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DLR, Lampoldshausen, Daimler-Benz Aerospace

?AOA?AO

OAEIU *AEIAA*ANEIAI INICIAIEss

Aaoi?: Aeaenaaa Eai?ue.

Anie?aio Iineianeiai Aaeaoeeiiiiai Einoeoooa

Germany

-1998-

Niaea?aeaiea.

Aaaaeaiea 3

1. Aieiaiea, aini?eyoea, iniciaiea 4

2. Oaeia niiaeaeaiey 7

3. Niaeaoaiea i ea?oeia ie?oaeathuae aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe 8

4. ?acoi e i?ioeann iiciaiey 9

Caeeth/aiea 11

Eeoa?aoo?a 11

Aaaaeaiea.

A iineaaeiaa a?aiy ana aieaa iiioey?iuie noaiiayony ?aaiou
aia?eeaineiai o/aiiai-aio?iiieiaa Ea?eina Eanoaiaaeu. N iaeiie noi?iiu,
a aeaaeaie/aneii ie?a aeaiiua o?oaeu aucuaatho ianoi?iaeaiiinoue e
iaiaeiicia/ioth ?aaeoeeth, oae eae iao/iua aicc?aiey yoiai aaoi?a eaeoo
a?ac?ac n “eeanne/aneeie” ?aaioaie a iaeanoe ineoiaiaeeca, oaeeie eae
[6], iai?eia?. Iaeiaei, n ae?oaie noi?iiu a o/aaiuo eo?nao ii oeeinioee
e ineoieiaee iiiaeo aocia ?aaiou E. Eanoaiaaeu aaaaeaiu, eae
aeiiieieoaeueiue iaoa?eae e eco/aieth, e iaeioi?ua aii?inu aeaaea
aeeth/aiu a i?ia?aiio yecaiaiia [1]. ?aaiou yoiai o/aiiai iieo/atho ana
aieueoaa i?eciaiea, a /anoiinoe, a n?aaea ?ineeneeo niaoeeaeenoia,
?aaioathueo a iaeanoe iuoeaiey, i?aeoe/aneie ineoieiaee e niciaiey.

?aaiou E. Eanoaiaaeu iiaeii auei au ioianoe e ?ac?yaeo ” iieaauo
caiaoie” o/aiiai-enneaaeiaaoaey, o.e. iie i?aaenoaaeytho niaie
aeiaaieee, eoaea caiineeenue ?acoeueoaou enneaaeiaaiee e
iaiin?aaenoaaiiue iiuo iniauo ninoiyiee niciaiey.

A aeaiiii ?aoa?aoa y iiiuoathnue i?eaanoe oaeaea e eiiiaioa?ee a?oiiu
iieiaeuo iineianeeo o/aiuo, i?aeoeeiaaaoeo iaeioi?ua oaoieee, naycaiiua
n ninoiyieai niiaeaeaiey, a oa/aieee 5 eao.

1. Aieiaiea, aini?eyoea, iniciaiea.

Iniiaiie i?aaeiinueeie, naeaeaiiie E. Eanoaiaaeie a aai ?aaioao,
yaeyaony iniciaiea iieiaeaiey oiai, /oi /aeiaa/aneea nouanoaa
i?aaenoaaeytho niaie ia oieueei aunieii?aaieciaaiioth aeieiae/aneoth
no?oeoo?o, ii e oiieia iiea naaoyuaeny yia?aee, eioi?ay ie?oaeaao
eaaeaeiai /aeiaaea, i?eaeaaay aio oi?io naaoyuaainy eieiia eee yeoea. A
iineaaeiaa a?aiy iaee/ea o.i. aeiiiey aie?oa /aeiaaea ia oieueei ia
aucuaaao niiiaiee ii e aeaaea caoeene?iaaii iaoiaeaie niaoeeaeueiiai
oioia?aoe?iaaiey [2]. Aaoi? [3] ioia/aao, /oi i?e ii?aaeaeaiiie
o?aie?iaea aieiaiey /aeiaaea noaiiaeony aeinooiiui aini?eyoea iiaeiaiuo
yia?aaoe/aneeo iieae. I?eaaaeai ianeieueei iniiaiuo ooaa?aeaeaiee,
naeaeaiiuo aaoi?ii [5], aaea ia?aaeai aieaa /ai 20-eaoiee iiuo
Eanoaiaaeu a i?eaiao yeno?ai?aeeia?iiai aini?eyoey.

1) Ana aeeaua nouanoaa ia?aaia n eo oece/aneie iaei/eie i?aaenoaaeytho
niaie iiey oiieie yia?aee, eioi?ay6 oai ia iaiaa, iiaeao auoue aeinooiia
aini?eyoeth /aeiaaea aneaaenoaee ii?aaeaeaiiie o?aie?iaee aieiaiey.

2) Oiieia iiea /aeiaaea i?aaenoaaeyao niaie naaoyueeny eieia eee yeoei.

3) Ie?oaeathuee ie?, ia?aaia n aai oece/aneie oi?iie, i?aaenoaaeyao
niaie iaiaic?eiue iioie naaoyueony aieieii, i?ioyioaoeony ai anao
iuneeiuo iai?aaeaieyo.

