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Учение об идеях Платона и его оценка Аристотелем

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IAOO ei. I.Y. Aaoiaia

Eaoaae?a oeeinioee

O/aiea ia eaeayo Ieaoiia

e aai ioeaiea A?enoioaeai

Eniieieoaeue: Eeoia/aiei Ae.A.

Eiinoeueoaio: Aaneeueaaa E.I.

1996 a.

Ieai ?aoa?aoa.

1. Aaaaeaiea.

2. O/aiea Ieaoiia ia eaeayo.

3. E?eoeea A?enoioaeai o/aiey Ieaoiia ia eaeayo.

4. Caeeth/aiea.

Aaaaeaiea.

Aeaiiue ?aoa?ao iinayuai oeeinioneei o?oaeai aeaoo auaeathueony
oeeinioia aioe/iinoe – Ieaoiia e A?enoioaey.

Oeeinioneia ianeaaeea yoeo aaieaeueiuo iuneeoaeae aanueia iaoe?ii, a
aeeyiea aai ia?iiii e i?ineaaeeaaaony ai anao iaeanoyo aeooiaiie e
iao/iie aeecie a oa/aiea iiiaeo eao. Nicaeaiiua eie oeeinioneea nenoaiu
iaoee iiiai iineaaeiaaoaeae, aieioue aei nia?aiaiiinoe, a auneacaiiua
eie eaeae iaoee naia io?aaeaiea a o?oaeao iiiaeo iicaeiaeoeo oeeinioia
(a oii /enea oeeinioia Iiaiai a?aiaie). Aeaaea anee i?eciaoue iaeioi?ui
i?aoaaee/aieai auneacuaaiea, /oi, ”niiinoaaeyy iiaaeoea eaeaaeenoe/aneea
nenoaiu n o/aieyie Ieaoiia e A?enoioaey, nia?aiaiiua oeeiniou ia?aaeei
i?eoiaeyo e auaiaeo, /oi ie eeanneee eaeaaeecia, ie eo i?iaeieaeaoaee ia
auaeaeioee i?eioeeieaeueii iiauo i?iaeai, ia i?aiaeieaee caaeoaeaeaiee
yoeo aaeeeeo iuneeoaeae”, ana ?aaii i/aaeaeai eo ia?iiiue aeeaae a
noaiiaeaiea e ?acaeoea oeeinioee eae iaoee, iiyoiio ia?auaiea e eo
oai?/anoao, ianiio?y ia ia?iiioth aeenoaioeeth ai a?aiaie e iaiaeue
i?ia?ann oeeinioneie iunee n oao a?aiai, i?aaenoaaeyaony aiieia
iainiiaaiiui.

O/aiea Ieaoiia ia eaeayo.

Ieaoii (427-347 a. aei i.y.) ?iaeeeny a ciaoiie a?enoie?aoe/aneie naiuea
(ii eeiee iooea ii aue iioiieii iineaaeiaai aooe/aneiai oea?y Eiae?a, ia
iaiaa ciaoiui aue e ?iae aai iaoa?e). Noieue aunieia i?ienoiaeaeaiea
i?aaenoaaeyei oe?i/aeoea aiciiaeiinoe aeey oece/aneiai e aeooiaiiai
niaa?oainoaiaaiey. Ecaanoii, /oi Ieaoii oaeaeye iiiai aieiaiey
ooaeiaeanoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe (e iaaaconiaoii), a oaeaea iieo/ae i?ecu
a aanueia i?anoeaeiuo nii?oeaiuo ninoycaieyo. Ii a enoi?eth aioe/iie
eoeueoo?u Ieaoii aioae a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue ia eae oaeaioeeaue iiyo,
iocueaio eee auaeathueeny nii?oniai, a i?aaeaea anaai (a, iiaeaeoe,
aeaaea e a iniiaiii) eae oeeinio, o eioi?iai “aieueoa, /ai o
eiai-ieaoaeue, oeeinioey auea aeeciueth” e eioi?ue “naie oai?aoe/aneea
iino?iaiey auno?aaeae anae naia aeaai?iaeiie yeeeineie aeooie”.

Ia aucuaaao niiiaiey, /oi o/aiea Ieaoiia ia eaeayo yaeyaony iaeiie ec
aaaeiaeoeo ninoaaiuo /anoae aai oai?/anoaa. Iiiaea enneaaeiaaoaee
neeiiythony e iunee, /oi iii yaeyaony naiaia?aciui “yae?ii” anae aai
oeeinioneie nenoaiu (iiaeaeoe, o/aiea ia eaeayo iiaeii aac eaeiai-eeai
i?aoaaee/aiey iacaaoue oeaio?ii anaai, nicaeaiiiai ei a iaeanoe iaoee,
iiyoiio eceiaeaiea oeeinioee Ieaoiia, inoaaeythuaa aac aieiaiey aeaiiia
o/aiea, ii-aeaeeiiio, i?inoi iaiuneeii). Oai ia iaiaa neaaeoao
ioiaoeoue, /oi ieaoiiianeia o/aiea ia eaeayo ia anoue ia/oi
eciee?iaaiiia e ioi?aaiiia io anaai inoaeueiiai ei nicaeaiiiai:
iai?ioea, Ieaoii, aoaeo/e iineaaeiaaoaeueiui o/aieeii Nie?aoa, eiae/anee
?acaee e aeiiieiee oeeinioeth naiaai o/eoaey, oaeaeea iniaia aieiaiea
ciaieth e iieneo aai iniiaaiee, a naii o/aiea ia eaeayo yaeeinue
anoanoaaiiui caaa?oaieai yoiai iienea. Iiyoiio iu, aiai?y neiaaie A.O.
Einaaa, “ia eiaai i?aaa enoiaeeoue ec aiaeeca oieueei oiai, /oi
iaiin?aaenoaaiii ioiineony e oaia”, e iiyoiio aoaeai caeanue
?anniao?eaaoue eioa?anothuoth ian oaio a iaiaoiaeeiie acaeiinayce n
inoaeueiuie noi?iiaie o/aiey aaeeeiai oeeinioa.

