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O?AAIECAOeEss ( 1 *ANOUe )

Ii?aceoaeueia noaeueaa oa?ieiia “o?aaiecaoeey” e “yeieiaey”. Aicieeioa
ii/oe iaeiia?aiaiii a 70-a aiaeu XIX a., iie aieioue aei 60-o aiaeia
aeaaaeoeaoiai noieaoey eiaee ocei i?ioanneiiaeueiia e noaoai iao/iia
cia/aiea. Iuia yoe iiiyoey iieo/eee naiia oe?ieia ?ani?ino?aiaiea e
iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneia cao/aiea.

Nia?aiaiiay o?aaiecaoeey nii?iaiaeaeaaony oooaeoaieai ninoiyiey
ai?iaeneie ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu, iniaaiii a ?acaeaathueony no?aiao. A ieo
iii noaei oa?iaeathuei aeey caei?iauey ianaeaiey, noaei oi?iicii
i?aiaeieaiey oicyenoaaiiie ionoaeinoe. A ai?iaeao ?acaeaathueony no?ai
ia?aieaoathony i?iyaeaiey e iineaaenoaey ?yaea e?ecenia, ieacuaathueo
iaaoaiia aicaeaenoaea ia ana noi?iiu eo aeecie. E /eneo yoeo e?ecenia
ioiinyony i?iaeieaeathueeny a ?acaeaathueony no?aiao “aeaiia?aoe/aneee
ac?ua”, aieiae e iaaeiaaeaiea cia/eoaeueiie /anoe eo ianaeaiey,
aucuaathuaa “oooaeoaiea ea/anoaa /aeiaa/aneiai iioaioeeaea”. Iniaaiii
iaaeaaiiieo/ii ninoiyiea ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu a ai?iaeao a e?oiiaeoeo
oeaio?ao n ianaeaieai nauoa 250 oun. aeeoaeae. Eiaiii yoe ai?iaea ?anooo
iniaaiii auno?i, oaaee/eaay naia ianaeaiea i?eia?ii ia 10% a aiae.
I?ienoiaeeo ?ac?ooeoaeueiia ia?ooaiea yeieiae/aneiai ?aaiiaaney a
e?oiiaeoeo e e?oiiuo oeaio?ao anao ?aaeiiia e no?ai “o?aoueaai ie?a”.

Acaeiinaycue o?aaiecaoeee e ninoiyiey ie?oaeathuae i?e?iaeiie n?aaeu
iaoneiaeaia ?yaeii oaeoi?ia a neiaeiie nenoaia
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey e acaeiiaeaenoaey iauanoaa e
i?e?iaeu. Iiieiaiea iaueo e eiie?aoiuo iniaaiiinoae ninoiyiey
ie?oaeathuae i?e?iaeiie n?aaeu a ai?iaeao ?acaeaathueony no?ai aaaeii
aeey au?aaioee aeieain?i/iie no?aoaaee iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai nio?oaeie/anoaa
a iaeanoe aeiaaeueiuo i?iaeai ianaeaiey e ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu. E?oiiua e
e?oiiaeoea oeaio?u noaee n?aaeioi/eai aieueoeinoaa aeiaaeueiuo i?iaeai
/aeiaa/anoaa. Eiaiii iie ieacuaatho iaeaieaa ianooaaiia aicaeaenoaea ia
ninoiyiea ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu ia iaoe?iuo i?ino?ainoaao.

Aeeeoaeueiia a?aiy oa?iei “o?aaiecaoeey” icia/ae, i?aaeaea anaai, ?ino
/eneaiiinoe ai?iaeneiai ianaeaiey e cia/aiey ai?iaeia. Aua n?aaieoaeueii
iaaeaaii a ?acaeaathueony no?aiao o?aaiecaoeey ia?aaeei o?aeoiaaeanue
eae ?ino, cano?ieea e ?aeiino?oeoeey oao eee eiuo /anoae ai?iaeia.
Nia?aiaiiay o?aeoiaea o?aaiecaoeee ia iiaeao aano?aae?iaaoueny io
i?e?iaeiie e yeieiae/aneie neooaoeee. O?aaiecaoeey nicaeaao
ioiineoaeueii ia?aie/aiiua ieiuaaee (“niaoeeoe/aneea i?ino?ainoaa”)
iniaaiii eioaineaiiai acaeiiaeaenoaey ianaeaiey, iauanoaa, oicyenoaa e
i?e?iaeu. Ai?iaea e eo i?e?iaeiay n?aaea ia?acotho ii?aaeaeaiioth
oeaeinoiinoue.

N ia/aea 70-o aiaeia ai iiiaeo i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuo aeieoiaioao a
?acaeaathueony no?aiao ioia/aaony aaaeiinoue o/aoa eae i?e?iaeiuo, oae e
nioeeaeueiuo oneiaee i?e aiaeeca eiie?aoiuo ninoiyiee ie?oaeathuae
n?aaeu a ai?iaeao. Eiinoaoe?oaony ?anoouay caaeneiinoue ea/anoaa
i?e?iaeiie ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu io oa?aeoa?a nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneiai
?acaeoey, eniieueciaaiey ?ano?nia e oa??eoi?ee, aeayoaeueiinoe
iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo ei?ii?aoeee.

A ?acaeaathueony no?aiao ?anoao iiieiaiea iaiaoiaeeiinoe ?anniio?aiey
i?iecaiaenoaa e iauanoaaiiiai i?ia?anna a iauai eiioaenoa
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey neiaeiuo yeieiai-yeiiiie/aneeo nenoai, a iniaaiiinoe a
ai?iaeao. Ii eiaiii a ai?iaeao a ?acaeaathueony no?aiao yeieiae/aneay
eio?ano?oeoo?a ia niioaaonoaoao iio?aaiinoyi oeo/oaiey ninoiyiey
ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu.

Aua n?aaieoaeueii iaaeaaii, a 60-a e 70-a aiaeu auei ?ani?ino?aiaii
iiaiea i oii, /oi i?iaeaiu ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu (a oii /enea a ai?iaeao)
oa?aeoa?iu eeoue aeey i?iiuoeaiii ?acaeouo no?ai. Ia?aeii a iiaeoiaeao e
i?iaeaiai ninoiyiey e ea/anoaa ie?oaeathuae i?e?iaeiie n?aaeu a
?acaeaathueony no?aiao ianooiee a ia/aea 70-o aiaeia. A 1972 a.
Noieaieueineay eiioa?aioeey III ii i?iaeaiai n?aaeu ioa?aeoa?eciaaea
yeieiae/aneia ninoiyiea a ai?iaeao a /enea iaeaieaa e?eceniuo i?iaeai
a?oiiu ?acaeaathueony no?ai. E anee i?eiaieoaeueii e eiaeono?eaeueiui
no?aiai ninoiyiea ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu ?anoeaieaaaony eae naiaai ?iaea
“ieaoa ca ?acaeoea”, i?ia?ann e eiioi?o, oi a ?acaeaathueony no?aiao
e?eceniua yeieiae/aneea neooaoeee iaoneiaeaiu oicyenoaaiiie
ionoaeinoueth.

N?aaee oaeoi?ia, ii?aaeaeythueo ninoiyiea e ea/anoai ie?oaeathuae
i?e?iaeiie n?aaeu a ai?iaeao ?acaeaathueony no?ai, ioiaoei iaeaieaa
aaaeiua: iaoii?yaei/aiiay e iaeiio?iee?oaiay o?aaiecaoeey a oneiaeyo
oicyenoaaiiie neaai ?acaeoinoe; “ai?iaeneie ac?ua”, au?aaeathueeny,
i?aaeaea anaai, a iia?aaeathueo oaiiao ?inoa e?oiiaeoeo e e?oiiuo
oeaio?ia; ionoonoaea iaiaoiaeeiuo oeiainiauo e oaoie/aneeo n?aaenoa;
iaaeinoaoi/iue o?iaaiue iauae ia?aciaaiiinoe iniiaiie iannu ianaeaiey;
ia ?ac?aaioaiiinoue iieeoeee ai?iaeneiai ?acaeoey; ia?aie/aiiinoue
yeieiae/aneiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa. Iaaeaaii?eyoii aeeytho e oaeea
ianoiyoaeuenoaa, eae oaioe/iinoue ai?iaeneie cano?ieee, ia?iiiay
neo/aiiinoue ianaeaiey eae a oeaio?aeueiuo, oae e a ia?eoa?eeiuo /anoyo
ai?iaeia, ia?aie/aiiinoue eiiieaeniiai ai?iaeneiai ieaie?iaaiey e
caeiiiaeaoaeueiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey ( /oi i?enoua aieueoeinoao
?acaeaathueony no?ai). Aanueia /anou neo/ae iaiin?aaenoaaiiiai
ninaaenoaa cano?iaiiuo e aonoicanaeaiiuo aeeeuo ?aeiiia e i?iiuoeaiiuo
i?aaei?eyoee n onoa?aaoae oaoiieiaeae e aac i/enoiuo nii?oaeaiee. Yoi
aua aieaa oooaeoaao ninoiyiea ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu a ai?iaeao. Ninoiyiea
ie?oaeathuae i?e?iaeiie n?aaeu a ai?iaeao ?acaeaathueony no?ai
i?aaenoaaeyao “aucia eo onoie/eaiio ?acaeoeth”.

Aeey ?acaeaathueony no?ai iniaaiii iai?aaiia?ai oacen i “ioeaaii
aa?eaioa” yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa . Oacen “iacaae e i?e?iaea”, eae ioia/ae
aeaaeaiee N.N.Oaa?oe, anaaaea aue ii nouanoao ?aaeoeeiiai, a a ianoiyuaa
a?aiy ii e aioeiao/ai.

Ea?n I.Ethaeaeanai, ?oeiaiaeeoaeue i?iaeoa Oeaio?a III ii ianaeaiiui
ioieoai (“Oaaeoao”), ioia/ae, /oi eiaiii a e?oiiaeoeo ai?iaeao a
?acaeaathueony no?aiao i?ienoiaeeo iaeaieaa na?ueaciia e iianiia
nieaeaiea “?ano?nia aeeciaiaania/aiey”. Yoi i?eaiaeeo e oooaeoaieth
ninoiyiey caei?iauey ianaeaiey e iiae?uaaao iniiau onoie/eaiai ?acaeoey.
Nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneay ionoaeinoue ?acaeaathueony no?ai, aaaeiinoue
iniiaiie iannu eo ianaeaiey i?aaenoaaeytho na?ueaciaeooth i?aa?aaeo aeey
?aoaiey yeieiae/aneeo i?iaeai ai?iaeia a ?acaeaathueony no?aiao.
Aia?eeaineea o/aiua I.?aaaeeue e *.?aaaeeue oae oa?aeoa?ecotho naycue
yeieiaee, o?iaiy nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey e aeaaininoiyiey
ianaeaiey: “Oieueei nuoua, oi?ioi iaeaoua e ia?aciaaiiua ethaee iiaoo
iicaieeoue naaa ?ineioue aeeoue a /enoie ie?oaeathuae n?aaea”.

Oa?aeoa? o?aaiecaoeee a ?acaeaathueony no?aiao

“O?aoee ie?” noaiiaeony ana aieaa o?aaiece?iaaiiui, a?aiie
i?iaeieaeathuaeny “ai?iaeneie ?aaiethoeee”. Yoi ai iiiaii ii?aaeaeyao
iaeaieaa aaaeiua iai?aaeaiey nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneiai i?ia?anna
?acaeaathueony no?ai. A 1950 a. aeiey ai?iaeai a iauae /eneaiiinoe eo
ianaeaiey ninoaaeyea 19%-20%, a e 1990 a. iia au?inea aei 38%- 40%. E
2000 a. yoio iieacaoaeue aeinoeaiao 45% eee aeaaea aieueoa. A 2000 a. a
65 ?acaeaathueony no?aiao ai?iaeneei aoaeao nauoa 2/3 anaai ianaeaiey, a
a 15 iaeaieaa eiaeono?eaeueiuo o?iaaiue o?aaiecaoeee i?aauneo 80%.

Ana aieueoa aaaeoueo oeaio?ia a ?acaeaathueony no?aiao auoiaeeo a /enei
e?oiiaeoeo ai?iaeia ie?a. A 1950 a. n?aaee 10 ec ieo a ?acaeaathueony
no?aiao auei eeoue aeaa oaeeo oeaio?a – Aoyiin-Ae?an e Eaeueeoooa. A
2000 a. eo aoaeao oaea 7 e n?aaee ieo Iaoeei, Nai-Iaoeo, Eaeueeoooa,
Aiiaae, Naoe, ?ei-aea-AEaiae?i, Aeaee. A 1960 a. a ?acaeaathueony
no?aiao ai?iaeia n ianaeaieai aieaa 1 ieeeeiia aeeoaeae auei 52, e 2000
a. eo aoaeao 279, e 2025 a. -486.

A 2000 a. a ai?iaeao a ?acaeaathueony no?aiao aoaeao i?iaeeaaoue a aeaa
?aca aieueoa aeeoaeae, /ai a ai?iaeao eiaeono?eaeueiuo no?ai. E 2025 a.
yoi niioiioaiea ninoaaeo 4:1. Yoi e iaoaeeaeoaeueii, oae eae a
?acaeaathueony no?aiao oaiiu ?inoa ai?iaeneiai ianaeaiey i?eia?ii a 4,5
– 5 ?ac i?aauoatho aiaeiae/iue iieacaoaeue a n?aaeiai ii a?oiia
eiaeono?eaeueiuo ainoaea?noa. Ii iaeiiio ec i?iaiicia III a iineaaeiae
o?aoe XX a. ai?iaeneia ianaeaiea ie?a oaaee/eony ia 2 ie?ae. /aeiaae, a
oii /enea 3/4 yoiai ?inoa i?eaeaony ia ?acaeaathueany no?aiu. Ioiaoei,
/oi a ieo ?aaeueiua oaiiu ?inoa ai?iaeneiai ianaeaiey cia/eoaeueii auoa
aeaaea iaeneiaeueiuo i?iaiiciuo ioeaiie.

“Ai?iaeneie ac?ua” a ?acaeaathueony no?aiao oaniaeoei ia?acii naycai n
aeeiaie/iuie aioo?aiieie iea?aoeeiiiuie iioieaie. Ia ieo a aieueoeinoaa
?acaeaathueony no?ai i?eoiaeeony io 40% aei 50% iauaai ?inoa ai?iaeneiai
ianaeaiey. Iiaeii i?iaiice?iaaoue, /oi aiaeiae/iia iieiaeaiea nio?aieony
e ia ia?niaeoeao, iniaaiii i?eieiay ai aieiaiea nio?aiythueany aunieea
oaiiu ?inoa ianaeaiey e i?aiaeaaeathuea a iai iieiaeuo aic?anoiuo a?oii
(ieiei 2/5 ianaeaiey iieiaea 15 eao). I?e yoii a ?acaeaathueony no?aiao
oaiiu ?inoa ai?iaeneiai ianaeaiey a 2-3 ?aca auoa, /ai naeueneiai
ianaeaiey (oioy a naeueneie ianoiinoe iieacaoaee ?iaeaeaaiinoe
nouanoaaiii auoa, /ai a ai?iaeao). Yoi oa?aeoa?ii e aeey naiuo ionoaeuo
?acaeaathueony no?ai, a oii /enea e aeey 30 ec ieo, ia eiathueo auoiaea
e ii?neei iiaa?aaeueyi.

Ac?uaiie oa?aeoa? ?inoa ai?iaeneiai ianaeaiey a ?acaeaathueony no?aiao
iaeuecy oi?iuaiii iauyniyoue eeoue “auoaeeeaaieai” e?anoueyi ec aea?aaie
e “i?eoyaeaieai” iea?aoeeiiiuo iioieia ai?iaeaie. Aioo?aiiea iea?aoeee
oeiia “naei-e?oiiue ai?iae”, “naei-iaeue ai?iae-e?oiiue ai?iae” noaee
aaaeiaeoei yeaiaioii nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneie aeecie ?acaeaathueony
no?ai. Oaeea iea?aoeeiiiua iioiee oa?aeoa?ecothony eae “ia?aiin ieuaou”
ec naeueneie ianoiinoe a ai?iaea. Yoi aaaeao e iaino?aieth
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeo e yeieiae/aneeo i?iaeai e?oiiuo ai?iaeia e e
oooaeoaieth ninoiyiey caei?iauey aieueoeo a?oii eo ianaeaiey.

A ?acaeaathueony no?aiao o?aaiecaoeey i?ienoiaeeo ii oeio
“oeaio?-ia?eoa?ey”. Iaiaa ?acaeoua ?aeiiu e eo ai?iaea aunooiatho a
ea/anoaa aioo?aiieo eieiiee aaaeoueo ?aeiiia e eo oeaio?ia (naiaia?aciue
“aioo?aiiee eieiieaeeci”). Iiaeiaiue acaeyae ia o?aaiecaoeeth a
?acaeaathueony no?aiao naycai n eiioeaioeeae “yeiiiie/aneiai aeoaeecia”,
eioi?ay enoiaeeo ec nouanoaiaaiey “o?aaeeoeeiiiiai ” e “nia?aiaiiiai”
naeoi?ia. A yoie nayce ?anniao?eaathony 3 neooaoeee: a) ai?iae
auea/eaaao ec ie?oaeathueo oa??eoi?ee ?acee/iua ?ano?nu aeey ?acaeoey;
a) ai?iae “eiaeeooa?aioai” e ninaaeiei ?aeiiai; a) ai?iae iaaycuaaao ei
oo eee eioth no?oeoo?o ?acaeoey.

Oaeay o?aaiecaoeey, eaeouay ii oeio “yeiiiie/aneee ?ino aac
yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey” (ii oa?ieiieiaee iaeioi?uo o/aiuo), iieo/eea
iaeiaiiaaiea “o?aaiecaoeee nouanoaiaaiey” eee “iio?aaeoaeueneie
o?aaiecaoeee”. Oaeie o?aaiecaoeee i?enoue iiiaea e?eceniua yaeaiey.
Iaeioi?ua ec ieo naycaiu n ninoiyieai ai?iaeneie i?e?iaeiie n?aaeu.

A ?acaeaathueony no?aiao “ai?iaeneie ac?ua” i?ienoiaeeo ia oiia e a
oneiaeyo i?iaeieaeathuaainy “aeaiia?aoe/aneiai ac?uaa”. Iaa yoeo
“ac?uaa” a naiai ni/aoaiee ai iiiaii ii?aaeaeytho iniiaiua iai?aaeaiey
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey e, i?aeoe/anee, ana noi?iiu aeecie
no?ai “o?aoueaai ie?a”. “Ai?iaeneie ac?ua” a ?acaeaathueony no?aiao
ia?aaeei ?anniao?eaaaony eae iaeia ec iaeaieaa na?ueaciuo i?iaeai
/aeiaa/anoaa. Yoi iaoneiaeaii oai, /oi ai?iaea ?acaeaathueony no?ai
aunooiatho a ea/anoaa oeaio?ia eiioeaio?aoeee ieuaou, aac?aaioeoeu,
nioeeaeueiie e iieeoe/aneie iaonoie/eainoe, yeieiae/aneiai e?ecena.

A ca?oaaaeiie iao/iie eeoa?aoo?a ano?a/aaony oa?iei “neaai?acaeoue
ai?iae”. Ii ii?aaeaeyao iaeioi?ua niaoeeoe/aneea iniaaiiinoe ai?iaeia a
?acaeaathueony no?aiao. N?aaee ieo:

-iaaeinoaoi/iinoue ooieoeeiiaeueiie aacu (i?iiuoeaiiinoue,
iai?iecaiaenoaaiiay noa?a e ae?oaea enoi/ieee caiyoinoe e aeioiaeia),
eioi?ay ia a ninoiyiee “iiaeioeoue” ana aieaa oaaee/eaathuaany
ianaeaiea;

-auno?ue ?ino iaacaeieaiiiai ianaeaiey (a cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie a
?acoeueoaoa i?eoiea iea?aioia) e cano?iaiiie ieiuaaee ai?iaeia;

– neiaeeaoayny eiioeaio?e/aneay nenoaia ieaie?iai/iie no?oeoo?u aie?oa
oeaio?aeueiuo enoi?e/aneeo oeaio?ia ai?iaeia; i?e yoii eaa?oaeu iaiaa
iaania/aiiuo a?oii ai?iaeai iaiin?aaenoaaiii i?eiueatho e “yae?ai”
ai?iaeia**

-nouanoaiaaiea ia ia?eoa?ee ai?iaeia ?ac?anoathueony ii caieiaaiie
ieiuaaee iinaeaiee nin?aaeioi/aiey iaeiaiaa iaania/aiiuo a?oii ianaeaiey
(aeaaiui ia?acii iea?aioia) n iaoii?yaei/aiiie oaioe/aneie cano?ieeie,
eeoaiiuo, eae i?aaeei, yeaiaioa?iie eio?ano?oeoo?u (yeaeo?e/anoai,
aiaeiniaaaeaiea, eaiaeecaoeey, iaaeeoeeineia ianeoaeeaaiea);

– io/aoeeai au?aaeaiiia oa??eoi?eaeueii-eiouanoaaiiia ?acaeaeaiea
ai?iaeneeo oa??eoi?ee n auaeaeaieai a?aaeia i?iaeeaaiey a?oii n
aunieeie, n?aaeieie, ieceeie e ieieiaeueiuie aeioiaeaie (“nioeeaeueiay
naa?aaaoeey”);

**A i?iiuoeaiiuo ai?iaeao ioia/aaony iiaue aeoie (iiaay noaaeey)
o?aaiecaoeee. Iia naycaia n oai, /oi aaaeiua a?oiiu ianaeaiey iinoaiaiii
auoaniythony ec oeaio?aeueiuo ?aeiiia ai?iaea. I?ienoiaeeo naiaai ?iaea
eo “aeaeaio?eoeeaoeey” (iaeaai?aaeeaaiea). I?ioeann aic?iaeaeaiey e
iiauoaiey nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneie ?iee oeaio?aeueiuo /anoae ai?iaeia
iieo/ee iacaaiea “?ao?aaiecaoeey”. Iia aua ia cao?iioea e?oiiaeoea e
e?oiiua ai?iaea a ?acaeaathueony no?aiao.

?ani?ino?aiaiea ai?iaeneie cano?ieee oa??eoi?ee ia iaaeaaii?eyoiua ii
naiei eiaeaia?ii-aaieiae/aneei e yeieiae/aneei oneiaeyi oa??eoi?ee
(ai?iua neeiiu n neeueiie y?iceae, aunieiai?uey, caaiei/aiiua eee
iiaeoaieeaaaiua o/anoee e ae?oaea iiaeiaiua ianoa).

Yoe iaeaieaa iauea iniaaiiinoe “aiaoiiee neaai?acaeoiai ai?iaea”
ii?iaeaeaiu ac?uaiui oa?aeoa?ii o?aaiecaoeee. Iia ii naiei ianooaaai
cia/eoaeueii iia?aaeaao oaiiu ?acaeoey yeiiiieee. I?e yoii ai?iaea eae
au cae?aieytho oo oa??eoi?eaeueioth i?aaiecaoeeth iauanoaa e oicyenoaa,
eioi?ua aeinoaeenue ?acaeaathueiny no?aiai a ianeaaenoai io
eieiieaeueiiai i?ioeiai, i?aiyonoaoy eo i?ia?anno.

Oa?aeoa? ?aciauaiey ianaeaiey a ?acaeaathueony no?aiao e, a oii /enea,
aai iniaaiii aunieay oa??eoi?eaeueiay eiioeaio?aoeey a e?oiiaeoeo
ai?iaeao ana aieaa iuooeii i?aiyonoaotho i?ia?anno yoeo ainoaea?noa. A
ioaaoa ia aieaoo III oieueei 6 ec 116 ?acaeaathueony no?ai cayaeee, /oi
a ieo ?aciauaiea ianaeaiey “i?eaieaii”, 66 ainoaea?noa ioaaoeee, /oi iii
“a aunoae noaiaie iai?eaieaii”, a a 42 ainoaea?noaao “iai?eaieaii a oie
eee eiie noaiaie”.

