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Умозаключение и его виды. Превращение и обращение

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?aoa?ao ii eiaeea

nooaeaioee III eo?na a/a IAEO oaeoeueoaoa AII

ssioeiie Ia?ee

Oiicaeeth/aiea e aai aeaeu

I?aa?auaiea e ia?auaiea

A i?ioeanna iiciaiey aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe /aeiaae i?eia?aoaao iiaua
ciaiey. Iaeioi?ua ec ieo iieo/atho n iiiiuueth aeeaiai nica?oeaiey a
?acoeueoaoa aicaeaenoaey i?aaeiaoia aiaoiaai ie?a ia i?aaiu /oanoa.
Iaeiaei aieueooth /anoue ciaiee iu iieo/aai ia nooiaie aano?aeoiiai
iuoeaiey n iiiiuueth ?annoaeaeaiee, o.a. iooai auaaaeaiey iiauo ciaiee
ec ciaiee oaea eiathueony. Yoe ciaiey iacuaathony iiin?aaeiaaiiuie, eee
auaiaeiuie.

Eiae/aneie oi?iie iieo/aiey auaiaeiuo ciaiee yaeyaony oiicaeeth/aiea.

Oiicaeeth/aiea – yoi oi?ia iuoeaiey, iin?aaenoaii eioi?ie ec iaeiiai eee
ianeieueeeo noaeaeaiee auaiaeeony iiaia noaeaeaiea.

Ethaia oiicaeeth/aiea ninoieo ec iinueie, caeeth/aiey e auaiaea.
Iinueeaie oiicaeeth/aiey iacuaathony enoiaeiua ecaanoiua noaeaeaiey, ec
eioi?uo auaiaeeony iiaia noaeaeaiea. Caeeth/aieai iacuaaaony iiaia
noaeaeaiea, iieo/aiiia eiae/aneei iooai ec iinueie. Eiae/aneee ia?aoiae
io iinueie e caeeth/aieth iacuaaaony auaiaeii.

Iai?eia?: Noaeuey ia iiaeao o/anoaiaaoue a ?anniio?aiee aeaea, anee ii
yaeyaony iioa?iaaoei (1). Noaeuey I. – iioa?iaaoee (2). Cia/eo ii ia
iiaeao o/anoaiaaoue a ?anniio?aiee aeaea (3).

A yoii oiicaeeth/aiee 1-a e 2-a noaeaeaiey yaeythony iinueeaie, 3-a
noaeaeaiea – caeeth/aieai.

I?e aiaeeca oiicaeeth/aiey iinueee e caeeth/aiea i?eiyoi caienuaaoue
ioaeaeueii, ?aniieaaay eo ae?oa iiae ae?oaii. Caeeth/aiea caienuaatho
iiae ai?eciioaeueiie /a?oie, ioaeaeythuae aai io iinueie e iaicia/athuae
eiae/aneia neaaeiaaiea. Neiaa “neaaeiaaoaeueii” e aeeceea aio ii niuneo
(“cia/eo”, “iiyoiio” e o.i.) iiae /a?oie iau/ii ia ieooony. A
niioaaonoaee n yoei i?eaaaeaiiue i?eia? i?eiao neaaeothuee aeae:

Noaeuey ia iiaeao o/anoaiaaoue a ?anniio?aiee aeaea, anee ii yaeyaony
iioa?iaaoei

Noaeuey I. – iioa?iaaoee

Noaeuey I. ia iiaeao o/anoaiaaoue a ?anniio?aiee aeaea

p ( q, p

q

Ioiioaiea eiae/aneiai neaaeiaaiey iaaeaeo iinueeaie e caeeth/aieai
i?aaeiieaaaao naycue iaaeaeo iinueeaie ii niaea?aeaieth. Anee
niaea?aeaiea noaeaeaiee ?acee/ii, oi auaiae ec ieo iaaiciiaeai.
Iai?eia?, ec noaeaeaiee “Noaeuey ia iiaeao o/anoaiaaoue a ?anniio?aiee
aeaea, anee ii yaeyaony iioa?iaaoei” e “Iaaeiyaiue eiaao i?aai ia
caueoo” iaeuecy iieo/eoue caeeth/aiey, o.e. yoe noaeaeaiey ia eiatho
iauaai niaea?aeaiey e, neaaeiaaoaeueii, eiae/anee ia naycaiu ae?oa n
ae?oaii.