A aeinie?aoianeie oeeinioee aii?in i iiciaaaaiinoe ie?a eee aiiaua ia
oiiieiaeny, eee iiciaaaaiinoue ie?a iai?yioth naycuaaeanue n
aiciiaeiinoyie /oanoaaiiiai aini?eyoey. Caneoaa Ieaoiia a oii, /oi ii a
ioee/ea io naieo i?aaeoanoaaiieeia ia?aoee iniaia aieiaiea ia
iaaeinoaoee /oanoaaiiiai aini?eyoey (e niioaaonoaaiii iniiaaiiiai ia iai
iauaeaiiiai niciaiey). Ii Ieaoiio, aini?eyoea i?aaenoaaeyao iai aaue ia
oaeeie, eaeeie iie anoue “ia naiii aeaea”, a oaeeie, eaeeie iie eaaeoony
iai (eee iaoei i?aaiai /oanoa): “…iaoo i?e?iaeo, ni noi?iiu
ia?aciaaiey e iaia?aciaaiiinoe, oiiaeiaue aio eaeiio ninoiyieth.
Aiia?ace naaa ethaeae eae au a iiaecaiiii iaua?iii aeeeeua, eioi?ia
eiaao ioe?uoue naa?oo e aeeeiiue ai anth iaua?o aoiae aeey naaoa. Ionoue
ethaee aeeaoo a iae n aeaonoaa, neiaaiiua ii iiaai e ii oaa oae, /oiau
i?aauaay caeanue, iiaee aeaeaoue oieueei oi, /oi iaoiaeeony ia?aae ieie,
a iiai?a/eaaoue aieiao io oc aie?oa ia iiaee. Ionoue naao aeioiaeeo aei
ieo io iaiy, ai?yuaai aeaeaei aaa?oo e iicaaee ieo, a iaaeaeo iaiai e
ocieeaie ia aunioa anoue aei?iaa, i?ioea eioi?ie aiia?ace noaio,
iino?iaiioth iaiiaeiaea oe?i, eaeea noaayo oieonieee ia?aae c?eoaeyie,
eiaaea ec-ca ieo iieacuaatho naie oieonu. … Niio?e aea: ieii yoie
noaiu ethaee ianoo aunoaaeythueany iaae noaiith ?aciua ninoaeu, noaooe e
oeao?u, oi /aeiaa/aneea, oi aeeaioiua, oi eaiaiiua, oi aea?aayiiua,
naeaeaiiua ?acee/iui ia?acii, e /oi aoaeoi au iaeie ec i?ioiaeeo
ecaeatho caoee, a ae?oaea iie/ao. … ?acaa ou aeoiaaoue, /oi yoe ocieee
ia ia?aue ?ac eae a naaa, oae e iaeei a ae?oaii aeaeaee /oi-ieaoaeue
eiia, a ia oaie, iaaeaaoea io iaiy ia iaoiaeyuothny ia?aae iei iaua?o? –
Eae aea eia/a, – neacae ii… A i?aaeiaou i?iiineiua – ia oi aea naiia?
– *oi aea eiia? – Eoae, anee iie a ninoiyiee aoaeoo ?acaiaa?eaaoue ae?oa
n ae?oaii, ia aeoiaaoue ee ou, /oi ei aoaeao i?aaenoaaeyoueny, aoaeoi
iacuaay aeaeeiia eie, iie iacuaatho i?iiineiia? – Iaiaoiaeeii. Ii /oi,
anee a yoie oaiieoea i?yii i?ioea ieo ioeeeeaeinue au e yoi, eae nei?i
eoi ec i?ioiaeyueo ecaeaaae au caoee, e eiiio ee /aio, aeoiaaoue,
ioiineee au iie yoe caoee, a ia e i?ioiaeyuae oaie? – …Ia e /aio
eiiio, neacae ii. – Aea e enoeiith-oi, i?eiieaee y, yoe ethaee aoaeoo
ii/eoaoue, aac niiiaiey, ia /oi eiia, eae oaie. – Iaiaoiaeeii, neacae
ii. – Iaaethaeae aea, i?iaeieaeae y: ionoue au, i?e oaeie eo i?e?iaea,
i?eoiaeeeinue ei auoue ?ac?aoaiiuie io oc e iieo/eoue enoeaeaiea io
aanniuneaiiinoe, eaeiau au iia ie auea; ionoue au eiai-ieaoaeue ec ieo
?acaycaee, aae?oa i?eioaeeee anoaoue, iiai?a/eaaoue oath, oiaeeoue e
niio?aoue aaa?o ia naao: aeaeay ana yoi, ia ii/oanoaiaae ee au ii aiee e
io aeanea ia iuooee au aanneeey ace?aoue ia oi, /aai i?aaeaea aeaeae
oaie? E /oi, aeoiaaoue, neacae au ii, anee au eoi noae aio aiai?eoue,
/oi oiaaea ii aeaeae ionoyee, a oaia?ue, iiaa?ioaoenue aeeaea e nouaio e
aieaa aeaenoaeoaeueiiio, nica?oeaao i?aaeeueiaa, e, anee au aeaaea,
oeacuaay ia eaaeaeue i?ioiaeyuee i?aaeiao, i?eioaeeee aai ioaa/aoue ia
aii?in, /oi oaeia ii, i?eoae au ii a cao?oaeiaiea e ia iiaeoiae au ii,
/oi aeaeaiiia ei oiaaea enoeiiaa, /ai oeacuaaaiia oaia?ue? – Eiia/ii,
neacae au ii.”.

A auoai?eaaaeaiiii io?uaea Ieaoii ia ia?aciii i?eia?a iieacuaaao
?acee/ea iaaeaeo naiei i?aaeiaoii e iaoei /oanoaaiiui i?aaenoaaeaieai i
iai. Ii, auyaea iaaeinoaoi/iinoue /oanoaaiiiai aini?eyoey, Ieaoii iioae
ia ii iooe onoaiiaeaiey aeeaeaeoe/aneie nayce iuouaiee (/oanoa) e
oai?aoe/aneiai iuoeaiey (?acoia), a ii iooe eo i?ioeaiiinoaaeaiey,
ooaa?aeaeay, /oi /oanoaa ia iiaoo auoue enoi/ieeii enoeiiiai ciaiey, ii
eeoue iiaoaeeoaeai, niinianoaothuei oiio, /oi ?acoi ia?auaaony e
iiciaieth enoeiu: “anee i?eoii iieiaeeoue, /oi ainoiaeaeaiea aaa?o e
nica?oeaiea ai?iaai anoue ainoi?aeaiea aeooe a ianoi iuneeiia, oi ia
iaiaiaoue iiae iaaeaaeaeu, i eioi?ie aeaeaaoue neuoaoue. Aia ciaao,
aa?ii ee yoi; ii i?aaenoaaeythuaany iia i?aaenoaaeyaony oae: ia
i?aaeaeao aaaeaiey eaeay aeaaa aaeaa nica?oeaaony; ii, aoaeo/e
i?aaeiaoii nica?oeaiey, aeaao i?aai oiicaeeth/aoue, /oi iia ai anai
anoue i?e/eia anaai i?aaiai e i?ae?aniiai, a aeaeeiii ?iaeeaoay naao e
aai ainiiaeeia, a a iuneeiii naia ainiiaea, aeathuay enoeio e oi… ”.