Oaeie oa?aeoa? ?aciauaiey ianaeaiey nio?aieony e ia ioaeaeaiioth
ia?niaeoeao. Yoi naycaii e n iniaie aeia?o?ioeae e?oiiaeoeo oeaio?ia. A
aieueoeinoaa ?acaeaathueony no?ai a 4-5 e?oiiaeoeo ai?iaeao
nin?aaeioi/aii i?eia?ii 4/5 i?iiuoeaiiiai iioaioeeaea yoeo ainoaea?noa.
I?e yoii e?oiiaeoea ai?iaea ?anooo oaiiaie a 3-5 ?ac aieaa aunieeie, /ai
iauee ?ino /eneaiiinoe ianaeaiey. Yoi oa?aeoa?ii, a /anoiinoe, aeey
Eaoeineie Aia?eee – iaeaieaa ?acaeoiai, eiaeono?eaeueiiai e
o?aaiece?iaaiiiai ?aaeiia “o?aoueaai ie?a”. A aaeiia?aoeeyo Nai-Iaoeo,
?ei-aea-AEaiae?i, Iaoeei e Aoyiin-Ae?ana nin?aaeioi/aiu i?eia?ii 1/5
ianaeaiey e 1/3 iioaioeeaea ia?aaaouaathuae i?iiuoeaiiinoe ?aaeiia. Ii
?an/aoai I.?.Iaeaeea i?eia?ii 90% noieiinoe i?iaeoeoeee ia?aaaouaathuae
i?iiuoeaiiinoe a Eaoeineie Aia?eea i?iecaiaeeony a 41 oeaio?a, a oii
/enea 70% – a 10 e?oiiaeoeo ai?iaeao.

A 2000 a. a ai?iaeao Eaoeineie Aia?eee n ianaeaieai nauoa 1 iei.
aeeoaeae aoaeao i?iaeeaaoue aieaa 2/5 eaoeiiaia?eeaioeaa. A 1990 a.
aeiey aeeoaeae e?oiiaeoae aaeiia?aoeee a iauai ianaeaiee ninoaaeyea a
e?oiiaeoeo e iaeaieaa ?acaeouo no?aiao ?aaeiia: a A?aceeee 12,5%,
Iaeneea 22,8%, A?aaioeia 35,6%, Ia?o 30,4%. Iaeneioi oa??eoi?eaeueiie
eiioeaio?aoeee ianaeaiey a aaaeouae aaeiia?aoeee ioia/aaony a
Ioy?oi-?eei (40,2%) e a O?oaaaa (39%). Noiaeiay ea?oeia i?ineaaeeaaaony
e a aieueoeinoaa ae?oaeo no?ai “o?aoueaai ie?a”.

Aeey onei?aiiie e aeaaea ac?uaiie o?aaiecaoeee a ?acaeaathueony no?aiao
aieaa anaai oa?aeoa?ia “eiioeaio?aoeeiiiay iiaeaeue” ?anoouaai
nin?aaeioi/aiey ianaeaiey e anao noa? yeiiiieee a iaiiiaeo aaaeoueo e
e?oiiaeoeo oeaio?ao. Eo ?ino aoaeao i?iaeieaeaoueny e i?e iinoaiaiiii
nieaeaiee ?iaeaeaaiinoe, /oi ioia/aaony a aieueoeinoaa ?acaeaathueony
no?ai. Iooie ianaeaiey ec naeueneie ianoiinoe a ai?iaea (iniaaiii a
e?oiiua e e?oiiaeoea oeaio?u) aoaeao i?iaeieaeaoueny aunieeie oaiiaie.
Yoi iaoneiaeaii oai, /oi naeueneia oicyenoai e naeueneay ianoiinoue a
?acaeaathueony no?aiao ia iiaoo oaea?aeaoue naeueneia ianaeaiea ec-ca
iaeicaiaeuey, oooaeoaiey oneiaee, ?anoouae i?anoeaeiinoe ai?iaeneie
aeecie. Oicyenoaaiiia inaiaiea iiauo ?aeiiia a ?acaeaathueony no?aiao
(iaeioi?ia eneeth/aiea i?aaenoaaeyao Eaoeineay Aia?eea) ia iiaeao
iiaeioeoue neieueei-eeai cia/eoaeueioth /anoue ecauoi/iiai naeueneiai
ianaeaiey.

Ai iiiaeo ?acaeaathueony no?aiao ( iniaaiii a O?iie/aneie Ao?eea)
neiaeeeny aeiaieueii yeaiaioa?iue ?enoiie ai?iaeneiai ?annaeaiey.
Nouanoaoao iaeei e?oiiue oeaio? iauaiaoeeiiaeueiiai cia/aiey i?e
aeiaieueii aieueoii eiee/anoaa iaeuo ai?iaeia a naeueneie ianoiinoe.
Ioiaoei, iaeiaei, /oi ii/oe ai anao ?acaeaathueony no?aiao iiyaeeenue
e?oiiua ai?iaea, eiathuea nauoa 100 oun. aeeoaeae eaaeaeue. A Eaoeineie
Aia?eea, iai?eia?, ca 1870-1990 aa. /enei oaeeo ai?iaeia oaaee/eeinue
aieaa /ai a 50 ?ac.

A ?acaeaathueony no?aiao oi?ie?othony e ana aieaa neiaeiua oi?iu
o?aaienoe/aneie i?aaiecaoeee: aaeiia?aoeee ai?iaeia, “ai?iaeneea
ei?eaei?u”, ?aniieiaeaiiua iaaeaeo e?oiiaeoeie oeaio?aie. Iie
neiaeeeenue a iaeaieaa o?aaiece?iaaiiuo e eiaeono?eaeueiuo no?aiao.
N?aaee ieo Eiaeey, A?aaioeia, A?aceeey, Iaeneea, Aaianoyea, *eee e
iaeioi?ua ae?oaea. A Aaianoyea, iai?eia?, oi?ie?othony 3 iaaaeiiieena, a
oii /enea iaaeaeo noieeoeae Ea?aeanii e iiaa?aaeueai. E eiioeo aaea a
ieo aoaeao nin?aaeioi/aii 77% ianaeaiey Aaianoyeu (a ia/aea 70-o aiaeia
ia caieiaaiie eie oa??eoi?ee i?iaeeaaei 42.6% aaianoyeueoeaa).

Ii/oe ai anao ?acaeaathueony no?aiao ioia/aaony ia?anoathuaa oooaeoaiea
ninoiyiey ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu a noiee/iuo e ae?oaeo aaeiia?aoeeyo e ia
i?eeaaathueo e iei oa??eoi?eyo. Yoi, a /anoiinoe, iaoneiaeaii oai, /oi a
no?aiao “o?aoueaai ie?a” oeie/ia aunieay oa??eoi?eaeueiay i?eaycea
“caa?yciythueo” io?aneae i?iiuoeaiiinoe e e?oiiaeoei e e?oiiui ai?iaeai.

Yoi iaino?yao e aac oiai e?eceniia ninoiyiea ai?iaeneie ie?oaeathuae
n?aaeu. Aicieeea ?aaeueiay iianiinoue aeey ninoiyiey caei?iauey
ai?iaeneiai ianaeaiey, iniaaiii a iiiai/eneaiiuo ie?aeiiuo a?aaeao
nin?aaeioi/aiey iaeiaiaa iaania/aiiuo a?oii ianaeaiey.

A yae?ao aaeiia?aoeeae a ?acaeaathueony no?aiao aie?oa aeaeiaiai oeaio?a
?aniieiaeaiu iniiaiua ai?iaeneea iaaeno?aee. Iau/ii ieiuaaeue iiae ieie
ia niioaaonoaoao aic?anoathuei oaiiai aaoiiiaeeecaoeee. ?yaeii n
eaa?oaeaie iiiaiyoaaeiie cano?ieee iaoiaeyony i?aaei?eyoey “ai?iaeneeo”
io?aneae eaaeie, ieuaaie, oeie/aneie i?iiuoeaiiinoe. A iaiin?aaenoaaiiie
aeecinoe ?aniieaaathony eaa?oaeu n iaeaunoae neo/aiiinoueth ianaeaiey.
Ii iai?aaeaieth e ia?eoa?ee ieioiinoue ianaeaiey iau/ii iinoaiaiii
iaaeaao. Ii aianoa n oai ?acei aic?anoaao ieiuaaeue a?aiaiiuo e iaeiaiaa
iaania/aiiuo eio?ano?oeoo?ie iinaeaiee iea?aioia, ninoaaeythueo ana
aieaa aaniioth aeieth a iauae /eneaiiinoe ianaeaiey ai?iaeia. Ia
“aueaoiuo” iaaeno?aeyo iau/ii nii?oaeathony e?oiiua i?aaei?eyoey e
aicieeatho iiaua ciiu cano?ieee. I?ienoiaeeo iaoeeiiiue ?ino aeiee
ianaeaiey e i?iiuoeaiiinoe eiaiii ie?aeiiuo ia?eoa?eeiuo /anoae
aaeiia?aoeee. Yoi a oneiaeyo iaaeinoaoi/iie iniauaiiinoe i?aaei?eyoee
i/enoiuie nii?oaeaieyie aua aieaa oooaeoaao ninoiyiea ie?oaeathuae
n?aaeu ia ?anoe?ythueony ai?iaeneeo ieiuaaeyo.

Aieueoea e ana oaaee/eaathueany oa??eoi?ee caieiatho o?ouiau e a?aiaiiua
ie?aeiiua iinaeaiey. Iie eeoaiu yeaiaioa?iuo oaeianoa e
iaaeeei-naieoa?iuo oneiaee. Eo ianaeaiea a iacia/eoaeueiie noaiaie
aoyiooi a i?iecaiaenoaaiioth e eiua noa?u aeecie naieo ai?iaeia. Ai
iiiaeo ai?iaeao ?acaeaathueony no?ai ianaeaiea oaeeo a?aaeia ?anoao a
aeaa ?aca aieaa aunieeie oaiiaie, /ai ana ianaeaiea oaeeo oeaio?ia. Yoi
ianoiyoaeuenoai aaaeao e oiio, /oi ai anao ?acaeaathueony no?aiao
ai?iaea caieiatho ana aieaa cia/eoaeueiua ieiuaaee.

?ino o?aaaiecaoeeiiiuo oa??eoi?ee iieacuaaao i?eia? Aeaee. I?e
?ac?aaioea aai aaia?aeueiiai ieaia a?aieoeu noiee/iie ciiu auee
ii?aaeaeaiu a ?aaeeona 100 ei. Ii ?aaeueii ?aaeeon a?aieoe ninoaaeyao
240 ei. A yoie e a ae?oaeo aaeiia?aoeeyo a ?acaeaathueony no?aiao
iniaaiii auno?i ?anooo o/anoee a?aiaiiie cano?ieee, caieiaaiua
ia?anaeaioeaie. Ia?aaeei yoe ai?iaeneea oa??eoi?ee nio?aiytho
aea?aaaineee iaeee. A eo i?aaeaeao aeiaieueii cia/eoaeueiua ieiuaaee
caieiatho naeueneioicyenoaaiiua caiee. Yoi iniaaiii oeie/ii aeey
ai?iaeia O?iie/aneie Ao?eee.

Ai a?aiaiiuo, nii?aaee/anee aicieeoeo iinaeaieyo, ia ie?aeiao aieueoeo e
aeaaea n?aaeieo ai?iaeia i?iaeeaatho nioie ieeeeiiia iea?aioia ec
aea?aaaiue. A oaeeo iinaeaieyo, eioi?ua ia?aaeei iacuaathony “eieiieyie
ieuaou”, “i?ieaoa?neeie eieiieyie” e ae?oaeie iiaeiaiuie iacaaieyie,
ea/anoai aeecie ianaeaiey e ninoiyiey n?aaeu iaeoaiey iniaaiii
iaoaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiu. A Ea?a/e, iai?eia?, aua a 70-a aiaeu
ian/eouaaeinue 200 o?ouiaiuo a?aaeia. Eeoue 30% aeeeeu eiaee
aiaeii?iaiae, 20% – iiaeeeth/aiu e eaiaeecaoeee. Aeaiiua niaoeeaeueiiai
ianeaaeiaaiey iieacuaatho, /oi a iaoaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiuo oneiaeyo
i?iaeeaaao ia iaiaa iieiaeiu ianaeaiey Ea?a/e. Yoi, eae e a ae?oaeo
e?oiiuo ai?iaeao ?acaeaathueony no?ai, aeaaiui ia?acii, ia?anaeaioeu ec
naeueneie ianoiinoe. Ieioiinoue ianaeaiey a oaeeo a?aaeao a Ea?a/e
i?aauoaao 1600 /aeiaae ia 1 aa. A Iaaeaeueeia, e?oiiaeoai yeiiiie/aneii
oeaio?a Eieoiaee, a oaeeo iinaeeao ia?aeiaeueiiai ianaeaiey aua a
iaaeaaiai i?ioeii yeaeo?e/anoaii iieueciaaeenue 45% ianaeaiey, nenoaiie
aiaeiniaaaeaiey 26%, eaiaeecaoeeae 43%. Iaaeaeo oai yoi iaeei ec aeaaiuo
oeaio?ia anae Eaoeineie Aia?eee.

Oa?aeoa? o?aaiecaoeee a ?acaeaathueony no?aiao ii?aaeaeyao e ?yae iaueo
iniaaiiinoae aioo?aiiaai ono?ienoaa (/eaiaiey) “neaai?acaeoiai ai?iaea”.
A iai auaeaeythony ?acei ioee/athueany ae?oa io ae?oaa ninoaaiua /anoe.
A /anoiinoe, auno?ue ?ino ai?iaeneiai ianaeaiey nii?iaiaeaeaaony
iniaaiii aunieeie oaiiaie oaaee/aiey /eneaiiinoe i?eoeiai ianaeaiey e,
i?aaeaea anaai, iea?aioia ec naeueneie ianoiinoe. Oa?aeoa?iu o?oaeiinoe
eo aaeaioaoeee e oneiaeyi ai?iaeneie aeecie, e iiaie aeey ieo ai?iaeneie
ie?oaeathuae n?aaea. Ia oieueei a e?oiiuo, ii e a n?aaeieo , a ia?aaeei
e a iaaieueoeo ai?iaeao, a iaiin?aaenoaaiiie aeecinoe io oeaio?aeueiiai
“aeaeiaiai ie?oaa” auno?i ?anooo eaa?oaeu o?ouia e iinaeaiey iaeiaiaa
iaania/aiiuo a?oii “ia?aeiaeueiiai” (iaeiaiaa iaania/aiiiai e ia
o/anoaothuaai a iieiie ia?a a ai?iaeneie aeecie) ianaeaiey.

A oeaio?aeueiuo /anoyo “neaai?acaeoiai ai?iaea” aic?anoaao ieioiinoue
ianaeaiey, /aua anaai aeinoeaathuay aunieeo, a eiiaaea e e?eoe/aneeo
iieacaoaeae. Auno?i oaaee/eaaaony ieiuaaeue iiae aei?iaaie e ae?oaeie
o?ainii?oiuie nii?oaeaieyie. Aaoiiiaeeecaoeey, eioaineaii ?acaeaathuayny
a ai?iaeao “o?aoueaai ie?a”, noaiiaeony ana aieaa aaniiui oaeoi?ii
oooaeoaiey ninoiyiey e ea/anoaa ie?oaeathuae ai?iaeneie n?aaeu.

A ai?iaeao anao ?acaeaathueony no?ai cia/eoaeueiay /anoue aeeeiai oiiaea
e iniaaiii a ie?aeiiuo iinaeaieyo ia?aeiaeueiiai ianaeaiey, iaoiaeeony a
aanueia iaoaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiii ninoiyiee. A oeaeii ii a?oiia
?acaeaathueony no?ai ia ianniaia aeeeeuiia no?ieoaeuenoai
i?aaeiacia/aaony i?eia?ii 1% AII. Yoi (a ioiineoaeueiii au?aaeaiee)
nouanoaaiii iaiueoa, /ai a eiaeono?eaeueiuo no?aiao.

Nouanoaoao i?yiay naycue iaaeaeo o?iaiai nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneiai
i?ia?anna e ?uieii aeeeuey a ?acaeaathueony no?aiao. Iai?eia?, a
Iaeenoaia n?aaeiee aeioiae ia 1 aeeoaey ninoaaeye a 1988 a. anaai 350
aeiee. A 1960-1980 aiaeao a no?aia ianaeaiea oaaee/eeinue ia 84%, a
/enei aeeeeu eeoue ia 56%. Ai aoi?ii ii cia/aieth oeaio?a A?aaioeiu –
Ei?aeiaa ca 1980-1991 aiaeu ana ianaeaiea oaaee/eeinue ia 19%, a a
iaaeaaiono?iaiiuo iinaeaieyo iea?aioia ia 34%.

A n?aaeiai ii a?oiia ?acaeaathueony no?ai ec eaaeaeuo 100 naiaenoa 72
aeeaoo a ieioeo aeeeeuiuo oneiaeyo. A Ao?eea aea yoio iieacaoaeue
aeinoea 92. Ca 1970-1988 aiaeu /enei aeeeeu, ia eiathueo ea/anoaaiiie
ieoueaaie aiaeu, au?inei ni 138 aei 215 iei., a eeoaiiuo eaiaeecaoeee ia
340 iei.

Ninoiyiea ai?iaeneie i?e?iaeiie n?aaeu

E eiioeo ia?aie /aoaa?oe XXI a. aaeaaiaeiue ?ino ai?iaeneiai ianaeaiey a
?acaeaathueony no?aiao ii iaeiiio ec i?iaiicia III ninoaaeo i?eia?ii 90
iei./aeiaae. Yoi aaaeao e iiaeiuaieth ai?iaeaie naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo
caiaeue. Ii eiaiii a aieueoeinoaa ?acaeaathueony no?ai, aaea ia?aaeei
(iniaaiii a Ao?eea) /anoue ai?iaeneiai ianaeaiey caieiaaony naeueneei
oicyenoaii, iniaaiii aieaciaiii i?iyaeyaony ?anoouay iaoaaoea
naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo oaiaeee. Oaeia “?aniiecaiea” ai?iaeia oaeaea
oooaeoaao e yeieiae/aneia ninoiyiea o?aaiece?iaaiiuo oa??eoi?ee a
?acaeaathueony no?aiao.

Iieacaoaeueiu aeaiiua i ?inoa oa??eoi?ee noieeoeu *eee. Anee a 1930-1950
aiaeao iia oaaee/eaaeanue a n?aaeiai ca aiae ia 200 aa, oi a 80-a aiaeu
aieaa /ai ia 1300 aa. A 1952 a. a iinaeaieyo ia?aeiaeueiiai ianaeaiey
i?iaeeaaei 6,3% ianaeaiey Naioueyai, e 1973 a. yoio iieacaoaeue
oo?ieeny. A Aaeioa ai?iaea caieiatho ia iaiaa 1/10 ieiuaaee iaeaieaa
ieiaei?iaeiuo caiaeue. N 1900 a. ii ia/aei 80-o aiaeia ieiuaaeue Aeaee
oaaee/eeanue a 13 ?ac. Oieueei ca 10 eao a 1965-1975 aiaeu noieeoea Ia?o
Eeia “iiaeioeea” 14 oun. aa iaeaieaa oeaiiuo i?ioaaiuo caiaeue a aeieeia
?aee ?eiae. A noieeoea Aeiieieeaineie ?anioaeeee a 70-a e 80-a aiaeu
ianaeaiea aic?inei n 600 aei 2300 oun. /aeiaae. Yoi i?eaaei e
?ani?ino?aiaieth ai?iaeneie cano?ieee ia ciio i?eai?iaeiiai naeueneiai
oicyenoaa. I?iecioei oooaeoaiea i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiiai iieiaeaiey
noiee/iiai ?aeiia, a a aai ciia noaee a e?eceniie oi?ia i?iyaeyoueny
iineaaenoaey ia?ooaiiinoe yeieiae/aneiai ?aaiiaaney. Ia?aaeei
io/oaeaeaiea caiaeue iiae ai?iaeneoth cano?ieeo ioaaouaaao oeaiiua
naeueneioicyenoaaiiua oaiaeuey iiae iiiaieaoieie eoeueoo?aie.

A ai?iaeao ?acaeaathueony no?ai n eo iaoii?yaei/aiiie cano?ieeie ana
/aua ioia/aaony eiaeaia?ii-aaieiae/aneia e aeae?iaaieiae/aneia
iaaeaaiiieo/ea. Yoi i?eaiaeeo e i?inaaeaieth oa??eoi?ee, i?iaaeai,
iioneaieth oa??eoi?ee e ?yaeo ae?oaeo iaaeaaiiieo/iuo iineaaenoaee
yeieiae/aneiai naienoaa. I?e/eiu yoeo yaeaiee ?acee/iu, ii n?aaee ieo
auaeaeyaony oneeaiea aeaaeaiey yeiiiieee e ianaeaiey ia cano?iaiioth
oa??eoi?eth. Iaiaeiaaaeiia cia/aiea eiaao e oi, /oi iiaua iinaeaiey
ia?aaeei nicaeathony ia iaaeaaii?eyoiuo a eiaeaia?ii-aaieiae/aneii e
aeae?iaaieiae/aneii ioiioaieyo o/anoeao, “acae?athony” ia neeiiu oieiia
e aunieeo ai? (eee “nioneathony” a caaiei/aiiua ianoiinoe).

A aaeiia?aoeee Iaoeei, ?aniieiaeaiiie ia n?aaeiae aunioa 2240 i. iaae
o?iaiai ii?y, a?aiaiiua iinaeaiey ano?a/athony ia aunioao aieaa 3000 i.
Oai oaea iuouathony iaoaaoea eenei?iaea, iniaua o?oaeiinoe a niaaaeaiee
oiieeaii aeey aioiaee ieue e iaia?aaa ea/oa, a oaeaea a aeinoaaea aiaeu
oeenoa?iaie. Canaeaiea yoeo o/anoeia niinianoaoao ?ani?ino?aiaieth
neeiiiaie y?icee.

Ia yeieiae/aneoth neooaoeeth a aaeiia?aoeee Iaoeei ia?iiiia e
oa?iaeathuaa aicaeaenoaea ieacuaaao inaaeaiea cia/eoaeueiie /anoe aa
oa??eoi?ee a ?acoeueoaoa i?iaeieaeathuaainy eniieueciaaiey iiaecaiiuo
aiae aeey aiaeiniaaaeaiey iiiaiieeeeiiiiai noiee/iiai ?aeiia. I?e yoii,
ianiio?y ia oa?iaeathuoth aeae?iaaieiae/aneoth neooaoeeth a
oeaio?aeueiie /anoe ai?iaea Iaoeei, a oaeaea ia ianoa ae?aie?iaaiiiai
aua eniaineeie caaiaaaoaeyie ica?a Oaneiei, i?iaeieaeaaony eioaineaiia
i?iiuoeaiiia e aeeeeuiia no?ieoaeuenoai.

Iieiaeaiea onoaoaeyaony ia?aie/aiiinoueth e ioaeaeaiiinoueth
iaeneeaineie noieeoeu io aunieiai?iuo ?ano?nia iiaa?oiinoiiai noiea.
Iiyoiio e ia aeeeoaeueioth ia?niaeoeao iiaecaiiua aiaeu nio?aiyo
cia/aiea aeey niaaaeaiey aiaeie noiee/iiai ?aeiia Iaeneee. Iiiaea
caeaiey e ?acee/iua o?ainii?oiua nii?oaeaiey ec-ca iioneaiey oa??eoi?ee
iaoiaeyony iiae oa?icie ?ac?ooaiey. Ae?aie?iaaiea oa??eoi?ee ia ianoa
inooaiiuo ica? aucuaaao /anoua iueueiua ao?e. Aaeaaiaeii ioia/aaony aei
7 oaeeo ao?ue, iniaaiii a nooia a?aiy aiaea. A noiee/iii ?aeiia Iaeneee
a iaiaeie noaiaie ec-ca oooaeoaiey oneiaee yeieiaee e ea/anoaa
ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu ioia/aaony ?ino caaieaaaaiinoe ?aeii. ?acee/iui
aeea?ae/aneei caaieaaaieyi iiaeaa?aeaia 1/7 /anoue ianaeaiey Iaoeei.

