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Теория самоорганизации

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IEIENOA?NOAI IAUAAI E I?IOANNEIIAEUeIIAI

IA?ACIAAIEss ?INNEENEIE OAAeA?AOeEE

IEAEAAI?IAeNEEE AINOAeA?NOAAIIUE OIEAA?NEOAO

ei. I. E. EIAA*AANEIAI

_____________________________________________________

Oaeoeueoao nioeeaeueiuo iaoe

?aoa?ao ii oeeinioee:

« OAI?Ess NAIII?AAIECAOeEE

A ?AAIOAO I.I. IIENAAAA»

Eniieieoaeue: anie?aio

oeie/aneiai oaeoeueoaoa IIAO

A?iiiei Na?aae Aeaenaiae?iae/

Ieaeiee Iiaai?iae, 1999

NIAeA?AEAIEA

TOC \o “1-3” AAAAeAIEA GOTOBUTTON _Toc450118307 PAGEREF
_Toc450118307 3

INIIAIUA IIEIAEAIEss OAI?EE NAIII?AAIECAOeEE. GOTOBUTTON _Toc450118308
PAGEREF _Toc450118308 4

OAIIIAIU AEECIE E ?ACOIA N OI*EE C?AIEss OIEAA?NAEUeIIAI
YAIETHOeEIIECIA. GOTOBUTTON _Toc450118309 PAGEREF _Toc450118309 9

NIA?AIAIIAss AeAssOAEUeIINOUe *AEIAAEA IA CAIEA. I?IAEAIU E IA?NIAEOEAU.
GOTOBUTTON _Toc450118310 PAGEREF _Toc450118310 15

CAEETH*AIEA GOTOBUTTON _Toc450118311 PAGEREF _Toc450118311 20

NIENIE EEOA?AOO?U 20

AAAAeAIEA

Ieeeoa Ieeieaaae/ Iienaaa – aeaenoaeoaeueiue /eai ?AI, i?ioanni?,
i?aceaeaio Iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai iacaaeneiiai yeieiai-iieeoieiae/aneiai
oieaa?neoaoa, i?aceaeaio ?inneeneiai Iaoeeiiaeueiiai eiieoaoa
niaeaenoaey i?ia?aiia III ii io?aia ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu, i?aceaeaio
iaoeeiiaeueiie i?aaiecaoeee Iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai cae?iiai e?anoa a ?innee.
Ecaanoai ii i?aaeaea anaai eae iaoaiaoee, ?ac?aaio/ee iaoaiaoe/aneeo
iiaeaeae iiaaaeaiey iae?inenoai, a oii /enea e aeinoa?u. A 80-a aiaeu
oe?ieoth ecaanoiinoue iieo/eee ?an/?ou iineaaenoaee yaea?iie aieiu,
niaaoi?ii eioi?uo ii yaeyeny. A ?acoeueoaoa yoie ?aaiou o iaai
noi?ie?iaaeanue nenoaia acaeyaeia ia yaiethoeeiiiua i?ioeannu,
iieo/eaoay iacaaiea “oieaa?naeueiue yaiethoeeiieci” (oai?ey
naiii?aaiecaoeee). Aeooaeueiinoue yoie ?aaiou a oii, /oi yoe acaeyaeu
eiatho iaiin?aaenoaaiiia ioiioaiea e nia?aiaiiui yiaae?iiaioaeueiui
i?iaeaiai e i?iaeaia auaeeaaiey /aeiaa/anoaa, a nenoaiiue
?aoeeiiaeenoe/aneee iiaeoiae iicaieyao auyaeoue iiiaeanoai aniaeoia
aeaiiuo, ianiiiaiii aaaeiuo, aii?inia.

INIIAIUA IIEIAEAIEss OAI?EE NAIII?AAIECAOeEE.

Iao ie?, an?, /oi aeinooiii a i?i iaaethaeaieth. i?aoa?iaaatho
iai?a?uaiua eciaiaiey – iu iaaethaeaai aai iai?ae?auathuothny
yaiethoeeth. Ana iiaeiaiua eciaiaiey i?ienoiaeyo ca n/?o nee aioo?aiiaai
acaeiiaeaenoaey, ai anyeii neo/aa, ieeaeeo aiaoieo ii ioiioaieth e iaio
nee iu ia iaaethaeaai. Niaeanii i?eioeeio Ai?a, nouanoaothuei iu eiaai
i?aai n/eoaoue eeoue oi, /oi iaaethaeaaii eee iiaeao auoue naeaeaii
oaeiaui. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, iiaeiaiuo nee ia nouanoaoao. O.i., an?, /oi
i?ienoiaeeo aie?oa ian, iu iiaeai n/eoaoue i?ioeannii naiii?aaiecaoeee,
o.a. i?ioeannii, eaeouei ca n/?o aioo?aiieo noeioeia, ia o?aaothueo
aiaoaoaeuenoaa aiaoieo oaeoi?ia, ia i?eiaaeeaaeaueo nenoaia. E /eneo
oaeeo i?ioeannia ioiineony oaeaea e noaiiaeaiea e aeaenoaea ?acoia, eai
ii ?iaeeeny a nenoaia a ?acoeueoaoa a? yaiethoeee.

Eoae, aanue i?ioeann yaiethoeee nenoaiu – i?ioeann naiii?aaiecaoeee. Ie?
an? a?aiy iaiyaony. Iu ia iiaeai ooaa?aeaeaoue, /oi i?ioeann
naiii?aaiecaoeee iai?aaeai ia aeinoeaeaiea ninoiyiey ?aaiiaaney ( iiae
eioi?ui iiieiaaony aaniethoiue oain), o ian iao aeey yoiai iiuoiuo
iniiaaiee, ai?acaei aieueoa aeaiiuo aeey ooaa?aeaeaiey ia?aoiiai – ie?
iai?a?uaii ?acaeaaaony, e a yoii eciaiaiee i?iniao?eaaaony ii?aaeae?iiay
iai?aaeaiiinoue, ioee/iay io no?aieaiey e ?aaiiaaneth.

Aeey iienaiey iniia i?ioeanna naiii?aaiecaoeee oaeiaii (oioy e caaaaeiii
iaaeinoaoi/ii) eniieueciaaoue oa?ieiieiaeth aea?aeiianeie o?eaaeu:
ianeaaenoaaiiinoue, eciai/eainoue, ioai?, i?eaeaa yoei iiiyoeyi aieaa
oe?ieee niune.

Eciai/eainoue a yoii aieaa oe?ieii niunea – yoi aa/ii i?enoonoaothuea
oaeoi?u neo/aeiinoe e iaii?aaeae?iiinoe. Aac i?aaeiieiaeaiey i
iai?a?uaii aeaenoaothueo neo/aeiuo oaeoi?ao, iinoiyiiay yaiethoeey
nenoaiu, nii?iaiaeaeathuayny iiyaeaieai iiauo ea/anoaaiiuo iniaaiiinoae,
ii-aeaeeiiio, iaaiciiaeia.

*oi eanaaony oa?ieia “ianeaaenoaaiiinoue”, oi ii icia/aao eeoue oi, /oi
ianoiyuaa e aoaeouaa ethaie nenoaiu a ie?a caaeneo io aai i?ioeiai.
Noaiaiue caaeneiinoe oie eee eiie nenoaiu io i?ioeiai iiaeao auoue
ethaie. Yoo noaiaiue caaeneiinoe oneiaeiny iacuaaoue iaiyoueth nenoaiu.
Ai aiieia aeaoa?ieie?iaaiiuo nenoaiao i?ioeia iaeiicia/ii ii?aaeaeyao
aoaeouaa ( aiciiaeii e ia?aoiia – ii ianoiyuaio ii?aaeaeeoue
i?ioeia).Oaeea nenoaiu – nenoaiu n aaneiia/iie iaiyoueth (aaniethoiie
ianeaaenoaaiiinoueth).Yoi aano?aeoeey, ii iia oi?ioi eioa?i?aoe?oao
iaeioi?ua i?ioeannu a iaaeeaii ie?a – iai?eia?, oi aeaeaeaiea ieaiao,
eioi?ia iu iaaethaeaai ( eiia/ii, eeoue ia iaeioi?ii , eiia/iii, i?aaaea
i/aiue aieueoii, eioa?aaea a?aiaie.

“Iaiyoue nenoaiu” a ?aaeueiuo nenoaiao a oii niunea, eae iu a?
ii?aaeaeeee, /aua anaai ieacuaaaony ia?aie/aiiie: e aaneiia/iay iaiyoue
e a? ionoonoaea – eeoue aano?aeoeee, eioi?ua oaeiaiu aeey
eioa?i?aoaoeee. I?eia?ii nenoaiu, eeo?iiie iaiyoe, yaeyaony ?acaeoia
oo?aoeaioiia aeaeaeaiea.

Iiiyoea “i?eioeeiia ioai?a” yaeyaony naiui o?oaeiui n?aaee iiiyoee
aea?aeiianeie o?eaaeu. I?ioeannu naiii?aaiecaoeee neaaeotho
ii?aaeae?iiui i?aaeeai, caeiiai. Yoi ooaa?aeaeaiea – iaeia yiie?e/aneia
iaiauaiea, aii?in i i?ienoiaeaeaiee yoeo i?aaee eaaeeo aia
?aoeeiiaeecia, eae e aii?in i ?iaeaeaiee Anaeaiiie.

E /eneo oaeeo caeiiia ioiinyony i?aaeaea anaai caeiiu nio?aiaiey e 2-a
ia/aei oa?iiaeeiaieee (aea e ae?oaea caeiiu oiaea). O.i., n?aaee iuneeii
aeiionoeiuo i?ioeannia a iaaeeaie i?e?iaea nouanoaotho (iaaethaeaaiu,
eee aeinooiiu iaaethaeaieth) eeoue ii?aaeae?iiua eeannu aeaeaeaiee,
iiae/eiythueany ii?aaeae?iiui i?aaeeai. Iiaeiaiua aea i?aaeea
nouanoaotho a i?e?iaea e iauanoaa. Aio yoe i?aaeea e iacuaatho
i?eioeeiaie ioai?a. Eiuie neiaaie, i?eioeeiu ioai?a – yoi oa aea naiua
caeiiu oeceee, oeiee, aeieiaee, caeiiu iauanoaaiiiai ?acaeoey, eioi?ua
ec iuneeii aeiionoeiuo aeaeaeaiee “ioae?atho” oa, eioi?ua iu e
iaaethaeaai.