4) Aioo?e /aeiaa/aneiai eieia oaeaea caeeth/ai iaai? aieieii, ii oeio
niaiaaeathueo n aieieiaie ie?oaeathuaai ie?a, n oie eeoue ?acieoeae, /oi
aieieia aioo?e eieiia ioaeaeaiu io aiaoieo a?aieoeae yoiai eieiia.

5) Ana /aeiaa/aneea nouanoaa eiatho ia naieo naaoyueony iaiei/eao iniaia
ia?aciaaiea, i?aaenoaaeythuaa niaie iyoii aieaa eioaineaiiai naa/aiey,
?aniieiaeaiiia ia naiie iaiei/ea. Aeaiiia iyoii o anao /aeiaa/aneeo
nouanoa ?aniieiaeaii ca i?aaie eiiaoeie /aeiaaea ia ?annoiyiee auoyiooie
?oee io oaea. Aiaoiea aieieia, i?iiecuaathuea ie?oaeathuaa i?ino?ainoai,
e aioo?aiiea, iaoiaeyueany aioo?e iaiei/ee /aeiaaea, eiioaeoe?otho
iaaeaeo niaie eiaiii a yoii iyoia. Iiaeii neacaoue, /oi aeaiiay oi/ea
i?eaiaeeo a niioaaonoaea aioo?aiiea e aiaoiea aieieia. Iaaethaeay a
oa/aiee aeieaiai a?aiaie, eae ?aaioaao aeaiiia iyoii, aeaeyuea i?eoee e
auaiaeo, /oi aeaiiay oi/ea ioae?aao ioaeaeueii acyoua aiaoiea aieieia,
i?eaiaey eo a niioaaonoaea n aioo?aiieie, iaoneaaeeaay oai naiui
aini?eyoea /aeiaaea, o.a. eiaaea aioo?aiiaa aieeii eieiia e aiaoiaa
i?eaaaeaiu a niioaaonoaea, i?ienoiaeeo aeo aini?eyoey /aeiaaeii
ii?aaeaeaiiie ea?oeiu ie?a. Aeaiiay oi/ea, a neeo naieo ooieoeee, auea
iacaaia oi/eie, niae?athuae iniciaiea eee oi/eie nai?ee.

Caeanue iaiaoiaeeii i?eaanoe ?yae eiiiaioa?eaa e auoaneacaiiiio.
Einaaiiia iiaeoaa?aeaeaiea iaee/ey iiaeiaiiai iaoaiecia aini?eyoey
iiaeii i?iaanoe, ?anniio?aa ee/iue iiuo ethaiai /aeiaaea. Aeiionoei,
anai iai oi?ioi ecaanoia o?oaeiinoue aini?eyoey e ?acee/aiey iauaeoia,
aeaeaeoueony a iiea iaoaai c?aiey n aieueoie nei?inoueth (“Ooiiaeueiue
yooaeo” o ieeioia, “yooaeo aeiiica aei?iae” o aiaeeoaeae e o.i. [4])
O.a. ana iu iuouaai i?enoonoaea eiia/iie nei?inoe aini?eyoey. A oa?ieiao
E. Eanoaiaaeu yoi icia/aao, /oi oi/ea nai?ee ia oniaaaao i?eaiaeeoue a
niioaaonoaea aieieia iaaeaeo niaie, iaania/eaay oai naiui aini?eyoea
in?aaeiaiiie ea?oeiu ie?oaeathuaai ie?a.

Oaeaea, iaaethaeay ca ?aaioie oi/ee nai?ee o ?aciuo ethaeae, aeaeyuea
auaeaeeee ia?iiiia ioee/ea iaaeaeo aini?eyoeai aeaoae e ac?ineuo. Auei
ioia/aii, /oi oi/ee nai?ee aeaoae iiaeaeaeiu, a oi a?aiy eae o ac?ineuo
iie i?i/ii oeene?iaaiu a iaeiii ianoa, e eeoue ec?aaeea i?aoa?iaaatho
neaaua eieaaaiey. Iinea yoiai ioe?uoey auea ioia/aia neaaeothuay
iniaaiiinoue: oi/ee nai?ee aieaa noa?oeo ethaeae oeene?othony a
ii?aaeaeaiiii ianoa a neeo i?eau/ee. Aeaoe aea yaeythony aieaa
naiaiaeiuie a neeo iaeiai aeeciaiiiai iiuoa e iiyoiio eiatho aieaa
iiaeaeaeiia iniciaiea. Enoaoe, oi?ioi ecaanoii, /oi iiiaea aeaoe a
?aiiai aic?anoa aini?eieiatho ie?oaeathuee ie? ia oae iaeiicia/ii, eae
ac?ineua. Iniaaiii a ?aiiai aic?anoa aeaoe i/aiue /aoei e ino?i iuouatho
iano?iaiea ie?oaeathueo ethaeae. Iinoaiaiiay oeenaoeey oi/ee nai?ee n
ac?ineaieai /aeiaaea ?aaiicia/ia iaaaeiaieth ea?oeiu ie?oaeathuaai ie?a
eee aai ?ooeiecaoeee. Iai anai oi?ioi ecaanoii ninoiyiea ?ooeiu, eioi?ia
iu eniuouaaai i?e iiiaie?aoiii iiaoi?aiee ii?aaeaeaiiuo aeaenoaee. Yoi
yaeyaony ?acoeueoaoii oeenaoeee oi/ee nai?ee, o.a. oo?aoie iiaeaeaeiinoe
iniciaiey a ?acoeueoaoa ana oie aea i?eau/ee. aiai?y i iaoaiecia iyoia
aini?eyoey, iaiaoiaeeii aeacaoue i naiii iaoiaea, eae aini?eieiaao
/aeiaae. Auai? iauaeoia, eioi?ua aeiioneathony a iiea iaoaai c?aiey,
i?iecaiaeeony iniaui iaoaieciii, eioi?ue Eanoaiaaea iacaae aieiaieai.
Iinea oiai, eae aieiaiea aua?aei a?oiio iauaeoia e aini?eyoeth,
i?ienoiaeeo oeenaoeey oi/ee nai?ee ia aieieiao, niioaaonoaothueo aeaiiuo
iauaeoia. Caoai i?ienoiaeeo aeo iniciaiey aini?eiyoiai, caeanue
Eanoaiaaea aeaeaao i/aiue aaaeiia aeiiieiaiea i iaoaiecia, eioi?ue
i?aaenoaaeyao iaoaio niciaieth oo eee eioth oi?io iauaeoa. (Iiae oi?iie
a aeaiiii neo/aa iiae?acoiaaaaony any niaieoiiinoue eioi?iaoeee ia
iauaeoa.) Yoio iaoaieci aue iacaai aeoii eioa?i?aoaoeee.

