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23

Oeueyiianeee Ainoaea?noaaiiue Oaoie/aneee Oieaa?neoao

Aaeaoeeiiiue oeeeae

Eaoaae?a yeiiiieee, oi?aaeaiey, eioi?iaoeee

EO?NIAAss ?AAIOA

ii oaia: “Naienoaa neiiao?ee e caeiia nio?aiaiey”

Auiieieea: nooaeaioea a?oiiu IAe-23

__________________________

I?iaa?ee: __________________________

__________________________

a. Oeueyiiane

1998 a.

AAAAeAIEA

Neiai “neiiao?ey” (“symmetria”) eiaao a?a/aneia
i?ienoiaeaeaiea e icia/aao “ni?acia?iinoue”. A iianaaeiaaiii ycuea iiae
neiiao?eae iiieiatho /aua anaai oii?yaei/aiiinoue, aa?iiieth,
ni?acia?iinoue. Aa?iiie/iay niaeaniaaiiinoue /anoae e oeaeiai yaeyaony
aeaaiui enoi/ieeii ynoaoe/aneie oeaiiinoe neiiao?ee. E?enoaeeu ecaeaaia
ainoeuaee ian naiei niaa?oainoaii, no?iaie neiiao?e/iinoueth oi?i.
Neiiao?e/iua iicaeee, o?anee, a?oeoaeoo?iua ainaiaee aoaeyo a ethaeyo
/oanoai i?ae?aniiai, iocueaeueiua e iiyoe/aneea i?iecaaaeaiey aucuaatho
ainoeuaiea eiaiii naiae aa?iiie/iinoueth. Oaeei ia?acii, iiaeii
aiai?eoue i i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe neiiao?ee e eaoaai?ee i?ae?aniiai.

Iao/iia ii?aaeaeaiea neiiao?ee i?eiaaeeaaeeo e?oiiiio
iaiaoeeiio iaoaiaoeeo Aa?iaio Aaeeth (1885-1955), eioi?ue a naiae
caia/aoaeueiie eieaa “Neiiao?ey” i?iaiaeece?iaae oaeaea ia?aoiae io
i?inoiai /oanoaaiiiai aini?eyoey neiiao?ee e aa iao/iiio iiieiaieth.
Niaeanii Aaeeth, iiae neiiao?eae neaaeoao iiieiaoue iaeciaiiinoue
(eiaa?eaioiinoue) eaeiai-eeai iauaeoa i?e ii?aaeaeaiiiai ?iaea
i?aia?aciaaieyo. Iiaeii neacaoue, /oi neiiao?ey anoue niaieoiiinoue
eiaa?eaioiuo naienoa iauaeoa. Iai?eia?, e?enoaee iiaeao niaiauaoueny n
naiei niaie i?e ii?aaeaeaiiuo iiai?ioao, io?aaeaieyo, niauaieyo. Iiiaea
aeeaioiua iaeaaeatho i?eaeeaeaiiie ca?eaeueiie neiiao?eae i?e io?aaeaiee
eaaie iieiaeiu oaea a i?aaoth e iaiai?io. Iaeiaei iiae/eiyoueny caeiiai
neiiao?ee iiaeao ia oieueei iaoa?eaeueiue, ii e, e i?eia?o,
iaoaiaoe/aneee iauaeo. Iiaeii aiai?eoue ia eiaa?eaioiinoe ooieoeee,
o?aaiaiey, iia?aoi?a i?e oao eee eiuo i?aia?aciaaieyo nenoaiu
eii?aeeiao. Yoi a naith i/a?aaeue iicaieyao i?eiaiyoue eaoaai?eth
neiiao?ee e caeiiai oeceee. Oae neiiao?ey aoiaeeo a iaoaiaoeeo e oeceeo,
aaea iia oaeaea neoaeeo enoi/ieeii e?aniou e ecyuanoaa.

Iinoaiaiii oeceea ioe?uaaao ana iiaua aeaeu neiiao?ee
caeiiia i?e?iaeu: anee aia/aea ?anniao?eaaeenue eeoue
i?ino?ainoaaiii-a?aiaiiua (aaiiao?e/aneea) aeaeu neiiao?ee, oi a
aeaeueiaeoai auee ioe?uou aa iaaaiiao?e/aneea aeaeu (ia?anoaiiai/iay,
eaeea?iai/iay, oieoa?iay e ae?.). Iineaaeiea ioiinyony e caeiiai
acaeiiaeaenoaee, e eo iauaaeeiytho iauei iacaaieai “aeeiaie/aneay
neiiao?ey”.

NEIIAO?Ess.

