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?aoa?ao

ii oeeinioee

Ia oaio:

“Oiieci e iaioiieci.”

Aia?ia ?.N.

Caaoaeainy ia ieiooo i iuiaoiai a?aiaie, ia?aianainy iuneaiii a
n?aaeiaaaeiauea, a oi/iaa, a XIII aae – aae eiaaea aeee Oiia Aeaeineee,
e iiiuoaainy ?ane?uoue oa nioeeaeueii-eaeaieiae/aneea i?aaeiinueee,
eioi?ua iaoneiaeee aicieeiiaaiea oeeinioee, iacaaiiie ii aai eiaie
oiieciii.

Ioaeaeu oi?aiaee o?aaotho oiaiey /eoaoue e ienaoue, ciaiey a?eoiaoeee,
aaia?aoee e yeaiaioia ano?iiiiee. Ai?iaeneay ao?aeoacey no?aieony e
?acaeoeth ai?iaeneeo ioieoeeiaeueiuo oeie, eioi?ua aieaa oe?iei iiaee au
auoue eniieueciaaiu ath, a ia oieueei aeooiaainoaii. Ai?iaeneia
ia?aciaaiea nua?aei iicaea aieueooth ?ieue a aicieeiiaaiee
oieaa?neoaoia, eioi?ua i?aaieciauaaeenue aeaaiui ia?acii ia aai iniiaa.
Ianiio?y ia nii?ioeaeaiea ni noi?iiu oea?eiaiuo aeanoae, oieaa?neoaou e
ai?iaeneea oeieu ana a aieueoae noaiaie noaiiaeeenue oeaio?aie
eioaeeaeooaeueiie aeecie a Caiaaeiie Aa?iia.

Oeeinioneei au?aaeaieai i?iaoaeaeaiey yoie aeecie e ?anoe?aiey iao/iiai
iiciaiey aue aini?eiyoue ao?aeoaciuie neiyie a?enoioaeeci, iaecaanoiue
aei neo ii? – ca eneeth/aieai eiaeee – a caiaaeiuo no?aiao. A oeeinioee
A?enoioaey iuoaeenue iouneaoue a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue ia noieueei
oai?aoe/aneea ciaiey, neieueei i?aeoe/aneea ?aeiiaiaeaoeee, eioi?ua
iiaee auoue eniieueciaaiu a yeiiiie/aneie e iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneie
aeecie. N ae?oaie noi?iiu, yoa oeeinioey yaeeanue oie/eii aeey o/aiuo
oiai a?aiaie, auioaeaeaiiuo i?eciaoue, /oi aaaonoeieci, ?ac?aaioeie
eioi?iai iie caieiaeenue, oaea ia?anoae niioaaonoaiaaoue neiaeeaoaeny
eioaeeaeooaeueiie neooaoeee. Aaaeue aaaonoeieci, iie?aaoeeny ia
ieaoiiianeea o?aaeeoeee, ii naiaio oa?aeoa?o aue iai?aaeai i?ioea
anoanoaaiiiiao/iuo enneaaeiaaiee.

Iiyoiio iao ie/aai oaeeaeoaeueiiai, /oi oea?eiaue i/aiue aeoeaii
?aaae?iaaea ia ?ani?ino?aiaiea a?enoioaeaaneie aeieo?eiu, i?eiaiyy
i?ioea o/aiuo e iao/iuo oeaio?ia, aaea iia noaea ?ani?ino?aiyoueny,
ii?aaeaeaiiua cai?aou e ia?aie/aiey i?aaiecaoeeiiiiai oa?aeoa?a. E
i?eia?o, oaea a 1209 aiaeo i?iaeioeeaeueiue neiiae o?aioeocneeo
aieneiiia a Ia?eaea iaeeaaeuaaao cai?ao ia eco/aiea o?oaeia A?enoioaey.
A 1215 aiaeo iiyaeyaony aiaeiae/iue cai?ao, ?ani?ino?aiythueeny oaeaea
ia Ia?eaeneee oieaa?neoao.

N oeaeueth ?aaecee e eni?aaeaiey iaeioi?uo ca?iaeaeaaoeony oiaaea
aeooiaiuo oa/aiee, iai?aaeaiiuo i?ioea o?enoeaineie i?oiaeienee,
A?eai?ee IO nicaeaao niaoeeaeueioth iaineoth eiienneth. Eiienney yoa
ooieoeeiie?iaaea n ai?aey 1231 ii 1237 aiae. Ianiio?y ia naieeaoithth
aeayoaeueiinoue, iia ia ii?aaaeaea aiceaaaaoeony ia iaa iaaeaaeae.
Enoi?ey eiiennee oaaaeeea ?eineoth eo?eth, /oi naaoneia aeooiaainoai ia
a ninoiyiee ni?aaeony n auoaoeacaiiie caaea/ae. A yoie neooaoeee
i?eniiniaeaiea a?enoioaeecia e ioaeaeai oea?eae auei ?aoaii aeiaa?eoue
o/aiui ec i?aeaia aeiieieeaioeaa. E caeanue ia noeaio auoiaeeo Oiia
Aeaeineee, eioi?ue ieacaeny niiniaiui i?eniiniaeoue a?enoioaeeci e
iio?aaiinoyi oaieiaee.

?acaeaoaany a eiioea XII e a XIII noieaoee a no?aiao Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu
eioaeeaeooaeueiia aeaeaeaiea iiaeaeei ca niaie ?ino oaiaeaioeee e
ioaeaeaieth iaoee io oaieiaee, ?acoia io aa?u. A ?acoeueoaoa
aeeeoaeueiuo nii?ia, aaaeoueony iaaeaeo ioaeaeueiuie iuneeoaeyie e
oea?eiaueth, aue?enoaeeeciaaeinue ianeieueei oi/ae c?aiey ia oi, eae
?aoeoue i?iaeaio ioiioaiey aa?u e ?acoia:

1. ?aoeeiiaeenoe/aneay oi/ea c?aiey. Noi?iiieee aa o?aaiaaee
iiaeaa?aiooue aeiaiaou aa?u ioeaiea ?acoia eae aunoaai e?eoa?ey enoeiu
eee caaeoaeaeaiey.

2. Oi/ea c?aiey aeaienoaaiiie enoeiu, auaeaeiooay caueoieeaie oai?ee
aeaoo enoei – oaieiae/aneie e iao/iie.

3. Oi/ea c?aiey i?aaeiaoiiai ?aca?aie/aiey. Aa noi?iiieee ?aca?aie/eaaee
oaieiaeth e iaoeo ii eo i?aaeiaoai e oeaeyi.

4. Oi/ea c?aiey iieiiai io?eoeaiey oeaiiinoe iaoee.

A oneiaeyo, eiaaea ana aieaa oe?iei i?iaoaeaeaeny eioa?an e iaoea e
oeeinioee, iaeuecy auei ii-i?aaeiaio iiaeaea?aeeaaoue iieiia io?eoeaiea
oeaiiinoe ?aoeeiiaeueiiai ciaiey, iaiaoiaeeii auei eneaoue ae?oaea,
aieaa oiieea niiniau ?aoaiey aii?ina ia ioiioaiee oaieiaee e iaoee. Yoi
auei iaeaaeei aeaeii, eai ?a/ue oea i au?aaioea oaeiai iaoiaea, eioi?ue,
ia i?iiiaaaeoy iieiiai i?aiaa?aaeaiey e ciaieth, iaeiia?aiaiii aue au a
ninoiyiee iiae/eieoue ?aoeeiiaeueiia iuoeaiea aeiaiaoai ioe?iaaiey,
o.a. nio?aieoue i?eiao aa?u iaae ?acoiii. Yoo caaea/o inouanoaeyao Oiia,
iie?aynue ia eaoiee/aneia oieeiaaiea a?enoioaeaaneie eiioeaioeee iaoee.

Eaoiee/aneea enoi?eee oeeinioee ii/oe iianaianoii oaaaeaeaiu, /oi Oiia
Aeaeineee aaoiiiiece?iaae iaoeo, i?aa?aoea aa a iaeanoue niaa?oaiii
iacaaeneioth io oaieiaee. *oiau iieacaoue iaiainiiaaiiinoue yoeo
ooaa?aeaeaiee, aniiiiei a?enoioaeaaneoth eiioeaioeeth iaoee,
eioa?i?aoe?iaaiioth Oiiie Aeaeineei iiae oaeii c?aiey oaieiaee.

Nouanoaotho /aou?a iiiyoey, yaeythueany aianoa n oai nooiaiyie iaoee :
iiuo, eneonnoai, ciaiea, ioae?inoue.