A Eaeueeoooa – aaeeinoaaiiii a Eiaeee e?oiiii ?a/iii ii?oiaii eiiieaena-
ioia/aaony ia?ooaiea eeoieiae/aneie no?oeoo?u. Oaeay aea i?e/eia
i?aiyonoaoao ?acaeoeth Aaieiea, aaea oaeaea iaaethaeaaony iioneaiea
oa??eoi?ee ec-ca ia?anoathuaai eniieueciaaiey iiaecaiiuo aiae i?e
iaaeaaiiieo/iie aeae?iaaieiae/aneie neooaoeee. Iioneaiea oa??eoi?ee a
yoii e?oiiaeoai i?iiuoeaiiii oeaio?a THai-Ainoi/iie Acee oneeeaaao
iianiinoue iionoioeoaeueiuo iaaiaeiaiee.

Oooaeoaiea ea/anoaa aicaeooiiai aannaeia e?oiiuo ai?iaeia a
?acaeaathueony no?aiao naycaii n iia?aaeathueie, ioiineoaeueii ?inoa
ianaeaiey e i?iiuoeaiiinoe, oaiiaie i?iecaiaenoaa e iio?aaeaiey yia?aee.
Iniiaie ?acaeoey yeaeo?iyia?aaoeee a ?acaeaathueony no?aiao noaei
no?ieoaeuenoai oaieiauo yeaeo?inoaioeee, eae i?aaeei, aac aei?iainoiyueo
ono?ienoa ii caueoa ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu. A Oaeeaiaea, iai?eia?,
iio?aaeaiea yeaeo?iyia?aee oaeaaeaaaony eaaeaeua 5-6 eao. A A?aceeee ii
i?iaiico ca 1970-2010 aiaeu ianaeaiea au?anoao a 2,3 ?aca, a iio?aaeaiea
ia?ae/iuo enoi/ieeia yia?aee a 13,8 ?ac. Ii e i?e yoii aa iio?aaeaiea ia
aeooo ianaeaiey ninoaaeo 31% io o?iaiy NOA.

Iauai oaa?aeuo iooiaeia a ai?iaeao ?acaeaathueony no?ai a n?aaeiai ia 1
aeeoaey a 3-4 ?aca iaiueoa, /ai a eiaeono?eaeueiuo no?aiao. I?iaeaiu
nai?a, o?aiaiey, o?ainii?oe?iaee e ooeeecaoeee oaa?aeuo iooiaeia
i?aaenoaaeytho iaiaeua o?oaeiinoe e aeey ai?iaeia a no?aiao aunieiai
o?iaiy ?acaeoey. Ii aeey oeaio?ia a ?acaeaathueony no?aiao, iiiaea ec
eioi?uo e oiio aea ?aniieiaeaiu a o?iieeao n iiauoaiiuie iieacaoaeyie
oaiia?aoo?u e aeaaeiinoe, yoe i?iaeaiu iniaaiii neiaeiu ec-ca ieceiai
o?iaiy oaoie/aneie iniauaiiinoe ai?iaeneiai oicyenoaa.

A Ao?eea eeoue aei 1/3 ai?iaeneiai ianaeaiey ianeoaeeaathony
eiiioiaeueiuie neoaeaaie ii nai?o oaa?aeuo iooiaeia. Yoi oai noaei
aaaeiui oaeoi?ii ianoaaeeueiinoe ninoiyiey caei?iauey ai?iaeai.
Neaainoue i?aaieciaaiiie i/enoee ai?iaeneeo oa??eoi?ee a ai?iaeao
?acaeaathueony no?ai aucuaaao cani?aiea e auaiaeeo ec no?iy e aac oiai
iaaeinoaoi/iua ae?aiaaeiua ono?ienoaa. Yoi ineiaeiyao aiaeiniaaaeaiea e
na?in noi/iuo aiae.

A iaeioi?uo ?acaeaathueony no?aiao iaeiieai ii?aaeaeaiiue iiuo ii nai?o,
o?aiaieth e eniieueciaaieth oaa?aeuo iooiaeia. Yoi, i?aaeaea anaai,
ioiineony e Einoa-?eea. Ii yoi eeoue aaeeie/iua i?eia?u. Aeaaea a
iaeaieaa yeiiiie/anee ?acaeoie aaeiia?aoeee “o?aoueaai ie?a” Nai-Iaoeo
(e?oiiaeoee ai?iae THaeiiai iieooa?ey) iao aeinoaoi/iuo ieiuaaeae aeey
o?aiaiey e ooeeecaoeee oaa?aeuo iooiaeia. A iaeiaiaa ?acaeoii ?aeiia
A?aceeee – ia Naaa?i-Ainoiea aieueoeinoai ioieoeeiee ia eiatho n?aaenoa
aeey i?aaiecaoeee nai?a oaa?aeuo iooiaeia. E yoi i?ienoiaeeo a no?aia,
aoiaeyuae a /enei ainoaea?noa ie?a n iaeaieueoei iauaiii i?iiuoeaiiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa.

Yeieiae/aneia ninoiyiea aicaeooiiai aannaeia a e?oiiuo ai?iaeao a
?acaeaathueony no?aiao noaei oa?iaeathuei. A noiee/iii ?aeiia Iaeaecee
(a iaaeaeo oai yoi iaeia ec iaeaieaa ?acaeouo no?ai “o?aoueaai ie?a”) a
80-a aiaeu ea/anoai ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu a ai?iaeao auei a 2-3 ?aca
ieaea, /ai a NOA. A Eaeueeoooa ia iaiaa 3/5 ianaeaiey no?aaeaao io
caaieaaaiee aeuoaoaeueiuo iooae.

Nouanoaoao e aaaeiua aaia?aoe/aneea oaeoi?u, aeeythuea ia ninoiyiea
ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu a ai?iaeao ?acaeaathueony no?ai. Yoi, a /anoiinoe,
niiniaiinoue aoiinoa?u ?acaaaeyoue iinooiathuea a iaa caa?yciythuea
aauanoaa a caaeneiinoe io iaoai?ieiae/aneeo oneiaee ia ?acee/iuo
oe?ioao. A o?iieeao, aaea ?aniieiaeaii aieueoeinoai ?acaeaathueony
no?ai, niiniaiinoue aoiinoa?u e aini?eyoeth e ?acaaaeaieth iinooiathueo
a iaa caa?yciythueo aauanoa i?eia?ii a 3 ?aca ieaea, /ai a n?aaeieo
oe?ioao a Caiaaeiie Aa?iia.

Enneaaeiaaiey, i?iaaaeaiiua a ?yaea ?acaeaathueony no?ai, iieacaee
iaee/ea a aoiinoa?a eo e?oiiaeoeo ai?iaeia iniai iianiuo eiioeaio?aoeee
caa?ycieoaeae. Oaeie auaiae i?eiaieoaeueii e 18 e?oiiaeoei oeaio?ai
Eaoeineie Aia?eee naeaeai Iaiaia?eeaineie i?aaiecaoeeae
cae?aaiio?aiaiey. A e?oiiaeoeo ai?iaeao aunieay, a ia?aaeei, e iianiay
noaiaiue caa?yciaiey aicaeooiiai aannaeia, a ecaanoiie noaiaie,
iaoneiaeaia aanueia cia/eoaeueiie eiioeaio?aoeeae i?iiuoeaiiinoe. A
aieueoeinoaa oeaio?ia “iaeueia ia?aainoaa” a caa?yciaiee aoiinoa?u
i?eiaaeeaaeeo aaoiiiaeeueiiio o?ainii?oo. A Ea?aeana , iai?eia?, ia iaai
i?eoiaeeony i?eia?ii 4/5 iauaai iauaia caa?yciaiey aicaeooiiai aannaeia.

Aua?inu ieene oaea?iaea i?eaiaeyo e ianniaui io?aaeaieyi, /oi
nii?iaiaeaeaaony iaaeaieai niaea?aeaiey aaiiaeiaeia a e?iae e
oooaeoaieai niaaaeaiey oeaiae i?aaiecia eenei?iaeii. Iianiinoue aeey
caei?iauey ai?iaeneiai ianaeaiey oaaee/eaaaony e iioiio, /oi ec
eiaeono?eaeueiuo no?ai a ?aaeii “o?aoueaai ie?a” ia?aiauathony e?oiiua
iiuiinoe oeie/aneie i?iiuoeaiiinoe e /a?iie iaoaeeo?aee. I?e yoii
ia?aaeei e?oiiua i?iecaiaenoaaiiua eiiieaenu a yoeo io?aneyo, iniaaiii
nii?oaeaaiua o?ainiaoeeiiaeueiuie ei?ii?aoeeyie, aeey oaeaoaaeaiey
i?iaeoia ia ?aniieaaatho nia?aiaiiuie e aei?iainoiyueie i/enoiuie
nii?oaeaieyie.

Ia ninoiyiea ie?oaeathuae i?e?iaeiie n?aaeu iaiaeiaaaeiia aicaeaenoaea
ieacuaaao ono?ienoai iiaa?oiinoe a ?aeiiao eo ?aniieiaeaiey. Yoi, a
/anoiinoe, iieacuaatho i?eia?u ?yaea e?oiiuo oeaio?ia a Eaoeineie
Aia?eea. Iiiaea ec ieo ?aniieiaeaiu auniei a ai?ao. Iie ie?oaeaiu
ai?iuie oeaiyie, /oi cao?oaeiyao anoanoaaiioth aaioeeyoeeth aicaeooiiai
aannaeia e auiin caa?yciythueo aauanoa. E oiio aea a aunieiai?iuo
aaeiia?aoeeyo, aaea nin?aaeioi/aia cia/eoaeueiay /anoue ianaeaiey
Iaeneee, Oeaio?aeueiie Aia?eee e aiaeneeo no?ai, ec-ca ?ac?aaeaiiinoe
aicaeooa i?ienoiaeeo iaiieiia nai?aiea oiieeaa. Ii yoie i?e/eia, ii
n?aaiaieth n ?aaieiiuie ai?iaeaie, aua?inu a aoiinoa?o oaaee/eaathony:
ieene oaea?iaea ia 60%, ieeneia acioa ia 50%. Aeey noieeoeu Iaeneee
ianoiyuei aaaenoaeai noae iaooaoeie/aneee “niia” – nooie noaethueeny e
aeuiiue ooiai. “Niia” ia?aaeei aeeeony ii ianeieueei aeiae e iaiineo
ia?iiiue a?aae caei?iaueth ianaeaiey iaeneeaineiai noiee/iiai ?aeiia.

Aunieay noaiaiue caa?yciaiiinoe aicaeooiiai aannaeia e enoi/ieeia
aiaeiniaaaeaiey, ia?aaoee?oaiia ?acaeoea i?iiuoeaiiinoe e
aaoiiiaeeueiiai o?ainii?oa niinianoaotho ?ani?ino?aiaieth
na?aea/ii-ninoaeenouo, eaioea?iaaiiuo caaieaaaiee, aieaciae nenoai
aeuoaiey, eioaeoeeiiiuo, eeoa/ii-aeaeoaei/iuo, a oaeaea ?yae ae?oaeo
na?ueaciuo ia?ooaiee caei?iauey aieueoeo a?oii ianaeaiey.

Ia yeieiae/aneia ninoiyiea ai?iaeia a ?acaeaathueony no?aiao aeeyao
neaainoue aiaeiiai oicyenoaa e ia?aie/aiiinoue aiaeiniaaaeaiey.
Oa?aeoa?ii, /oi a aieueoeinoaa ec ieo iio?aaeaiea aiaeu ia 1 aeeoaey
eeoue ianeieueei auoa aeieiae/anee iaiaoiaeeiiai o?iaiy. I?e yoii
ea/anoai aiaeu, eae i?aaeei, ia niioaaonoaoao iaaeaeoia?iaeiui
noaiaea?oai. Yoi, ia?aaeei, oa?aeoa?ii e aeey ?aeiiia, iaeaaeathueo
cia/eoaeueiuie aiaeiuie ?ano?naie. Aeaaea a Eaoeineie Aia?eea, aaea
aiaeiia oicyenoai iaoiaeeony ia aieaa aunieii o?iaia ii n?aaiaieth n
ae?oaeie ?aaeiiaie ?acaeaathueony no?ai, eeoue i?eia?ii 2/3 ai?iaeneiai
ianaeaiey iaania/aiu aiaeie ec niaoeeaeueiuo naoae. Ii ea/anoai aiaeu
/anoi iaaunieia ec-ca ?acee/iuo caa?yciaiee.

Iiiaea e?oiiua ai?iaea “o?aoueaai ie?a” no?aaeatho io nenoaiaoe/aneeo
iaaiaeiaiee e ioaeaeathony a no?ieoaeuenoaa aeae?ioaoie/aneeo
nii?oaeaiee. Iaaiaeee e ioeuenaoeee iinooieaiey acaaoaiiuo iaiinia a
o?aaiece?iaaiiuo ?aeiiao iaiinyo aieueoie oua?a oicyenoao. Iai?eia?, a
?aeiia Iaieeu, aaea inouanoaeythony aeiaieueii cia/eoaeueiua
aeae?ioaoie/aneea ?aaiou e a ?aaeeona 50 ei cai?auaii no?ieoaeuenoai
i?aaei?eyoee, aucuaathueo neeueiia caa?yciaiea, ea/anoai iiaa?oiinoiiai
noiea iaoaeiaeaoai?eoaeueii. Aeaaiay i?e/eia – nione noi/iuo aiae e
auaiae ec no?iy ?yaea ae?aiaaeiuo nenoai ia oa??eoi?ee Aieueoie Iaieeu.
A ?aeiia Eoaea-Eoiio? noie acaaoaiiuo iaiinia ai a?aiy aeiaeaeaauo
iaaiaeeia noae na?ueaciie iiiaoie aeey eniieueciaaiey aiaeiuo ?ano?nia.
I?e yoii iooiinoue aiaeu io aa?oiaueaa e caiueathuaio noai?o ?acei
aic?anoaao aeaaiaea?y iinooieaieth iaiinia ec ?a/iuo i?eoieia a
o?aaiece?iaaiiii a?aaea.

Iaaeinoaoi/iinoue aiaeiiai oicyenoaa ieacuaaao iaaeaaii?eyoiia
aicaeaenoaea ia ooieoeeiie?iaaiea oi?ie?othueony i?iiuoeaiiuo ?aeiiia.
Iiiaea ec ieo oyaioatho e ?a/iui nenoaiai. Iaeei ec oaeeo i?eia?ia –
aannaei ?aee Aeaiiaea? a Eiaeee. A ia?eiae ionniiia i?e caiieiaiee
iaaiaeeiauie aiaeaie aeaenoaothueo aiaeio?aieeeu ecauoie aiaeu nioneatho
a ?aeo. A nooie nacii iao i?eoiea aiaeu e a ?acoeueoaoa ieioie
naiii/enoee i?iiuoeaiiuo na?inia ?acei oaaee/eaaaony caa?yciaiea noiea.
I?eoiaeeony eniieueciaaoue aeiiieieoaeueiua iauaiu aeaoeoeeoiie aiaeu
aeey ?acaaaeaiey caa?ycieoaeae e i/enoee ?onea a naieoa?iuo oeaeyo.

Aeiaieueii oeie/ai e i?eia? E?aea. Aei iaaeaaiaai a?aiaie i/enoiua
nii?oaeaiey a yoie no?aia eiaeenue oieueei a Aaaaeaaea. A ?acoeueoaoa
nionea ia?iiiiai iauaia iai/euaiiuo noieia ia oa??eoi?ee Aaaaeaaeneie
aaeiia?aoeee a ieaeiai oa/aiee Ao?aoa ?a/iay aiaea i?aeoe/anee
iai?eaiaeia ie aeey ianaeaiey, ie aeey i?iiuoeaiiiai eniieueciaaiey.

Enneaaeiaaiea, i?iaaaeaiiia a 1980 a. a Ieea?aaoa, onoaiiaeei, /oi a
?acoeueoaoa iaeiio?iee?oaiiai na?ina ?oooe i?aaei?eyoeai eiiiaiee NOA,
?acei oooaeoeeenue oneiaey aiaeiniaaaeaiey noieeoeu e ica?iiai
?uaieianoaa. Ia yoii i?aaei?eyoee aua?inu ?oooe a aoiinoa?o a 12 ?ac
i?aauoaee i?eiyoua a NOA noaiaea?ou. O aieaa /ai 1/3 ?aaioieeia yoiai
i?aaei?eyoey ioia/aeinue ca?aaeaiea ?oooueth.

I?iaaaeaiiua a Oaicaiee a 80-a aiaeu enneaaeiaaiey iea?aoeeiiiuo iioieia
ec naeueneie ianoiinoe a iaaieueoea ai?iaea iieacaee, /oi iiiaea iiaua
ai?iaeaia caieiathony naeueneei oicyenoaii e i?aeoeeotho
iiaena/ii-iaiaaia caieaaeaeea. Yoi aaaeao e aeaa?aaeaoeee ii/aaiiiai
iie?iaa e ?inoo y?icee ec-ca naaaeaiey eaniuo o/anoeia. Ia?anaeaioeu
oaeaea aeiauaatho ae?aaaniia oiieeai e i?iecaiaeyo ae?aaaniue oaieue
aeey ioaeae ai?iaeneiai ianaeaiey. Yoi aaaeao e oiaiueoaieth
eaniiie?uoie ieiuaaee e oooaeoaieth ie?oaeathuae i?e?iaeiie n?aaeu a
ciiao aeeyiey ai?iaeia e ia cia/eoaeueiuo ?annoiyieyo io ieo.

Ai anao ?acaeaathueony no?aiao, eiathueo auoiae e ii?th, ioia/aaony
?anoouay ia?ooaiiinoue i?ea?aaeiuo yeinenoai. Yoi, n?aaee i?i/eo i?e/ei,
aucaaii nin?aaeioi/aieai iiiaeo e?oiiaeoeo oeaio?ia n eo ?anoouei
ianaeaieai e cia/eoaeueiui i?iiuoeaiiui iioaioeeaeii a i?ea?aaeiie ciia.
Iai?eia?, a A?aceeee ia iaiaa 2/3 i?iiuoeaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa
nin?aaeioi/aii a o?aonioeeeiiao?iaie i?eieaaineie iieina. Oai aea
?aniieiaeaiu 13 ec 15 ai?iaeia – “ieeeeiia?ia” no?aiu. ?ac?ooaiea
yeinenoai aa?uea?iie i?ea?aaeiie ciiu oooaeoaao yeieiae/aneea oneiaey
eae iiaa?aaeee a ?acaeaathueony no?aiao, oae e i?eeaaathueo aeaaoi?ee.

I?iaeaiu e?oiiaeoeo oeaio?ia a a?oiia ?acaeaathueony no?ai aeinoaoi/ii
?ai?acaioaoeaii io?aaeatho aeaiiua ii aaeiia?aoeee Eaaina – noieeoeu
e?oiiaeoaai ao?eeaineiai ainoaea?noaa Ieaa?ee. Ia noiee/iue ?aeii yoie
no?aiu i?eoiaeeony nauoa 60% aa i?iiuoeaiiuo e oi?aiauo i?aaei?eyoee,
90% aiaoiaoi?aiaiai iai?ioa (a oii /enea Eaain “iiaeiuaao” 80% eiii?oa).
Yoe iieacaoaee io?aaeatho oeie/ioth aeey aieueoeinoaa ?acaeaathueony
no?ai ea?oeio oa??eoi?eaeueiie eiioeaio?aoeee yeiiiie/aneie iiue. Ii
aeaiiui Ie?iaiai Aaiea a 1985 a. eeoue 47% ianaeaiey Eaaina
iaania/eaaeenue ea/anoaaiiie ieoueaaie aiaeie. Ai?iae eniuouaaao
aieueoea o?oaeiinoe a i?aaiecaoeee aiaeiniaaaeaiey. Nai? oaa?aeiai
ioni?a aeinoea a 1990 a. 3,8 iei. oiii, ii, ii e?aeiae ia?a, 1/3
ianaeaiey ia iaania/aia nenoaiaie aai nai?a. A eaaoia onoueaaie ciiu ia
ieiuaaee a 80 ea.ei na?anuaathony oaa?aeua e aeeaeeea iooiaeu. Yoi
iaiineo cia/eoaeueiue a?aae yeinenoaiai, oaaee/eaaao iianiinoue
caa?yciaiey aoiinoa?u, iiaa?oiinoiiai noiea e iiaecaiiuo aiae.

I/aiue aaaeiui ianoiyoaeuenoaii, aicaeaenoaothuei ia yeieiae/aneia
ninoiyiea iaoe?iuo oa??eoi?ee e aeaaoi?ee ca i?aaeaeaie e?oiiuo
aaeiia?aoeee, neaaeoao n/eoaoue ia?aiin eo caa?yciaiee. A ?acaeaathueony
no?aiao ia?aaeee neo/ae iaaeaaii?eyoiiai yeieiae/aneiai aicaeaenoaey
e?oiiaeoeo oeaio?ia ia ie?oaeathuoth i?e?iaeioth n?aaeo i?e ana
oaaee/eaathueony ?aaeeonao oaeiai aicaeaenoaey. Iai?eia?, neaaeu
caa?yciaiey aicaeooiiai aannaeia aaeiia?aoeee Nai-Iaoeo iaia?oaeeaathony
e a aeaeaei io iaai ionoiyueo ?a/iuo nenoaiao ai aioo?aiieo ?aaeiiao
A?aceeee, e iaae Aoeaoe/aneei ieaaiii.

A ai?iaeao iiiaeo ?acaeaathueony no?ai ?anoiaeu ia cae?aaiio?aiaiea
ninoaaeytho a n?aaeiai iaiaa 10 aeiee. a aiae ia /aeaaaea. Yoi ia aeaao
aiciiaeiinoue nicaeaoue yooaeoeaioth nenoaio iaaeeoeeineiai
ianeoaeeaaiey, iniaaiii a ie?aeiiuo ciiao, nin?aaeioi/aiey
ia?aeiaeueiiai ianaeaiey. Oai iaeaieaa aieaciaiii i?iyaeythony
iineaaenoaey yeieiae/aneiai iaaeaaiiieo/ey, iaiin?aaenoaaiii
aicaeaenoaothuaai ia caei?iauea ianaeaiey.

Iaaeeei-naieoa?iia ninoiyiea ai?iaeia “o?aoueaai ie?a” ia
oaeiaeaoai?eoaeueii. Yoi i?eiaieii aeaaea e iaeaieaa ?acaeoui no?aiai
yoie a?oiiu. Ec-ca iaoaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiiai naieoa?iiai ninoiyiey
ai?iaeia a A?aceeee /enei caaieaaoeo iaey?eae oai oaaee/eeinue ni 197
oun. a 1981 a. aei 378 oun. a 1984 a. Ioia/aiu neo/ae oiea?u a Eeia e a
?yaea ae?oaeo ai?iaeia.

