?iyaeaiey a eiioea eiioeia i?aa?auaao aa a
iiinoa?o, aaieiae/anee ioaaouaaao aa ?acoiii. Oieueei oaia?ue noaei
aiciiaeiui iao/iia auaeaeaiea aeinoa?u, yaeythuaeny iniiaiie iaeanoueth
ciaiey, ec ie?oaeathuae ?aaeueiinoe.

Ec anaai auoaneacaiiiai iiaeii naeaeaoue neaaeothuea auaiaeu:

Iao/iia oai?/anoai /aeiaaea – neea, eciaiythuay aeinoa?o.

Yoi eciaiaiea aeinoa?u – iaecaaaeiue i?ioeann, nii?iaiaeaeathuee iao/iue
?ino.

Ii yoi eciaiaiea aeinoa?u – noeoeeiue i?e?iaeiue i?ioeann, i?ienoiaeyuee
iacaaeneii io /aeiaa/aneie aiee.

Aoiaeaeaiea a aeinoa?o iiaiai oaeoi?a aa eciaiaiey – /aeiaa/aneiai
?acoia anoue i?e?iaeiue i?ioeann ia?aoiaea aeinoa?u a iiinoa?o.

Iinoiyiii niaa?oainoaoynue, iaoea iiaeao i?iaeaeiooueny ana aeaeueoa a
eco/aiee ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu.

Aicieeiiaaiea aaioeiee e aeiaaioeiee ioaa/aei iio?aaiinoyi oeaeinoiiai,
neioaoe/aneiai ?anniio?aiey yaeaiee i?aaieciaaiiinoe aeinoa?u,
acaeiinaycae aeeaiai e einiiai aauanoaa. Yoe iaoee eiatho oaeaea
ia?ainoaiaiiia cia/aiea aeey enneaaeiaaiey aaeeinoaa aeinoa?u e
/aeiaa/anoaa. Oai naiui aaioeiey e aeiaaioeiey niaaeeiytho iaoee i
i?e?iaea n iaoeaie i /aeiaaea. Oeaio?ii oaeie eioaa?e?iaaiiie iaoee, ii
iiaieth Aa?iaaeneiai, yaeyaony o/aiea i aeinoa?a.

A nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo caaea/ae ia?ainoaiaiiie aaaeiinoe yaeyaony
aic?iaeaeaiea eaeae aeinoa?iiai anoanoaiciaiey, i?iaeieaeaiea iao/iie
?ac?aaioee i?iaeai aeiaaioeiee.

Caaea/e ii niceaeaieth iiinoa?u

I?ioeann ia?aoiaea aeinoa?u a iiinoa?o iaecaaaeii ianao a naaa /a?ou
niciaoaeueiinoe, oeaeaono?aieaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe, oai?/aneie ?aaiou.
Aa?iaaeneee aeaeae noiyuea ia?aae /aeiaa/anoaii caaea/e ia?iiiie
aaaeiinoe ii niceaeaieth iiinoa?u. N iiceoeee yoeo caaea/ ii ioia/ae
aanii/aaiiinoue noaeaeaiee i aiciiaeiinoe e?ooaiey oeeaeeecaoeee.
?anniio?ei ia?niaeoeau ?acaeoey /aeiaa/anoaa n oi/ee c?aiey
Aa?iaaeneiai.

Iae?ooeiinoue oeeaeeecaoeee Aa?iaaeneee iainiiauaaao neaaeothueie
oacenaie:

*aeiaa/anoai noieo ia iooe nicaeaiey a iiinoa?iie iaiei/ee Caiee, ana
aieueoa oe?aieyy naie nayce n aeinoa?ie. *aeiaa/anoai noaiiaeony
Anaeaineie eaoaai?eae.

*aeiaa/anoai a naiai ?acaeoee noaei aaeeiui oeaeui aeaaiaea?y oiio, /oi
eioa?anu anao, a ia ioaeaeueiuo eeoe, noaiiayony ainoaea?noaaiiie
caaea/ae.

Aeiaaeueiua i?iaeaiu /aeiaa/anoaa, oaeea eae niciaoaeueiia ?aaoee?iaaiea
?aciiiaeaiey, i?iaeeaiea aeecie, iiaaaea iaae aieaciyie, ia/eiatho
?aoaoueny.

Noaaeony caaea/a ?ani?ino?aiaiey iao/iiai ciaiey ia ana /aeiaa/anoai.

