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Великий мыслитель XIX-ХХ вв. Жорж Сорель

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2

?aoa?ao ii enoi?ee

O/aieea 11“A”

n?aaeiae oeieu ?234

?eeeia Eeuee

oaia:

O?aioeocneee iuneeoaeue e oeeinio

AEi?ae Ni?aeue

Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a

1998 a.

Niaea?aeaiea:

1. Anooieaiea _________________________________________ 3

2. E?aoeay aeia?aoey __________________________________ 3

3. Ia?eneci a aini?eyoee Ni?aey ________________________ 3

4. Eaeaieia ?aaiethoeeiiiiai neiaeeeaeecia _________________ 6

5. Iineaaeiea aiaeu aeecie e ianeaaeea Ni?aey ________________9

6. Caeeth/aiea ___________________________________________11

7. Aeaeeia?aoey ________________________________________ 12

Anooieaiea.

AEi?ae Ni?aeue – iuneeoaeue aunoae noaiaie i?eaeiaeueiue e iiiaicia/iue.
Ii neeoeii naiaiaeai a eioa?i?aoaoeeyo e?oiiuo eioaeeaeooaeueiuo
oaiiiaiia, aai ioeaiee iaiaeeaeaiiu.

Eieae, noaouee Ni?aey – yaeaiea cia/eoaeueiia ia oieueei aeey enoi?ee
nioeeaeecia, ii e aiiaua aeey aeooiaiie aoiinoa?u Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu
ia/aea OO a. Enneaaeiaaieth aai oai?/anoaa iinayuaiu aeanyoee eiea ia
?aciuo ycueao ie?a, oiaaea eae a ?innee i iai ecaanoii i/aiue iaei,
ia?aaaaeaii auei aua a aei?aaiethoeeiiiia a?aiy anaai ianeieueei aai
?aaio. Yoeie ecaeaieyie e ia?aie/eaaaony aiciiaeiinoe ?inneeneiai
/eoaoaey iiciaeiieoueny n eaeayie yoiai na?ueaciiai o?aioeocneiai
iuneeoaey, /uee eaeae iicaieytho iauynieoue aeaenoaey niaaoneiai
i?aaeoaeuenoaa a 30-a aiaea iaoaai noieaoey, eioi?ua, eacaeinue ia
iiae/eiythony ieeaeei caeiiai eiaeee.

E?aoeay aeia?aoey,

Ni?aeue ?iaeeeny a 1847 aiaeo a Oa?ao?aa a iaania/aiiie ao?aeoaciie
naiuea, aai aeaith?iaeiui a?aoii aue enoi?ee A. Ni?aeue. Ii caeii/ee
eieeaaeae a Oa?ao?aa, caoai iieo/ee iieeoaoie/aneia ia?aciaaiea a
Ia?eaea e, noaa eiaeaia?ii, i?i?aaioae a aei?iaeiii aaaeiinoaa 25 eao.
Ana yoe aiaeu ii i?iaae a i?iaeioeee, iieo/ea ca neoaeao e?ano Ii/aoiiai
Eaaeiia, a a 1829 aiaeo , ia aeineoaeea aei iainee, a aic?anoa 45 eao
auoae a ionoaaeo e caiyeny eeoa?aoo?iie aeayoaeueiinoueth. AEee ia ?aioo
i?aaenoaaeyy i?eaeiaeueiue oei “?aaiethoeeiiiiai ?aiouea”.

Ni?aeue ai?y/i ethaee naith aeaio Ia?eth Aeaaeae, e iinea aa nia?oe a
1897 a., Ni?aeue aei eiioea aeiae nio?aiye aa?iinoue aa iaiyoe. Aeaoae o
ieo ia auei, ii iinaeeeny oiaaea aianoa ni naieie ieaiyiieeaie a
i?aaeianouea Ia?eaea, a Aoeiia-ia-Naia, caeanue e oia? a 1922 aiaeo a
“ai?anoiie caa?ioaiiinoe”.

Ni?aeue iaoiaeeeny a aa/iii eioaeeaeooaeueiii iienea e /anoi iaiye naie
oai?aoe/aneea e iieeoe/aneea iiceoeee: a 1889 a. Ii eiina?aaoeaiue
eeaa?ae, a 1893 a. – aeaiie?aoe/aneee nioeeaeeno, iinea ecaeaiey a 1906
a. “?aciuoeaiee i ianeeee” – i?eciaiiue oai?aoee ?aaiethoeeiiiiai
neiaeeeaeecia, a a 1911 a. – iaoeeiiaeeno, a 1914 a. –
nioeeaeeno-eioa?iaoeeiiaeeno, iinea Ieoya?ueneie ?aaiethoeee a ?innee –
iieeiiiee A. E. Eaieia. E iaaeaeo oai Ni?aeue ioithaeue ia yeeaeoee: aai
iienee ?acaeaaeenue aioo?e ii?aaeaeaiiie oeeinioneie e ii?aeueiie
aeiieiaiou. Ia eaaeaeii yoaia ii a?inaeny a ae?aeo ni no?anoueth e
iaenoianoaii, i aai oaiia?aiaioa naeaeaoaeuenoaoao aieueoia eeoa?aoo?iia
ianeaaeea: oioy ii ia/ae ienaoue iinea 40 eao, ii, aoaeo/e iaiau/aeii
ieiaeiaeoui aaoi?ii, oniae nicaeaoue aieaa aeanyoea eiea; aai ?aoeaicee
e noaouee auee iioaeeeiaaiu ia iaiaa /ai a 40 ecaeaieyo a ?aciuo
aa?iiaeneeo no?aiao.

Ia?eneci a aini?eyoee Ni?aey.

Ioaeeeiaaoueny Ni?aeue ia/ae a aeo?iaeao oaea a 80-a aiaeu. A 1889 a.
auoee aai ia?aua eieae — “Aeeaae a ie?neia eco/aiea Aeaeee” e “I?ioeann
Nie?aoa”. Iie eioa?aniu oai, /oi a ieo oaea i?iyaeeenue iaeioi?ua
ineoieiae/aneea e eioaeeaeooaeueiua eiinoaiou aai oai?/anoaa. Oae,
Ni?aeue oyaioae e eaeaaeecaoeee ?aiiaai o?enoeainoaa n aai oaaaeaeaieai
a iaecauaiinoe cea, eaeaaeii io/aie/anoaa; aai i?eaeaeae ?aeeaeiciue
yiooceaci, oio nieaa aa?u e eaaaiaeu, eioi?ue oa?aeoa?ai aeey ia?eiaeia
?aeeaeiciie yecaeueoaoeee. Iicaea Ni?aeue no?aieeny aini?iecaanoe a
nioeeaeecia oio aea neioac aa?u e eaaaiaeu, ieoa, ii i?eoae ii e yoiio
/a?ac aeeeoaeueioth yaiethoeeth, aeeth/aaooth naiua ?aciua iaoaii?oicu.
Ia?aie aea a eo ?yaeo auei aai ia?auaiea e ia?enecio.

Yoi i?iecioei oaea iinea aai ionoaaee a 1892 a. Ni?aeue oiaaea oaeaeny
oeeinioeae Ia?ena e naeeceeny n o?aioeocneeie ia?enenoaie.

Aeaaiue oai?aoe/aneee aii?in, eioi?ue oiaaea caieiae Ni?aey, ioiineeny e
aiciiaeiinoe nicaeaiey oai?ee iao/iiai nioeeaeecia. Ia?en aai i?eaeae
eiaiii oai, /oi ii “iiianoee nioeeaeueioth iaoeo ia aaeeinoaaiii
niioaaonoaothuoth ae ii/ao”. Oioy Ni?aeue e nio?aiye iaeioi?ua niiiaiey
a aiciiaeiinoe neioaca nioeeaeecia e iaoee, ii aue aioia a oi a?aiy
nei?aa niaeaoaoueny n Ia?enii e neaaeiaaoue ca iei. Iaeiaei “/enoui”
ia?enenoii ii e oiaaea ia aue. A “Noa?ie e iiaie iaoaoeceea” a?aiaiaie
neeueii iuouaaony aeeyiea A. Aa?aniia, ia aiai?y oaea ia i?eaeiaeueiie
oeeinioneie i?eaioaoeee naiiai Ni?aey, iaoaaoae aio auoue i?inoui
iineaaeiaaoaeai eiai au oi ie auei.