Iiuo (empeiria), eae ia?aay nooiaiue iaoee, iniiaai ia nio?aiaiee a
iaiyoe ioaeaeueiuo aaeeie/iuo oaeoia e eiioeuenia, iieo/aaiuo ec
iaoa?eaeueiie aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, eioi?ua nicaeatho “iiuoiue” iaoa?eae.
Oioy iiuo, eee niaieoiiinoue oaea?aeaiiuo a iaiyoe /oanoaaiiuo aeaiiuo,
yaeyaony iniiaie anyeiai ciaiey, ii ii iaaeinoaoi/ai, eai aeinoaaeyao
iai naaaeaiey eeoue ia aaeeie/iuo oaeoao e yaeaieyo, /oi ia
i?aaenoaaeyao aua ciaiey. ?ieue iiieiaaiiai oaeei ia?acii iiuoa
caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi ii yaeyaony iniiaie aeaeueiaeoeo iaiauaiee.

Neaaeiaaoaeueii, ia iai iaeuecy inoaiaaeeaaoueny, iaiaoiaeeii
iiaeiyoueny ia neaaeothuoth, aieaa aunieoth nooiaiue iiciaiey, e tecnhe
– eneonnoao, eee oiaieth. A iaai aeeth/aaony i?aaeaea anaai anyeia
?aianei, anyeay eieoaoeey. Tecnhe – yoi ?acoeueoao ii?aaeaeaiiuo
ia/aeueiuo iaiauaiee, naeaeaiiuo ia iniiaa iaee/ey e iiaoi?aiey
iaeioi?uo yaeaiee a noiaeiuo neooaoeeyo.

Ia tecnhe iniiauaaaony o?aoee yoai iiciaiey – episteme, eee iiaeeeiiia
ciaiea. Episteme iaaiciiaeii aac i?aaeuaeouaai yoaia, o.a. tecnhe, a oai
naiui e aac empeiria. *aeiaae, iaeaaeathuee episteme, ia oieueei ciaao,
ii/aio i?ienoiaeeo oae, a ia eia/a, ii aianoa n oai oiaao ia?aaeaoue yoi
ae?oaei, a neaaeiaaoaeueii niiniaai iao/aoue.

Aunoei o?iaiai iiciaiey yaeyaony sophia, o.e. ioae?inoue eee “ia?aay
oeeinioey”. Iia iaiauaao ciaiey o?ao i?aaeuaeoueo yoaiia e eiaao naiei
i?aaeiaoii i?e/eiu, aunoea iniiau auoey, nouanoaiaaiey e aeayoaeueiinoe.
Iia eco/aao i?iaeaiu aeaeaeaiey, iaoa?ee, noanoaioeee,
oeaeaniia?aciinoe, a oae aea eo i?iyaeaiea a aaeeie/iuo aauao.

A oieeiaaiee Oiiu a?enoioaeaaneay sophia eae iaoea i ia?aiiniiaao
iaoa?eaeueiiai auoey oo?a/eaaao naie anoanoaaiiue, naaoneee oa?aeoa?,
iiaeaa?aioaoenue iieiie oaieiaecaoeee. Aeaeiao io?uaaao, eciee?oao aa io
aa aaiaaeiae/aneiai ae?aaa, o.a. io empeiria, tecnhe, episteme. A aai
eioa?i?aoaoeee iia i?aa?auaaony a “ioae?inoue (sapientia)” naio a naaa,
noaiiaeony o/aieai i “ia?aie i?e/eia”, iacaaeneiui io anyeiai eiiai
ciaiey. Aa iniiaiie eaeaae yaeyaony ia iiciaiea aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe e
oi?aaeythueo ath caeiiia, a iiciaiea aaniethoiiai auoey, iaia?oaeaiea a
iai neaaeia Aiaa. A?enoioaeaaneia iiiyoea sophia Oiia i?aeoe/anee
ioiaeaeanoaeyao n oaieiaeae. A ?acoeueoaoa /aeiaa/aneia no?aieaiea e
iiciaieth ieacuaaaony ia?aianaiiui ec caiiie, iauaeoeaiie ?aaeueiinoe a
naa?ouanoanoaaiiue, e??aoeeiiaeueiue ie?. Nica?oeaiea Aiaa aianoi
iiciaiey aeaaiuo iniia iauaeoeaiie aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe – aio nouiinoue
oieeiaaiey Oiiie a?enoioaeaaneiai iiiyoey iaoee i?eiaieoaeueii e
ioaeaeai oea?eae.

Aeaeiao iainiaeyao oaieiaeth io iaoee a aiinaieiae/aneii niunea, o.a.
n/eoaao, /oi oaieiaey /a?iaao naie enoeiu ia ec oeeinioee, ia ec /anoiuo
aeenoeeieei, a eneeth/eoaeueii ec ioe?iaaiey.

Ii ia yoii Oiia ia iia inoaiiaeoueny, eai yoi eeoue iiae/a?eeaaei
“i?aainoiaenoai” oaieiaee e aa iacaaeneiinoue io ae?oaeo iaoe, ii iia ia
?aoaea naiie nouanoaaiiie aeey oiai a?aiaie caaea/e, noiyaoae ia?aae
?eineie eo?eae, a eiaiii iaiaoiaeeiinoe iiae/eieoue oaieiaee
?acaeaathuaany iao/iia oa/aiea.

A niioaaonoaee n yoeie o?aaiaaieyie Oiia au?aaaouaaao neaaeothuea
oai?aoe/aneea i?eioeeiu, aei ianoiyuaai a?aiaie ii?aaeaeythuea
aaia?aeueioth eeieth oea?eae ii aii?ino ia ioiioaiee oaieiaee e iaoee.

1. Oeeinioey e /anoiua iaoee auiieiytho ii ioiioaieth e oaieiaee
i?iiaaeaaoe/aneea, neoaeaaiua ooieoeee. Oaieiaey, i?aaaea, ia /a?iaao ec
oeeinioee e /anoiuo aeenoeeieei ieeaeeo iieiaeaiee – iie niaea?aeaony a
ioe?iaaiee , – ii eniieuecoao eo a oeaeyo eo/oaai iiieiaiey e aieaa
aeoaieiai ?acuyniaiey enoei ioe?iaaiey. Eniieueciaaiea eo, ii iiaieth
Oiiu, ia yaeyaony naeaeaoaeuenoaii ianaiiaeinoaoi/iinoe eee neaainoe
oaieiaee, a iai?ioea, auoaeaao ec oaiainoe /aeiaa/aneiai oia.
?aoeeiiaeueiia ciaiea iiin?aaenoaaiiui e aoi?e/iui ia?acii iaeaa/aao
iiieiaiea ecaanoiuo aeiaiaoia aa?u, i?eaeeaeaao e iiciaieth
“ia?aii?e/eiu” anaeaiiie, o.a. Aiaa.

2. Enoeiu oaieiaee eiatho naiei enoi/ieeii ioe?iaaiea, enoeiu iaoee –
/oanoaaiiue iiuo e ?acoi. Oiia ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi n oi/ee c?aiey niiniaa
iieo/aiea enoeiu ciaiey iiaeii ?acaeaeeoue ia aeaa aeaea: ciaiey,
ioe?uoua anoanoaaiiui naaoii ?acoia, iai?eia? a?eoiaoeea e aaiiao?ey, e
ciaiey, /a?iathuea naie iniiau ec ioe?iaaiey.

3. Nouanoaoao iaeanoue iaeioi?uo iauaeoia, iaueo aeey oaieiaee e iaoee.
Neaaeiaaoaeueii, ie/oi ia iaoaao oiio, /oiau iaeieie e oaie aea
i?iaeaiaie, iineieueeo iie aeinooiiu iiciaieth i?e iiiiue anoanoaaiiiai
naaoa ?acoia, caieiaeenue eae oeeinioneea iaoee, oae e oaieiaey. Yoi
i/aaeaeii, ia eneeth/aao oiai, /oi ecaanoiua enoeiu ioe?iaaiey iiaoo
auoue aeieacaiu anoanoaaiiui iooai. E iei ioiinyony, a /anoiinoe, enoeiu
i aannia?oee /aeiaa/aneie aeooe, i nouanoaiaaiee Aiaa, i nioai?aiee ie?a
e o.i.