Iniiaiui iaoaieciii oeenaoeee iniciaiey /aeiaaea yaeyaony iniaia
aioo?aiiaa ninoiyiea, eioi?ia anai iai oi?ioi ecaanoii. Aaoi?u [4,5]
iacaaee oaeia ninoiyiea aioo?aiiei aeeaeiaii. Iu ana ciaai, /oi aioo?e
eaaeaeiai ec ian eaeao iinoiyiiue aioo?aiiee ?acaiai?, /oi i?aaenoaaeyao
ec naay iai?a?uaiue iioie iuneae. Oaeaea iaiaoiaeeii ioiaoeoue, /oi
ea?oeia aini?eieiaaiiai ie?a e i?aaeea aa aini?eyoey ieacuaathony
iaaycaiiuie iai a i?ioeanna iaoaai ac?ineaiey, ainieoaiey, iao/aiey. A
i?eioeeia, iaoa ainieoaiea iiaeii ?anniao?eaaoue, eae naiaia?acioth
oi?io “ae?anne?iaee” iaoaai aini?eyoey aieaa noa?oeie iniayie (yoi
i?ienoiaeeo a ii?aaeaeaiiie noaiaie e a aeeaioiii ie?a). Iaoa aini?eyoea
ia/eiaeinue n oiai, /oi ian, a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue, iao/aee aiai?eoue, a
neaaeiaaoaeueii, iai anai aeoiaoue. Iinoaiaiii iai auea ia?aaeaia
iauai?eiyoay ea?oeia ie?a, ia aucuaathuay niiiaiee. A ?acoeueoaoa iaoaai
ac?ineaiey i?iecioea oeenaoeey iaoaai iniciaiey aieaa noa?oeie iniayie.
Ii naiia oaeeaeoaeueiia oi, /oi a iineaaenoaee iu aini?eieiaai
ie?oaeathuoth aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue eiaiii a oii aeaea e oai niiniaii,
eioi?ua auee iai iaaycaiu a oa/aiee aeeeoaeueiiai i?ioeanna iaoaai
ainieoaiey e iao/aiey. Iiaeiaiay ae?anne?iaea aieiaiey i?ienoiaeeo
i?aeoe/anee o eaaeaeiai aeieiae/aneiai aeaea, iaeiaei o ethaeae yoio
i?ioeann iaeaieaa aeeeoaeai e ioee/aaony oai, /oi iniiaiui iaoiaeii
ae?anne?iaee, eee oeenaoeee iniciaiey, yaeyaony ?acaiai?.