I?e yoii aia?aua (e yoi oiaea caneoaa Ieaoiia) auei iiae/a?eiooi ia
oieueei ianiaiaaeaiea ciaiey i ie?a n naiei ie?ii, ii e ianiaiaaeaiea
iiiyoey i i?aaeiaoa n naiei i?aaeiaoii: aaaeue iaeii iiiyoea iiaeao
iaicia/aoue iiiaea i?aaeiaou, ii ie iaeei ec ieo ia au?aaeaao
iieiinoueth nooe yoiai iiiyoey. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, aeaeaao auaiae Ieaoii,
iniiaaiea iiiyoey ia a i?aaeiaoa, a a /ai-oi ae?oaii, /oi ia yaeyaony ie
i?aaeiaoii, ie iiiyoeai. E yoei “ae?oaei”, niaeanii Ieaoiio, yaeyaony
eaeay, oi anoue “aeey naay nouaa eee “a naaa” aauae”. Niioaaonoaaiii
naia eaeay anoue ia?aii?e/eia anaai nouaai. Aio /oi ia yoii aiai?eo nai
Ieaoii: “Yooiaeanoue caieiaao aanoeaaoiay, eeoaiiay i/a?oaiee,
iainycaaiay nouiinoue, iiaeeeiii nouay, c?eiay iaeiiio eeoue ei?i/aio
aeooe – ?acoio; ia iaa-oi e iai?aaeaii enoeiiia ciaiea. Iineieueeo
?acoiii e /enoui ciaieai ieoaaony iuoeaiea aiaa aea e anyeie aeooe,
eaeay no?aieony aini?eiyoue iaaeeaaeauaa, – iia, aeaey a?aiy io a?aiaie
iiaeeeiii nouaa, oeaieo aai, ieoaaony nica?oeaieai enoeiu e
aeaaeainoaoao, iiea iaaaniue naiae ia ia?aianao aa ii e?oao iiyoue ia oi
aea naiia ianoi. I?e yoii e?oaiiai?ioa iia nica?oeaao naiia
ni?aaaaeeeainoue, nica?oeaao ?annoaeeoaeueiinoue, nica?oeaao ciaiea – ia
oi ciaiea, eioi?iio naienoaaiii aicieeiiaaiea, e ia oi, eioi?ia
iaiyaony, niaea?aeanue a oii eciai/eaii, /oi iu iacuaaai auoeai, ii oi
ianoiyuaa ciaiea, eioi?ia niaea?aeeony a iiaeeeiiii auoee”. Eaeae aa/iu,
iaiiaeaeaeiu e iaeciaiiu, /oi Ieaoii iieacuaaao ia i?eia?a eaeae
i?ae?aniiai neaaeothuei ia?acii: “ia/oi, ai-ia?auo, aa/iia, oi anoue ia
ciathuaa ie ?iaeaeaiey, ie aeaaee, ie ?inoa, ie ineoaeaiey, ai-aoi?uo,
ia a /ai-oi i?ae?aniia, a a /ai-oi aacia?aciia, ia eiaaea-oi, aaea-oi
aeey eiai-oi e n?aaieoaeueii n /ai-oi i?ae?aniia, a a ae?oaia a?aiy, a
ae?oaii ianoa, aeey ae?oaiai e n?aaieoaeueii n ae?oaei aacia?aciia.
I?ae?aniia yoi i?aaenoaiao aio ia a aeaea eaeiai-oi eeoea, ?oe eee eiie
/anoe oaea, ia a aeaea eaeie-oi ?a/e eee ciaiey, ia a /ai-oi ae?oaii,
aoaeue oi aeeaioiia, Caiey, iaai eee aua /oi-ieaoaeue, a naii ii naaa,
anaaaea a naiii naaa aaeeiiia?aciia; ana aea ae?oaea ?aciiaeaeiinoe
i?ae?aniiai i?e/anoiu e iaio oaeei ia?acii, /oi iie aicieeatho e aeaioo,
a aai ia noaiiaeony ie aieueoa, ie iaiueoa, e ieeaeeo aicaeaenoaee iii
ia eniuouaaao”.

I?eciaa eaeath ia?aii?e/eiie anaai nouaai, Ieaoii oai naiui ii?aaeaeee e
iniiaioth caaea/o oeeinioee, e i?aaeiao iaoee eae iiciaiea ie?a eaeae,
eioi?ia aiciiaeii eeoue iin?aaenoaii aeeaeaeoe/aneiai i?ioeanna iuoeaiey
eae i?ioeanna ia?aciaaiey e ?acaeaeaiey iiiyoee, e auyaeaiea eo
niaianoeiinoe (eee ianiaianoeiinoe) n i?aaeiaoiui ie?ii. Oaeei ia?acii,
Ieaoii i?eciaao aeaa iaoiaea iiciaiey: /oanoaaiiue (iaiiaeeeiiue) e
iiiyoeeii-iuneaiiue (iiaeeeiiue). Ii iineieueeo anyeia iiciaiea anaaaea
iai?aaeaii ie eaeie-eeai iauaeo, oi ii aeieaeai i?enoonoaiaaoue e
caeanue. O Ieaoiia yoio iauaeo ?aniaaeaaony ia aeaa: ie? eciai/eauo e
eiia/iuo ai a?aiaie i?aaeiaoia e ie? aa/iuo iaeciaiiuo eaeaaeueiuo
nouiinoae – eaeae. I?ienoiaeeo eae au oaeaiaiea ie?a.

Oaeie iiaeoiae aiieia anoanoaaiii ii?iaeaeaao aeaa aaaeiuo aii?ina: eae
niioiinyony yoe aeaa i?ioeaiiieiaeiuo ie?a e eae /aeiaae – nouanoai
eiia/iia, i?aoiaeyuaa, e, neaaeiaaoaeueii, iaeiicia/ii i?eiaaeeaaeauaa e
/oanoaaiiiio ie?o, iiaeao iiciaaaoue iaaeinooiiue aeey iaai ii naiie
naiae i?e?iaea ie? eaeae. Ieaoii auoiaeeo ec iieiaeaiey, i?aaeiieiaeea,
/oi:

1) i?aaeiaoiue ie? anoue ie? oaiae, io?aaeaiea iiaeeeiiiai,
eaeaaeueiiai;