Ia?yaeo n iaeanoueth iauaeoia, iaueo aeey yoeo aeaoo aeenoeeieei,
nouanoaotho ii?aaeaeaiiua enoeiu, eioi?ua iaeuecy aeieacaoue i?e iiiiue
?acoia, e iioiio iie ioiinyony eneeth/eoaeueii e noa?a oaieiaee.
O/eouaay iiuo n?aaeiaaaeiaiai nii?a ia ioiioaiee aa?u e ?acoia, Aeaeiao
iiieiae, /oi eo/oa ia iiaeaa?aaoue noaeo ?acoia oa enoeiu ioe?iaaiey,
eioi?ua i?ioeai?a/ao i?aaeeai /aeiaa/aneiai iuoeaiey. E enoeiai, eioi?ua
iaaeinooiiu ?acoio, Oiia ioiinee neaaeothuea aeiaiaou aa?u: aeiaiao
aine?aoaiey, enoi?eth aiieiuaiey, nayooth o?ieoeo, nioai?aiea ie?a ai
a?aiaie, aiciiaeiinoue ioaaoeoue ia aii?in, /oi oaeia Aia, e o.ae.
Iiyoiio, anee a aeaiiie iaeanoe ?acoi i?eoiaeeo e i?yii i?ioeaiiieiaeiui
iieiaeaieyi, oi yoi yaeyaony aeinoaoi/iui aeieacaoaeuenoaii eiaeiinoe
iineaaeieo.

4. Iieiaeaiey iaoee ia iiaoo i?ioeai?a/eoue aeiaiaoai aa?u. Oiia
ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi ?aoeeiiaeueiua enoeiu ia iiaoo i?ioeai?a/eoue
aeiaiaoai aa?u, /oi ?acoi aeieaeai eeoue iiaeoaa?aeaeaoue yoe aeiaiaou.
Oaeei ia?acii, ia io?eoeay oeaiiinoue iaoee, Aeaeiao ia?aie/eaaao aa
?ieue eioa?i?aoaoeeae aeiaiaoia ioe?iaaiey, aeieacaoaeuenoaii eo
niioaaonoaey aeaiiui ?acoiiiai ciaiey. Iieacii, /oiau ?acoi caieiaeny
aeiaiaoaie aa?u, ii “/oiau oieueei ia aiciiiee caiin/eai, – ieoao Oiia,
– /oi iiiye eo eee aeieacae” .

Oaeei ia?acii iiaeii naeaeaoue auaiae i oii, /oi Oiia Aeaeineee aiana ia
ioaeaeee iaoeo io oaieiaee, a, iai?ioea, aac inoaoea iiae/eiee aa
oaieiaee. Anee oeaee iaoee aeaiu a priory, anee iia ia iiaeao i?eeoe e
?acoeueoaoai, i?ioeai?a/auei enoeiai ioe?iaaiey, anee e?eoa?eai
enoeiiiai eee eiaeiiai yaeythony aeiaiaou aa?u e anee iauaeo iaoee a
eiia/iii n/aoa o?ainoeaiaeaioiay, a ia iaoa?eaeueiay
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue, oi yoi a aeinoaoi/iie ia?a aeieacuaaao ia
aaoiiiiiinoue iaoee, a aa aeoaieia ii?aaiuaiea, aeieacuaaao, /oi iia
oeaeeeii aoeniooa a ?aiee o?enoeaineie i?oiaeienee.

I?aaeaea /ai i?enooieoue e eceiaeaieth iaoaoece/aneie oai?ee auoey
Aeaeiaoa, iaiaoiaeeii ii?aaeaeeoue oa?aeoa? e ianoi oiiecia n?aaee
iniiaiuo oeeinioneeo iai?aaeaiee. Aeaenoaeoaeueii ee oiieci yaeyaony
?aaeeciii? Ioaao ia yoio aii?in iiaeao auoue oieueei iaeei: oeeinioey
Oiiu Aeaeineiai, eae e aai iineaaeiaaoaeae, yaeyaony ia ?aaeeciii, a
iauaeoeaiui eaeaaeeciii.

Oeeinioneea iai?aaeaiey iiaeii ?acaeaeeoue ia iaoa?eaeeci e eaeaaeeci, a
caaeneiinoe io oiai, /oi n/eoaaony ia?ae/iui iaoa?ey eee aeoo. Oa, eoi
ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi iaoa?ey ia?ae/ia, a iuoeaiea aoi?e/ii, ioiinyony e
eaaa?th iaoa?eaeenoia. Oa aea, eoi ia?ae/iui n/eoaao aeoo, ia?acotho
eaeaaeenoe/aneia iai?aaeaiea, a i?aaeaeao eioi?iai iiaeii ?aca?aie/eoue
aeaa ?aciiaeaeiinoe: iauaeoeaiue eaeaaeeci, iieaaathuee, /oi
ie?oaeathuay ian aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue nouanoaoao iacaaeneii io ian, ii
yaeyaony i?iaeoeoii eaeaaeueiiai ia/aea (iai?eia?, io?aaeaieai eaeae o
Ieaoiia eee ii?iaeaeaieai aaniethoiiai aeooa o Aaaaey), e noauaeoeaiue,
niaeanii eioi?iio ie?, iaoa?eaeueiua oaea yaeythony eiiieaenii iaoeo
iuouaiee. Oeeinioey Oiiu Aeaeineiai aiai?eo i oii, /oi ia?ae/ai aeoo –
Aia, a iaoa?ey yaeyaony aai oai?aieai, e neaaeiaaoaeueii ioiineony e
eaeaaeenoe/aneiio eaaa?th, ii iia oae aea i?eciaao, /oi iaoa?eaeueiue
ie? ia yaeyaony eiiieaenii iaoeo iuouaiee, caaeneiui io noauaeoa, a
nouanoaoao iacaaeneii io ian, e oaeei ia?acii yaeyaony eaeaaeeciii
iauaeoeaiiai oeia. Oeeinioey Aeaeiaoa oae aea i?eciaao nouanoaiaaiea eae
aeoo, oae e oeaeie ea?a?oee /enouo aeooia, eee aiaaeia. O.a. iu iiaeai
ooaa?aeaeaoue, /oi oiieci eiaao nie?eooaeenoe/aneee oa?aeoa?. Iaeiaei,
iia eaaeaony, /oi oiienoneoth oeeinioeth iiaeii iacaaoue e ?aaeeciii a
no?iai ii?aaeaeaiiii niunea, a eiaiii eae i?ioeainoiyuoth noauaeoeaiiio
eaeaaeecio a aai iioieiae/aneie o?aeoiaea, eai oiieci i?eciaao
nouanoaiaaiea iaoa?eaeueiiai ie?a iacaaeneii io noauaeoa.

Oiia n/eoae, /oi ?aaeueii nouanoaotho eeoue aaeeie/iua aaue, eee
noanoaioeee, ninoiyuea ec nouiinoe (essentia) e nouanoaiaaiey
(existentia). Ii iieaaaao, /oi ?acee/ea iaaeaeo nouiinoueth e
nouanoaiaaieai ia anoue ia/oi oieueei iuneaiiia, caaenyuaa io iaoeo
aeoia niciaiey, a yaeyaony /ai-oi oaeoe/aneei, ?aaeueii nouanoaothuei.
Enoiaey ec yoie i?aaeiinueee Aeaeiao ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi aauai i?enoua
nouiinoue, ii nouiinoue ia eiieeoee?oao eo nouanoaiaaiey. Yoi
i?ienoiaeeo iioiio, /oi ana nouanoaothuaa a ie?a nicaeaii Aiaii, a
neaaeiaaoaeueii, caaeneo io iaai. A Aiaa aea eae a i?inoii, ianinoaaiii
auoee nouiinoue e nouanoaiaaiea oiaeaeanoaaiiu. Iiyoiio nouiinoue Aiaa
eiieeoee?oao aai nouanoaiaaiea, a oi a?aiy eae nouiinoue nioai?aiiuo
aauae ia eiieeoee?oao eo nouanoaiaaiey. *aeiaae eee aeeaioiia
nouanoaotho aeaaiaea?y nii?e/anoiinoe aiaeanoaaiiiio aeoo oai?aiey.
Neaaeiaaoaeueii, niaeanii Oiia, ie? iaoa?eaeueiuo aauae nouanoaoao ia a
neeo nianoaaiiie i?e?iaeu, a yaeyaony /ai-oi niaa?oaiii neo/aeiui,
caaeneiui io nicaeaoaey eee nouanoaiaaoue ia aeieaeai. A
i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue yoiio ie?o Aia – auoea aaniethoii iaiaoiaeeiia, a
neaaeiaaoaeueii, aeieaeai nouanoaiaaoue aaconeiaii, eai yoi caeeth/aii a
aai i?e?iaea.