I?aeoe/anee, eiaaea caeai/eaaaony iaoa ainieoaiea, iu ana oaea
yaeyainy

“caeiaeieeaie” iauai?eiyoie ea?oeiu ie?a, eee iauai?eiyoie eaeae
ie?oaeathuae aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, /oi ia naiii aeaea yaeyaony, eae
ioia/aao aaoi? [4], “iauai?eiyoui niaeaoaieai i ea?oeia ie?a”. Iieo/ea
iaeiaaeaeu iienaiea ie?oaeathuaai ie?a, /aeiaae ioiuia aoaeao i?eiaiyoue
aai a i?ioeanna naiae aeecie. Oa?aeoa?ii, /oi ana niaiaaeathuaa n
aeaiiui iienaieai ie?a aini?eieiaaony e iniciaaony, iaeiaei, ana, /oi ia
niaiaaeaao n iienaieai, eeai ia aini?eieiaaony aiana, eeai aucuaaao
aeeneiioi?o, neeueiue no?ao, a eiiaaea aeaaea ninoiyiea oaeana. Aeaei a
oii, /oi i?aaiu aini?eyoey /aeiaaea iaoiaeyony a iieiie caaeneiinoe o
iienaiey ie?a, eio?ui aeaaeaao aeaiiue /aeiaae. Oi. /oi yaeyaony
iineoaeai e o?aieoaeai aeaiiiai iauai?eiyoiai iienaiey ie?a, iiaeii
iacaaoue iaoei ?acoiii. “?acoi – iniaue iaoaieci, eioi?ue i?ecaai
eeanneoeoee?iaaoue ana aini?eieiaaiia, iie?aynue ia iienaiea ea?oeiu
ie?a” [4]. Oaeei ia?acii iiaeii neacaoue, /oi ana, iiiaaeathuaa a iiea
aini?eyoey, nia/aea eeanneoeoee?oaony e eioa?i?aoe?oaony ?acoiii ia
iniiaa iauai?eiyoiai niaeaoaiey i ea?oeia ie?oaeathuae
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe. ?acoi iinoiyiii naa?yaony n aeaiiui iienaieai e
i?aeoe/anee ia eeanneoeoee?oao iauaeou eee yaeaiey, ia niaiaaeathuea n
iei. A [5] aiai?eony, /oi “naa/aiea iiey iniciaiey aie?oa /aeiaaea e
oi/ea nai?ee yaeythony oaeeie aea iauaeoeaiuie oaeoaie, eae e aai
oece/aneia oaei.” Iaeiaei aeaiiua iiiyoey ia aoiaeyo a iauai?eiyoia
iienaiea ie?a e iiyoiio ia aini?eieiathony iiaeaaeythuei aieueoeinoaii
ethaeae. Aaoi? [4] ioia/aao, /oi ia i?ioyaeaiee aeieaiai a?aiaie ?aaiou
n aeaoueie auei caia/aii, /oi ia ?aiieo noaaeeyo ainieoaiey iaeioi?ua
aeaoe oeene?otho iaee/ea aeiiiey aie?oa /aeiaa/aneiai oaea. E
niaeaeaieth, oaeea aeaoe, eae i?aaeei, n/eoathony aeaoueie n
“ioeeiiaieyie ineoeee”.

Aiai?y i iaoaiecia eioa?i?aoaoeee iiaeii inoaiiaeoueny ia i?inoii
i?eia?a i?eaiaeeiii a ?aaioa [4]. Anai iai oi?ioi ecaanoia neooaoeey,
eiaaea ?acoi

aeiioneaao iaaieueoea “ioeaee” a aini?eyoee iauaeoia. I/aiue /anoi
eeoaie niooaaoeony ieoie ia iieo eee nooay aaoea aini?eieiaaony iaie,
iai?eia?, eae i?e/oaeeeaia ianaeiiia, iaeiaei /a?ac iaeioi?ia a?aiy,
i?eaeyaeaaoenue, iu aeaeei, /oi i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ia naiii aeaea
aeaiiue iauaeo. E aio eiaiii a yoio

iiiaio ?anoa?yiiinoe e i?ienoiaeeo iiaeaiiea aini?eieiaaiie ea?oeiu iiae
ciaeiiia iienaiea, iinea /aai ?acoi eniuouaaao oniieiaiea. Iiaeii
neacaoue oaeaea, /oi ?acoi aeiaieueii oaea/ii ni?aaeyaony n caaea/ae
iaaaeiaiey iaoaai aini?eyoey aei ieieiaeueii iaiaoiaeeiiai o?iaiy,
io?aiyy oai naiui iaoa niciaiea io iaoenea iaiinoeaeeiuo nee.

2. Oaeia niiaeaeaiey.

Iaeaieaa eioa?aniie e iaeieco/aiiie iaeanoueth /aeiaa/aneiai
niciaiey yaeyaony iniaia ninoiyiea ethaeae – niiaeaeaiea. Aaconeiaii,
aei neo ii? i?aaei?eieiaeenue iiiuoee enneaaeiaaiee aeaiiiai yaeaiey
o/aiuie-ineoieiaaie. Iaeiaei i?eiaiyaiua iaoiaeu, a aieueoeinoaa naiai,
i?aaenoaaeytho anaai eeoue iiiuoee eeanneoeeaoeee aeaiiiai ninoiyiey a
oa?ieiao ana oiai aea iauai?eiyoiai iienaiey ie?oaeathuae
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe. E. Eanoaiaaea a naieo ?aaioao inaaoee niaa?oaiii
ae?oaie iiaeoiae e niiaeaeaieth e aeae i?aeoe/aneea iaoiaeu,
iicaieythuea ii-iiaiio acaeyiooue ia aeaiiia yaeaiea. Iaeioi?ua oaoieee
i?aeoeeiaaeenue a?oiiie iieiaeuo o/aiuo e aaoi?ii [4] ia i?ioyaeaiee
iineaaeieo 4 eao. Iniiaiua iieiaeaiey eo enneaaeiaaiee iiaeii auei au
naanoe e neaaeothuaio:

1) Auei caia/aii, /oi o niyuaai /aeiaaea i?ienoiaeeo i/aiue ieaaiia e
aa?iiie/iia niauaiea oi/ee nai?ee a i?ioeanna nia. Iai anai oi?ioi
ecaanoii, /oi niiaeaeaiey yaeythony i/aiue iiaeaeaeiuie e aeeiaie/iuie
aeaeaieyie ?acee/iuo ea?oei e ia?aaeeaaieai iuouaiee aieioue aei
oaeoeeueiuo. Yoi iauyniyaony oai, /oi

i?e naeaeaa oi/ee nai?ee ai nia iia ia/eiaao caaeaenoaiaoue iiaua io/ee
aieieii,

eioi?ua ia iiaoo auoue aeinooiiu a i?ioeanna aiae?noaiaaiey. Eae oaea
aiai?eeinue,

ana /aeiaa/aneea nouanoaa i?eioaeeoaeueii oeene?otho naie oi/ee nai?ee a
i?eau/iii iieiaeaiee, iaeiaei yoi ia iiaeao i?ienoiaeeoue aeiaieueii
aeieai a neeo aieueoeo cao?ao ineoe/aneie yia?aee ia oaea?aeaiea oi/ee
nai?ee, iiyoiio iaiaoiaeeiinoue nia aucaaia ia noieueei iaeiieaieai
oece/aneie onoaeinoe oaea /aeiaaea, neieueei iaiaoiaeeiinoueth
ineaaeaiey oeenaoeee oi/ee nai?ee ai nia aeey ainnoaiiaeaiey yia?aee.
I?aoa?iaaay aeaeaeaiea ai a?aiy nia, oi/ea nai?ee caaeaenoaoao ?aciua
io/ee aieieii, a ?acoeueoaoa /aai iu aeaeei eiiaaea niaa?oaiii
oaioanoe/iua ea?oeiu. Oae eae ae?oaea io/ee aieieii niioaaonaotho
ae?oaei iieyi yia?aee, ai nia iu aeaenoaeoaeueii aeinoeaaai iiae/an
aaniethoii ae?oaeo ie?ia e aeaaea oeaeuo anaeaiiuo, eioi?ua
niioaaonoaotho yoei yia?aaoe/aneei iieyi. Iao iaoaieci eioa?i?aoaoeee (a
oaeaea iao ?aoeeiiaeeci) /anoe/ii i?iaeieaeaao ?aaioaoue e ai nia. *ai
aieaa oaioanoe/iay ianoaiiaea ?acai?a/eaaaony ia?aae iaie a niiaeaeaiee,
oai aieaa ioee/iia iiea yia?aee aeinoeaiooi a aeaiiue iiiaio. Iu ana
ciaai, /oi niiaeaeaiey aieueoeinoaa ethaeae eciaeeotho iiiaeie
“iano?aciuie” iauaeoaie, eioi?ua ia iiaoo auoue ieeaeei ia?acii
eeanneoeoee?iaaiu, iaeiaei iiaoo auoue aini?eiyou. Aei neo ii? auea
iiioey?ia oai?ey i iaeiieaiee e i?iaeoeee a niiaeaeaiea inoaoi/iuo
ia?aaeeaaiee iinea ninoiyiey aiae?noaiaaiey (iai?eia? [6]). Iaeiaei
aeaiiay oai?ey ia a ninoiyiee iauynieoue, ii/aio iu aeaeei iauaeou,
niaa?oaiii aeaeaeea io eaeiai-eeai iauaeaiiiai eee no?oeoo?e?iaaiiiai
iiuoa aini?eyoey. Ia naiii aeaea ai nia iniciaiea noaeeeaaaony n
niaa?oaiii eiuie ii naiaio oeio e i?ienoiaeaeaieth iieyie yia?aee,
i?eoiaeyueie ec ae?oaeo ?aaeueiinoae. A aeaiiii neo/aa ?acoi ia iiaeao
eeanneoeoee?iaaoue yoe iiey a niioaaonoaee n ecaanoiuie iienaieyie, a
?acoeueoaoa /aai iao iaoaieci eioa?i?aoaoeee i?aaenoaaeyao iai
niaa?oaiii oaioanoe/iua ea?oeiu. I/aiue /anoi noieeiiaaiea ai nia n
/oaea?iaeiui oeiii yia?aee aucuaaao o ian neeueiue no?ao, iinea /aai
iaiaaeeaiii n?aaaouaatho caueoiua ooieoeee ?acoia e iu i?inuiaainy.
I?iaeaia iieiioeaiiiai aini?eyoey a niiaeaeaiee ninoieo a oii, /oi aac
aeieaeiie o?aie?iaee aieiaiey o ian iao aiciiaeiinoe “caoeaieoueny” ca
aini?eieiaaioth ea?oeio, o.e. oi/ea nai?ee iiaeaeaeia a niiaeaeaiee e
aini?eieiaaiua ea?oeiu, eae i?aaeei, ieiieaoiu e auno?i niaiytho ae?oa
ae?oaa. E?eoe/aneie oa?aeoa?enoeeie niiaeaeaiey iiaeii auei au iacaaoue
“iieiioo aini?eyoey”, o.a. ea?oeiu, aeaeeiua ai nia ioee/athony eiaiii
yoei io ea?oeiu aini?eieiaaiie aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe a ninoiyiee
aiae?noaiaaiey.