2) aeooa /aeiaaea aa/ia e aannia?oia. Ieaoii ia yoio n/ao ieoao oae:
“Anyeay aeooa aannia?oia. Aaaeue aa/iiaeaeaeouaany aannia?oii. A o oiai,
/oi niiauaao aeaeaeaiea ae?oaiio e i?eaiaeeony a aeaeaeaiea ae?oaei,
aeaeaeaiea i?a?uaaaony, a cia/eo, i?a?uaaaony e aeeciue. Oieueei oi, /oi
aeaeaeao naii naay, iineieueeo iii ia iieeaeaao naii naay, ieeiaaea ia
ia?anoaao aeaeaaoueny; aieaa oiai, e aeey anaai inoaeueiiai, /oi
aeaeaeaony, iii neoaeeo enoi/ieeii e ia/aeii aeaeaeaiey. Ia/aei ia eiaao
aicieeiiaaiey: anaio aicieeathuaio iaiaoiaeeii aicieeaoue ec ia/aea, a
naii iii ie ec /aai ia aicieeaao, iioiio /oi anee au ia/aei aicieeaei ec
/aai-eeai, oi aicieeathuaa aicieeaei au oaea ia ec ia/aea. Ii oae eae
iii ia eiaao aicieeiiaaiey, aio iaiaoiaeeii auoue e iaoie/oiaeeiui,
iioiio /oi anee au iiaeaei ia/aei, ie naii iii ieeiaaea ia iiaei au
aicieeiooue ec /aai-eeai, ie ae?oaia ec iaai, oae eae ana aeieaeii
aicieeaoue ec ia/aea. Cia/eo, ia/aei aeaeaeaiey – yoi oi, /oi aeaeaeao
naii naay. Iii ia iiaeao ie iiaeaiooue, ie aicieeiooue, eia/a au ana
iaai e ana aicieeathuaa, ia?ooeaoenue, inoaiiaeeenue, e oaea iaioeoaea
auei au acyoueny oiio, /oi au i?eaaei eo niiaa a aeaeaeaiea, /oiau iie
aicieeee. Eoae, auynieeinue, /oi aannia?oii aeaeaeeiia naii niaie; ii
anyeee aac eieaaaiey neaaeao, /oi eiaiii a yoii caeeth/aaony nouiinoue e
ii?aaeaeaiea aeooe”. Aei anaeaiey a iaai iia i?aauaaao a ie?a eaeae,
aaea e iiciaao ie? enoei. Anaeeaoenue aea a /aeiaaea, iia i?eaiineo a
iaai ana iaee/iia ciaiea. Oaeei ia?acii, i?ioeann iiciaiey ii Ieaoiio
anoue i?ioeann i?eiiieiaiey, eiaaea iu iin?aaenoaii aiaeeca iiiyoee
canoaaeyai aeooo /aeiaaea i?eiiieiaoue eiathueany a iae ciaiey: “?ac
aeooa aannia?oia, /anoi ?iaeaeaaony e aeaeaea ana e caeanue, e a Aeaea,
oi iao ie/aai oaeiai, /oiau iia ia iiciaea. Iiyoiio ie/aai
oaeeaeoaeueiiai iao a oii, /oi e ian/ao aeia?iaeaoaee, e ian/ao anaai
i?i/aai iia niiniaia aniiiieoue ana, /oi ae auei ecaanoii. E ?ac a
i?e?iaea ana ae?oa ae?oao ?iaenoaaiii, a aeooa ana iiciaea, ie/oi ia
iaoaao oiio, eoi aniiiiee /oi-ieaoaeue iaeii, – ethaee iacuaatho yoi
iiciaieai, – naiiio iaeoe e ana inoaeueiia…”. A iiiaio aeoa iiciaiey o
/aeiaaea aicieeaao ainiiieiaiea ia eaeaa. Aiai?y neiaaie naiiai Ieaoiia,
“/aeiaae aeieaeai iiieiaoue aeaeiaia iaicia/aiea, neeaaeuaathuaany ec
iiiaeo /oanoaaiiuo aini?eyoee, ii naiaeeiia ?acoiii aiaaeeii. A yoi
anoue i?eiiieiaiea oiai, /oi iaeiaaea aeaeaea iaoa aeooa, eiaaea iia
niioonoaiaaea aiao, nauniea aeyaeaea ia oi, /oi iu iacuaaai auoeai, e
au?aaeanue a iiaeeeiiia auoea. Iiyoiio ii ni?aaaaeeeainoe ie?ueyaony
oieueei iuneue /aeiaaea, ethayuaai ioae?inoue: o iaai anaaaea ii ia?a
aai nee iaiyoue ia?auaia ia oi, a /ai aia i?iyaeyai naith
aiaeanoaaiiinoue. *aeiaae, i?aaeeueii i?eiaiythuee iiaeiaiua
ainiiieiaiey, anaaaea iinayuaaiue a niaa?oaiiua oaeinoaa, – oieueei ii
iaeei noaiiaeony iiaeeeiii niaa?oaiiui. Oae eae ii noieo aia
/aeiaa/aneie noaou e ia?aoeeny e aiaeanoaaiiiio, oieia, eiia/ii, noaiao
oaauaaaoue aai, eae /aeiaaea, o eioi?iai ia ana a ii?yaeea, – ii aai
ainoi?aeaiiay iaea?aeeiinoue oieia iacaiaoia”. Ii, iineieueeo eaeay ia
iiaeao iieiinoueth i?enoonoaiaaoue a i?aaeiaoa (ni. auoa), oi iaaeaeo
eaeaae e aa /oanoaaiiui ia?acii onoaiaaeeaaaony ia ioiioaiea oiaeaeanoaa
(noiaenoaa), a ioiioaiea iiae?aaeaiey: /oanoaaiiue ia?ac iiae?aaeaao
eaeaa (i?iia?aco), yaeyynue eae au eiieae aa (o.a. i?iia?aca), ii eiieae
iaiieiie e ianiaa?oaiiie.

Oaeei ia?acii, i?aaenoaaeyaony aiieia iainiiaaiiui eeanneoeoee?iaaoue
ieaoiiianeoth oeeinioeth eae iauaeoeaiue eaeaaeeci, oae eae iaoa?ey
?anniao?eaaaony eae i?iecaiaeiia io iaiaoa?eaeueiuo i?aaeoanoaothueo
iaoa?ee eaeae, nouanoaothueo aia e iacaaeneii io niciaiey ethaeae.
Aiinaieiaey aea aai anoue “naiia ?aoeoaeueiia io?eoeaiea /oanoaaiiiai
iiuoa aeey iiciaiey o?ainoeaiaeaioiie aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe – e?aeiaa
au?aaeaiea ?aoeeiiaeenoe/aneiai i?ioeaiiinoaaeaiey ?acoia
/oanoaaiiinoe”.

K?eoeea A?enoioaeai

o/aiey Ieaoiia ia eaeayo.

A?enoioaeue (384-322 a. aei i.y.) ?iaeeeny a a. Noaae?a. Ii i?ienoiaeeo
ec noa?eiiie naiuee a?a/ae. Ieiei 20 eao ii i?iaae a aeaaeaiee,
?oeiaiaeeiie Ieaoiiii. Iinea yoiai ianeieueei eao ii aue ainieoaoaeai
eaaaiaea?iiai Aeaenaiae?a Iaeaaeiineiai. N 335 aiaea aicaeaaee
nicaeaiioth ei a Aoeiao oeeinioneoth oeieo (Eeeae). “Iiaeiaii naiaio
o/aieeo, A?enoioaeue – Aeaenaiae? Iaeaaeiineee a?a/aneie oeeinioee –
yioeeeeiiaaee/anee nia?ae e iaiauee aanue iao/iue iiuo A?aoeee. Ii
ni/aoae eieinnaeueiua niiniaiinoe iaaethaeaoaey-iaoo?aeenoa,
enneaaeiaaoaey oaeoia … n aaieaeueiinoueth iniiaiiieiaeieea eiaeee eae
iaoee”.

Ieaea iu aoaeai ?anniao?eaaoue oai?eth A?enoioaey ia a iieiii iauaia
(/oi naii ii naaa iiaei au iineoaeeoue oaiie aeey ia iaeiiai
enneaaeiaaiey), ii eeoue a oie ia?a, a eioi?ie yoi iaiaoiaeeii aeey
iieacaiey ianoiaenoaa acaeyaeia aai e Ieaoiia.

A naiae “Iaoaoeceea” A?enoioaeue iiaeaa?a e?eoeea iieiaeaiey o/aiey
naiaai o/eoaey i iacaaeneiinoe iiiyoee io aauae ii auoeth. A?enoioaeue
oai aea oeacuaaao e ia enoi/iee yoie eiaeiie iunee: “e o/aieth ia
yeaeinaoi?eoee oa, eoi aue oaaaeaeai a enoeiiinoe acaeyaeia Aa?aeeeoa,
niaeanii eioi?ui ana /oanoaaiii aini?eieiaaiia iinoiyiii oa/ao; oae /oi
anee e anoue ciaiea e ?acoiaiea /aai-oi, oi iiieii /oanoaaiii
aini?eieiaaiiai aeieaeiu nouanoaiaaoue ae?oaea nouiinoe (physeis),
iinoiyiii i?aauaathuea, eai a oaeo/ai ciaiey ia auaaao”. Ii e?iia
oeacaiey enoi?e/aneiai enoi/ieea o/aiey ia eaeayo, A?enoioaeue ?acaeaaao
e?eoeeo o/aiey Ieaoiia ia eaeayo e auaeaeaaao a ea/anoaa aeueoa?iaoeau
yoiio o/aieth nianoaaiiia o/aiea ia ioiioaiee /oanoaaiiuo aauae e
iiiyoeyi.