Aiaeec ?acaeoey oeceee iicaieyao caiaoeoue, /oi ii o?oaeiiio iooe e
eaeaaeo — aaeeiie ea?oeia ie?a — aa aaea eaeay neiiao?ee. N iiiiuueth
i?aaenoaaeaiey i neiiao?ee /aeiaae iuoaaony iiiyoue ii?yaeie, e?anioo e
niaa?oainoai i?e?iaeu. Ia?aiia/aeueiue niune neiiao?ee — yoi
ni?acia?iinoue, noiaenoai, iiaeiaea, ii?yaeie, ?eoi, niaeaniaaiea /anoae
a oeaeinoiie no?oeoo?a. Neiiao?ey e no?oeoo?a ia?ac?uaii naycaiu. Anee
iaeioi?ay nenoaia eiaao no?oeoo?o, oi iia iaycaoaeueii eiaao e
iaeioi?oth neiiao?eth. Eaeay neiiao?ee eiaao eneeth/eoaeueiia cia/aiea e
eae aaaeouaa ia/aei a iniuneaiee no?oeoo?u oece/aneiai ciaiey. Aaeaa ee
iiaeii inia?eaaoue ya?enoe/aneoth oeaiiinoue e iaoiaeieiae/aneia
cia/aiea i?eioeeia neiiao?ee. Ecaanoii, /oi i?e ?aoaiee eiie?aoiuo
oece/aneeo i?iaeai yoio i?eioeei ea?aao ?ieue e?eoa?ey enoeiiinoe.

N ae?aaieo a?aiai eaeay neiiao?ee ieacuaaea ia?iiiia aeeyiea ia
?acaeoea iao/iie iunee. Ia yoo eaeath aua i?e naiai aicieeiiaaiee
iie?aeenue iaoo?oeeinioey, einiieiaey e iaoaiaoeea. Ieoaai?aeoeu
nicaeaaaee ia?aua einiieiae/aneea nenoaiu oeaio?aeueii-neiiao?e/iie
Anaeaiiie, iie ?ac?aaioaee o/aiey i i?iii?oeeyo, i iocueaeueiuo oiiao e
i iyoe neiiao?e/iuo iiiaiaieineyo, ioiaeaeanoaeyaoeony n iniiaiuie
i?e?iaeiuie noeoeyie. Aeiian aaae oa?iei “neiiao?ey”, eioi?ue aoeaaeueii
icia/ae “ni?acia?iinoue”. Eaeae neiiao?ee, aa?iiiee e nio?aiaiey auee
iniiaiuie a no?oeoo?a ae?aaiaa?a/aneie iunee e iiieiaeenue eae
ia?aoiaeyuea ae?oa a ae?oaa. Aiaeneiaiae?, Aiaeneiai e Aa?aeeeo nicaeaee
o/aiea i aa/iii einiina, eioi?ue ia?eiaee/anee aicieeaao e oie?aao.
O/aiea Eaaeeiia e Aeaiie?eoa i ionoioa e aa/iuo e iaeciaiiuo, ii
aeaeaeoueony aoiiao iniiaaii ia eaeaa neiiao?ee, aa?iiiee e nio?aiaiey
iaoa?ee. Ionoioa, i eioi?ie aiai?eony a yoii o/aiee, iiaeao auoue
oneiaii i?aaenoaaeaia eae ia?aiia/aeueiue ia?ac aaca?aie/iiai
o?aoia?iiai iaeii?iaeiiai e ecio?iiiiai aaeeeaeiaa i?ino?ainoaa.

Ai a?aiy ?aiannaina eaeay neiiao?ee, caauoay a ia?eiae n?aaeiaaaeiauey,
auea aic?iaeaeaia. Ieeieae Eocaineee oi?ioee?oao iniiau eiioeaioeee
iaeii?iaeiiai ecio?iiiiai, aaneiia/iiai i?ino?ainoaa. O Eaiia?aei aea
Aei/e c?aao iuneue ia iaeii?iaeiinoe a?aiaie. A?aoiaiou, iniiaaiiua ia
eaeaa neiiao?ee, iiyaeythony a o/aiee I. Eiia?ieea. Nenoaia Eiia?ieea
ea?aao aaaeioth ?ieue a aini?eyoee eaeae i?ino?ainoaaiii-a?aiaiiie
neiiao?ee, iaiaoiaeeiie aeey ?acaeoey eeanne/aneie iaoaieee. Aeae. A?oii
ionoaeaaao iuneue i aaneiia/iii iaeii?iaeiii ecio?iiiii i?ino?ainoaa. A.
Aaeeeae oi?ioee?oao i?eioeeiu eia?oeee e ioiineoaeueiinoe. Ii, a oaeaea
E. Eaiea?, ?. Aeaea?o e X. Atheaain ?acaeaatho eaeae i
i?ino?ainoaaiii-a?aiaiiie neiiao?ee aei oaeie noaiaie, /oi iie
noaiiayony ooiaeaiaioaeueiuie a “Ia/aeao” E. Iuethoiia. Aaaaeaiea
iiiyoee aaniethoiiai i?ino?ainoaa e aaniethoiiai a?aiaie a
iuethoiiianeie iaoaieea i?eaiaeeo e iauaaeeiaieth eieaeueiie e
einiieiae/aneie neiiao?ee a aaeeioth neiiao?eth.