Eaoaai?ee iaoa?ee (materia) e oi?iu (forma) Oiia caeinoaoao ec
a?enoioaeaaneie iaoaoeceee. Ii iiaoi?yao, /oi ?aaeueii nouanoaotho eeoue
aaeeie/iua aaue, ninoiyuea ec iaoa?ee e oi?iu. /oi iaoa?ey i?aaenoaaeyao
principium individuationis – iniiao eiaeeaeaeoaeecaoeee, /oi iaoa?ey,
eeoaiiay oi?iu, ianneaia, iaaeeoa?aioee?iaaiia e ia iiaeao aac iaa
nouanoaiaaoue, /oi oi?ia yaeyaony aeoeaiui yeaiaioii, eiino?oe?othuei
aaeeie/iia auoea, eioi?ia aeaaiaea?y oi?ia i?eia?aoaao niiniaiinoue e
eciaiaieyi.

Iaeiaei oi?ia a oieeiaaiee Oiiu auea niaieoiiinoueth iaueo nouanoaaiiuo
i?eciaeia, i?enoueo aauai ii?aaeaeaiiiai aeaea, e ia nouanoaiaaea aia
eee aei ieo. Aeaeiao ?acee/ae a noanoaioeeyo o?e ?iaea oi?i, eee
oieaa?naeee:

1. Oieaa?naeey, niaea?aeauayny a aaue a ea/anoaa aa nouiinoe (universale
in re), ii?aaeaeyaiay ei oae aea eae iaiin?aaenoaaiiay oieaa?naeey
(universale directum).

2. Oieaa?naeey, aano?aae?iaaiiay io noanoaioeee, o.a. nouanoaothuay a
/aeiaa/aneii oia (post rem). A yoii aeaea ?aaeueii (formaliter) iia
nouanoaoao oieueei a oia, a a aaue eiaao eeoue naith iniiao. Yoo
oieaa?naeeth Oiia iacuaaao ?aoeaeneaiie (reflexivum). Iiyoiio oi?ia,
o.a. iauaa, nouanoaoao a aaue eae nouiinoue aua ia aano?aae?iaaiiay, a
oia aea – eae ecaea/aiiay aeoeaiui oiii (intellectus agens).

3. Oieaa?naeey, iacaaeneiay io aaue a aiaeanoaaiiii oia (universale ante
rem). Oieaa?naeee a oia oai?oea – yoi iaeciaiiua, iinoiyiiua, aa/iua
oi?iu, eee iniiau, aauae, eee, aiai?y eia/a, ia?acoeiaua yecaiiey?u,
yaeythueany iiaeaeueth, oeaeueth oai?aiey ec ie/aai aaeeie/iuo aauae,
i?eiaaeeaaeaueo e ii?aaeaeaiiiio aeaeo.

Niaeanii Oiia, a i?ioeanna ?aoeeiiaeueiiai iiciaiey oi ecaeaeaao ec
aauae ia /oi eiia, eae aiaeanoaaiioth eaeath, ii?aaeaeythuoth eo
iauaeoeaiia nouanoaiaaiea.

Aaeeie/iua aaue eae naiinoiyoaeueiua auoey ninoiyo ec aiciiaeiinoe
(potentia) e aeoa (actus). Iiae aiciiaeiinoueth eee iioaioeeae
iiieiaaony aiciiaeiia auoea, iiae aeoii aea – auoea aeaenoaeoaeueiia,
aaniethoii nouanoaothuaa. O.a. eaoaai?ee aiciiaeiinoe e aeoa eiatho
aieaa iauee oa?aeoa?, /ai oi?ia e iaoa?ey.

Iaoa?ey eae iioaioeey oaea ia nouanoaoao ecaa/ii, a ieacuaaaony
nicaeaiiie Aiaii ec ie/aai, a iioiio ec ia?ae/iie noaiiaeony aoi?e/iie,
i?iecaiaeiie. Aiciiaeiinoue i?enoua ae ia a neeo aa i?e?iaeu, a aeiaeaia
a iaa oai?oeii e oieueei aeaaiaea?y aio inouanoaeyaony e ia?aoiaeeo a
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue. A iiyoiio ethaia eciaiaiea a i?e?iaea e a iauanoaa
eae ia?aoiae ec aiciiaeiinoe a aeo eiaao naie eiia/iue enoi/iee a
oai?/aneie aiaeanoaaiiie neea. Aia yaeyaony iaeei ia?aiaeaeaaoaeai, oae
eae a iai ie/aai ia iaoiaeeony a ninoiyiee aiciiaeiinoe, a ii aanue –
aaniethoiue aeo.

Iaeiaei yoe ?annoaeaeaiey niioaaonoaotho iiceoeee aaaonoeiecia, e Oiia
ia inoaiaaeeaaaony ia ieo, a eaeao aeaeueoa: ii aaiaeeo iiiyoea
anoanoaaiiuo i?e/ei, iin?aaenoaii eioi?uo Aia i?aaeo ie?ii. Ionthaea
neaaeoao. /oi iaeuecy ianneaii iaeeaeaoue aiaeueaai i?eaiai?a, a ioaeii
aeoeaii caieiaoueny caiiuie aeaeaie a i?aaeaeao oao oeaeae, eioi?ua
i?aneaaeoao i?iaeaeaiea.

Oiia Aeaeineee iiae?acaeaeyao enoeiu ioe?iaaiey ia aeaa ?iaea: enoeiu,
aeinooiiua ?acoio, e enoeiu, auoiaeyuea ca i?aaeaeu aai iiciaaaoaeueiuo
aiciiaeiinoae. ?aoeeiiaeueiui aeieacaoaeuenoaii aeiaiaoia aa?u
caieiaaony anoanoaaiiay oaieiaey. auiieiythuay ii ioiioaieth e oaieiaee
i?iiaaeaaoe/aneoth ooieoeeth. Oeaio?aeueiie i?iaeaiie anoanoaaiiie
oaieiaee yaeythony “aeieacaoaeuenoaa” auoey Aiaa.

Oiia ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi auneacuaaiea “Aia nouanoaoao”, n iaeiie noi?iiu
yaeyaony i/aaeaeiui, n ae?oaie noi?iiu, ia ciay, /oi oaeia Aia, iu ia
iiaeai i?eiyoue aai nouanoaiaaiea ca /oi-oi i/aaeaeiia. Iiyoiio, a oae
aea aeey oneeaiey aa?u, iaiaoiaeeii iainiiauaaoue nouanoaiaaiea oai?oea
i?e iiiiue oiai, /oi yaeyaony aieaa i/aaeaeiui, /ai ii nai, a eiaiii i?e
iiiiue ?acoeueoaoia aai oai?aiey.

Aeaeiao aiai?eo, /oi aeieacaoue nouanoaiaaiea oai?oea iiaeii aeaoiy
niiniaaie: /a?ac i?e/eio (propter quid) e /a?ac neaaenoaea (quia). O.a.
a ia?aii neo/aa ?a/ue eaeao i aeieacaoaeuenoaa ai?ei?iii (io i?e/eiu e
neaaenoaeth), a ai aoi?ii – ia aiinoa?ei?iii (io neaaenoaey e i?e/eia).
A niioaaonoaee n yoei Oiia Aeaeineee oi?ioee?oao iyoue
“aeieacaoaeuenoa-iooae” Aiaa.

1. Aeieacaoaeuenoai io aeaeaeaiey (eeiaoe/aneia), enoiaeeo ec oiai, /oi
aaue iaoiaeyony a aeaeaeaiee, a ana aeaeaeouaany i?eaiaeeony a
aeaeaeaiea /ai-oi ae?oaei, eai aeaeaeaiea anoue ia?aoiae aiciiaeiinoe a
aeo. Oi, eoi aeooaeece?oao iioaioeeth, anoue oi?ia, iaeia auoea a aeoa.
Neaaeiaaoaeueii, a iiiyoea aeaeaeaiey aoiaeeo oi, /oi aeaeaeaony e oi,
/oi aeaeaeao. Iiyoiio, anee au eaeia-oi auoea, i?eaiaeyuaa ia/oi a
aeaeaeaiea, naii auei i?eaaaeaii a aeaeaeaiea, oi yoi auei au niaa?oaiii
/ai-oi ae?oaei, a yoi ae?oaia a naith i/a?aaeue i?eaiaeeeinue a
aeaeaeaiea o?aoueei e o.ae. Iaeiaei oeaiue aeaeaaoaeae ia iiaeao auoue
aaneiia/iie, e iiyoiio iu aeieaeiu aeieoe aei ia?aie i?e/eiu
aeaeaeaiey, eioi?ay ieeai ia aeaeaeaony e eioi?ay ana aeaeaeao. Oaeie
i?e/eiie aeieaeia auoue /enoay oi?ia, /enoue aeo, eioi?ui e yaeyaony
Aia.