Aic?aaeaiey A?enoioaey i?ioea o/aiey Ieaoiia ia eaeayo iiaoo auoue
naaaeaiu a iniiaiii e /aou?ai, a eiaiii:

i?aaeiieiaeaiea Ieaoiia ia eaeayo eae naiinoiyoaeueiii auoee,
ioaeaeaiiii io nouanoaiaaiey /oanoaaiiuo aauae, aaniieacii eae aeey
iiciaiey yoeo aauae, oae e aeey iauyniaiey eo auoey: “iie ie/aai ia
aeatho … aeey iiciaiey anao inoaeueiuo aauae (iie aaaeue e ia nouiinoe
yoeo aauae, eia/a iie iaoiaeeeenue au a ieo)”;

iinooee?oaiue Ieaoiiii ie? eaeae aaniieacai ia oieueei aeey iiciaiey, ii
e aeey /oanoaaiiiai nouanoaiaaiey aauae: “…eaeia aea cia/aiea eiatho
yeaeinu aeey /oanoaaiii aini?eieiaaiuo aauae – aeey aa/iuo eeai aeey
aicieeathueo e i?aoiaeyueo. Aeaei a oii, /oi iie aeey yoeo aauae ia
i?e/eia aeaeaeaiey eee eaeiai-eeai eciaiaiey. A n ae?oaie noi?iiu, iie
ie/aai ia aeatho … aeey auoey (?ac iie ia iaoiaeyony a i?e/anoiuo ei
aauao). …Aianoa n oai ana inoaeueiia ia iiaeao i?ienoiaeeoue ec
yeaeinia ie a iaeiii ec iau/iuo cia/aiee “ec”. Aiai?eoue aea, /oi iie
“ia?acoeu” e /oi ana inoaeueiia ei i?e/anoii, – cia/eo ionoineiaeoue e
aiai?eoue iiyoe/aneeie eiineacaieyie. A naiii aeaea, /oi aea yoi oaeia,
/oi aeaenoaoao, ace?ay ia eaeae? Aaaeue iiaeii e auoue, e noaiiaeoueny
noiaeiui n /ai oaiaeii, ia iiae?aaeay ia?acoeo”. E o Ieaoiia, e o
ieoaai?aeoeaa neiai “i?e/anoiu” aiana ia aeaao no?iaiai e
a?acoieoaeueiiai ii?aaeaeaiey ioiioaiey iaaeaeo aeaoiy ie?aie, a
yaeyaony nei?aa iaoaoi?ie, /oi A?enoioaey ia oaeiaeaoai?yao (e?iia oiai,
oaeia ii?aaeaeaiea, ii aai iiaieth, i?inoi iaaiciiaeii, oae eae eaeae ia
anoue iaiin?aaenoaaiiua nouiinoe aauae: “… neaaeoao, ii-aeaeeiiio,
n/eoaoue iaaiciiaeiui, /oiau ioaeaeueii ae?oa io ae?oaa nouanoaiaaee
nouiinoue e oi, nouiinoueth /aai iia anoue; eae iiaoo iiyoiio eaeae,
anee iie anoue nouiinoe aauae, nouanoaiaaoue ioaeaeueii io ieo?”);

o?aouea aic?aaeaiea A?enoioaey ii iiaiaeo ieaoiiianeie oai?ee eaeae
iniiauaaaony ia ?anniio?aiee o/aiey Ieaoiia i eiae/aneeo ioiioaieyo
eaeae, a eiaiii (1) eiae/aneeo ioiioaiee iaaeaeo naieie eaeayie e (2)
ioiioaiee iaaeaeo eaeayie e /oanoaaiiuie aauaie:

eiae/aneia ioiioaiea eaeae anoue ioiioaiea iaueo eaeae e eaeayi /anoiui.
I?e yoii, eae n/eoaao Ieaoii, iauaa – nouiinoue /anoiiai. Ii iieiaeaiea
ia ioiioaiee iaueo eaeae e /anoiui e iieiaeaiea i noanoaioeeiiaeueiinoe
eaeae, ii iiaieth A?enoioaey, ae?oa ae?oao i?ioeai?a/ao: niaeanii
aeiioaca Ieaoiia, auoiaeeo, aoaeoi iaeia e oa aea eaeay iiaeao
iaeiia?aiaiii auoue e noanoaioeeae, e ianoanoaioeeae: noanoaioeeae, oae
eae, aoaeo/e ii ioiioaieth e iiae/eiaiiie ae /anoiie eaeaa aieaa iauae,
iia eiaaony iaeeoei eee ioia?aaeaaony a yoie /anoiie eaeaa eae
nouiinoue; ianoanoaioeeae – ii ioiioaieth e aieaa aunieie eaeaa, eioi?ay
e anoue aa noanoaioeey: “aeaeaa, niaeanii i?aaeiieiaeaieth, ia iniiaaiee
eioi?iai iu i?eciaai nouanoaiaaiea eaeae, aeieaeiu auoue yeaeinu ia
oieueei nouiinoae, ii e iiiaiai eiiai (a naiii aeaea, e iuneue aaeeia ia
oieueei eanaoaeueii nouiinoae, ii e ioiineoaeueii anaai ae?oaiai; e
eiathony ciaiey ia oieueei i nouiinoe, ii e ia eiii; e iieo/aaony o ieo
ianiaoiia /enei ae?oaeo iiaeiaiuo [auaiaeia]); iaaeaeo oai ii
iaiaoiaeeiinoe e niaeanii o/aieyi ia yeaeinao, ?ac aiciiaeia
i?e/anoiinoue yeaeinai, oi aeieaeiu nouanoaiaaoue eaeae oieueei
nouiinoae, eai i?e/anoiinoue ei ia iiaeao auoue i?eaoiaeyuae, a eaaeaeay
aauue aeieaeia auoue i?e/anoia yeaeino iinoieueeo, iineieueeo ii ia
neacuaaaony i noano?aoa (y eiath a aeaeo, iai?eia?, anee ia/oi i?e/anoii
naiiio-ii-naaa-aeaieiiio, oi iii i?e/anoii e aa/iiio, ii i?eaoiaeyuei
ia?acii, eai aeey aeaieiiai auoue aa/iui – yoi ia/oi i?eaoiaeyuaa).
Eoae, yeaeinu auee au oieueei nouiinoueth. Iaeiaei e caeanue, [a ie?a
/oanoaaiii aini?eieiaaiiai], e oai, [a ie?a eaeae], nouiinoue icia/aao
iaeii e oi aea. Eia/a eaeie aua niune eiaao ooaa?aeaeaiea, /oi anoue
/oi-oi iiieii ie?oaeathueo ian aauae – aaeeiia ai iiiaii? Anee aea eaeae
e i?e/anoiua ei aaue i?eiaaeeaaeao e iaeiiio e oiio aea aeaeo, oi aoaeao
ia/oi iauaa ei (a naiii aeaea, ii/aio aeey i?aoiaeyueo aeaiae e aeaiae,
oioy e iiiaeo, ii aa/iuo, nouanoai eo eae aeaiae a aieueoae noaiaie
iaeii e oi aea, /ai aeey naiie-ii-naaa aeaieee e eaeie-ieaoaeue
ioaeaeueiie aeaieee?). Anee aea aeae aeey eaeae e i?e/anoiuo e iei aauae
ia iaeei e oio aea, oi o ieo, iaaei iieaaaoue, oieueei eiy iauaa, e yoi
auei au iioiaea ia oi, eae anee au eoi iacuaae /aeiaaeii e Eaeeey, e
eonie aea?aaa, ia oaeaeaa iaaeaeo ieie ie/aai iauaai.”