Iaeiaei ca?iaeeaoeeny a ia/aea XVII a. oai?aoeei-eiaa?eaioiue iiaeoiae
ia niia iieo/eoue iieiiai ?acaeoey. Iicaeiaa, a yiioo aiaeeoe/aneie
iaoaieee, onoaiiaeeny noeeue, i?e eioi?ii oece/aneay oai?ey
?anniao?eaaeanue oi?iaeueii eae iaoaiaoe/aneay oai?ey
aeeooa?aioeeaeueiuo o?aaiaiee. E. Yeea?, AE. Aeaeaiaa?, AE. Eaa?aiae
auaeaeioee ia ia?aue ieai aeneiiu aeeiaieee. Aeeiaie/aneee iiaeoiae ia
ioaeaeaeny a yaiii aeaea a eaeaa neiiao?ee, ii iie?aeny ia iaa iayaiui
ia?acii. E ai aoi?ie iieiaeia XVII a. eaeay neiiao?ee a?aiaiii iioa?yea
naia ooiaeaiaioaeueiia e ya?enoe/aneia cia/aiea. Caeiiu nio?aiaiey
oo?aoeee naie iniiaiua iiceoeee e noaee oai?aiaie — au/eneyeenue eae
eioaa?aeu aeaeaeaiey.

Oaeie noeeue iuoeaiey ainiiaenoaiaae aei ia/aea iaoaai noieaoey, eiaaea
ia ia?aaeiee ieai aue niiaa auaeaeioo oai?aoeei-eiaa?eaioiue iiaeoiae.
Noaei yniui, /oi ia?aoiae io aeeiaie/aneiai e oai?aoeei-eiaa?eaioiiio
noeeth iuoeaiey noae iaecaaaeiui. Aua a na?aaeeia XIX a. iinoaiaiii
oneeeaaeny eioa?an e i?eioeeiai neiiao?ee e nio?aiaiey. Yoio i?ioeann
noae ?acoeueoaoii aeaenoaey aeaoo oaeoi?ia. N iaeiie noi?iiu, oeceea
inaiaiaeaeaeanue io oaniuo ?aiie iaoaieee. Oi?ie?iaaeenue e auno?i
?acaeaaeenue iiaua iaeanoe oeceee — oa?iiaeeiaieea, iioeea,
yeaeo?iaeeiaieea. TH. Iaea? ioe?ue caeii nio?aiaiey e i?aa?auaiey
yia?aee. N ae?oaie noi?iiu, ?acaeaaeenue iiaua iaoaiaoe/aneea oai?ee —
oai?ey a?oii, iaaaeeeaeiaa aaiiao?ey.

Iaiaoiaeeii ioiaoeoue, /oi a eeanne/aneie oeceea XVII—XIX aa. eaeay
neiiao?ee ia auea yaii naycaia n i?eioeeiaie ioiineoaeueiinoe e
eiaa?eaioiinoe. Eae ecaanoii, a oeceea oa?iei “neiiao?ey” eaeao io
iaoo?oeeinioee e aaiiao?ee, e i?eiaiyeny ii i?aaeaea anaai a
e?enoaeeia?aoee, eioi?ay a ioee/ea io iaoaieee ia n/eoaeanue
ooiaeaiaioaeueiie. Ia?aui aia ?aiie oeceee e?enoaeeia eniieueciaae
eaeath neiiao?ee I. Eth?e, ?annoaeaeaaoee a 1894 a. i neiiao?ee
yeaeo?e/aneeo e iaaieoiuo iieae. Ii eaeay Eth?e inoaeanue
ia?ac?aaioaiiie e ia ieacaea aeeyiey ia ?acaeoea oeceee. E oieueei a
iineaaeiaa a?aiy, iinea ?aaio A. Aeaia?a, i?eioeeiu eiaa?eaioiinoe e
ioiineoaeueiinoe a ea/anoaa oece/aneeo caeiiia noaee iiieiaoueny yaiui
ia?acii eae i?eioeeiu neiiao?ee.