Aeaeii, /oi eeiaoe/aneia aeieacaoaeuenoai iniiaaii ia aeaoo
i?aaeiinueeao: 1. Anyeia auoea, iaoiaeyuaany a aeaeaeaiee, aeieaeii
auoue i?eaaaeaii a aeaeaeaiea iin?aaenoaii ae?oaiai auoey, yaeythuaany
aai aeaeaaoaeai. 2. Oeaiue aeaeaaoaeae ia iiaeao auoue aaneiia/iie.
Iiaeii aeaeaoue, /oi ie iaeia ec yoeo i?aaeiinueie ia yaeyaony
neaaenoaeai caeiiia oeceee eee iaoaieee.

2. Aeieacaoaeuenoai io i?iecaiaeyuae i?e/eiu aeaneo, /oi a iaoa?eaeueiii
ie?a nouanoaoao ii?aaeaeaiiue i?e/eiiue ii?yaeie, aa?ouee naia ia/aei io
ia?aie i?e/eiu. o.a. Aiaa. Iaaiciiaeii. ?annoaeaeaao Oiia, /oiau ia/oi
auei nianoaaiiie i?iecaiaeyuae i?e/eiie, iineieueeo iii nouanoaiaaei au
?aiueoa naay, a yoi iaeaii. A oae eae ia nouanoaoao aaneiia/iie oeaie
aeaenoaothueo i?e/ei, oi iaiaoiaeeii iieiaeeoue iaeioi?oth ia?ae/ioth
i?iecaiaeyuoth i?e/eio, a eiaiii Aiaa.

3. Aeieacaoaeuenoai io iaiaoiaeeiinoe e neo/aeiinoe enoiaeeo ec oiai,
/oi a i?e?iaea e iauanoaa nouanoaotho aaeeie/iua aaue, eioi?ua
aicieeatho e oie/oiaeathony eee iiaoo nouanoaiaaoue eeai ia
nouanoaiaaoue. Ae?oaeie neiaaie, yoe aaue ia yaeythony /ai-oi
iaiaoiaeeiui, a, neaaeiaaoaeueii, eiatho neo/aeiue oa?aeoa?. Iaaiciiaeii
i?aaenoaaeoue, /oiau iiaeiaiiai ?iaea aaue nouanoaiaaee anaaaea, eai oi,
/oi iiaeao nouanoaiaaoue, a?aiaiaie ?aaeueii ia nouanoaoao. Eae yaeaiey
neo/aeiua, iie o?aaotho iaee/ey iaiaoiaeeiie i?e/eiu, nouanoaiaaiea
eioi?ie auoaeaao ec aa nouiinoe. Yoa i?e/eia e anoue Aia. Nae/an iu
iiaeai ooaa?aeaeaoue, /oi yoi aeieacaoaeuenoai iaoiaeeony a i?ioeai?a/ee
n caeiiii nio?aiaiey iaoa?ee. Aaeeie/iua aaue eae eiie?aoiua oi?iu
iaoa?ee en/acath, iiaeaa?aathony o?ainoi?iaoeee, ii iaoa?ey i?e yoii
ieeoaea ia en/acaao.

4. Aeieacaoaeuenoai io noaiaie niaa?oainoaa enoiaeeo ec i?aaeiinueee,
/oi a aauao i?iyaeythony ?acee/iua noaiaie niaa?oainoaa a oi?ia auoey,
aeia?a, e?aniou. Ii i ?acee/iuo noaiaiyo niaa?oainoaa iiaeii aiai?eoue,
ii iiaieth Oiiu, eeoue a n?aaiaiee n /ai-oi naiui i?ae?aniui, i?ae?aniaa
/aai ia nouanoaoao, o.a. n Aiaii.

5. A aeieacaoaeuenoaa io aiaeanoaaiiiai ?oeiaiaenoaa ie?ii aiai?eony i
oii, /oi a ie?a eae ?acoiiuo, oae e ia?acoiiuo nouanoa, a oae aea a
aauao e yaeaieyo iaaethaeaaony oeaeaniia?aciinoue aeayoaeueiinoe e
iiaaaeaiey. Aeaeiao n/eoaao, /oi yoi i?ienoiaeeo ia neo/aeii e eoi-oi
aeieaeai oeaeaiai?aaeaiii ?oeiaiaeeoue ie?ii: “Neaaeiaaoaeueii, anoue
?acoiiia nouanoai, iieaaathuaa oeaeue aeey anaai, /oi i?ienoiaeeo a
i?e?iaea, e aai iu eiaioai Aiaii”. Iia eaaeaony, /oi Oiia naiaeeo
caeanue caeiiiia?iinoue e oeaeaniia?aciinoe, iao/eouaay aiciiaeiinoue
nouanoaiaaiey iauaeoeaiuo caeiiia, oi?aaeythueo i?e?iaeie.

Oiia Aeaeineee a naieo ni/eiaieyo i/aiue /anoi ioia/ae aieueooth ?ieue
yiie?ee e /oanoaaiiiai iiciaiey. Yoi aea oneeaiii iiae/a?eeaatho e
nia?aiaiiua oiienou, neaaeothuea oeeinioneei iniiaai naiaai o/eoaey.
Ii/oe ai anao o?oaeao Aeaeiaoa /anoi eniieuecothony iiiyoey “iiuo“,
“/oanoaaiiia iiciaiea”, “sensibilia” e o.ae. Oiia iaiaeiie?aoii
iiae/a?eeaaao, /oi “anyeia anoanoaaiiia ciaiea i?ienoiaeeo ec /oanoa“,
/oi i?aaeiaoii iiciaiey yaeyaony aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue aia /oanoa,
iacaaeneiay io noauaeoa, eee io /aeiaa/aneiai niciaiey.

Oioy Oiia Aeaeineee iia?e?oao oaie aea i?aaenoaaeaieyie, /oi e
yiie?eee, iaeiaei niaea?aeaiea yoeo i?aaenoaaeaiee ii nouanoao naiaio
i?ioeaiiieiaeii.

?anniio?ei iaeioi?ua iiiyoey, oiio?aaeyaiua Oiiie Aeaeineei: iiiyoey
iaoa?eaeueiiai e oi?iaeueiiai iauaeoa. Iaoa?eaeueiue iauaeo – yoi i?inoi
eiie?aoiia auoea, ethaay /oanoaaiiay aauue, iacaaeneiay io niciaiey e
iaaethaeaaiay eee aini?eieiaaiay n iiiiuueth /oanoa. Iauaeo aea
oi?iaeueiue – yoi ii?aaeaeaiiue yeaiaio, eaeay-oi noi?iia iiciaaaaiie
aaue. O.a. iaoa?eaeueiue iauaeo yaeyaony aieaa oe?ieei iiiyoeai, /ai
iauaeo oi?iaeueiue. A i?ioeanna iiciaiey eioaeeaeo a ii?aaeaeaiiii
ioiioaiee ioiaeaeanoaeyaony n iauaeoii, eee n oi?iie, ii ia
iaoa?eaeueiie, a aeooiaiie. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, nouiinoue iiciaiey, ii
Oiia, caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi iiciathuee noaiiaeoueny iiciaaaaiui
(cognoscens fit cognitum). Yoi i?ienoiaeeo iioiio, /oi oi iaoaeanai e ia
iiaeao iiaeaa?aaoueny aicaeaenoaeth /oanoaaiiuo aauae. ?aoeeiiaeueiia
iiciaiea anaaaea yaeyaony iauei, e iioiio ioaeaeueiua, aaeeie/iua aaue
ia iiaoo auoue aai iauaeoii. “Intellectus est universalium et non
singularium”, – ieoao Oiia. A yoie oi?ioee?iaea niaea?aeeony i/aiue
nouanoaaiiia iaoiaeieiae/aneia oeacaiea, iaeaa/athuaa iiieiaiea iauaeoa
oiienoneie aiinaieiaee. Anee a aaeeie/iuo aauao eiaeeaeaeoaeueiui
yaeyaony iaoa?ey, oi iauei aeieaeii auoue ia/oi iaiaoa?eaeueiia. A oiaea
iiciaiey noauaeo a ecaanoiii niunea oiiaeiaeyaony iauaeoo, aai
aeooiaiie, eaeaaeueiie oi?ia. Ionthaea iu iiaeai naeaeaoue auaiae, /oi
iauaeoii iiciaiey yaeyaony ia iaoa?ey, a iaeioi?ay iaiaoa?eaeueiay
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue. Ii iiaieth Aeaeiaoa, iiciaiea iniiaaii ia
niiniaiinoe aini?eieiaoue io aaeeie/iuo aauae aeooiaiua iiciaaaoaeueiua
oi?iu e yaeyaony niiniaiinoueth nii?e/anoaiaaoue iaiaoa?eaeueiiio
aiaeanoaaiiiio nouanoaiaaieth. A iiyoiio iaiaoa?eaeueiay
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue – yoi neaaeu Aiaa a anoanoaaiiuo i?aaeiaoao, yoi eo
caaeneiinoue io oai?oea.