Aa?iaaeneee ienae: «Oaeie niaieoiiinoe iaua/aeiaa/aneeo aeaenoaee e
eaeae ieeiaaea ?aiueoa ia auaaei, e ynii, /oi inoaiiaeaii yoi aeaeaeaiea
auoue ia iiaeao. A /anoiinoe, ia?aae o/aiuie noiyo aeey aeeaeaeoaai
aoaeouaai iaauaaeua aeey ieo caaea/e niciaoaeueiiai iai?aaeaiey
i?aaieciaaiiinoe iiinoa?u, ioieoe io eioi?ie iie ia iiaoo, oae eae e
yoiio iai?aaeyao eo noeoeeiue oiae ?inoa iao/iiai ciaiey». [1, c. 50]

Oaa?aiiinoue a aoaeouai, oaeei ia?acii, iniiaaia ia aic?anoathuai
cia/aiee a ?acaeoee /aeiaa/anoaa niaianoiuo iaua/aeiaa/aneeo aeaenoaee.
Aa?iaaeneee, eiia/ii, ia iia i?aaeaeaeaoue nia?aiaiiie ino?iou
aeiaaeueiuo i?iaeai ie?iaiai ?acaeoey. Ii e iie eeoue oneeeaatho
cia/aiea niaianoiiai ?aoaiey caaea/ niciaoaeueiiai iai?aaeaiey
i?aaieciaaiiinoe iiinoa?u.

Iaeiie ec aaaeiaeoeo i?iaeai oi?ie?iaaiey i?aaieciaaiiinoe iiinoa?u
yaeyaony aii?in i ianoa e ?iee iaoee a aeecie iauanoaa, i aeeyiee
ainoaea?noaa ia ?acaeoea iao/iuo enneaaeiaaiee.

Aa?iaaeneee auneacuaaeny ca ia?aciaaiea aaeeiie (ia ainoaea?noaaiiii
o?iaia) iao/iie /aeiaa/aneie iunee, eioi?ay yaeyeanue au ?aoathuei
oaeoi?ii a iiinoa?a e nicaeaaaei au aeey aeeaeaeoeo iieieaiee eo/oea
oneiaey aeecie. Ia?aii/a?aaeiua aii?inu, eioi?ua iaiaoiaeeii ?aoeoue ia
yoii iooe, yoi – «aii?in i ieaiiaie, aaeeiiia?aciie aeayoaeueiinoe aeey
iaeaaeaiey i?e?iaeie e i?aaeeueiiai ?ani?aaeaeaiey aiaaonoa, naycaiiue n
niciaieai aaeeinoaa e ?aaainoaa anao ethaeae, aaeeinoaa iiinoa?u» [1, c.
78]; eaeay i ainoaea?noaaiiii iauaaeeiaiee oneeee /aeiaa/anoaa.

Ii?aaeaao nicao/iinoue eaeae Aa?iaaeneiai iaoaio a?aiaie. Iinoaiiaea
caaea/ niciaoaeueiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey i?ioeanna niceaeaiey iiinoa?u
/?acau/aeii aeooaeueia aeey naaiaeiyoiaai aeiy. E yoei caaea/ai
Aa?iaaeneee oaeaea ioiinee enei?aiaiea aiei ec aeecie /aeiaa/anoaa. Ii
aieueoia aieiaiea oaeaeye ?aoaieth caaea/ aeaiie?aoe/aneeo oi?i
i?aaiecaoeee iao/iie ?aaiou, ia?aciaaiey, ?ani?ino?aiaiey ciaiee n?aaee
ia?iaeiuo iann.

Ia?aoiae aeinoa?u a iiinoa?o: i?iaiic e ?aaeueiinoue

Aa?iaaeneee, aiaeece?oy aaieiae/aneoth enoi?eth Caiee, ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi
iaaethaeaaony ia?aoiae aeinoa?u a iiaia ninoiyiea – a iiinoa?o iiae
aeaenoaeai iiaie aaieiae/aneie neeu, iao/iie iunee /aeiaa/anoaa. Iaeiaei
a o?oaeao Aa?iaaeneiai iao caeii/aiiiai e iai?ioeai?a/eaiai oieeiaaiey
nouiinoe iaoa?eaeueiie iiinoa?u eae i?aia?aciaaiiie aeinoa?u. A iaeieo
neo/ayo ii ienae i iiinoa?a a aoaeouai a?aiaie (iia aua ia ianooieea), a
ae?oaeo a ianoiyuai (iu aoiaeei a ia?), a eiiaaea naycuaae oi?ie?iaaiea
iiinoa?u n iiyaeaieai /aeiaaea ?acoiiiai eee n aicieeiiaaieai
i?iiuoeaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa. Iaaei caiaoeoue, /oi eiaaea a ea/anoaa
ieia?aeiaa Aa?iaaeneee ienae i aaieiae/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe /aeiaaea, ii
au? ia oiio?aaeye iiiyoee «iiinoa?a» e aeaaea «aeinoa?a». I oi?ie?iaaiee
ia Caiea iiinoa?u ii iaeaieaa iiae?iaii ienae a iacaaa?o?iiie ?aaioa
«Iao/iay iuneue eae ieaiaoiia yaeaiea», ii i?aeiouanoaaiii n oi/ee
c?aiey enoi?ee iaoee.