Eoae, Anaeaiiay – iai?a?uaii yaiethoeeiie?othuee iauaeo ( eae e ethaua
aai ninoaaeythuea). Ii aioo?aiiea noeioeu e aiciiaeiinoe ?acaeoey
Anaeaiiie, ii?aaeaeythuea i?ioeannu naiii?aaiecaoeee, ia?aie/aiu
?aaeueiuie ?aieaie, aa?aaaie aeiionoeiuo yaiethoeeiiiuo eaiaeia.

sscue aea?aeiianeie o?eaaeu i?e oaeii ?anoe?aiee niunea /?acau/aeii
oieaa?naeai. N aai iiiiuueth iiaeii iienaoue oe?ieee e?oa yaeaiee,
iienaoue ea/anoaaiiue oa?aeoa? i?ienoiaeyuaai. Ii e aai aiciiaeiinoe
ia?aie/aiu, aai iaiaoiaeeii ?anoe?youe, iaiieiyoue iiauie iiiyoeyie.

A ia?aoth i/a?aaeue oeaeaniia?acii aaanoe iiiyoea iaoaieciia, o.a.
niaieoiiinoe i?aaee e eioa?i?aoaoeee, iienuaathueo oa?aeoa? i?ioaeaiey
i?ioeannia eee eo eeannia , auaeaeyy a ea/anoaa naiinoiyoaeueiuo iiiyoee
oa eee eiua yaeaiey, eioi?ua aoaeai ioiineoue e iniiaai ycuea. Yoe
eioa?i?aoaoeee, iie?aynue ia oa eee eiua iiiyoey o?eaaeu, ia caiaiytho
eo, ii iaiaauatho ia?aiia/aeueiue niune e, eae neaaenoaea, neiaa?iue
caian ycuea.

?anniio?ei i?eia? Eaiia?aei Yeea?a ( eiiaoe XVIII a.). ?anniio?ei
eieiiio, iaoiaeyuothny iiae iaa?oceie. Anee yoa iaa?ocea ia i/aiue
aaeeea, oi o eieiiiu nouanoaoao aaeeinoaaiiia iieiaeaiey ?aaiiaaney –
aa?oeeaeueiia. I?e yoii iaeia eciaiaiea aiaoieo aicaeaenoaee ia eciaieo
aeaiiiai iieiaeaiey ?aaiiaaney. Ionoue eieiiia iaoiaeeony iiae
aeaenoaeai neo/aeiuo ii?uaia aao?a, oiaaea iia a neeo naienoa oi?oainoe
aoaeao eieaaaoueny ieiei naiaai aa?oeeaeueiiai iieiaeaiey.

Anee oaaee/eaaoue iaa?oceo, oi aiieeooaea e /anoioa eieaaaiee aoaeoo
iaiyoueny, ii eo oa?aeoa? aoaeao oai aea – eieaaaiey ieiei oiai aea
iieiaeaiey ?aaiiaaney. Iaeiaei yoi i?iaeeeony eeoue aei oao ii?. iiea
iaa?ocea ia aeinoeaiao iaeiaai e?eoe/aneiai cia/aiey. Iinea yoiai
aa?oeeaeueiia iieiaeaiea ?aaiiaaney iioa?yao onoie/eainoue (i?e/?i
iaiiaaiii). Aianoi iaai iiyaeony iiiaeanoai iiauo iieiaeaiee ?aaiiaaney.
Eo niaieoiiinoue i?aaenoaaeyao niaie iiaa?oiinoue, ia?aciaaiioth
a?auaieai iieoaieiu neionieaeu. Anee ii?uau aao?a nio?aiythony, oi
eieiiia aoaeao i?iaeieaeaoue eieaaaoueny ieiei iiaiai iieiaeaiey
?aaiiaaney, ii ieiei eaeiai – i?aaeneacaoue iaaiciiaeii, i?e/?i
iaaiciiaeii a i?eioeeia, o.e. yoi aoaeao caaenaoue io neo/aeiiai ii?uaa
aao?a a iiiaio iioa?e onoie/eainoe. Iienaiiia yaeaiea, ioe?uoia E.
Yeea?ii, iineo iacaaiea aeoo?eaoeee (oa?iei aa?e A. Ioaiea?a), a iiiaio
iioa?e onoie/eainoe – iiiaioii aeoo?eaoeee.

O.i., i?e iaeuo aa?oeeaeueiuo iaa?oceao eieiiia iaeaaeaao aaneiia/iie
iaiyoueth – oeene?oy a? iieiaeaiey a aeaiiue iiiaio a?aiaie, iu iiaeai
ainnoaiiaeoue ana a? i?aaeuaeouea ninoiyiey (ciay, eiia/ii, iiaaaeaiea
aao?a). a iiiaio aeoo?eaoeee nenoaia iieiinoueth “oa?yao iaiyoue”.
Aoaeouaa caaeneo oieueei io eciai/eainoe aao?iaie iaa?ocee. Ae?oaie
i?eia? – iu aue?i iieioeii ii eaiith. Io eaaeaeiai oaea?a oio
aeaoi?ie?oaony, e iu iiaeai i?aaeneacaoue oa?aeoa? eaaeaeie
aeaoi?iaoeee, ii iu ia iiaeai neacaoue, ia neieueei e eaeeo ineieeia
?aceaoeony eaiaiue, eiaaea iu aai ?aciaue?i.

ssaeaiea aeoo?eaoeee oeie/ii aeey aieueoeinoaa i?ioeannia,
?acaeaathueony ai a?aiaie. Iiiaio aeoo?eaoeee – iaeay aano?aeoeey, eae e
iieiay iioa?y iaiyoe. Aeoo?eaoeey – oiaea i?ioeann, i?ioyae?iiue ai
a?aiaie, ii aeeyueeny aanueia iaeue aai eioa?aae, a oa/aiea eioi?iai
i?ienoiaeeo ea/anoaaiiay ia?ano?ieea naienoa nenoaiu, e ii?aaeaeythuaa
cia/aiea a oa?aeoa?a aeaeueiaeoaai ?acaeoey eiatho neo/aeiua oaeoi?u. A
yoeo oneiaeyo iaiyoue nenoaiu ?acei oiaiueoaaony. I?ioeannu aeoo?eaoeee
iu iaaethaeaai e a ?acaeoee aeeaiai aauanoaa e a iauanoaaiiie aeecie.
?aaiethoeeiiiua i?ioeannu – oeie/iua i?ioeannu aeoo?eaoeee – ie a iaeiie
?aaiethoeee ieeiio ia oaeaaaeinue i?aaeneacaoue oa?aeoa?a
iino?aaiethoeeiiiiai ?acaeoey.

Neacaiiia auoa iicaieyao aeaoue neaaeothuoth, aeinoaoi/ii
oieaa?naeueioth noaio yaiethoeeiiiiai i?ioeanna. Ia ia/aeueiii yoaia
yaiethoeee i?ienoiaeeo iaaeeaiiia ?acaeoea naienoa nenoaiu. Yoio
i?ioeann aieaa eee iaiaa i?aaeneacoai. A eaeie–oi iiiaio eee aiaoiaa
aicaeaenoaea aeinoeaaao e?eoe/aneiai cia/aiey, eee i?ienoiaeeo
eoioeyoeey aioo?aiieo nee (eee oi e ae?oaia aianoa). I?e yoii ia?aiao?u
nenoaiu ia/eiatho auno?i eciaiyony, ?aiaa noaaeeueiia ninoiyiea ?acei
nieaeaao o?iaaiue noaaeeueiinoe, e aicieeaao aiciiaeiinoue ?aciuo iooae
?acaeoey. A yoie neooaoeee aeaaea iacia/eoaeueiia aicaeaenoaea iiaeao
ia?aaanoe yaiethoeeiiiue i?ioeann ia iiaua ?aeuenu, ?acaeoea iioii
iieae?o ii nianai ae?oaie eeiee. Ianooieo iiaue “niieieiue o/anoie”,
eioi?ue a eaeie- oi iiiaio iiyoue iiaeao niaieoueny iiaui i?ioeannii
aeoo?eaoeee.

Aeoo?eaoeeiiiue iaoaieci ea?aao aaaeiaeooth ?ieue a iauae yaiethoeeiiiie
noaia. Eiaiii ii yaeyaony enoi/ieeii ?inoa ?aciiia?acey ?acee/iuo oi?i
i?aaiecaoeee iaoa?ee, a neaaeiaaoaeueii, e iai?a?uaii aic?anoathuae
neiaeiinoe a? i?aaiecaoeee. E?iia oiai ec-ca aa?iyoiinoiiai oa?aeoa?a
aeoo?eaoeeiiiiai i?ioeanna, yaiethoeey ia iiaeao eiaoue ia?aoiiai oiaea,
oi/iaa, aa?iyoiinoue ia?aoiiai oiaea yaiethoeee no?aieony e ioeth, a yoi
eiaao ioiioaiea e ae?oaiio ooiaeaiaioaeueiiio oaeoo – ionoonoaea
ia?aoeiinoe ia oieueei yaiethoeee, ii e a?aiaie. A yoii i?iyaeyaony
iauay iai?aaeaiiinoue iauaai yaiethoeeiiiiai i?ioeanna.

Eoae, iu ia?eniaaee iaeioi?oth, aeinoaoi/ii iauoth noaio i?ioeannia
naiii?aaiecaoeee, a iaueo /a?oao ni?aaaaeeeaoth eae aeey iaaeeaie
iaoa?ee, oae aeey aeeaiai aauanoaa e iauanoaa. Ianiio?y ia iauiinoue,
yoa noaia iicaieeea auyaeoue oaeoth iniaaiiinoue yaiethoeeiiiuo
i?ioeannia, eae eo iai?aaeaiiinoue. A naiae ianna iie eaeoo a noi?iio
oneiaeiaiey i?aaiecaoeee Anaeaiiie e ?inoa ?aciiia?acey i?aaiecaoeeiiiuo
oi?i. Aea?aei ienae, /oi yoi eiaao ianoi aeey aeeaiai ie?a. Eae iu
aeaeei, yoi ni?aaaaeeeai aeey ethauo i?ioeannia naiii?aaiecaoeee, a oii
/enea e aeey Anaeaiiie a oeaeii.