I?e iaee/ee niaea?aeaoaeueiie nayce iaaeaeo iinueeaie iu iiaeai
iieo/eoue a i?ioeanna ?annoaeaeaiey iiaia enoeiiia ciaiea i?e
niaethaeaiee aeaoo oneiaee: ai-ia?auo, aeieaeiu auoue enoeiiuie
enoiaeiua noaeaeaiey – iinueee oiicaeeth/aiey; ai-aoi?uo, a i?ioeanna
?annoaeaeaiey neaaeoao niaethaeaoue i?aaeea auaiaea, eioi?ua
iaoneiaeeaatho oi?iaeueioth i?aaeeueiinoue oiicaeeth/aiey.

A caaeneiinoe io no?iainoe i?aaee auaiaea ?acee/atho aeaa aeaea
oiicaeeth/aiee: aeaiiino?aoeaiua (iaiaoiaeeiua) e iaaeaiiino?aoeaiua
(i?aaaeiiiaeiaiua). Aeaiiino?aoeaiua oiicaeeth/aiey oa?aeoa?ecothony
oai, /oi caeeth/aiea a ieo n iaiaoiaeeiinoueth neaaeoao ec iinueie, o.a.
eiae/aneia neaaeiaaiea a oaeiai ?iaea auaiaeao i?aaenoaaeyao niaie
eiae/aneee caeii. A iaaeaiiino?aoeaiuo oiicaeeth/aieyo i?aaeea auaiaea
iaania/eaatho eeoue aa?iyoiia neaaeiaaiea caeeth/aiey ec iinueie.

Ia?yaeo n aeaeaieai oiicaeeth/aiee ii no?iainoe auaiaea aaaeiia cia/aiea
eiaao eo eeanneoeeaoeey ii iai?aaeaiiinoe eiae/aneiai neaaeiaaiey, o.a.
ii oa?aeoa?o nayce iaaeaeo ciaieai ?acee/iie noaiaie iauiinoe,
au?aaeaiiiio a iinueeao e caeeth/aiee. N yoie oi/ee c?aiey ?acee/atho
o?e aeaea oiicaeeth/aiee: aeaaeoeoeaiua (io iauaai ciaiey e /anoiiio),
eiaeoeoeaiua (io /anoiiai ciaiey e iauaio), oiicaeeth/aiey ii aiaeiaee
(io /anoiiai ciaiey e /anoiiio).

Aeaaeoeoeaiui (io eaoeineiai neiaa deductio – auaaaeaiea) iacuaaaony
oiicaeeth/aiea, a eioi?ii ia?aoiae io iauaai ciaiey e /anoiiio yaeyaony
eiae/anee iaiaoiaeeiui.

I?aaeea aeaaeoeoeaiiai auaiaea ii?aaeaeythony oa?aeoa?ii iinueie,
eioi?ua iiaoo auoue i?inouie (eaoaai?e/aneeie) eee neiaeiuie
noaeaeaieyie. A caaeneiinoe io eiee/anoaa iinueie aeaaeoeoeaiua auaiaeu
ec eaoaai?e/aneeo noaeaeaiee aeaeyony ia iaiin?aaenoaaiiua, a eioi?uo
caeeth/aiea auaiaeeony ec iaeiie iinueee, e iiin?aaenoaiaaiiua, a
eioi?uo caeeth/aiea auaiaeeony ec aeaoo iinueie.