A ?acaeaathueony no?aiao iinoaiaiii ?anoao iiieiaiea iniaie aaaeiinoe e
i?ei?eoaoiinoe i?iaeai io?aiu e oeo/oaiey ie?oaeathuae i?e?iaeiie
n?aaeu, a oii /enea a ai?iaeao. Yoi yaeaiea ioiineoaeueii iiaia.
Eioa?anii, /oi a eiie?aoiii nioeeaeueii-aaia?aoe/aneii enneaaeiaaiee
aini?eyoey i?iaeai ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu ?acee/iuie a?oiiaie ianaeaiey a
1974 a. a 6 ai?iaeao a i?iiuoeaiiii ?aeiia *ioaiaaio? a Eiaeee auei
auyaeaii iiieiaiea oaeoa caa?yciaiey ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu a ai?iaeao. Ii
iii ia nii?iaiaeaeaeinue icaai/aiiinoueth, iioiio /oi iniiaiay ianna
ethaeae ana aua ioaeaao i?aaeii/oaiea aieaa ianouiui iianaaeiaaiui
yeiiiie/aneei e nioeeaeueiui i?iaeaiai, ii?iaeaeaiiui ieuaoie, a ia
ea/anoao ie?oaeathuae i?e?iaeiie n?aaeu.

Ia?aie/aiiua aiciiaeiinoe onoie/eaiai ?acaeoey

?acaeaathueany no?aiu ?aniieaaatho aanueia ia?aie/aiiuie oeiainiauie e
oaoie/aneeie aiciiaeiinoyie aeey i?iaaaeaiey yooaeoeaiie iieeoeee
onoie/eaiai ?acaeoey. Yoi ia aeaao aiciiaeiinoue aieaa yeieiae/anee
iieiioeaiii eniieueciaaoue i?iiuoeaiiue iioaioeeae e?oiiaeoeo oeaio?ia a
?acaeaathueony no?aiao. E oiio aea nouanoaoao ia?aie/aiiinoue
eiaanoeoeeiiiuo ?ano?nia aeey nicaeaiey niioaaonoaothuae “yeieiae/aneie
eio?ano?oeoo?u”.

Ionoaeinoue e aaaeiinoue ia iiaoo nicaeaoue onoie/eaiai ?acaeoey.
Ecaanoiue niaoeeaeeno ii i?iaeaiai ai?iaeia ?acaeaathueony no?ai Aeai
Aeaeeeaa?o ioia/aao nouanoaiaaiea a ieo “e?eceniie aaaeiinoe”. Ia
n?aaeian?i/ioth e, iniaaiii, ia aeieain?i/ioth ia?niaeoeao anoue
iniiaaiea i?iaiice?iaaoue iaino?aiea yeieiae/aneie ianoaiiaee a ai?iaeao
?acaeaathueony no?aiao e aic?anoaiea eo “aeeaaea” a aeiaaeueiia
caa?yciaiea.

A yoii ioiioaiee eioa?ania i?iaiiciay oaaeeoea 1. Iia iieacuaaao, /oi a
noieaoiee ia?eiae iaaeaeo na?aaeeiie 70-o aiaeia XX a. e 2075 a.
i?aeoe/anee aanue i?e?ino iio?aaiinoe a yia?aee aeano Acey (i?aaeaea
anaai iaiaa ?acaeoua aceaoneea ainoaea?noaa), a oaeaea Ao?eea e
Eaoeineay Aia?eea. A Aa?iia (ca i?aaeaeaie NIA) iio?aaiinoe a yia?aee ia
i?ioyaeaiee noieaoey aoaeoo i?aeoe/anee ia iaeiii o?iaia, a a Naaa?iie
Aia?eea aeaaea niecyony. Yoi i?iecieaeao a ?acoeueoaoa aiaae?aiey
iiaaeoeo yia?ainaa?aaathueo oaoiieiaee, /oi, ianiiiaiii, aeaaii?eyoii
neaaeaony ia ninoiyiee ai?iaeneie i?e?iaeiie n?aaeu. A Ao?eea aea ca
yoio ia?eiae iio?aaiinoe a yia?aee oaaee/aony a 45 ?ac, a a Eaoeineie
Aia?eea a 9 ?ac, /oi iiaeao iaaeaaii?eyoii iiaeeyoue ia ea/anoai
yeieiaee ai iiiaeo ai?iaeao.

Oa??eoi?eaeueiia ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiea iio?aaiinoe a yia?aee nicaeaao
i?aaeiinueee aeey aeaeueiaeoaai oneiaeiaiey yeieiae/aneeo i?iaeai a ciia
“o?aoueaai ie?a”. I?aaeaea anaai, yoi ioiineoueny e o?aaiece?othueiny e
eiaeono?eaeece?othueiny ?aeiiai ?acaeaathueony no?ai.

A aieueoeinoaa ?acaeaathueony no?ai oai?ey, i?aeoeea e
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai, eiathuea oeaeueth ?aaoee?iaaiea ?inoa e ?acaeoey
ai?iaeia, i?aaiecaoeeth eo oa??eoi?ee e oeo/oaiea n?aaeu iaeoaiey,
i?eiaiythony a ia?aie/aiiii ianooaaa e iaaeinoaoi/ii yooaeoeaiu. Aeaaea
a Iaeneea – iaeiie ec iaeaieaa ?acaeouo e eeaee?othueo no?ai “o?aoueaai
ie?a” – ?anniio?aiea caeiiiaeaoaeueiuo aeoia, a eaeie-oi noaiaie
?aaoee?othueo a?aaeino?ieoaeueiua i?ioeannu, i?iecioei eeoue a 1975 a.
Caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai i?aaeoniao?eaaao ia?u, iai?aaeaiiua ia oeo/oaiea
eniieueciaaiey ai?iaeneeo oa??eoi?ee e eo ciie?iaaiea, a oaeaea
ninoiyiey ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu. I?e yoii aeaeaei ia a iieiie ia?a
o/eouaathony nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneea iniaaiiinoe ?acee/iuo (iniaaiii
ieciauo) iieeoeei-aaeieieno?aoeaiuo aaeeieoe.

Iiiai/eneaiiua i?iaeou ?aeiino?oeoeee noieeoe e ae?oaeo e?oiiuo ai?iaeia
a ?acaeaathueony no?aiao ia i?eiinyo iuooeiuo ?acoeueoaoia. A ?yaea ec
ieo ai?iaea-niooieee, a oaeaea iaeioi?ua aeecei ?aniieiaeaiiua ai?iaea
?anniao?eaathony ieaie?iaueeaie eae “i?ioeaiaanu” aeia?o?ioe?iaaiiiio
?inoo e?oiiaeoeo ai?iaeia, eae eino?oiaio eo “?aca?ocee” e niya/aiey a
ieo oa?iaeathuaai ninoiyiey ie?oaeathuae i?e?iaeiie n?aaeu.

I?ineaaeeaaaony ii?aaeaeaiiay naycue iaaeaeo ainoaea?noaaiiie iieeoeeie
a iaeanoe io?aiu ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu e ?acia?aie n?aaeieo aeioiaeia ia
aeooo ianaeaiey. I?e iieacaoaea iaiaa 200 aeiee. ia aeooo ianaeaiey
i?aeoe/anee ia i?iaiaeeony ieeaeie iieeoeee io?aiu ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu.
I?e aeioiaea a 200-1000 aeiee. a neo/aa aicieeiiaaiey ino?uo eiioeeeoiuo
neooaoeee iaaeaeo ninoiyieai ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu e ?acee/iuie
yeiiiie/aneeie neooaoeeyie, i?aaeii/oaiea ioaeaaony iineaaeiei.

A ?acaeaathueony no?aiao aeeeoaeueiia a?aiy eaeao iieaieea i niioiioaiee
yeiiiie/aneeo e yeieiae/aneeo iiaeoiaeia e e?eoa?eaa e ?aoaieth
eeth/aauo nioeeaeueiuo i?iaeai i?aiaeieaiey oicyenoaaiiie ionoaeinoe.
Aeaeiue ieaa?eeneee o/aiue A.Iaaiaoiaeaea aua a 70-a aiaeu ioia/ae, /oi
ia?aae ?acaeaathueieny no?aiaie noieo caaea/a o?ainoi?iaoeee
yeiiiie/aneie no?oeoo?u (a oii /enea, e a oa??eoi?eaeueiii ?ac?aca),
oianeaaeiaaiiie io eieiieaeueiiai ia?eiaea. Ii eiinoaoe?iaae, /oi i?e
iaeioi?uo iiceoeaiuo naeaeaao, aucuaaaiuo eiaeono?eaeecaoeeae, ana aea
i?ienoiaeeo ia?anoathuay oa??eoi?eaeueiay eiioeaio?aoeey i?iiuoeaiiinoe
a iaiiiaeo aaaeoueo oeaio?ao, /oi aeeyao e ia eo yeieiae/aneia
iieiaeaiea.

A ?yaea ?acaeaathueony no?ai (Eiaeey, A?aceeey, Iaeneea e iaeioi?ua
ae?oaea) iaeiieai iieiaeeoaeueiue iiuo oa??eoi?eaeueiie
aeaoeaio?aeecaoeee i?iiuoeaiiinoe. I?e yoii i?aneaaeothony oeaee
oeo/oaiey ninoiyiey ie?oaeathuae i?e?iaeiie n?aaeu. A Iaeneea, iai?eia?,
iiaua i?iiuoeaiiua i?aaei?eyoey e eiaeono?eaeueiua oeaio?u,
nicaeathueany a iaiin?aaenoaaiiie aeecinoe io noiee/iiai ?aeiia,
i?ecaaiu, a oie eee eiie noaiaie, iaeaa/eoue aai iaaeaaii?eyoiua
yeieiae/aneea oneiaey.

Ii ?aaeecaoeey iiiaeo i?iaeoia oeo/oaiey yeieiae/aneeo neooaoeee a
e?oiiaeoeo ai?iaeao ?acaeaathueony no?ai /aua anaai ia iiaeao
caaa?oeoueny oniaoii. Iieacaoaeai i?eia? iiaie noieeoeu A?aceeee,
ooieoeeiie?othuae iinea 1960 a. AEeciue ii?ieeioea ana caeiaeaiiua a
i?iaeo ii?iaoeau. A a?aceeueneie noieeoea /eneaiiinoue ianaeaiey
iiiaie?aoii i?aacioea i?iaeoiua ?an/aou. Aicieeee iiaua a?aaeu
iaoii?yaei/aiiie a?aiaiiie cano?ieee. Noieeoea eniuouaaao na?ueaciua
o?oaeiinoe a niaaaeaiee i?iaeiaieuenoaeai, yeaeo?iyia?aeae, aiaeie. I?e
yoii i?ienoiaeeo oooaeoaiea ea/anoaa aiaeu e ?ae?aaoeeiiiuo
aiciiaeiinoae ianaeaiey ec-ca caa?yciaiey aiaeio?aieeeu. Ia
niioaaonoaotho noaiaea?oai e ?yae ae?oaeo eiiiiiaioia ai?iaeneie
i?e?iaeiie n?aaeu.

A na?aaeeia 90-o aiaeia a a?aceeueneie noieeoea i?iaeeaaei nauoa 1,8
iei. /aeiaae (a 1957 a. auei iaiaa 7 oun. aeeoaeae). Aaeiia?aoeey
ian/eouaaao 11 ai?iaeia-niooieeia. Aaeaaiaeii a n?aaeiai a A?aceeee
i?eauaaao ia iaiaa 30 oun. iea?aioia.

A ?acaeaathueony no?aiao ana aieaa io/aoeeai iiieiatho yaioth
ia?aie/aiiinoue /enoi oaoiie?aoe/aneeo iiaeoiaeia i?e enneaaeiaaiee e
?aoaiee i?iaeai ai?iaeia e eo ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu. Ana aieaa oe?iei
?ani?ino?aiyaony i?aaenoaaeaiea i iaiaoiaeeiinoe ei?aiiuo
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeo i?aia?aciaaiee. Ia eo iniiaa iiaoo auoue
iinoaiaiii e iiyoaiii ?aoaiu aeeciaiii aaaeiua i?iaeaiu
ia?iaeiianaeaiey, ia?aaoee?oaiie o?aaiecaoeee e ninoiyiey ie?oaeathuae
ai?iaeneie n?aaeu a oneiaeyo “ai?iaeneiai ac?uaa”.

O?AAIECAOeEss – I?IOeANNU E
?ACOEUeOAOU ( 2 *ANOUe )

Nouiinoue o?aaiecaoeee

XX aae ni?aaaaeeeai iiaeao auoue iacaai aaeii o?aaiecaoeee. A 1900 a. a
ai?iaeao ie?a i?iaeeaaei 14% anaai ianaeaiey, ian/eouaaeinue 12 ai?iaeia
-“ieeeeiia?ia”. A eaioi XXI a. ai?iaeneei noaei 45% ie?iaiai ianaeaiey,
eiaaony i?eia?ii 2,4 oun. aieueoeo ai?iaeia (nauoa 100 oun.aeeoaeae
eaaeaeue) e nauoa 200 ai?iaeia – ieeeeiia?ia.

*aeiaa/anoai anooieei a XX a., oaea eiay i?aaenoaaeaiea i
a?aaeino?ieoaeueiii aoia, i oyainoiuo iineaaenoaeyo eiioeaio?aoeee
ianaeaiey a e?oiiuo ai?iaeao, ia eo iaoieiaee. Iiiaei eacaeinue, /oi
io/aoeeai i?iyaeaoeany iaaeinoaoee aieueoeo ai?iaeia ia inoaaeytho ei
oainia ia aoaeouaa. A.Aaaaeue aiai?ee i iaecaaaeiie a?yaeouae aeaaee
aieueoeo ai?iaeia. A. Oyeen i?iaiice?iaae eo en/aciiaaiea (eee, eae ii
au?aceeny, “?aniueaiea”).

Ia ?oaaaea aaeia a Aiaeee Y.Aiaa?ae aunooiee n eaeaae nicaeaiey
ai?iaeia-naaeia, eioi?ua aeieaeiu caiaieoue ia?aiaiaiiua iaaeinoaoeaie
nouanoaothuea ai?iaea. Yoa eaeay ieacaea caiaoiia aeeyiea ia iuoeaiea
a?aaeino?ieoaeae, ii iia ia niiaea ?aaeeciaaoueny.

A ia/aea 1960-o aiaeia a NOA, a caoai a ae?oaeo ?acaeouo no?aiao ia/aeny
eioaineaiue iooie ianaeaiey ec e?oiiuo ai?iaeia a ie?oaeathuea eo
i?eai?iaeiua ciiu. Auno?uie oaiiaie oi?ie?iaaeenue i?eai?iaeu. Yoio
i?ioeann, iieo/eaoee iaeiaiiaaiea noao?aaiecaoeee, i?eaae a NOA e oiio,
/oi /eneaiiinoue i?eai?iaeiiai ianaeaiey caiaoii i?aacioea /eneaiiinoue
ianaeaiey ai?iaeia. Yoi aeaei i?aai aia?eeaioeai cayaeoue: “Iu-iaoeey ia
oieueei ai?iaeneay, iu iaoeey – i?eai?iaeiay”. I?ioanni? E?aeia E?enoiee
ec Iueth-Ei?eneiai oieaa?neoaoa a oi a?aiy aunooiee ni noaoueae
“O?aaiecaoeey aac ai?iaeia”. Aioeo?aaienou niae?aeenue i?acaeiiaaoue
iiaaaeo. Iaeiaei i?eai?iaeiua ciiu, noaa aaaeiui ?aca?aii ?acaeoey
ai?iaeia e aeiiieiea eo, aiana ia oiaiueoeee eo cia/aiea. E?oiiua
oeaio?u inoaeenue oceaie oa??eoi?eaeueiie no?oeoo?u no?aiu, aeaaiuie
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeie oieonaie oa??eoi?ee, aaia?aoi?aie i?ia?anna.

A 1970-o aiaeao, oaeaea ia/eiay n NOA, a eiaeono?eaeueiuo no?aiao
i?iyaeeny i?ioeann, iieo/eaoee oeanoeia iacaaiea eiio?o?aaiecaoeee. Yoi
au?aceeinue a i?eoiea ianaeaiey ec e?oiiuo ai?iaeia a naeueneoth
ianoiinoue, a iaeua ai?iaea aeoaeiee. Noaoenoeea caoeene?iaaea yoi
yaeaiea aiieia /aoei. Iaeiaei e eiio?o?aaiecaoeey aneaaenoaea naieo
aanueia ne?iiiuo ianooaaia (e oiio aea aa noeioee?iaaee eiiuetheoo?iua
oaeoi?u) ia aianea neieue-ieaoaeue caiaoiuo eciaiaiee a oa?aeoa?
o?aaiecaoeee e ai?iaeneiai ?annaeaiey.

Ii iaeioi?ui oai?aoe/aneei iino?iaieyi iinea noaaeee eiioeaio?aoeee
ianaeaiey a ai?iaeao e eo ie?oaeaiee aeieaeia ianooieoue noaaeey
aeaco?aaiecaoeee. N/eoaeinue, /oi aieueoea ai?iaea ioaeaaeoo
nouanoaaiioth /anoue naiaai ianaeaiey naeueneie ianoiinoe e iaeui
ai?iaeai, a naie nie?aoyony a ?acia?ao. Eacaeinue au, ioia/aiiua auoa
yaeaiey eiio?o?aaiecaoeee yoi iiaeoaa?aeaeaee. Ii anei?a ia/aeny iiaue,
ia i?aaeoniio?aiiue aeoie o?aaiecaoeee. I?iecioei aica?auaiea
aeayoaeueiinoe e ianaeaiey a oeaio?u noa?uo ai?iaeia. Yoio i?ioeann,
i/aiue caiaoiue a ai?iaeao NOA, a oaeaea a Caiaaeiie Aa?iia iieo/ee
iacaaiea ?ao?aaiecaoeee. Ii ioia/aaony e a nia?aiaiiie ?innee (iai?eia?
aic?iaeaeaiea oeaio?aeueiie /anoe – “yae?a” Iineau).

Oaeei ia?acii, XX a. caeai/eaaaony ia aunieie o?aaienoe/aneie iioa ai
anao ?acaeouo no?aiao. *oi aea eanaaony o?aaiecaoeee ?acaeaathueony
no?ai, oi oai iaiiia?ii aunieee o?iaaiue oa??eoi?eaeueiie eiioeaio?aoeee
ianaeaiey e yeiiiieee a e?oiiuo ai?iaeao i?iaeieaeaao ia?anoaoue, oioy
oaea iiaeou ana iuneeiua e iaiuneeiua “?aei?aeu”.

Oiae o?aaiecaoeee a XX a. iieacuaaao neiaeiinoue yoiai i?ioeanna, aai
aieiiia?aciue oa?aeoa?, iiiaiia?acea oi?i. Ii a iniiaiie naiae nooe
o?aaiecaoeey – yoi enoi?e/aneee i?ioeann iiauoaiey ?iee ai?iaeia a
?acaeoee iauanoaa. Aoaeo/e aanueia iiiaiia?aciui, eiay nioeeaeueii-
yeiiiie/aneea, aeaiia?aoe/aneea, iieeoe/aneea, yoiieoeueoo?iua e
aaia?aoe/aneea ninoaaeythuea, yoio i?ioeann io?aaeaao e au?aaeaao
eciaiaiey a oa??eoi?eaeueiie i?aaiecaoeee aeecie iauanoaa, aai
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee, ?annaeaiey. Ii ?acaa?ouaaaony ia iniiaa
oaeoaeaiey iauanoaaiiiai ?acaeaeaiey o?oaea, a oii /enea
oa??eoi?eaeueiiai eee aaia?aoe/aneiai. A aieaa oceii iiieiaiee
o?aaiecaoeey – ?ino ai?iaeia, iniaaiii aieueoeo, iiauoaiea oaeaeueiiai
aana ai?iaeneiai ianaeaiey a no?aia. O?iaaiue ?acaeoey o?aaiecaoeee
iaicia/aaony oa?ieiii o?aaiece?iaaiiinoue e au?aaeaaony iieacaoaeyie
oaeaeueiiai aana ai?iaeneiai ianaeaiey, oaeaeueiiai aana
e?oiiiai?iaeneiai ianaeaiey, noaiaie ioaaoa oa??eoi?ee ciiaie
iaiin?aaenoaaiiiai aeeyiey e?oiiuo ai?iaeia.

O?aaiecaoeey – eioaa?aeueiue e aeiaaeueiue i?ioeann, i?eaiaeyuee a
aeaenoaea iiiaeanoaii ?aciiia?aciuo oaeoi?ia e eiathuee naith
au?aaeaiiinoue a aeaea ai?iaeia, iniaaiii e?oiiuo e ae?oaeo aieaa
neiaeiuo oi?i ai?iaeneiai ?annaeaiey. A?oeoaeoi? A.Ao?ia i?aaiia?ii
iacaae ai?iae “eioaa?aeii /aeiaa/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe”.

O?aaiecaoeey ioaaoeea ana no?aiu. Yoio i?ioeann a ?aciuo iauanoaaiiuo e
aaia?aoe/aneeo oneiaeyo i?iyaeyaony e a ?aciuo “aaia?aoe/aneeo
iaeaaeaeao”. I?e yoii iniiaiua caeiiiia?iinoe o?aaiecaoeee eiatho iauee
oa?aeoa?. A aa oiaea i?ienoiaeeo i?ioeann oi?ie?iaaiey ai?iaeneie n?aaeu
ni niaoeeoe/aneeie naienoaaie. Nouanoaoao iiaiai?ea: “/oi ie ai?iae, oi
ii?ia”.

A oiaea o?aaiecaoeee i?ienoiaeeo iineaaeiaaoaeueiia e iiiainoi?iiiaa
oneiaeiaiea ai?iaeia eae naiaia?aciuo nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeo
i?aaieciia e a?aaeino?ieoaeueiuo nenoai. Aic?anoaao ?ieue e cia/aiea
aieueoeo ai?iaeia, ec eo n?aaeu auaeaeythony e?oiiaeoea ai?iaea, aeaeaa
ai?iaea-ieeeeiia?u e iiiaiieeeeiiiua ai?iaea. I?e yoii aaaeii
iiae/a?eiooue ea/anoaaiiue oa?aeoa? eciaiaiee. Ai?iaea ia i?inoi
oaaee/eaathony a ?acia?ao, ii i?eia?aoatho aieaa aunieee o?iaaiue naiae
i?aaiecaoeee – ooieoeeiiaeueiie e ieaie?iai/iie; iaiyaony eo ianoi a
oa??eoi?eaeueiie i?aaiecaoeee iauanoaa. Oaeei ia?acii, aieueoie ai?iae
ia anoue oaaee/eaoeeny a ?acia?ao iaeue eee n?aaeiee. Ai?iaea a
i?ioeanna naiaai ?inoa (a ?ino iau/ii nii?iaiaeaeaao ?acaeoea) eae au
iiaeieiathony ii nooiaiyi ai?iaeneie ea?a?oee.

O?aaiecaoeey – i?ioeann i?ino?ainoaaiiue. Ii i?ienoiaeeo, ?acaeaaaony,
iaiyao oaiiu e iai?aaeaiey iiae neeueiui aicaeaenoaeai oa??eoi?eaeueii
aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiuo oaeoi?ia. Ai?iae – iauaeo, aeey aicieeiiaaiey e
oi?ie?iaaiey eioi?iai aaaeiaeoaa cia/aiea eiaao aaia?aoe/aneia eee
yeiiiieei-aaia?aoe/aneea iieiaeaiea. Aaia?aoe/aneia iieiaeaiea –
aaaeiaeoee ?ano?n ?acaeoey ai?iaea. Naie iacaaiey Aeaaeeeaaeaca e
Aeaaeeainoiea aiai?yo ia eo iniaii iieiaeaiee ii ioiioaieth e ?aaeiio.
Aeaoa?eiao?a – aeeaie ocae O?aea (Ae.I.Iaiei-Neae?ye), /oi e iicaieeei
aio noaoue ai aeaaa o?aeueneeo ai?iaeia. Oaiiiaiaeueiue ?ino e ?acaeoea
Iiaineae?nea (aiciee eae iinaeaiea a 1893a., noae ai?iaeii
Iiaiieeieaaaneii a 1903 a., /aoaa?oue aaea nionoy iaiaiae ii /eneo
aeeoaeae ana ai?iaea Neae?e e noae noieeoeae Neae?e). Iiaineae?ne ?in e
?acaeaaeny a niioaaonoaee n oaie aiciiaeiinoyie, eioi?ua i?aaeinoaaeei
aio aai auaeathuaany aaia?aoe/aneia iieiaeaiea (ia auoiaea ec Eocaanna,
aaeece oeaai?iaeiuo ?aeiiia a ocea aei?ia – ia O?ainneaa, o ia/aea
Oo?eneaa, ii Iae ia naaa?). Aaia?aoe/anee iniuneeoue ai?iae – cia/eo,
i?aaeaea anaai, ?acia?aoueny a aai yeiiiieei-aaia?aoe/aneii iieiaeaiee.