A i?ioeanna naiii?aaiecaoeee i?ienoiaeeo iai?a?uaiia ?ac?ooaiea noa?uo e
aicieeiiaaiea iiauo no?oeoo?, iiauo oi?i i?aaiecaoeee iaoa?ee,
iaeaaeathueo iiauie naienoaaie. I?e/?i yoi ea/anoaaiii ia oa aea naiua
ia?aciaaiey, ioee/athueany oieueei aaiiao?e/aneeie ?acia?aie, oi?iie eee
ae?oaeie oece/aneeie iniaaiiinoyie. Ai Anaeaiiie aicieeatho oieeaeueiua
ia?aciaaiey, iai?a?uaii aicieeatho iiaua ia?ano?ieee (aeoo?eaoeee), a
?acoeueoaoa eioi?uo ?iaeaeathony ea/anoaaiii iiaua no?oeoo?u, ia eiaaoea
aei neo ii? aiaeiaia. Iie iaeaaeath iiauie iaiiaoi?eiuie naienoaaie. A
eae yoe naienoaa naycaiu ni naienoaaie enoiaeiuo yeaiaioia, ec eioi?uo
ninoaaeaiu nenoaiu? Yoi i/aiue aeoaieee aii?in, eioi?ue eiaao eae
oeeinioneia, oae e i?aeoe/aneia cia/aiea.

I?ioeannu iauaaeeiaiey yeaiaioia eaeoo iai?a?uaii e ia anao o?iaiyo
i?aaiecaoeee iaoa?eaeueiiai ie?a – a iaaeeaie e aeeaie i?e?iaea, e a
iauanoaa. Yoio i?ioeann oieaa?naeai – oaiaeaioeey e eiiia?aoeaiinoe
i?iiecuaaao ana yoaaee ie?icaeaiey. Iiyoiio eiaao i?aai ia nouanoaiaaiea
aeiioaca i oii, /oi i?ioeann aicieeiiaaiey iiauo oi?i i?aaiecaoeee
iaoa?ee ii?aaeaeyaony noieue aea ooiaeaiaioaeueiuie caeiiaie, eae e
caeiiu nio?aiaiey, e eioi?ua a iauai neo/aa ia naiaeyony e aiaeeco
i?inouo acaeiiaeaenoaee, nouanoaothueo n?aaee yeaiaioia ?iaeaeathuaeny
nenoaiu. Iaoaieciu, eioi?ua ii?aaeaeythony yoeie caeiiaie, iacia?i
“iaoaieciaie nai?ee”.

A ?acoeueoaoa aeaenoaey iaoaieciia nai?ee aicieeatho iiaua ia?aciaaiey,
iaeaaeathuea iiauie naienoaaie. A iaeioi?uo neo/ayo yoe naienoaa iiaeii
i?aaeoaaaeaoue, iie?aynue ia naienoaa yeaiaioia yoeo nenoai e, eiiaaea,
iaeioi?ua ae?oaea niia?aaeaiey, iai?eia?, o.i. i?eioeei ieieioia
aeenneiaoeee yia?aee. Iaeiaei oae auaaao aeaeaei ia anaaaea.

I?inoaeoee i?eia? yoiio – aiaea. Iia iaeaaeaao aiiiaeueiie
caaeneiinoueth ieioiinoe io oaiia?aoo?u, e yoi naienoai iu ia iiaeai
auaanoe ec naienoa aoiiia (eee iieaeoey?iuo naienoa) aiaei?iaea e
eenei?iaea, eioi?ua aieaa eee iaiaa ecaanoiu. Oaeei i?eia?ai iao /enea,
iniaaiii eiaaea iu ia?aoiaeei a noa?o aeeaiai aauanoaa e iauanoaaiiuo
ioiioaiee. Oaiiiai aeecie, aeaeeii, iaaiciiaeii naanoe e
oeceei-oeie/aneiio acaeiiaeaenoaeth ninoaaeythueo yeaiaioia aeeaiai
i?aaiecia. Naienoaa ?acoia, aa?iyoiaa anaai, ianaiaeeiu e naienoaai
iae?iiia, ec eioi?uo ninoieo iica. Iauynieoue iiaaaeaiea oieiu
naienoaaie aoiaeyueo a ia? ethaeae – oiaea i?aeoe/anee iaaiciiaeii.

OAIIIAIU AEECIE E ?ACOIA N OI*EE C?AIEss OIEAA?NAEUeIIAI
YAIETHOeEIIECIA.

A i?aaeuaeouae /anoe eceiaeaiu enoiaeiua iieiaeaiey iaoiaeieiaee,
eioi?ay iiaeao i?enoonoaiaaoue a iniiaa aiaeeca ieaiaoa?iuo i?ioeannia;
iineieueeo naia Caiey e ana, /oi ia iae i?ienoiaeeei a/a?a e aoaeao
i?ienoiaeeoue caao?a nooue /anoiua i?iyaeaiey aaeeiiai, iauaai i?ioeanna
naii?acaeoey (naiii?aaiecaoeee) iaoa?ee, iiae/eiythuaeny aaeeiie nenoaia
i?aaee, aeaenoaothueo ai Anaeaiiie. Oa/aiea yoiai i?ioeanna ia?aie/aii
caeiiaie. A?aiy eo iiaiee yoeo caeiiia eaaeeo ca i?aaeaeaie iaoeo
ciaiee, /oi canoaaeyao n/eoaoue yoe caeiiu iaecaanoiuie.

Ana ?acaeoea iaoaai ie?a auaeyaeeo nieioiui ia?aieaoaieai ?acee/iuo
i?ioeaiiieiaeiuo ia/ae e i?ioeai?a/eauo oaiaeaioeee ia oiia iai?a?uaiiai
aeaenoaey neo/aeiuo i?e/ei, ?ac?ooathueo noaaeeueiua no?oeoo?u e
nicaeathueo i?aaeiinueee aeey iiyaeaiey iiauo. (A aeeaeaeoeea aeey
iienaiey iiaeiaiuo i?ioeannia i?eiyou oa?ieiu “ai?ueaa” e
“i?ioeai?a/ea”. Iienaaa ioeacuaaaony io eo oiio?aaeaiey, iineieueeo iie,
a oie eee eiie noaiaie, naycaiu n iiiyoeai oeaeaiieaaaiey, eiathuai
niune ieue aeey aeeaiai aauanoaa. Naiii?aaiecaoeey eae anoanoaaiiue
oaiiiai, ia ciaao ie ai?ueau, ie i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoae- i?ienoiaeeo oi,
/oi i?ienoiaeeo. Yoe iiiyoey aiineo oaea enneaaeiaaoaeue i?e iiiuoea
iienaoue ?aaeueiinoue, yoi aai noauaeoeaiay eioa?i?aoaoeey, a
aeeaeaeoeea- ycue, i?eniiniaeaiiue aeey iienaiey iuneeoaeueiie
aeayoaeueiinoe. I?e eioa?i?aoaoeee i?ienoiaeyuaai a i?e?iaea iiaeii
iaieoenue aac iaai- niaeanii i?eioeeio “Ieeaia”)

Ianiio?y ia ia?iiiua aeinoeaeaiey iaoee, iia ia niiniaia iiaeiyoue
caaano iaae aaaeiaeoae caiiie oaeiie- oaeiie aeecie. I?iaeaia iiyaeaiea
aeecie ia iaoae ieaiaoa inoaaony aei neo ii? oaeaeii aeiioac, ia
iiaeoaa?aeaeaiiuo aeinoaoi/iui yiie?e/aneei iaoa?eaeii. Iu ciaai eeoue,
/oi ieiei 4 ie?ae. eao iacaae ia Caiea iiyaeeanue ea/anoaaiia iiaay
oi?ia i?aaiecaoeee iaoa?ee, eioi?ay iaeaaeaao oaeeaeoaeueiie
niiniaiinoueth onaaeaaoue aiaoithth yia?aeth, i?aaeaea anaai yia?aeth
Nieioea.

I iiyaeaiee aeecie aeoiaei iiiai o/aiuo. N. A??aieon a eiioea XIX a.
i?aaeeiaeee aeiioaco iainia?iee- /oi aeeciue caianaia “ec einiina”. Ii
yoa aeiioaca ia ?aoaao i?iaeaiu- ioeoaea iia acyeanue “a einiina”.

Nouanoaoao ianeieueei aeueoa?iaoeaiuo oi/ae c?aiey.

E?aaoeeiieci- i?aaeiieiaeaiea i nouanoaiaaiee “aeoa oai?aiey”.

AEeciue iacaaeneia io Anaeaiiie, iia noieue aea ecaa/ia e ecia/aeueia.

O. c?aiey oieaa?naeueiiai yaiethoeeiiecia: aeeciue -?acoeueoao
yaiethoeee oieaa?noia e aicieeea eae anoanoaaiiue yoai aai oneiaeiaiey.

Ie iaeia ec yoeo oai?ee ia iiaeoaa?aeaeaia yenia?eiaioaeueiuie
?acoeueoaoaie, auai? iaeiie ec ieo iineo noauaeoeaiue oa?aeoa?. Anee
i?eiyoue 3 aeiioaco, oi aicieeiiaaiea aeinoa?u Caiee – yoi I
ooiaeaiaioaeueiay aeoo?eaoeey a enoi?ee iaoae ieaiaou.

A /oi oaeia aeeciue?

Anoue iiiaeanoai naiuo ?aciiia?aciuo ii?aaeaeaiee (aeeth/ay e
ii?aaeaeaiea Yiaaeuena, /oi aeeciue anoue oi?ia nouanoaiaaiey aaeeiauo
oae. Ia iie acaeyae yoi oi aea naiia, /oi iacaaoue oaeooi aeaeaeaieai
aicaeooa). Oae eee eia/a, aeeciue iau/ii naycuaatho n
eneeth/eoaeueiinoueth ni/aoaiey neaaeothueo iniaaiiinoae : 1)
iaoaaieeci, o.a. niiniaiinoue iiaeiuaoue e iaiaieaaoueny aiaoiae
yia?aeae e iannie; 2) ?aaeoieeeaoeey, o. a. Niiniaiinoue i?aaiecia eee
nenoaiu i?aaieciia e 3) no?aieaiea e nio?aiaieth nianoaaiiie
oeaeinoiinoe. I?aaeiieaaaeinue, /oi iaee/ea yoeo o??o i?eciaeia
iaiaoiaeeii e aeinoaoi/ii aeey eaeaioeoeeaoeee aeeaiai.