Noaeaeaiea, niaea?aeauaa iiaia ciaiea, iiaeao auoue iieo/aii
iin?aaenoaii i?aia?aciaaiey iaeioi?iai noaeaeaiey. Iineieueeo enoiaeiia
(i?aia?acoaiia) noaeaeaiea ?anniao?eaaaony eae iinueea, a iiaia,
iieo/aiiia a ?acoeueoaoa i?aia?aciaaiey noaeaeaiea – eae caeeth/aiea,
oiicaeeth/aiey iin?aaenoaii i?aia?aciaaiey noaeaeaiee iacuaathony
iaiin?aaenoaaiiuie. E iei ioiinyony: i?aa?auaiea, ia?auaiea,
i?ioeaiiinoaaeaiea i?aaeeeaoo, oiicaeeth/aiey ii eiae/aneiio eaaae?aoo.

Auaiaeu a eaaeaeii ec yoeo oiicaeeth/aiee iieo/athony a niioaaonoaee n
ii?aaeaeaiiuie eiae/aneeie i?aaeeaie, eioi?ua, a naith i/a?aaeue,
ii?aaeaeythony aioo?aiiae no?oeoo?ie noaeaeaiey – eiee/anoaaiiie e
ea/anoaaiiie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie ioiioaiey iaaeaeo noauaeoii e i?aaeeeaoii.

I?aa?auaiea noaeaeaiey ninoieo a onoaiiaeaiee ioiioaiey noauaeoa e
iiiyoeth, i?ioeai?a/auaio i?aaeeeaoo enoiaeiiai noaeaeaiey. Iai?eia?, a
enoiaeiii noaeaeaiee “I. (S) niaa?oaiiieaoiee (P)” i?aaeeeaoii yaeyaony
iiiyoea i eeoeao, aeinoeaoeo niaa?oaiiieaoey. A iiiyoee, i?ioeai?a/auai
i?aaeeeaoo, iuneyony eeoea, ia aeinoeaoea niaa?oaiiieaoey. Ioiioaiea I.
e ianiaa?oaiiieaoiei neaaeoao, i/aaeaeii, au?aceoue a oi?ia
io?eoeaoaeueiiai noaeaeaiey “I. (S) ia yaeyaony ianiaa?oaiiieaoiei
(ia-P)”.

Oaeei ia?acii, ec ooaa?aeeoaeueiiai noaeaeaiey “S anoue P” iu iieo/eee
io?eoeaoaeueiia noaeaeaiea “S ia anoue ia-P”. Caeeth/aiea iie?aaony ia
i?aaeei auaiaea: aeaieiia io?eoeaiea ?aaiineeueii ooaa?aeaeaieth.

I?aia?aciaaiea noaeaeaiey a noaeaeaiea, i?ioeaiiieiaeiia ii ea/anoao n
i?aaeeeaoii, i?ioeai?a/auei i?aaeeeaoo enoiaeiiai noaeaeaiey, iacuaaaony
i?aa?auaieai.

I?aa?auaoue iiaeii ethaua eaoaai?e/aneea noaeaeaiey:
iauaooaa?aeeoaeueiua, iauaio?eoeaoaeueiua, /anoiiooaa?aeeoaeueiua e
/anoiiio?eoeaoaeueiua.

Iauaooaa?aeeoaeueiia noaeaeaiea (A) i?aa?auaaony a iauaio?eoeaoaeueiia
(A). Iai?eia?: “Anyeay oeeinioey yaeyaony ia?oeeiie. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, ie
iaeia oeeinioey ia yaeyaony aania?oeeiie”.

Noaia i?aa?auaiey noaeaeaiey A:

Ana S cooue ?

Ie iaeii S ia anoue ia-?

Iauaio?eoeaoaeueiia noaeaeaiea (A) i?aa?auaaony a iauaooaa?aeeoaeueiia
(A). Iai?eia?: “Ie iaeii ?aeeaeiciia o/aiea ia yaeyaony iao/iui.
Neaaeiaaoaeueii, anyeia ?aeeaeiciia o/aiea yaeyaony iaiao/iui”.