A.O?ain caiaoee: “Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a iiaeii auei nicaeaoue, aaea oaiaeii, a
Iineaa nicaeaea ?inneth”. Ecaanoii e?iie/aneia noaeaeaiea Ae.Aeeae?i i
Naieo-Iaoa?ao?aa: ?aniieaaaoue ia Oeineii caeeaa noieeoeo ia?iiiie
no?aiu ana ?aaii, /oi eiaoue na?aeoea a eii/eea ieceioea. Iaeiaei yoe
aaeeeea ethaee auee aeoaiei ia i?aau. Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a aiciee, iioiio /oi
aue ioaeai ?innee e eiaiii oai, aaea niia iaeeo/oei ia?acii auiieiyoue
naia i?aaeia/a?oaiea – auoue ia oieueei “ieiii a Aa?iio”, ii e
“aeaa?ueth a ?inneth”. Yoiio niinianoaiaaea naia eiioeao?aoeey naoe ?ae
e ica?, aeiiieiaiiay nenoaiie eaiaeia. I?e/ai ia?aay aiaeii-o?ainii?oiay
nenoaia (Auoiaaieioeeay) noaea nii?oaeaoueny iaeiia?aiaiii n ia/aeii
no?ieoaeuenoaa Naieo-Iaoa?ao?aa, oi anoue a ia/aea XVIII a.

Aceaou e iaaeaiey ai?iaeia, eioi?uie eciaeeoao enoi?ey, – ia?aaeei
?acoeueoao eciaiaiey eo aaia?aoe/aneiai iieiaeaiey (Noa?ay Eaaeiaa,
Iiaai?iae, Aa?oioo?uea, Iaiaacay e ?yae ae?oaeo). I aaia?aoe/aneie
au?aaeaiiinoe o?aaiecaoeee aiai?yo oa?aeoa?iua iniaaiiinoe ea?oeiu
ai?iaeneiai ?annaeaiey: a Aano?aeee- ii ia?eiao?o eiioeiaioa, a Eaiaaea
– eiioeaio?aoeey aaeieue o?aaiecaoeeiiiie ine, a A?aceeee iiuiue
Aoeaioe/aneee o?iio ?annaeaiey.

I?ino?ainoaaiiinoue o?aaiecaoeee au?aaeaaony e a oaniie aa nayce n
oa??eoi?eaeueiie eiioeaio?aoeeae aeayoaeueiinoe. Nioeeieiae ii?aaeaeytho
o?aaiecaoeeth eae anaie?ii-enoi?e/aneee i?ioeann ?acaeoey,
eiioeaio?aoeee, eioaineoeeaoeee iauaiey, eioaa?aoeee ana aieaa
?aciiia?aciuo oi?i i?aeoe/aneie aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe. Yoi aeiaieueii
oe?ieia ii?aaeaeaiea, “?anoai?ythuaa” o?aaiecaoeeth a iauai i?ioeanna
?acaeoey oeeaeeecaoeee. Ii iii, a i?eioeeia, i?aaeeueii aeoeaioe?oao
aieiaiea ia aeaaiii – ia eiioeaio?aoeee iiiaiia?aciie aeayoaeueiinoe,
/oi yaeyaony iniiaie o?aaiecaoeee. A i?ioeanna oaeoaeaiey iauanoaaiiiai
?acaeaeaiey o?oaea i?ienoiaeeo ana aieueoaa ?anuaieaiea aeayoaeueiinoe,
iiiaiia?aciua aeaeu eioi?ie caoai niae?athony a ioieoao, iaeaieaa aeey
ieo oaeiaiuo. Oaeei ia?acii, ai?iaea, aaeiia?aoeee, iaaaiieenu
i?aaenoaaeytho iniaoth oi?io oa??eoi?eaeueiie eiioeaio?aoeee –
o?aaienoe/aneoth. Aa iiaeii ii?aaeaeeoue eae eiioeaio?aoeeth
?aciiia?acey.

Iaeiiaoe, ia?auaao ia naay aieiaiea aeaoaaeeiue oa?aeoa? o?aaiecaoeee.
Ca eiioeaio?aoeeae aeayoaeueiinoe, a ?acoeueoaoa /aai oa??eoi?ey
?acaeaeyaony ia “oeaio?” e “ia?eoa?eth”, i?ienoiaeeo ?ani?ino?aiaiea
?acoeueoaoia aeayoaeueiinoe ia ie?oaeathuee ?aeii. A.N.Aoeaca? aiai?eo i
“ioeuenaoeee” eae i aaaeiaeoae /a?oa iaoaiecia o?aaiecaoeee.
O?aaiecaoeey aini?iecaiaeeo ?acee/ey iaaeaeo oeaio?ii e ia?eoa?eae e
caoai “nieiaao” yoe ?acee/ey, iiaeoyaeaay ia?eoa?eth aei o?iaiy oeaio?a,
/oi, a naith i/a?aaeue, noeioee?oao aeaeueiaeoaa aai ?acaeoea.

Iineaaeiaaoaeueiia oneiaeiaiea oi?i ?annaeaiey, au?aaeay iauea
aeiaaeueiua /a?ou e naienoaa o?aaiecaoeee, naycaii n caeiiiia?ii
niaiythueie ae?oa ae?oaa noaaeeyie. Eaaeaeay noaaeey auaeaeyaony
i?enoueie ae iniaaiiinoyie oa??eoi?eaeueiie eiioeaio?aoeee.

Iniiaiua noaaeee o?aaiecaoeee.

I. ?acaeoea e ?ino ai?iaeia (?anooueo eae au a ioaeaeueiinoe). Yoi –
“oi/a/iay” eiioeaio?aoeey. Ai?iae iaeaieeaaao iioaioeeae, oneiaeiyao
naie ooieoeeiiaeueioth e ieaie?iai/ioth no?oeoo?u. I?iaeaiu aai
noaiiayony ana ianooaaiaa e i?eia?aoatho aic?anoathuoth ino?ioo, iaeiaei
eo ?aoaiea a ?aieao naiiai ai?iaea noaiiayony ana cao?oaeieoaeueiaa
aaeaeo ia?aie/aiiinoe oa??eoi?eaeueiuo ?ano?nia.

II. Oi?ie?iaaiea aaeiia?aoeee. Iinoai?iaeneay noaaeey ?acaeoey
?annaeaiey. Aicieeiiaaiea ieayaeu ai?iaeneeo iinaeaiee ia aaca e?oiiiai
ai?iaea aiineo ei?aiiua eciaiaiey a ea?oeio ?annaeaiey. Aaeiia?aoeee
noaiiayony eeth/aaie oi?iie oa??eoi?eaeueiie i?aaiecaoeee
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee e ?annaeaiey. Aaeiia?e?iaaiea iineo auai?i/iue
oa?aeoa?, ii a oi aea a?aiy aanueia ?ani?ino?aiaii. Aaeiia?aoeee ea?atho
aaaeouoth ?ieue ai anao ?acaeouo e a ?yaea ?acaeaathueony no?aiao.
E?oiiue ai?iae iaoiaeeo a ieo naia aeiiieiaiea e iaeiia?aiaiii ia?aoaao
iiaua aiciiaeiinoe aeey ?aoaiey naieo i?iaeai, a oii /enea e
yeieiae/aneeo. Auaeathueeny iioaioeeae e?oiiiai ai?iaea ?aaeecoaony
iieiaa.

A nioeeaeueiii ioiioaiee ai?iaeneay aaeiia?aoeey – a?aae, a eioi?ii
caiueaaony iaaeaeueiue oeeee aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe nia?aiaiiiai
ai?iaeaieia. O aaeiia?aoeee aeaa ooiaeaiaioaeueiuo naienoaa:
naeeaeaiiinoue ia?acothueo eo iinaeaiee e acaeiiaeiiieiyaiinoue
(eiiieaiaioa?iinoue) iineaaeieo. N aaeiia?aoeeyie naycai cia/eoaeueiue
yeiiiie/aneee yooaeo, iaoneiaeaiiue aiciiaeiinoueth caieiooue a
i?aaeaeao oa??eoi?eaeueii ia?aie/aiiuo aaeiia?aoeeiiiuo a?aaeia
cia/eoaeueioth /anoue i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo e eiuo naycae. Yoi iniaaiii
aaaeii aeey no?ai n aieueoie oa??eoi?eae. A oneiaeyo oeaio?aeeciaaiiiai
oi?aaeaiey yeiiiieeie aaeiia?aoeeiiiue yooaeo eniieueciaaeny
iaaeinoaoi/ii: aaaeiinoaa i?aaeii/eoaee i?aaieciauaaoue nayce a naieo
?aieao, ia ia?auay aieiaiey ia eo yeiiiie/aneoth iaoeaeaniia?aciinoue.

Iieiaeeoaeueiua naienoaa aaeiia?aoeee ni/aoathony n eo iaaeinoaoeaie.
Yoi iauyniyaony oai, /oi aaeiia?aoeee eae au aeeoioee?iaaee a naaa
?ac?iciaiiua, ieioi niaeaniaaiiua iaaeaeo niaie /anoiua ?aoaiey. Eo
?acaeoea ia ?aaoee?iaaeinue a niioaaonoaee n ca?aiaa ?ac?aaioaiiui iauei
ieaiii. Oi?ie?iaaiea aaeiia?aoeee iiaeii ?anniao?eaaoue eae iaeii ec
i?iyaeaiee naii?acaeoey ?annaeaiey. I?aeiouanoaa aaeiia?aoeee
iainii?eiu, iaaeinoaoee ono?aieiu. Aaaeii, /oi aaeiia?aoeeiiiue
iiaeoiae, ?aiaa eaii?e?iaaaoeeny, i?iaeaaao naaa aei?iao a
a?aaeino?ieoaeuenoaa, /oi, a /anoiinoe, iiaeoaa?aeee Aaia?aeueiue ieai
Iineau e Iineianeie iaeanoe 1988 a.

III. Oi?ie?iaaiea iii?iiai ea?eana ?annaeaiey. ?ann?aaeioi/aiiay
eiioeaio?aoeey. Iii?iue ea?ean i?aaenoaaeyao niaie aaia?aeeciaaiiue
o?aaienoe/aneee ii?o?ao no?aiu eee ?aaeiia. Ii ia?aciaai niaieoiiinoueth
oceiauo (ai?iaea, aaeiia?aoeee) e eeiaeiuo (iaaeno?aee, iieeiaaeno?aee)
yeaiaioia. Oai, aaea iie aeinoaoi/ii naeeaeaiu e oa??eoi?ey ieacuaaaony
ia?ae?uoie ciiaie eo iaiin?aaenoaaiiiai aeeyiey, oi?ie?othony
o?aaiece?iaaiiua ?aeiiu.

Oi?ie?iaaiea iii?iiai ea?eana naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i i?iyaeaiee aeaoo
iniiaiuo oaiaeaioeee a ?acaeoee ?annaeaiey – oeaio?ino?aieoaeueiie e
eeiaeiino?aieoaeueiie. I ianooaaao oeaio?ino?aieoaeueiuo oaiaeaioeee
aiai?eo oio oaeo, /oi ia oa??eoi?ee auaoaai Niaaoneiai Nithca 1/3 anao
aiiaue aicieeoeo iiauo ai?iaeia inaei aaeece e?oiiuo oeaio?ia, aieaey,
oaeei ia?acii, a ninoaa aaeiia?aoeee. I?eia?ii io/aoeeai i?iyaeaoaeny
eeiaeiino?aieoaeueiie oaiaeaioeee yaeyeinue oi?ie?iaaiea
o?aaiece?iaaiiie iieinu Iineaa – Ieaeiee Iiaai?iae.

Iaeiaei iaaeno?aeue ia ai anao neo/ayo i?iyaeyao naay a ea/anoaa ine
?acaeoey, aaeieue eioi?ie neeaaeuaaaony iiuiay iieina ?annaeaiey. Oae,
iai?eia?, ia neiaeeeanue iia aaeieue iaaeno?aee Iineaa –
Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a, niaaeeiythuae e?oiiaeoea a ?innee oeaio?u – noieeoeo e
aeoea-noieeoeo e ia?aie ii a?aiaie iino?ieee a iaoae no?aia. Eioa?anii,
/oi ?onneee ienaoaeue, aaoi? oaioanoe/aneeo iiaaee A.O.Iaeiaaneee a
ia?aie iieiaeia i?ioeiai aaea i?aaeneacuaae, i?aaaea a aeaeaeie
ia?niaeoeaa, niaaeeiaiea Iineau e Naieo-Iaoa?ao?aa a aaeeiue ai?iae.
N?aaieoaeueii iaaeaaii n eaeaae oi?ie?iaaiey “eeiaa?iiai ai?iaea”
Iineaaeaieia?aae aunooiee Ae.N.Eeoa/aa. Nae/an aieiaiea e iaaenoiee/iiio
?aaeiio e i?aaeaea anaai e “ei?eaei?o” Iineaa – Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a aiiaue
aic?inei a nayce n i?iaeoii nii?oaeaiey aunieinei?inoiie iaaeno?aee
iaaeaeo yoeie oeaio?aie.

Aaoi?u i?iaeoa n/eoatho, /oi yoa iaaeno?aeue aoaeao niinianoaiaaoue
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneiio ?acaeoeth iaaenoiee/iiai i?ino?ainoaa, oaea n
aeaaieo a?aiai eniuouaathuaai yeiiiie/aneee canoie e iooie ianaeaiey.
I?aaeiieaaaaony, /oi i?eoie ianaeaiey aoaeao iaania/eaaoueny iooai
?annaeaiey auioaeaeaiiuo ia?anaeaioeaa e aeaiiaeeeciaaiiuo ioeoea?ia (n
/eaiaie eo naiae) /anoae, auaaaeaiiuo ec no?ai Aa?iiu. Nouanoaothuay e
aeoeaii ?aaioathuay iaaeno?aeue, i?eiaaeeaaeauay e /eneo oaoie/anee
iaeaieaa niaa?oaiiuo a ?innee, eiaea ana aea, a iniiaiii, o?aiceoiia
cia/aiea e ia?anaeaaioth ath oa??eoi?eth e naaa ia iiaeeeth/eea. Iiyoiio
oaa?aiii i?iaiice?iaaoue e ia yoio ?ac nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneee iiaeuai
ianoiinoe e oi?ie?iaaiea naiaai ?iaea iaaaeiiieena Iineaa –
Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a o?oaeii.

Oa??eoi?eaeueiia ono?ienoai no?aiu n oi?ie?iaaieai iii?iiai ea?eana
i?eia?aoaao iiaia ea/anoai. Ii au?aaeaieth A.I.Naiaiiaa-Oyi-Oaineiai
aic?anoaao i?i/iinoue ainoaea?noaaiiie oa??eoi?ee. Iii?iue ea?ean
i?eaioe?oao i?ino?ainoaaiiia ?acaeoea yeiiiieee, ia?acothuay aai
niaieoiiinoue oceia e eeiee auaeaeyao oeaio?u e ine i?ei?eoaoiiai
?acaeoey. Aaaeiinoue iii?iiai ea?eana, aieueoay aeey ethaie no?aiu,
iniaaiii aic?anoaao a ?innee aneaaenoaea aa ia?iiiie oa??eoi?ee e
neeueiie aeeooa?aioeeaoeee i?ino?ainoaa. A yoeo oneiaeyo aaeeei cia/aiea
iii?iiai ea?eana eae oaeoi?a oa??eoi?eaeueii-oicyenoaaiiie eioaa?aoeee
anao ?aaeiiia ?innee.

?anniio?aiea iniaaiiinoae ?aciauaiey ai?iaeia a i?aaeaeao ?aaeiiia
?innee iieacuaaao, /oi iie ia noaaouaatho ?aaiiia?ii oa??eoi?eth.
Ai?iaea no?aiyony naeeceoueny, ia?acoy, oai naiui, a?aae eioaineaiiai
acaeiiaeaenoaey – iaeaieaa yeiiiie/anee aeeaioth /anoue oa??eoi?ee. Oai
naiui aeinoeaaaony nieaeaiea cao?ao a?aiaie e n?aaenoa ia inouanoaeaiea
acaeiiaeaenoaee, /oi iiaeii iacaaoue yeiiiieae ?annoiyiee.

A ia?niaeoeaa, eiaaea aoaeao inouanoaeaii no?ieoaeuenoai nenoaiu
aunieinei?inoiuo iaaeno?aeae (a oaeiaa oaiaeaioeey ?acaeoey o?ainii?oiuo
naoae), aiciiaeii oi?ie?iaaiea noia?ea?eana, a eioi?ue aieaeoo aeaaiua
oeaio?u ?aaeiiia e iniiaiua eiiioieeaoeeiiiua oceu no?aiu. A
a?aaeino?ieoaeueiie i?aeoeea i?iecioei i?eciaiea eaeae iii?iiai ea?eana,
eioi?ua aei oao ii? eiaee oiaeaeaiea eeoue a iao/iie n?aaea. Oaia?ue
eaeay i?eciaaony eae eiino?oeoeaiay e i?aeoe/anee aaaeiay e a i?aaiao
oi?aaeaiey. A ?acoeueoaoa ?anniio?aiey Aaia?aeueiie noaiu ?annaeaiey ia
oa??eoi?ee ?innee Yenia?oiue niaao i?e i?aaeoaeuenoaa ?inneeneie
Oaaea?aoeee a naiai ?aoaiee ioiaoee aaaeiinoue oi?ie?iaaiey iii?iiai
ea?eana ?annaeaiey. Aai ?ieue a iiaie aaiiieeoe/aneie neooaoeee ?innee
aic?anoaao.

Ai?iae: iniiaiua /a?ou e naienoaa

Ai?iae – i/aiue aieay oi?ia oa??eoi?eaeueiie i?aaiecaoeee
aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe, eioi?ay aae?aao ana /a?ou, i?enouea iauanoao. Ia
neo/aeii ai?iae ii?aaeaeytho eae iiaeaeue nicaeaaoaai aai iauanoaa.
Oeeinio I.A.Uaae?iaeoeeee aiai?eo i oii, /oi a ai?iaeao anoue ana, e yoi
i/aiue cao?oaeiyao ii?aaeaeaiea ai?iaea eae yaeaiey.

“*oi oaeia ai?iae, neaaeao anyeee, e?iia o?aaienoa” – oaeie oooeeaue
yiea?ao i?aaeiineai e aeaaa “I?aaenoaaeaiea i ai?iaea” a eieaa
Aeae.Aieaea “Iniiau iiaaaeai/aneie aaia?aoee”, ia?aaaaeaiiie ia ?onneee
ycue a 1990 a. Neiaii “ai?iae” a nouiinoe iaicia/athony i/aiue ?aciua
iinaeaiey – io aoeeeaa?ia aei eeeeiooia, i/aiue iaiioiaeea ii ea/anoao
aeecie a ieo, ?aciua ooieoeeiiaeueii e eae aeeciaiiay n?aaea aeey
ethaeae.

E?aoeea yioeeeeiiaaee/aneea ii?aaeaeaiey oa?aeoa?ecotho ai?iae eeoue a
naiii iauai aeaea. Ai?iae – ianaeaiiue ioieo, ioianaiiue niaeanii
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoao ainoaea?noaa e eaoaai?ee ai?iaeia. Eae i?aaeei, ii
iaeaaeaao cia/eoaeueiie /eneaiiinoueth ianaeaiey (ii n?aaiaieth n
naeueneeie iinaeaieyie), eioi?ia caiyoi aeaaiui ia?acii aia naeueneiai
oicyenoaa – a i?iiuoeaiiinoe, oi?aiaea, noa?a ianeoaeeaaiey, iaoea,
eoeueoo?a. Caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai ?innee onoaiaaeeaaao, /oi ieieiaeueiay
/eneaiiinoue ianaeaiey ai?iaea – 12 oun. /aeiaae, a ieieiaeueiay aeiey
?aai/eo, neoaeaueo e /eaiia eo naiae a iauae /eneaiiinoe – 65%.

Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue oneiaiinoue yoeo iieacaoaeae. Ii ninoiyieth ia ia/aei
1989 a. a ?innee 140 ai?iaeia eiaee iaiaa 12 oun. aeeoaeae. A?aieoeu
iaaeaeo ai?iaeneeie e naeueneeie iinaeaieyie ia oieueei a iaoae no?aia,
ii e ai iiiaeo ae?oaeo ainoaea?noaao ?anieua/aou eciai/eau. Ii
noaoenoeea III ai?iaeaie n/eoathony ianaeaiiua ioieou, eiathuea aieaa 20
oun. aeeoaeae. Ia?aaeei a iinaeaieyo, eioi?ua ioeoeeaeueii n/eoathony
ai?iaeaie, io/aoeeai i?iniao?eaathony yaii ia ai?iaeneea /a?ou.

*oi aea oaeia enoeiiue ai?iae? Eaeiai aai iacia/aiea? I?eaaaeai
ianeieueei ii?aaeaeaiee “oi?ioe”, iiae/a?eeaathueo ?ieue ai?iaea a
iauanoaaiiii ?acaeoee, aai iniaia iieiaeaiea n?aaee oai?aiee oia e ?oe
/aeiaa/aneeo.

A.Ao?ia: “Ai?iae – eioaa?ae /aeiaa/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe”.

Ea Ei?athcuea: “Ai?iaea – aeooiaiua ianoa?neea /aeiaa/anoaa”.

E.I.A?aan: “Ai?iae – iaeei ec neeueiaeoeo e iieiaeoeo aiieiuaiee
eoeueoo?u, iaeei ec naiuo aiaaouo aeaeia aa aiacae”.

A.E.Eaiei: “Ai?iaea – aeaeaaoaee i?ia?anna”.

I.E.Aa?aineee: “Ai?iaea – yoi eae au eiiaiaeiue ninoaa no?aiu”.

Aii?in ia iniiaiuo /a?oao e naienoaao ai?iaea, eacaeinue au i?inoie, ii
ia naiii aeaea iaiau/aeii neiaeiue. Anee au ai?iae eae yaeaiea aue
iiciai aeoaiei, ia auei au oao nenoaiaoe/aneeo i?in/aoia e ioeaie,
eioi?uie eciaeeoao i?aeoeea a?aaeino?ieoaeuenoaa. A?oeoaeoi? A.Y.Aooiia
ni?aoeaaao: “Ii/aio ai?iae iaecaaaeai? Aaaeue iu nicaeaai aai
nianoaaiiuie ?oeaie, naiae aieae. Ii aaaeao naay nianai ia oae, eae aio
i?aaeienaii. Eiiaaea eaaeaony, /oi ii aeaeaao yoi ia?i/ii, iacei iaoei
ouaoaeueii i?iaeoiaiiui naaeaine?iaaiiui ieaiai – ?anoao oai, aaea aio
iaaeeaaeeo inoaiiaeoueny, e ia?aoeoaeueii oii/aony oai, aaea iu
i?iaeoe?oai ?ino”. Oneeey ii ia?aie/aieth ?inoa aieueoeo ai?iaeia e
aeoeaecaoeee iaeuo e n?aaeieo, noieue aaaeiua aeey ?innee,
iai?a/eaaeenue nianai i?ioeaiiieiaeiie ea?oeiie: aieueoea ai?iaea
i?iaeieaeaee ?anoe, a iaeua oe?aoue.

