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Тибетская книга мёртвых

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Ieai:

Aaaaeaiea…………………………………………….
……….3

Iauay oa?aeoa?enoeea oaoecia….3

Oaoenoneea ainoaea?noaa e aiaiiua aeeeoaoo?u:

Eoaeey ……………………………………….5

Aeoea?ianeay aa?iaiey …………..10

ssiiiey ……………………………………….13

Ae?oaea ainoaea?noaa …………………15

Caeeth/aiea ………………………………………………22

Nienie eeoa?aoo?u …………………………..23

.Iieeoe/aneee ?aaeei anaaaea iaoiaeeony a naiie i?yiie e
iaiin?aaenoaaiiie caaeneiinoe io nioeeaeueiie aacu aeeeoaoo?u
ao?aeoacee. Aua aei ianooieaiey iauaai e?ecena eaieoaeecia ao?aeoacey
nenoaiaoe/anee i?eaaaaea e aaoi?eoa?iui e oa??i?enoe/aneei iaoiaeai
i?aaeaiey. Iinea ia?aie ie?iaie aieiu e Aaeeeia Ieoya?ueneie
nioeeaeenoe/aneie ?aaiethoeee iooiae ao?aeoacee io aeaiie?aoee
i?eia?aoaao i?aeoe/anee oieaa?naeueiue oa?aeoa?. Eiaiii a ia?aua
iineaaiaiiua aiaeu aicieeaao oaeia i?eioeeieaeueii iiaia iieeoe/aneia
yaeaiea, eae oaoeci, eioi?ue aue niaa?oaiiia iaecaanoai eaieoaeecio a
i?aaeoanoaothuoth yiioo. Oaoeci iia iiyaeoueny oieueei eae ?aaeoeey
ao?aeoacee ia oaea iiaaaeeaooth aeeeoaoo?o i?ieaoa?eaoa.
Iaoaeeaeoaeueii, /oi ia naiae ?iaeeia, a Eoaeee, oaoenoneia aeaeaeaiea
n?aco aea i?eiyei aioeaieueoaaenoneee oa?aeoa?. Ec yoiai naiaie a
iineaaeothuai ?acaeeenue, aeaaiia ioee/eoaeueiia ea/anoai oaoecia –
aieinoaothuee aioeeiiioieci, naeia?aiiue naiie ?aciocaeaiiie
nioeeaeueiie e iaoeeiiaeenoe/aneie aeaiaaiaeae. I?e anae iano?ioa e
neiaeiinoe eeanniaiai ninoaaa oaoenoneiai aeaeaeaiey ii?aaeaeythuei
yaeyaony aai aioei?ieaoa?neee oa?aeoa?. Oaoeci anoue iaiin?aaenoaaiiay
?aaeoeey anaai aioei?ieaoa?neiai o?iioa ia iaaeaeaathuothny
nioeeaeenoe/aneoth ?aaiethoeeth a oneiaeyo ?acaaea eee e?ecena
ao?aeoaciiai ainoaea?noaa, ?aca?iaea a ainiiaenoaothuai eeanna,
nioeeaeueiie enoa?ee ai anao neiyo iauanoaa. Ii naiae nioeeaeueiie
i?e?iaea oaoeci anoue ia /oi eiia, eae i?aaaioeaiay eiio??aaiethoeey,
eiathuay naiae oeaeueth ia oieueei i?aaeioa?aoeoue iaaeaeaathuothny
nioeeaeenoe/aneoth ?aaiethoeeth, ii e oaanoe iannu a noi?iio io ai?ueau
ca nioeeaeeci iiae inaaaeinioeeaeenoe/aneeie e oiaeienoe/aneeie
eicoiaaie. Onoaiiaeaiea oaoecia i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ei?aiiie ia?aai?io,
i?eaiaeyuee e iieiiio e ieii/aoaeueiiio oie/oiaeaieth ao?aeoaciie
aeaiie?aoee naiie ao?aeoaceae, iineieueeo nioeeaeueiay aaca aa
aeeeoaoo?u ?aniaeanue. «I?eoiae oaoecia e aeanoe, – aiai?eea A. I.
Aeeieo?ia ia VII eiia?anna Eiieioa?ia, – yoi ia iaueiiaaiiay caiaia
iaeiiai ao?aeoaciiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa ae?oaei, a niaia iaeiie
ainoaea?noaaiiie oi?iu, eeanniaiai ainiiaenoaa ao?aeoacee – ao?aeoaciie
aeaiie?aoee ae?oaie aai oi?iie – ioe?uoie oa??i?enoe/aneie aeeeoaoo?ie»(
.

I?e onoaiiaeaiee oaoecia ia i?ienoiaeeo eciaiaiey eeanniaie nouiinoe
ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe, ia iaiyaony e oa?aeoa?
iauanoaaiii-yeiiiie/aneiai no?iy. I?e onoaiiaeaiee oaoecia e aeanoe
i?eoiaeeo naiay ?aaeoeeiiiay /anoue ao?aeoacee, eioi?ay onoaiaaeeaaao
?aaeei i?yiiai i?iecaiea e aaccaeiiey. Aoaeo/e ii?iaeaeaieai yiioe
iauaai e?ecena eaieoaeecia, oaoeci i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ioe?uoi
oa??i?enoe/aneoth aeeeoaoo?o iaeaieaa ?aaeoeeiiiuo e oiaeienoe/aneeo
yeaiaioia oeiainiaiai iaieoaea.

Nioeeaeueiie aacie oaoenoneeo aeaeaeaiee yaeyaony i?aaeaea anaai iaeeay
ao?aeoacey. E iae i?eiueatho ?acee/iiai ?iaea aeaeeanne?iaaiiua
yeaiaiou, a oaeaea cia/eoaeueiay /anoue aac?aaioiuo. Ii yoi aiana ia
icia/aao, /oi i?e onoaiiaeaiee oaoecia e aeanoe i?eoiaeeo iaeeay
ao?aeoacey. Yoa aano?iia?enenoneay oai?ey auea a naia a?aiy oe?iei
?ani?ino?aiaia. E iae /anoi ia?auathony e nia?aiaiiua ao?aeoaciua
o/aiua. Iaeiaei ia naiii aeaea iaeeay ao?aeoacey a neeo aeaienoaaiiiai
oa?aeoa?a naiae iieeoe/aneie ineoieiaee e aa iieiaeaiey a nenoaia
iauanoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa ia iiaeao naia inouanoaeyoue
ainoaea?noaaiioth aeanoue. Iaeeiao?aeoaciia i?ienoiaeaeaiea iiiaeo
oaoenoneeo aiaeaeae (Ionnieeie – nui eociaoea, Aeoea? – nui naiiaeieea,
noaaoaai caoai oaiiaeaiiui /eiiaieeii), iaee/ea auoiaeoeaa ec yoie
n?aaeu ia aaaeiuo iinoao a iaoaiecia oaoenoneie aeeeoaoo?u ieeae ia
iaiyao aa nouiinoe. Oaeoe/anee aeanoue iaoiaeeony a ?oeao iaeaieaa
?aaeoeeiiiuo yeaiaioia iiiiiieenoe/aneiai eaieoaea. Oaoeci
onoaiaaeeaaaony ia n?aco. I?aaeaea /ai i?iecaanoe caiaio iieeoe/aneiai
?aaeeia, ao?aeoacey i?iaiaeeo na?eth iiaeaioiaeoaeueiuo ia?ii?eyoee. A.
I. Aeeieo?ia aiai?ee ia VII eiia?anna Eiieioa?ia: «Aei onoaiiaeaiey
oaoenoneie aeeeoaoo?u ao?aeoaciua i?aaeoaeuenoaa iau/ii i?ioiaeyo /a?ac
?yae iiaeaioiaeoaeueiuo yoaiia e inouanoaeytho ?yae ?aaeoeeiiiuo
ia?ii?eyoee, iiiiaathueo iaiin?aaenoaaiiiio i?eoiaeo oaoecia e aeanoe» .

Oaoecaoeey iieeoe/aneiai ?aaeeia inouanoaeyaony iau/ii ii neaaeothuei
iniiaiui iai?aaeaieyi: ioe?uoia ia?ooaiea e iii?aiea
ao?aeoacii-aeaiie?aoe/aneeo i?aa e naiaiae; i?aneaaeiaaiea e cai?auaiea
eiiioienoe/aneeo e ?aai/eo ia?oee, a oaeaea i?ia?anneaiuo i?ionithcia e
iauanoaaiiuo i?aaiecaoeee; neeyiea ainoaea?noaaiiiai aiia?aoa n
iiiiiieeyie; ieeeoa?ecaoeey ainoaea?noaaiiiai aiia?aoa; oiaaeie ?iee
oeaio?aeueiuo e ianoiuo i?aaenoaaeoaeueiuo o/?aaeaeaiee; ?ino
aeene?aoeeiiiuo iieiiii/ee eniieieoaeueiuo i?aaiia ainoaea?noaaiiie
aeanoe; n?aueaaiea ia?oee e i?ionithcia n ainoaea?noaaiiui aiia?aoii;
eiinieeaeaoeey ?aiaa ?ac?iciaiiuo oaoenoneeo e
?aaeoeeiiii-yeno?aienoneeo ia?oee e i?aaiecaoeee; aicieeiiaaiea
?acee/iiai ?iaea i?aaiyeno?aienoneeo aeaeaeaiee (“Iaoeeiiaeueiue o?iio
ai O?aioeee, Eoaeueyineia nioeeaeueiia aeaeaeaiea e o. ae.).

A oneiaeyo iauaai e?ecena eaieoaeecia, a iniaaiii ia nia?aiaiiii
aai yoaia, yeaiaiou oaoecaoeee oie eeai eiie noaiaie eiatho ianoi ai
anao ao?aeoaciuo no?aiao, aeinoeaoeo noaaeee
ainoaea?noaaiii-iiiiiieenoe/aneiai eaieoaeecia.

Oaoeci eae iniaiai ?iaea ao?aeoaciue iieeoe/aneee ?aaeei
iaeaaeaao ?yaeii iniaaiiinoae, ioee/athueo aai io eiuo aaoi?eoa?iuo
?aaeeiia.

Oaoeci ia oieueei oeaeeeii oie/oiaeaao ao?aeoacioth aeaiie?aoeth, ii e
oai?aoe/anee “iainiiauaaao” iaiaoiaeeiinoue onoaiiaeaiey oioaeeoa?ecia.
Aianoi eeaa?aeueii-aeaiie?aoe/aneie eiioeaioeee eiaeeaeaeoaeecia oaoeci
auaeaeaaao eiioeaioeeth iaoeee, ia?iaea, eioa?anu eioi?iai anaaaea,
aacaea e ai anai i?aaaee?oth iaae eioa?anaie ioaeaeueiuo ee/iinoae.

Oaoeci a oai?ee e ia i?aeoeea ii?aae ni anaie iieeoe/aneeie e
i?aaiauie i?eioeeiaie ao?aeoaciie aeaiie?aoee, oaeeie, eae ia?iaeiue
noaa?aieoao, aa?oiaainoai ia?eaiaioa, ?acaeaeaiea aeanoae, auai?iinoue,
ianoiia naiioi?aaeaiea, aa?aioee i?aa ee/iinoe, ainiiaenoai i?aaa.

Onoaiiaeaiea ioe?uoi oa??i?enoe/aneiai ?aaeeia i?e oaoecia
nii?iaiaeaeaaony naiie iaieoaeie nioeeaeueiie aeaiaaiaeae, eioi?ay
aicaiaeeony a ?aia ioeoeeaeueiie eaeaieiaee. Niaeoee?oy ia
aeaiaaiae/aneie e?eoeea iaeaieaa aiiethueo ii?ieia eaieoaeecia, oaoeci
anaaaea auaeaeaaao inaaaeinioeeaeenoe/aneea eicoiae, aeiiaee?oao oie
eeai eiie ?aciiaeaeiinoueth «iaoeeiiaeueiiai nioeeaeecia». Oaoeci
oai?aoe/anee «iainiiauaaao» ionoonoaea aioaaiienoe/aneeo eeannia a
ao?aeoaciii iauanoaa. Aianoi eeannia ii aaiaeeo iiiyoea ei?ii?aoeee.
Ei?ii?aoeaeci i?iaicaeaoaao «nio?oaeie/anoai o?oaea e eaieoaea», i?e
eioi?ii i?aaei?eieiaoaeue oaea ia yaeyaony yenieoaoaoi?ii, a aunooiaao
eae «eaieoai eiaeono?ee», ?oeiaiaeeoaeue, inouanoaeythuee aaaeiaeooth
nioeeaeueioth ooieoeeth. Ei?ii?aoeee yeiau nio?oaeie/atho ae?oa n
ae?oaii e i?aauaatho a ii?aaeaeaiiii niiiae/eiaiee. Niaeanii oaoenoneie
eaeaieiaee, eaaeaeay ei?ii?aoeey, caieiathuay i?enouaa ae ianoi a
ea?a?oe/aneie nenoaia, inouanoaeyao naienoaaiioth ae «nioeeaeueioth
ooieoeeth». Ei?ii?aoeaenoneea oai?ee i?iiiaaaeotho aaeeinoai e
iiiieeoiinoue iaoeee. Oae, a ionnieeieaaneie Oa?oee o?oaea (ai?aeue 1927
a.) aiai?eeinue: «Eoaeueyineay iaoeey yaeyaony i?aaieciii, oeaee,
aeeciue e n?aaenoaa aeaenoaey eioi?iai i?aauoatho neeie e
aeeeoaeueiinoueth oeaee, aeeciue e n?aaenoaa aeaenoaey ninoaaeythueo
yoio i?aaieci ioaeaeueiuo eeoe e a?oii eo. Iia i?aaenoaaeyao ii?aeueiia,
iieeoe/aneia e yeiiiie/aneia aaeeinoai e oeaeeeii inouanoaeyaony a
oaoenoneii ainoaea?noaa». Ia naiii aeaea a oneiaeyo oaoenoneiai
«ii?aeueii-iieeoe/aneiai aaeeinoaa» aic?iaeaeaaony ia eiia?eaeenoe/aneie
iniiaa eanoiaay nenoaia, i?e eioi?ie ina a?aaeaeaia ?ani?aaeaeythony ii
iiae/eiaiiui oaoenoneiio ainoaea?noao ei?ii?aoeeyi, a eeanniaay ai?ueaa
e i?ionithciay aeayoaeueiinoue cai?auathony e iauyaeythony
ainoaea?noaaiiui i?anooieaieai.