Noaia i?aa?auaiey noaeaeaiey A:

Ie iaeii S ia anoue ?

Ana S nooue ia-?

*anoiiooaa?aeeoaeueiia noaeaeaiea (I) i?aa?auaaony a
/anoiiio?eoeaoaeueiia (I). Iai?eia?: “Iaeioi?ua ainoaea?noaa yaeythony
oaaea?aoeaiuie. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, iaeioi?ua ainoaea?noaa ia yaeythony
iaoaaea?aoeaiuie”.

Noaia i?aa?auaiey noaeaeaiey I:

Iaeioi?ua S cooue ?

Iaeioi?ua S ia nooue ia-?

*anoiiio?eoeaoaeueiia noaeaeaiea (I) i?aa?auaaony a
/anoiiooaa?aeeoaeueiia (I). Iai?eia?: “Iaeioi?ua ec i?enoonoaothueo ia
yaeythony niaa?oaiiieaoieie. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, iaeioi?ua ec
i?enoonoaothueo yaeythony ianiaa?oaiiieaoieie”.

Noaia i?aa?auaiey noaeaeaiey I:

Iaeioi?ua S ia nooue ?

Iaeioi?ua S nooue ia-?

Oaeei ia?acii, /oiau i?aa?aoeoue noaeaeaiea, ioaeii caiaieoue aai nayceo
ia i?ioeaiiieiaeioth, a i?aaeeeao – ia iiiyoea, i?ioeai?a/auaa
i?aaeeeaoo enoiaeiiai noaeaeaiey. Noaeaeaiea, iieo/aiiia iin?aaenoaii
i?aa?auaiey, nio?aiyao eiee/anoai, ii eciaiyao ea/anoai enoiaeiiai
noaeaeaiey. Noauaeo enoiaeiiai noaeaeaiey ia eciaiyaony.

Caeeth/aiey, iieo/aiiua iin?aaenoaii i?aa?auaiey, ooi/iytho iaoe ciaiey.
Onoaiaaeeaay ioiioaiey iaaeaeo noauaeoii e iiiyoeai, i?ioeai?a/auei
i?aaeeeaoo enoiaeiiai noaeaeaiey, iu ?anniao?eaaai i?aaeiao noaeaeaiey n
iiaie noi?iiu, oeene?oy aieiaiea ia naienoaa, ia niaianoeiii ni
naienoaii, io?aaeaiiui a i?aaeeeaoa enoiaeiiai noaeaeaiey. Yoi ciaiea
au?aaeaao oio oaeo, /oi i?aaeiao ia iiaeao eiaoue e aianoa n oai ia
eiaoue iaeii e oi aea naienoai. A yoii niune i?aa?auaiey. Iiyoiio
caeeth/aiey, iieo/aiiua n iiiiuueth yoie eiae/aneie iia?aoeee,
niaea?aeao iiaua ciaiey i i?aaeiaoa.

Aeey ooi/iaiey iauaia i?aaeeeaoa noaeaeaiey e aai ioiioaiey e noauaeoo
eniieuecotho ia?auaiea, a ?acoeueoaoa eioi?iai noauaeoii noaiiaeony
i?aaeeeao, a i?aaeeeaoii – noauaeo enoiaeiiai noaeaeaiey. I?aaeiaoii
iiaiai noaeaeaiey (caeeth/aiey) noaiiaeony, oaeei ia?acii, i?aaeiao,
au?aaeaiiue ia noauaeoii, a i?aaeeeaoii iinueee.

I?aia?aciaaiea noaeaeaiey, a ?acoeueoaoa eioi?iai noauaeo enoiaeiiai
noaeaeaiey noaiiaeony i?aaeeeaoii, a i?aaeeeao – noauaeoii caeeth/aiey,
iacuaaaony ia?auaieai.