Ni?aeue auniei oeaiee Ia?ena ca oi, /oi oio i?eaeae oeeinioneee noaoon
oaiiiaio i?iecaiaenoaa. Ii aai iiaieth, Ia?en aeey naiaai a?aiaie —
noieue aea aaeeeee iaoaoecee, eae A?enoioaeue aeey naiaai, /oi naycaii
n iniciaieai Ia?enii ia?iiiiai cia/aiey i?iecaiaenoaa a /aeiaa/aneie
aeecie. Anee A?enoioaeue oa?aeoa?eciaae /aeiaaea eae “nioeeaeueiia
aeeaioiia”, oi Ia?en ienae, /oi /aeiaae — yoi “nioeeaeueiue
o?oaeyueeny”.

Iuneue Ni?aey ia?enenoneiai ia?eiaea eiioeaio?e?iaaeanue a oi?ia o?eaaeu
“i?iecaiaenoai — iaoea — nioeeaeueiinoue”, ana ninoaaiua /anoe eioi?ie,
ii aai iiaieth, acaeiii?iieeaee ae?oa a ae?oaa. Aeaei ia naiaeeeinue
aeey Ni?aey e oiio, /oiau iieacaoue, /oi i?iecaiaenoai e iaoea
nioeeaeueiu, nouanoaotho a iauanoaa e aio i?eiaaeeaaeao: yoi ia o?aaoao
aeieacaoaeuenoa. Aeaaiue niaeaci e o?oaeiinoue caeeth/aeenue aeey iaai a
eaeaa i oii, /oi nioeeaeueiia yaeyaony noa?ie iaoee. A yoii aii?ina
Ni?aeue aiaeee?iaae, n iaeiie noi?iiu, e Ia?eno, n ae?oaie — e Aa?aniio.
O Ia?ena aai i?eaeaeaei oi, eae ii eiino?oe?iaae nioeeaeueioth iaoeo, a
/anoiinoe, iieeoe/aneoth yeiiiieth. O Aa?aniia Ni?aeue ia?auae aieiaiea
ia ?acee/aiea aeaoo “y”: eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai “y” — noa?u yiioeee,
eciai/eauo, oaeo/eo aia/aoeaiee, e nioeeaeueiiai “y”, eioi?ia aeeth/aii
a nioeeoi, i?eaioe?iaaii ia ?acoi e naii iiaeao noaoue iauaeoii iao/iiai
?anniio?aiey, oiaaea eae eiaeeaeaeoaeueiinoue eneeth/aao iao/iinoue.
Neaaeoao caiaoeoue, /oi o?eaaeeinoai i?iecaiaenoaa, iaoee,
nioeeaeueiinoe aeey Ni?aey ia oieueei iaoiaeieiae/aneee i?eioeei
iiaeoiaea e enoi?ee, yoi iaeiia?aiaiii eaeaae: nioeeaeeci iuneeeny ei
eae iieiia oi?aeanoai iacaaiiiai o?eaaeeinoaa a iauanoaa.

Iaeiaei e a yoio “noeeaioenoneee” (iao/iue) ia?eiae aeaeai iinoiyiiue
eioa?an Ni?aey e ?iee yiioeee a iauanoaa. A “?ac?ooaiee aioe/iiai ie?a”
ii oaeaeee iiiai aieiaiey ycu/aneei aa?iaaieyi ?eieyi, i?eciaaay, /oi
oioy iie e auee oeeoeeae, oai ia iaiaa aea?aeaee ?eineia iauanoai;
iineaaeiaa aea ?ooioei, eiaaea e?eoeea ni noi?iiu o?enoeai ?ac?ooeea
neeo ycu/aneeo aa?iaaiee. Ooo oaea aeia oaea/aiiinoue Ni?aey iuneueth,
ii/a?iiooie ei, ii-aeaeeiiio, o iaeiiai ec o?aioeocneeo enoi?eeia
?aeeaee, /oi aa?a e ieou, ia iaoiaeyueany a niioaaonoaee n
?aaeueiinoueth, nicaeatho yiooceaci, iaiaoiaeeiue aeey e?oiiuo
iauanoaaiiuo i?aia?aciaaiee. Yoi oa eiinoaiou ni?aeaaneiai iuoeaiey,
eioi?ua a?iceee aci?aaoue aanue aai noeeaioeci ia?enenoneiai ia?eiaea.

Ai aoi?ie iieiaeia 90-o aiaeia oaeoaeeenue ?anoiaeaeaiey Ni?aey n
o?aioeocneeie ia?enenoaie. E?eoe/aneiio ioiioaieth Ni?aey e ia?enecio e
Ia?eno niaeaenoaiaaei e oi ianoiyoaeuenoai, /oi a oa aiaeu auoee a naao
aeaa iaooiaaoea ?aaiou, iinayuaiiua ?aaecee ia?enecia, – eieaa
eoaeueyineiai aia?oenoa N. Ia?eeii “Ca e i?ioea nioeeaeecia” (1897 a.) e
?aaioa Y. Aa?iooaeia “I?iaeaiu e caaea/e nioeeae-aeaiie?aoee” (1899 a.).
Ni?aeue iiaeoaaoee iiiaea oaiu ?aaeceiienoia e a n?i/iii ii?yaeea
iioaeeeiaae ianeieueei noaoae a ?aaeceiienoneeo i?aaiao.

Nai Ni?aeue a niaeanee n Aa?iooaeiii neeiiai aue aeaeaoue ia?niaeoeau
nioeeaeecia ia iooyo i?ia?anna eaieoaeecia e aeaiie?aoee, i?eiye aeaaea,
oioy e a?aiaiii, ?aoi?ienoneoth no?aoaaeth nioeeaeecia. Ii anei?a ii
iiaeaa?a ino?ie e?eoeea e Aa?iooaeia ca oi, /oi oio ia caiaoee iiaeeeiii
i?eaeiaeueiiai a ia?enecia — aai aioeyoaoenoneeo iieiaeaiee, eaeae
naiiinaiaiaeaeaiey i?ieaoa?eaoa. E?eoeeoy Aa?iooaeia e ?aaeceiienoia,
Ni?aeue aianoa n oai ia oieueei aieiaoaeueii aieeae a eo a?aoiaiou, ii e
iiiai ia?aieiae o ieo. Yoi ioiineeinue i?aaeaea anaai e ?aaeceiienoneie
e?eoeea eaeae Ia?ena i i?ei?eoaoa yeiiiieee a iauanoaaiiii ?acaeoee.

Aneaae ca Aa?iooaeiii e eoaeueyineei aia?oenoii N. Ia?eeii Ni?aeue
ioeacuaaeny aeaeaoue a yeiiiieea aeaaioth aeaoa?ieiaioo enoi?ee e
auaeaeaae ia ia?aia ianoi ii?aeue e eaeaieiaeth. I?aaaea, n?aaee
caueuaaoeony ei ii?aeueiuo oeaiiinoae Aeaaiie o iaai anaaaea inoaaaeny
o?oae, a i?iecaiaeeoaeue, /aeiaae o?oaea, ieacuaaeny aunoei oeiii
/aeiaaea. Iaeiaei aicieeiiaaiea, ?acaeoea, nio?aiaiea oeeaeeecaoeee
o?oaea ia yaeeenue, ii aai iiaieth, ?acoeueoaoii iauaeoeaiiai i?ia?anna
i?iecaiaenoaa, eae yoi i?aaenoaaeyeinue Ia?eno; a eo iniiaa, ii iiaieth
Ni?aey, eaaeaee niioaaonoaothuea ii?aeueiua e aieaaua oneeey.