Eiia/ii, iniaia cia/aiea eiaao oaeoi? iaii?aaeaeaiiinoe. Ai?iae
i?iaeoe?oaony e no?ieony ia aaea. Ii aieaeao a oa a?aiaia, i eioi?uo
aaoi?u i?iaeoa ia iiaee eiaoue neieueei-ieaoaeue oi/iiai i?aaenoaaeaiey.
Iiyayony iiaua oaeoi?u e oneiaey, ia?aae ai?iaeii aicieeiao o?oaeiay
caaea/a aaeaioaoeee. Ii aeaaiia ana aea ia a yoii. Aeaaiia – a naiii
ai?iaea, a aai naienoaao, iiaaaeaiee, caeiiiia?iinoyo ?acaeoey, aai
naii?acaeoee, a iai?aaeneacoaiinoe iiaaaeaiey. Aeae.Oa??anoa? neacae:
“Ai?iae – eiio?eiooeoeaai. Iaeuecy oi?aaeyoue aai ?acaeoeai, enoiaey ec
niia?aaeaiee cae?aaiai niunea”. A.Y.Aooiia i?eaiaeeo no?iee ec
A.Ianoa?iaea:

“I ai?iae! I nai?iee caaea/ aac ioaaoia,

I oe?ue aac ?aoaiuey e oeo? aac eeth/a”.

Ciaiea iicaieyao noceoue ?aiee iaii?aaeaeaiiinoe. Iie?aynue ia ciaiea
iniiaiuo ooieoeeiiaeueiuo naienoa ai?iaea, caeiiiia?iinoae yaiethoeee
?annaeaiey, eaa/a i?iaiice?iaaoue ?acaeoea ai?iaeia, eniieuecoy i?e yoii
?acee/iua noeaia?ee, a ia aeaiiino?e?oy i?eaa?aeaiiinoue e aeanoeiio
iacuaeaiiio ieaio.

Enoeiiue ai?iae iiiaiooieoeeiiaeai. I?enouay aio neiaeiay eiioeaio?aoeey
iiiaiia?acey iaania/eaaao ai?iaeo yeiiiie/aneoth onoie/eainoue. A
iineaaeiea aiaeu a i/aiue o?oaeiii iieiaeaiee ieacaeenue eiaiii
niaoeeaeece?iaaiiua ai?iaea, iai?eia?, ai?iaea-eo?i?ou, ai?iaea-oeaio?u
oaenoeeueiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe. Iiiaiooieoeeiiaeueiinoue nicaeaao aaco aeey
nioeeaeueiiai ?aciiia?acey. ?anoe?ythony aiciiaeiinoe auai?a i?ioannee,
ianoa o/aau e ?aaiou, niiniaia i?iaaaeaiey aeinoaa, naiiia?aciaaiey,
ano?a/ ii eioa?anai. O aeeoaeae iiiaiooieoeeiiaeueiiai ai?iaea aiaaonoai
iauaiey. E eae yeiiiie/aneea oeaio?u e eae n?aaea aeecie
iiiaiooieoeeiiaeueiua ai?iaea i?aaeii/oeoaeueiu. Eo?n ia
iiiaiooieoeeiiaeueiinoue a ?acaeoee ai?iaea caeiiiia?ai e anoanoaaiai.
Aeaaea eiaaea ai?iae nio?aiyao niaoeeaeecaoeeth, o iaai anoue
aiciiaeiinoue noaoue naiaai ?iaea niaoeeaeece?iaaiiui eiiieaenii. A iai
iniiaiay ooieoeey ea?aao ?ieue noa?aeiy, aie?oa eioi?iai oi?ie?othony
niioonoaothuea e aeiiieiythuea aeaeu aeayoaeueiinoe.

Ai?iae aeeiaie/ai e a ?acaeoee, e a ooieoeeiie?iaaiee. Aio naienoaaiia
aunieay eiioeaio?aoeey acaeiiaeaenoaee. Aeeiaieci ai?iaea i?iyaeyaony a
o?ainoi?iaoeee ooieoeeiiaeueiie no?oeoo?u, a oa??eoi?eaeueiii ?inoa,
ia?aieaie?iaea, iaiiaeaiee cano?ieee, a iaiaauaiee ai?iaeneie n?aaeu, a
i?eoiea iiaiai ianaeaiey. Yoe naienoaa ai?iaea ii?iaeeee eiioeaioeee
aeeiaie/aneiai ai?iaea. A eiioea 1920-o aiaeia aeeiaie/aneoth iiaeaeue
aeey Iineau i?aaeeiaeee I.A.Eaaeianeee. Ai?iae aeieaeai aue eiaoue
inueth ?acaeoey iai?aaeaiea ia Eaieia?aae. Oe?iei ecaanoiu iiaeaee
aeeiaiieena, i?aaeeiaeaiiua a?a/aneei a?oeoaeoi?ii E.Aeieneaaeenii. A
a?aaeino?ieoaeuenoaa iieo/eee oe?ieia ?ani?ino?aiaiea eiioeaioeee e
noaiu iai?aaeaiiiai ?acaeoey ai?iaeia e aaeiia?aoeee. A ea/anoaa i?eia?a
iiaeii iacaaoue Noaio ?acaeoey Ia?eaeneiai ?aeiia aaeieue ia?aeeaeueiuo
inae, i?aaeeiaeaiey i iai?aaeaiiii ?acaeoee Iineau ii i?ei?eoaoiui
iai?aaeaieyi a i?iaeoa aai Aaiieaia 1986 a.

Ai?iae enoi?e/anee iiiaineiai. Yoi oe?aoathuaa ai?iae naienoai iiaeao
oaeaea noaoue i?e/eiie aicieeiiaaiey iiiaeo o?oaeiinoae, aicaeaeaiooue
aa?uea?u ia iooe ?acaeoey e ?aeiino?oeoeee. A enoi?e/aneeo ai?iaeao
aeaeia enoi?ey. E iae iiaeii i?eeiniooueny. Yoi ai?iaea n iniaie
aoiinoa?ie. Caaioa i oii, /oiau ai?iaea i?eia?aoaee e nio?aiyee
enoi?e/aneoth iiiaineieiinoue, aeieaeia i?iyaeyoueny e a ioiioaiee iiauo
ai?iaeia. Caeanue iaaeeaaeeo eniieueciaaoue enoi?e/aneoth iaiyoue
ianoiinoe, aa enoi?e/aneee aeoo. I.E.?a?eo aiai?ee, /oi iao iano, aaea
au ie/aai ia auei.

Aeaaiaea?y iinoiyiiiio iaiiaeaieth, aeeiaiecio, eiioeaio?aoeee
iiiaiia?acey, iniaui naienoaai iiiaieiioaeoiie n?aaeu, ai?iae yaeyaony
ianoii ca?iaeaeaiey, noaiiaeaiey e ?acaeoey iiaiai. Aeaaiia
i?aaeiacia/aiea enoeiiiai ai?iaea – auoue aeaeaaoaeai i?ia?anna.
I.A.Uaae?iaeoeeee aiai?ee, /oi “… ai?iae anoue oi?ia au?aueaaiey e
nicaeaiey ?ano?na aeey ?acaeoey”, “… ai?iae iicaieyao iauanoao
iino?ieoue ano?a/o ni naiei nianoaaiiui aoaeouei”.

Aunieee eioaeeaeooaeueiue iioaioeeae aeaeaao ai?iae aeooiaiie ianoa?neie
/aeiaa/anoaa. Yoa niiniaiinoue ai?iaea auoue aaia?aoi?ii eaeae naycaia n
aai iniaie ai?iaeneie n?aaeie, eioi?oth iaaei ?anniao?eaaoue eae iaeei
ec aeaaiuo ?ano?nia ai?iaea.

Ai?iaeneay n?aaea – neiaeiia, eeth/aaia iiiyoea. Eco/aiea naienoa e
iniaaiiinoae ai?iaeneie n?aaeu ioe?uaaao iooue e iiciaieth ai?iaea, aai
nouiinoe eae yaeaiey. Ai?iaeneay n?aaea – aaaeiaeoay ninoaaiay /anoue
iioaioeeaea ai?iaea. Iia iicaieyao ?aaeeciaaoue oai?/aneee iioaioeeae
iauanoaa e niinianoaoao iaeiieaieth yia?aee iauanoaa aeey aeaeaeaiey
aia?aae.

Ai?iaeneay n?aaea i?aaenoaaeyao niaie niaieoiiinoue iiiai/eneaiiuo e
?aciiia?aciuo eaiaeia ianniauo eiiioieeaoeee, oi?i e niiniaia iauaiey,
iiaeeeth/aiey e enoi/ieeai ?aciiia?aciie eioi?iaoeee. Aa
ooiaeaiaioaeueiue i?eciae – ia?anoathuaa ?aciiia?acea. I.I.ssieoeeee
aeaeaao auaiae i oii, /oi iao/ii-oaoie/aneee i?ia?ann ia iiaeao
?acaeaaoueny aac ia?anoathuaai ?aciiia?acey naycae e iauaiey.
?aciiia?acea nicaeaao oe?ioo aiciiaeiinoae aeey i?eiauaiey /aeiaaea e
aaneiia/iiio ie?o eoeueoo?u. Ai?iaeneay n?aaea ii?aaeaeyao
i?eoyaaoaeueiinoue aieueoiai ai?iaea.

Nioeeieia A.N.Aoeaca? n/eoaao, /oi ea/anoai ai?iaeneie n?aaeu, a
eiia/iii n/aoa, ii?aaeaeyaony niiniaiinoueth ai?iaeia, n iaeiie noi?iiu,
auoue oieonii oai?/aneeo nee iauanoaa, ?aaeeciauaaoue e
eiioeaio?e?iaaoue oai?/aneee iioaioeeae e, n ae?oaie noi?iiu,
nicaeaaaoue iaiaoiaeeiua oneiaey aeey i?eiauaiey eaaeaeie ee/iinoe e
?acee/iui oi?iai aeecie ai?iaea.

Ai?iaeneie n?aaea naienoaaiia iiiaieiiiiiaioiinoue. Iia ia?aciaaia e
iaoa?eaeueiuie (yeaiaiou ai?iaea e i?e?iaea), e aeooiaiuie
ninoaaeythueie. Ianaeaiea – noauaeo, ia eioi?iai i?eaioe?iaaia n?aaea. E
a oi aea a?aiy iii yaeyaony yeaiaioii n?aaeu. Ninoaa ianaeaiey i/aiue
neeueii aeeyao ia ninoiyiea e naienoaa n?aaeu.

Oneeeyie iiiaeo aeeaoeo a ai?iaea iieieaiee nicaeaia aeooiaiay
ninoaaeythuay n?aaeu. Iiaeii aiai?eoue i aeooa ai?iaea, aai aoiinoa?a.
I/aiue neeueii /oanoaoaony aeooiaiay ninoaaeythuay a ai?iaea Iooeeia,
auaoai Oea?neii Naea, aeaaiaea?y Iooeeio e eeoeaenoai, Ea?aiceio,
Aoiaoiaie, Aoieeaao, Aiiaineiio, An.?iaeaeanoaaineiio, aaeeeei ciae/ei –
Eaia?iio, ?ano?aeee, Noaniao, *aaaeeineiio.

Aeooiaiay ninoaaeythuay ai?iaeneie n?aaeu iaiaauaia aaeeeie eeoa?aoo?ie.
O oaeeo caia/aoaeueiuo ai?iaeia, eae Iaoa?ao?a, Iineaa, Ia?eae
iiiai/eneaiii “eeoa?aoo?iia ianaeaiea” – aa?ie i?iecaaaeaiee, aa/ii
aeeaouea a oii eee eiii ai?iaea. Iaoa?ao?a Iooeeia, Aiaiey,
Aeinoiaaneiai, Aeiea – yoi e Iaoa?ao?a eo aa?iaa.

A neeo i?enoueo aio naienoa ai?iae, eae n/eoaao C.I.ss?aeia, i?iyaee
naay eae “iaeaieaa ianooaaiay e niaea?aeaoaeueiay oi?ia i?ino?ainoaaiiie
i?aaiecaoeee iauanoaa”. Enoi?ey /aeiaa/anoaa, niauoey XX a
iiaeoaa?aeaeatho, /oi ai?iaeo iao aeueoa?iaoeau.

Ni no?oeoo?iie neiaeiinoueth e neiaeiinoueth aeeiaieee ai?iaea naycaiu
oaeea aai naienoaa, eae i?ioeai?a/eainoue, i?iaeaiiinoue,
ia?aaeienaeueiinoue. Ai?iae- i?ioeai?a/eaay oi?ia oa??eoi?eaeueiie
i?aaiecaoeee iauanoaa. I?ioeai?a/ey caeiaeaiu a iai ecia/aeueii,
caeeth/aiu a naiie aai nouiinoe. Iie iiaoo auoue ineaaeaiu i?iaeoiaiiui
?aaoee?iaaieai, a iiaoo auoue e oneeaiu ioeaeaie e i?in/aoaie
?oeiaiaeeoaeae e i?iaeoe?iaueeia. Ii ei?aiue i?iaeai e i?ioeai?a/ee –
eeoue io/anoe a aeaenoaeyo ethaeae. I?ioeai?a/ey e i?iaeaiu ii?iaeaeaao
nai ai?iae.

?ano?nu ai?iaea eniieuecothony ?aciuie ooieoeeyie, iaaeaeo eioi?uie e
aicieeatho i?ioeai?a/ey – naiaai ?iaea eiieo?aioeey ooieoeee.
I?iyaeyaony eiio?iioaoeey iaaeaeo noa?uie e iiauie i?iecaiaenoaaie.
?aciua neie ianaeaiey i?aaeuyaeytho ?aciua o?aaiaaiey e i?aaiecaoeee
ai?iaeneie n?aaeu, no?aiyony noi?ie?iaaoue aa a niioaaonoaee ni naieie
iio?aaiinoyie, aeonaie e i?aaenoaaeaieyie. Ai?iae, oaaee/eaaynue a
?acia?ao, eae au au?anoaao ec noaaoae aio oaniie iaeaaeaeu. Noaiiayony
neeoeii oceeie oeeoeu, ia niiniaiua i?iioneaoue aic?inoea iioiee
o?ainii?oa. Oeaio? ia ni?aaeyaony n ianeoaeeaaieai e ai?iaea, e
aaeiia?aoeee. Iiuiinoue nenoai eiiioiaeueiiai oicyenoaa ieacuaaaony
en/a?iaiiie.

Au?aaeaiea aia?eeaioea A.Aa??e “ai?iae – nenoaia a nenoaia ai?iaeia”
noaei e?ueaoui. Iii eaeiie/ii e oi/ii au?aaeaao e nooue ai?iaea, e
oeacuaaao ia aai ianoi a ?annaeaiee. Nenoaiiue iiaeoiae e eco/aieth e
i?iaeoe?iaaieth ai?iaea ieiaeioai?ai e iaiaoiaeei. Ai?iae – nenoaia, ii
nenoaia aanueia ia?aaeienaeueiay. ?aciua yeaiaiou ai?iaea ?acaeaathony
?aciuie oaiiaie. I?ienoiaeeo ?anniaeaniaaiea nenoaiu, ia?ooaiea
ni?acia?iinoe e niioaaonoaey ninoaaeythueo ai?iae /anoae e yeaiaioia.
Oioy, eiaaea ai?iae i?iaeoe?oaony, yoe ni?acia?iinoue e acaeiiia
niioaaonoaea no?iai iaania/eaaaony ia iniiaa ouaoaeueiuo ?an/aoia.

Ia/eiay naith aeeciue, ai?iae aaaeao naay a aunoae noaiaie naiai?aaii.
Ii ianooiaao ia naia i?e?iaeiia ie?oaeaiea, a eiioaeoa n eioi?ui,
i?aaeaea anaai, nai caeioa?aniaai. I?eaeaeaao ia naie i?aaei?eyoey e
no?ieee iea?aioia, eioi?ua n o?oaeii i?eniinaaeeaathony e aeecie a
oneiaeyo ai?iaea, iniaaiii, anee yoio ai?iae aieueoie. Ai?iae
nin?aaeioa/eaaao aaee/aeoea eoeueoo?iua oeaiiinoe, ii a iai aicieeaao e
nioeeaeueiia aeii. A ai?iaea aaee/ea eoeueoo?u, aeinoeaeaiey i?ia?anna
ni/aoathony n yaeaieyie nioeeaeueiie iaoieiaee. Aoaeo/e aeeiaie/iui,
yaeyynue aeaeaaoaeai i?ia?anna, /oi o?aaoao io naiiai ai?iaea iinoiyiiuo
eciaiaiee, ii iaeiia?aiaiii e o?aieoaeue eoeueoo?ii-enoi?e/aneiai
ianeaaeey, caia/aoaeueiuo oai?aiee ciae/anoaa ?aciuo yiio. Naia
ai?iaeneay ieaie?iaea yaeyaony ia?aaeei enoi?e/aneei iaiyoieeii.
Aneaaenoaea yoeo iniaaiiinoae e i?ioeai?a/ee a ai?iaea aicieeaao iaeee
iaoaieci oi?iiaeaiey.

Caaea/a a?aaeino?ieoaeae – ai?iae, oeaeeeii nioeaiiue ec i?iaeai e
i?ioeai?a/ee, naeaeaoue aa?iiie/iui e oaeiaiui, iaeaaeathuei
iieiioeaiiie ai?iaeneie n?aaeie – iaiau/aeii neiaeia. Aa ?aoaiea o?aaoao
iaaeaaeiuo iao/iuo iniiaaiee.

Iniaaiiinoe o?aaiecaoeee a ?innee

?acoeueoaou o?aaiecaoeee a ?innee a XX a. aanueia aiooeoaeueiu.
Ia?aienue ianaeaiey 1897 a. caoeene?iaaea iaaunieee o?iaaiue
o?aaiece?iaaiiinoe no?aiu. A a?aieoeao nia?aiaiiie ?innee ian/eouaaeinue
48 aoaa?ineeo e iaeanoiuo ai?iaeia, 332 oacaeiuo, 50 caooaoiuo e
aacoacaeiuo, 37 iinaaeia e 7 i?eai?iaeia. Aieaa 120 oacaeiuo ai?iaeia,
(nauoa 1/3 iauaai eo /enea) ?aniieaaaeenue ia ?annoiyiee nauoa 25 ei io
aeaeaciie aei?iae. Eiaeinue anaai eeoue 16 ai?iaeia n /eneii aeeoaeae
aieaa 50 oun. /aeiaae, e oieueei 7 ec ieo yaeyeenue aieueoeie. ?aaeeay
naoue ai?iaeia auea yaii iaaeinoaoi/ia aeey ia?iiiie no?aiu. Iiiaea
ai?iaea auee yeiiiie/anee oeeuie.

A oa/aiea aeanyoeeaoee naoue ai?iaeia nouanoaaiii iaiiaeeanue. Ec
eiaaoeony ia ia/aei 1989 a. (iineaaeiyy ia?aienue ianaeaiey a NNN?) 1001
ai?iaea (aac ai?iaeia THaeiiai Naoaeeia e Eaeeieia?aaeneie iaeanoe) 369
nouanoaiaaei aei ?aaiethoeee, a 632 ia?aciaaii iinea iaa. Oaeei ia?acii,
ii/oe 2/3 ?inneeneeo ai?iaeia – iiaua. Ian/eouaaaony ieiei 170 aieueoeo
ai?iaeia, ia aeieth eioi?uo i?eoiaeeony i?eia?ii 70% ai?iaeneiai
ianaeaiey no?aiu. Iiaeeeiiui iiaeaeaii iaaei n/eoaoue no?ieoaeuenoai
ai?iaeia ia naaa?a e ainoiea ?innee. I?iecioei oneeaiea iii?iiai ea?eana
?annaeaiey. A iaai aioee ia oieueei neeueii au?inoea o?aaeeoeeiiiua
oeaio?u, ii e iiaua iiiaiooieoeeiiaeueiua ai?iaea, aicaeaaeaoea aiiaue
ia?aciaaiiua iaeanoe – Aaeai?iae, Eeiaoee, Eaia?iai, *aeyaeine, Eo?aai e
?yae ae?oaeo. Ec iacia/eoaeueiuo a i?ioeii ai?iaeia ?acaeeenue noieeoeu
iaoeeiiaeueiuo ?anioaeee – Nueouaea?, *aaiena?u, Eioea?-Iea, Na?aine,
Iaeue/ee e ?yae ae?oaeo.

A oi aea a?aiy ia ea/anoaa ai?iaeia aanueia iaaaoeaii neacaeanue oaeea
iniaaiiinoe niaaoneie o?aaiecaoeee, eae aaaeouaa cia/aiea
eiaeono?eaeecaoeee. Oeie/ai aue o?iie/aneee iaaeinoaoie n?aaenoa,
auaeaeyaiuo ia ?acaeoea nioeeaeueiie noa?u a ai?iaeao, eo oaoie/aneia
iniauaiea e aeaaiono?ienoai. Oe?iei auea ?ani?ino?aiaia i?aeoeea
i?aia?aciaaiey a ai?iaea naeueneeo iinaeaiee, eioi?ua, iaaeaeyynue
ai?iaeneeie ooieoeeyie, ca/anooth, ia i?eia?aoaee ai?iaeneiai iaeeea, ia
iaiyeny ia?ac aeecie eo iaeoaoaeae. A ?yaea neo/aaa i?e en/eneaiee a
iaoae no?aia ?aaeueiiai ai?iaeneiai ianaeaiey ?aeiiaiaeiaaeinue
i?eieiaoue ai aieiaiea iaee/ea ne?uoiai ai?iaeneiai ianaeaiey (aeeoaeae
naeueneeo iinaeaiee ianaeueneioicyenoaaiiiai i?ioeey). Ii ?aciiii oaeaea
o/eouaaoue e ne?uoia naeueneia ianaeaiea a ai?iaeao, a iieiie ia?a
ai?iaeaie iiea ia noaaoeie.

I?iiuoeaiiinoue, i?e/ai e?oiiay, yaeeanue i?e/eiie aicieeiiaaiey
iiaeaaeythuaai /enea iiauo ai?iaeia, i?aia?aaeaiey e ?inoa
o?aaeeoeeiiiuo oeaio?ia. Iiaua ai?iaea, aicieeoea i?e e?oiiuo
i?aaei?eyoeyo, inoaaaeenue a cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie iinaeeaie. Eo iiaeii
auei n/eoaoue aeeeeuii-eiiioiaeueiuie oeaoaie caaiaeia eee eiiaeiaoia.
Ae?oaea ooieoeee, iiieii i?iiuoeaiiuo, ?acaeaaeenue iaaeinoaoi/ii, ca
eneeth/aieai oao, eioi?ua auee oaeaea naycaiu n aaaeouae
i?iiuoeaiiinoueth, aa iaiin?aaenoaaiiui ianeoaeeaaieai – no?ieoaeuenoai
e i?iecaiaenoai no?ieoaeueiuo iaoa?eaeia, o?ainii?o, iiaeaioiaea
eaae?ia. Oceiio?aneaaie i?ioeeue neacuaaeny ia
nioeeaeueii-i?ioanneiiaeueiii ninoaaa ianaeaiey. Ai?iae ia ?acaeaaeny
eae iiiaiooieoeeiiaeueiia ia?aciaaiea, /oi aeaeei ca niaie e aai
nioeeaeueioth oua?aiinoue.

O?aaeeoeeiiiue iiiaiooieoeeiiaeueiue ai?iae – a i?ioeii aoaa?ineee, a
iuia iaeanoiie oeaio? – a ?acoeueoaoa aiaae?aiey a iaai e?oiiie
i?iiuoeaiiinoe i?eia?aoae naiaai ?iaea i?iiuoeaiiue oethn,
aeaoi?ie?iaaaoee aai ooieoeeiiaeueioth no?oeoo?o. Aeaaea a
Naieo-Iaoa?ao?aa, a eioi?ii ooieoeeiiaeueiay no?oeoo?a i?iaeieaeaea
auoue ie?aoaiiie noiee/iinoueth, aeiey i?iiuoeaiiinoe a no?oeoo?a
caiyoinoe aeinoeaaao 50%. A a oeaio?ao ?aaeiiia, ii n?aaiaieth n
ae?oaeie ai?iaeaie iaeaieaa aeaeaei ooaaeoeie ii iooe ?acaeoey
iiiaiooieoeeiiaeueiinoe – Aeaoa?eiao?aa, Ieaeiai Iiaai?iaea, Ai?iiaaea,
Naia?a, iia cia/eoaeueii auoa.