Eiaiii nioeeaeueiay aeaiaaiaey e i?aaeaea anaai i?iiiaaaeue
«iaoeeiiaeueiiai nioeeaeecia» ioee/atho oaoeci io eiuo aaoi?eoa?iuo
?aaeeiia, i?e eioi?uo oaeaea eeeaeaee?oaony ao?aeoaciay aeaiie?aoey, ii
aeaeaaony yoi aac «oai?aoe/aneiai iainiiaaiey» e ia iiae
«nioeeaeenoe/aneeie» eicoiaaie.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy oaoeci a aai «eeanne/aneie» oi?ia ia nouanoaoao
ieaaea. Iaeiaei aeinoaoi/ii oe?ieia ?ani?ino?aiaiea iieo/eee ?acee/iiai
?iaea oe?aie/aneea ?aaeeiu, i?e eioi?uo iieiinoueth oie/oiaeathony ana
einoeooou ao?aeoaciie aeaiie?aoee. «Oai, aaea iau/iua oi?iu iiaeaaeaiey
o?oaeyueony ia n?aaaouaatho, eiia?eaeeci ianaaeaeaao e iiaeaea?aeeaaao
oe?aie/aneea ?aaeeiu aeey i?yiie aiaiiie ?ani?aau n i?ia?anneaiuie
neeaie»”.

Eoaeey.

?aiueoa, /ai a ae?oaeo no?aiao Aa?iiu oaoeci ooaa?aeeeny a Eoaeee.
Caeanue ii e ca?iaeeeny.

N?aaee aieueoeo aa?iiaeneeo aea?aeaa-iiaaaeeoaeueieoe Eoaeey auea
aieaa anao enoiuaia ia?aie ie?iaie aieiie. I?iiuoeaiiinoue, oeiainu,
naeueneia oicyenoai iaoiaeeeenue a io/ayiiii iieiaeaiee. Ieaaea ia auei
oaeie aac?aaioeoeu e ieuaou. Ieaaea ia auei niioaaonoaaiii oaeiai
iiaeuaia noa/a/iie ai?ueau.

Ana aiai?eei i ?aaiethoeeiiiie neooaoeee: auno?ue ?ino
i?ionithcia, iaiau/aeiay iiaaaea nioeeaeenoia ia auai?ao a ia?eaiaio
1919 aiaea (31% aieinia), caoaaou caaiaeia e oaa?ee ?aai/eie,
iiiaue/ueeo caiaeue e?anoueyiaie e aao?aeaie.

Caoaaou oaa?ee e caaiaeia auee ioaaoii ia ianooieaiea
i?aaei?eieiaoaeae (eieaoou; i?einoaiiaeo i?iecaiaenoaa). Iaeaieueoaai
?aciaoa aeaeaeaiea aeinoeaaao a eiioea eaoa 1920 aiaea. Aeanyoee
i?aaei?eyoee( a Ieeaia, Oo?eia e ae?oaeo ai?iaeao) ia?aoee iiae
oi?aaeaiea ?aai/eo (aua?aiiuo eie ?oeiaiaeeoaeae). Auione i?iiuoeaiiie
i?iaeoeoeee oaaee/eeny. Niaethaeaeny no?iaee ii?yaeie. Iai?oaeiaaiea,
caeaiey, nu?uea e i?i/aa ouaoaeueii io?aiyeenue

A Oo?eia, aaea ?aai/ea auee iaeaieaa i?aaieciaaiu, i?aaei?eyoey
inoaaaeenue iiae eo oi?aaeaieai a oa/aiea o?ao iaaeaeue.

?aaiethoeeiiiay ianoaiiaea auioaeaeaea ao?aeoaciua i?aaeoaeuenoaa
Eoaeee e aaaeiui ?aoi?iai. N?aaee ieo ioiaoei: caeii i nioeeaeueiii
no?aoiaaiee aac?aaioeoeu, oeac i aeiionoeiinoe naiiaieueiiai caoaaoa
iaia?aaioaiiie caiee.

A 1921 aiaeo aicieeaao eiiioienoe/aneay ia?oey Eoaeee.

Ia nuacaea nioeeaeenoe/aneie ia?oee a Eeai?ii ia?oey ?aneieieanue
ia oeaio?enoia ( a?oiia Na??aoe) e eiiioienoia. Iineaaeiea auneacaeenue
ca i?eniaaeeiaiea e O?aoueaio Eioa?iaoeeiiaeo.

Anei?a, ii ieii/aiee ie?iaie aieiu, aicieeatho a Eoaeee ia?aua
oaoenoneea i?aaiecaoeee. Ninoaaeaiiua ec ?aciiia?aciuo yeaiaioia, iie
aunooiaee ia?aiia/aeueii n i?ia?aiiie, ?ann/eoaiiie ia ioaiaaaiea
o?oaeyueony io nioeeaeenoe/aneiai aeaeaeaiey.

I?ia?aiia auea ianoieueei eaeeaie, /oi aiineaaenoaee, eiaaea
oaoenou i?eoee e aeanoe, i iae ia aeicaieyeinue oiiieiaoue. Aiai?eeinue
i 8-ie /aniaii ?aai/ai aeia, i anaiauai, i?yiii e ?aaiii ecae?aoaeueiii
i?aaa aeey ioae/ei e aeaiuei, i naiaiaea ia/aoe e aeaaea ?aaainoaa
iaoeee

Naii neiai “oaoei”, iio eioi?iai i?ienoiaeeo “oaoeci”, auei
caeinoaiaaii o e?anoueyineeo i?aaiecaoeee Neoeeeee, oiio?aaeyaoeo aai a
niunea “aaeeinoai”

?aaiethoeeiiiua niauoey 1920 aiaea canoaaeee oaoenoia caiyoue oo
eeanniaoth iiceoeeth, eioi?ay niioaaonoaiaaea eo aeaenoaeoaeueiui
oeaeyi.

Aiaaua a?oiiu oaoenoia, ?oeiaiaeeiua aeaiiaeeeciaaiiuie e
iceiaeaiiuie a?iaeneeie ioeoea?aie, a?iieee e oie/oiaeaee ia?iaeiua
aeiia, nicaeaiiua ia aeaiueae ?aai/eo, ?aai/ea eeoau, oeiia?aoee,
i?eiaaeeaaeauea i?ia?anneaiie ia/aoe, e i?.. Ianniaiio oa??i?o
iiaeaa?aeenue ?oeiaiaeyuea aeayoaeth ?aai/eo nithcia, e?anoueyineeo
iauaaeeiaiee, eiiia?aoeaia. Ie/aai iiaeiaiiai Eoaeey aua ciaea.

I?aaeoaeuenoai ia oieueei ia iaoaei oaoenoai, ii aeaaea iiiu?yei
eo. Oaoeci iieo/aao iiaouanoaaiiuo iie?iaeoaeae a eeoea Anaiauae
eiioaaea?aoeee i?iiuoeaiieeia e iiiaue/ueeo nithcia. Aianoa n
iie?iaeoaeuenoaii i?ioaeatho aeaiueae. *eneaiiinoue oaoenoneeo
i?aaiecaoeee aic?anoaao.

A 1922 aiaeo, ainiieueciaaaoenue neaainoueth i?aaeoaeuenoaa (a aua
aieueoa ?aneieii ?aai/aai aeaeaeaiey), oaoenoneia ?oeiaiaenoai nicaeaao
eiieoao aeey caoaaoa aeanoe e iai?aaeyao 40 ouny/ naieo
«/a?ii?oaaoa/ieeia» a iioiae ia ?ei.

I?aaeoaeuenoai eiaei ana aiciiaeiinoe auno?i e ieii/aoaeueii
i?ana/ue ioo/: aeinoaoi/ii auei ioe?uoue no?aeueao «ia /aoaa?oue /ana»»
eae i?aaeeaaae ei?ieth aaia?ae Aaaeieuei.

Ii ei?ieue e aai eaia?eeuey i?eiyee eiia ?aoaiea: aeaaa ia?oee
«oaeae» Ionnieeie aue iacia/ai i?aiuea?-ieieno?ii Eoaeee.

Iiaia i?aaeoaeuenoai ca/aei n ioiaiu oeaca i i?aaa e?anoueyi
caoaaouaaoue iaia?aaaouaaaiua caiee, n ?aaeoeeiiiuo ia?aiai a ?aai/ai
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa, n onoaiiaeaiey aeanoieiai iaae i?ionithcaie, n
i?aneaaeiaaiey aeaiie?aoe/aneeo i?aaiecaoeee. Oaoenoneea aiaaua io?yaeu
naeaeaeenue /anoueth ?ai?anneaiiai i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiiai aiia?aoa.

Ia ?aoaynue aua ia ?acaii ia?eaiaioa. Ionnieeie e aai eeeea i?iaaee
caeii, niaeanii eioi?iio aaoiiaoe/anee iieo/aao aeaa o?aoe aeaiooaoneeo
iaiaeaoia oa ia?oey, ca eioi?oth i?iaieinoao iaeia /aoaa?oay /anoue
ecae?aoaeae. Yoio oaeeaeoaeueiue ii naiaio oeeiecio aeo iicaieye
i?aaeaeaeaoue, /ai noaiao Eoaeey iinea auai?ia.

?acoeueoaou auai?ia (1924 aiaea) iiaeic?eoaeueii oi/ii niaee n
ieaiaie Ionnieeie: ec 12 iei. aieinia 4 iei. auee ni/oaiu
i?ioaoenoneeie. Oaoenoneay ieeeoeey – aeaaiue aeiiaiee “iiaaaeu” –
oi?aeanoaiaaea.

Ii aeaiie?aoey ia auea oaeoa. A eeoea nioeeaeenoa Iaoaiooe,
aeaiooaoa, i?aoi?a, ioaeanoaaiiiai /aeiaaea, iia ?aciaea/eea eiiaaeeth
auai?ia e caiaeii i?iaeaaeiinoue e iiaeeoiiinoue aeayoaeae iiaiai
?aaeeia, a iniaaiiinoe naiiai Ionnieeie.

Oaoenou oaeee Iaoaiooe. No?aio ioaaoeea aieia iaaiaeiaaiey.
O?oaeyueany iannu auee aioiau nianoe oaoeci. Ioaeii auei
ainiieueciaaoueny iiiaioii. Ii iiceoeey, eiaaoay aeeyiea, – nioeeaeenou,
?anioaeeeaioeu. «iiiiey?e» ( eaoiee/aneay ia?oey) – i?aaeii/ea
oaeoe/anee ioeai/iue ooiae ec ia?eaiaioa, aieeio iineaaeiaai.

?ani?aaeaoenue n iiiiceoeeae e oe?aieaoenue o aeanoe,
i?aaeoaeuenoai Ionnieeie ia?aoiaeeo a ianooieaiea ia aeaiie?aoeth.
ssiaa?neei caeiiii 1926 aiaea iii i?enaaeaaao naaa i?aai ecaeaaaiey
aeae?aoia iiieii ia?eaiaioa. Aneaae ca yoei oaoenoneee ?aaeei
?acaa?ouaaaony ai anae naiae e?ana.

“*?acau/aeiua caeiiu” neaaeiaaee iaeei ia ae?oaei. Iie cai?aoeee
i?ioanneiiaeueiua nithcu ( ca eneeth/aieai iainoaea?noaaiiuo oaoenoneeo)
e iieeoe/aneea ia?oee (ca eneeth/aieai iaeiie oaoenoneie); iie
ainnoaiiaeee nia?oioth eaciue ca “iieeoe/aneea i?anooieaiey”; iie
aaiaeeee /?acau/aeioth thnoeoeeth (o?eaoiaeu) e aaeieieno?aoeaioth
(aiaonaaeaaioth) aunueeo; eiiioienoe/aneay ia?oey auea iauyaeaia aia
caeiia; i?aaiu ianoiiai naiioi?aaeaiey oi?acaeiyeenue: ia eo ianoi
anoaee iacia/aiiua i?aaeoaeuenoaii /eiiaieee (iiaeanoa).

Aeaiie?aoe/aneea naiaiaeu auee ioa?ioaiu. Iiiiceoeeiiiay i?anna cae?uoa.
Ouny/e aeaiie?aoia auee oaeou ii noaeo e aac noaea, a?ioaiu a
eiioeaio?aoeeiiiua eaaa?y, aaea eo iaeeaeaea oa aea nia?oue, oieueei
iaaeeaiiay e io/eoaeueiay.

Anyeia iiaia oneeaiea oa??i?a i?iaioee?iaaeinue iaueiiaaiii
eaeei-ieaoaeue «iieooaieai», «caaiai?ii» e o.i. A iiya?a 1926 aiaea ca
iiiuoeo niaa?oeoue iieooaiea ia aeeciue Ionnieeie aue oaeo ia ianoa
15-eaoiee iaeue/ee. Oio/an iineaaeiaaea aieia a?anoia, nia?oiuo
i?eaiai?ia e o. ae.

Iieeoe/aneee ?aaeei( eoaeueyineiai oaoecia ii?aaeaeeeny
auno?aa, /ai neiaeeeny aai ainoaea?noaaiiue no?ie.

Ecaanoiue iai Iueaiiioneee noaooo ioiaiai ia aue, ii ieeaeiai
niioaaonoaey iaaeaeo iei e oai, /oi noaei i?e oaoecia, ia nouanoaiaaei.
Nio?aiyeanue iiia?oey, ii a oaeii aeaeeii aeaea, /oi ieeoi ia i?eieiae
aa a ?an/ao. N/eoaeinue, Ionnieeie ioaa/aao ia?aae ei?ieai, oae aeaaea
ienaeinue a caeiiao, ii ieeoi e ia aa?ee e iaiueoa anaai ei?ieue. Eaeea
au oi ie auei oiiieiaiey ia ioaaonoaaiiinoe aeo/a ia ?aeiiaiaeiaaeenue.
Ca yoei neaaeeea aeaiaea?ia?ey.

I?aaeaea ae?oaeo ii?aaeaeeeanue oaiaeaioeey «aiaeaeecia»,
aaeeiiee/iie aeeeoaoo?u.