Ii iinea ?aaio I. Yeaaia, a eioi?uo auei iieacaii, /oi oaeie, yaii
iaaeeaie iauaeo, eae aeieiae/aneea iae?iiieaeoeu, iaeaaeaao
niiniaiinoueth e iaoaaieecio e ?aaeoieeeaoeee, noaei ynii, /oi
iineaaeiea ia yaeythony i?a?iaaoeaie oieueei aeeaiai aauanoaa e eo
iaaeinoaoi/ii aeey aai eaeaioeoeeaoeee. Iicaea iiaeiaiua ?acoeueoaou
auee iieo/aiu e aeey iineaaeiaai ec o??o i?eciaeia.

Eoae, iu ia a ninoiyiee ioaaoeoue ia aii?in, /oi anoue aeeciue, a ciaai
eeoue iaeioi?ua naienoaa aauanoaa, eioi?ua iaiaoiaeeii aeieaeiu
nii?iaiaeaeaoue aai aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoue. Anoue e ae?oaea iaiaoiaeeiua
i?eciaee aeeaiai aauanoaa- iai?eia?, niiniaiinoue iiey?eciaaoue naao
(caeii Ianoa?a -Eth?e), ii oaeei aea naienoaii iaeaaeatho iaeioi?ua
e?enoaeeu, aeaaea iai?aaie/aneeo niaaeeiaiee.

Aicieeiiaaiea aeecie – yoi a?aiaeeiciaeoay aeoo?eaoeey a i?ioeanna
yaiethoeee Caiee. Eae e anyeay ?aaeueiay aeoo?eaoeey, ?aaeueiay
ia?ano?ieea no?oeoo?u i?ioeanna i?ienoiaeeo ia iaiiaaiii, a i?ioyae?iii
ai a?aiaie. Yoi oiaea aeeiaie/aneee i?ioeann, ii eaeouee iaecia?eii
auno?aa i?aaeaeoo?eaoeeiiiuo e /?oei ioee/eoue i?aaeaeoo?eaoeeiiiia
ninoiyiea io iinoaeoo?eaoeeiiiiai iaeuecy a i?eioeeia. Iioiio, i?eiya
i?aaeiieiaeaiea i oii, /oi oaiiiai aeecie anoue ?acoeueoao ie?iaiai
yaiethoeeiiiiai i?ioeanna, iu iaycaiu i?aaeiieiaeeoue, /oi /?oeie
a?aieoeu, ioaeaeythuae aeeaia io ie?a “einiie iaoa?ee” iao. Ia?aoiaeiua
oi?iu, eae e ai anyeii aeoo?eaoeeiiiii i?ioeanna, e?aeia iaonoie/eau –
iie i?inoi en/acee. Eeoue ioieaey io yoie aiia?aaeaaiie a?aieoeu, iu
iiaeai onoaiiaeoue iiyaeaiea aeecie.

Anee ia?aie ooiaeaiaioaeueiie aeoo?eaoeeae i?ioeanna yaiethoeee iaoae
ieaiaou iu iacaaee iiyaeaiea aeecie, oi aoi?ie anoanoaaiii iacaaoue
iiyaeaiea ?acoia. Aoi?ay aeoo?eaoeey iaiin?aaenoaaiii naycaia n naiie
aaaeiie iniaaiiinoueth yaiethoeee aeeaiai aauanoaa, i?iyaeythuaeny a
eiioaenoa iai?a?uaiiai oneiaeiaiey aai i?aaiecaoeee ?acaeoeai e
oneiaeiaieai ia?aiie nenoaiu. Iii e i?eaaei. A eiioea eiioeia, e
iiyaeaieth oeaio?aeueiie ia?aiie nenoaiu, iicaa, a iicaeiaa e
eioaeeaeoa.

Iiyaeaiea eioaeeaeoa eae aunoae iiciaaaoaeueiie niiniaiinoe aeeaiai
nouanoaa – yoi ia i?inoi au? iaeei aaaeiaeoee yoai a enoi?ee ?acaeoey
ia?aiie nenoaiu, iiaeiaiue iiyaeaieth OeIN, oi?aaeyaiie iicaii. Yoi auei
ia/aeii ia?aoiaea e iiaiio ia?eiaeo a aaeeiii ie?iaii i?ioeanna
naii?acaeoey iaoa?eaeueiiai ie?a, ia?eiaea, a eioi?ii iaoa?ey ia?aoaao
niiniaiinoue iiciaaaoue naio naay, a neaaeiaaoaeueii, i?aaeaeaeaoue
iaeioi?ua iineaaenoaey aeoeaiinoe iicaa. Iiyaeyaony i?eioeeieaeueiay
aiciiaeiinoue eciaiaiey iiiaeo /a?o ie?iaiai yaiethoeeiiiiai i?ioeanna,
o.a. auai?a iooe ?acaeoey. N yoei naycaii ia?aoaiea yaiethoeeiiiui
i?ioeannii iiauo noeioeia e aiciiaeiinoae aeey iai?aaeyaiiai ?acaeoey. A
oneiaeyo Caiee yoa aiciiaeiinoue aicieeaao aianoa n niaa?oainoaiaaieai
/aeiaaea, aai iauanoaaiiie i?aaiecaoeee, i?e ii?aaeae?iiii o?iaia
?acaeoey iaoee e oaoieee. Iiyaeaiea ia Caiea eioaeeaeoa – ianoieueei aea
anoanoaaiiue e caeiiiia?iue yoai a a? enoi?ee, eae e iiyaeaiea ia iae
aeecie. Yoi cia/eo, /oi aeeciue e eioaeeaeo i?aaenoaaeytho niaie
anoanoaaiiua e, iiaeao auoue, oeie/iua iniaaiiinoe i?ioeanna
naiii?aaiecaoeee iaoa?ee.

Ca/aoee eioaeeaeoa, aaconeiaii, ano?a/athony o ?yaea nouanoa, noiyueo
ieaea /aeiaaea ia nooiaiyo yaiethoeeiiiie eanoieoeu. Ii neiai
“eioaeeaeo” iu naycuaaai, i?aaeaea anaai, n /aeiaaeii, iineieueeo
/aeiaa/aneee eioaeeaeo ea/anoaaiii ioee/aaony io ?acoia aeeaioiuo.
*aeiaae niiniaai iuneeoue aano?aeoii, oi?ie?iaaoue iauea iiiyoey,
io?uaaoueny a iuoeaiee io nethieiooiie ?aaeueiinoe, ?aoeaene?iaaoue; e,
neaaeiaaoaeueii, eiaoue aiciiaeiinoue eco/aoue ia oieueei ie?oaeathuee
ie?, ii e naay. A iiiyoea eioaeeaeoa, anee ?anniao?eaaoue aai n oi/ee
c?aiey eioi?iaoeee, aeeth/athony niiniaiinoue i?aaeaeaeaoue iaeioi?ua
niauoey e, i?aaeaea anaai, ?acoeueoao nianoaaiiuo aeaenoaee,
aiaeece?iaaoue e ioeaieaaoue nai? ninoiyiea e ie?oaeathuoth ianoaiiaeo e
i?eieiaoue ?aoaiey, niia?acoynue ni naieie i?aaenoaaeaieyie i naieo
oeaeyo e ia ie?oaeathuai ie?a. Ii eioaeeaeo yoi au? e niiniaiinoue
oi?ioee?iaaoue oeaee, ioee/aoue ieioia io oi?ioaai, ecia?aoaoue,
niaa?oaoue ioe?uoey, onoaiaaeeaaoue i?e/eiiua nayce iaaeaeo niauoeyie e
o.ae.; i?e yoii ,iaaa?ii, iaeii ec aeaaiaeoeo naienoa eioaeeaeoa –
niiniaiinoue e aanoaae?iaaieth, e ioaea/?iiiio iuoeaieth, aeaaiaea?y
eioi?ui aicieeatho naiiniciaiea e ?aoeaeney.

N oeacaiiuo iiceoeee iii?iaoai eioa?i?aoe?iaaoue ia/aeueiua noaaeee
aio?iiiaaiaca e ?acaeoey ?acoia e iieacaoue aiciiaeioth noaio
i?ioeannia, a ?acoeueoaoa eioi?uo aioo?e noaaea iaiaio?iiia aicieeee
iiaua nayce iaaeaeo ioaeaeueiuie iniayie, iaaeaeo noaaeii e ie?oaeathuae
n?aaeie, i?aaenoaaeoue naaa, eae yoe nayce aeaoi?ie?iaaeenue ii ia?a
oiai , eae iao i?aaeie i?eia?aoae iiaua naienoaa, an? aieaa ioaeaeythuea
aai io aeeaioiuo, eae aeaenoaiaaee aeai?eoiu yaiethoeee a e?eoe/aneea,
iiai?ioiua iiiaiou enoi?ee /aeiaa/anoaa.

Aeaiiue i?ioeann naiii?aaiecaoeee ia aue iaeiicia/iui e i?yiieeiaeiui.
Ii i?eaiaeee e ?aciui oi?iai i?a/aeiaaea, eae oai, eioi?ua auee niiniaiu
oniaoii ?acaeaaoueny a i?e?iaeiuo oneiaeyo, oae e e oai, eioi?ua
i?aeoe/anee inoaiiaeeenue a nai?i ?acaeoee, a caoai e oie/oiaeaeenue
ae?noeei anoanoaaiiui ioai?ii. I?e/?i iaeaieueoea ia?niaeoeau a aoaeouai
ia anaaaea ieacuaaeenue o oao, eoi naaiaeiy iieacaeny au neeueiui e
aeaaiiieo/iui. Aaaeue oa i?eiaou, e eioi?ui i?eiaaeeaaeaee iaoe i?aaeee,
ioiineeenue ia e naiui neeueiui e iaeeo/oei ia?acii i?eniiniaeaiiui e
aeecie a o?iie/aneii eano, e eiaaea ieiei ieeeeiiia eao iacaae
ia/aeinue iauaa iioieiaeaiea eeeiaoa, oiaiueoeeanue aeaaeiinoue e noaea
nie?auaoueny ieiuaaeue o?iie/aneeo eania, iie ooee ec eana aeeoue a
iianiie naaaiia, aaea ianoiyoaeuenoaa aeecie ea/anoaaiii ae?oaea. E
ia/aeny no?aieoaeueiue ia?aoiaeiue i?ioeann, eioi?ue aeieaeai aue
i?eaanoe eeai e auie?aieth aeaea, eeai e oi?ie?iaaieth niaa?oaiii iiaie
i?aaiecaoeee, eiiai aeieiae/aneiai aeaea. I?iecioei eiaiii iineaaeiaa.