?aaeceiienou ioaa?aaee e yeiiiie/aneee aeaoa?ieieci, e i?aoaicee Ia?ena
ia nicaeaiea iao/iie iieeoe/aneie yeiiiiee. Ni?aeue aoi?ee a yoii
Aa?iooaeio, iainiiauaay naie acaeyaeu aeaaiui ia?acii oai, /oi ia?eniaa
iieeoe/aneay yeiiiiey iniiaaia ia oi?iuaieyo, ia iacaeiiiii naaaeaiee e
iaeiaio on?aaeiaiiiio oeio ea/anoaaiii ?aciuo aeaeia o?oaea.

N aai oi/ee c?aiey, eaieoaeecio oa?iaeae ii?aeueiue aeaeaaeain, nianaiea
io eioi?iai ianea, eae n/eoae Ni?aeue, ?aaiethoeey i?iecaiaeeoaeae.
Eaeae Ia?ena ia yeiiiie/aneie e?aoa eaieoaeecia, ooaa?aeaeae ii, oioy e
ia niioaaonoaotho aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, ii ioaeiu aeey “?aaiethoeeiiiiai
ainieoaiey i?ieaoa?eaoa” e i?aaenoaaeytho niaie “yeaiaiou
?aaiethoeeiiiiai ieoa”. Iin?aaenoaii oaeiai no?aiiiai, ia ia?aue
acaeyae, iiai?ioa iunee Ni?aeue nianae io caaaaiey ia?enenoneea aeiaiu.

Yoio iiai?io iunee noae aiciiaeai i?aaeaea anaai a neeo oiai, /oi
Ni?aeue e oiio a?aiaie oaea ioioae io eaeae “iao/iiai nioeeaeecia”, a
e?ecen nioeeaeenoe/aneie iunee eiioea i?ioeiai aaea, eioi?ue iiiaea
naycuaaee n e?aoii nioeeaeecia aiiaua, ioiinee eneeth/eoaeueii ia n/ao
“iao/iiai nioeeaeecia”. Aua iaaeaaii ii n oaea/aieai aiai?ee i iao/iinoe
ia?enecia, oaia?ue aea aue oaaaeaeai a iaaiciiaeiinoe neioaca iaoee e
nioeeaeecia. Ai-ia?auo, iioiio /oi iaoea ia aeieaeia caaenaoue io
iieeoe/aneie aiaaaee?iaaiiinoe enneaaeiaaoaey. Ai-aoi?uo, iioiio /oi
iao/iia iainiiaaiea nioeeaeecia i?inoi iaaiciiaeii: nioeeaeeci ia auaiae
ec iao/iie aeieo?eiu, a iiceoeey, i?iaeeeoiaaiiay auai?ii. Iaeuecy,
n/eoae ii, i?eieiaoue ana?ueac oi, /oi Yiaaeuen ienae i iao/iinoe
nioeeaeecia: “Yiaaeuen i/aiue iaei /eoae nia?aiaiiuo oeeinioia; ii eiae
oieueei iauea e aeiaieueii niooiua i?aaenoaaeaiey ioiineoaeueii iiaaeoeo
?aaio nia?aiaiiie iaoee, ia ioaeii i?eaeaaaoue aieueoia cia/aiea
oi?ioeai, eioi?ua ii oiio?aaeyao. Au?aaeaiea “iao/iue nioeeaeeci”
iioai?noaiaaei oiaey/ei eaeayi i anaiiaouanoaa iaoee, e iii eiaei
oniao”. Ia?enenoneee nioeeaeeci oaia?ue eacaeny Ni?aeth aeeceei nei?aa
ooiiecio, /ai iao/iinoe, e ii iauyniye yoi “eioaeeaeooaeenoneeie
eioaioeeyie” ia?enecia. Eioaeeaeooaeeci, i?aiaa?aaathuee
yiioeeiiaeueiuie iniiaaie aeecie, aaaeao e ooiiee,— oaeiai oaaaeaeaiea
Ni?aey ioiuia e aei eiioea aeiae. No?aieaiea ia?enenoia iaia?oaeeoue
naycaiioth n yeiiiieae “eiaeeo” enoi?ee, i?aaenoaaeoue nioeeaeeci eae
iieioth iiaaaeo ?acoia e naiaiaeu aaaeao, ii iiaieth Ni?aey, e ooiieyi.

Ia a ?acoia e ia a iaoea eneae oaia?ue Ni?aeue iainiiaaiea
nioeeaeenoe/aneiio i?iaeoo, a a /oanoaa iaiaoiaeeiinoe ii?aeueiiai
iaiiaeaiey ie?a. Iiea aua ii ia aeae iieiie e ?acaa?iooie ea?oeiu
ii?aeueiiai aeaeaaeaina iauanoaa, ii iai?aaeaiiinoue aai ii?aeueiie
iiceoeee auea ynia. Ii iieaaae, /oi iiaoth ii?aeue iauanoao ianao
nioeeaeeci, a aeaaiuie ?a oeaiiinoyie yaeythony o?oae, ni?aaaaeeeainoue,
naiaiaea e nieeaea?iinoue i?iecaiaeeoaeae; oi?ie?oaony aea iiaay ii?aeue
a ?aai/eo i?aaiecaoeeyo: a i?ionithcao, eiiia?aoeaao, iauanoaao
acaeiiiiiiue. Nioeeaeueiua einoeooou, n/eoae Ni?aeue, iaaei ioeaieaaoue
i?aaeaea anaai n oi/ee c?aiey ii?aee: ana, /oi aaaeao e oiaiueoaieth
aeooa ioaaonoaaiiinoe, aeinoieinoaa i?iecaiaeeoaey, aai eieoeeaoeau —
aeieaeii auoue inoaeaeaii nioeeaeenoaie. Aeaaiia ianoi a ni?aeaaneie
ii?aeueiie iiceoeee ioaiaeeeinue ?iee i?iecaiaeeoaey, e yoei iia
ioee/aeanue io aoiaienoe/aneeo i?eoycaiee ?aaeceiienoia oeia Aa?iooaeia,
aeey eioi?iai aunoea ii?aeueiua oeaiiinoe caeeth/aeenue a eaioianeii
o?aaiaaiee ioiineoueny e /aeiaaeo anaaaea eae e oeaee, a ia n?aaenoao.
Ni?aeue ooaa?aeaeae, /oi yoi i?eaaaeao e ii?aeueiie aeaa?aaeaoeee,
aoiaieoa?enoneie oeeaio?iiee, eai, iieaaae ii, ia /aeiaae aiiaua, a
i?iecaiaeeoaeue aeieaeai auoue a oeaio?a aieiaiey ii?aeenoa.

Caaa?oathuei caaiii a iiaii iiieiaiee nioeeaeecia Ni?aeai a eiioea 90-o
aiaeia auea eaeay i iaiaoiaeeiinoe nioeeaeenoe/aneie ieoieiaee. Iiiaea
?aaiethoeeiiiua oacenu Ia?ena, ii aai iiaieth, auaeyaeyo ioeai/iuie,
anee eneaoue a ieo niioaaonoaea n aeaenoaeoaeueiinoueth, ii iie oai ia
iaiaa aaaeiu a oeaeyo ?aaiethoeeiiiie i?iiaaaiaeu. A i?aaeeneiaee 1898
a. e o?aioeocneiio ecaeaieth ?aaiou Ia?eeii Ni?aeue ienae: “Iaeii aeaei
no?ieoue nioeeaeueioth iaoeo, ae?oaia aeaei — oi?ie?iaaoue niciaiea”. O
Ia?ena, ooaa?aeaeae ii, iiiaea iieiaeaiey ia i?aauoatho oeaiiinoe
“a?oenoe/aneiai ia?aca, i?aaeiacia/aiiiai aiooeoue iai iaeoth eaeath”.
Eiaaea a “Eaieoaea” Ia?en aaaeao ?a/ue i ieuaoa e yenieoaoaoeee ?aai/eo,
aai iao?oaeii oee/eoue a iai?aaioa, ii oeaiiinoue yoeo io?uaeia, ii
iiaieth Ni?aey, ia iiciaaaoaeueiay, iie niaea?aeao “nioeeaeueioth
iiyceth”, iaiaoiaeeioth aeey ?aaiethoeeiiiiai ainieoaiey. Ioeaea
o/aieeia Ia?ena a oii, /oi iie eneaee o iaai enoeio, a ia
“?aaiethoeeiiiua ieou”. Oae aicieeaea yoa, ie ia /oi ia iioiaeay
eiioeaioeey nioeeaeecia, aeaeaaoay noaaeo ia aiia?aaeaiea e ieou a
i?ioeaiaan ?acoio e enoeia.