Oaea caeii 1925 aiaea “I iieiiii/eyo aeaau i?aaeoaeuenoaa” aeaeae
i?aiuea?-ieieno?a iaioaaonoaaiiui, ia caaenyuei io ia?eaiaioa. Aai
eieeaae ii ieienoa?noao, aai ieieno?u i?aa?aoeeenue a i?inouo
iiiiuieeia, ioaaonoaaiiuo ia?aae naiei aeaaie; iie iacia/aeenue e
niauaeenue ii aiea iineaaeiaai.

A oa/aiea iiiaeo eao (aei 1936 aiaea) Ionnieeie caieiae 7
ieienoa?neeo iinoia iaeiia?aiaiii. Caeii 1926 aiaea “I i?aaa
eniieieoaeueiie aeanoe ecaeaaaoue th?eaee/aneea ii?iu” i?aaeinoaaee
“eniieieoaeueiie aeanoe“, oi anoue oiio aea aeaaa i?aaeoaeuenoaa, i?aai
ia ecaeaiea “aeae?aoia – caeiiia”. I?e yoii ieeaeie a?aie iaaeaeo
«caeiiaie», inoaaoeieny eiiiaoaioeeae ia?eaiaioa, e
«aeae?aoaie-caeiiaie» i?iaaaeaii ia auei.

Ia?eaiaio, o eioi?iai ioiyee i?eaeeaaeth ecaeaaaoue caeiiu,
eioi?ue eeoeee i?aaa eiio?iee?iaaoue aeaenoaey i?aaeoaeuenoaa, noae
iaioaeiui. Ii aai nio?aiyee aeey “aeaiiino?aoeee aaeeinoaa“ iaaeaeo
«ia?iaeii» e i?aaeoaeuenoaii ( io/anoe aeey aiaoiaai ie?a).

“Aeieaeiue” ninoaa ia?eaiaioa iaania/eaaeny “?aoi?iie
iieeoe/aneiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa”, inouanoaeaiiie a 1928 aiaeo.

?aoi?ia yoa iaiau/aeii y?ei ecia?aaeaea naio nooue oaoecia:
no?ao ia?aae ia?iaeii e i?ac?aiea e iaio ; i?eaa?aeaiiinoue e a?iieie
o?aca e iai?aacieaeaiiua ia?acoeu iieeoe/aneiai iaiaia, ea?a a
«ia?iaeiinoue» aeanoe e iai?ee?uoay oeeoaoo?a.

Auai?u aeaiooaoia i?iecaiaeeeenue neaaeothuei ia?acii: a).Eaiaeeaeaou a
aeaiooaou auaeaeaaeenue a iniiaiii i?ionithcaie ( ia i?aeoeea –
?oeiaiaeyueie oeaio?aie oaoenoneeo nithcia); a). oae iacuaaaiue aieueoie
iaoeeiiaeueiue niaao oaoecia (ooaa ia?oee) ioae?ae ec iauaai nienea,
i?aaenoaaeaiiiai i?ionithcaie, 400 aeaiooaoia; a) ecae?aoaeyi
i?aaeinoaaeyeinue i?aai iaeia?eoue yoi iacia/aiea-

I?aai aieina aeaaaeinue ioae/eiai noa?oa 21 aiaea, anee iie ioaa/aee
iaeiiio ec neaaeothueo o?aaiaaiee:

a) ieaoeee aciinu a i?ioanneiiaeueiue nithc;

a) oiea/eaaee iaeia a ?acia?a ia iaiaa 100 ee?;.

a) aea?aeaee oeaiiua aoiaae (ainoaea?noaaiiua eee aaieianeea);

a) I?eiaaeeaaeaee e oea?eiaiiio eee?o;

Aoi?ay auno?i auyaeaoayny oaiaeaioeey eanaeanue oaoenoneie
ia?oee: iia noaea ninoaaiie /anoueth ainoaea?noaaiiiai aiia?aoa.

Ia?oeeiua nuacaeu auee ioiaiaiu, ?aaii eae e anyeea oi?iu ia?oeeiiai
«naiioi?aaeaiey».

Aieueoie niaao oaoenoneie ia?oee ninoiye ec /eiiaieeia ii
aeieaeiinoe e ii iacia/aieth. I?aaenaaeaoaeai niaaoa yaeyeny aeaaa
i?aaeoaeuenoaa. Niaao aaaeae eiinoeoooeeiiiuie aii?inaie, ianoaeaeae
aaaeiaeoea caeiiii?iaeou, io iaai enoiaeeee iacia/aiey ia ioaaonoaaiiua
iinou.

Onoaa ia?oee ooaa?aeaeaeny ei?ieaaneei aeae?aoii;
ioeoeeaeueiue ?oeiaiaeeoaeue ia?oee («nae?aoa?ue») iacia/aeny ei?ieai ii
i?aaenoaaeaieth aeaau i?aaeoaeuenoaa. I?iaeioeeaeueiua i?aaiecaoeee
ia?oee ?oeiaiaeeeenue iacia/aiiuie naa?oo nae?aoa?yie: ninoiyaoea i?e
ieo aee?aeoi?ee eiaee niaauaoaeueiua ooieoeee, ii aeaaea /eaiia yoeo
aee?aeoi?ee iacia/aee oeacii aeaau i?aaeoaeuenoaa.

O?aouey oaiaeaioeey iiaeao auoue ii?aaeaeaia neiaii oa??i?.
Oaoenoneee ?aaeei ia iiaeao eia/a aea?aeaoueny, e?iia eae n?aaenoaaie
ianniaiai iiaeaaeaiey, e?iaaauie ?ani?aaaie. Niioaaonoaaiii n yoei
ii?aaeaeyaony cia/aiea iieeoeee, oi/iaa oao iiiaeo iieeoeaeneeo neoaea,
eioi?ua auee nicaeaiu i?e ?aaeeia Ionnieeie.

Iiieii iauae iieeoeee nouanoaiaaee: “i?aaiecaoeey io?aiu io
aioeoaoenoneeo i?anooieaiee” (IA?A), “iniaay neoaeaa iieeoe/aneeo
?anneaaeiaaiee”, “ aeia?iaieueiay ieeeoeey iaoeeiiaeueiie aaciianiinoe”

Aeey ?ani?aau n a?aaaie ?aaeeia auee nicaeaiu iniaua eiiennee,
iacaaiiua “iieeoeaeneeie noaeaie”. *eaiaie yoeo eiiennee yaeyeenue
aeieaeiinoiua eeoea oaoenoneiai ?ai?anneaiiai aiia?aoa: ia/aeueiee
iieeoeee, i?ieo?i?, ia/aeueiee oaoenoneie ieeeoeee e ae?. Aeey
inoaeaeaiey ia o?aaiaaeinue ieeaeeo eiuo iioeaia, e?iia iiaeic?aiey a
“iieeoe/aneie iaaeaaiiaaeaaeiinoe” Iaeaieaa aaaeiua iieeoe/aneea aeaea
?anniao?eaaeenue «iniaui o?eaoiaeii». Yoi ii inoaeee e 20 aiaeai
oth?ueiu Aioiiei A?aioe, auaeathuaainy iniiaaoaey e aiaeaey
eiiioienoe/aneie ia?oee Eoaeee.

Ieeaeie aioeia?iaeiue ?aaeei ia iiaeao aea?aeaoueny iaeiei ianeeeai.
Ionthaea i?ienoaeea iio?aaiinoue i?ee?uoue oioaeeoa?ioth aeeeoaoo?o
eaeie-ieaoaeue aeaeeiinoueth «caaiou» i o?oaeyuainy /aeiaaea.

Oae ?iaeeeinue «ei?ii?aoeaiia ainoaea?noai», nicaeaiiia caeiiaie
1926–1934 aa. Aai ioeoeeaeueiie, iaiieac aunoaaeyaiie oeaeueth auee
«i?eie?aiea» iaaeaeo o?oaeii e eaieoaeii; aai aeaenoaeoaeueiui
?acoeueoaoii auei oneeaiea yeiiiie/aneiai e iieeoe/aneiai ainiiaenoaa
iiiiiieee.

A no?aia nicaeaaaeenue 22 ei?ii?aoeee (ii io?aneyi i?iiuoeaiiinoe). A
ninoaaa eaaeaeie ec ieo iaoiaeeeny i?aaenoaaeoaeue oaoenoneeo
i?ionithcia, i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneeo nithcia, oaoenoneie ia?oee.
I?aaenaaeaoaeai eaaeaeie ec 22 ei?ii?aoeee noae “nai” Ionnieeie; ii aea
aicaeaaee ieienoa?noai ei?ii?aoeee.

Caeii i?aaeinoaaee ei?ii?aoeeyi ii?aaeaeaiea oneiaee o?oaea (?aai/aa
a?aiy, ca?aaioiay ieaoa) e ?ac?aoaiea o?oaeiauo nii?ia (caaanoiaee
cai?auaeenue e iiaeaaeyeenue). Ii eaaeaeue ?ac ?aoaiey i?eieiaeenue e
iaeciaiiie auaiaea i?aaei?eieiaoaeae iaauaiaea aeey ?aai/eo. Yoi e
iiiyoii, anee eiaoue a aeaeo, /oi i?ionithcu, i?aaei?eieiaoaee e
i?aaenoaaeoaee ia?oee eiaee ?aaiue aiein a ei?ii?aoeeyo, a ?oeiaiaenoai
i?ionithcia (ia aiai?y oaea i ia?oeeiuo /eiiaieeao) auei i?iaeaaeiui e
iiaeeoia naa?oo aeiieco. Aai ieeoi ia auae?ae, iii ieeae ia ioaa/aei
naie aeaenoaey ia?aae i?ionithciie iannie.

Onoaiiaeaiea ei?ii?aoeaiiai no?iy iicaieeei Ionnieeie ?acaeaeaoueny n
ia?eaiaioii, n oai, /oi io iaai inoaeinue. Aianoi iaai auea nicaeaia
“iaeaoa oaoenoneeo i?aaiecaoeee e ei?ii?aoeee”. *eaiu aa iacia/aeenue
Ionnieeie 1938 a.

I?aaa iaeaou auee ii?aaeaeaiu neaaeothuei ia?acii: nio?oaeie/anoai
n i?aaeoaeuenoaii a ecaeaiee caeiiia.

Oaoenoneia ei?ii?aoeaiia ainoaea?noai neoaeeei i?oaeeyi iiiiiieee. Ii e
iiiiiieee ioioii neoaeeee eioa?anai oaoenoai ia ia?oeeiie e
ainoaea?noaaiiie aa?oooee.

A ?oeao Ionnieeie e aai ?iaenoaaiieea *eaii iaoiaeeeenue
eiio?ieueiua iaeaou aeoeee ecaanoiiai eiioea?ia «Iiioaeaioeie» (i?eauee
yoiai oeie/aneiai eiioea?ia aic?anoe n 67 iei. ee? a 19C4 aiaeo aei 160
iei. ee? a 19C9 aiaeo) e iiiaeo ae?oaeo.

Iaiouaieaiui naienoaii oaoenoneie aeeeoaoo?u yaeyaony aiaoiyy yeniainey.
Ionnieeie cayaeye i?aoaicee ia oi, /oiau “aic?iaeeoue ?eineoth
eiia?eth”.

Oaoenoneay Eoaeey o?aaiaaea naaa iaeioi?ua o?aioeocneea caiee (Naaiey,
Ieoeoea, Ei?neea), i?aoaiaeiaaea ia Iaeueoo, iuoaeanue caoaaoeoue
ino?ia Ei?oo, iaaeayeanue onoaiiaeoue ainiiaenoai iaae Aano?eae (aei
nithca n aeoea?ianeie Aa?iaieae), aioiaeeanue e caoaaoo Ainoi/iie
Ao?eee.

A inouanoaeaiea yoie i?ia?aiiu, ieeae niioaaonoaiaaaoae aiaiiie
niiniaiinoe Eoaeee, Ionnieeie oaeaeinue caoaaoeoue neaaoth, ionoaeoth
Aaenneieth (1936 a.), ieeoie?iaaoue Aeaaieth (1938a.)

A ethia 1940 aiaea Eoaeey – ia?oia? Aa?iaiee e ssiiiee ii
aioeeiieioa?iianeiio iaeoo – iauyaeea aieio O?aioeee e Aiaeee. Nionoy
iaeioi?ia a?aiy iia iaiaea ia A?aoeeth. Eoaeueyineay oaoenoneay i?anna
iaiieieeanue iaauaieyie nei?ie aaeeeie ao?i-aa?iiaeneie ?eineie
eiia?ee. Eiiaoe aue nianai ia oaeei.

Aeoea?ianeay Aa?iaiey

Enoi?ey Aaeia?neie ?anioaeeee yaeyao ea?oeio ino?ie ai?ueau
iiaouanoaaiiuo i?iiuoeaiii-oeiainiauo iiiiiieee, n iaeiie noi?iiu, e
aunieii?aaieciaaiiuo io?yaeia ?aai/aai eeanna – n ae?oaie.

Iiya?ueneay ?aaiethoeey, ianiio?y ia ii?aaeaiea, aeieai aeaaaea naay
ciaoue. A 1923 aiaeo Aa?iaiey niiaa ia?aaeeaaao ?aaiethoeeiiioth
neooaoeeth. A Naeniiee e Oth?eiaee aicieeee ?aai/ea i?aaeoaeuenoaa.
Neaaiie no?aieoeae a enoi?ee, aa?iaineiai ?aai/aai eeanna aioei
aaiao?aneia ainnoaiea 1923 aiaea.

Iieiaeaiea aaeaa noaaeeece?iaaeinue, eae ?ac?aceeny
yeiiiie/aneee e?ecen 1929 aiaea. O?iaaiue i?iiuoeaiiie i?iaeoeoeee
iiieceeny ii/oe iaiieiaeio, a aac?aaioiuo noaei 9 iei. /aeiaae.

Ia?iaeiua iannu ia?aoiaeeee ia noi?iio eiiia?oee. Ia auai?ao
1930 aiaea iia iieo/eea 4,5 iei. aieinia – ia 1 300 000 /aeiaae aieueoa,
/ai a 1928 aiaeo.

Ioaa/aiiua no?aoii ia?aae iiaie ?aaiethoeeae, iiiiiieee Aa?iaiee
?aoeee a?o/eoue aeanoue oaoenoneie ia?oee Aeoea?a.