Oiia ia/eiaao aiaeec i?ioeanna iiciaiey n iauyniaiey iiae?acaeaeaiey,
ea?a?oee e ooieoeee /oanoaaiiuo i?aaiia. Ii aeeoioiie/anee
iiae?acaeaeyao eo ia aiaoiea (senses exteriores) e aioo?aiiea /oanoaa
(senses interiores).

A ea?a?oee iyoe aiaoieo /oanoa naiia ieceia iieiaeaiea caieiaao
inycaiea, iioiio /oi iii iaeaieaa iaoa?eaeueii, o.a. aieaa anaai naycaii
n oaeii. Iaeiaei, aoaeo/e naiui ieceei, iii auiieiyao iniiaioth ?ieue,
iineieueeo io iaai caaeneo ia oieueei oaiia?aiaio /aeiaaea, ii e
i?aaeeueiia ooieoeeiie?iaaiea eae /oanoaaiiuo, oae e oinoaaiiuo
iiciaaaoaeueiuo i?aaiia. E ?ac?yaeo iecoeo /oanoa Oiia ioiineo e?iia
inycaiey aieaa aunieee, /ai iii, aeon e aieaa niaa?oaiiia, /ai
iineaaeiee, iaiiyiea. N?aaee aiaoieo /oanoa auoa anaai noiyo neoo e
c?aiea, eioi?ua n/eoathony /oanoaaie iaeaieaa iiciathueie (maxime
cognoscivi) e ieacuaathueie iaeaieueoea oneoae ?acoio.

Aiaoiea /oanoaa, naycuaathuea /aeiaaea ni n?aaeie, iiaeaa?aathony
aicaeaenoaeth iaoa?eaeueiuo oae, eioi?ua ioia/aouaatho ia ieo
/oanoaaiiua ia?acu (species sensibiles) aaeeie/iuo i?aaeiaoia.

Ii iiaieth Aeaeiaoa, iiciaiea yaeyaony ia?aoiaeii aiciiaeiinoe a aeo,
naiaia?aciui ioiaeaeanoaeaieai iiciathuaai noauaeoa n iiciaaaaiui
iauaeoii. Iaeiaei iiciaaaaiay aauue – iaoa?eaeueiue iauaeo – ieeiaaea
ia iiaeao auoue iiciaia en/a?iuaathuei ia?acii. Ionthaea neaaeoao, /oi
iiciathuee iauaeo aeieaeai ioiaeaeanoaeyoueny ia n aauueth eae
iaoa?eaeueiui iauaeoii, a eeoue n ii?aaeaeaiiie aa noi?iiie, o.a.
oi?iaeueiui iauaeoii Ae?oaeie neiaaie, yoa eaeaioeoeeaoeey iineo ia
?aaeueiue, a /enoi iioaioeeaeueiue oa?aeoa? *oiau yoi iiaei i?iecieoe,
ec aaeeie/iie aaue aeieaeai iiianoue a /oanoaa iiciathuaai aa ioia/aoie
– ia?ac, eee ecia?aaeaiea. Eiaiii yoe ia?acu iaoa?eaeueiuo iauaeoia ai
aiaoieo /oanoaao Oiia Aeaeineee iacuaaao /oanoaaiiuie iiciaaaoaeueiuie
oi?iaie – species sensibiles.

Oiia ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi anyeia /oanoaaiiia iiciaiea yaeyaony i?inoi
ioiaeaeanoaeaieai a ii?aaeaeaiiii ioiioaiee noauaeoa n iiciaaaaiie
aauueth, eioi?ia i?ienoiaeeo i?e iin?aaenoaa oi?iu.

Iiaeiaii anyeiio i?aaio /oanoaaiiiai iiciaiey eioaeeaeo iaeaaeaao
aaeaeaaoiui naaa, o.a. i?eniiniaeaiiui e naiei aiciiaeiinoyi, iauaeoii
iiciaiey, eioi?ui yaeyaony nouiinoue oaeaniuo aauae, eee oi, /oi a ieo
iauaa, aeooiaiia. Ec oaeiai iiieiaiey iauaeoa eioaeeaeooaeueiiai
iiciaiey Oiia aeaeaao auaiae, /oi eioaeeaeo ia iiaeao eiaoue
iaoa?eaeueiiai, oaeaniiai oa?aeoa?a, a aeieaeai auoue iaiaoa?eaeueiui,
aeooiaiui.

“Eaaeaeay aauue, – ooaa?aeaeaao Oiia, – iinoieueeo iacuaaaony enoeiiie,
iineieueeo i?eaeeaeaaony e noiaenoao n Aiaii… Iiaeiaii oiio eae aeooe
e ae?oaea aaue iacuaathony enoeiiuie ii naiae i?e?iaea, iineieueeo ei
i?enoua noiaenoai n yoie aunoae i?e?iaeie, eioi?ay, yaeyynue naiei
iiiyoui auoeai, anoue naia enoeia, oae e oi, /oi iiciaaony aeooie, anoue
enoeia, iineieueeo a iae nouanoaoao noiaenoai n oie aiaeanoaaiiie
enoeiie, eioi?oth iiciaao Aia”. Oiienoneay enoeia – yoi niioaaonoaea
?acoia aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, ii ia oie, eioi?ay anoanoaaiii nouanoaoao, a
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, nicaeaiiie Aiaii. Oaeei ia?acii, iu eiaai caeanue
aeaei n enoeiiie a iioieiae/aneii e eiae/aneii niunea. Eiae/aneay
enoeiiinoue i?enoua iaoei noaeaeaieyi, iioieiae/aneay aea – aauai.

Oaeei ia?acai, oiienoneee e?eoa?ee enoeiu oaeaea iiae/eiai oaieiae/aneei
oeaeyi e neoaeeo aeieacaoaeuenoao caaeneiinoe /aeiaaea, aai
ianiaa?oainoaa ii n?aaiaieth n oai?oeii.

E?eoa?ee /aeiaa/aneiai ciaiey caeeth/ai ia a iiciathuai noauaeoa, ia a
aai i?aeoe/aneie e iauanoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe, a ai a?iaeaeaiiuo
enoeiao, a eiia/iii aea n/aoa – a aiaeanoaaiiie ioae?inoe.
“Aiaeanoaaiiay enoeia – anoue ia?a anyeie enoeiu. Iineieueeo Aia – yoi
ia?aue oi e ia?aue iauaeo iiieiaiey, anyeay ?acoiiay enoeia aeieaeia
ecia?youeny aai enoeiie.”

?anniio?ei eiioeaioeeth /aeiaaea a oeeinioee Oiiu Aeaeineiai. Oiia
enoiaeeo ec oiai, /oi /aeiaae iiaeiaii anaeaiiie, ii ioiioaieth e
eioi?ie ii yaeyaony eae au iaeaiueeei ie?ii, oae neacaoue iee?ieiniii,
oaeaea ioaeaeaaony a naiai “aeaeaaoaea”. Yoi – /aeiaa/aneay aeooa. Iia
ia oieueei auiieiyao ooieoeeth aeaeaaoaey oaea, ii e yaeyaony aai
oi?iie, aeoii, eioi?ue “aeooaeece?oao /aeiaaea”.

Oaeei ia?acii, a naaoa aeieo?eiu Oiiu /aeiaae i?aaenoaaeyao a ea/anoaa
ineoioece/aneiai auoey, niaaeeiaiey iaoa?ee e oi?iu.