Ia?auaiea iiae/eiyaony i?aaeeo ?ani?aaeaeaiiinoe oa?ieiia a noaeaeaieyo,
niaeanii eioi?iio noauaeo ?ani?aaeaeai a iaueo e ia ?ani?aaeaeai a
/anoiuo noaeaeaieyo, i?aaeeeao ?ani?aaeaeai a io?eoeaoaeueiuo e ia
?ani?aaeaeai a ooaa?aeeoaeueiuo noaeaeaieyo. A niioaaonoaee n yoei
i?aaeeii ?acee/atho i?inoia (/enoia) ia?auaiea e ia?auaiea n
ia?aie/aieai.

I?inoui (eee /enoui) iacuaaaony ia?auaiea aac eciaiaiey eiee/anoaa
noaeaeaiey. Oae ia?auathony noaeaeaiey, iaa oa?ieia eioi?uo
?ani?aaeaeaiu eee iaa ia ?ani?aaeaeaiu. Anee aea i?aaeeeao enoiaeiiai
noaeaeaiey ia ?ani?aaeaeai, oi ii ia iiaeao auoue ?ani?aaeaeai e a
caeeth/aiee, aaea ii yaeyaony noauaeoii. Iiyoiio aai iauai
ia?aie/eaaaony. Oaeia ia?auaiea iacuaaaony ia?auaieai n ia?aie/aieai.

Iauaooaa?aeeoaeueiia noaeaeaiea (A), a eioi?ii i?aaeeeao ia
?ani?aaeaeai, ia?auaaony a /anoiiooaa?aeeoaeueiia (I), o.a. n
ia?aie/aieai. Iai?eia?: “Ana nooaeaiou iaoae a?oiiu naeaee yecaiaiu.
Neaaeiaaoaeueii, iaeioi?ua naeaaoea yecaiaiu – nooaeaiou iaoae a?oiiu”.
A enoiaeiii noaeaeaiee “Ana nooaeaiou iaoae a?oiiu (S) naeaee yecaiaiu
(?)” i?aaeeeao ia ?ani?aaeaeai. Ia?auay noaeaeaiea, iaiaoiaeeii
iie?aoueny ia i?aaeei auaiaea: oa?iei, ia ?ani?aaeaeaiiue a iinueea, ia
iiaeao auoue ?ani?aaeaeai a caeeth/aiee. Iiyoiio noaiiaynue noauaeoii
auaiaeiiai noaeaeaiey, i?aaeeeao oaeaea ia iiaeao auoue ?ani?aaeaeai.
Aai iauai ia?aie/eaaaony (“iaeioi?ua naeaaoea yecaiaiu”).

Noaia ia?auaiey noaeaeaiey A:

Ana S cooue ?

Iaeioi?ua ? nooue S

Iauaooaa?aeeoaeueiua auaeaeythuea noaeaeaiey ia?auathony aac ia?aie/aiey
ii noaia

Ana S e oieueei S cooue ?

Ana ? nooue S

Iauaio?eoeaoaeueiia noaeaeaiea (A) ia?auaaony a iauaio?eoeaoaeueiia (A),
o.a. aac ia?aie/aiey. Iai?eia?: “Ie iaeei nooaeaio iaoae a?oiiu ia
yaeyaony iaoniaaathuei. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, ie iaeei iaoniaaathuee ia
yaeyaony nooaeaioii iaoae a?oiiu”. I?inoia ia?auaiea yoiai noaeaeaiey
aiciiaeii iioiio, /oi aai i?aaeeeao (“iaoniaaathuea”) ?ani?aaeaeai.

Noaia ia?auaiey noaeaeaiey A:

Ie iaeii S ia anoue ?