Ia?oey yoa, ioeoeeaeueii eiaiiaaaoayny «iaoeeiiae
nioeeaeenoe/aneie ?aai/ae ia?oeae», aicieeea a 1919 aiaeo; i?ia?aiia aa,
eaeeaay a naiae ?aeeaie?oaiie /anoe, auea ?ann/eoaia ia i?eaea/aiea
ii?aaeaeaiiie /anoe iaaeiaieueiuo – io ionoaeuo ?aai/eo aei eaai/ieeia.

Iia aicaauaea nicaeaiea iiaiai iaiaoeeiai «?aeoa», aaeeeie
eiia?ee, iino?iaiiie ia einoyo anao iaiaiaoeeeo ia?iaeia, «enei?aiaiea
ia?enecia e eiiioiecia», oece/aneia eno?aaeaiea aa?aaa.

I?aaeaeaey iianiinoue oaoenoneiai ia?aai?ioa, Eiiioienoe/aneay
ia?oey Aa?iaiee i?aaeeiaeeea eaaui neeai, iniaaiii nioeeae-aeaiie?aoai,
iauaaeeieoueny a aaeeiii aioeiaoeenoneii o?iioa. I?aaeeiaeaiea auei
ioaa?aiooi. Nioeeae-aeaiie?aoe/aneea eeaea?u iauyaeee, /oi ia ieaaeoo
nii?ioeaeaiey Aeoea?o, anee oio i?eaeao e aeanoe «eaaaeueiui iooai».
Eiaeinue a aeaeo niaethaeaiea eiinoeoooeeiiiie i?ioeaaeo?u: auai?u,
ii?o/aiea ninoaaeoue i?aaeoaeuenoai e i?. A?aoiaioaoeey yoa, iniiaaiiay
ia iiceoeaenoneii i?eioeeia «caeii anoue caeii», aeiaiaeeo i?aeeiiaiea
ia?aae eaaaeueiinoueth aei «th?eaee/aneiai e?aoeiecia». Eae aoaeoi naie
aeoea?iaoeu oee e aeanoe caeiiiui iooai, aac ianeeey. aac oaioaaea, aac
iaiaia.

Ia auai?ao a ?aeonoaa, ninoiyaoeony a aaaonoa 1932 aiaea
aeoea?iaoeu iieo/eee 13 iei. aieinia – aeaeaei ia aieueoeinoai. Iie
iuoaeenue iii?aaeoue aeaei a iiya?a, ii iaiaeeaeaiii, ca eaeeea-ieaoaeue
aeaa-o?e ianyoea, iioa?yee 2 iei. ecae?aoaeae.

A oi aea a?aiy eiiia?oey caaiaaaea 600 oun. iiauo aieinia. Ca iaa
aieiniaaei a ieeeeiiia ecae?aoaeae.

?acoeueoaou iiya?ueneeo auai?ia auee iaiaeeaeaiiuie aeey
iiiiiieenoe/aneeo oicyaa Aa?iaiee. Ia niaoeeaeueiii niaauaiee,
ninoiyaoainy a yiaa?a 1933 aiaea, iie ?aoeee i?ecaaoue e aeanoe
Aeoea?a. I?aceaeaio Aeiaeaiao?a, oieueei /oi eeyaoeeny a oii, /oi ia
aeiionoeo e aeanoe «aano?eeneiai ao?aeoi?a», eaeei a naia a?aiy aue
Aeoea?, iioae ia iiiyoioth e inouanoaee eo aieth naiei ?anii?yaeaieai.

O?e ianoiyoaeuenoaa niinianoaiaaee onoaiiaeaieth oaoenoneie
aeeeoaoo?u a Aa?iaiee:

a) iiiiiieenoe/aneay ao?aeoacey iaoea a iae aeaeaiiue auoiae ec ino?ie
iieeoe/aneie neooaoeee, nicaeaiiie yeiiiie/aneei e?ecenii;

a) iaeei ao?aeoacey e iaeioi?ua neie e?anoueyinoaa aeaeaee a
aeaiaaiae/aneeo iaauaiea aeoea?ianeie ia?oee inouanoaeaiea iaaeaaeae ia
niya/aiea yeiiiie/aneeo o?oaeiinoae, aucaaiiuo ?inoii iiiiiieee e
onoaoaeaiiuo e?ecenii;

a) ?aai/ee eeann Aa?iaiee – e yoi aaeaa ee ia aeaaiia ieacaeny
?aneieioui e iiyoiio ?aci?oaeaiiui: eiiioienoe/aneay ia?oey auea
iaaeinoaoi/ii neeueia, /oiau inoaiiaeoue oaoeci iiieii e i?ioea
nioeeae-aeaiie?aoee.

Ainoaea?noaaiiue no?ie, iieeoe/aneea ?aaeeiu oaoenoneie Eoaeee e
aeoea?ianeie Aa?iaiee iaia?oaeeaatho aieueoa noiaenoaa, /ai ?acee/ee.

Iaaea?ii Ionnieeie i?eciaaae: ”Oaoeci e iaoeeiiae-nioeeaeeci anoue
aeaa ia?aeeaeueiuo oa/aiey a enoi?ee”.

Oae aea eae a Eoaeee oaoeci, a Aa?iaiee iaoeeci ia/ae n
eeeaeaeaoeee ao?aeoacii-aeaiie?aoe/aneeo naiaiae. Yoei oeaeyi neoaeeea
oeaeay na?ey /?acau/aeiuo aeae?aoia, i?eoiaeyueony ia ia?aua ianyoeu
1933 aiaea.

Anai ei i?enaaeaaeenue a?iieea iacaaieyi: /ai iiaeeaa auei
niaea?aeaiea, oai a?ii/a e?e/aee «i aeaaa ia?iaea e ainoaea?noaa».

Oaa?aeueneee aeae?ao, iacaaiiue «A caueoo ia?iaea e
ainoaea?noaa», ioiaiye naiaiaeo ee/iinoe, neiaa, ia/aoe, nia?aiee.
Oaa?aeueneee aea «/?acau/aeiue» aeae?ao «A caueoo aa?iaineiai ia?iaea»
iaaeaeye iaia?aie/aiiuie iieiiii/eyie iieeoeeth e o.ae.

Ianeuoaiiua ?ai?annee ia?ooeeenue i?aaeaea anao e aieueoa. anao ia
eiiioienoia. Aeaiooaou eiiia?oee a ?aeonoaaa auee eeoaiu iaiaeaoia e
a?anoiaaiu. Naia ia?oey auea cai?auaia (ia?o 1933 aiaea), aa i?anna
cae?uoa.

Ii naiaio iaueiiaaieth, aeoea?iaoeu i?eaaaee e i?iaieaoeee.
Iie aicaaee aa, oae aea eae nenoaiaoe/aneee iaiai, a ?aaoey?iia i?oaeea
iieeoeee. Aeoea? o/ee eaaoue ia?iaeo e i?eoii eaaoue e?oiii, eai iaeeay
eiaeue, eae ii iieaaae, aucuaaao iaiueoa aeiaa?ey.

A ii/ue ia 28 oaa?aey 1933 aiaea aeoea?iaoeu iiaeiaeaee caeaiea
?aeonoaaa. Naeaeaee iie yoi aeey oiai, /oiau iieo/eoue i?aaeeia aiiaiee
ia eiiia?oeth. Iaoiaeeaoeeny a Aa?iaiee aieaa?neee eiiioieno Aai?aee
Aeeieo?ia e iaeioi?ua ae?oaea eiiioienou auee a?anoiaaiu e i?aaeaiu
noaeo ii iaaeiaieth a iiaeaeiaa ?aeonoaaa.

Aeeieo?ia n iaiaueiiaaiiui aeinoieinoaii e ioaeanoaii ?aciaea/ee
i?anooieaiea oaoenoia. Ciaiaieoue Eaeioeeaneee i?ioeann, eioi?ui oioaee
aeene?aaeeoe?iaaoue ia oieueei aa?iaineeo eiiioienoia, ii e ana
iaaeaeoia?iaeiia eiiioienoe/aneia aeaeaeaiea, caeii/eeny ii?aaaeaieai
Aeeieo?iaa e ae?oaeo eiiioienoia-iaaeiyaiuo.

Oai ia iaiaa a no?aia ?acaa?ouaaeanue ianoiyuay o?aaey eiiioienoia.
Ia/eiay n 1933 aiaea ouny/e /eaiia EIA auee a?ioaiu a oth?ueiu e
eiioeaio?aoeeiiiua eaaa?y. Eiiioienou iiaeaaee a canoaieao e i?e
“iiiuoeao e aaanoao”. Aue a?anoiaai e Y?ino Oaeueiai, auaeathueeny
aiaeaeue iaiaoeeiai i?ieaoa?eaoa, ?oeiaiaeeoaeue eiiia?oee.

Iacaaeieai aei aeiioea aieiu aeoea?iaoeu oaeee aai.

Anei?a ianooieea i/a?aaeue anao ae?oaeo ia?oee, aeeth/ay ao?aeoaciua.
I?aai ia nouanoaiaaiea iieo/eea iaeia oieueei iaoeenoneay ia?oey.

I?aneaaeiaaieth iiaeaa?aee e nioeeae-aeaiie?aoe/aneoth ia?oeth;
iaoeenou i?aiiaeaee ei i?aeoe/aneee o?ie eaaaeueiinoe e
eiinoeoooeeiiiinoe.

I?ioanneiiaeueiua nithcu o?oaeyueony Aa?iaiee auee ?aniouaiu,
n?aaenoaa yoeo nithcia eiioeneiaaiu. Eniieuecoy iiuo Eoaeee, aeoea?iaoeu
nicaeaee naie nianoaaiiua «i?ionithcu», a eioi?ua ianeeueii caaiiyee
ethaeae.

Iaoeenoneay ia?oey noaea /anoueth i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiie iaoeiu. I?aauaaiea
a ?aeonoaaa e ia ainoaea?noaaiiie neoaeaa naycuaaeinue i?enyaie ia
aa?iinoue “iaoeeiiae nioeeaeecio”

Oeaio?aeueiua e ianoiua i?aaiu oaoenoneie ia?oee eiaee
i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiua ooieoeee. ?aoaiey nuacaeia ia?oee iieo/aee neeo
caeiia.

Ia?oey eiaea iniaia ono?ienoai. *eaiu ia?oee aeieaeiu auee
aani?aeineiaii iiae/eiyoueny i?eeacai ianoiuo “oth?a?ia”, eioi?uo (eae e
a Eoaeee) iacia/aee naa?oo.

A iaiin?aaenoaaiiii iiae/eiaiee ia?oeeiiai oeaio?a iaoiaeeeenue
iaea/aneea «ooo?iiaua io?yaeu» (NA), io?aiiua io?yaeu (NN) e iaeioi?ua
iniaua aieineea /anoe, oeiiieaeoiaaiiua oaiaoe/iuie noi?iiieeaie
Aeoea?a.

I?anooieaiey, niaa?oaiiua /eaiaie ia?oee, ?anniao?eaaeenue iniauie
noaeaie ia oaeiuo canaaeaieyo. Oaieiaiua i?anooieaiey /aua anaai aiiaua
noiaeeee ei n ?oe. Aaaeia i?aaeaiiinoue, oaa?aeee Aeoea?, a anee i?e
yoii nii?oo /oi-ieaoaeue, ieaaaoue ia yoi,

Iniaia ianoe a nenoaia ?ai?anneaiiai aiia?aoa caiyea oaeueiay iieeoeey –
aanoaii, ?aniieaaaaoay ia?iiiui aiia?aoii, cia/eoaeueiuie n?aaenoaaie e
iaia?aie/aiiuie iieiiii/eyie.

Eae e a Eoaeee, iu aeaeei caeanue ia iaeio iieeoeeth, a ianeieueei.
Aanoaii iiae/eiyaony i?aaeoaeuenoao . Ooo?iiaeee e ynyniaoeu – ia?oee.
Iaeia iieeoeey neaaeeea ca ae?oaie, e ie iaeia ia aeiaa?yea ae?oaie.

Ainoaea?noaaiiay aeanoue oaoenoneie Aa?iaiee nin?aaeiouei/eeanue a
i?aaeoaeuenoaa, i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiay aeanoue – a iniaa “oth?a?a”.

Oaea caeii 24 ia?oa 1033 a. ?ac?aoae eiia?neiio i?aaeoaeuenoao, ia
eni?aoeaay naieoeee ia?eaiaioa, iaaeaaaoue aeou, eioi?ua «oeeiiythony io
eiinoeoooeee».

Aaaonoianeee caeii 1934 aiaea oie/oiaeae aeieaeiinoue i?aceaeaioa, a aai
iieiiii/ey ia?aaeaaae “oth?a?o”, eioi?ue iaeiia?aiaiii inoaaaeny aeaaie
i?aaeoaeuenoaa e ia?oee. Ie ia?aae eai ia ioaaonoaaiiue, «oth?a?»
i?aauaae a yoie ?iee iiaeeciaiii e iia iacia/eoue naaa i?aaiieea.

?aeonoaa nio?aiyeny, ii oieueei aeey ia?aaeiuo aeaiiino?aoeee. Eiiaaea –
a aeaiaaiae/aneeo e aiaoiaiieeoe/aneeo oeaeyo – aeoea?iaoeu i?iaiaeeee
«ia?iaeiua ii?inu». I?e yoii ca?aiaa iauyaeyeinue, /oi anyeee, eoi
ainiieuecoaony i?aaii aieiniaaoue oaeii, aoaeao n/eoaoueny «a?aaii
ia?iaea».

Eae e a Eoaeey, a Aa?iaiee auee oie/oiaeaiu i?aaiu ianoiiai
naiioi?aaeaiey. Aeaeaiea ia caiee, a niioaaonoaaiii n oai caiaeueiua
eaiaeoaae, oi?acaeiyeinue “ ai eiy aaeeinoaa iaoeee”. Oi?aaeaiea
iaeanoyie ii?o/aeinue /eiiaieeai, eioi?uo iacia/aei i?aaeoaeuenoai.

Oi?iaeueii ia ioiaiaiiay Aaeia?neay eiinoeoooeey i?ae?aoeea naia
aeaenoaea.