N oi/ee c?aiey oiienoneie aio?iiieiaee oaei ia yaeyaony ieiaaie aeooe,
iai?ioea, eo niaaeeiaiea, – aeaai aeey aeooe. Aia, nicaeaa aeooo e
aaeioioa aa a /aeiaa/aneee yia?eii, eae au i?eniinaaeeaaao aa e oiio
oaeo, eioi?ia aeieaeii ninoaaeyoue iniiao aa eiaeeaeaeoaeueiinoe e
aannia?oey. A ea?a?oee aeaeia caiiiai auoey iia yaeyaony naiie
niaa?oaiiie oi?iie, naiinoiyoaeueiie, niiniaiie nouanoaiaaoue aac
iaoa?ee, ii iia ieaea /enouo aeooia. Oaeei ia?acii, /aeiaae ieacaeny
iiiauaiiui iin?aaeeia – iaaeaeo aeeaioiui ie?ii e aiaaeaie.

O?aaeeoeeiiiay oaia o?enoeaineie oeeinioee – caueoa niaa?oainoaa Aiaa e
oiai, /oi ei nioai?aii io nouanoaothuaai a ie?a cea. Oiia ii?aaeaeyao
cei ia eae iiceoeaiia yaeaiea, nouanoaothuaa naii ii naaa, a eae iau/iia
iaauoea, oua?aiinoue aeia?a. Iiiyoea cea Aeaeiao auaiaeeo ec iiiyoey
aeia?a, enoiaey ec i?aaeiinueee i oii, /oi iaeia i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue
iiciaaony /a?ac ae?oaoth. Iiae aeia?ii ii iiieiaao “oi, /oi ana
aeaeatho”. Oiia Aeaeineee iiaoi?yao aneaae ca Aaaonoeiii ooaa?aeaeaiea
i oii, /oi “aeia?i yaeyaony noauaeoii cea”. Iaeiaei, caeanue aicieeaao
aii?in: “Anee a iaoaoece/aneii ?annoaeaeaiee iu aeieaeiu aeieoe aei
ia?aii?e/eiu, oi iieo/aaony, /oi ana cei enoiaeeo io Aiaa, eae aunoaai
auoey e aeia?a?” Ii oaeie auaiae, i/aaeaeii, iai?eaieai aeey
o?enoeaineie oeeinioee, e Aeaeiao iieacuaaao, /oi Aia nicaeaao cei ia
iaia?aiii, a eeoue neo/aeii. Aua aeaa oacena oiienoneie oaiaeeoeae: cei
iaiaoiaeeii aeey aa?iiiee ie?a; Aia yaeyaony oai?oeii cea eae iaeacaiey,
a ia eae aeiu.

Oiia aunooiaao a caueoo naiaiaeiie aiee e iuoaaony aeieacaoue, /oi
oa?aeoa?iie iniaaiiinoueth /aeiaaea yaeyaony naiaiaea. A naiae
i?aeoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe /aeiaa/aneay ee/iinoue ?oeiaiaenoaoaony
auoaeathueie ec eioaeeaeoa noaeaeaieyie, aeaaiaea?y eioi?ui iia iiaeao
i?iecaiaeeoue auai?. O.a. ii i?iaicaeaoaao i?eiao eioaeeaeoa iaae aieae.
Ii Aeaeiao i?eciaao, /oi eiiaaea aiey iiaeao auiieiyoue ii ioiioaieth e
eioaeeaeoo ooieoeeth i?iecaiaeyuae i?e/eiu, iiaoaeaeay aai e iiciaieth.
Naiaiaea aiee, ei?aiyuayny a eioaeeaeoa, iicaieyao /aeiaaeo iinooiaoue a
niioaaonoaee n ii?aeueiuie aeia?iaeaoaeyie, iineieueeo ii iaeaaeaao
niiniaiinoueth auae?aoue iaaeaeo ieioei e oi?ioei. Ii naiaiaea aiee
nouanoaoao eeoue oiaaea, eiaaea aa iiaeaea?aeeaaao Aia. Oaeei ia?acii
oai?aoe, a ia /aeiaae, aucuaaao no?aieaiea iinooieoue oae, a ia eia/a.

Oiia ooaa?aeaeaao ,/oi /aeiaae – yoi animal sociale et politicum, e
n/eoaao, /oi ainoaea?noai iaiaoiaeeii a aeecie iauanoaa e yaeyaony
auoeai, aaiaoe/anee aieaa ?aiiei, /ai i?aaiecothuea aai a?aaeaeaia.
AEeciue a nioeeaeueiie iauiinoe anoanoaaiia aeey ethaeae. Iaeiaei anyeia
niiauanoai auiieiyao ii?aaeaeaiiua ooieoeee, noaaeo ia?aae niaie
ii?aaeaeaiiua oeaee, i?e ?aaeecaoeee eioi?uo ia iiaeao iaieoenue aac
aaaaiiia. Iiyoiio aicieeaao iaiaoiaeeiinoue a oii, /oi au eoi-ieaoaeue
?oeiaiaeee iauanoaii e aae aai e oeaee. Oaeei eiaiii ?oeiaiaeeoaeai e
yaeyaony ainoaea?noai. Aeaeiao, n?aaieaay yoi iineaaeiaa n ?oeaaui, a
/aeiaa/aneia niiauanoai n ei?aaeai, ieoao: “Oae aea e ei?aaeue, aiieiue
?aciuie aao?aie, ieue au a naiuo ?acee/iuo iai?aaeaieyo e ieeiaaea ia
i?eoae au a ioaeiue ii?o, anee au ia iai?aaeyeny aieae ?oeaaiai”. I?e
yoii nouiinoue ainoaea?noaa ninoieo a oii, /oiau aanoe niiauanoai
ethaeae e ia/a?oaiiie ei oeaee – oeaee, niioaaonoaothuae no?aieaieyi
oea?eae.

Oeeinioey Oiiu Aeaeineiai ia n?aco iieo/eea anaiauaa i?eciaiea n?aaee
?aciiia?aciuo noieanoe/aneeo oa/aiee. Eeoue n XIV aaea oiieci noaiiaeony
ioeoeeaeueiie oeeinioeae eaoiee/aneie oea?eae. Ii ao?iue ?anoeaao
/aeiaa/aneie iunee a yiioo ?aiannaina caaeaeioe oeeinioeth oiiecia a
aeooiaiua naieia?ee e a i?aeaineea oeieu.

Yoa oeeinioey auoea ec-ca noai iiianou?ae eeoue a eiioea XIX aaea.
Iaiin?aaenoaaiiui oie/eii e aa aic?iaeaeaieth yaeeanue ecaeaiiay a 1879
a. iaiie Eueaii XIII yioeeeeeea “Aeterni Patris”, eioi?ay ?aeiiaiaeiaaea
oeeinioeth Oiiu eae aeieo?eio, iaeaieaa niioaaonoaothuoth iio?aaiinoyi
iauanoaaiiie neooaoeee e a iaeeo/oae noaiaie au?aaeathuae aeoo
eaoieeoeecia. Ii iniiaiuie i?e/eiaie aic?iaeaeaiey oiiecia aaconeiaii
yaeeenue no?aieoaeueiia ?acaeoea eaieoaeecia, oneeaiea ?aai/eo
aeaeaeaiee, ?acaeoea enoi?e/aneiai iaoa?eaeecia e iiyaeaiea a eiia naiie
oea?eae iai?oiaeienaeueiuo oa/aiee (iai?eia?, iiaea?iecia). Ii oeacaieth
Eueaa XIII auee oaeaea naeaeaiu ia?aaiaeu o?oaeia Oiiu Aeaeineiai ia
nia?aiaiiua ycuee. Ii eieoeeaoeaa iaiu a ?eia nicaeaaony Aeaaeaiey na.
Oiiu, a Eoaaia – Aunoee oeeinioneee einoeooo, eioi?ue noae
iaaeaeoia?iaeiui oeaio?ii iaioiiecia.

Iaioiieci noaiiaeony oaieiae/aneie oi?iie nia?aiaiiiai iauaeoeaiiai
eaeaaeecia. Iauaeoeaii-eaeaaeenoe/aneie oeeinioeae i?eciaaony
iacaaeneiue io noauaeoa aiaoiee ie?. Iaioiieci i?aoaiaeoao ia oi, /oi ii
yaeyaony “o?aoueei iooai” a oeeinioee, noiyuei auoa eaeaaeecia e
iaoa?eaeecia. N oi/ee c?aiey iaioiiecia auoue iauaeoeaii-?aaeueiui
nianai ia cia/eo auoue iaoa?eaeueiui, iauaeoeaii nouanoaiaaoue cia/eo
ia/oi aieueoaa, /ai nouanoaiaaoue /oanoaaiii. Eiaiii
?aaeueii-iaiaoa?eaeueiia auoea e yaeyaony, ii iiaieth iaioiienoia,
ia?ae/iui. Iaoa?ey aea, aoaeo/e ?aaeueiie, ii eeoaiiie oa?aeoa?a
noanoaioeee (o.a. naiinoiyoaeueiiai auoey), ioaaouaaaony iaiaoa?eaeueiui
auoeai.