Eaeaieia ?aaiethoeeiiiiai neiaeeeaeecia.

I/aiue aaaeiue yoai a yaiethoeee Ni?aey naycai n aeaeii Ae?aeoona a
1896— 1906 aa. E yoiio a?aiaie Ni?aeue aue oaaaeaeaiiui
nioeeaeenoii-aeaiie?aoii e ?aaeiaaeny oiio, /oi nioeeaeeci ai O?aioeee e
Eoaeee oo?aoee naeoaioneee oa?aeoa?, noaa oeaeueth iieeoe/aneeo ia?oee,
aaaeoueo ai?ueao ca ?aoi?iu a ?aieao aeaiie?aoee. Ii iieaaae oiaaea, /oi
nioeeaeeci e aeaiie?aoeth ?acaeaeytho oieueei yeiiiie/aneea i?iaeaiu,
oiaaea eae “nie?eooaeueiua” oeaee (naiaiaea, iacaaeneiinoue /aeiaaea e
o.ae.) o ieo iauea. Iaaethaeaiea ca aeaeii Ae?aeoona ii?iaeeei o iaai
io?eoeaoaeueiia ioiioaiea e aeaiie?aoee e ia?eaiaioa?ecio.

Anee aiai?eoue i nooe eaeaieiae/aneie e iieeoe/aneie ai?ueau, eioi?ay
?acai?aeanue ai O?aioeee ii iiaiaeo aeaea Ae?aeoona — eaieoaia
o?aioeocneiai aaia?aeueiiai ooaaa, eiaeii iaaeiaiiiai a oieiiaaea a
iieueco Aa?iaiee,— oi a iae noieeioeenue aeaa neeu:
aeaiie?aou-aioeeea?eeaeu, n iaeiie noi?iiu, e iaoeeiiaeenou aeoia n
eea?eeaeueiie ia?oeae — n ae?oaie. A caueoo Ae?aeoona aunooiaee iiia/aeo
eeoue eioaeeaeooaeu, nicaeaaoea “Eeao i?aa /aeiaaea e a?aaeaeaieia”,
aeieacuaaaoea iaaeiiaiinoue Ae?aeoona, noaaoaai aea?oaie noaa?eeiaaiiuo
iaaeiaiee, A iiiiceoeee e iei iaoiaeeeanue “Eeaa o?aioeocneie ?iaeeiu”,
ninoiyaoay ec eeoa?aoi?ia. A aeaea Ae?aeoona iie aeaeaee iaeio ec
iiiuoie aa?aaa n iiiiuueth Aa?iaiee ?ac?ooeoue O?aioeeth. Ia ia?aii
yoaia ai?ueau i?aaeoaeuenoai e ia?eaiaio auee eiaeeooa?aioiu,
iieeoe/aneea ia?oee ec no?aoa iioa?youe ecae?aoaeae, a ianna ca?aaeaiiuo
aioenaieoeciii, aea?aeaeenue a noi?iia. Yoi ioiineeinue e e
nioeeaeenoai: aaaeenou a neeo naiae eeanniaie ocinoe, aeaieenou ec-ca
yeaeoi?aeueiuo eioa?ania ia o/anoaiaaee a ai?ueaa. Iinea 1899 a.
iieeoe/aneay aaca ae?aeoonecia noaea oe?ieie: caeanue nua?aei naith
?ieue i?aaeoaeuenoai Aaeueaeaea — ?onni. A ia?eaiaioa ia?aciaaeanue
a?oiia a iiaeaea?aeeo ae?aeoona?ia, e a 1906 a. ae?aeoona?u iaea?aeaee
iiaaaeo ia anaiaueo auai?ao. Yoio iiuiue aoi?ie yoai ai?ueau e iieo/ee,
nianoaaiii, iacaaiea “ae?aeoonaiianeie ?aaiethoeee”.

Ni?aeue nia/aea aeoeaii aunooiae ia noi?iia ae?aeoona?ia, aeaeay
caueoeoue i?eioeeiu eeaa?aeecia, iii?aiiua aeanoueth i?aaa /aeiaaea. Ii
oaeaea ia iia nie?eoueny n oai aeaaeaieai, eioi?ia ieacuaaee
iaoeeiiaeenoe/anee iano?iaiiua iannu (ioeie?aoey) ia noaeaaiua i?aaiu.
Ooo neacaeanue aai noa?ay iaiaaenoue e “ieaaenoeeoa?iie aeaiie?aoee”. Ii
n/eoae, /oi iaoeeiiaeeci iieiinoueth einoeieoeaai, /oi o ioaa/aiiuo
iaoeeiiaeeciii iann iao ie th?eaee/aneie, ie ii?aeueiie o?aaeeoeee.

A 1906 a. ia ia?eaiaioneeo auai?ao iiaaaeeee ae?aeoona?u. E oioy iie
?aaaeeeoe?iaaee Ae?aeoona, eo iiaaaea ?aci/a?iaaea Ni?aey, oae eae, n
aai oi/ee c?aiey, ia i?iecioei ii?aeueiiai aic?iaeaeaiey no?aiu,
iiaaaeeoaee aeeth/aeenue a iiaiith ca ia?eaiaioneeie ianoaie, aiiaue
onoaiiaeeinue oea?noai iin?aaenoaaiiinoe, ii oaea iiae eicoiaii
aioeeea?eeaeecia. A ?aaioa “Ae?aeoonaiianeay ?aaiethoeey” (1909 a.)
Ni?aeue ooaa?aeaeae, /oi iaa ai?iaoeany noi?iiu — yoi “aeaiaaiae”,
ieeoeaoai?yaoea ii?aeueiue aeaeaaeain, aeoo “oeaca?ecia”, i?ioeai?a/auee
anyeie iiaeeeiii iauanoaaiiie aeanoe. Oioy ii e i?eciaaae
cia/eoaeueiinoue iieeoe/aneeo ?acoeueoaoia aeaea Ae?aeoona, aai ioeaiea
eo auea io?eoeaoaeueiie. Ii ienae i ia?ooaieyo caeiiiinoe a i?ioeanna
?aaaeeeoaoeee Ae?aeoona, i iaaeeia i?aaeoaeuenoaa Aaeueaeaea — ?onni ia
noaeaaiua aeanoe, i iieeoe/aneeo oeo?inoyo, eaae?iaaiee, ei??oioeee a
yoii i?aaeoaeuenoaa. Ii aeaaea ooaa?aeaeae, /oi ae?aeoona?u ia
ionoaeaaee i?aai e naiaiaeo, a iai?ioea, ia?ooaee caeii — aaeeinoaaiioth
aa?aioeth naiaiaeu.

Naie ae?aeoona?u i?e ?ao?iniaeoeaiie ioeaiea iieacaeenue aio ie/oiaeiuie
ethaeueie, ?oeiaiaenoaiaaaoeieny ouaneaaeai, iieeoe/aneeie eioa?anaie.
Ni?aey ii?aaeae eiio?ano iaaeaeo ianooaaii enoi?e/aneeo aeae e
iacia/eoaeueiinoueth eeoe, eo inouanoaeyaoeo, yoio eiio?ano ii aeaeae a
ethaie ?aaiethoeee, aeeth/ay ?aaiethoeeth 1789 a. Ii?aeueiia
?aceiaeaiea, ie/oiaeanoai iiaoaeeoaeueiuo iioeaia ii n/eoae

iniaaiii oa?aeoa?iui aeey a?aiaie eaaeoeiecaoeee caaiaaaiee ?aaiethoeee.