Eoae, /oi aea iiinoa?a: ooiiey eee ?aaeueiay no?aoaaey auaeeaaiey?
O?oaeu Aa?iaaeneiai iicaieytho aieaa iainiiaaiii ioaaoeoue ia
iinoaaeaiiue aii?in, iineieueeo a ieo oeacai ?yae eiie?aoiuo oneiaee,
iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey noaiiaeaiey e nouanoaiaaiey iiinoa?u. Ia?a/eneei yoe
oneiaey:

Canaeaiea /aeiaaeii anae ieaiaou.

?aceia i?aia?aciaaiea n?aaenoa nayce e iaiaia iaaeaeo no?aiaie.

Oneeaiea naycae, a oii /enea iieeoe/aneeo, iaaeaeo anaie no?aiaie Caiee.

Ia/aei i?aiaeaaeaiey aaieiae/aneie ?iee /aeiaaea iaae ae?oaeie
aaieiae/aneeie i?ioeannaie, i?ioaeathueie a aeinoa?a.

?anoe?aiea a?aieoe aeinoa?u e auoiae a einiin.

Ioe?uoea iiauo enoi/ieeia yia?aee.

?aaainoai ethaeae anao ?an e ?aeeaee.

Oaaee/aiea ?iee ia?iaeiuo iann a ?aoaiee aii?inia aiaoiae e aioo?aiiae
iieeoeee.

Naiaiaea iao/iie iunee e iao/iiai eneaiey io aeaaeaiey ?aeeaeiciuo,
oeeinioneeo e iieeoe/aneeo iino?iaiee e nicaeaiea a ainoaea?noaaiiii
no?ia oneiaee, aeaaii?eyoiuo aeey naiaiaeiie iao/iie iunee.

I?iaeoiaiiay nenoaia ia?iaeiiai ia?aciaaiey e iiaeu?i aeaaininoiyiey
o?oaeyueony. Nicaeaiea ?aaeueiie aiciiaeiinoe ia aeiionoeoue
iaaeiaaeaiey e aieiaea, ieuaou e /?acau/aeii ineaaeoue aieacie.

?acoiiia i?aia?aciaaiea ia?ae/iie i?e?iaeu Caiee n oeaeueth naeaeaoue a?
niiniaiie oaeiaeaoai?eoue ana iaoa?eaeueiua, ynoaoe/aneea e aeooiaiua
iio?aaiinoe /eneaiii aic?anoathuaai ianaeaiey.

Eneeth/aiea aiei ec aeecie iauanoaa.

I?ineaaeei, ianeieueei auiieiythony yoe oneiaey a nia?aiaiiii ie?a e
inoaiiaeiny aieaa iiae?iaii ia iaeioi?uo ec ieo.

Canaeaiea /aeiaaeii anae ieaiaou. Yoi oneiaea auiieiaii. Ia Caiea ia
inoaeinue iano, aaea ia nooiaea au iiaa /aeiaaea. Ii iainiiaaeny aeaaea
a Aioa?eoeaea.