Naienoaaiiua eiia?eaeecio i?ioeannu iaoee a aeoea?ianeii ?aeoa naia
caeii/aiiia au?aaeaiea. Oaniay e iaiin?aaenoaaiiay naycue nouanoaiaaea
caeanue iaaeaeo ia?oeae, ainoaea?noaii, iiiiiieeyie – yeiiiie/aneeie
aeaaioaie oeia “Oa?aaieiaeono?e”, aaoi aeaaioa “E?oiia” e ae?.

Caeiiii 27 oaa?aey 1934 aiaea a Aa?iaiee o/?aaeaeaeenue oicyenoaaiiua
iaeaou – iauaeiia?neay e i?iaeioeeaeueiua. Ai aeaaa eo auee iinoaaeaiu
i?aaenoaaeoaee iiiiiieee. Iaeaou eiaee aaaeiua iieiiii/ey a aeaea
?aaoee?iaaiey yeiiiie/aneie aeecie.

?acoeueoaou neacaeenue auno?i: n?aaeiyy i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue
?aai/aai aeiy au?inea n 8 aei 10-12 /ania oiaaea eae ?aaeueiay
ca?aaioiay ieaoa ninoaaeyea a 1935 aiaeo anaai oieueei 70% io ca?ieaou
1933 aiaea. Niioaaonoaaiii n oai i?ienoiaeee ?ino i?eaueae iiiiiieee:
aeioiaeu Noaeueiiai o?anoa, iai?eia?, ninoaaeyee 8.6 iei. ia?ie a 1933
aiaeo e 27 iei. a 1940 aiaeo.

Eniieuecoy i?aaeoaeuenoaaiioth aeanoue, oicyenoaaiiua iaeaou
i?iaiaeeee eneonnoaaiiia ea?oaee?iaaiea, a ?acoeueoaoa eioi?iai iaeeea
i?aaei?eyoey iiaeiuaeenue e?oiiuie. E?anoueyia e oi?aiaoeu,
?aianeaiieee e eonoa?e, iaeeaeaaoea io oaoecia yeiiiie/aneeo aeaa, auee
iaiaioou: ie caiee, ie e?aaeeoa, ie ion?i/ee aeieaia iie ia iieo/eee.

N ia?auo aeiae aeanoe aeoea?iaoeu noaee aioiaeoueny e
«aieueoie aieia», eioi?ay aeieaeia auea iaania/eoue aa?iaineie iaoeee
ainiiaenoai iaae anai ie?ii.

Iaeiinoi?iiia, i?e aeaaiaeaeaoaeueiii ioiioaiee NOA, Aiaeee e
O?aeoeee, Aa?iaiey ?ac?uaaao Aa?naeueneee aeiaiai? e nicaeaao
eieinnaeueioth aiaiioth iaoeio. A 1939 aiaeo Aeoea? ioaeae i?eeac i
ia/aea aiaiiuo aeaenoaee i?ioea Iieueoe. Aoi?ay ie?iaay aieia ia/aeanue.

ssiiiey

I?aayuea eeannu ssiiiee a iniaie noaiaie, eae iu oaea ciaai,
oyaioaee e aiaiii-iiia?oe/aneie aeeeoaoo?a. Eia/a e auoue ia iiaei,
iineieueeo eiieo?aioiay niiniaiinoue yiiineie i?iiuoeaiiinoe
iaania/eaaeanue ieceei aeeciaiiui o?iaiai ?aai/aai, eioi?ue oaeaaaeinue
oaea?aeeaaoue aeaaiaea?y nianai oae ieuaineiio nouanoaiaaieth yiiineiai
e?anoueyieia, niaeaoaaoaainy ia ethaoth ?aaioo e ca ethaoth ieaoo.

A oi a?aiy eae 74 % e?anoueyi aeaaeaee 22% caiee, eo/ea
iiiaueeia i?eiaaeeaaeaei 42% *aou?a iei. e?anoueyineeo oicyenoa eiaee
e?ioa/iua iaaeaeu (ii 0.5 Aa) eee aiana ia eiaee caiee. Iiiyoii, ii/aio
e?anoueyia ono?aieyeenue a ai?iaea. Yeiiiie/aneea e iieeoe/aneea
eioa?anu oanii naycuaaea yiiineea iiiiiieee n iiiaueeaie e
i?ioanneiiaeueiie aiaiueiie.

Nithc yoio i?aneaaeiaae aeaa aeaaiua oeaee: iaocaeaiea ?aai/aai eeanna e
e?anoueyinoaa, n iaeiie noi?iiu, caaiaaaiea aiaoieo ?uieia aeey yiiineie
i?iiuoeaiiinoe – n ae?oaie. Aea?aaiy, aeeaoay iaoo?aeueiui oicyenoaii
ii/oe ia iieoiaea ecaeaeee i?iiuoeaiiinoe. Aioo?aiiee ?uiie aue iiiaaiea
oceei. I?aa?aoeoue iaoo?aeueiia e?anoueyineia oicyenoai a oiaa?iia iiaea
au oieueei caiaeueiay ?aoi?ia, ii aa ia oioaee iiiaueee.

N iiiaueeaie, n ?aaeoeeiiiui aeai?yinoaii aiiaua ia oioaee
nni?eoueny eaieoaeenou: e oa e ae?oaea eiaee iauaai a?aaa – i?ieaoa?eao
e e?anoueyinoai.

Auoiaeii ec yoie neooaoeee i?eciaaaeinue caaiaaaiea /oaeeo oa??eoi?ee,
caaiaaaiea aiaoieo ?uieia. Ionthaea auaeaeaeaiea aiaiiie neeu,
aa?anneaiay aiaoiyy iieeoeea, ionthaea oeacaiiue auoa nithc.

Ie iaeii ec e?oiiuo eiia?eaeenoe/aneeo ainoaea?noa ia inouanoaeyei
noieue ?iaei e noieue iaiineaaeiaaoaeueii iaiiiaea eeaa?aeueiua ?aoi?iu,
eae ssiiiey.

A 1925 aiaeo caeanue aaiaeeony «anaiauaa» ioaeneia ecae?aoaeueiia i?aai,
i?e yoii i?aaa aieina auee eeoaiu aiaiiineoaeauea, nooaeaiou, eeoea, ia
ia eiathuea aiaee/iiai oeaica inaaeeinoe, iieuecothueany
aeaaioai?eoaeueiinoueth, e, iaeiiaoe, aeaau ciaoiuo oaieeee (/oiau
iineaaeiea ia niaoeaaeenue n i?i/eie a?aaeaeaiaie). Io eaiaeeaeaoa a
aeaiooaou aue iio?aaiaai e?oiiue caeia a ?acia?a 2 oun. eai.,
iinooiaaoee a eacio, anee ieacuaaeinue, /oi eaiaeeaeao ia iaa?ae
ieieioia aieinia. N?aaee ae?oaeo eeaa?aeueiuo ?aoi?i ioiaoei aaaaeaiea
noaea i?enyaeiuo.

E ieaaea – aieioue aei onoaiiaeaiey aiaiii-iiia?oe/aneie aeeeoaoo?u – ia
inouanoaeyeanue a oaeeo

ianooaaao , eae a ssiiiee ai?ueaa n ?aai/ei aeaeaeaieai.

Oeaaeai, iai?eia?, ia caeii «Ia io?aia iauanoaaiiiai
niieienoaey» 1925 aiaea, onoaiiaeaoee iiiaieaoiea eaoi?aeiua ?aaiou ca
o/anoea a i?aaiecaoeeyo, noaaeaoeo oeaiueth oie/oiaeaiea /anoiie
ni6noaaiiinoi e eciaiaiee iieeoe/aneia no?iy.

A 1928 aiaeo yiiineia i?aaeoaeuenoai cai?auaao ana neieueei-ieaoaeue
eaaua i?aaiecaoeee. Ouny/e ?aai/eo e e?anoueyi auee a?ioaiu a oth?ueiu.
Niaoeeaeueiue oeac onoaiaaeeaae aeeeoaeueiia oth?aiiia caeeth/aiea aeey
?yaeiauo eiiioienoia e nia?oioth eaciue aeey aeoeaenoia eiiia?oee.

A 1938 aiaeo yiiineee ia?eaiaio i?eieiaao i?aneiaooue «caeii i anaiauae
iiaeeecaoeee iaoeee», ?ac?aoaaoee i?aaei?eieiaoaeyi oaeeeiyoue ii naiaio
oniio?aieth ?aai/ee aeaiue e nieaeaoue ca?aaioioth ieaoo. Caaanoiaee
auee iauyaeaiu i?anooieaieai. Eiioeeeou iaaeaeo ?aai/eie e eaieoaeenoaie
ia?aaeaaaeenue ia ieii/aoaeueiia ?aoaiea a?aeo?aaeiie naeoeee «iniaie
iieeoeee»..

Ia?eaiaio ssiiiee ea?ae ie/oiaeioth ?ieue. Ieaeiyy iaeaoa aai
niae?aeanue ia aieaa /ai ia o?e ianyoea a aiae. Inoaeueiua 9 ianyoeaa
i?aaeoaeuenoai (iieuecoynue i?aaii ecaeaaaoue oeacu)
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaiaaei naii.

Eiinoeoooeey ia onoaiaaeeaaea ioaaonoaaiiinoe i?aaeoaeuenoaa ia?aae
ia?eaiaioii, aneaaenoaea /aai iaeaoa ia ?aniieaaaea n?aaenoaii aeey
yooaeoeaiiai aeeyiey ia iieeoeeo. A oi aea a?aiy i?aaeoaeuenoai,
i?eaaaioa a eiia?aoi?neiio oeaco, iiaei a ethaie iiiaio ?anionoeoue
iaeaoo.

Iiiu?yaiua e?oiiui eaieoaeii, a no?aia iiiaeeeenue e e?aiee
?aciiai ?iaea oaoenoneea i?aaiecaoeee. Iaeia ec ieo, iauaaeeiyaoay
«iieiaeia ioeoea?noai», ii ?oeiaiaeeiay aaia?aeaie o?aaiaaea
eeeaeaeaoeee ia?eaiaioa e ia?oeeiuo eaaeiaoia. Iia oioaea onoaiiaeaiey
aiaiii-oaoenoneie aeeeoaoo?u ai aeaaa n eiia?aoi?ii.

A 1932 -aiaeo «iieiaeia ioeoea?noai» o/eieei ianoiyuee
aiaiiue iyoaae. Aianoi oiai /oiau onie?eoue aai o/anoieeia,
i?aaeoaeuenoai iioei iaano?a/o eo o?aaiaaieyi: ia?oeeiue eaaeiao aue
ono?aiai, a ia aai ianoi i?eoee aaia?aeu e aaeie?aeu.

Ai anai yoii auea naiy caeiiiia?iinoue. Iineaaeiaaoaeueiia
oneeaiea ?iee aiaiiuo a ii?aaeaeaiey iieeoeee, eo i?iieeiiaaiea ia ana
aaaeiua iinou a ainoaea?noaaiiii aiia?aoa neoaeeee, oioy e naiaia?acii,
oeaeyi iiae/eiaiey yiiineie ainoaea?noaaiiie iaoeiu eo/ea iaeaieaa
e?oiiuo, iaeaieaa aa?anneaiuo iiiiiieee, aeaaeaeaaoeo aieiu aiaia e
nio?aiaiey caa?neeo oi?i yenieoaoaoeee aioo?e no?aiu.

Oaea a 1933 aiaeo ssiiiey auoiaeeo ec Eeae iaoeee e
aoi?aaaony a Eeoae, iaia?aaaynue i?aa?aoeoue aai a eieiieth. Iia
aeaaaeaeu aeaeaao iiiuoeo aoi?aeaiey ia oa??eoi?eth NNN?: ia?aue ?ac o
ica?a Oaiea, aoi?ie – o ica?a Oanai, ii eaaeaeue ?ac n ia?iiiui aeey
naay o?iiii.

Eaeay caaaoiue ieai ii?aaiuaiey Acee e Ieaaiee. ssiiiey
anooiaao a nithca aeoea?ianeie Aa?iaieae. Caeinoaoy o iineaaeiae eicoiae
“iiaiai ii?yaeea“, “eca?aiiie ?anu” e “enoi?e/aneie iennee”, ssiiiey
aioiaeeanue e ia?aaeaeo ie?a n oai, /oiau “aaeeeay iaoeey” iieo/eea
«aaeeeoth oa??eoi?eth».

Oaoecaoeey yiiineiai ainoaea?noaaiiiai no?iy iieo/eea naia
?acaeoea n ia/aeii aoi?ie ie?iaie aieiu e a oiaea aa.

A 1940 aiaeo yiiineea i?aayuea e?oae, ii a iniaaiiinoe
aaia?aeeoao, naeaeaee i?aiuea?-ieieno?ii i?eioea Eiiiy, auaoaai
eaeaieiaii oioaeeoa?iiai aiaiii-oaoenoneiai ?aaeeia. Iaeaieaa aaaeiua
iinou a i?aaeoaeuenoaa auee ii?o/aiu i?aaenoaaeoaeyi eiioea?iia oyaeaeie
i?iiuoeaiiinoe.

Aneaae ca oai ia/eiaaony nicaeaiea oae iacuaaaiie iiaie
iieeoe/aneie no?oeoo?u. A inouanoaeaiea yoiai ieaia iieeoe/aneea ia?oee
(ca eneeth/aieai, ?acoiaaony, eiiioienoe/aneie) iauyaeee i naii?inionea.
Ana aianoa iie ninoaaeee «Annioeeaoeey iiiiue o?iio» – ainoaea?noaaiioth
i?aaiecaoeeth, oeiaine?oaioth i?aaeoaeuenoaii e ei aea ?oeiaiaeeioth.

I?aaiaie annioeeaoeee ia ianoao neoaeeee oae iacuaaaiua ninaaeneea
iaueiu – n?aaeiaaaeiaue einoeooo, aic?iaeaeaiiue ?aaeoeeae. Eaaeaeay
oaeay iaueia iauaaeeiyea 10-12 naiae. Ianeieueei iauei ninoaaeyee
«annioeeaoeeth oeeoeu», iinaeea e o.ae.

Annioeeaoeey iiiiue o?iio i?aaeienuaaea /eaiai iaueiu neaaeeoue ca
iiaaaeaieai ninaaeae e aeiiineoue i anai caia/aiiii. Iaeia iaueia
aeieaeia auea neaaeeoue ca ae?oaie.