O Ni?aey iu aeaeei iaenoiaue i?ioano i?ioea ?aoeeiiaeecia a iiaeoiaea e
enoi?ee, iaecaaaeii oi?iuaaoaai, ii aai iiaieth, iauanoaaiiia ?acaeoea,
e ii?iaeaeaaoaai eiaeue e ooiiee i?e iiiuoeao aai iauyniaiey, a oai
aieaa i?aaeneacaiey. Ai iiiaeo ?aaioao Ni?aey iiaeii ano?aoeoue ?aceoth
e?eoeeo ?aoeeiiaeenoe/aneie eaeaieiaee ethaiai oeia — oeeinioee
I?inaauaiey, oai?ee i?ia?anna, ooiie/aneiai nioeeaeecia, ia?enenoneiai
yeiiiiecia, iieeoe/aneie yeiiiiee ?eea?aeeaineiai oeia, ?aoi?ienoneiai
nioeeaeecia eiioea XIX a. ?acaa?iooay e ianoiyoaeueiay
aioe?aoeeiiaeenoe/aneay eiioeaioeey enoi?ee eceiaeaia ei a oaeeo
o?oaeao, eae “Aaaaeaiea a eco/aiea nia?aiaiiiai oicyenoaa” (1903 a.),
“Nioeeaeueiua i/a?ee nia?aiaiiie yeiiiiee. Aeaaaia?aoeey eaieoaeecia e
aeaaaia?aoeey nioeeaeecia” (1906 a.) , “Eeethcee i?ia?anna” (1908 a.).

Iiieii inoaeaeaiey ?aoeeiiaeenoe/aneie oeeinioee n oi/ee c?aiey ii?aee
Ni?aeue no?aieeny aeieacaoue ooiie/iinoue anyeeo ?aoeeiiaeenoe/aneeo
i?iaeoia ono?iaiey iauanoaa, iiiuoie n iiiiuueth ?acoia ioe?uoue
anoanoaaiiua i?aaa /aeiaaea e ni?iaeoe?iaaoue iiaeaeue iaeeo/oaai
ainoaea?noaaiiiai ono?ienoaa.

N iniaaiii ?aceie e?eoeeie Ni?aeue ia?ooeeny ia eaeaieiaia Aaeeeie
o?aioeocneie ?aaiethoeee, iaaeiyy eo a i?eaycaiiinoe e aano?aeoeeyi e a
ooiiecia. Ni?aeue iiiai aeoiae iaae iniaaiiinoyie ooiie/aneiai iuoeaiey,
aeaaiuie ec ieo ii n/eoae aa?o a i?ei?eoao iieeoeee a iauanoaaiiie
aeecie, eioaeeaeooaeeci (aeey ?aoeeiiaeenoa “/enoay eiaeea … eiaao
cia/aiea iauanoaaiiie iaoee”, oaaaeaeaiea a oii, /oi eieue nei?i
iino?iaiiay nenoaia oaeiaeaoai?yao anai i?aaeeai eiaeee, oi iia
iaecaaaeii i?eianao n/anouea anaio /aeiaa/anoao. A naieo ?annoaeaeaieyo
Ni?aeue iie?aeny ia oi ianoiyoaeuenoai, /oi, eae oiaaea eacaeinue,
aeaiie?aoe/aneea eaeae ?aaiethoeee a iineaaeothuae enoi?ee O?aioeee
iioa?iaee nie?ooeoaeueiia ii?aaeaiea, eai aianoi iaeeaeaaoaainy
anaiauaai n/anouey a iiaanoeo aeiy anoae nioeeaeueiue aii?in e no?aio
ioaaoeei ?aceia nioeeaeueiia ?anneiaiea.

Aianoi ?aoeeiiaeenoe/aneiai iiaeoiaea e enoi?ee Ni?aeue iuoaeny
iainiiaaoue ia?acii-iiyoe/aneee, ieoieiae/aneee iiaeoiae. Ia ?acoi, a
eiooeoeey, iai?aaeyaiay /aoei noi?ioee?iaaiiie i?aeoe/aneie oeaeueth e
iie?athuayny ia ia?aciia iinoeaeaiea auoey, aeieaeia ii?aaeaeyoue
aeaenoaey e iinooiee /aeiaaea.

O Ni?aey auea naiy ecethaeaiiay yiioa, n ianooieaieai eioi?ie ii
naycuaae, n iaeiie noi?iiu, iaaeaaeaeo ia ii?aaeaiea ooiie/aneiai
aeaiie?aoe/aneiai niciaiey, n ae?oaie — aiciiaeiinoue ia?aoiaea e oai?ee
e i?aeoeea iaooiie/aneiai nioeeaeecia i?iecaiaeeoaeae. Yoi — yiioa
?anoeaaoa eiaeono?eaeueiiai eaieoaeecia e naiaiaeiie eiieo?aioeee,
ianooieaoay a na?aaeeia XIX a. Ni?aey ?aaeiaaei oi, /oi eiaeono?eaeueiue
eaieoae auoae ia ia?aia ianoi a yeiiiieea, iooaniea oi?aiaue e
?inoiaue/aneee eaieoaeu, aai i?eaeaeaei oaeaea e oi, /oi yeiiiie/aneia
?acaeoea i?eia?aei oa?aeoa? noeoeeiiai, iaoi?aaeyaiiai a oeaeii
i?ioeanna, a i?iiuoeaiieee aeiaeaaeenue iaaiaoaoaeuenoaa ainoaea?noaa a
yeiiiie/aneoth aeeciue, neaaeoy eicoiao “Laisser faire, laisser passer”
(naiaiaea oi?aiaee e i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa a?aaeaeai). Ni?aeue aeaeae a
yoii i?iyaeaiea oiai, /oi ia ?acoi, a aanniciaoaeueiua eiioeuenu aaaeoo
yeiiiie/aneia ?acaeoea, ii aei?iaeee yoei iuouaieai noeoee,
oaoaeueiinoe, neaiiai oiaea enoi?ee. Ia oieueei iioiio, /oi yoa noeoey
noaaeea i?aaeae ?aoeeiiaeueiiio aiaoaoaeuenoao a aeaeaeaiea iauanoaa, ii
e iioiio, /oi iia, ii aai iiaieth, aeaeaea aiciiaeiui noeoeeiue aea
nioeeaeenoe/aneee ia?aai?io a ?acoeueoaoa eeanniaie ai?ueau e
niiioaiiiai auc?aaaiey oi?i i?aaiecaoeee o?oaea, ia?aieiaaiuo
nioeeaeeciii o eaieoaeecia. Ni?aeue, ioeacaaoenue io ia?enenoneiai
yeiiiiecia, oai ia iaiaa oeaiee o Ia?ena iuneue i oaoaeueiii ianooieaiee
nioeeaeecia; ii aa oi?ioee?iaae neaaeothuei ia?acii: “Ia?aai?io yaeony
oaoaeueii iaecaaaeiui ?acoeueoaoii neaiiai i?ia?anna yeiiiiee, eaeie-oi
yeiiiie/aneie eiiuthieoo?u, ia?aae eioi?ie oi oeeinioia niaa?oaiii
aanneeai”. Oaoaeueiinoue aeey Ni?aey ia oiaeaeanoaaiia iauaeoeaiie
iaiaoiaeeiinoe ii Ia?eno, iia icia/aao i?inoi eiioeueneaiinoue,
aia?annoaei/iinoue i?ioeanna.

Ni?aeue oioae ai /oi au oi ie noaei nio?aieoue, i?iaeeeoue yiioo
naiaiaeiiai I?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa, ii n ai?a/ueth caia/ae, /oi iia a
eiioea XIX a. ana aieaa” ooiaeeo a i?ioeia. N iaeiie noi?iiu,
oi?ie?iaaiea oeiainiaiai eaieoaea, ea?oaeae, ainoaea?noaaiiiai
?aaoee?iaaiey aaiaeeee ieaie?iaaiea e oai naiui yeaiaiou ?annoaei/iinoe,
eiaeee a yeiiiie/aneea ioiioaiey, a n ae?oaie — aeaiie?aoey n aa
aoiaieoa?eciii, oeeaio?iieae iiiu?yea iio?aaeoaeuenoai, ?ani?ino?aiyea
iano?iaiey iyaeina?aea/ey, naioeiaioaeueiinoe e aeaeaaeaina, caiaiyy
iai?eie?eioth eeanniaoth ai?ueao iioeui eeanniaui ie?ii. A nayce n yoei
Ni?aeue iaaeiye Ia?ena a oii, /oi oio ia oaeaeae oa?icu, eaeoth
aeaiie?aoey ianea yeiiiie/aneiio oaoaeecio e eeanniaie ai?ueaa.