Ie iaeii ? ia anoue S

*anoiiooaa?aeeoaeueiia noaeaeaiea (I) ia?auaaony a
/anoiiooaa?aeeoaeueiia (I). Yoi i?inoia (/enoia) ia?auaiea. I?aaeeeao,
ia ?ani?aaeaeaiiue a enoiaeiii noaeaeaiee, ia ?ani?aaeaeai e a auaiaeiii
noaeaeaiee. Eiee/anoai noaeaeaiey ia eciaiyaony. Iai?eia?: “Iaeioi?ua
nooaeaiou iaoae a?oiiu – ioee/ieee. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, iaeioi?ua ioee/ieee
– nooaeaiou iaoae a?oiiu”.

Noaia ia?auaiey noaeaeaiey I:

Iaeioi?ua S cooue ?

Iaeioi?ua ? nooue S

*anoiiooaa?aeeoaeueiia auaeaeythuaa noaeaeaiea (i?aaeeeao iieiinoueth
aoiaeeo a iauai noauaeoa, o.a. yaeyaony ?ani?aaeaeaiiui) ia?auaaony a
iauaooaa?aeeoaeueiia. Iai?eia?: ”Iaeioi?ua iauanoaaiii iianiua aeayiey e
oieueei iauanoaaiii iianiua aeayiey yaeythony aeieaeiinoiuie
i?anooieaieyie. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, ana aeieaeiinoiua i?anooieaiey
yaeythony iauanoaaiii iianiuie aeayieyie”.

Yoe noaeaeaiey ia?auathony ii noaia

Iaeioi?ua S e oieueei S cooue ?

Ana ? nooue S

*anoiiio?eoeaoaeueiia noaeaeaiea (I), eae i?aaeei, ia ia?auaaony.
I?aaeeeao yoiai noaeaeaiey ?ani?aaeaeai, cia/eo, ii aeieaeai auoue
?ani?aaeaeai e a caeeth/aiee, eioi?ia aoaeao, i/aaeaeii,
iauaio?eoeaoaeueiui noaeaeaieai.

Ia?auaiea noaeaeaiey ia aaaeao e eciaiaieth aai ea/anoaa. *oi eanaaony
eiee/anoaa, oi iii iiaeao eciaiyoueny (ia?auaiea n ia?aie/aieai), ii
iiaeao inoaaaoueny oai aea naiui (i?inoia, eee /enoia, ia?auaiea). Aac
ia?aie/aiey ia?auathony iauaooaa?aeeoaeueiua noaeaeaiey n
?ani?aaeaeaiiui i?aaeeeaoii, ana iauaio?eoeaoaeueiua noaeaeaiey, a
oaeaea /anoiiooaa?aeeoaeueiua noaeaeaiey, a eioi?uo i?aaeeeao
?ani?aaeaeai. Iauaooaa?aeeoaeueiua e /anoiiooaa?aeeoaeueiua noaeaeaiey n
ia?ani?aaeaeaiiui i?aaeeeaoii ia?auathony n ia?aie/aieai.
*anoiiio?eoeaoaeueiua noaeaeaiey ia i?aeoeea ia ia?auathony.

Oiicaeeth/aiey iin?aaenoaii ia?auaiey ea?atho aaaeioth ?ieue a i?ioeanna
?annoaeaeaiey. Aeaaiaea?y oiio, /oi i?aaeiaoii iaoae iunee noaiiaeony
i?aaeiao, io?aaeaiiue i?aaeeeaoii enoiaeiiai noaeaeaiey, iu ooi/iyai
iaoe ciaiey, i?eaeaai ei aieueooth ii?aaeaeaiiinoue. Iaiaoiaeeii,
iaeiaei, no?iai niaethaeaoue i?aaeea ia?aie/aiey, ia?ooaiea eioi?uo
aaaeao e ioeaeai a ?annoaeaeaiee. Iaeuecy, iai?eia?,
iauaooaa?aeeoaeueiia noaeaeaiea, a eioi?ii i?aaeeeao ia ?ani?aaeaeai,
ia?auaoue aac ia?aie/aiey, iaeuecy ia?auaoue n ia?aie/aieai
/anoiiooaa?aeeoaeueiia noaeaeaiea n ?ani?aaeaeaiiui i?aaeeeaoii.

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