Ia caaiaeao e oaa?eeao nicaeaaaeenue aianoi cai?auaiiuo i?ionithcia
“iauanoaa neoaeaiey ioa/anoao /a?ac i?iecaiaenoai”, eoaea ?aai/eo
caaiiyee neeie. Caeanue oi/ii oae aea aeiaeaaeenue acaeiiie neaaeee e
neaiiai iiaeiiaaiey.

Iai?aiaiiui yeaiaioii “iiaie iieeoe/aneie no?oeoo?u” naeaeaeenue
oieoeeaoeey i?annu, no?iaeaeoay oeaico?a, oiaeienoe/aneay i?iiaaaiaea.
Ie i eaeeo «naiaiaeao» ia iiaei auoue e ?a/e.

Yeiiiie/aneay aeeciue eiio?iee?iaaeanue niaoeeaeueiuie annioeeaoeeyie
i?iiuoeaiieeia e oeiainenoia, iaaeaeaiiuo aaeieieno?aoeaiuie
iieiiii/eyie. Yoi iacuaaeinue «iiaie yeiiiie/aneie no?oeoo?ie».
ssiiineee ia?eaiaio, aa?iaa oi, /oi io iaai inoaeinue, iioa?ye anyeia
cia/aiea. *eaiu aai iacia/aeenue i?aaeoaeuenoaii eee (/oi oi aea naiia)
ecae?aeenue ii iniau nieneai, ninoaaeaiiui i?aaeoaeuenoaii.

Oae iieo/eee naia auyaeaiea iniiaiua i?eciaee oaoecia. Ii auee e
iaeioi?ua ioee/ey:

a) A Aa?iaiee e Eoaeee oaoenoneea ia?oee eiio?iee?iaaee a?ieth, a
ssiiiee eiaiii a?iey ea?aea ?ieue aeaaiie ?oeao Ayuae iieeoe/aneie neeu;

a) eae e a Eoaeee, oae e a ssiiiee oaoeci ia eeeaeaee?iaae iiia?oee;
?acieoea a oii, /oi eoaeueyineee ei?ieue ia ea?ae ie iaeaeoae ?iee,
oiaaea eae yiiineee eiia?aoi? ieneieueei ia oo?aoee naiae aaniethoiie
aeanoe , ie naiaai aeeyiey (nio?aieeenue e ana naycaiiua n iiia?oeae
o/?aaeaeaiey a?iaea Oaeiiai niaaoa e i?.).

ssiiineee oaoeci aunooiae a niaoeeoe/aneie oi?ia aiaiii-iiia?oe/aneie
aeeeoaoo?u.

Ae?oaea oaoenoneea ainoaea?noaa

*oiau ninoaaeoue naaa i?aaenoaaeaiea i oii, /ai aue eaieoaeeci a ia?eiae
iaaeaeo aeaoiy ie?iauie aieiaie, iaeuecy oioneaoue ec aeaeo e oa
«iaeua» no?aiu, aaea iieeoe/aneea ?ay iu auee noieue aea oaoenoneeie,
eae a Aa?iaiee, eee aeecee e yoiio.

Oaoenoneei aue ii naiaio nouanoao aiaiiue ia?aai?io 1923 aiaea a
Aieaa?ee, ono?aieaoee i?aaeoaeuenoai “caieaaeaeueoeaa” (i?aiuea?
Noaiaieeeneee aue i?e yoii caa?nee oaeo) e ia?aaeaaoee aeanoue iaea/o
aieaa?neiai ia?iaea Oeaieiao.

Ia?aai?io aue niaa?oai aeaaiui ia?acii «Aiaiiie eeaie». Aieaa?neay
?aaeoeey iiaeaea?aeaaoay “eeao”, auea ?acae?aaeaia oaie ia?aie
Noaiaiieeneiai, eioi?ua caaeaaaee e?oiiue eaieoae, a iniaaiiinoe
i?ia?anneaiui iiaeioiaeiui iaeiaii e i?., iia auea aanueia ano?aaiaeaia
e?oiiui oniaoii eiiia?oee ia auai?ao (aieaa 200 oun. aieinia) e aa
?anoouei aeeyieai. Ia?aai?ioo niinianoaiaaea aioeeiiioienoe/aneay (e
aioe?aai/ay) iieeoeea “caieaaeaaeaeueoeaa”, ianooieaiea Noaiaieeeneiai
ia eiiia?oeth.

I?aaeoaeuenoai Oeaieiaa ioiaieei i?ia?anneaiua ia/eiaiey
“caieaaeaeueoeaa”, a oii /enea aa?a?iue caeii. I?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue
?aai/aai aeiy auea aeiaaaeaia aei 12 /ania. Oaeoe/anee eeeaeaee?iaaiiui
ieacaeny aine?aniue e i?acaeie/iue ioaeuo. Auee i?aaei?eiyou ianniaua
a?anou eiiioienoia.

A nicaeaaoaeny neooaoeee eiiia?oey Aieaa?ee i?eiyea ?aoaiea i
nicaeaiee aaeeiiai o?iioa aeaiie?aoe/aneeo i?aaiecaoeee a oeaeyo
naa?aeaiey oaoenoneie aeeeoaoo?u aii?oaeaiiui iooai. Ainnoaiea auei
ia/aoi a naioya?y 1923 aiaea, i?iaeieaeae aeaeinue ieiei aeaoo iaaeaeue,
ii auei iiaeaaeaii.

Oaeueneoeoee?iaaa “iiaaaeo” ia auai?ao a Ia?iaeiia nia?aiea,
?aaeei Oeaieiaa iuoaeny oi?i/eoue naia nouanoaiaaiea oa??i?enoe/aneei
caeiiii “Ia io?aia ainoaea?noaa”. Ii i?aaeoniao?eaae oaieiaiia
iaeacaiea ca i?eiaaeeaaeiinoue e eiiia?oee e aeaaea «ca eiiioienoe/aneee
ia?ac iuneae». Caoai auee ?aniouaiu i?ionithcu e o. ae.

I?aaeoaeuenoai Oeaieiaa i?iaea?aeaeinue o?e aiaea. A oa/aiea
ianeieueeeo neaaeothueo eao aieaa?neea ao?aeoaciua ia?oee iuoaeenue
i?aaeoue iaoiaeaie, i?eaeeaeaaoeieny e ao?aeoacii- aeaiie?aoe/aneei.

?aai/ee eeann iieo/ee aiciiaeiinoue ainnoaiiaeoue i?ionithcu:
eiiia?oey inoaaaeanue iiae cai?aoii, ii aaea ?ac?aoaia eaaaeueiay
?aai/ay ia?oey, /a?ac iin?aaenoai eioi?ie eiiioienou o/anoaiaaee a
auai?ao, aaee eaaaeueioth ?aaioo a i?ionithcao e i?.

A 1934 aiaeo ?aaeoeeiiiia ioeoea?noai, iauaaeeiaiiia
ia?oeae «Caaii», ono?aeaaao iiaue aiaiiue ia?aai?io. Naiicaaiiia
i?aaeoaeuenoai (E. Aai?aeaaa) ?acaiiyao ia?eaiaio, ?anioneaao
iieeoe/aneea ia?oee, e?iia i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiie, cai?auaao anyeoth
iieeoe/aneoth aeayoaeueiinoue aiiaua.

Nionoy ainaiue ianyoeaa i?aaeoaeuenoai aiaiiie aeeeoaoo?u onooiaao
ianoi i?aaeoaeuenoao iiia?oe/aneie aeeeoaoo?u.

Eiae/aneei neaaenoaeai yoeo i?ioeannia yaeeanue i?eaioaoeey
ia oaoenoneoth Aa?iaieth. A ia?oa 1941 aiaea a ea/anoaa nithcieea
Aa?iaiee, Aieaa?ey iocuaaaony aoyiooie ai aoi?oth ie?iaoth aieio.

A 1526 aiaeo aiaiii-oaoenoneee ia?aai?io i?ienoiaeeo a
Iieueoa. I?e/eiu aai ai iiiaeo ioiioaieyo oeie/aneea: yeiiiie/aneee
?acaae, ?aceia iaino?aiea eeanniaie ai?ueau a ai?iaea e aea?aaia,
iaaeaeaiea i?aayuaai ao?aeoacii-iiiaue/ueaai aeiea iinooieoueny oioue a
iaeii naieie eioa?anaie.

A iaeioi?uo enneaaeiaaieyo, iinayuaiiuo aiaeeco e enoi?ee
iieueneie eiinoeoooeee 1921 aiaea, iaaeaiaiiue ia?eiae iieueneie enoi?ee
aeaeeony ia o?e yoaia: yoai oi?iaeueiiai i?eiaiaiey i?eiaiaiee
eiinoeoooeee 1921 aiaea, nii?iaiaeaeaaoaainy cai?auaieai
eiiioienoe/aneie ia?oee, iiaeaaeaieai aeaiie?aoe/aneiai e
iaoeeiiaeueii-inaiaiaeeoaeueiiai aeaeaeaiey; yoai “ia?aiia/aeueiie
oaoecaoeee iieeoe/aneie aeecie” (1926-1935 aa.) e yoai «oneeaiiie
oaoecaoeee», iciaiaiiaaiiie i?eiyoeai e aaaaeaieai ?aaeoeeiiiie
eiinoeoooeee 1935 aiaea. A iaoe aeie, caiaoei, oaeiai ?iaea
ia?eiaeecaoeey iiaeaa?aeanue ?aaecee: iniaaiii yoi ioiineony e oneeaiiie
oaoecaoeee”, eioi?ie eae aoaeoi au e ia auei.

Ai iiiaii oeie/iuie ieacaeenue iieeoe/aneea iineaaenoaey
aiaiiiai ia?aai?ioa: oaeoe/aneay aeanoue nin?aaeioi/eeanue a ?oeao
«aeaaiiai einiaeoi?a aii?oaeaiiuo nee», eaeei noae Ieenoaeneee, e yoi ia
auei oaeiie ie aeey eiai; i?aceaeaio ?anioaeee – e?aaoo?a Ieenoaeneiai
– iieo/ee i?aai e caeaiey aeoia, ii naiaio i?aaeiaoo e neea aeaenoaey ia
ioee/athueony io caeiia, ia?eaiaio, ie/oiaeiue e caaeneiue, iia auoue
?aciaiai ii aaeeiiio neiao Ieenoaeneiai.

Na?ey oaieiaiuo caeiiia e anaaeanoea iieeoeee aai/aea yoio
?aaeei.

Iiuo aiaiiie aeeeoaoo?u ieenoae/eeia iaoae naaa
aiieiuaiea a eiinoeoooeee 1935 aiaea. Iia nicaeaao iaeio ?aaeueioth
aeanoue. – aeanoue i?aceaeaioa. Ii ioaa/aao “ia?aae, aiaii e enoi?eae ca
noaeueau ainoaea?noaa”; «a aai eeoea nin?aaeioi/eaaaony aaeeiay e
iaaeaeeiay (!) ainoaea?noaaiiay aeanoue», iiae aai aeaaainoaii
iaoiaeyony: i?aaeoaeuenoai, naei e naiao (ia?eaiaio) aii?oaeaiiua neeu,
noae, ainoaea?noaaiiue eiio?ieue.

I?aceaeaio iacia/aao ii «naiaio oniio?aieth» (a ia ii
ia?eaiaioneei o?aaeeoeeyi) i?aaenaaeaoaey niaaoa ieieno?ia, a caoai e
naieo ieieno?ia, nicuaaao e ?anioneaao ia?eaiaio, caeeth/aao e
?aoeoeoee?oao iaaeaeoia?iaeiua aeiaiai?u, eiiaiaeoao aii?oaeaiiuie
neeaie, iacia/aao ia ainoaea?noaaiiua aeieaeiinoe e o.ae. Ii ieacuaaao
aeeyiea ia auai? i?aaiieea, a a ecaanoiuo neo/ayo iacia/aao aoaeouaai
i?aceaeaioa; «iocuaaao», e oiaea «ii naiaio oniio?aieth»,
i?aiuea?-ieieno?a, i?aaenaaeaoaey Aa?oiaiiai noaea, aunoeo aiaiiuo
ia/aeueieeia, inouanoaeyao i?aai iiieeiaaiey. I?aceaeaioo
i?aaeinoaaeyaony i?aai i?aaeaaaoue noaeo /eaiia i?aaeoaeuenoaa, eioi?ui
ia ?aniieaaaee aeaaea iaeioi?ua ei?iee, iai?eia? aiaeeeneee.

Aeae?aou i?aceaeaioa, aiai?eony a eiinoeoooeee, eiatho
neeo caeiia. Aio aea, iaeiiaoe, i?aaeinoaaeyaony i?aai aaaaeaiey
eneeth/eoaeueiiai iieiaeaiey ia anae oa??eoi?ee no?aiu e ni anaie
auoaeathueie ionthaea iineaaenoaeyie.

Noieo ee iinea anaai yoiai oiiieiaoue i ia?eaiaioa, oai
aieaa /oi eiiieaeoiaaiea iineaaeiaai noaei caaenaoue io i?aaeoaeuenoaa
(iaeia o?aoue naiaoa i?yii iacia/aeanue i?aceaeaioneei oeacii).

?aaeei ieenoae/eeia eiae o?aae/aneea neaaenoaey. Eiaaea a 1939 aiaeo
aeoea?ianeay Aa?iaiey iaiaea ia Iieueoo, noaeueaa no?aiu ?aoeeanue a
oa/aiea ia?auo aeanyoe aeiae ai?ueau.

Eiinoeoooeey 1923 aiaea, aaaaeaiiay a ?oiuiee, eiaea ai
iiiaeo ioiioaieyo oi?iaeueiia cia/aiea. Yoi a iniaaiiie noaiaie
ioiineony e oiio e?oao ao?aeoacii-aeaiie?aoe/aneeo naiaiae, eioi?ua iia
i?iaicaeaoaea iiae aeeyieai iiiaioa.

Oaea a 1924 aeaeo na?eae ?aaeoeeiiiua caeiiia auea
caaiaia a iiaeiieuea eiiioienoe/aneay ia?oey, iinoaaeaiu iiae
i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiue eiio?ieue i?ionithcu, niyou ia?aie/aiey aeey a?anoia
i iieeoe/aneei iioeaai. Ia iieiue oiae ca?aaioaee aiaiiua o?eaoiaeu.