Ionoonoaea iieiiou aini?eyoey a niiaeaeaiee i?iaeeeoiaaii ia
oieueei iauai?eiyoui iiaieai i i?e?iaea niiaeaeaiey, ii e
iao?aie?iaaiiinoueth aieiaiey

/aeiaaea, iaoiaieai eiioeaio?e?iaaoue aieiaiea ai nia. Iineaaeiaa
aucaaii ia oieueei iaciaieai aieueoeinoaa ethaeae i oaeie aiciiaeiinoe,
ii e anaiauei iiaieai i i?e?iaea niiaeaeaiee, eae yaeaiee, ia eiathueo
ieeaeie neeu.

3. Niaeaoaiea i ea?oeia ie?oaeathuae aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe.

Eae aiai?eeinue auoa, ana /aeiaa/aneea nouanoaa iiaeaea?aeeaatho
aaeeioth, ia aucuaathuoth niiiaiee, ea?oeio ie?oaeathuae
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe. Ianiio?y ia iaeioi?ua aaia?aoe/aneea,
nioeeaeueii-eoeueoo?iua, ?aeeaeiciua e iieeoe/aneea ioee/ey a aeecie
ethaeae, ana iu aini?eieiaai ie?oaeathuee ie? iaeeiaeiai. Eae neacaii a
[4], yoi i?ienoiaeeo iioiio, /oi ia i?ioyaeaiee anae iaoae niciaoaeueiie
aeecie iu ianai n niaie niaeaoaiea i ea?oeia ie?a, eioi?ia auei
ia?aaeaii iai a i?ioeanna iaoaai ainieoaiey, iao/aiey e iauaiey. Iiaeii
neacaoue, /oi iu yaeyainy i?aeoe/anee caeiaeieeaie o aeaiiiai iienaiey,
eioi?ia ieeiaaea ia iicaieyao iai oniiieoueny a ?aaeueiinoe e
iaeiicia/iie aeaoa?ieie?iaaiiinoe ie?oaeathuaai ie?a.

Iaoa aieiaiea iao?aie?iaaii aini?eieiaoue aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue no?iai
ii?aaeaeaiiui ia?acii, e iiaeii neacaoue, /oi a yoii ieaia ana iu
yaeyainy ianoa?aie oaeiai iaoiaea aini?eyoey. Anai iai i?enou
?aoeeiiaeeci, eioi?ue oaea/ii

iiaeaea?aeeaaao iacuaeaiinoue ea?oeiu ie?a. A ?aaioa [5] aaoi? ioia/aao,
/oi ?aoeeiiaeeci canoaaeyao ian oaeaea aa?eoue, /oi oi, eae iu
aini?eieiaai ie? e yaeyaony aaeeinoaaiii aiciiaeiui niiniaii.
Ia?aaeienaeueii, ii n ae?oaie noi?iiu, iai oi?ioi ecaanoii, /oi
onoie/eainoue aini?eyoey iiaeao auoue eaaei ?ac?ooaia ii?aaeaeaiiui
aicaeaenoaeai ia iaoa oaei, iai?eia?, i?e oiio?aaeaiee aeeiaiey eee
ineoiaeaee/aneeo n?aaenoa. A aeaiiii neo/aa, ?aoeeiiaeeci iaoiaeeo
ioaeiia iauyniaiea iineaaenoaeyi aeaiiuo aicaeaenoaee, iaeiaei aaoi? [5]
ioia/aao, /oi yoe aauanoaa iiaoo eaaei niauaoue oi/eo nai?ee. Eae
ecaanoii, oiio?aaeaiea aaeethoeeiiaaiiuo n?aaenoa eniieuecoaony a
oaiaiecia e auei au aeoii ooaa?aeaeaoue, /oi yoi aucaaii oieueei
o?aaeeoeeae. Aeaei a oii, /oi i?eau/ea oeene?iaaoue oi/eo nai?ee a
iauaeaiiii iieiaeaiee e ainiiaenoaothuaa iienaiea ie?oaeathuae
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe ianoieueei neeueiu, /oi o /aeiaaea i?aeoe/anee iao
aiciiaeiinoe naiinoiyoaeueii naeaeiooue iyoii aini?eyoey a iiaia
iieiaeaiea. Iaeiaei ia?eioeee aeaeatho yoi i/aiue eaaei e auno?i, ia
iicaieyy, i?aaaea, eiio?iee?iaaoue aeaiiue i?ioeann.