Aa?oeiie oai?/anoaa Ni?aey neiaeeeaeenoneiai ia?eiaea aai aeayoaeueiinoe
yaeythony aai “?aciuoeaiey i ianeeee”, aia?aua iioaeeeiaaiiua a 1906 a.
a aeo?iaea Eyaa?aeaey “Ioaiai ninueyeeno” e i?eianoea aio ie?iaoth
ecaanoiinoue. Eieaa ?iaeeeanue a ii?o ?anoeaaoa ?aaiethoeeiiiiai
neiaeeeaeecia ai O?aioeee e ianea ia naaa ioia/aoie aai aeooa.
I?aaieciaaiiay a 1902 a. Anaiauay eiioaaea?aoeey o?oaea (AEO)
iauaaeeiyea ia oieueei ?aai/eo i?iiuoeaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee, ii e
aunieieaaeeoeoee?iaaiiuo ?aianeaiieeia; a iae ia auei i?aaiecaoeeiiiiai
aaeeinoaa, oeaio?aeecaoeee, aiia?aoiie ea?a?oee. Iiae aeeyieai
aia?oenoia yoe iaaeinoaoee o?aioeocneiai ?aai/aai aeaeaeaiey noaee
?anniao?eaaoueny eae aai aeinoieinoaa, a aeaoeaio?aeecaoeee aeaeaee
i?eciae naiaiaeu e eieoeeaoeau ai?oeia. Aia?oenou aea i?eaianee a
aeaeaeaiea iano?iaiey aioeyoaoecia e aioeieeeoa?ecia. Ni?aeue iaoae a
?aaiethoeeiiiii neiaeeeaeecia niioaaonoaea naiei aeoaeiiui ii?uaai, a
eiaiii: ooaa?aeaeaiea aeinoieinoaa o?oaea e o?oaeyueony, ioeac io
o/anoey a iieeoe/aneie aeecie, no?aieaiea e ?ac?uao n nouanoaothuei
iauanoaii, aiieiuaiiia a eicoiaa anaiauae caaanoiaee.

“?aciuoeaiey” ia niaea?aeaee eaeeo-oi iiauo acaeyaeia. A eieaa Ni?aeue n
aieueoie neeie au?acee eaeae, auneacuaaaoeany ei e ?aiueoa; caeanue iu
ano?a/aai aiieiaeth i?ieaoa?neiai ianeeey e aa?ie/aneie ii?aee, oai?eth
ieoa e oeeinioeth ianneiecia. Ni?aeue aiiaue ioaa?a ia?eaiaioneee
nioeeaeeci, i?aa?aoeaoee eeanniaoth ai?ueao a i?oaeea oi?aa ?aaee
aeinoeaeaiey iaeeeo iaoa?eaeueiuo auaiae. Eeanniaay ai?ueaa,
i?ieaoa?neia ianeeea, ii iiaieth Ni?aey, eiatho aieaa aunieia
iacia/aiea— oioaeueiia iaiiaeaiea iauanoaa iooai i?yiiai aeaenoaey
i?ieaoa?eaoa. Oaeiaa aeiaaeueiay oeaeue; ii e?iia oiai, Ni?aeue aeaeae
io i?ieaoa?neiai ianeeey e aieaa iaiin?aaenoaaiiuo ?acoeueoaoia.
Ai-ia?auo, aic?iaeaeaiey ao?aeoacee, ainnoaiiaeaiey oneiaee, i?e eioi?uo
iia auea au i?iieeiooa aeooii “aiae?inoe, iaooiieiinoe e iaoiieeiinoe”,
/oi auei oiaeaeanoaaiii, ii Ni?aeth, iiaiio yeiiiie/aneiio ?anoeaaoo
eaieoaeecia e oai naiui iiaeaioiaea yeiiiie/aneeo oneiaee nioeeaeecia.
Ai-aoi?uo, ?aaiethoeeiiiiai ainieoaiey i?ieaoa?eaoa. Caeanue Ni?aeue
aeae oaeea oi?ioee?iaee, eioi?ua iicaea auee acyou ia aii?oaeaiea
oaoenoaie: “Ianeeea i?ieaoa?eaoa ia oieueei iaania/eaaao a?yaeouoth
?aaiethoeeth, ii e i?aaenoaaeyao ec naay, eaaeaony, aaeeinoaaiiia
n?aaenoai, eioi?ui aa?iiaeneea iaoeee, iooiaaoea io aoiaiecia,
?aniieaaatho, /oiau aiiaue iuooeoue a naaa i?aaeithth yia?aeth”.

Ni?aeue n yiooceaciii ainiaaae aunieoth ii?aeueioth oeaiiinoue
i?ieaoa?neiai ianeeey, ni?aoeaay i?e yoii, “ia caeeth/aaony ee ecaanoiay
aeiey iaaeiiuneey a oii ainoeuaiee, n eaeei iaoe nia?aiaiieee ioiinyony
e iyaeina?aea/eth?”. Aai ioaao aue iaeiicia/ai: aoiaieci, iyaeina?aea/ea
eeoue iiiu?ytho iioaiie/anoai e oeo?inoe, ?ani?ino?aiaiiua a ?uii/iuo
iauanoaao. Ii inia?eaae iiaiea i oii, /oi nia?aiaiiua iauanoaa a niunea
i?aanoaaiiinoe eiatho i?aeiouanoaa ia?aae o?aaeeoeeiiiuie: ia aeaea
i?inoi eciaieeny oei i?anooieaiee, iaeiiaa?ii aic?inee n?aaee ieo oa,
eioi?ua iniiaaiu ia oeo?inoe, e yoa eo ianniainoue aucaaea
nienoiaeeoaeueiia e iei ioiioaiea. AEanoieinoue i?aanoaaiii /enoiai
/aeiaaea, ii neiaai Ni?aey, aieaa aeaaiaeaoaeueia aeey ii?aeueiiai
eeeiaoa, yiioe, /ai iyaeina?aea/iia iiionoeoaeuenoai iioaiie/anoao,
ooeeeoa?ecio, iiaiia ca auaiaeie. Oieueei ai?ueaa ca aunieea
iaooeeeoa?iua oeaee (nioeeaeeci) iiaeao aic?iaeeoue i?aanoaaiiinoue a
iauanoaa: “Ianeeeth nioeeaeeci iaycai oaie aunieeie ii?aeueiuie
oeaiiinoyie, aeaaiaea?y eioi?ui ii ianao nianaiea nia?aiaiiiio ie?o”.

A “?aciuoeaieyo i ianeeee” Ni?aeue aiiaue aica?auaaony e naiei oacenai
i eiioeaioeee ieoa, i aeaeaeouae ?iee ieoa a enoi?e/aneeo aeaeaeaieyo, i
i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoe ieoa e ooiiee, ianiecia?eiinoe ieoa e ?aaeueiinoe.

Ii n/eoae, /oi ei?ie ?aeeaee, oae aea eae e ieoia, aiiaeooaaeythueo
aieueoea enoi?e/aneea aeaeaeaiey, eaaeao a aeoaeiiuo ieanoao ineoieiaee,
iiyoiio iaeuecy aa?o caiaieoue eioaeeaeooaeueiuie a?aoiaioaie.

Iineaaeiea aiaeu aeecie e ianeaaeea Ni?aey.