?aceia i?aia?aciaaiea n?aaenoa nayce e iaiaia iaaeaeo no?aiaie. Yoi
oneiaea oaeaea iiaeii n/eoaoue auiieiaiiui. N iiiiuueth ?aaeei e
oaeaaeaeaiey iu iiiaioaeueii ocia?i i niauoeyo a ethaie oi/ea caiiiai
oa?a. N?aaenoaa eiiioieeaoeee iinoiyiii niaa?oainoaothony, onei?ythony,
iiyaeythony oaeea aiciiaeiinoe, i eioi?uo iaaeaaii o?oaeii auei
ia/oaoue. E caeanue iaeuecy ia aniiiieoue i?i?i/aneeo neia Aa?iaaeneiai:
«Yoio i?ioeann – iieiiai canaeaiey aeinoa?u /aeiaaeii – iaoneiaeai
oiaeii enoi?ee iao/iie iunee, ia?ac?uaii naycai ni nei?inoueth niioaiee,
n oniaoaie oaoieee ia?aaeaeaeaiey, n aiciiaeiinoueth iaiiaaiiie
ia?aaea/e iunee, a? iaeiia?aiaiiiai ianoaeaeaiey ia anae ieaiaoa.» [3,
n.136]. Aei iaaeaaiaai a?aiaie n?aaenoaa oaeaeiiioieeaoeee
ia?aie/eaaeenue oaeaa?aoii, oaeaoiiii, ?aaeei e oaeaaeaeaieai, i eioi?uo
ienae au? Aa?iaaeneee. Eiaeanue aiciiaeiinoue ia?aaeaaaoue aeaiiua io
iaeiiai eiiiuethoa?a e ae?oaiio i?e iiiiue iiaeaia, iiaeeeth/aiiiai e
oaeaoiiiie eeiee, aeieoiaiou ia aoiaaa ia?aaeaaaeenue n iiiiuueth
oaeneieeueiuo aiia?aoia. Oieueei a iineaaeiea aiaeu ?acaeoea aeiaaeueiie
oaeaeiiioieeaoeeiiiie eiiiuethoa?iie naoe Internet aeaei ia/aei
ianoiyuae ?aaiethoeee a /aeiaa/aneie oeeaeeecaoeee, eioi?ay aoiaeeo
nae/an a y?o eioi?iaoeee. A 1968 aiaeo Ieienoa?noai Iai?iiu NOA
icaaioeeinue naycueth iiiaeanoaa naieo eiiiuethoa?ia a niaoeeaeueioth
naoue, eioi?ay aeieaeia auea niinianoaiaaoue iao/iui enneaaeiaaieyi a
aiaiii-i?iiuoeaiiie noa?a. Ecia/aeueii e yoie naoe auei i?aaeuyaeaii
o?aaiaaiea onoie/eainoe e /anoe/iui iia?aaeaeaieyi: ethaay /anoue naoe
iiaeao en/aciooue a ethaie iiiaio. E a yoeo oneiaeyo anaaaea aeieaeii
auei auoue aiciiaeiui onoaiiaeoue naycue iaaeaeo
eiiiuethoa?ii-enoi/ieeii e eiiiuethoa?ii-i?e?iieeii eioi?iaoeee
(noaioeeae iacia/aiey). ?ac?aaioea i?iaeoa oaeie naoe e aai
inouanoaeaiea auei ii?o/aii ARPA – Advanced Research Projects Agency –
Oi?aaeaieth ia?aaeiauo enneaaeiaaiee Ieienoa?noaa Iai?iiu. *a?ac iyoue
eao iai?yae?iiie ?aaiou oaeay naoue auea nicaeaia e iieo/eea iacaaiea
ARPAnet. A oa/aiea ia?auo aeanyoe eao ?acaeoea eiiiuethoa?iuo naoae oei
iacaiaoii – eo oneoaaie iieueciaaeenue oieueei niaoeeaeenou ii
au/eneeoaeueiie e aiaiiie oaoieea. Ii n ?acaeoeai eieaeueiuo naoae,
iauaaeeiythueo eiiiuethoa?u a i?aaeaeao iaeiie eaeie-eeai i?aaiecaoeee,
iiyaeeanue iio?aaiinoue naycaoue aiaaeeii eieaeueiua naoe ?acee/iuo
i?aaiecaoeee. A?aiy io a?aiaie i?aaei?eieiaeenue iiiuoee eniieueciaaoue
aeey yoiai oaea aioiaoth naoue ARPAnet, ii ath?ie?aou Ieienoa?noaa
Iai?iiu auee i?ioea. AEeciue o?aaiaaea auno?uo ?aoaiee, iiyoiio ca
iniiao aoaeouae naoe naoae Internet auea acyoa no?oeoo?a oaea
nouanoaothuae naoe ARPAnet. A 1973 aiaeo auei i?aaieciaaii ia?aia
iaaeaeoia?iaeiia iiaeeeth/aiea – e naoe iiaeeeth/eeenue Aiaeey e
Ii?aaaey. Iaeiaei i?e/eiie ia/aea ac?uaiiai ?inoa naoe Internet a eiioea
80-o aiaeia noaee oneeey NSF (National Science Foundation –
Iaoeeiiaeueiue iao/iue oiiae NOA) e ae?oaeo aeaaeaie/aneeo i?aaiecaoeee
e iao/iuo oiiaeia anaai ie?a ii iiaeeeth/aieth iao/iuo o/?aaeaeaiee e
naoe. ?ino e ?acaeoea naoe Internet, niaa?oainoaiaaiea au/eneeoaeueiie e
eiiioieeaoeeiiiie oaoieee eae?o nae/an iiaeiaii oiio, eae eae?o
?aciiiaeaiea e yaiethoeey aeeauo i?aaieciia. Ia yoi a nai? a?aiy ia?aoee
aieiaiea Aa?iaaeneee: «Ni nei?inoueth, n?aaieiie nei?inoueth
?aciiiaeaiey, au?aaeaaiie aaiiao?e/aneie i?ia?anneae a oiaea a?aiaie,
nicaeaaony yoei ioo?i a aeinoa?a an? ?anoouaa iiiaeanoai iiauo aeey ia?
einiuo i?e?iaeiuo oae e iiauo aieueoeo i?e?iaeiuo yaeaiee.» [3, n.132].
«…Oiae iao/iie iunee, iai?eia?, a nicaeaiee iaoei, eae aeaaii
caia/aii, niaa?oaiii aiaeiae/ai oiaeo ?aciiiaeaiey i?aaieciia.» [3, n.
134]. Anee ?aiueoa naoueth iieueciaaeenue oieueei enneaaeiaaoaee a
iaeanoe eioi?iaoeee, ainoaea?noaaiiua neoaeauea e iiae?yae/eee, oi
oaia?ue i?aeoe/anee ethaie aeaeathuee iiaeao iieo/eoue aeinooi e iae. E
caeanue iu aeaeei aiieiuaiea ia/ou Aa?iaaeneiai i aeaaii?eyoiie n?aaea
aeey ?acaeoey iao/iie ?aaiou, iiioey?ecaoeee iao/iiai ciaiey, ia
eioa?iaoeeiiaeueiinoe iaoee. Aeaenoaeoaeueii, anee ?aiueoa ethaeae
?acaeaeyee a?aieoeu e ia?iiiua ?annoiyiey, oi oaia?ue, aiciiaeii,
oieueei ycueiaie aa?uea?. «Anyeee iao/iue oaeo, anyeia iao/iia
iaaethaeaiea, – ienae Aa?iaaeneee, – aaea au e eai au iie ie auee
naeaeaiu, iinooiatho a aaeeiue iao/iue aiia?ao, a i?i eeanneoeoee?othony
e i?eaiaeyony e aaeeiie oi?ia, n?aco noaiiayony iauei aeinoiyieai aeey
e?eoeee, ?aciuoeaiee e iao/iie ?aaiou.» [3, n. 143]. Ii anee ?aiueoa
aeey oiai, /oiau auoea a naao iao/iay ?aaioa, /oiau iao/iay iuneue noaea
ecaanoiie ie?o, o?aaiaaeenue aiaeu, oi nae/an ethaie o/?iue, eiathuee
aeinooi e naoe Internet, iiaeao i?aaenoaaeoue naie o?oae, iai?eia?, a
aeaea oae iacuaaaiie WWW no?aie/ee (World-Wide Web – «Anaie?iay
iaooeia») ia iaic?aiea anai iieueciaaoaeyi naoe, i?e/?i ia oieueei oaeno
noaouee e ?enoiee (eae ia aoiaaa), ii e iiaeaeaeiua eeethno?aoeee, a
eiiaaea e caoeiaia nii?iaiaeaeaiea. Nae/an naoue Internet – yoi ie?iaia
niiauanoai ieiei 30 ouny/ eiiiuethoa?iuo naoae, acaeiiaeaenoaothueo
iaaeaeo niaie. Ianaeaiea Internet oaea ninoaaeyao ii/oe 30 ieeeeiiia
iieueciaaoaeae e ieiei 10 ieeeeiiia eiiiuethoa?ia, i?e/?i eiee/anoai
oceia eaaeaeua iieoi?a aiaea oaeaaeaaaony. Aa?iaaeneee ienae: «Nei?i
iiaeii aoaeao naeaeaoue aeaeiuie aeey anao niauoey, i?ienoiaeyuea ca
ouny/e eeeiiao?ia» [3, n. 140]. Iiaeii n/eoaoue, /oi e yoi i?aaeneacaiea
Aa?iaaeneiai naueinue.