I?iiuoeaiiinoue eae au aeiee?iaaea ?acaeoea ae?oaeo aeaeia
aeayoaeueiinoe. Ai?iae oa?aeoa?eciaaeny nioeeaeueiuie ecuyiaie. Oioy
/anoue ai?iaeia – i?iiuoeaiiuo iiaino?iae (Iiaieociaoee, Eaia?iai,
Eiiniiieuene-ia-Aio?a, Ii?eeuene e ae?oaea)- ?acaeaaeenue a noi?iio
iiiaiooieoeeiiaeueiinoe, iaeiaei e o ieo i?ann e?oiiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe
ieacaeny /?acia?iui.

Auno?ia ?acaeoea i?iiuoeaiiinoe, noeioee?iaaaoaa nea/eiia?aciue ?ino
ai?iaeia, iiaeaeei ca niaie oeaeo iaaaoeaiuo iineaaenoaee. E /eneo eo
ioiineony /?acia?ii auno?ia oi?ie?iaaiea ianaeaiey ec i?aeiouanoaaiii
naeueneeo iea?aioia. A ?acoeueoaoa a aieueoeo ai?iaeao ia?aciaaeny
cia/eoaeueiue neie ia?aeiaeueiiai ianaeaiey, n o?oaeii
aaeaioe?iaaaoaainy e iiaui oneiaeyi aeecie. A/a?aoiea naeueneea aeeoaee
– iie aua ia noaee ai?iaeaiaie- n o?oaeii onaaeaaee ai?iaeneie ia?ac
aeecie.

Iaiaoiaeeiinoue no?ieoaeuenoaa iiauo i?iiuoeaiiuo e aeeeuo ?aeiiia
aucaaea ?anoyaeaaiea oa??eoi?ee ai?iaea, aai eiiioieeaoeee. Ia
no?ieoaeuenoai iiauo ?aeiiia ooiaeeea eueaeiay aeiey n?aaenoa, a
?acoeueoaoa /aai eo yaii ia oaaoaei aeey ?aeiino?oeoeee e i?inoi
niaea?aeaiey a ii?yaeea noa?ie /anoe ai?iaeia, aeaaea eo oeaio?ia.

I?iecioei ?aceia oooaeoaiea yeieiae/aneie neooaoeee. Ii aeaiiui
Aaia?aeueiie noaiu ?annaeaiey oieueei 15% ai?iaeneeo aeeoaeae ?innee
i?iaeeaaao ia oa??eoi?ee n o?iaiai caa?yciaiey aoiinoa?u a i?aaeaeao
aeiionoeiiai; 32% – a ?aeiiao neaaiai caa?yciaiey; 33% – oia?aiiiai; 17%
– neeueiiai e 3% – i/aiue neeueiiai. Yeieiae/anee iianiua neooaoeee n
oaiaeaioeeae e aa iaino?aieth i?iyaeythony ia ieiuaaee ieiei 2,5
iei.ea.ei. E?oiiua ai?iaea aeeytho ia ie?oaeathuoth n?aaeo a ?aaeeona,
eioi?ue a 50 ?ac i?aauoaao ?aaeeon eo nianoaaiiie oa??eoi?ee.

Ia ea?oa “Ai?iaea ?innee n iaeaieaa oyaeaeui yeieiae/aneei ninoiyieai”
iieacaii 140 ai?iaeia. Yoi 13,2% iauaai /enea ai?iaeia ?innee.
Ia?aainoai ii aua?inai a aoiinoa?o o Ii?eeuenea, aaea aaeaaiaeiue aua?in
ninoaaeyao 2486 oun. oiii. Yoi a 3,7 ?ac aieueoa, /ai o neaaeothuaai ca
iei Iiaieociaoeea ii iauaio e a 12,7 ?ac aieueoa i?e ia?an/aoa ia aeooo
ianaeaiey. Ii iauaio na?ina caa?yciaiiuo aiae ia?aia ianoi caieiaao
Iineaa – 2394 iei. o a aiae, aoi?ia – Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a. Caiueaao yoio
nienie *aiaaane – niooiee Naia?u. Caeanue na?in ?aaai 44 iei.o, ii a
ia?an/aoa ia aeooo ianaeaiey ii iia?aaeaao Iineao (niioaaonoaaiii 449 e
276 o ia /aeiaaea a aiae).

A /enea yeieiae/anee iniai iaaeaaiiieo/iuo – ana ai?iaea-ieeeeiia?u (eo
a ?innee 13), ana e?oiiaeoea ai?iaea (22), iiaeaaeythuaa /enei
?anioaeeeaineeo, e?aaauo e iaeanoiuo oeaio?ia (63 ec 72), aieueoeo
ai?iaeia aiiaua (113 ec 165). A yoii nienea 14 iaeuo e 13 n?aaeieo
ai?iaeia, i?aeiouanoaaiii oeaio?ia /a?iie e oeaaoiie iaoaeeo?aee, oeiee,
oeaeetheicii-aoiaaeiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe. Oae?o/aao oaeo iaoiaeaeaiey a
ia?a/ia iaaeaaiiieo/iuo ai?iaeia-eo?i?oia Ni/e e Iyoeai?nea, a oaeaea
aeinoaoi/ii iiiai/eneaiiuo ai?iaeia – iiaino?iae. Aeaeea?e?oy oacen ia
yeieiae/aneii i?ei?eoaoa, i oii, /oi oeaeueth i?iecaiaenoaa yaeyaony
/aeiaae, iu nicaeaaaee ai?iaea, a eioi?uo oneiaey aeecie auee
iaii?iaeueiuie.

A Iineaa iinea ?aceiai nea/eiia?aciiai ?anoe?aiey ai?iaeneeo a?aieoe a
1960 a. i?iiuoeaiiinoue, enoi?e/anee ?aciauaaoayny ia ie?aeiao ai?iaea,
ieacaeanue aeoaiei a “oaea” ai?iaea. Nae/an iniiaiua i?iiuoeaiiua ciiu
?aniieiaeaiu a Iineaa aeeaea e oeaio?o, iaaeaee e ai?iaeneie /a?oa.
AEeeua ?aeiiu, nicaeaiiua a iineaaeiea o?eaeoeaoue-ni?ie eao,
“ia?ai?uaioee” iniiaiie i?iiuoeaiiue iiyn, /oi i?eaaei e
ooieoeeiiaeueiie /a?aniieineoea. E?iia oiai, iaiaoiaeeiinoue naeeceoue
ianoa aeeoaeuenoaa n ianoaie ?aaiou aucaaea iiyaeaiea iiauo i?iiuoeaiiuo
cii a ia?eoa?eeiie /anoe noieeoeu – *a?oaiiai, I/aeiai, Aeaaoieii e a
?yaea ae?oaeo.

Iiaeii neacaoue, /oi a ?innee nae/an iiiaeanoai ai?iaeia aac
iieiioeaiiie ai?iaeneie n?aaeu, n iaaeinoaoi/ii ai?iaeneie
ooieoeeiiaeueiie no?oeoo?ie, n ia aiieia ai?iaeneei ianaeaieai. Eae ie
ia?aaeienaeueii yoi cao/eo, ii iiiaea ?inneeneea ai?iaea iaaeinoaoi/ii
o?aaiece?iaaiu. Aua a 1910 a. A.I.Naiaiia-Oyi-Oaineee iioaeeeiaae a
eieaa “Ai?iae e aea?aaiy a Aa?iiaeneie ?innee” aeaiiua i?iaaaeaiiiai ei
aiaeeca ai?iaeia. Ec 761 ai?iaea, eioi?ua eiaeenue a oi a?aiy ia
oa??eoi?ee ?innee (a oiaaeaoieo a?aieoeao), e “enoeiiui”( ii iieacaoaeth
“oi?aiai-i?iiuoeaiiie aieeinoe”) ii ioian 534, a 327 eee ieiei 30%
iauaai /enea, enoeiiuie ai?iaeaie ia yaeyeenue. ?acoeueoaou yoie ?aaiou
iieacaee, /oi cia/eoaeueiay /anoue ?inneeneeo ai?iaeia auee eeoue
yeiiiie/anee iaiieiioeaiiuie aaeieieno?aoeaiuie oeaio?aie. *anoue
ai?iaeia yaii aeaa?aaee?iaaea e iaoiaeeeanue ia iooe aica?auaiey a ?yaeu
naeueneeo iinaeaiee, /oi ia i?ioyaeaiee anaai XIX a., a oaeaea a ia?aua
aeanyoeeaiey niaaoneie aeanoe e i?ienoiaeeei.

?inney aiieia caneoaeeea iacaaiea no?aiu, a eioi?ie naoue ai?iaeia
iaoiaeeeanue ia i?ioyaeaiee aaeia a ninoiyiee ia?iaiaioiie ia?ano?ieee,
ana a?aiy aaeaioe?othuaeny e eciaiythueiny oneiaeyi, a /anoiinoe,
?aaae?othuae ia ?anoe?aiea ainoaea?noaaiiuo a?aieoe, no?ieoaeuenoai
aeaeaciuo aei?ia, inaiaiea iiauo ?aeiiia.

IEA?AOeEE IANAEAIEss
( 3 *ANOUe )

Iauea oaiaeaioeee

Iea?aoeeiiiua nayce ?innee iiaoo auoue iiiyou oieueei a eiioaenoa
auaoaai NNN?. Aai oa??eoi?ey e iinea ?aniaaea Nithca i?iaeieaeaao
inoaaaoueny aaeeiui iea?aoeeiiiui i?ino?ainoaii aeey ianaeaiey aiiaue
ia?aciaaiiuo ainoaea?noa.

Enoi?e/anee inaiaiea ia?iiiuo i?ino?ainoa ?inneeneie eiia?ee
nii?iaiaeaeaeinue aeaeaeaieai ianaeaiey ec oeaio?aeueiuo ?aeiiia no?aiu
e aa ie?aeiai. Iinoaiaiii ?onneea, a iinea e oe?aeioeu, canaeeee
aannaeiu ?ae Aeiia e Eoaaie ia Naaa?iii Eaaeaca, ?ani?ino?aieeenue a
N?aaeiai e Ieaeiai Iiaieaeuea, ia O?aea e a Naaa?iii Eacaonoaia, a
Neae?e e ia Aeaeueiai Ainoiea. A niaaoneia a?aiy oeaio?iaaaeiia
aeaeaeaiea ianaeaiey i?iaeieaeaeinue, ii oaea ia oieueei ec
noa?iinaiaiiuo ?aeiiia ?innee e Oe?aeiu, ii e ec Iieaeaaee, Aaei?onnee
ia Naaa?, Ainoie e THai-Ainoie NNN?.

Iinoaiaiii neooaoeey iaiyeanue. Aeaiia?aoe/aneea ?ano?nu noa?iinaiaiiuo
?aeiiia ?innee enoiuaeenue, e e 60-i aiaeai aeaa ec ieo –
Naaa?i-Caiaaeiue e Oeaio?aeueiue – naie noaee iuouaoue aeaoeoeeo
o?oaeiauo ?ano?nia e i?aa?aoeeenue a i?eoyaeaathuea ?aeiiu. N yoiai
a?aiaie aeaaiue aaeoi? iea?aoeeiiiuo aeaeaeaiee ia oa??eoi?ee NNN? ia/ae
i?eia?aoaoue oeaio?ino?aieoaeueioth i?eaioaoeeth, eioi?ay ieii/aoaeueii
ooaa?aeeeanue ni aoi?ie iieiaeiu 70-o aiaeia. Yoiio niinianoaiaaee
aa?a?iia ia?aianaeaiea, aeanoeay eiieo?aioeey ia ?uieao o?oaea, auno?i
oaaee/eaathueeny neie eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiuo eaae?ia ei?aiiuo
iaoeeiiaeueiinoae a Caeaaeacuea, N?aaeiae Acee, Eacaonoaia. Yoi
iiaeoaeeeaaei i?eoeia ianaeaiea e auacaeo ioooaea.

Eciaiaiea a iai?aaeaiee iea?aoeee auei i/aiue ?aceei, a aeaeaeaiea
ianaeaiey a ?inneth noaei aeiaieueii iiuiui. Anee a ia?eiae 1961-1970
aiaeia iaooi-iea?aoeey ec ?innee a ae?oaea ?anioaeeee ninoaaee aieaa 1,1
iei. /aeiaae, oi oieueei ca 1991-1994 aiaeu aa iieacaoaeue i?aaunee 1,9
iei. /aeiaae. Aeaceioaa?aoeey NNN? eeoue oneeeea oaiaeaioeeth, /aoei
iaicia/eaoothny caaeieai aei ia?ano?ieee. Aai eieeain, ?aoi?ie?iaaiea
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneie e iieeoe/aneie nenoaiu io?aceeenue ia
iea?aoeeyo ianaeaiey i/aiue neeueii.

?aniaae NNN?, nii?iaiaeaeaaiue ino?uie iaoeeiiaeueiuie eiioeeeoaie, ia
iiaee?aieaiiue aa?aioeyie a ioiioaiee iniiaiuo a?aaeaeaineeo i?aa
(eiouanoaaiiuo, o?oaeiauo, iaineiiiuo, aeeeeuiuo) aeey eeoe, ieacaaoeony
aae?oa “ca a?aieoeae”, aucaae neeueiia iio?ynaiea o ianaeaiey e i?eaae e
“nuaaeeaaieth” iea?aoeee. Iea?aoeeiiiue iai?io oiaiueoeeny ii/oe aaeaia,
e aai nie?auaiea i?iaeieaeaeinue aieioue aei 1993a. Anee noiia?iia /enei
iea?aioia (i?eauaoeo e auauaoeo) ninoaaeyei niioaaonoaaiii a 1989 a.
6639 e 6194 oun. /aeiaae, oi a 1994 a. 4294 e 3428 oun. /aeiaae.
Iniaaiii neeueii nie?aoeeny auacae naeueneiai ianaeaiey a ai?iaea,
aneaaenoaea /aai ?acoeueoe?othuee aaeoi? naeuenei-ai?iaeneeo iea?aoeee
i?eia?ae i?ioeaiiieiaeiia iai?aaeaiea – a noi?iio naea.

Ia oa??eoi?ee auaoaai NNN? oe?ieia ?ani?ino?aiaiea iieo/eee
auioaeaeaiiua iea?aoeee, eiathuea y?ei au?aaeaiioth yoie/aneoth ie?aneo.
A ia/aea 1995a. a ?innee ca?aaeno?e?iaaii 702,5 oun. aaaeaioeaa ec no?ai
NIA e ?anioaeee naiie ?innee, i?e yoii 2/3 aaaeaioeaa – ?onneea.

A 1993a. iaiaoeeenue, a a 1994 a. oaea yaii iaicia/eeenue i?eciaee
auoiaea ec e?eceniie neooaoeee: i?ae?aoeeinue iaaeaiea iiaeeueiinoe
ianaeaiey (a 1994a. iia aeaaea ianeieueei oaaee/eeanue), ainnoaiiaeeny
ii?iaeueiue aaeain naeuenei-ai?iaeneeo iea?aoeee (n oie oieueei
?acieoeae, /oi oaia?ue ia oieueei ai?iae, ii e naeueneay ianoiinoue
eiatho cia/eoaeueiue i?eoie ianaeaiey), oaaee/eeny i?eoie ianaeaiey a
?inneth.

A 1993 – 1994 aiaeao ia?yaeo ni no?anniauie oaeoi?aie, ii/oe iieiinoueth
ii?aaeaeyaoeie iea?aoeee a i?aaeoanoaothuea aeaa aiaea, io/aoeeai
i?iyaeeinue ii?iaeecothuaa aicaeaenoaea yeiiiie/aneeo oaeoi?ia. ?inney
?aiueoa aieueoeinoaa ae?oaeo auaoeo ?anioaeee ia/aea ?uii/iua
i?aia?aciaaiey e i?ioeann i?eaaoecaoeee, caeanue nouanoaaiii ieaea
eioeyoeey, a ?inneeneee ?oaeue – naiay e?aieay aaethoa a NIA. Ianiio?y
ia cia/eoaeueiia iaaeaiea i?iecaiaenoaa, ?acaeaaaony ?uiie o?oaea a
/anoiie noa?a – a aeciana, eiiia?oeee, noa?a oneoa, no?ieoaeuenoaa. Yoi
iicaieyao aaaeaioeai iieo/eoue enoi/iee n?aaenoa nouanoaiaaiey,
i?eaeaeaao yeiiiie/aneeo iea?aioia, nicaeaao oneiaey aeey ?acaeoey
a?aiaiiie o?oaeiaie iea?aoeee a ?inneth.

Aeaaiaea?y iieeoeea ioe?uouo aeaa?ae ?inney auno?i aoiaeeo a nenoaio
iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo iea?aoeee. I?ioea iaeeaeaiee, ?aceiai oaaee/aiey
yiea?aoeee ec ?innee ca i?aaeaeu auaoaai NNN? iinea oiai, eae n 1993a.
aue aaaaeai caeii i naiaiaeiii auacaea-auacaea, ia i?iecioei.
Yiea?aoeeiiiue iioie eieaaeaony ieiei aaee/eiu a 100 oun. /aeiaae a
aiae. Ianiiiaiii, oaeoe/aneay yiea?aoeey aieueoa ioeoeeaeueiuo aeaiiuo,
oae eae yiea?aioaie noaiiayony iiiaea ec oao, eoi auacaeaao n ae?oaeie
oeaeyie. Ii ynii e oi, /oi yiea?aoeeiiiiai ac?uaa ia i?iecioei. Ia?yaeo
n aiaoieie ia?aie/aieyie yiea?aoeeth naea?aeeaaao iieeoeea ioe?uouo
aeaa?ae e ii?iaeueiiai ioiioaiey e yiea?aioai.

Iniiao yiea?aoeee ana aua ninoaaeyao yoie/aneay yiea?aoeey – aieaa
iieiaeiu iioiea yoi iaioeu, 12% – aa?ae. Iaeiaei auno?i aic?anoaao e
aeiey ?onneeo, n?aaee yiea?aioia eo oaea a aeaa ?aca aieueoa, /ai
aa?aaa. Iniiaiua no?aiu eiiea?aoeee – Aa?iaiey, Ec?aeeue, NOA (oaaeeoea
1). Nia?aiaiiay yiea?aoeey ec ?innee iineo yaiue ioia/aoie “ooa/ee oiia”
– 20,7% yiea?aioia eiatho aunoaa ia?aciaaiea, 27,8% – n?aaeiaa e
iacaeii/aiiia aunoaa. Iinea niyoey aeanoeiai iia?aie/iiai eiio?iey a
?innee iiyaeeenue a cia/eoaeueiii eiee/anoaa eiiea?aiou ec-ca i?aaeaeia
auaoaai NNN?. Eo o/ao iiea ia iaeaaeai, ii ynii, /oi ?a/ue eaeao i
nioiyo ouny/. Eiiea?aiou a ?inneth – auoiaeoeu ec aaaeiuo no?ai Acee e
Ao?eee. Yoi yeiiiie/aneea eiiea?aiou, euouea ca?aaioeia, – eeoaeoeu e
aueaoiaioeu, aaaeaioeu, nianathueany io aieiu e i?aneaaeiaaiee –
aoaaioeu, aeeoaee E?aea e iiiaeo no?ai Ao?eee, o?aiceoiua eiiea?aiou,
eniieuecothuea ioe?uoinoue ?innee aeey i?iieeiiaaiey ia Caiaae.

I?ino?ainoaaiiay ea?oeia iea?aoeeiiiuo i?ioeannia

Ca ia?eiae iaaeaeo ia?aienyie 1979 a. e 1989a. a oeaeii ?inney iieo/eea
1,7 iei. /aeiaae /enoiai iea?aoeeiiiiai i?e?inoa ianaeaiey. ?aaeiiu
?innee iaeanoiiai ?aiaa aeaeeeenue ia i?eieiathuea e ioaeathuea ii/oe
ii?iaio – 34 e 37 niioaaonoaaiii. *enoue i?eoie ianaeaiey a i?eieiathuea
?aaeiiu ninoaaee 3498 oun. /aeiaae. I?eoie ioee/aeny /?acau/aeiie
oa??eoi?eaeueiie eiioeaio?aoeeae: 28% aai i?eoeinue ia Iineianeoth e 12%
ia Eaieia?aaeneoth aaeiia?aoeee, aua /aoaa?oue i?eiyea Othiaineay
iaeanoue a Caiaaeiie Neae?e, aaea eioaineaii ia?aueaaeny e?oiiaeoee
iaooaaaciaue eiiieaen. Oaeei ia?acii, anaai o?e iaeanoe, a eioi?uo
i?iaeeaaei 17% ianaeaiey no?aiu, “iiaeioeee” ii/oe 2/3 iieiaeeoaeueiie
iaooi-iea?aoeee. A i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue i?eoieo, iooie ianaeaiey
(io?eoeaoaeueiay iaooi-iea?aoeey), ninoaaeaoee a noiia 1731 oun.
/aeiaae, ?ani?aaeaeyeny ii oa??eoi?ee aeiaieueii ?aaiiia?ii.

Iaeaieueoee ioiineoaeueiue iea?aoeeiiiue i?e?ino a 80-a aiaeu iieo/eee
Aceaoneee naaa?, Oaaa?ianeee e I?eii?neee e?ay. Ia thaa Neae?e
/a?aaeiaaeenue ?aaeiiu n iacia/eoaeueiui i?eoieii, eeai n iooieii
ianaeaiey. Aa?iiaeneay /anoue i?aaenoaaeyea niaie oa??eoi?eth,
i?aeiouanoaaiii oa?ythuoth ianaeaiea. Ia iauai oiia auaeaeyeenue eeoue
ioaeaeueiua a?aaeu i?eoyaeaiey – Iineianeay, Eaieia?aaeneay e Io?iaineay
iaeanoe, naaa?iay /anoue Naaa?iiai Eaaeaca.

Iinea ?aniaaea NNN? oa??eoi?ey ?innee /aoei iiaeaeeeanue ia aeaa ciiu –
i?eieiathuoth e ioaeathuoth. I?e yoii “iethn” e “ieion” iiiaiyeenue
ianoaie. Aanue Naaa? (ca eneeth/aieai Othiaineiai), ?aiaa eioaineaii
i?eoyaeaathuee ianaeaiea, oaia?ue noieue aea eioaineaii aai oa?yao.
*oeioea anaai ca 2 aiaea (1993-1994) iioa?yea 22% ianaeaiey,
Iaaaaeaineay iaeanoue – 15%, Ei?yeneee, Yaaieeeneee e Iaiaoeeee
aaoiiiiiua ie?oaa – ieiei 10%, Eai/aoneay iaeanoue e Oaeiu?neee ie?oa –
ii 7%, Naoaeeineay iae. – 5%, Io?iaineay iaeanoue e ?anioaeeea Eiie –
ieiei 4%. Anaai ca 1990-1994aiaeu E?aeiee Naaa? e i?e?aaiaiiua e iaio ii
oneiaeyi i?iaeeaaiey oa??eoi?ee iioa?yee 770 oun. /aeiaae ianaeaiey
(ieiei 8% ianaeaiey). Ia?aoiae ia ?uii/iua ioiioaiey, nie?auaiea
naaa?iuo eueaio, i?ae?auaiea a ?yaea neo/aaa athaeaeaoiiai
oeiaine?iaaiey iaiaaeeee ana ino?ua i?iaeaiu ?inneeneiai Naaa?a, a
ia?aoth i/a?aaeue ieceoth yooaeoeaiinoue e ia?aoeeiiaeueioth no?oeoo?o
aai oicyenoaa e iaii?aaaeaiiia “iiiaiethaeuea”. Iiyoiio iooie ianaeaiey
n Naaa?a a ?uii/iuo oneiaeyo iaecaaaeai.