“A anee iu aeiionoei, /oi oioy iauea ii?aaeaeaiey a ae?oaeo ioiioaieyo
e niioaaonoaotho yeaeinai, iai?eia?, naiiio-ii-naaa-e?oao – “ieineay
oeao?a” e i?i/ea /anoe ii?aaeaeaiey, ii aeieaeii aua aeiaaaeyoue, /oi
anoue oi, [eaeay /aai iia anoue], oi iaaei i?ineaaeeoue, ia ieacaeinue
ee yoi nianai aanniaea?aeaoaeueiui. A naiii aeaea, e /aio yoi aeieaeii
aeiaaaeyoueny? E “na?aaeeia”, eee e “ieineinoe”, eee ei anai /anoyi
[“e?oaa”]? Aaaeue ana, /oi aoiaeeo a [ioaaouaaaioth ii?aaeaeaieai]
nouiinoue – yoi eaeae, iai?eia?, “aeeaia nouanoai” e “aeaoiiaia”. A
e?iia oiai, ynii, /oi “naii-ii-naaa” aeieaeii iaiiaeiaea “ieineinoe”
auoue iaeiae nouiinoueth (physis), eioi?ay aoaeao eae ?iae
niaea?aeaoueny ai anao yeaeinao”;

ii iiaieth A?enoioaey, Ieaoii, aioouaaaony oaeaea e a i?ioeai?a/ea
oaeaea e a naiai o/aiee ia ioiioaiee iaaeaeo iaeanoueth /oanoaaiiuo
aauae e iaeanoueth eaeae: ii i?eciaao, /oi aaue /oanoaaiiiai ie?a
caeeth/atho a naay ia/oi iauaa aeey ieo. Ii iauaa – eae iauaa – ia
iiaeao auoue i?inoie ninoaaiie /anoueth ioaeaeueiuo aauae. Ionthaea
Ieaoii auaiaeeo, aoaeoi iauaa ia?acoao aiieia iniaue ie?, ioaeaeaiiue io
ie?a /oanoaaiiuo aauae e niaa?oaiii naiiauoiue. Eoae, ioaeaeueii
nouanoaotho e aauue, e aa eaeay. Ii ie? aauae – ioia?aaeaiea ie?a eaeae,
iiyoiio iaaeaeo eaaeaeie ioaeaeueiie aauueth e aa eaeaae nouanoaiaaoue
ia/oi noiaeiia e iauaa aeey ieo iaaeo. E anee ii ioiioaieth e ie?o
/oanoaaiiuo aauae iaiaoiaeeii aeiionoeoue ioaeaeueiue io iaai e
naiiauoiue ie? eaeae, oi oi/ii oae aea ii ioiioaieth e oiio iauaio, /oi
eiaaony iaaeaeo ie?ii aauae e ie?ii eaeae, aeieaeai auoue aeiiouai – a
ea/anoaa aiieia naiiauoiiai – iiaue ie? eaeae. Yoi aoaeao oaea aoi?ie
ie? eaeae, aicauoathueeny iaeeiaeiai e iaae ia?aui ie?ii eaeae, e iaae
ie?ii ioaeaeueiue /oanoaaiiuo aauae. Ii iaaeaeo yoei iiaui, eee aoi?ui,
ie?ii eaeae, n iaeiie noi?iiu, a oaeaea ia?aui ie?ii eaeae e ie?ii
/oanoaaiiuo aauae – n ae?oaie, a naith i/a?aaeue nouanoaoao iauaa. E
anee a neeo noiaenoaa ie?a aauae n ia?aui ie?ii eaeae ieacaeinue
iaiaoiaeeiui i?aaeiieiaeeoue aoi?ie ie? eaeae, oi ia oii aea iniiaaiee –
a neeo noiaenoaa aoi?iai ie?a eaeae n ia?aui, a oaeaea n ie?ii
/oanoaaiiuo aauae – iaiaoiaeeii i?aaeiieiaeeoue nouanoaiaaiea iniaiai
iauaai iaaeaeo ieie, o.a. nouanoaiaaiea o?aoueaai ie?a eaeae. I?e
iineaaeiaaoaeueiii ?acaeoee yoie a?aoiaioaoeee i?eoeinue au i?eeoe e
auaiaeo, /oi iaae iaeanoueth /oanoaaiiuo aauae auneony ia
iaeei-aaeeinoaaiiue naiiauoiue ie? eaeae, a aan/eneaiiia iiiaeanoai
oaeeo ie?ia.

/aoaa?oia aic?aaeaiea A?enoioaey i?ioea oai?ee eaeae Ieaoiia ninoieo a
oeacaiee oiai, /oi yoa oai?ey ia aeaao e ia iiaeao aeaoue iauyniaiey
aaaeiiio naienoao aauae /oanoaaiiiai ie?a – eo aeaeaeaieth,
aicieeiiaaieth, noaiiaeaieth e aeaaee. Oae eae, ii Ieaoiio, eaeae
ia?acotho iniaue, niaa?oaiii ioaeaeueiue, caieiooue ie? nouiinoae, oi
ia i?aaenoaaeyaony aiciiaeiui oeacaoue i?e/eiu iai?a?uaii i?ienoiaeyueo
a /oanoaaiiii ie?a eciaiaiey e aeaeaeaiey: “… iaeiaei anee yeaeinu e
nouanoaotho, oi aaue, ei i?e/anoiua, ana aea ia aicieeee au, anee au ia
auei oiai, /oi i?eaiaeeei au eo a aeaeaeaiea. N ae?oaie noi?iiu,
aicieeaao iiiaia ae?oaia, iai?eia?, aeii e eieueoei, aeey eioi?uo, eae
iu ooaa?aeaeaai, yeaeinia ia nouanoaoao. Iiyoiio ynii, /oi e ana
inoaeueiia iiaeao auoue e aicieeaoue ii oaeei aea i?e/eiai, eae e
oieueei /oi oeacaiiua aaue”.

Iniiaiie i?e/eiie o?oaeiinoae, eioi?ue eniuouaaao ieaoiiiaa oai?ey
eaeae, ninoieo, ii iiaieth A?enoioaey, a aaniethoiii iainiaeaiee iauaai
io aaeeie/iiai e a i?ioeaiiinoaaeaiee eo ae?oa ae?oao: “iie a iaeii e oi
aea a?aiy iauyaeytho eaeae iaueie nouiinoyie, a n ae?oaie – ioaeaeueii
nouanoaothueie e i?eiaaeeaaeaueie e aaeeie/iiio. A oi, /oi yoi
iaaiciiaeii, o ian auei ?acia?aii ?aiaa. I?e/eia oiai, ii/aio oa, eoi
iaicia/aao eaeae eae iauea nouiinoe, naycaee e oi e ae?oaia a iaeii,
neaaeothuay: iie ia ioiaeaeanoaeyee yoe nouiinoe n /oanoaaiii
aini?eieiaaiui; ii eo iiaieth, ana aaeeie/iia a ie?a /oanoaaiii
aini?eieiaaiiai oa/ao e o iaai iao ie/aai iinoiyiiiai, a iauaa
nouanoaoao iiieii iaai e anoue ia/oi eiia. Eae iu aiai?eee ?aiueoa,
iiaiae e yoiio aeae Nie?ao naieie ii?aaeaeaieyie, ii ii ai anyeii neo/aa
iauaa ia ioaeaeye io aaeeie/iiai. E ii i?aaeeueii ?annoaeee, ia ioaeaeea
eo. Yoi ynii ec nouanoaa aeaea: aaaeue, n iaeiie noi?iiu, aac iauaai
iaeuecy iieo/eoue ciaiey, a n ae?oaie – ioaeaeaiea iauaai io aaeeie/iiai
i?eaiaeeo e cao?oaeiaieyi ioiineoaeueii eaeae. Iaaeaeo oai noi?iiieee
eaeae, n/eoay, /oi anee aeieaeiu auoue eaeea-oi nouiinoe iiieii
/oanoaaiii aini?eieiaaiuo e oaeo/eo, oi iie iaiaoiaeeii nouanoaotho
ioaeaeueii, ieeaeeo ae?oaeo oeacaoue ia iiaee, a i?aaenoaaeee eae
ioaeaeueii nouanoaothuea neacuaaaiua eae iauaa, oae /oi iieo/aeinue, /oi
nouiinoe iauei e aaeeie/iua ii/oe iaeiie e oie aea i?e?iaeu. Oaeei
ia?acii, yoi o?oaeiinoue, eioi?ay naia ii naaa, eae iia anoue, i?enoua
eceaaaaiiio acaeyaeo”.