Oneeaiea naycae, a oii /enea iieeoe/aneeo, iaaeaeo anaie no?aiaie Caiee.
Yoi oneiaea iiaeii n/eoaoue anee ia auiieiaiiui, oi auiieiythueiny.
Aicieeoay iinea aoi?ie ie?iaie aieiu I?aaiecaoeey Iauaaeei?iiuo iaoeee
(III) ieacaeanue ai?acaei aieaa onoie/eaie e aeaenoaaiiie, /ai Eeaa
iaoeee, nouanoaiaaaoay a AEaiaaa n 1919 a. ii 1946 a.

Ia/aei i?aiaeaaeaiey aaieiae/aneie ?iee /aeiaaea iaae ae?oaeie
aaieiae/aneeie i?ioeannaie, i?ioaeathueie a aeinoa?a. Yoi oneiaea oaeaea
iiaeii n/eoaoue auiieiaiiui, oioy eiaiii i?aiaeaaeaiea aaieiae/aneie
?iee /aeiaaea a ?yaea neo/aaa i?eaaei e oyae?eui yeieiae/aneei
iineaaenoaeyi. Iau?i ai?iuo ii?iae, ecaeaeaaiuo ec aeoaei Caiee anaie
oaooaie e ea?uea?aie ie?a, nae/an ii/oe a aeaa ?aca i?aauoaao n?aaeiee
iau?i eaa e iaieia, auiineiuo aaeaaiaeii anaie aoeeaiaie Caiee.

?anoe?aiea a?aieoe aeinoa?u e auoiae a einiin. A ?aaioao iineaaeiaai
aeanyoeeaoey aeecie Aa?iaaeneee ia n/eoae a?aieoeu aeinoa?u iinoiyiiuie.
Ii iiae/??eeaae ?anoe?aiea eo a i?ioeii eae eoia auoiaea aeeaiai
aauanoaa ia nooo, iiyaeaiey aunieinoaieueiie ?anoeoaeueiinoe, eaoathueo
ianaeiiuo, a iicaeiaa eaoathueo yua?ia e ioeoe. A i?ioeanna ia?aoiaea a
iiinoa?o a?aieoeu aeinoa?u aeieaeiu ?anoe?youeny, a /aeiaae aeieaeai
aueoe a einiin. Yoe i?aaeneacaiey naueenue.