*oiau ia iiaeaiooue, iao i?aaeie aeieaeai aue i?eo/eoueny e iiaie ieua e
ioeacaoueny io aaaaoa?eainoaa, /oi naeaeaei aai aieaa neeueiui,
yia?ae/iui e iiaeaeaeiui. Iineieueeo aano?aeiieoae ia iia oaia?ue a
ieiooo iianiinoe caa?aoueny ia aea?aai, oi, /oiau ciaoue, /oi
i?ienoiaeeo aie?oa, aio auei iaiaoiaeeii anoaoue ia caaeiea eaiu.
Aeaaiaea?y yoiio o iaai aunaiaiaeeeenue ia?aaeiea eiia/iinoe, eioi?ua
iinoaiaiii i?aa?aoeeenue a ?oee, niiniaiua eniieueciaaoue iaeeo eee
eaiaiue a ea/anoaa i?oaeey aeey aeiau/e ieue eee caueou. O.i.,
o?oaeiinoe iiaeiaiiai ia?aca aeecie iicaieeee iaoaio i?aaeeo
?aaeeciaaoue iioaioeeaeueiua aiciiaeiinoe, caeiaeaiiua a iaai
yaiethoeeae. A yoeo oneiaeyo, aeaeeii, aeaaea ie/oiaeiia i?aainoiaenoai
“eaaceeioaeeaeoa” ia/eiaei aeaaoue ia?iiiue yooaeo, /oi iicaieeei
auaeeaaoue oaea ia naiui neeueiui, a naiui iaoiae/eaui. Ionthaea –
auni/aeoay nei?inoue yaiethoeee ( iniaaiii iicaa). Iao i?aaeie a
e?ao/aeoea n?iee iaeaaeae aiciiaeiinoyie eniieueciaaoue i?eieoeaiua
n?aaenoaa, auaoea a aai ?anii?yaeaiee, e nicaeaaaoue iiaua aaue, ?aiaa
iaecaanoiua i?e?iaea – i?oaeey o?oaea ec eaiiy, aea?aaa, einoe; /aeiaae
ia/eiaao eniieueciaaoue iaiiue.

I?iecioei a o. /. eciaiaiea ii?oieiaee iicaa, au?aceaoaany a iiyaeaiee
eiaiuo aeieae, eioi?ua ea/anoaaiii eciaieee ie?iiuouaiea eiaeeaeaea.
I?iecioei e eciaiaiea no?oeoo?u iicaa, iniaaiii noaiaiue ?aca?ae?iaaiey.
O /aeiaaea iia ?aaia ianeieueeei nioiyi, o i?eiaoia, niaae, aeaeueoeiia
– a i?aaeaeao 10.

Ia/aeueiay noaaeey aio?iiiaaiaca i/aiue iieacaoaeueia n oi/ee c?aiey
oai?ee naiii?aaiecaoeee. Aicieeiiaaiea iiaie noaaeeueiie no?oeoo?u –
/aeiaaea ?acoiiiai – ia/aeinue a caaaaeiii iaaeaaii?eyoiuo aeey /aeiaaea
oneiaeyo. Aano?aeiieoaee aeieaeiu auee iiaeaiooue, auoaniaiiua eo
i?eau/iie n?aaeu iaeoaiey. Ii iioaioeeae yaiethoeee iaiauyoai, a iooe ia
i?aaeneacoaiu. Eiaiii yoa iaaeaaii?eyoiay eieeecey, ?acei iaino?eaoay
i?ioeai?a/ey eo aeecie, iiaeiyea eo ia ea/anoaaiii iiaue o?iaaiue
?acaeoey e canoaaeea iaeiaaeaeu i?aa?aoeoueny a ethaeae. Iiaeiaiay
ia?ano?ieea (aeoo?eaoeey), eciaieaoay nai oa?eoa? yaiethoeeiiiiai
?acaeoey, iiaeii iacaaoue iaieeoe/aneie ?aaiethoeeae. N iae naycaiu
ia?aua oaao, iieiaeeaoea iniiao i?aanoaaiiinoe, iniaaiii oaao “ia oaae”,
eioi?ia caeiaeeei iniiau nia?aiaiiie i?aanoaaiiinoe e oai naiui i?eaaei
yaiethoeeth ia ?aeuenu iauanoaaiiiai ?acaeoey. Aicieeea iiaay nenoaia
nio?aiaiey e ia?aaea/e eieeaeoeaiie eioi?iaoeee io o/eoaey e o/aieeo.
Iaiaoiaeeiinoue oaeie nenoaiu e naycaiiia n iae ?ani?ino?aiaiea ycuea,
iaiaoiaeeiinoue nio?aiaiey oiaeueoeaa, ae?aoeia e o. i. ethaeae,
niiniaiuo nicaeaaaoue, iaeaieeaaoue e ia?aaeaaaoue eioi?iaoeeth e auee,
aa?iyoii, iniiaiie i?e/eiie ea?aeeiaeueiie ia?ano?ieee iniiaiiai
niaea?aeaiey yaiethoeeiiiiai i?ioeanna. N yoie ?aaiethoeeae, aeaeeii,
naycai e oaiiiai aicieeiiaaiey aeooiaiiai ie?a /aeiaaea. Ii/aio yoio
aeooiaiue ie? noieue ?aciiia?acai e iaiiaoi?ei aeey eaaeaeiai /aeiaaea?
Iiaeao auoue iioiio, /oi ?acee/iia iiiaiia?iia aeaeaiea ie?a i?eaiaeeo e
iiaaaeai/aneiio ?aciiia?aceth, /oi iaeaa/aao aaeaioaoeeth aeaea e
eciaiythueieny oneiaeyi aeecie, e o. i. ?aciiia?acea aeooiaiiai ie?a –
iaeee aiaeia aaiaoe/aneiai ?aciiia?acey, eioi?ia iaania/eaaao
noaaeeueiinoue nouanoaiaaiey iiioeyoeee.

Ii i?e anai yoii eniieii iaeaieeoa e iacieeoa aua ia auaeaeyeny ec
iniiaiie i?e?iaeu, a inoaaaeny “anoanoaaiiie” aai ninoaaeythuae e
iieiinoueth aienuaaeny a anoanoaaiiua aeiaaioeie/aneea oeeeeu.

Aoi?ay ea?aeeiaeueiay ia?ano?ieea i?ioeanna ?acaeoey ?iaea /aeiaa/aneiai
i?iecioea a iaieeoa. Aa i?eiyoi iacuaaoue iaieeoe/aneie ?aaiethoeeae. A
/ai aa nooue?

Iiyaeaiea eoea, eiiee, oniaa?oainoaiaaiea eaiaiiiai i?oaeey, iaoiaeia
eieeaeoeaiie ioiou, iaeiiaoe, i?inoi oaaee/aiea eiee/anoaa ianaeaiey,
aia?aua iinoaaeei i?iaeaio Iaeueoona a ieaiaoa?iii ianooaaa. Ethaee
iao/eeenue yooaeoeaii ioioeoueny e auno?i oie/oiaeaee noaaea iaiiioia e
ae?oaeo e?oiiuo eiiuoiuo, eioi?ua ninoaaeyee iniiao ethaeneiai ?aoeeiia.
Iio?aaiinoe /aeiaaea ia?anoaee niioaaonoaiaaoue ?ano?niui aiciiaeiinoyi
yeieiae/aneie ieoe. Aiciee ia?aue yeieiae/aneee e?ecen, ii n iaaieueoei
i?iiaaeooeii a?aiaie ioaaoee ana eiioeiaiou, eneeth/ay, iiaeao auoue,
ciiu o?iie/aneiai eana.

*aeiaa/anoai ieacaeinue ia a?aie eaoano?iou. Aiciiaeiinoue aeaaee io
aieiaea noaea ?aaeueiinoueth aeey aieueoeinoaa ieai?i ieaiaou. A yoi
a?aiy i?ienoiaeeo ?aceia nio?aiaiea /eneaiiinoe ianaeaiey, aucaaiiia, n
iaeiie noi?iiu, e?iia oiai, eaaeieeiaui ia?eiaeii, n ae?oaie – ai?ueaie
ca nie?auathueeny e aeeciaiii iaiaoiaeeiue ?ano?n. Ii ethaee noiaee
i?aiaeieaoue yeieiae/aneee e?ecen. Iie ecia?aee caieaaeaeea, a /ooue
iicaea e neioiaiaenoai. Yeieiae/aneay ieoa /aeiaa/anoaa ea/anoaaiii
?anoe?eeanue.

Iau/ii i?eiyoi iiae/??eeaaoue, /oi a ?acoeueoaoa iaieeoe/aneie
?aaiethoeee /aeiaae iao/eeny noaaeoue naaa ia neoaeao iiaua neeu
i?e?iaeu, a au? aieueoae noaiaie iiae/eieoue a? naiei iio?aaiinoyi. A
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe i?iecioei ia/oi aieueoaa. Iiyaeaiea caieaaeaeea e
neioiaiaenoaa nicaeaei iniiao aeey iiyaeaiey /anoiie nianoaaiiinoe. Yoio
oaiiiai ieacaeny iiuiaeoei noeioeii /aeiaa/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe e
?acaeoey oeeaeeecaoeee aiiaua.