Iaia?aei? «naiaiaea neiaa e ia/aoe» oth?aiiia
caeeth/aiea oa?iaeaei anyeiio iaaeiaiiiio a i?iiaaaiaea
aeaiie?aoe/aneeo eaeae (caeii «I nioeeaeueiie aaciianiinoe»).

Anaiauaa (ioaeneia) ecae?aoaeueiia i?aai naeaeaeinue oai aieaa
oeeoeeae, eiaaea caeiiii 1926 aiaea auea aaaaeaia «i?aiey» aeey ia?oee,
nia?aaoae 40 aieinia: iia iieo/aea 60% anao iaiaeaoia.

Oaoecaoeey iieeoe/aneiai no?iy ?oiuiee, ia /ai ianoaeaaee
?aaeoeeiiiua i?aaiecaoeee a?iaea «AEaeaciie aaa?aeee», auea onei?aia a
aiaeu ie?iaiai yeiiiie/aneiai e?ecena.

Cae?ueenue nioie i?aaei?eyoee. Niioaaonoaaiii n oai
oaaee/eeinue /enei aac?aaioiuo e aieiaeiuo ethaeae. Ca?aaioiay ieaoa
?aai/eo, anaaaea ieceay, aaeaa aeinoeaaea 60% io o?iaiy 1929 aiaea.
Caaeieaeaiiinoue e?anoueyi ii aeieaai e iaeiaai aic?inea aei 150 ie?ae.
Eae, nioie ouny/ eo ?aci?eeenue.

Caaanoiaee e e?anoueyineea aieiaiey, a cia/eo, ianniaua
?anno?aeu e ?ani?aau neaaeiaaee ae?oa ca ae?oaii.

Caaanoiai/iia aeaeaeaiea, ?oeiaiaeeiia eiiia?oeae ?oiuiee,
aeinoeaei iniaiai ?aciaoa a 1933 aiaeo. E?oiiaeoeie a enoi?ee ?aai/aai
aeaeaeaiey auee ioiinyueany e yoiio a?aiaie caaanoiaee
aeaeaciiaei?iaeieeia e iaooyieeia.

A nicaeaaoaeny ianoaiiaea ?oiuineea i?aayuea eeannu ?aoeee
ainiieueciaaoueny iiuoii Aeoea?a. Iie iiiiaee oneeaieth “AEaeaciie
aaa?aeee”, aeoeaece?iaaee aeeyaoa aeai?a ia iieeoe/aneoth aeeciue, naaee
ia iao cia/aiea ia?eaiaioa.

A 1938 aiaeo ei?ieue ?oiuiee Ea?ieue I, iieo/ea iiaeaea?aeeo io
iiiiiieee, iiiaueeia i aaia?aeeoaoa, niaa?oaao aiaiiue ia?aai?io,
ioiaiyao aeaenoaea eiinoeoooeee 1925 aiaea e anth aeanoue
nin?aaeioi/eaaao a naieo ?oeao. Iieeoe/aneea ia?oee e i?ionithcu auee
?aniouaiu, ia?eaiaio ?aciaiai, aeaiie?aoe/aneea naiaiaeu ieii/aoaeueii
ioiaiaiu.

Aiaiii-iiia?oe/aneay ?oiuiey naycaea naith noaeueao n noaeueaie
aa?iaineiai oaoenoneiai ?aeoa. Oaeoe/aneay aeanoue nin?aaeioa/eaaeanue a
?oeao aaia?aea Aioiianeo, oanii naycaiiiai n Aeoea?ii. ?acaeaaea naieo
eiieo?aioia a i?aaeoaeuenoaa (eeaea?ia «AEaeaciie aaa?aeee»), Aioiianeo
naeaeaeny aaeeiiee/iui “eiiaeoeaoi?ii” ?oiuiee (1940 a.). Aiaiii –
oaoenoneay aeeeoaoo?a i?eia?aea ana naie naienoaa e ea/anoaa.

22 ethiy 1941 aiaea, a oio aea aeaiue, /oi e Aa?iaiey,
oaoenoneay ?oiuiey iaiaea ia Niaaoneee Nithc.

Iniaoth ?ieue a enoi?ee i?aaeaiaiiie Aa?iiu nua?aea
onoaiiaeaiea oaoenoneie aeeeoaoo?u a Eniaiee.

Ia?aue aa ia?eiae i?eoiaeeony ia 1923-1939 aa. Aiaiiue
ia?aai?io, niaa?oaiiue aaia?aeii I?eii aea ?eaa?a a 1923 aiaeo i?e
i?yiii niaeaenoaee iiia?oee, caaa?oeeny ?acaiiii ia?eaiaioa (ei?oania),
ioiaiie ao?aeoaciuo naiaiae e eiinoeoooeeiiiuo aa?aioee (ee/iie
iai?eeiniiaaiiinoe), ?inioneii iieeoe/aneeo ia?oee, ia?aoiaeii aeanoe a
?oee aiaiiie ooiou.

Aiaiiiio ia?aai?ioo iiiiaea eieiieaeueiay aaaioth?a
Eniaiee a Ia?ieei. Iici?iua ii?aaeaiey eniaineie a?iee a ai?ueaa i?ioea
?eoneeo ieaiai, n?aaeaaoeony iiae ?oeiaiaenoaii Aaae-yeue Ea?eia,
oneeeee iauaa iaaeiaieuenoai a?yciie aieiie, a caiaeii e
i?aaeoaeuenoaii, eioi?ia aa aaei.

Ioiaiea aeae?ao i 8-/aniaii ?aai/ai aeia e cai?aoea noa/ee
iiae no?aoii oaieiaiiai iaeacaiey I?eii aea ?eaa?a no?aieeny oi?i/eoue
ainiiaenoai ao?aeoacee iaae ?aai/ei eeannii aaaaeaieai ei?ii?aoeaiie
nenoaiu ii eoaeueyineiio ia?acoeo.

Eae e a Eoaeee, nicaeaaaeenue «ei?ii?aoeee», ninoaaeaiiua
ec i?aaei?eieiaoaeae, i?aaenoaaeoaeae aeiiouaiiuo (i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuo)
i?ionithcia e ainoaea?noaaiiuo /eiiaieeia.

Ii ana auei iai?anii. ?aai/ee eeann Eniaiee ia iiae/eieeny
aeeeoaoo?a. E?anoueyineea iannu aaee oii?ioth ai?ueao ca caieth.
I?aayuay ooioa ?acaee?aeanue a?uciae ca aeanoue. I?iaeieaeaiea aiaiiie
aeeeoaoo?u a?iceei ?aaiethoeeiiiui ac?uaii. A yiaa?a 1930 aiaea I?eii
aea ?eaa?i ioeacaeny io aeanoe e yiea?e?iaae ec no?aiu.

Ca e?aoii aeeeoaoo?u iineaaeiaaei naa?aeaiea iiia?oia (ai?aeue
1931a.).

Niauoey ?acaa?ouaaeenue auno?i. A aioeiiia?oe/aneii aeaeaeaiee
nieioeeenue naiua ?aciua neeu – io ?aai/eo e e?anoueyi aei
eaaiao?aeoaciuo ia?oee e nioeeaeenoia.

Iiia?oey iuoaeanue nianoe naay /anoe/iuie onooieaie, ii
aac?acoeueoaoii. Aeaei auei ia oieueei a naiie iiia?oee, ii e ai anao
oao ia?aaeeoeao i?ioeiai, eioi?ua iia caueuaea: ainiiaenoai iiiaueeia,
eaoiee/aneie oea?eae e aiaiiuo ooio, ionoonoaea naiaiae, nioeeaeueiia e
iaoeeiiaeueiia oaiaoaiea .

A ai?aea 1931 aiaea ?anioaeeeaioeu iaea?aeeaatho aeanoyuea
iiaaaeu ia ioieoeeiaeueiuo auai?ao. Aneaae ca oai iie ia?acotho
?anioaeeeaineea i?aaeoaeuenoaa nia/aea a Aa?naeiia, a cyoai a Iaae?eaea.
Ei?ieue Aeueoiin aaaeae ai O?aioeeth.

?aaiethoeey, eeeaeaee?iaaaoay eniaineoth iiia?oeth, auea
ao?aeoacii-aeaiie?aoe/aneie. Oaeie aea ieacaeanue ii naiaio
niaea?aeaieth eiinoeoooeey Eniaineie ?anioaeeee, ooaa?aeaeaiiay a 1931
aiaeo

O/?aaeeoaeueiui nia?aieai.

Noaouey 1 eiinoeoooeee aeaneea “Eniaiey anoue aeaiie?aoe/aneay
?anioaeeea o?oaeyueony anao eeannia, iino?iaiiay ia ia/aeao naiaiaeu e
ni?aaaaeeeainoe”

Ca aeaeea?aoeeae neaaeiaaee i?eioeeiu : ?aaainoai anao
ia?aae caeiiii; ioeac io ainoaea?noaaiiie ?aeeaee e ioaeaeaiea oea?eae
io ainoaea?noaa, ?aaiia i?aai aeey anao iacaaeneii io i?ienoiaeaeaiey,
iiea, aiaaonoaa, iieeoe/aneeo acaeyaeia e i?.; iai?eeiniiaaiiinoue.
ee/iinoe e aeeeeua, naiaiaea neiaa e ia/aoe, iai?eeiniiaaiiinoue
ia?aienee, i?aai nia?aiee e nithcia.

Caeiiiaeaoaeueiay aeanoue a?o/aeanue ia?eaiaioo (ei?oanai),
iaa?aiiiio ia iniiaa anaiauaai, ?aaiiai, i?yiiai e oaeiiai aieiniaaiey.
Ecae?aoaeueiia i?aai i?aaeinoaaeyeinue a?aaeaeaiai iaiaai iiea ia/eiay n
23 eao.

Eaoaeiiey naeaeaeanue aaoiiiiiie iaeanoueth a ?aieao aaeeiie
Eniaineie ?anioaeeee.

Eiinoeoooeey iauyaeyea eeeaeaee?iaaiiuie oaiaeaeueiua
ioiioaiey e iaauaea aa?a?ioth ?aoi?io. O/?aaeeoaeueiia nia?aiea i?eiyei
caeiiu i 8-/aniaii ?aai/ai aeia e nioeeaeueiii no?aoiaaiee.

Anaio yoiio ia noaeaeaii auei i?aoai?eoueny a aeeciue.
Aa?a?iay ?aoi?ia naaeanue e iaaeaeaieth aeaoo ieeeeiiia aaaeiyeia 70
oun. aaeoa?ia, caeii i nioeeaeueiii no?aoiaaiee, eae e iiiaea ae?oaea,
inoaeny ia aoiaaa.

A ianoaiiaea anaiauaai iaaeiaieuenoaa enoiaeii ?aaiethoeee
niaa?oaaony ?aciaaeaaaiea nee. A oi a?aiy eae ?aai/ee eeann aue ?aneieio
ii aeia nioeeae-aeaiie?aoe/aneeo eeaea?ia, a eiiia?oey inoaaaeanue
iaaeinoaoi/ii neeueiie, ?aaeoeey, aiaaoay e iiaouanoaaiiay,
iauaaeeiyaony a oae iacuaaaiie Eniaineie eiioaaea?aoeee aaoiiiiiuo
i?aauo. Ia auai?ao 1933 aiaea ae oaeaeinue iaea?aeaoue e?oiioth iiaaaeo
e ninoaaeoue i?aaeoaeuenoai.

?aaeoeeiiiue eo?n i?aauo ia?oee. eo ioe?iaaiiue ioeac io
caaiaaaiee ?aaiethoeee aucaae ciaiaieoia ainnoaiea anoo?eeneeo oaooa?ia,
iiaeaea?aeaiiia ainnoaieai a Eaoaeiiee e anaiauae caaanoiaeie a
Iaae?eaea, Naaeeuea e ae?oaeo ai?iaeao. N iiiiuueth ia?ieeaineeo aiene e
eiino?aiiiai eaaeiia i?aaeoaeuenoai iiaeaaeei ainnoaiea: 2 oun. oaooa?ia
auei oaeoi e ia iaiaa 30 oun. i?eaiai?aii caeeth/aieth. Aaoiiiiey
Eaoaeiiee auea eeeaeaee?iaaia.

A ia?eiae «/a?iiai aeaooeaoey», eioi?ui auee iacaaiu
iniaaiii i?a/iua 1934-1935 aa., ?aaeoeee oaeaeinue eeeaeaee?iaaoue
iniiaiua nioeeaeueiua aeinoeaeaiey ?aaiethoeee: e?anoueyia naiiyeenue n
caiee, ?aai/ea aieaa ae?oaeo eniuoaee ia naaa iineaaenoaey
eiio??aaiethoeeiiiiai oa??i?a. Eiiia?oey aeieaeia auea oeoe a
iiaeiieuea.

Oai ia iaiaa oi?aeanoai ?aaeoeee auei i?ec?a/iui. Eaaeaeue
iiaue aa oaa oneeeaae e?ecen ?aaeeia, niinianoaiaae iooiaeo aa aueuo
noi?iiieeia. A no?aia iac?aaaea ?aaiethoeeiiiay neooaoeey. Aiciee
Ia?iaeiue o?iio a ninoaaa eiiioienoia, nioeeaeenoia, ?anioaeeeaioeaa,
/eaiia Anaiauaai ?aai/aai nithca e ae?.

Ia auai?ao, i?ienoiaeeaoeo a oaa?aea 1936 aiaea, enoi?ey
i?aiiaeaea i?aaui iio/eoaeueiue o?ie: ia?oee Ia?iaeiiai o?iioa iieo/eee
268 iano a ia?eaiaioa (ec 473).

I?aaeoaeuenoai eaaie i?eaioaoeee, aicieeoaa iinea auai?ia,
aa?ioei no?aio e caaiaaaieyi ?aaiethoeee: auee auiouaiu ec oth?ai
iieeoe/aneea caeeth/aiiua, ainnoaiiaeaia aaoiiiiey Eaoaeiiee, i?eiyou.
caeiiu, oeo/oaaoea iieiaeaiea ?aai/eo, ia/aeinue inouanoaeaiea aa?a?iie
?aoi?iu.