Ioe?uoea iiauo enoi/ieeia yia?aee. Oneiaea auiieiaii, ii, e niaeaeaieth,
n o?aae/aneeie iineaaenoaeyie. Aoiiiay yia?aey aeaaii inaiaia e a
ie?iuo, e a aiaiiuo oeaeyo. *aeiaa/anoai (a oi/iaa iieeoeee) yaii ia
aioiai ia?aie/eoueny ie?iuie oeaeyie, aieaa oiai – aoiiiay (yaea?iay)
neea aioea a iao aae i?aaeaea anaai eae aiaiiia n?aaenoai e n?aaenoai
ono?aoaiey i?ioeainoiyueo yaea?iuo aea?aeaa. Aii?in ia eniieueciaaiee
aoiiiie yia?aee aeoaiei aieiiaae Aa?iaaeneiai au? aieaa iieoaaea iacaae.
A i?aaeeneiaee e eieaa «I/a?ee e ?a/e» ii i?i?i/anee ienae: «Iaaeaeaei
a?aiy, eiaaea /aeiaae iieo/eo a naie ?oee aoiiioth yia?aeth, oaeie
enoi/iee neeu, eioi?ue aeano aio aiciiaeiinoue no?ieoue naith aeeciue,
eae ii caoi/ao… Noiaao ee /aeiaae ainiieueciaaoueny yoie neeie,
iai?aaeoue a? ia aeia?i, a ia ia naiioie/oiaeaiea? Aei?in ee ii aei
oiaiey eniieueciaaoue oo neeo, eioi?oth iaecaaaeii aeieaeia aio aeaoue
iaoea?» [3, n. 331]. Ia?iiiue yaea?iue iioaioeeae iiaeaea?aeeaaaony
/oanoaii acaeiiiai no?aoa e no?aieaieai iaeiie ec noi?ii e cuaeiio
i?aainoiaenoao. Iiaouanoai iiaiai enoi/ieea yia?aee ieacaeinue
niiieoaeueiui, ii i?eo?eny ia ei a?aiaie e iiiae ia a oa ?oee. Aeey
?acaeoey iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai nio?oaeie/anoaa a iaeanoe ie?iiai
eniieueciaaiey aoiiiie yia?aee a 1957 aiaeo nicaeaii Iaaeaeoia?iaeiia
Aaaionoai ii Aoiiiie Yia?aee (IAAAOY), iauaaeeiyaoaa e 1981 aiaeo 111
ainoaea?noa.

?aaainoai ethaeae anao ?an e ?aeeaee. Yoi oneiaea anee ia aeinoeaiooi,
oi, ai anyeii neo/aa, aeinoeaaaony. ?aoeoaeueiui oaaii aeey onoaiiaeaiey
?aaainoaa ethaeae ?acee/iuo ?an e aa?ieniiaaaeaiee auei ?ac?ooaiea a
eiioea i?ioeiai aaea eieiieaeueiuo eiia?ee.

Oaaee/aiea ?iee ia?iaeiuo iann a ?aoaiee aii?inia aiaoiae e aioo?aiiae
iieeoeee. Yoi oneiaea niaethaeaaony ai anao no?aiao n ia?eaiaioneie
oi?iie i?aaeaiey.

Naiaiaea iao/iie iunee e iao/iiai eneaiey io aeaaeaiey ?aeeaeiciuo,
oeeinioneeo e iieeoe/aneeo iino?iaiee e nicaeaiea a ainoaea?noaaiiii
no?ia oneiaee, aeaaii?eyoiuo aeey naiaiaeiie iao/iie iunee. O?oaeii
aiai?eoue i auiieiaiee yoiai oneiaey a no?aia, aaea au? nianai iaaeaaii
iaoea iaoiaeeeanue iiae eieinnaeueiui ai?oii ii?aaeae?iiuo oeeinioneeo e
iieeoe/aneeo iino?iaiee. Nae/an iaoea io oaeeo aeaaeaiee naiaiaeia,
iaeiaei ec-ca oyae?eiai yeiiiie/aneiai iieiaeaiey a ?inneeneie iaoea
iiiaea o/?iua auioaeaeaiu ca?aaaouaaoue naaa ia aeeciue iaiao/iui
o?oaeii, ae?oaea oacaeatho ca a?aieoeo. Aeey iiaeaea?aeaiey ?inneeneie
iaoee nicaeaiu iaaeaeoia?iaeiua oiiaeu. A ?acaeouo e aeaaea
?acaeaathueony no?aiao, /oi iu aeaeei ia i?eia?a Eiaeee,
ainoaea?noaaiiue e iauanoaaiiue no?ie nicaeatho ?aaeei iaeneiaeueiiai
aeaaii?eyonoaiaaiey aeey naiaiaeiie iao/iie iunee.