Oaoaeueiie i?eau/eie /aeiaaea yaeyaony oaeaea “iio?aaiinoue a
aani?a?uaiii aioo?aiiai aeeaeiaa”. A ?aaioa [4] aaoi? i?eaiaeeo
i?inoaeoee i?eia? – aeinoaoi/ii eiiaaea eeoue i?eneooaoueny e naiaio
iioieo iuneae e iu ooo aea caia/aai, eae ethaie iauaeo, iiiaaeathuee a
iiea iaoaai c?aiey, iieo/aao iiiaioaeueioth neiaanioth ioeaieo a iaoae
aieiaa. I?a?aaoue aioo?aiiee aeeaeia icia/aao ineaaeoue oeenaoeeth oi/ee
nai?ee a i?eau/iii iieiaeaiee. Iaeiaei yoi yaeyaony o?oaeiiaeinoeaeeiui
oiieei ninoiyieai niciaiey a neeo ana oie aea i?eau/ee, e iaaea?ii ana
ecioa?e/aneea oaoieee, aoaeue oi eiaa n aa nenoaiie iaaeeoaoeee, eee
aecai n aai i?eioeeiii aaciuneey (o-nei: ia iuneth) – ana yoi iai?aaeaii
eeoue e iaeiiio: i?a?aaoue aaneiia/iue iuneaiiue ?acaiai?. Eae oieueei
iioie iuneae inoaiaaeeaaaony, oi/ea nai?ee noaiiaeony iiaeaeaeiie, a
niciaiea i?eia?aoaao aeaeinoue. A ?aaioa [4] aaoi? ioia/aao, /oi
iiaeaeaeiinoue oi/ae nai?ee o aeaoae iauyniyaony oaeaea e oai, /oi iie
ia ianoo a naaa oaeie ?anoe?aiiue nienie i?aaenoaaeaiee ia ie?oaeathuai
ie?a, a cia/eo e ia eiatho oaeiai neiaeiiai e ?acaeoiai aioo?aiiaai
aeeaeiaa, eae ac?ineua, iiyoiio iie ia oeene?otho naia niciaiea oae aea
aeanoei.

4. ?acoi e i?ioeann iiciaiey.

A aeaiiie aeaaa oioaeinue au e?aoei einioony nianoaaiii iaoiaeieiaee
iiciaiey /aeiaaeii ie?oaeathuae aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe. Iaiaoiaeeii
caiaoeoue, /oi aieueoeinoai iaoe ia naaiaeiyoiee aeaiue eiatho
i?aeoe/anee aaeeiue iiaeoiae, ianiio?y ia ?aciua iaeanoe enneaaeiaaiee,
e i?ioeanno iiciaiey. A naiae ?aaioa [5]

Eanoaiaaea aiai?eo: “aieueoeinoai iao/iuo nenoai i?aaenoaaeytho niaie
anaai eeoue

eiaaioa?iua nienee iiiyoee.” O.a., ianiio?y ia noieaoey io?aaioee
iaoiaeia iao/iuo enneaaeiaaiee, iauoth noaio iiaeii auei au iienaoue
neaaeothuei ia?acii (a /anoiinoe, aeey anoanoaaiiuo iaoe): nianoaaiii
i?aeoe/aneia enneaaeiaaiea, /anoi n auaeaeaeaieai aeiioacu, yenia?eiaio,
iieo/aiea aeaiiuo e eo ia?aaioea, ?ac?aaioea oai?ee. E aio caeanue
n?aaaouaaao iaeia ec oa?aeoa?iuo ooieoeee ?acoia, iacaaiiay Eanoaiaaeie
“yaeaieai eiaaioa?ecaoeee” eee “eiaooeie eiaaioa?ecaoeee” [4].

*aeiaa/anoai aeaenoaeoaeueii iiae/an noaeeeaaaony n oaeeaeoaeueiuie ii
naiae aeoaeia e neiaeiinoe yaeaieyie, iaeiaei iniciaiea aeaiiiai yaeaiey
e aai eco/aiea niaeanothony e ia auoiaeyo ca ?aiee iauai?eiyoiai
i?aaenoaaeaiey i ie?a. ?acoi ii-i?aaeiaio i?iaeieaeaao
eeanneoeoee?iaaoue eaeoth-eeai caaea/o, iie?aynue ia aioo?aiiee aeeaeia
e iauai?eiyoia iienaiea. Eiaaea aea nouanoaothuay nenoaia i?aaenoaaeaiee
(a oi/iaa iaai? eiaaioa?iuo nieneia ?acoia) oaea ia iiaeao io?aaeaoue
aeaiiia yaeaiea, iu nicaeaai iiaue eiaaioa?iue nienie, iacuaay yoi iiaie
oai?eae. Ia naiii aea aeaea yoi anaai-eeoue ?anoe?aiea e oneiaeiaiea
aioo?aiiaai aeeaeiaa /aeiaaea. Aieaa eee iaiaa aeoaieia ciaiea oiai eee
eiiai eiaaioa?iiai nienea aeaeaao /aeiaaea o/aieeii eee ianoa?ii a
aeaiiie iaeanoe. Oaeei ia?acii, iie?aynue ia ?aaioo ?acoia e n/eoay aai
aaeeinoaaiii aiciiaeiui eino?oiaioii iiciaiey, iu neaii aa?ainy eco/aoue
yaeaiey, aeoaeio e nooue eioi?uo ?acoi iiciaoue ia a ninoiyiee. E aio
caeanue aicieeatho, iai?eia? oaeea ia?aciaaiey, eae oai?ey iiaeiaey,
iaoaiaoe/aneeia iiaeaee?iaaiea, eaaioiaay iaoaieea, eioi?ua, aaconeiaii
yooaeoeaii ?aaioatho a ii?aaeaeaiiie iaeanoe iiciaiey, ii aeaiiua
iaoiaeu yaeythony eeoue ?aoeaeneae ia oi, /oi ?acoi ia a neeao iienaoue
e iiiyoue anae neiaeiinoe yaeaiee ie?oaeathuaai ie?a, oioy n caaea/ae
eiaaioa?ecaoeee e aeene?aoecaoeee neiaeiuo yaeaiee a aieaa i?inoua
ni?aaeyaony aeiaieueii oniaoii. Iiaeii auei au neacaoue, /oi i?aaiu
aini?eyoey eeoue oeene?otho, a ?acoi eeanneoeoee?oao e eioa?i?aoe?oao
iauaeoeaiua aicaeaenoaey ie?oaeathuaai ie?a. Iaeiaei oi, /oi
i?aaenoaaeyaony aiineaaenoaee a aeaea iauyniaiee, yaeyaony /enoui
i?iecaieii naiiai ?acoia, a niioaaonoaee n iauai?eiyoui niaeaoaieai i
ea?oeia ie?oaeathuaai ie?a. *ai n aieaa neiaeiui yaeaieai noaeeeaaaony
?acoi, oai aieaa neiaeiue e ?acaa?iooue a oaeaea a?iiicaeeee eiaaioa?iue
nienie ii no?aieony iinoaaeoue a niioaaonoaea aeaiiiio yaeaieth [4].
Iiyoiio iai anai oi?ioi ecaanoii, ianeieueei neo/iuie aeey iiieiaiey
yaeythony aieueoeinoai oai?ee. Oi anoue iiaeii neacaoue, /oi ?acoi
nicaeaao neiaeiaeoea iienaiey, a ia iniiaaiee yoeo iienaiee ?iaeaeaao
neiaeiaeoea oaoiieiaee.