Neiaeeeaeenoneee ia?eiae a oai?/anoaa Ni?aey aue naiui ieiaeioai?iui.
Caeii/eeny ii a eiioea 1910-o aiaeia, eiaaea ai O?aioeee ia/aeny niaae
?aaiethoeeiiiiai neiaeeeaeenoneiai aeaeaeaiey. Yoi auei naycaii io/anoe
n i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuie ia?aie — ?acaiiii ae?ae o?oaea, a?anoii
?oeiaiaenoaa AEO (Anaiauae eiioaaea?aoeee o?oaea), io/anoe aea n oai,
/oi o?aioeocneee neiaeeeaeeci ana aieaa ia ia?aue ieai auaeaeaae ai?ueao
ca ?aoi?iu, ioeacuaaynue io ?aaeeeaeueiie aioeyoaoenoneie i?ia?aiiu
?aaiethoeeiiiiai neiaeeeaeecia. Ni?aey n oaeei neiaeeeaeeciii oaea ie/oi
ia naycuaaei, e ii ioioae io iaai, iauyaea i naiai naeeaeaiee n
o?aioeocneeie iaoeeiiaeenoaie — a?oiiie “Aenueii o?ainyc” iiae
?oeiaiaenoaii Oa?ey Ii??a.

Naeeaeaiea i?iecioei i?aaeaea anaai ia ii/aa aioeaeaiie?aoecia,
naienoaaiiiai, eae Ni?aeth, oae e i?aaui. Iaueie o ieo auee iaiaaenoue e
eioaeeaeooaeai e aeaaeaea ii?aeueiiai aic?iaeaeaiey O?aioeee. Ni?aeeci
niiauee i?aaui aoi?ia .aeuoaiea, niaaaeea eo eaeaae neiaeeeaeecia, a
iauyaeaiiue a ?aieao “Aenueii ‘ o?ainyc” neioac neiaeeeaeecia e
iaoeeiiaeecia iicaea aue ia?aiyo oaoenoaie. Nianoaaiii, Ni?aeth ia auei
ioaeaeu ?aaeciaaoue a iaoeeiiaeenoe/aneee ia?eiae (1910—1913 aa.) naie
i?aaeiea acaeyaeu, ii i?inoi ia?aian ia iaoeeiiaeeci oa iaaeaaeaeu ia
ii?aeueiia iaiiaeaiea, eioi?ua ii ?aiueoa naycuaae n ?aaiethoeeiiiui
neiaeeeaeeciii. E oiio aea Ni?aeue ieeiaaea ia aue noi?iiieeii
aanieioiiai: i?ieaoa?neiai eioa?iaoeeiiaeecia, a iniaaiiinoe ?acaeoey
nioeeaeecia a oie eee eiie no?aia ii iauyniye iaoeeiiaeueiuie
o?aaeeoeeyie, ooaa?aeaeay, /oi “a aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe eiaaony noieueei
nioeeaeeciia, neieueei aaeeeeo iaoeee”.

E 1912 a. oai ia iaiaa noaee yaiuie ?anoiaeaeaiey iaaeaeo Ni?aeai e
Ii??a: Ni?aeue ia i?eiye iiia?oecia iineaaeiaai. Ii??a aea iianaeny, /oi
ni?aeaaneea eaeae i eeanniaie ai?ueaa iiaoo eeoeoue iaoeeiiaeenoia eo
o?aaeeoeeiiiie nioeeaeueiie aacu. Aieueii ?aieea Ni?aey e e?eoeea,
eioi?ie aai iiaeaa?aaee i?aaeiea oiaa?eue — neiaeeeaeenou. A 1913 a.
Ni?aeue ii?aae n iaoeeiiaeenoaie. Iinea yoiai ?ac?uaa ii aeieaia a?aiy
i?aauaae a iaeaioiee/aneii ninoiyiee, oae eae ii ia aeaeae aieaa neeu,
niiniaiie i?einoaiiaeoue aeaeaaeain a nia?aiaiiii aio iauanoaa. E ia/aeo
aieiu ec-ca aieacie na?aeoea ii oaoae a aea?aaith, ?aniieiaeaiioth
iaaeaeaei io oaaeoea?neie a?aieoeu, ioeoaea a ienueia iaeiiio ec naieo
o/aieeia aeaeiaaeny ia noaeueao: “ss caaeathnue aii?inii, eiaaea y
niiao oioue iaiiiai i?eeoe a naay? *oi eanaaony ?aaiou, ia yoii ia/aai e
aeoiaoue: y ciath, /oi neeoeii ninoa?eeny ca iineaaeiee ianyoe, /oiau
aiiaue ia?anoe eaeae, aea e e /aio ana yoi? ss ciath, /oi y /aeiaae
ae?oaiai a?aiaie, eioi?ue ia iiieiaao naieo nia?aiaiieeia e eioi?ue
aieueoa ia iiaeao auoue iiiyo eie”. Ia?aay ie?iaay aieia aua aieaa
onoaoaeea aai ianneieci. A aeaenoaeyo no?ai Aioaiou e NOA ii aeaeae
eeoue no?aieaiea ooaa?aeeoue iianthaeo iaiaaenoiue aio ?aaeei
“aeaiie?aoe/aneie ieooie?aoee”. Aianoa n oai ia aiooaee aio yiooceacia e
oeaee Oeaio?aeueiuo aea?aeaa, oioy ec?aaeea .ii au?aaeae e iei
neiiaoeth, ooaa?aeaeay, a /anoiinoe, /oi o iaioeaa aiaaie aeoo neeueiaa.

?aaiethoeey a ?innee a ieoya?a 1917 a. caaeaea aai. Ii ia/ae iiiai
ienaoue ai o?aioeocneie e eoaeueyineie i?anna, ai?i/ai, aua e aeey oiai,
/oiau ca?aaioaoue ia aeeciue, oae eae aai ?onneea e ?oiuineea aeoeee,
eioi?uie ii iaeaaeae, iaanoeaieeenue, e ii, eeoeaoenue ?aiou, aue
?aci?ai.

Ni?aeue, e niaeaeaieth, ia i/aiue oi?ioi aue eioi?ie?iaai i ?inneeneeo
aeaeao, iiyoiio aai ioeaiee /anoi auee i?iaeeeoiaaiu ia ?aaeueiui
ciaieai iieiaeaiey aeae, a nianoaaiiuie no?anoiuie iaeeaeaieyie
?aaiethoeeiiiuo naa?oaiee e aai i?aaenoaaeaieyie i ieo. Oae, nooue
Ieoya?ueneie ?aaiethoeee a ?innee eacaeanue aio aeeaea e eaeayi
I?oaeiia, /ai Ia?ena. Ii aeoiae, /oi Niaaou niiaoo iaania/eoue
iaiin?aaenoaaiiia o/anoea o?oaeyueony a ainoaea?noaaiiii oi?aaeaiee,
ono?aieoue aaaaiiieth eioaeeaeooaeia. Eae oea au aeaeueiaeoay yaiethoeey
ioiioaiey Ni?aey e Niaaoai, iiaeii eeoue aaaeaoue, iineieueeo ii oia? a
1922 a. Ia eneeth/aii, /oi ii au anoae a iiiiceoeeth e iei, eae yoi
naeaeaei aieueoeinoai o?aioeocneeo neiaeeeaeenoia.

Eaiei aucuaae aai ainoeuaiea, ii n?aaieaae aai n iaiiaeeoiiui
?iaaniuea?ii, n/eoae naiui aaeeeei oai?aoeeii nioeeaeecia iinea Ia?ena,
aaieaeueiui iieeoe/aneei aeayoaeai, ?aaiui ii ianooaaai Iao?o Aaeeeiio.
I?e/ai Eaiei eacaeny aio ianoiyuei “iineiaeoii”, aieaa ?onneei, /ai
?inneeneea iiia?oe.