Aieaa oiai, /anoiay nianoaaiiinoue (caiey e neio), ieacaeanue oie oi?iie
i?aaiecaoeee i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee iauanoaa, eioi?ay iaeeo/oei ia?acii
niioaaonoaiaaea o?iaith eo ?acaeoey. Oaia?ue /aeiaaeo, iaeaaeaaoaio
caie?e e neioii noaei i?iua iaania/eoue nai? auaeeaaiea. Iiyaeaiea
i?eaaai/iiai i?iaeoeoa naeaeaei aiciiaeiui oaeiaeaoai?aiea e ae?oaeo
iio?aaiinoae, i eioi?uo /aeiaae ?aiaa e ia iiaeic?aaae, e eioi?ua ?inee
e ?acaeaaeenue. O /aeiaaea iiyaeyeenue iiaua oeaee, iiaua eioa?anu,
naycaiiua n aeaeueiaeoei ?acaeoeai yoie nianoaaiiinoe. Eo
oaeiaeaoai?aiea noaei iiuiaeoei noeioeii niaa?oainoaiaaiey i?oaeee
o?oaea. Aiciee iiaue oei i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo ioiioaiee. O.i., iiaaaea
iaieeoe/aneie ?aaiethoeee ioe?uea ia?aae /aeiaa/anoaii niaa?oaiii iiaua
ia?niaeoeau ?acaeoey, a ia i?inoi ?anoe?eei yeieiae/aneoth ieoo. Aoi?ay
?aaiethoeey caaa?oeea y?o “aeeaioiie” aeecie /aeiaaea.

Eoae, ieiei 10 oun. eao iacaae a i?ioeanna aio?iiiaaiaca /aeiaae
ieii/aoaeueii auaeaeeeny ec aeeaioiiai ie?a. Iaeiaei e oaia?ue,
nicaeaaay e i?aaiecoy naith yeieiae/aneoth ieoo. *aeiaae aeaeae a
i?e?iaea iaia?aie/aiiue ?aca?aoa? aiciiaeiinoae, ec eioi?iai ii iiaeao
/a?iaoue an? e a iaia?aie/aiiuo eiee/anoaao.

NIA?AIAIIAss AeAssOAEUeIINOUe *AEIAAEA IA CAIEA. I?IAEAIU E IA?NIAEOEAU.

?acoi, aeathuee /aeiaaeo ii?aaeae?iiue ai?eciio i?aaeaeaeaiey, ia i?inoi
oneiaeiyao i?ioeann naiii?aaiecaoeee – ii nicaea?o ecaanoiua
aiciiaeiinoe aeey iiaiai aio?iiioeaio?ecia, aeey oeaeaiai?aaeaiiiai
aicaeaenoaey ia iniaaiiinoe yaiethoeee aeinoa?u n oeaeueth nio?aiaiey a?
ia?aiao?ia a i?aaeaeao, iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey aeaeueiaeoaai ?acaeoey aeaea
homo sapiens. Ii i?e yoii ?acoi aea ?iaeaeaao e eeethcee, ec eioi?uo,
aeaeeii, naiay iianiay – eeethcey anaaeicaieaiiinoe, iacaaeneiinoe
iauanoaa io oiai, /oi i?ienoiaeeo a i?e?iaea.

A eiioea iaieeoa /aeiaae ia/ae ia?ano?aeaaoue no?oeoo?u i?e?iaeu iiae
naie ioaeaeu. Eiaiii a yoii e ninoiyea iianiinoue aeey ?iaea
/aeiaa/aneiai, o.e. aeayoaeueiinoue iauanoaa ia?anoaea aienuaaoueny a
anoanoaaiiue e?oaiiai?io aauanoa. Eiiaaea yoi i?eaiaeeei e en/a?iaieth
aiciiaeiinoae eieaeueiuo yeieiae/aneeo ieo. I?eia? – aeaaeue
naeueneioicyenoaaiiie oeeaeeecaoeee Ianiiioaiee ec- ca iai?aaeeueiiai
eniieueciaaiey iieeaiiai caieaaeaeey. Neo/aeiinoue ee yoi, eee
yeieiae/aneea e?ecenu iaecaaaeiu?

Iniiaiui aeaeaeeoaeai ?acaeoey ethauo iaaei?aaieciaiiuo no?oeoo?
yaeyaony ?UIIE. ?UIIE – yoi (a i?aaenoaaeaiee, ?anoe?aiiii aiaeiae/ii
aea?aeiianeie o?eaaea) neiaeiaeoay ea?a?oe/anee i?aaieciaaiiay nenoaia
ioa?aeiaie noa?uo e caiauaiey iiauie iai?a?uaii ?iaeaeathueieny
no?oeoo?aie. ?UIIE – yoi oieaa?naeueiue iaoaieci ioai?a, aeeoioee?othuee
a naay ana i?i/ea i?eioeeiu ioai?a, aeaenoaothuee eae ia i?aaieciaiiii,
oae e ia iaaei?aaieciaiiii o?iaiyo, a I?e?iaea e Iauanoaa.

Anee eaeie-eeai aeae, niiauanoai eee i?aaiecaoeeiiiay no?oeoo?a
ooieoeeiie?oao iaaeinoaoi/ii yooaeoeaii e ia auaea?aeeaaao eiieo?aioeee,
oi /aua anaai ii caiaiyaony ae?oaeie, aieaa yooaeoeaiuie, a caoai
iinoaiaiii ia/eiaao aeaa?aaee?iaaoue e noiaeeo ni noeaiu. Oaeay niaia
i?aoaiaeaioia e iaania/eaaao onoie/eaia ?acaeoea aeeauo nenoai.

Anee aea a yoie eiieo?aioiie ai?ueaa iaeioi?ia niiauanoai noaiiaeony
aaniethoiui iiaaaeeoaeai, iiiiiieenoii, o.a. en/acaao iaiaoiaeeiinoue
eiieo?aioiie ai?ueau, oi aai oaeaea iiaeao iaeeaeaoue aeaa?aaeaoeey, ii
oeaeiio ?yaeo ianoiyoaeuenoa.

I?aaeaea anaai, iu ciaai, /oi eaaeaeia niiauanoai yaeyaony yeaiaioii
naiae yeieiae/aneie ieoe. Anee a yoie nenoaia aicieeaao niiauanoai-
iiiiiieeno, oi, oaiaoay inoaeueiua yeaiaiou nenoaiu, iii nieaeaao
o?iaaiue a? ?aciiia?acey, o.a. niiniaiinoue e aaeaioaoeee e
naiiniaa?oainoaiaaieth nenoaiu a oeaeii, /oi, i?e eciaiaiee aiaoieo
oneiaee, iiaeao iinoaaeoue ia a?aiue eaoano?iou anth nenoaio. Ii au?
aaaeiaa oi, /oi /oi, ieacaaoenue iiiiiieenoii, niiauanoai oa?yao
aioo?aiiea noeioeu e naiiniaa?oainoaiaaieth e ia/eiaao aacaeoiii
yenieoaoe?iaaoue ana aeinooiiua ?ano?nu.

A ?acoeueoaoa niiauanoai ?ac?ooaao naith yeieiae/aneoth ieoo, oie/oiaeay
oi, /oi auei enoi/ieeii i?ia?anna. O iiiiiieenoa en/acaao
iaiaoiaeeiinoue a ?aciiia?acee e ia/eiaao i?aiaeaaeaoue no?aieaiea e
oieoeeaoeee e noaiaea?oecaoeee iiaaaeaiey. A ?acoeueoaoa yoiai o
aeaea-iiiiiieenoa iieiinoueth ao?ioe?oaony niiniaiinoue e aaeaioaoeee, e
aeaaea iacia/eoaeueiua eciaiaiey n?aaeu iaeoaiey i?eaiaeyo yoi
niiauanoai (aeae) e iieiiio en/aciiaaieth. Iienaiiay iniaaiiinoue
yaiethoeee i?aaiecaoeee-iiiiiieenoa e neaaeothuay iaeiia?aiaiii
ia?ano?ieea yeieiae/aneie nenoaiu – naiaia?aciue caeii i?e?iaeu, oi/iaa
neaaenoaea iniaaiiinoae ?acoia

Enoi?ey iaieeoe/aneie ?aaiethoeee – i?ae?aniay eeethno?aoeey yoiai
?annoaeaeaiey. Caaa?oea oniaoii ia?ano?ieeo a iicaeiai iaieeoa,
/aeiaa/anoai oneeeei iiiaie?aoii nai? iiaouanoai e oe?aieei nai?
iieiaeaiea a ea/anoaa aaniethoiiai iiiiiieenoa a ie?a aeeaiai aauanoaa,
nicaeaa iaeiia?aiaiii iiaua iioaioeeaeueiua o?oaeiinoe naiaai ?acaeoey.
Aio ii/aio yoi auei eeoue a?aiaiiui i?aiaeieaieai e?ecena e iiaue
aeiaaeueiue yeieiae/aneee e?ecen , ii – aeaeeiiio, iaioa?aoei,
iineieueeo aiciiaeiinoe iaoae yeieiae/aneie ieoe iaeiaaeaeu (e oaea
nei?i) aoaeoo en/a?iaiu, e oeiae i/aaeaeai. Aaaea iaoa eae a oii, /oi
/aeiaa/anoai ia/eiaao neeoeii iicaeii yoi iniciaaaoue, oae e a oii, /oi
nei?inoue ?ac?ooaiey nia?aiaiiie yeieiae/aneie ieoe no?aieoaeueii
aic?anoaao.

E iiaeao aeaaea i?iaeaia ia a oii, eae ecaaaeaoue e?ecena (yoi oaea,
aeaeeii, iaaiciiaeii), a a oii, eae niya/eoue aai iineaaenoaey, eae
?acoiii ?anoe?eoue naith yeieiae/aneoth ieoo e, i?aaeaea anaai, naay
naieo e i?eioeeiu nouanoaiaaiey naiaai niiauanoaa, eae ni?acia?eoue
iio?aaiinoe n aiciiaeiinoyie ineoaeaaathuae ieaiaou. *aeiaae ia?a/?i ia
iiiiiieueiia iieiaeaiea a aeeaii ie?a, eai ii aaeeinoaaiiue iineoaeue
?acoia ia Caiea. Ii ia?a/?i ia iai?a?uaiua iienee iiaie yeieiae/aneie
ieoe e ia ia?ano?ieeo naiiai naay, naiaai ia?aca aeecie, iio?aaiinoae,
i?aanoaaiiinoe.

Eaeea iniiaiua oaeou aiai?yo i a?yaeouai e?ecena?