Iiaaaea Ia?iaeiiai o?iioa aeoeaece?iaaea eniaineee oaoeci,
a?oiie?iaaaoeeny a ia?oee «Oaeaiaa» e aie?oa e aa. A na?aaeeia ethey
1936 aiaea a eniaineii Ia?ieei, a aneaae ca oai ai iiiaeo ai?iaeao naiie
Eniaiee ia/aeny aiaiii-oaoenoneee iyoaae, aeaaie eioi?iai noae aaia?ae
O?aiei.

Iyoaaeieee iieo/eee uaae?oth iiiiuue – aiaiiuie iaoa?eaeaie
e ethaeueie – ni noi?iiu Aa?iaiee e Eoaeee. Ia eo noi?iia ieacaeenue
i?aaeoaeuenoaa Aiaeey e O?aioeee.

Ia iiiiuue ?anioaeeeaineie Eniaiee i?eoee ouny/e
caia/aoaeueiuo aieoeia-aeaiie?aoia ec anao no?ai ie?a. Iie nicaeaee
eioa?iaoeeiiaeueioth a?eaaaeo, iie?uaooth naay aa/iie neaaie. Ia noi?iia
?anioaeeeaioeaa iaoiaeeeny, eiia/ii, e niaaoneee ia?iae,

Aa?ie/anee aeeny ia?iae Eniaiee, e iniaaiii eniaineea
eiiioienou. Aanue ie? neaaeee ca enoiaeii yoie ai?ueau, iaeie – ni
no?aoii, ae?oaea – n ainoeuaieai e iaaeaaeaeie.

Aeaa n iieiaeiie aiaea (32 ianyoea) aeeeeanue a?aaeaeaineay
aieia a Eniaiee. Oi, ca /oi aeeenue ?anioaeeeaioeu, iie iuoaeenue
inouanoaeoue oaea a oiaea aieiu: auei i?anooieaii e iaoeeiiaeecaoeee
e?oiiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe, aieaa 300 oun. e?anoueyineeo naiae iieo/eee
aacaiciacaeii iyoue n iieiaeiie iei. aa caiee, auee i?eiyou caeiiu i 48
-/aniaie ?aai/ae iaaeaea, io?aia o?oaea, nioeeaeueiii iaania/aiee. Ia
oieueei Eaoaeiiey, ii e Aaneiiey iieo/eee iaoeeiiaeueioth aaoiiiieth.

A eiioea 1936 aiaea ianooieei oooaeoaiea aiaiiiai iieiaeaiey
Eniaineie ?anioaeeee. A yiaa?a 1939 aiaea iaea Aa?naeiia. A eiioea ia?oa
eniaineee oaoeci oi?aeanoaiaae iiaaaeo.

Nionoy ianeieueei ianyoeaa aaia?ae O?aiei naeaeaeny e a
caeiia e oaeoe/anee aaeeiiee/iui aeeeoaoi?ii Eniaiee.

A oi a?iey eae Aiaeey e O?aioeey i?iaiaeeee iieeoeeo
iaaiaoaoaeuenoaa a eniaineea aeaea, /oi icia/aei iioai?noaiaaiea
oaoecio, Niaaoneee Nithc, ianiio?y ia ana o?oaeiinoe, niaaaeae
?anioaeeeaineoth Eniaieth i?oaeeai, a niaaoneea aeia?iaieueoeu, aeaaiui
ia?acii oaieenou e eao/eee, i?eieiaee iaiin?aaenoaaiiia o/anoea a aiyo n
oaoenoneeie a?ieyie.

Caaiaaaiey ?aaiethoeee auee aiioee?iaaiu. ?aai/aa
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai ioiaiaii, o?oaeiaua aeiaiai?u, i?ionithcu, noa/ee e
i?. cai?auaeenue. E?anoueyia aei eaeiu auee aa?iooue caieth iiiaueoeai e
caieaoeoue (ca ana o?e aiaea) a?aiaeiua ieaoaaee. Ii anae no?aia
nae?ainoaiaae aacoaea?aeiue oa??i?.

Oaeoe/anee o/anoaoy a aieia ia noi?iia aeoea?ianeie Aa?iaiee, iiiiaay ae
?ano?naie e ethaeueie, Eniaiey n/eoaeanue th?eaee/anee «iaeo?aeueiie».
?aaeei O?aiei iaaeieai ia?aaeee aieio, nio?aieaoenue aei iiya?y 1975 a.,
oi anoue, aei nia?oe aeeeoaoi?a.

A 1927 aiaeo iinea eiio??aaiethoeeiiiiai ia?aai?ioa, niaa?oaiiiai
i?aaui e?ueii ia?oee aiieiaeai (ai aeaaa n *ai Eae-oe),
eiio??aaiethoeeiiiue, i?ioaoenoneee ?aaeei onoaiaaeeaaaony a Eeoaa.

Aio i?aaeoanoaoao aieia, ia/aoay, eae oaea aiai?eeinue auoa,
Eaioiie/aneei i?aaeoaeuenoaii i?ioea ieeeoa?enoia Naaa?a (“Naaa?iue
iioiae2). Iaiiiai/eneaiiay iaae iaoeeiiaeueii-?aaiethoeeiiiay a?iey,
aunooieaoay a 1926 aiaeo ec a. Eaioiia ( ia thaa Eeoay ), iieo/eea
oe?i/aeooth iiaeaea?aeeo ?aai/eo e e?anoueyi. Iia auno?i i?aa?aoeeanue a
e?oiioth aiaiioth neeo. Anei?a o ieeeoa?enoia (eeeee aaia?aeia,
iiaeaeeaoeo iaaeaeo niaith no?aio) aue ioaiaaai Oeaio?aeueiue Eeoae, a
caoai e Oaioae, naiue e?oiiue i?iiuoeaiiue ai?iae e ii?o Eeoay.

Aieia i?iaoaeeea ?aaiethoeeiiioth yia?aeth. E?anoueyia yai/iui ii?yaeeii
caoaaouaaee caiee iiiaueeia, ia?aciauaaee nithcu, a?aaoea aeanoue.
Auno?i ?inea eiiia?oey Eeoay (aicieeea a 1921 aiaeo.

Iiaeuai ?aaiethoeeiiiiai aeaeaeaiey iaioaae iaoeeiiaeueioth ao?aeoaceth,
?oeiaiaeeaooth aiieiaeaiii. Iia ia?aoiaeeo a eaaa?ue ?aaeoeee,
niinianoaoy onoaiiaeaieth aeeeoaoo?u eiio??aaiethoeeiiiie /anoe
aiieiaeaia.

Auno?i aeiaiai?eaoenue ni naieie iaaeaaieie
i?ioeaieeaie-ieeeoa?enoaie, eeeea *ai Eae-oe ooaa?aeaeaaony a Iaeeia.
Yoei caeai/eaaeny, ii aiieiaeaiianeie oa?ieiieiaee, «yoai aiaiiie
aeanoe», e ia/eiaeanue oae iacuaaaiay iieeoe/aneay iiaea ia?oee
aiieiaeai iaae ia?iaeii.

Eiinoeoooeey 1931 aiaea cae?aieea oaeoe/anee onoaiiaeaoothny
nenoaio «iiaee» oai, /oi ia?aaeaea anth caeiiiaeaoaeueioth aeanoue a
?oee nuacaea aiieiaeaia, a anth eniieieoaeueioth – i?aaeoaeuenoao,
oi?ie?oaiiio oeaio?aeueiui i?aaiii aeanoe (OeEEii). Aeaaa
i?aaeoaeuenoaa, oi?iaeueii e oaeoe/anee aacioaaonoaaiiue, aue iaaeaeai
ooieoeeyie i?aceaeaioa, i?aiuea?-ieieno?a, eiiiaiaeothueai
aii?oaeaiiuie neeaie, e i?.

Ieeaeeo naiaiae ia nouanoaiaaei, ianoiiai naiioi?aaeaiey – oaeaea.
Iianthaeo ainiiaenoaiaaee “eiienna?u ii oie?ioai?aieth“, auaoea
iaeiia?aiaiii n oai eiiaiaeothueie ianoiuie aiaiiuie neeaie.

Ii naiaio eeanniaiio oa?aeoa?o aeeeoaoo?a aiieiaeaia auea
eiio??aaiethoeeiiiie aeeeoaoo?ie e?oiiuo iiiaueeia e e?oiiie ao?aeoacee

Iaiaoiaeeiinoue “iieeoe/aneie iiaee” iauyniyeanue
iaueiiaaiii “iaiiaeaioiaeaiiinoueth” ia?iaea e aeaiie?aoe/aneiio
eiinoeoooeeiiiiio i?aaeaieth. Iao/eoue yoiio iaycuaaeenue eae ?ac
/aieaeoenou.

Aiieiaeaio ia oaeaeinue ?ani?ino?aieoue naith aeanoue ia
anth oa??eoi?eth Eeoay. A ?acoeueoaoa ?yaea ainnoaiee (iniaaiii
eaioiineiai) a no?aia aicieeatho ?aeiiu ?aaiethoeeiiiie
?aai/a-e?anoueyineie e?aniie aeanoe. Iie neeaathony a aaeeioth
?aai/a-e?anoueyineoth ?anioaeeeo (oioy e nouanoaotho ?ann?aaeioi/aii). A
1931 aiaeo ninoiyeny nuacae ?aai/eo e e?anoueyineeo aeaiooaoia,
i?eiyaoee caeii ia aa?a?iie ?aoi?ia, 8-/aniaii ?aai/ai aeia e i?. Nuacae
eca?ae oeaio?aeueiia niaaoneia i?aaeoaeuenoai e ooaa?aeeea eiinoeoooeeth
Niaaoneie ?anioaeeee.

A 1933 aiaeo Eeoaeneay ?aai/a-e?anoueyineay ?anioaeeea
caieiaea oa??eoi?eth, ia eioi?ie i?iaeeaaei 60 iei. /aeiaae.

Aiieiaeaiianeay a?iey e E?aniay A?iey ?aai/a-e?anoueyineie
?anioaeeee iaoiaeeeenue a ninoiyiee iai?a?uaiie aieiu. Aiaiiua oneeey
aiieiaeaia, iai?aaeaiiua ia eeeaeaeaoeeth “?aeiiia e?aniie aeanoe”,
aeieaia a?aiy auee aaconiaoiuie. Oieueei a 1934, aiaeo aio oaeaeinue
aeiaeoueny oniaoa. E?aniay A?iey e i?aaeoaeuenoai ?aai/a-e?anoueyineie
?anioaeeee aeieaeiu auee inoaaeoue Oeaio?aeueioth ?aaiethoeeiiioth aaco
e yaaeoe?iaaoueny a iaeei ec ?aeiiia i?iaeioeee Oaine (ia naaa?a
Eeoay).

A 1931 aiaeo Eeoae naeaeaeny aea?oaie yiiineie aa?annee.
E ia/aeo aoi?ie ie?iaie aieiu ssiiiey eiio?iee?iaaea aieueooth /anoue
eeoaeneie oa??eoi?ee.

Oaoenoneea ?aaeeiu, eae iie aicieeee e nouanoaiaaee a
ia?eiae iaaeaeo aeaoiy ie?iauie aieiaie, ii ia?aie/eaathony e?oaii
no?ai, eioi?ua caeanue oiiieiathony..

Iu inoaaeyai a noi?iia oaoenoneea e aiaiii-aeeeoaoi?neea
?aaeeiu a Eaoeineie. Aia?eea, oaoenoneee ainoaea?noaaiiue no?ie
Ii?ooaaeee, oaoenoneee iieeoe/aneee ?aaeei a THaeii-Ao?eeaineii nithca
(iuia THaeii-Ao?eeaineay ?anioaeeea) e o. ae.

Oaoeci aue ia eneeth/aieai ec i?aaeea, ia neo/aeiinoueth.

?aciethoeey, i?eiyoay ii aeieeaaeo A. Aeeieo?iaa ia VII
eiia?anna Eiieioa?ia, ii?aaeaeyea oaoeci eae iieeoe/aneoth nenoaio
ioe?uoie oa??i?enoe/aneie aeeeoaoo?u, a onoaiiaeaiee eioi?ie eaieoaeeci
euao naaa nianaiea; eae ioe?uooth, oa??i?enoe/aneoth aeeeoaoo?o iaeaieaa
?aaeoeeiiiuo, iaeaieaa oiaeienoe/aneeo yeaiaioia oeiainiaiai eaieoaea a
oeaeyo inouanoaeaiey eneeth/eoaeueiuo, a?aaeoaeueneeo ia? i?ioea
o?oaeyueony, iiaeaioiaee iaiaaeaiey ia NNN?, iiaeaaeaiey eieiieaeueiiai
inaiaiaeeoaeueiiai aeaeaeaiey( . Ni anai yoei iaeuecy ia niaeaneoueny.

Nienie eeoa?aoo?u:

Ainoaea?noaaiiia i?aai ao?aeoaciuo e ?acaeaathueony no?ai. – I: TH?eae.
Eeo, 1989

Enoi?ey ainoaea?noaa e i?aaa ca?oaaaeiuo no?ai. O/aaiia iiniaea a 2-o
/anoyo. * 2. Ei. 2., – I: “TH?eaee/aneee eieeaaeae IAO”, 1994 a.

*a?ieeianeee C.I. Anaiauay enoi?ey ainoaea?noaa e i?aaa, – I: “TH?enou”,
1995

( Aeieo?ia A. I. Aeieeaae ia VII Anaie?iii eiia?anna Eiiioienoe/aneiai
Eioa?iaoeeiiaea. Iieeoe/aneee io/ao OeE A?I (E) V nuacaeo ia?oee. I,
1958, n.8.

( Iiae iieeoe/aneei ?aaeeiii iiieiatho iaueiiaaiii “niaieoiiinoue
i?eaiia e iaoiaeia, i?e iiiiue eioi?uo ainiiaenoaothuee eeann
inouanoaeyao naith aeeeoaoo?u”. I?e ecaanoiuo oneiaeyo iieeoe/aneee
?aaeei iiaeao ninoaaeyoue niaa?oaiioth i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue oi?iaeueiiio
niaea?aeaieth eiinoeoooeee, ii?aaeaeythuae ainoaea?noaaiiue no?ie.

( ?aciethoeey VII Anaie?iiai nuacaea Eiieioa?ia. – I:,1935. – n. 9-32.

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