I?iaeoiaiiay nenoaia ia?iaeiiai ia?aciaaiey e iiaeu?i aeaaininoiyiey
o?oaeyueony. Nicaeaiea ?aaeueiie aiciiaeiinoe ia aeiionoeoue
iaaeiaaeaiey e aieiaea, ieuaou e /?acau/aeii ineaaeoue aieacie. I
auiieiaiee yoiai oneiaey o?oaeii noaeeoue iauaeoeaii, iaoiaeynue a
aieueoie no?aia, noiyuae ia ii?iaa aieiaea e ieuaou, eae ia yoii ieooo
ana aacaou. Iaeiaei Aa?iaaeneee i?aaeoi?aaeaeae, /oi i?ioeann ia?aoiaea
aeinoa?u a iiinoa?o ia iiaeao i?ienoiaeeoue iinoaiaiii e
iaeiiiai?aaeaii, /oi ia yoii iooe a?aiaiiua ionooieaiey iaecaaaeiu. E
ianoaiiaeo, neiaeeaoothny nae/an a iaoae no?aia, iiaeii ?anniao?eaaoue
eae yaeaiea a?aiaiiia e i?aoiaeyuaa.

?acoiiia i?aia?aciaaiea ia?ae/iie i?e?iaeu Caiee n oeaeueth naeaeaoue a?
niiniaiie oaeiaeaoai?eoue ana iaoa?eaeueiua, ynoaoe/aneea e aeooiaiua
iio?aaiinoe /eneaiii aic?anoathuaai ianaeaiey. Yoi oneiaea, iniaaiii a
iaoae no?aia, ia iiaeao n/eoaoueny auiieiaiiui, iaeiaei ia?aua oaae a
iai?aaeaiee ?acoiiiai i?aia?aciaaiey i?e?iaeu ai aoi?ie iieiaeia XX aaea
ianiiiaiii ia/aee inouanoaeyoueny. A nia?aiaiiue ia?eiae i?ienoiaeeo
eioaa?aoeey iaoe ia aaca yeieiae/aneeo eaeae. Any nenoaia iao/iiai
ciaiey aea?o ooiaeaiaio aeey yeieiae/aneeo caaea/. Ia yoii oaeaea
aiai?ee Aa?iaaeneee, no?aiynue nicaeaoue aaeeioth iaoeo i aeinoa?a.
Yeieiaecaoeey caiaaeiiai niciaiey i?ienoiaeeea ia/eiay n 70-o aiaeia,
nicaeaaay oneiaey aeey aicieeiiaaiey yeioeeueiie oeeaeeecaoeee. Nae/an
yeno?aienoneay oi?ia cae?iiai aeaeaeaiey ieacaeanue oai oaea ia ioaeiie,
iineieueeo ca?aaioaee ainoaea?noaaiiua iaoaieciu ?aaoee?iaaiey
yeieiae/aneeo i?iaeai. A NNN? aei 80-o aiaeia n/eoaeinue, /oi
nioeeaeenoe/aneia oicyenoaiaaiea i?aiyonoaoao oa?ica yeieiae/aneiai
e?ecena. A ia?eiae ia?ano?ieee yoio ieo ?acaayeny, aeoeaece?iaaeinue
aeaeaeaiea cae?iuo. Iaeiaei a nia?aiaiiue ia?eiae iieeoe/aneia
?oeiaiaenoai ia?ai?eaioe?iaaeinue a iniiaiii ia ?aoaiea yeiiiie/aneeo
i?iaeai, i?iaeaiu yeieiaee ioioee ia caaeiee ieai. A ie?iaii ianooaaa
aeey ?ac?aoaiey yeieiae/aneie i?iaeaiu a oneiaeyo ?inoa ianaeaiey
ieaiaou o?aaoaony niiniaiinoue ?aoaiey aeiaaeueiuo i?iaeai, /oi a
oneiaeyo noaa?aieoaoa ?acee/iuo ainoaea?noa eaaeaony niiieoaeueiui.

Eneeth/aiea aiei ec aeecie iauanoaa. Yoi oneiaea Aa?iaaeneee n/eoae
/?acau/aeii aaaeiui aeey nicaeaiey e nouanoaiaaiey iiinoa?u. Ii iii ia
auiieiaii e iiea iaynii, iiaeao ee auoue auiieiaii. Ie?iaia niiauanoai
no?aieony ia aeiionoeoue ie?iaie aieiu, oioy eieaeueiua aieiu au? oiinyo
iiiaea aeecie.

Oaeei ia?acii, iu aeaeei, /oi iaeeoei ana oa eiie?aoiua i?eciaee, ana
eee ii/oe ana oneiaey, eioi?ua oeacuaae A.E.Aa?iaaeneee aeey oiai, /oiau
ioee/eoue iiinoa?o io nouanoaiaaaoeo ?aiaa ninoiyiee aeinoa?u. I?ioeann
a? ia?aciaaiey iinoaiaiiue, e, aa?iyoii, ieeiaaea iaeuecy aoaeao oi/ii
oeacaoue aiae eee aeaaea aeanyoeeaoea, n eioi?iai ia?aoiae aeinoa?u a
iiinoa?o iiaeii aoaeao n/eoaoue caaa?o?iiui. Ii, eiia/ii, iiaiey ii
yoiio aii?ino iiaoo auoue ?aciua.