Niaeanii oai?ee A?enoioaey, auoeai iaeaaeatho ia eaeae, eae iieaaaee
noi?iiieee oai?ee eaeae (Ieaoii e aai iineaaeiaaoaee), a ioaeaeueiua
aaeeie/iua aaue. Naii aea iiiyoea nouiinoe au?aaeaao yoo aaeeie/iinoue.
“Eeann anoanoaaiiuo aauae aeeth/aao a naay, n iaeiie noi?iiu, nouiinoe,
a n ae?oaie – eo aeaenoaey e i?aoa?iaaaiey (iiae nouiinoyie y ?acoiath
i?inoua oaea, eae-oi: iaiiue, caieth e ?yaeiiieiaeiua ei oaea, a oaeaea
ana, /oi ec ieo ninoieo, – aeeaua nouanoaa, iaaaniua naaoeea, a ?aaii e
/anoe eo. Ana iie iacuaathony nouiinoyie iioiio, /oi iie ia neacuaathony
i noano?aoa, ii ana inoaeueiia neacuaaaony i ieo; iiae aeaenoaeyie e
i?aoa?iaaaieyie – aeaeaeaiey … oae …, eo eciaiaiey e acaeiiua
i?aa?auaiey“. Nouiinoue aeieaeia auoue a naiii i?aaeiaoa, a ia aia aai,
o.a. nouiinoue e i?aaeiao ninoaaeytho aeey A?enoioaey aeeaeaeoe/aneia
aaeeinoai.

Iiiyoea nouiinoe aieaa iieii ?ane?uaaaony /a?ac iiiyoey oi?iu e iaoa?ee
(caiaoei, /oi o/aiea i oi?ia e iaoa?ee ninoaaeyao iaeei ec aaaeiaeoeo
?acaeaeia a?enoioaeaaie oeeinioee).

Aiai?y, /oi “iaoa?ey aeecea e nouiinoe e a ecaanoiii ioiioaiee anoue
nouiinoue”, A?enoioaeue oa?aeoa?ecoao aa eae ia/oi iaii?aaeaeaiiia: “A
iiae iaoa?eae y ?acoiath oi, /oi naii ii naaa ia iaicia/aaony ie eae
nooue aaue (ti), ie eae /oi-oi eiee/anoaaiiia, ie eae /oi-eeai ae?oaia,
/ai ii?aaeaeaii nouaa”.

Naith ii?aaeaeaiiinoue iaoa?eaeueiua aaue iieo/atho aeaaiaea?y oi?ia:
“Oi?iie y iacuaath nooue auoey eaaeaeie aaue e aa ia?aoth nouiinoue”.
Oi?ia o A?enoioaey – yoi ia ieaoiiiaa eaeay, i?aauaathuay a naiai
nianoaaiiii ie?a aia aaeeie/iuo aauae, a ia/oi, /oi i?aauaaao a naieo
aauao e oa?aeoa?ecoao eo. Iaeiaei naia oi?ia ?aaeecoaony oieueei a
niaaeeiaiee n iaoa?eae. I?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue iaoa?ee e oi?iu ii
A?enoioaeth iaaaconeiaia. Iaaeue anoue iaoa?ey ii ioiioaieth e oa?o,
eioi?ue ec iaa ioeeaaaony, ii oa aea iaaeue – oi?ia ii ioiioaieth e
oece/aneei yeaiaioai, niaaeeiaiea eioi?uo, ii A?enoioaeth, ninoaaeyao
iaaeue. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, nouiinoueth iiaeii n/eoaoue, ii A?enoioaeth, a
iaeiii niunea iaoa?eth, a ae?oaii niunea – oi?io e a o?aoueai –
aaeeinoai iaoa?ee e oi?iu. “E noano?ao anoue nouiinoue: a iaeiii niunea
yoi iaoa?ey (y ?acoiath caeanue iiae iaoa?eae oi, /oi, ia aoaeo/e
ii?aaeaeaiiui ia/oi a aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, oaeiai a aiciiaeiinoe), a
ae?oaii – nouanoai (logos), eee oi?i – oi, /oi eae ii?aaeaeaiiia nouaa
iiaeao auoue ioaeaeaii [oieueei] iuneaiii, a o?aouea – yoi oi, /oi
ninoieo ec iaoa?ee e oi?iu, /oi iaeii oieueei iiaeaa?aeaii
aicieeiiaaieth e oie/oiaeaieth e aaconeiaii nouanoaoao ioaeaeueii, eai
ec nouiinoae, au?aaeaiiuo a ii?aaeaeaiee, iaeie nouanoaotho ioaeaeueii,
a ae?oaea iao”.

Iieiaeaiea A?enoioaey i oii, /oi a iaoa?eaeueiuo aauao iaoa?ey e oi?ia
iaioaeaeeiu ae?oa io ae?oaa, i oii, /oi ioaeaeaiea iaoa?ee io oi?iu
anoue iai?aniue o?oae: “…aaniieacii naiaeeoue ana oeacaiiui auoa
ia?acii [e oi?ia] e ono?aiyoue iaoa?eth; aaaeue a iaeioi?uo neo/ayo,
iiaeii neacaoue, yoa aio oi?ia eiaaony a yoie aio iaoa?ee eee yoe aio
aaue a oaeii-oi ninoiyiee”, ianiiiaiii, aeeaeaeoe/ii. A oi aea a?aiy
A?enoioaeue a ?yaea iieiaeaiee io?uaaao oi?io io iaoa?ee, e aeaei
caeanue ia oieueei a oii, /oi ii ioaiaeeo oi?ia aeoeaioth ?ieue a
?acaeoee iaoa?eaeueiuo aauae, ii e a naienoaaiiii aio no?aieaiee
oieeiaaoue oi?io eae eiae/anee i?aaeoanoaothuoth iaoa?ee. A eiia/iii
eoiaa yoi i?eaiaeeo A?enoioaey e eaeaaeenoe/aneiio auaiaeo i
nouanoaiaaiee aunoae oi?iu, eeoaiiie iaoa?eaeueiiai noano?aoa e “/enoie”
a naiae eaeaaeueiinoe (“iaiaoiaeeii, /oiau nouanoaiaaea iaeay aa/iay
iaiiaeaeaeiay nouiinoue”), eioi?oth oaea iaeuecy ?anniao?eaaoue eae
iaoa?eth eee eae aiciiaeiinoue aieaa aunieie oi?iu. Oaeay i?aaeaeueiay
oi?ia anoue ia?aiaeaeaaoaeue, eee aia, i?aauaathuee aia ie?a.
Auoaneacaiiia aeaao iniiaaiey eeanneoeoee?iaaoue oai?eth A?enoioaey eae
iauaeoeaiue eaeaaeeci.