Oaiee/iue yooaeo – e iaio i?eeiaaii aieiaiea ia oieueei o/?iuo, ii e
iauanoaaiiinoe. Aio?iiiaaiiua aua?inu CO2, CH4 e ae?oaeo aacia,
ay?icieae, caaea?aeeaathueo oaieiaia eceo/aiea iaoae ieaiaou, i?eaiaeyo
e iiauoaieth n?aaeiae oaiia?aoo?u iaoae Caiee . Iineaaenoaey yoiai ia
iaa?ioony anaeaineie eaoano?ioie , ii nei?aa anaai, aoaeoo iaaaoeaiuie.
?an/?ou iieacuaatho, /oi ?acei ?aoe?eony iaeanoue ionouiue e
iieoionouiue. Iaeanoue a?eaeiuo, o.a. canooeeauo caiaeue, aeathueo
naaiaeiy iniiaiia eiee/anoai ca?iaiiaeao caiaoii nieceony ( ia 20-35 %),
/oi, a naith i/a?aaeue, iiaeao caiaoii nieceoue iauoth i?iaeoeoeaiinoue
?anoeoaeueiiai iie?iaa ia eiioeiaioao. I?iaeoeoeaiinoue iniiaiuo
aeeoieoe ieaiaou – Aaeeeeo noaiae Aa?acee, N?aaeecaiiiii?uey, no?ai
Naoaey, eoeo?ociiai iiyna Naaa?iie Aia?eee iiaeao caiaoii nie?aoeony
oaea e na?aaeeia XXI aaea ( ia 20-25%). E?iia oiai, oaea a aeeaeaeoea
aeanyoeeaoey ec-ca oayiey iiey?iuo eueaeia e oaieiaiai ?anoe?aiey
Ie?iaiai Ieaaia, cia/eo eciaieony iieiaeaiea a?aieoe, aeaeyueo
i?e?iaeiua ciiu noaiue-oaeaa, oaeaa-ooiae?a.

Au? iaeia oa?ica – eioaineaiinoue iooaaaiaca e ?ino aaiaoe/aneie
iaiieiioeaiiinoe /aeiaa/anoaa. Iieacaoaee yoeo i?ioeannia iianii
aic?anoatho. Naaiaeiy eaaeaeue 500-e ?aaaiie a neeo anoanoaaiiuo
iooaoeee e no?oeoo?u aaiioiiaea ?iaeaeaaony n caiaoiuie ioeeiiaieyie io
ii?iu. Aeaaiaea?y oniaoai nia?aiaiiie iaaeeoeeiu yoe aeaoe ia oieueei
auaeeaatho, ii e iiaoo inoaaeoue iioiinoai, /oi i?eaiaeeo e iai?a?uaiiio
?inoo /enea ethaeae n aaiaoe/aneeie ioeeiiaieyie. Ii yoi eeoue iieaaaeu,
yoi oeaia aaiaoe/aneiai ?aciiia?acey. Iniiaiie i?e/eiie, oooaeoathuae
no?oeoo?o aaiioiiaea, yaeyaony aeaaeaiea nioeeaeueiuo oaeoi?ia, e,
i?aaeaea anaai, aeeiaieecia e ia?eiiaiee, iethn ?ino eioaineaiinoe
iooaaaiaca ca n/?o o?aaiecaoeee, ia?aianae?iiinoe e caa?yciaiiinoe
?acee/iuo oeiia aiaeu, aicaeooa, ieue e o.i. O eaaeaeie iiioeyoeee anoue
iaeioi?ue ii?ia aeiionoeiiai eiee/anoaa iaiieiioeaiiuo iniaae, ca
eioi?ui oaea ieeaeie ioai? ia iiaeao ainnoaiiaeoue ea/anoai aaiioiiaea e
i?aaeioa?aoeoue aeaa?aaeaoeeth iiioeyoeee. Nii?eoue i oeeo?ao iiaeii, ii
i?e iuiaoieo oaiiao ?inoa iiaeao oaea e ia/aeo XXII aaea iiaeieaeai e
yoiio ii?iao. E ia?aoiiai oiaea yaiethoeee ia aoaeao.

Anoue au? iiiaeanoai aeaenoaeoaeueii ooiaeaiaioaeueiuo i?iaeai –
caa?yciaiea ieaaia (oiaiueoaiea ieuaauo ?ano?nia + eciaiaiea no?oeoo?u
yia?aiiaiaia iaaeaeo ieaaiii e aoiinoa?ie), nie?auaiea ieiuaaeae
o?iie/aneeo eania( a yoi e?aeea ieaiaou), oiaiueoaiea ieioiinoe
iciiiaiai neiy e ae?. Ii ana oiiiyiooua oaeoi?u – yoi oa , /ue?
aeaenoaea iu iuooei e na?aaeeia XXI aaea. Ii anoue au? aeaa, eioi?ua iu
iuooei, aeaeeii, oaea a naiii ia/aea aoi?iai ouny/aeaoey.

Ia?aue – yoi ciaiaieoay i?iaeaia Iaeueoona. Ii anee Iaeueoona aaniieieei
eeoue ianiioaaonoaea ?inoa ianaeaiey ?inoo i?iecaiaenoaa ieue, oi
oaia?ue neooaoeey iaiiiai neiaeiaa e iiiaia?aiiaa, oaia?ue iia eanaaony
anao ?ano?nia. I?ienoiaeeo no?aieoaeueiia iionoioaiea eeaaeiauo
oaea?iaeiiai oiieeaa. Ii /oi au? iianiaa – i?ienoiaeeo i?yiia
oiaiueoaiea i?iaeoeoeaiinoe aeiou e iioa?y ieiaei?iaeey ii/a, ia aiai?y
oaea i oii, /oi iaeiia?aiaiii aieueoia eiee/anoai ieiaei?iaeiuo caiaeue
i?inoi auaiaeeony ec ia?auaiey ai?iaeneei e i?iiuoeaiiui
no?ieoaeuenoaii.

*oiau ethaie aeieiae/aneee aeae iia onoie/eai nouanoaiaaoue ia Caiea,
iaaei, /oiau ii aienuaaeny a anoanoaaiiua aeiaaioeie/aneea oeeeeu, o.a.
aeeoue ca n/?o oie yia?aee, eioi?oth Caiey iieo/aao io Nieioea. A
ie?oaeathuay n?aaea ethaiai aeeaiai aeaea ia iiaeao ninoiyoue oieueei ec
ioa?inia aai aeayoaeueiinoe. Eeoue a yoeo oneiaeyo iiaeao eiaoue ianoi
iiaeaea?aeeaaaiia ?acaeoea. *aeaae aeaaii ia?ooee yoi i?aaeei. E
i?eia?o, Nieioea aea?o iai eeoue 10% io o?aaoaiie naaiaeiy e
eniieuecoaiie yia?aee. Cia/eo, iaaei eeai oiaiueoeoue iaoe iio?aaiinoe a
10 ?ac, eeai iaoa ianaeaiea aeieaeii auoue oiaiueoaii. A yoi, anee
?anniao?eaaoue i?iaeaio a ie?iaii ianooaaa, iaaiciiaeii. Ie
i?aaeneacaoue iniaaiiinoe, ie i?aaeeiaeeoue aieaa-iaiaa aacaieaciaiiue
auoiae ec e?ecena iu ia iiaeai.

Ae?oaay i?iaeaia iaeiecaanoia aeaaea niaoeeaeenoai. Yoi i?iaeaia
aiciiaeiie iioa?e onoie/eainoe aeinoa?u eae aaeeiiai oeaeiai, /anoueth
eioi?iai yaeyaony /aeiaa/anoai. ?acoeueoaoii yoiai niauoey aoaeao a
iiaia e iaecaanoiia iai noaoeeiia?iia ninoiyiea, a eioi?ii /aeiaaeo
iiaeao i?inoi ia ieacaoueny ianoa. Aeinoa?a, eae naiiiano?aeaathuayny
nenoaia, aei ii?u aei a?aiaie iiaea eiiiaine?iaaoue aiaoiea iaa?ocee. Ii
iineaaeiea noieaoey iia iiaeaa?aaaony an? aic?anoathuei aio?iiiaaiiui
iaa?oceai, eioi?ua naycaiu n oaiaoaieai aeiou. I?ienoiaeeo ?aceia
nie?auaiea ?aciiia?acey a? oi?i, /oi iniaaiii iianii aeey nio?aiaiey
noaaeeueiinoe. Aeioa yaeyaony iniiaiui ?aaoeyoi?ii aeinoa?iuo
i?ioeannia, a /aeiaa/anoai i?iecaiaeeo ioa?inu a 2000 ?ac eioaineaiaa,
/ai any inoaeueiay aeinoa?a. Anoue iniiaaiey iieaaaoue, /oi
eiiiainaoeeiiiua aiciiaeiinoe aeinoa?u eeai oaea ia?ooaiu, eeai
iaoiaeyony ia i?aaeaea naieo aiciiaeiinoae. Iai?eia?, eiioeaio?aoeey
oaeaeeneiai aaca a aoiinoa?a au?inea ia 20% a XX aaea, i?e yoii iiaeii
iiaeii auei iaeeaeaoue, /oi aeinoa?a iocia?ony ia yoi oaaee/aieai iau?ia
oeoiiannu, ii yoiai ia i?ienoiaeeo. Yoi i/aiue ianoi?aaeeaaao. Anee
aeinoa?a aeaenoaeoaeueii ia/eiaao oa?youe naith naith niiniaiinoue
eiiiaine?iaaoue aiaoiea aiciouaiey e a? oa?aeoa?enoeee oaea noaee
ioee/aoueny io noaoeeiia?iuo, oi yoi icia/aao, /oi aicieeea iaia?aoeiay
ianiaeaniaaiiinoue, eioi?ay e aeaeueoa aoaeao ?anoe, i?e/?i
yeniiiaioeeaeueii. A anee oaeay nenoaia, eae aeinoa?a, oa?yao
noaaeeueiinoue, oi ia/eiaaony a? iaia?aoeiue ia?aoiae a iiaia
noaoeeiia?iia ninoiyiea, eaeia -iu ociaai oieueei iinooaeooi.