Nai Aa?iaaeneee, caia/ay iaaeaeaoaeueiua, ?ac?ooeoaeueiua iineaaenoaey
oicyenoaiaaiey /aeiaaea ia Caiea, n/eoae eo iaeioi?uie ecaea?aeeaie. Ii
aa?ee a /aeiaa/aneee ?acoi, aoiaieci iao/iie aeayoaeueiinoe, oi?aeanoai
aeia?a e e?aniou. *oi-oi ii aaieaeueii i?aaeaeaeae, a /?i-oi, aiciiaeii,
ii ioeaaeny. Iiinoa?o neaaeoao i?eieiaoue eae neiaie aa?u, eae eaeaae
?acoiiiai /aeiaa/aneiai aiaoaoaeuenoaa a aeinoa?iua i?ioeannu iiae
aeeyieai iao/iuo aeinoeaeaiee. Iaaei a ia? aa?eoue, iaaeayoueny ia a?
i?eoanoaea, i?aaei?eieiaoue niioaaonoaothuea ia?u.

Caeeth/aiea

Eaeae Aa?iaaeneiai iaiiiai iia?aaeaee oi a?aiy, a eioi?ii ii oai?ee. A
iieiie ia?a yoi ioiineony e o/aieth i aeinoa?a e aa ia?aoiaea a
iiinoa?o. Oieueei nae/an, a oneiaeyo iaiau/aeiiai iaino?aiey aeiaaeueiuo
i?iaeai nia?aiaiiinoe, noaiiayony yniu i?i?i/aneea neiaa Aa?iaaeneiai i
iaiaoiaeeiinoe iuneeoue e aeaenoaiaaoue a ieaiaoiii — aeinoa?iii —
aniaeoa. Oieueei nae/an ?ooaony eeethcee oaoiie?aoecia, iiei?aiey
i?e?iaeu e auyniyaony nouiinoiia aaeeinoai aeinoa?u e /aeiaa/anoaa.
Noaeueaa iaoae ieaiaou e noaeueaa /aeiaa/anoaa — yoi aaeeiay noaeueaa.

Noaiiaeaiea yoaia iiinoa?u Aa?iaaeneee naycuaaao n aeaenoaeai iiiaeo
oaeoi?ia: aaeeinoaii aeinoa?u e /aeiaa/anoaa, aaeeinoaii /aeiaa/aneiai
?iaea, ieaiaoa?iui oa?aeoa?ii /aeiaa/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe e aa
niecia?eiinoueth n aaieiae/aneeie i?ioeannaie, ?acaeoeai
aeaiie?aoe/aneeo oi?i /aeiaa/aneiai iauaaeeoey e no?aieaieai e ie?o
ia?iaeia ieaiaou, iaauaaeui ?anoeaaoii («ac?uaii») iaoee e oaoieee.
Iaiauay aeaiiua yaeaiey, noaay a ia?ac?uaioth naycue aeaeueiaeooth
yaiethoeeth aeinoa?u n ?acaeoeai /aeiaa/anoaa, Aa?iaaeneee e aaiaeeo
iiiyoea iiinoa?u.

Iaiaoiaeeii eiaoue a aeaeo, /oi caaea/a niceaeaiey iiinoa?u — yoi
caaea/a naaiaeiyoiaai aeiy. Aa ?aoaiea naycaii n iauaaeeiaieai oneeee
anaai /aeiaa/anoaa, n ooaa?aeaeaieai iiauo oeaiiinoae nio?oaeie/anoaa e
acaeiinayce anao ia?iaeia ie?a. A iaoae no?aia eaeae iiinoa?u i?aaie/ii
naycaiu n ?aaiethoeeiiiie ia?ano?ieeie nioeeaeenoe/aneiai iauanoaa.
Ia?iaeiaeanoea, aeaiie?aoe/aneea i?eioeeiu iauanoaaiiie aeecie,
aic?iaeaeaiea eoeueoo?u, iaoee e ia?iaeiie aeecie, ei?aiiie ia?aniio?
aaaeiinoaaiiiai iiaeoiaea e i?e?iaeiiieueciaaieth e o. i.— ana yoi e
anoue neaaaaiua iiinoa?u.

Ono?aieaiiinoue a aoaeouaa, oaeei ia?acii,— oa?aeoa?iay /a?oa
iiinoa?iiai o/aiey, eioi?ia a nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo iaiaoiaeeii
?acaeaaoue ni anao aai noi?ii.

Eeoa?aoo?a

Oeeinioneea iunee iaoo?aeenoa / A.E.Aa?iaaeneee. I., 1988

I?iaeaia aeiaaioeiee / A.E.Aa?iaaeneee. I., 1988

Iao/iay iuneue eae ieaiaoiia yaeaiea / Aa?iaaeneee A.E. I., 1989.

?onneay oeeinioey / Iiae ?aae. TH.A.E?yiaaa, E.A.Iioi?eiie I., 1991

Aaeaiaeei I.E. Aa?iaaeneee: aeeciue, iuneue, aannia?oea. I., 1988

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