Caeeth/aiea.

Ec ?anniio?aiey oeeinioneeo acaeyaeia Ieaoiia e A?enoioaey aeaeii, /oi
iie, ?anoiaeynue a ii?aaeaeaiee oiai, /oi i?aaenoaaeyao niaie
ie?oaeathuay ian aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue (o Ieaoiia aaue /oanoaaiii
aini?eieiaaiiai ie?a ?anniao?eaathony eeoue eae aeaeeiinoue, eae
eneaaeaiiia io?aaeaiea enoeiii nouaai, o A?enoioaey /oanoaaiii
aini?eieiaaiay aauue ?anniao?eaaaony eae ?aaeueii nouanoaothuaa
aaeeinoai oi?iu e iaoa?ee), iaa noiyo ia iiceoeeyo iauaeoeaiiai
eaeaaeecia, oae eae i?eaeatho iniaoth, aaaeouoth ?ieue ia iaoa?ee
(eioi?ay, ii A?enoioaeth, ianneaia), a eaeaaeueiui noanoaioeeyi – eaeayi
(o Ieaoiia) eee oi?ia (o A?enoioaey). E oiio aea aanueia aaaeiay ?ieue
i?eienuaaaony ie?iaiio ?acoio – aiao (Ieaoii), aunoae oi?ia
(A?enoioaeue), /oi aeaao aua iaeii iniiaaiea aeey oa?aeoa?enoeee yoeo
oai?ee eae iauaeoeaii-eaeaaeenoe/aneeo.

Eeoa?aoo?a.

A?enoioaeue. Ni/eiaiey: A 4 o. I.: Iuneue, 1975. O. 1.

A?enoioaeue. Ni/eiaiey: A 4 o. I.: Iuneue, 1975. O. 2.

Anion A.O. e ae?. E?aoeee eo?n enoi?ee oeeinioee. I.: Iuneue, 1976.

Einaa A.O. “Auoea, eiy, einiin”. I.: Iuneue, 1993.

Iaea?ia I.A. ?acaeoea iiiyoee e i?aaeiaoa oeeinioee a enoi?ee aa o/aiee.
E.: Iaoea, 1982.

Ieca?iai O.E. Aeaaiua oeeinioneea iai?aaeaiey: oai?aoe/aneee aiaeec
enoi?eei-oeeinioneie iunee. I.: Iuneue, 1975.

Ieaoii “Oaae?”. I.: I?ia?ann, 1989.

Ieaoii. Nia?aiea ni/eiaiee: A 4 o. I.: Iuneue, 1990. O. 1.

Ieca?iai O.E. “Aeaaiua oeeinioneea iai?aaeaiey: oai?aoe/aneee aiaeec
enoi?eei-oeeinioneiai i?ioeanna”, n. 249-250.

A.O. Einaa “Auoea, eiy, einiin”, n.36.

Oai aea, n.37.

Oai aea, n.37.

Ieaoii “Nia?aiea ni/eiaiee”, o.1, n. 374-375.

Oai aea, n. 377.

Aiai?y neiaaie Ieaoiia, caiaaanioth.

Caeanue iu aeaeei ea?a?oeth “oi-aeooa-oaei”, ?acaeaaaoothny e
aeiiieiyaoothny Ieaoiiii ia i?ioyaeaiee anae aai aeecie.

Ieaoii “Oaae?”, n.27-28.

I oa?ieia “i?e/anoiu” ni. ieaea.

Ieaoii “Nia?aiea ni/eiaiee”, o.1, n. 228.

Ieaoii “Oaae?”, n.25.

Oai aea, n.25.

O.a. oeeinioa; (oeeinioey – “ethaiaue e ioae?inoe”, n a?a/aneiai).

Oai aea, n.30

Ieca?iai O.E. “Aeaaiua oeeinioneea iai?aaeaiey: oai?aoe/aneee aiaeec
enoi?eei-oeeinioneiai i?ioeanna”, n. 149.

I oeaiiinoe iao/iuo o?oaeia A?enoioaey naeaeaoaeuenoaoao, a /anoiinoe,
oi, /oi ”A?enoioaeue ianoaeaeaao e e?eoeeoao ioaeaeueiua iieiaeaiey
Ieaoiia: aoiienoia, ieoaai?aeoeaa, ?aiieo iaoa?eaeenoia. Yoe e?eoe/aneea
e iieaie/aneea aaaaeaiey A?enoioaey ai iiiaeo neo/ayo i?aaenoaaeytho
niaie oeaiiaeoee enoi/iee aeey iiiieiaiey iaoeo naaaeaiee ia yoeo
oeeinioneeo o/aieyo” (Anion A.O. e ae?. “E?aoeea i/a?ee enoi?ee
oeeinioee”, n.77).

Iaea?ia I.A. “?acaeoea iiiyoee e i?aaeiaoa oeeinioee a enoi?ee aa
o/aiee”, n. 58.

O.a. eaeayo.

A?enoioaeue “Ni/eiaiey”: A 4 o. O.1, n. 327.

Yeaeinu, eee eaeae.

Oai aea, n. 87-88.

Oai aea, n. 87-88.

Aeeyiea eioi?uo, e aanueia caiaoiia, eniuouaae Ieaoii a iicaeiaeoee
ia?eiae naiae aeayoaeueiinoe.

Oai aea, n. 88.

O.a. iineieueeo ii nouiinoue (noanoaioeey).

Aaeeie/iua i?aaeiaou i?e/anoiu yeaeinai naie ii naaa, a ia iineieueeo
yeaeinu neacuaathony i eaeii-oi noano?aoa, aoaeo/e naienoaii /aai-oi
ae?oaiai, oae eae a iineaaeiai neo/aa i?aaeiao ii?aaeaeyeny au /a?ac oi,
i /ai neacuaaaony aeaiiue yeaein, o.a. eiae au neo/aeiia ii?aaeaeaiea.
Neaaeiaaoaeueii, ?ac i?aaeiaou i?e/anoiu yeaeinai, iineaaeiea aeieaeiu
auoue nouiinoyie, eee noanoaioeeyie (?annoaeaeaiea A?enoioaey).

Oai aea, n. 87.

Oai aea, n. 329.

Yoi aic?aaeaiea A?enoioaey iieo/eei aiineaaenoaee iacaaiea “o?aoee
/aeiaae”.

Eieue nei?i iie nicaeaiu eneonnoaaiiui ia?acii, a ia nouanoaotho io
i?e?iaeu.

Oai aea, n. 88.

O.a. Ieaoii e noi?iiieee aai oai?ee eaeae.

Oai aea, n. 347.

A?enoioaeue “Ni/eiaiey”: A 4 o. O.2, n. 163.

Oai aea, n. 168.

A?enoioaeue “Ni/eiaiey”: A 4 o. O.1, n. 190.

Oai aea, n. 198.

Oai aea, n. 224.

Oai aea, n. 209.

Oai aea, n. 306.

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