Oia? Ni?aeue a ieuaoa e caa?ioaiiinoe a 1922 a. a aic?anoa 75-oe eao,
iioi?iiai ia iaeaiueeii aea?aaaineii eeaaeaeua, ?yaeii n iiaeeie aeaiu.
10 eao nionoy iiaeea auea ?aeiino?oe?iaaia: iinieuenoaa NNN? e Eoaeee n
oe?aieaoeieny a eaaeaeii ec yoeo ainoaea?noa aaoi?eoa?iuie ?aaeeiaie
cayaeee i naiae aioiaiinoe caiaieoue niaie naiueth Ni?aey a aeaea aa
?aeiino?oe?iaaiey. Neo/eeinue oi, /aai oae aiyeny Ni?aeue e i /ai ii
ienae Aeaeanaeth. A ienueia io 23 ethiy 1918 a. ii, aniiieiay Aa?aeeey,
caaauaaoaai naiei aeooai?eeac/eeai oie/oiaeeoue “Yiaeaeo”, niaeaoaeny n
I?oaeiiii, /oi iinooiie Aa?aeeey aue iioeae?iaai aiyciueth, eae au aai
o?oae ia iineoaeee /oaeaeui aio oeaeyi, e Ni?aeue au?acee iianaiea, /oi
iiaeiaiia iiaeao neo/eoueny e n aai ianeaaeeai. E aeaenoaeoaeueii, oaiue
aeaniioe/aneeo e oioaeeoa?iuo ?aaeeiia, eiiioienoe/aneiai e oaoenoneiai,
aeieaia a?aiy ne?uaaea io iioiieia ianoiyuaai Ni?aey. O?e e?oiiuo
iieeoe/aneeo oa/aiey cayaeee oiaaea naie i?aaa ia ianeaaeea Ni?aey:
?aaiethoeeiiiue neiaeeeaeeci, aieueoaaeci e oaoeci. Iaeaieaa caeiiiui
ianeaaeieeii ni?aeecia (o.a. eaeaieiaee Ni?aey) aue, eiia/ii,
?aaiethoeeiiiue neiaeeeaeeci. Eiy Ni?aey oe?iei ecaanoii a no?aiao aaea
neeueiu neiaeeeaeenoneea o?aaeeoeee: ai O?aioeee, Eoaeee, Eniaiee,
no?aiao Eaoeineie Aia?eee. Aeeceeie ii aeooo neiaeeeaeenoai auee
aa?iiaeneea eaaua iao?aaeeoeeiiiiai oeia, iiiiceoeeiiiua eae a ioiioaiee
eiiioiecia, oae e nioeeae-aeaiie?aoee. Aia/aea aaea i?aaei?eieiaeenue
iiiuoee niaaeeieoue acaeyaeu Ni?aey n aieueoaaeciii. Ii iie ia
oaai/aeenue oniaoii. Oaeea iiiuoee i?aaei?eieiaee o?aioeocneea
neiaeeeaeenou, aioaaeoea a 1923-1924 aa. Ai O?aioeocneoth
eiiioienoe/aneoth ia?oeth. A yoii ioiioaiee iie eae au neaaeiaaee
eaeaieiae/aneei iiai?ioai naiiai Ni?aey, eioi?ue a iineaaeiea aiaeu
aeecie no?anoii caueuae A. E. Eaieia e aieueoaaeci. Ii nio?oaeie/anoai
neiaeeeaeenoia n eiiioienoaie ieacaeinue iai?i/iui, aieueooth ?ieue
caeanue nua?aee i?aneaaeiaaiey eiiioienoia a Niaaoneie ?innee. Ai?i/ai,
oioy aieueoaaeee oioue e oie/oiaeeee a no?aia “?aai/oth iiiiceoeeth”,
caea?uaaee n ?aaiethoeeiiiuie neiaeeeaeenoaie ca aa i?aaeaeaie. Iiyoiio
?aaiou Ni?aey ia auee cai?auaiu a NNN?, iaeiaei iie eioa?i?aoe?iaaeenue
e?aeia oaiaeaioeeicii, i?eia? /aio iiaeae nai Eaiei, ioicaaaoeeny
iaeiaaeaeu i Ni?aea eae i aaeeeii “iooaieea”. A 20-o aiaeu OO aaea i
naiai i?aaa ia ianeaaeea Ni?aey cayaeee oaoenou. I?aaaea, oaoenoneia
aini?eyoea ni?aeecia auei i/aiue ecae?aoaeueiui, iiiaea aaaeiua eaeae
Ni?aey eneaaeaeenue, ioa?anuaaeenue eee aeeth/aeenue a
ianiioaaonoaiaaaoee eiioaeno. Ia iie acaeyae, eiiaoe XX a., eaaeaony,
i?ecaai aeaoue aooaioe/iia i?aaenoaaeaiea i acaeyaeao Ni?aey.

Caeeth/aiea.

Iiaeii ia niaeaoaoueny n ni?aeaaneie eiioeaioeeae ieoa, aeaey a iae
i?eaeaoaiea ea?aoue no?anoyie ethaeae, eaii?e?oy i?e yoii oeacaiey
?acoia, iaeiaei neaaeoao i?eciaoue, /oi XX a. aeinoaoi/ii iiaeoaa?aeee
ia?iiioth ?ieue ieoia a ianniauo aeaeaeaieyo. E yoi ia oieueei ieou i
aiaeaea, aaeioiiaeyaoea e eiiioienoe/aneea, e oaoenoneea aeaeaeaiey, ii
e eeaa?aeueiua ieou, iai?eia?, i ana?ac?aoathueo aiciiaeiinoyo ?uiea.
Aa?iyoii, Ni?aeue i?aa a oii, /oi /aeiaa/aneea ioiioaiey ia iiaoo auoue
aei eiioea ?aoeeiiaeece?oaiu, /oi enoi?ey eiaao iaeioi?ua “ienoe/aneea
iaeanoe”, aicaeaenoaoy ia eioi?ua, ieou iiaoo ea?aoue a iae ?aoathuea
?iee. Ia i?aa Ni?aeue, iiaeao auoue, a oii, /oi ieo nai ii naaa iiaeao
oaea/ue iannu, canoaaea eo eaeoe i?ioea onoiyaoaainy ii?yaeea aeecie,
i?ioea naiie enoi?ee. Aa?iaa, aeey oiai /oiau ?iaeeeny ieo, ianouee
ca?yae ?ac?ooaiey, aeieaeii iiyaeoueny iaaeiaieuenoai nouanoaothuei
no?iai aeecie. Ni?aeue /anoi ?annoaeaeae oae: ieou — yoi caeia
aeeciaiiinoe ianniaiai aeaeaeaiey. Aa?iaa, iaiai?io, iiyaeaiea e
nouanoaiaaiea ieoa naycaii n ooaa?aeaeaieai e ?inoii ii?aaeaeaiiiai
aeaeaeaiey.

E?eoeee Ni?aey, eioi?ua aeaeyo a eiioeaioeee ieoa ia/oi a?iaea
iainiiaaiey iaieioee?iaaiey ethaeueie ia aia?aoeeiiaeueiii o?iaia,
i?ioiaeyo ieii oiai ianoiyoaeuenoaa, /oi Ni?aeue ieeiaaea ia
?anniao?eaae ieo eae ae/, eioi?ui /aeiaa/anoai caaiiytho a naaoeia
aoaeouaa. Ieo aeey iaai — eeoue neiaie inaiaiaeaeaiey, nii?yaeaiiue n
iniciaieai iaecaaaeiinoe iiiao ia yoii iooe, naycaiiuo eae n
nioeeaeueiuie i?aiyonoaeyie, oae e n /aeiaa/aneie i?e?iaeie. Iinoiyiiay
iianiinoue aeaeaaeaina iiaenoa?aaaao /aeiaaea ia iooe e inaiaiaeaeaieth,
Ni?aeaaneee ieo ia i?aaeeaaae iai?aeiaeiuo oeaeae aeaeaeaieth, ii eeoue
neiaieece?iaae iooue e aaniethoiie naiaiaea e ii?aee, iinoiyiii
i?a?uaaaiie aeaeaaeainii e aiiaue aiciaiiaeyaiue.

Aeaeeia?aoey:

1. A. A. Naia?neay. Noaouey “AEi?ae Ni?aeue – aa/iue a?aoee (1847 –
1922)” aeo?iae “Iiaay e iiaaeoay enoi?ey” ?2 I., 1994 a.

2. AE. Ni?aeue “?aciuoeaiey i ianeeee” I., 1907 a.

3. O/aaiee “Aoiaienoe/aneea oeaiiinoe aa?iiaeneeo oeeaeeecaoeee e
i?iaeaiu nia?aiaiiiai ie?a” NIa., 1996 a.

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