Iienaiiua e?eceniua yaeaiey iiaoo i?iyaeoueny aeaaea i?e aeecie
iuiaoiaai iieieaiey. I?e/ei aeey e?ecena iiiai, i?e/?i ana iie, eae
i?aaeei, ae?oa ae?oaa oneeeaatho. I?e?iaea o?aaoao io ethaeae, /oiau iie
iaiyee naie i?aaeea ea?u. AEeciaiii aaaeii iiyaeaiea no?aoaaee
/aeiaa/anoaa, e iia aeieaeia auoue niaeaniaaia ni no?aoaaeae I?e?iaeu.

Aeey i?iaeieaeaiey naiae enoi?ee /aeiaaeo iaiaoiaeeii iao/eoueny
niaeaniauaaoue ia oieueei eieaeueioth, ii e aeiaaeueioth aeayoaeueiinoue
n iio?aaiinoyie i?e?iaeu a onoaiiaeaiee ae?noeeo ?aiie nianoaaiiiai
?acaeoey, naiae aeayoaeueiinoe, eo niaeaniaaiey n ?acaeoeai inoaeueiie
aeinoa?u. Yoe o?aaiaaiey noieue no?iau, /oi eo i?aaiia?ii iacaaoue
yeieiae/aneei eiia?aoeaii. Oaeei oa?ieiii oneiaeiny iacuaaoue
niaieoiiinoue oao ia?aie/aiee, iaeeaaeuaaaiuo ia aeoeaiinoue
aeayoaeueiinoe ethaeae, ia?ooaiea eioi?uo oaea a aeeaeaeoai aoaeouai
iiaeao iaa?iooueny eaoano?ioie aeey /aeiaa/anoaa. Yoa caaea/a –
oi?ie?iaaiea yeieiae/aneiai eiia?aoeaa – yaeyaony ooiaeaiaioaeueiie,
iineieueeo ioa? ?aoaiey caaeneo nouanoaiaaiea /aeiaa/anoaa.

Iia?aoea yeieiae/aneee iaecaaaeii ii?iaeaeaao eiia?aoea i?aanoaaiiue, e
ii ia iaiaa ae?noeee. Aai oiaea iaaei au? eiie?aoece?iaaoue, ii iniiaiua
i?eioeeiu iiaie i?aanoaaiiinoe oaea aeaaii eceiaeaiu – yoi, i?aaeaea
anaai, i?eioeeiu iaai?iie i?iiiaaaee e nianaiey aeey anao. Iie oaea
anoue, iniiaiay caaea/a nae/an – auiieiaiea yoeo i?eioeeiia, /oiau iie
noaee ii?iaie aeecie.

Eaeea iniiaiua o?aaiaaiey e iiaiio ?aoeeiiaeueii i?aaieciaaiiiio
iauanoao?

Ia?aia – niiniaiinoue iaania/eoue ?ane?uoea oaeaioa, eioaeeaeooaeueiuo
aiciiaeiinoae, aiee ioaeaeueiie ee/iinoe. *aeiaa/anoao iio?aaothony
iiaua oaoiieiaee, iiaua acaeiiioiioaiey n i?e?iaeie, a yoi an? –
ioe?uoey, ecia?aoaiey. Iauanoai aeieaeii noaoue iaeneiaeueii ?ane?uoi e
iiaui eaeayi ( ii aeaenoaey aeieaeiu auoue iaeneiaeueii i?iaeoiaiu).

Aoi?ia – niiniaiinoue iaania/eoue aunieee o?iaaiue nioeeaeueiie
caueu?iiinoe ee/iinoe, /oi i?inoi iaiaoiaeeii aeey oniaoiie ?aaeecaoeee
ia?aiai o?aaiaaiey.

Yoe aeaa oneiaey iaiaoiaeeiu aeey ?aeecaoeee iauanoaii o?aoueaai
o?aaiaaiey – iaania/aiea auiieiaiey oneiaee yeieiae/aneiai eiia?aoeaa.

Naaiaeiy iu iiaeioee e ia/aeo naiiai o?oaeiiai e iianiiai yoaia
ia?aono?ienoaa iaoae yeieiae/aneie ieoe, iineieueeo noaeeeaaainy n
iaiaoiaeeiinoueth ?aoaiey i?iaeaiu ?ano?nia, oi?ie?iaaiey ?ani?aaeaeaiey
iaycaiiinoae e ioaaonoaaiiinoe ioaeaeueiuo ia?iaeia e oeeaeeecaoeee ca
noaeueau /aeiaa/anoaa e aeaea.

A ?acoeueoaoa /aeiaa/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe ia?ooeeinue anoanoaaiiia
?aaiiaanea i?e?iaeiuo oeeeeia, ainnoaiiaeoue eioi?ia oaie iaoiaeaie,
eioi?uie iu aeaaeaai naaiaeiy, – iaaiciiaeii. O /aeiaa/anoaa anoue aeaa
i/aaeaeiuo aeueoa?iaoeau ainnoaiiaeaiey ?aaiiaaney: eeai i?aeoe e iieiie
aaoio?ioiinoe, eeai oiaiueoeoue aio?iiiaaiioth iaa?oceo ia aeinoa?o
i?eia?ii a 10 ?ac. Nei?aa anaai, ie iaeia ec yoeo aeueoa?iaoea ia iiaeao
auoue ?aaeeciaaia ie naaiaeiy, ie a iaic?eiia a?aiy. Iiyoiio aieaa eee
iaiaa i?eaieaiue iooue auoiaea ec yeieiae/aneiai e?ecena, anee oaeie
nouanoaoao e iiaeao auoue iaeaeai, ninoieo a iaeioi?ie aeeeoaeueiie
ia?aoiaeiie i?ia?aiia eciaiaiey iauanoaa e ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu, eioi?ay
aeieaeia iie?aoueny eae ia i?ia?aiio oaoie/aneiai ia?aaii?oaeaiey
iauanoaa, oae e ia iiiaeanoai nioeeaeueiuo i?ia?aii – ia?aciaaiey e
ia?aono?ienoaa iauanoaa, aai iio?aaiinoae, iaioaeeoaoa e au?aaioea
iaeioi?iai i?aanoaaiiiai eiia?aoeaa. Iaeiaei iaeieo i?aanoaaiiuo ia/ae,
o.a. nenoaiu i?aaia, ia?acoeia iiaaaeaiey ethaeae, aoaeao au?
iaaeinoaoi/ii. Iaiaoiaeeiu aieaa aeoaieay ii?aeueiay ia?ano?ieea naiiai
aeooa e niunea /aeiaa/aneie eoeueoo?u, ia?aoaiea iiaiai niunea
nouanoaiaaiey. Aiciiaeii ee yoi? A?yae ee. Iaeiaei ae?oaiai auoiaea o
ian i?inoi iao.

CAEETH*AIEA

I?aaeeiaeaiiay I.I. Iienaaaui nenoaia acaeyaeia ia ?acaeoea
ie?oaeathuaai ie?a – oai?ey naiii?aaiecaoeee eee oieaa?naeueiue
yaiethoeeiieci – aaconeiaii caneoaeeaaao naiiai i?enoaeueiiai aieiaiey
o/?iuo anao i?ioeeae, eae “aoiaieoa?eaa”, oae e “anoanoaaiieeia”; e
i?aaeaea anaai oai, /oi iia aiai?eo i aaeeinoaa ie?oaeathuaai ian ie?a e
eeoue i ?acee/ee oi?i aai i?aaiecaoeee. I?aaeeiaeaiiay noaia iienaiey
aai ?acaeoey (y eiath aaeaeo ni/aoaiea “aea?aeiianeiai” e
aeoo?eaoeeiiiiai iaoaieciia) aaeaeaaoii io?aaeaao nouanoaothuoth
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue e iicaieyao ane?uoue iaeioi?ua i?eioeeieaeueiua
iniaaiiinoe ?acaeoey – a eiaiii iai?aaeaiiinoue e iaaiciiaeiinoue
ia?aoiiai oiaea yaiethoeee. Ia?iiioth aaaeiinoue eiaao oieaa?naeueiinoue
iieo/aiiuo caeiiiia?iinoae e ?acoeueoaou i?eiaiaiey aeaiiie oai?ee e
iiyaeaieth e ?acaeoeth aeeaiai aauanoaa e aicieeiiaaieth ?acoia.
Ianiiiaiiui aeinoieinoaii yaeyaony “ioe?uoinoue” oai?ee
naiii?aaiecaoeee, aiciiaeiinoue a? naiiniaa?oainoaiaaiey e aeinooiiinoue
aeey e?eoeee.

?aaiou I.I. Iienaaaa, iinayu?iiua i?iaeaia auaeeaaiey /aeiaa/anoaa,
nio?aiaiey aeaea homo sapiens ia iaoae ieaiaoa, ianiiiaiii aeieaeiu
auoue ioianaiu e iaeiei ec iaeaieaa i?i?aaioaiiuo ?aaio ii aeaiiie oaia.
I?eioeeieaeueii aaaeii oi, /oi ?aaeecoaony nenoaiiue iiaeoiae e aeaiiie
i?iaeaia, iieacaii an? ia?aieaoaiea ioaeaeueiuo aniaeoia iauae ea?oeiu
?acaeaathuaainy yiaae?iiaioaeueiiai e?ecena. Ia?iiioth aaaeiinoue eiaao
oaeaea oi, /oi I.I. Iienaaa ia i?inoi eiinoaoe?oao iaee/ea i?iaeai, ii e
i?aaeeaaaao i?eioeeieaeueiue iooue eo ?aoaiey. Ae?oaia aeaei, niiaeao ee
/aeiaa/anoai ?aoeoue aicieeooth ia?aae iei i?iaeaio. Ii ioiaoioony io
?aoaiey iu ia iiaeai, io yoiai caaeneo nouanoaiaaiea ia i?inoi
/aeiaa/aneie oeeaeeecaoeee, ii e /aeiaaea ?acoiiiai eae aeaea.

NIENIE EEOA?AOO?U

Iienaaa I.I. ?annoaaaiea n i?inoioie.I.,”Aa?ao”,1998,-480n.

Iienaaa I.I. Ainoiaeaeaiea e ?acoio.I.:EcaeAo,1993.

Iienaaa I.I. Nia?aiaiiue aio?iiiaaiac e oeeaeeecaoeeiiiua ?aceiiu//
Aii?inu oeeinioee.1995.(1.

Iienaaa I.I. Aeai?eoiu ?acaeoey.I.:EcaeAo,1985.

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