Ainoi/iay Neae?ue e Aeaeueiee Ainoie i?aaenoaaeytho nieioioth ciio
iooiea n ae?aieaieyie a?aaeia iaonoie/eaiai neaaiai ?inoa.
Aeaeueiaainoi/iue ?aaeii ca 5 eao (1990-1994 aiaeu) iioa?ye 475 oun.
/aeiaae (6% ianaeaiey). Iooie ianaeaiey ec yoiai ?aaeiia iaaethaeaaony
aia?aua ca anth enoi?eth aai inaiaiey ?onneeie.

Any Aa?iiaeneay /anoue ?innee (e?iia Naaa?a), O?ae e Caiaaeiay Neae?ue a
nia?aiaiiue ia?eiae i?aaenoaaeytho nieioioth ciio i?eoyaeaiey iea?aioia.
Aeaaea oaeea o?aaeeoeeiiiua ?aeiiu iooiea, eae Aieai-Ayoneee,
Oeaio?aeueii-*a?iicaiiue, O?aeueneee (ia?aua aeaa ec eioi?uo iinoiyiii
oa?yee ianaeaiea n eiioea i?ioeiai aaea, a iineaaeiee n 50-o aiaeia OO
a.) iuia eiatho cia/eoaeueiue iea?aoeeiiiue i?e?ino .Iaeaieueoaa
iea?aoeeiiiia aeaaeaiea eniuouaatho thaeiue i?ea?aie/iue iiyn
Aa?iiaeneie /anoe e O?aea, Oeaio?aeueiue ?aeii e Caiaaeiay Neae?ue.
Aianoa n oai, aiiaue, eae e aei ?aniaaea NNN?, ia ia?aia ianoi ii
i?eoyaeaieth iea?aioia a ?innee auoae Oeaio?. Ii anee ?aiueoa ii/oe
aanue i?eoie a ?aeii iiaeiuaee Iineaa e Iineianeay iaeanoue, oi oaia?ue
iea?aoeeiiiue i?e?ino ?ani?aaeaeyaony ii ?aeiio ioiineoaeueii
?aaiiia?ii, a aeiey Iineau e noiee/iie iaeanoe oiaea aei 30%.

Eciaiaiey einioeenue oaeaea anao aa?iiaeneeo aaoiiiiiuo ?anioaeee
?innee. Ana iie, ca eneeth/aieai Ea?aeee, ?aiueoa ioaeaaaee ianaeaiea,
oaia?ue ana (e?iia *a/ie e Eaeiueee) aai iieo/atho, iniaaiii eioaineaii
Aeaaanoai, i?eieiathuee aaaeaioeaa ec *a/ie.

Aeaceioaa?aoeey NNN? ni?iaioee?iaaea aica?aoiua yoie/aneea iioiee “ia
?iaeeio”, aeaaiui ia?acii, ec N?aaeiae Acee, Eacaonoaia, Caeaaeacuey e
naaa?iie ciiu ?innee. Iea?aoeey ec aaoiiiiee Naaa?iiai Eaaeaca,
Iiaieaeuey, O?aea auea a cia/eoaeueiie ia?a nii?yaeaia n ecauoeii
?aai/ae neeu e n aa?a?iui ia?aianaeaieai. Iiyoiio aica?aoiua iioiee
iea?aioia iaino?ytho eiieo?aioeeth ia ?uieao o?oaea e caiee a yoeo
?anioaeeeao e i?aaenoaaeytho na?ueaciue oaeoi? nioeeaeueiie
iai?yaeaiiinoe.

Iea?aoeee ai?iaeneiai ianaeaiey

A 80-a aiaeu iniiaiie iea?aoeeiiiue iioie iai?aaeyeny a ai?iaea
caiaaeiuo ?aeiiia ?innee – a Naaa?i-Caiaaeiue, Oeaio?aeueiue,
Oeaio?aeueii-*a?iicaiiue (39% iea?aoeeiiiiai i?e?inoa ianaeaiey
ai?iaeia).

Caiaaeiay ciia auno?iai ?inoa ai?iaeia ?innee niueaeanue n aiaeiae/iuie
ciiaie Oe?aeiu e Aaei?onnee, i/a?/eaay aeaaiue a?aae ?inoa e i?eoyaeaiey
iea?aioia a i?aaeaeao NNN?. Ca i?aaeaeaie yoie ciiu a Aa?iiaeneie /anoe
?innee a?aaeu auno?iai iea?aoeeiiiiai ?inoa ai?iaeia ninoaaeee
?anioaeeee Iiaieaeuey, E?aniiaea?neee e Noaa?iiieueneee e?ay, Io?iaineay
iaeanoue e ?anioaeeea Eiie ia Naaa?a. Eioaineaii i?eoyaeaaee ianaeaiea
ai?iaea Aceaoneiai Naaa?a e ainoi/iiai iiaa?aaeuey, ii a aaniethoiii
cia/aiee iioie a ai?iaea oai cia/eoaeueii onooiae caiaaeiiio.

A 1994a. any Aa?iiaeneay /anoue (e?iia Naaa?a), O?ae, THa Caiaaeiie
Neae?e noaee nieioiie ciiie i?eoyaeaiey iea?aioia. I?e yoii
ioiineoaeueiue eo i?e?ino nouanoaaiii oaaee/eeny ii n?aaiaieth n
ia?eiaeii 80-o aiaeia. Eiyooeoeeaiou iea?aoeeiiiiai i?e?inoa ai?iaeneiai
ianaeaiey ii aieueoeinoao iaeanoae yoie /anoe no?aiu oaeaieeenue, a ii
iia?aie/iui iaeanoyi – oo?ieeenue.

Ec ai?iaeneeo iinaeaiee neae?neiai Naaa?a eaeao iaaaeueiue iooie
ianaeaiey, aani?aoeaaeaioiue ii eioaineaiinoe. Noieue aea auno?i oa?yao
ianaeaiea Naoaeei, i?e/ai ?acia?u iioa?ue nae/an a 20 ?ac aieueoa, /ai a
80-a aiaeu. Ai?iaea THaa Neae?e noaaie?otho. A eoiaa n?aaeiaaiaeiaua
iieacaoaee iea?aoeeiiiiai i?e?inoa ai?iaeia eciaieeenue iaei – 6
i?iieeea a 80-a aiaeu e 5 – a 1994a., ii i?iecioea neeueiay iiey?ecaoeey
“iea?aoeeiiiiai i?ino?ainoaa”.

Iea?aoeey naeueneiai ianaeaiey

Aieioue aei 90-o aiaeia ana ?aeiiu ?innee i?iaeieaeaee “ioaeaaaoue”
naeueneia ianaeaiea, oioy ii n?aaiaieth n 60-ie e 70-ie aiaeaie iooie
nie?aoeeny a aeaa ?aca. I?iaeieaeathueeny iianaianoiue iooie ec naea
aiai?eo i oii, /oi i?ioeann o?aaiecaoeee a ?innee aeaeaei aua ia
caaa?oeeny. I?e?ino naeueneiai ianaeaiey eiaee eeoue Iineianeay e
Eaieia?aaeneay iaeanoe e ioaeaeueiua ie?aeiiua iaeanoe ia Naaa?a e ia
Aeaeueiai Ainoiea.

Iea?aoeeiiiue iooie ec naeueneie ianoiinoe ca 1979 – 1988 aiaeu ninoaaee
9,1 iei. /aeiaae, ii/oe 1% ianaeaiey a n?aaeiai ca aiae. I?e yoii
eioaineaiinoue iooiea ia anai i?ino?ainoaa iniiaiie iieinu ?annaeaiey
(e?iia thaa Aeaeueiaai Ainoiea) auea i/aiue auniea.

Ia/eiay n 1991a., naei ?innee iieo/aao cia/eoaeueiue iea?aoeeiiiue
i?e?ino ianaeaiey, ninoaaeaoee ca 1991-1994 aiaeu 855 oun. /aeiaae –
0,6% a n?aaeiai ca aiae. Yoi caiaoii i?aainoiaeeei i?eoie a ai?iaea,
ninoaaeaoee ca oi aea ia?eiae 650 oun. /aeiaae. Eiaa?ney a
naeuenei-ai?iaeneie iea?aoeee a ia?eiae, eiaaea o?aaiecaoeey aua aeaeaei
ia caaa?oaia, – yoi y?eia naeaeaoaeuenoai aeoaeiu
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneiai e?ecena, ia?aaeeaaaiiai ?inneae.

A /anoe nia?aiaiiie naeueneie iea?aoeee ioia/aaony aeaeaiea oa??eoi?ee
no?aiu ia aeaa ?acei i?ioeaiiieiaeiua ciiu. Iaooi-iea?aoeee ii naeueneie
e ai?iaeneie ianoiinoyi i?aeoe/anee niaiaaeatho, /aai ia auei ie a 80-a
aiaeu, ie ?aiueoa. Iineieueeo iea?aoeee oanii naycaiu n ?uieii o?oaea, a
aieaa oe?iei – n iaee/eai enoi/ieeia n?aaenoa nouanoaiaaiey, ?aaiiia?iia
?annaeaiea iea?aioia ii iaeaieaa inaiaiiie /anoe no?aiu
naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i oii, /oi yeiiiie/aneea oneiaey ia anai yoii
i?ino?ainoaa i?eia?ii eaeaioe/iu. I?e yoii caiaoiua iiethna ?inoa,
oieone?othuea iea?aoeeiiiua iioiee, ionoonoaotho. Eiuie neiaaie,
yeiiiie/aneee e?ecen i?eaae e a?aiaiiiio “naeaaeeaaieth” iiethnia
i?eoyaeaiey iea?aioia a iaeaieaa inaiaiiie ciia no?aiu. Iaeiia?aiaiii
?acei iaicia/eeenue ?acee/ey iaaeaeo Naaa?ii e THaii ?innee.

Aioo?aiiea iea?aoeee.

Niaae iea?aoeeiiiie iiaeeueiinoe ianaeaiey, eioi?ue iaaethaeaeny iinea
?aniaaea Nithca e i eioi?ii aiai?eeinue auoa, i?iecioae aeaaiui ia?acii
ca n/ao aioo?aiieo iea?aoeee, i?e/ai a iniiaiii ca n/ao naeueneiai
ianaeaiey.

Ai aioo?aiieo iea?aoeeyo a e?eceniue ia?eiae oyaioaiea ianaeaiey e
noa?iiaaeeoui ?aeiiai au?aceeinue iaeaieaa neeueii. I/aaeaeia
i?aaeii/oeoaeueiinoue thaeiuo, iaeaieaa eiioi?oiuo ii i?e?iaeiui
oneiaeyi ?aaeiiia Aa?iiaeneie /anoe no?aiu. *aoei iaicia/eeny
thai-caiaaeiue aaeoi? iea?aoeeiiiiai aeaeaeaiey.

Ethaiiuoiu ?acee/ey iaaeaeo aaoiiiiiuie ?anioaeeeaie. Oaoa?ey e Aaoee?ey
aeiaieueii neeueii i?eoyaeaatho ianaeaiea. I?eieiay ai aieiaiea
nio?aiythuothny ino?ioo iaoeeiiaeueiiai aii?ina a ?innee, iiaeii
caeeth/eoue, /oi yoe ?anioaeeee i?eoyaeaatho oaoa? e aaoee? ia oieueei
ec auaoeo ?anioaeee, ii e ec ?aaeiiia ?innee. Yoiai iaeuecy neacaoue i
?anioaeeeao Iiaieaeuey, /uee oeooeueiua ia?iaeu ia au?aaeatho iniaiai
i?aaeii/oaiey “naiei” ?anioaeeeai. ?anioaeeee Naaa?iiai Eaaeaca oa?ytho
ianaeaiea a ?acoeueoaoa auacaea ?onneeo.

Iea?aoeee iaaeaeo ?inneae e ainoaea?noaaie- ?anioaeeeaie auaoaai NNN?

Aeaeaeaiea ianaeaiey a ?inneth inoaaony aeaaiui iea?aoeeiiiui o?aiaeii
ia oa??eoi?ee auaoaai NNN?. ?acaae Nithca aeoeaece?iaae auacae ec auaoeo
?anioaeee, ii ia oae neeueii, eae i?eiyoi aeoiaoue. Aii?aee
onoaiiaeaoaiony iiaieth, /enoay iea?aoeey a ?inneth oaaee/eeanue a
aieueoae noaiaie ca n/ao nie?auaiey auacaea ec ?innee, a ia oaaee/aiey
auacaea a iaa. Oaaee/aiea auacaea i?e iaeiia?aiaiiii nie?auaiee auacaea
i?eaaei e auno?iio oaaee/aieth /enoiai iea?aoeeiiiiai i?e?inoa ianaeaiey
?innee.

A 1994a. ?inney iieo/eea i?eoie ianaeaiey aaniethoii ec anao no?ai –
auaoeo ?anioaeee Nithca. Iaiaoeeanue oaiaeaioeey nie?auaiey i?eoiea a
?inneth ec no?ai Aaeoee, naeaeaoaeuenoaoy i oaiaeaioeee ii?iaeecaoeee
oai iieiaeaiey ?onneeo. I?iaeieaeaao ia?anoaoue iea?aoeey ec no?ai
Caeaaeacuey (iniaaiii ec A?iaiee), aaea ia i?ae?auathony aii?oaeaiiua
eiioeeeou e ianaeaiea oa?ieo aieueoea eeoaiey. 1994a. i?eian ?aceia
oaaee/aiea i?eoiea ec Ocaaeenoaia e iniaaiii ec Eacaonoaia.

Naiua cia/eoaeueiua eciaiaiey i?iecioee a iaiaia n Oe?aeiie. A 1991 –
1992 aiaeao Oe?aeia, eae e ?inney, i?eieiaea ianaeaiea. A iniiaiii yoi
auee oe?aeioeu, aica?auaaoeany aeiiie n ?onneiai Naaa?a. Iooie ianaeaiey
ia Oe?aeio niya/ae neooaoeeth a ?innee, oiaiueoay iea?aoeeiiiia
aeaaeaiea ia aa oeaio?aeueiua e thai-caiaaeiua ?aeiiu, oai naiui
nouanoaaiii iaeaa/ay a?aiy auioaeaeaiiie iea?aoeee. A 1993a. iooie ia
Oe?aeio i?ae?aoeeny, a a 1994a. aaeoi? iea?aoeee iiiaiye iai?aaeaiea a
iieueco ?innee. ?inney iieo/eea ia oieueei aieueoie i?eoie iinoiyiiuo
iea?aioia, ii e aieueoie iioie a?aiaiiuo ?aai/eo ec Oe?aeiu e, /anoe/ii,
ec ae?oaeo no?ai NIA. Ia eiiaoe 1994a. a ?innee oieueei ii eeoeaiceyi
?aaioaei 73,7 oun. a?aiaiiuo ?aai/eo ec no?ai-auaoeo ?anioaeee, ec ieo
55 oun. (74,6%) ec Oe?aeiu. Iaca?aaeno?e?iaaiiue iioie oaeeo a?aiaiiuo
?aai/eo ianiiiaiii iiiai aieueoa.

Oneeaiea iea?aoeeiiiiai oyaioaiey e ?innee – i?yiia naeaeaoaeuenoai
eo/oaai yeiiiie/aneiai iieiaeaiey e aieaa noaaeeueiie nioeeaeueiie
ianoaiiaee a no?aia ii n?aaiaieth n ninaaeyie. Iniiaiay /anoue iea?aioia
ec auaoeo ?anioaeee – ?onneea: 77% iioiea a 1992a. e 63% a 1993-1994
aiaeao. Iiae aeeyieai i?ienoaaeoeo ia?aiai iieiaeaiea ?onneiycu/iiai
ianaeaiey ca i?aaeaeaie ?innee neeueii ineiaeieeinue. Ino?ioa
nia?aiaiiie iea?aoeeiiiie neooaoeee caeeth/aaony ia noieueei a aic?inoeo
ianooaaao iea?aoeee ec auaoeo ?anioaeee, neieueei a oii, /oi
cia/eoaeueiay /anoue nia?aiaiiuo iea?aioia – auioaeaeaiiua ia?anaeaioeu
e aaaeaioeu, auacaeathuea ec ninaaeieo ainoaea?noa iiae aeeyieai
?acee/iuo ianoiyoaeuenoa.

?aiao?eaoeey ?onneeo, eae yoi aeaeii ec oaaeeoeu 4, i?ienoiaeeo
ia?aaiiia?ii, /ooei ?aaae?oy ia nioeeaeueii-iieeoe/aneoth neooaoeeth.
Iie, iiaeii neacaoue, iaaaeueii auacaeatho ec ?aeiiia aii?oaeaiiuo
eiioeeeoia. A oa/aiea iyoe eao (1990-1994) ec ianeaayineeo ?anioaeee a
?inneth auaoaee 1,7 iei /aeiaae eee 14% i?iaeeaathueo oai ?onneeo.
Auacae ec ?anioaeee, ioaa/aiiuo aieiie, ai?acaei aieueoa – ec
Oaaeaeeeenoaia – 42% (noiia?iua iioa?e N?aaeiae Acee – 21%), ec no?ai
Caeaaeacuey – 37%. Ia yoii oiia iioa?e ae?oaeo auaeyaeyo oia?aiiuie:
ainoaea?noaa Aaeoee e Eacaonoai iioa?yee ii 8% ?onneeo, Iieaeaaey – 4%.

Ana ?aaeiiu ?innee, ca eneeth/aieai e?aeiaai Naaa?i-Ainoiea e Naoaeeia,
oaaee/eee ianaeaiea a ?acoeueoaoa i?eoiea iea?aioia ec auaoeo ?anioaeee.
Oai ia iaiaa, ?aaeiiaeueiua i?aaeii/oaiey ynii au?aaeaiu e caeanue: yoi
i?ea?aie/iua caiaaeiua e thaeiua iaeanoe, Oeaio?, Caiaaeiay Neae?ue. Ia
iauai oiia iacia/eoaeueiui i?eoieii auaeaeythony Iineianeay e
Eaieia?aaeneay iaeanoe. Aeaei caeanue ia a i?aaeii/oaieyo, a a
o?oaeiinoyo iieo/aiey aeaea ia aeeoaeuenoai a Iineaa e Naieo-Iaoa?ao?aa.
A ?acoeueoaoa a noieeoeao nin?aaeioi/aii iiiai iaca?aaeno?e?iaaiiuo
iea?aioia.

Oa?aeoa?ii, /oi ?onneea ?aiao?eaiou ecaaaatho naeeoueny a iaoeeiiaeueiuo
aaoiiiieyo. A oi aea a?aiy aaoiiiiee noyaeaatho ec ?anioaeee oeooeueiia
ianaeaiea. Oaeei ia?acii, a aaoiiiieyo ?onneea caiauathony oeooeueiui
ianaeaieai. Yoi naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i o?oaeiinoyo, eioi?ua eniuouaatho
iea?aiou ec ?anioaeee, i?e auai?a ianoa aeeoaeuenoaa a ?innee. Iie
aioiau aoaoue a ethaie ?aeii, aeaaea ia Naaa?. Aiciiaeii, caeanue
neacuaaaony iaaeinoaoi/iay inaaaeiieaiiinoue ia yeiiiie/aneii iieiaeaiee
a iniai e?eceniuo ?aaeiiao. Eae au oi ie auei, aiaoiee iaiai /anoe/ii
eiiiaine?oao iioa?e Ainoiea e Naaa?a ai aioo?aiieo iea?aoeeyo. Iiieii
yoiai, eneeth/eoaeueii ca n/ao auaoeo ?anioaeee iieo/aao iea?aoeeiiiue
i?e?ino naeueneay ianoiinoue ?innee, iiiieiyynue iieiaeui
aunieiia?aciaaiiui eiioeiaaioii. Yoi nicaeaao oi?iooth aeaiia?aoe/aneoth
iniiao aeey iiaeuaia yeiiiieee naeueneie ianoiinoe a aoaeouai.

Aaaeaioeu.

Ia?aua ianniaua iioiee aaaeaioeaa a ?innee iiyaeeenue iinea a?iyineeo
iia?iiia a Aaeo e oo?ie-ianoaoeioeaa a Ocaaeenoaia. N oao ii? eiee/anoai
aaaeaioeaa iai?a?uaii oaaee/eaaaony. N na?aaeeiu 1992a. aaaaeaia eo
?aaeno?aoeey, o/?aaeaeai niioaaonoaothuee noaoon, ii?aaeaeaiu iiniaey e
iaeioi?ua aeaeu iiiiue. A ?innee anoue aaaeaioeu eae ec auaoeo
?anioaeee, oae e ec eiioeeeoiuo ?aaeiiia ?innee – *a/ie, Inaoee.

A oa/aiea 1994 a. /enei aaaeaioeaa oaaee/eeinue ia 254,5 oun./aeiaae.
Yoi ninoaaeei aieaa 20% ii ioiioaieth e iauaio /eneo iea?aioia,
i?eauaoeo ec no?ai NIA e Aaeoee, a oaeaea ec eiioeeeoiuo cii Naaa?iiai
Eaaeaca. I?eauaoea ec Oaaeaeeeenoaia, A?ocee, *a/ie – i?aeoe/anee ana
aaaeaioeu, ec Aca?aaeaeaeaia – ia 80%. Aieia a *a/ia aucaaea iiaoth
iiuioth aieio aaaeaioeaa. Ca ia?aua o?e ianyoea 1995a. a Iea?aoeeiiioth
neoaeao n i?inueaie i ?aaeno?aoeee ia?aoeeinue ieiei 300 oun. aaaeaioeaa
ec *a/ie.

Ec iauaai eiee/anoaa aaaeaioeaa – 702,5 oun. a ia/aea 1995a. (22,5%)
auee ec Oaaeaeeeenoaia, 15,4% – ec A?ocee, 13% – ec Aca?aaeaeaeaia,
11,6% – ec Ocaaeenoaia, 13,2% – ec ?aaeiiia ?innee. A 1994a. iieiaeio
iiauo aaaeaioeaa aeaee Eacaonoai e Ocaaeenoai (ii/oe ii?iaio), 12,8% –
Ee?aecey. 2/3 ca?aaeno?e?iaaiiuo aaaeaioeaa – ?onneea, 7,6% – oaoa?u,
6,7% – a?iyia, 5,9% – inaoeiu, 3,4% – oe?aeioeu. 52,6% aaaeaioeaa aeeaoo
a ai?iaeao, ii eiyooeoeeaio iaa?ocee cia/eoaeueii auoa a naea – 69,5
/aeiaae ia 10 oun. aeeoaeae, a ai?iaea – 39,3 i?e n?aaeiai cia/aiee
iieacaoaey 47,5.

Aaaeaioeu ?annaeeeenue aoeaaeueii ii anae ?innee, e?iia sseooee,
*oeioee, *a/ie e Eiaooaoee. Iaeaieueoaa aeaaeaiea auioaeaeaiiie
iea?aoeee eniuouaatho Naaa?iay Inaoey (eiyooeoeeaio iaa?ocee 682
aaaeaioea ia 10 oun. aeeoaeae), Noaa?iiieueneee e?ae (159), I?aiao?aneay
iaeanoue (163), a oaeaea ana iaeanoe Oeaio?aeueii-*a?iicaiiiai e
Iiaieaeneiai (e?iia Eaeiueee) ?aaeiiia, ?yae iaeanoae Oeaio?a.

I?iaeaiu iea?aoeeiiiuo iioieia a ?inneth e ca aa i?aaeaeu noaiiayony ana
aieaa iiiaia?aiiuie e neiaeiuie. Iie ea?atho aaaeioth ?ieue a
nia?aiaiiii e ia?niaeoeaiii nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneii, iieeoe/aneii e
yoiieoeueoo?iii ?acaeoee ?innee e aa ?aaeiiia.

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