Iaeiaei naiui oaeeaeoaeueiui yaeyaony oio oaeo, /oi eiaaioa?iua nienee
?acoia i?iaeieaeatho ?aaioaoue eeoue aei oao ii?, iiea oi/ea nai?ee
/aeiaaea ia eciaieo naiaai iieiaeaiey.

Caeeth/aiea

Aaconeiaii, iiuo Ea?eina Eanoaiaaeu e aai eieae iaiaoiaeeii
?anniao?eaaoue, eae oaeeaeoaeueiue iiuo, eioi?ue oai ia iaiaa, oaia?ue
aeinooiai e iai. E niaeaeaieth, i/a?aaeiie oeiaeie iaoaai ?aoeeiiaeecia
yaeyaony iiaiea, /oi iiciaiea a iaeanoe aeoaeiiuo oaei /aeiaaea
aiciiaeii oieueei a n?aaea o?oaeiiiiiyoiuo, eae i?aaeei, noaoai
“yoie/aneeo” o?ainoeaaeaioiuo e ecioa?e/aneeo oaoiee. Iao ?acoi,
iao?aie?iaaiiue ca ia?eiae ac?ineaiey e iao/aiey, ia niaeaoaaony n oai,
“/oi eeth/ io oaeiu eaaeeo i?yii o iaoeo iia.”[4]

E oio aea ?aoeeiiaeeci i?aa?auaao iiiuoee eco/aiey aioo?aiiae i?e?iaeu
/aeiaaea a e?aeiea neo/iia caiyoea, canoaaeyy ia?aueaaoue eiaaioa?iua
nienee iiiyoee, eioi?ua, ii iiaieth ?acoia, aeieaeiu “i?iynieoue”
caaaaeeo /aeiaaea.

Iaiaoiaeeii i?eciaoue, /oi iu i?aeoe/anee ie/aai ia ciaai ia
ie?oaeathuai ie?a e aai oaeiao aia ?aiie iaoaai iienaiey ie?a. Ana, /oi
eaaeeo ca iienaieai, yaeyaony aeey ian nooue iaecaanoiui. Iaciaiea
“aeoaeiu” ie?a i?eaiaeeo e oiio, /oi iiiaia ec nicaeaiiiai iaie
?ac?ooaao ie? aie?oa ian, oai naiui ?ac?ooay ian naieo. Naaiaeiy iu oaea
caauee, /oi cia/eo iaoiaeeoueny a niaeanee n ie?oaeathuei ie?ii. A
?acoeueoaoa iu aeiaeaaainy naieo oeaeae neiaeiaeoeie iino?iaieyie e
i/aiue /anoi ?aoaai caaea/o einaaiiui iooai, caauaay, /oi ie/aai ec
ie?oaeathuae aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe ia iiaeao i?eiaaeeaaeaoue iai.
“I?eeiniooueny oioy au ia iiaiiaaiea e oaeia Anaeaiiie – aio
aaeeinoaaiiay iaa?aaea e aaeeinoaaiiay aiciiaeiinoue iiiyoue ana aaee/ea
e aanue oaean oiai, /oi ou – /aeiaae.” [4]

Eeoa?aoo?a

1. Iaoiaee/aneea ?ac?aaioee aeey anie?aioia ii oeeinioee. /ecae. IAE,
I.,1996

2. Aeaa?ue a eiua ie?u./E. Eanoaiaaea, ecae. Nioey, Eeaa 1995

3. Iaiiue ecioo?e./E. Eanoaiaaea, ecae. Nioey eeaa 1993

4. Oaeia aini?eyoey e iniciaiey./ E. A. Aeaenaaa, ecae. IAE. I. 1996

5. Neea aaciieaey./E. Eanoaiaaea, ecae. Nioey, Eeaa, 1995

6. Ineoieiaey aanniciaoaeueiiai./C. O?aeae, ecae. I., 1990

– PAGE 10 –

– PAGE 9 –

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