Eae oi iauaa, /oi eiaaony a iaoa?eaeueiuo e iaiaoa?eaeueiuo i?aaeiaoao,
auoea ninoaaeyao aaeeinoai ie?a. Ca eiie?aoiuie aea iaoa?eaeueiuie e
iaiaoa?eaeueiuie i?aaeiaoaie eaaeeo “/enoia auoea”, aeooiaiay iniiaa
anaai – Aia. Ii auoea anao aauae (iineieueeo eaaeaeay nouanoaoao
aaeeinoaaiii /a?ac aai auoea), ii ia a niunea nouanoaiaaiey, a eae
i?e/eia eo /anoiiai auoey. Nouanoaiaaiea anoue aiieiuaiea nouiinoe a
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue, a ana nouiinoe niaea?aeaony ecia/aeueii a
aiaeanoaaiiii ?acoia eae io?aaeaiea aai i?e?iaeu. Aii?in i niioiioaiee
Aiaa e nioai?aiiiai auoey aauae aeey iaioiiecia aeiaieueii o?oaeai.
Aaaeue i?eciaoue o ieo aaeeioth i?e?iaeo – aeiionoeoue “eiuoinoai”; anee
aea ooaa?aeaeaoue, /oi eo i?e?iaea ?aciay, oi ia iniiaa ciaiey ia
iauaeoeaiii ie?a iaeuecy ie/aai caeeth/eoue i auoee Aiaa, aeieacaoue aai
nouanoaiaaiea. ?aoaiea yoie i?iaeaiu iaioiienou aeaeyo a nouanoaiaaiee
“aiaeiaee” iaaeaeo Aiaii e ie?ii eiie?aoiuo i?aaeiaoia.

Cia/eoaeueiia ianoi a iaioiiecia caieiaao enoieeiaaiea nia?aiaiiuo
anoanoaaiiiiao/iuo oai?ee. Ia/eiay n ia/aea XX aaea iaioiieci ia?aoiaeeo
e i?eciaieth yaiethoeeiiiie oai?ee i?e oneiaee aa oaeaieiaecaoeee.
Ioiaeaeanoaeyy iiiyoea “eioi?iaoeey” n oi?iie aauae, n iaeiie noi?iiu, e
n niiauaieai, aeaenoaeai oeaee – n ae?oaie, nia?aiaiiua oaeaieiae
ooaa?aeaeatho, /oi iaoea naia, ieacuaaaony, aica?auaaony e A?enoioaeth e
Aeaeiaoo, ioe?ua, /oi i?aaiecaoeey, no?oeoo?a aauae anoue eioi?iaoeey.
?annoaeaeaiey i anaiaueo oeeeeao ?aaoeyoeee, ia?aoiuo naycyo a naiii
ooiaeaiaioa iaoa?ee ii?aaeaeyaony eae “eeaa?iaoe/aneia aeieacaoaeuenoai
auoey Aiaa”. Iainoieanou aeaeyo a “neio?iie/aneeo i?ioeannao”, naycaiiuo
n oiaiueoaieai yio?iiee, ia?aoiii oa/aiee a?aiaie i?e ?aniaaea
yeaiaioa?iuo /anoeoe e a ii?oiaaiaca i?aaieciia i?iyaeaiea aiaeanoaaiiie
oeaeaiai?aaeaiiinoe a i?e?iaea.

Niiiaiea a iiciaaaaiinoe ie?a, n oi/ee c?aiey iaioiiecia, iaaeiionoeii,
iii ?anoaouaaao iniiau oeeinioee e ciaiey. Iu iiciaai ia oieueei
yaeaiey, ii e ?aaeueiinoue eae oaeiaoth. Iaeiaei iauaeoii iiciaiey
ieacuaaaony ia naia iaoa?eaeueiay aauue, a aa eiiaoa?eaeueiay oi?ia. A
i?ioeanna iuouaiey aiaoiea aaue aoiaeyo a nii?eeiniiaaiea n aeooie e
noaiiayony aeaenoaeoaeueiuie iauaeoaie iiciaiey, ii oaea eae eeoaiiua
iaoa?ee. Aeoeaiinoue iuoeaiey anoue i?iyaeaiea i?iieeathuaai a
/aeiaa/aneee ?acoi “aiaeanoaaiiiai naaoa”. Yoio naao iuoeaiea ia?aaeaao
anoanoaaiiui iooai ia?acai “/oanoaaiiuo iauaeoia”, inaauay oaia?ue oaea
naiei “aeoeaiui naaoii” iauaa e nouanoaaiiia.

Oa?aeoa?enoeea enoeiu i?aa?auaaony ai acaeiiniioaaonoaea eioaeeaeoa e
aauae, eioi?ia iiaeao ia?aciauaaoue enoeiu aeaoo aeaeia: iioieiae/aneoth
– niioaaonoaea aaue iuneyi, e eiae/aneoth – niioaaonoaea /aeiaa/aneie
iunee aauai, i?eaeeaeaiiia, /anoe/iia ciaiea i enoeia auoey. A
oaieiae/aneii aeooa ?aoaaony aii?in aaniethoiie e ioiineoaeueiie enoei
eae niioiioaiey aiaeanoaaiiiai e /aeiaa/aneiai ?acoiia. Iaioiieci
iaoaoece/anee ?ac?uaaao e acaeiii?ioeaiiinoiaeyao aaniethoiia e
ioiineoaeueiia.

Oeeinioey – iino, eioi?ue aeieaeai, ii iunee iaioiienoia, niaaeeieoue
iaoee n oaieiaeae. Anee oaieiaey noiaeeo n iaaan ia caieth, oi oeeinioey
io caiiiai iiaeieiaaony e aiaeanoaaiiiio, e a eiioea eiioeia i?eaeao e
oai aea auaiaeai, /oi e oaieiaey.

Oeeinioeth iineaaeiaaoaee Oiiu iiae?acaeaeytho ia iaoaoeceeo
(iioieiaeth) e oeeinioeth i?e?iaeu. Iauaeo ia?aie – /enoia auoea. Yoa
/anoue oeeinioee ia caaeneo io iaoe, ii aeieaeia eniieueciaaoue eo eae
naie eino?oiaiou. Oeeinioey i?e?iaeu – yoi i?iiaaeooi/iay iaoea iaaeaeo
iaoaoeceeie e anoanoaiciaieai, eco/athuay oi, /oi i?enoua iaoa?ee eae
oaeiaie, aa anaiauea oa?aeoa?enoeee, oiaaea eae anoanoaaiiua iaoee
enneaaeotho eiia/iua, ioiineoaeueiua naienoaa iaoa?eaeueiuo oae.
Iaiin?aaenoaaiiui aea i?aaeiaoii aiaeeca a oeeinioee i?e?iaeu neoaeeo
nenoaia eaoaai?ee, a eioi?uo io?aaeaiu iauea noi?iiu aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe.
Oeeinioneea e anoanoaaiiiiao/iua iiiyoey aeieaeiu auoue /aoei
?acaeaeaiu.

A caaa?oaiee oioaeinue au caiaoeoue, /oi a ianoiyuaa a?aiy iaioiieci
i?iaeieaeaao ?acaeaaoueny, aeeth/ay a naay ioaeaeueiua iieiaeaiey
yecenoaioeeaeecia, oaiiiaiieiaee, oeeinioneie aio?iiieiaee e ae?oaeo
oa/aiee nia?aiaiiiai eaeaaeecia.

Nienie eeoa?aoo?u:

1. “Oeeinioneee neiaa?ue.”

2. “E?aoeee oeeinioneee neiaa?ue.”

3. A.N. Aiaiiieia “Ao?aeoaciay oeeinioey NOA XX aaea.”

4. “Nia?aiaiiay eaeaaeenoe/aneay aiinaieiaey. E?eoe/aneea i/a?ee.”

5. I.A. Iaea?ia “?acaeoea iiiyoee e i?aaeiaoa oeeinioee a enoi?ee aa
o/aiee.”

6. THcao Ai?aio “Oiia Aeaeineee.”

7. Nieieia A.A. “N?aaeiaaaeiaay oeeinioey.”

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