Eiaa?eaioiue iiaeoiae oi?ie?oaony e ooaa?aeaeaaony n iiyaeaieai
niaoeeaeueiie oai?ee ioiineoaeueiinoe. A ?aieao yoiai iiaeoiaea
oece/aneea oai?ee ?anniao?eaathony eae oai?ee eiaa?eaioia iaeioi?uo
a?oii i?aia?aciaaiee. Aeaeueiaeoaa ?acaeoea eaeae ioiineoaeueiinoe —
nicaeaiea iauae oai?ee ioiineoaeueiinoe, ?aeyoeaecaoeey ?acee/iuo
oece/aneeo oai?ee, iiuo ?ac?aaioee aaeeiie oai?ee iiey, nicaeaiea
?aeyoeaenoneie einiieiaee (?aaiou A. Yeiooaeia, A. aea Neooa?a, A.A.
O?eaeiaia) — i?eianee iiaua oniaoe a yoii iai?aaeaiee aua a ia?aie
/aoaa?oe iaoaai noieaoey. Y. Iaoa? auynieea naycue iaaeaeo i?eioeeiii
neiiao?ee e i?eioeeiii nio?aiaiey. Ieii/aoaeueii ooaa?aeeeny
eiaa?eaioiue iiaeoiae e a eaaioiaie oai?ee. A 1930 a. I. Aee?ae ienae:
“…Oai?ey i?aia?aciaaiee, eioi?ay i?aaeaea anaai auea eniieueciaaia a
oai?ee ioiineoaeueiinoe, a aneaae ca yoei e a eaaioiaie oai?ee,
au?aaeaao nouiinoue iiaiai iaoiaea a oai?aoe/aneie oeceea. Aa
nia?aiaiiue i?ia?ann ninoieo a oii, /oi iaoe o?aaiaiey noaiiayony
eiaa?eaioiuie ioiineoaeueii ana aieaa oe?ieiai eeanna i?aia?aciaaiee”. E
iienoeia, oniaoe nia?aiaiiie oeceee yeaiaioa?iuo /anoeoe iaiuneeiu aac
oai?ee eiaa?eaioia. I?eioeei neiiao?ee i?iiecuaaao ana no?oeoo?u
nia?aiaiiie oeceee. Eae iaoiaeieiae/aneee i?eioeei, ii eaaeeo a
iniiaaiee ?acee/iuo oece/aneeo oai?ee e ii?aaeaeyao no?oeoo?ioth
i?aaiecaoeeth nia?aiaiiie oece/aneie oai?ee eae oeaeiai.

Aeaoaeueii aiaeece?oy ?acee/iua eiie?aoiua aeaeu neiiao?ee, I.O.
Ia/eiieeia i?eoae e auaiaeo, /oi a aano?aeoiii aeaea i?eioeei neiiao?ee
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie aaeeinoai i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoae: eciaiaiey e
nio?aiaiey. “Aaeeinoai nio?aiaiey e aeaeaeaiey,— ieoao ii,— oaeiaa
e?aoeay oi?ioee?iaea neiiao?ee, au?aaeaiiay ia aano?aeoii-oai?aoe/aneii
o?iaia”. Oaeia ii?aaeaeaiea neiiao?ee i?aaenoaaeyaony iaeaieaa iauei e
i?eiaieiui aeey anyeiai neo/ay. Neiiao?ey icia/aao, /oi i?e iaeioi?uo
i?aia?aciaaieyo nio?aiythony iaeioi?ua aaue, naienoaa e ioiioaiey.
Nio?aiaiea icia/aao oiaeaeanoai, a i?aia?aciaaiey niioaaonoaotho
eciaiaieyi, eioi?ua eniuouaaao aeaiiia oiaeaeanoai. A yoii niunea anee
nio?aiaiea oeacuaaao ia aano?aeoiia, iaeciaiiia oiaeaeanoai, oi
neiiao?ey niioaaonoaoao eiie?aoiiio, eciaiythuaiony a oiaeaeanoaa. Eiuie
neiaaie, neiiao?ey anoue eiie?aoiia nio?aiaiea. Iooue iiciaiey io
i?eioeeia nio?aiaiey e i?eioeeio neiiao?ee i?aaenoaaeyao niaie
ainoiaeaeaiea io aano?aeoiiai e eiie?aoiiio.

Eae i?eioeei nio?aiaiey, oae e i?eioeei neiiao?ee, ii ooaa?aeaeaieth
I.O. Ia/eiieeiaa, yaeythony “aaia?aeecothueie i?eioeeiaie”. Yoio
enneaaeiaaoaeue noi?ioee?iaae caeii nio?aiaiey neiiao?ee, a niioaaonoaee
n eioi?ui i?e anyeii ia?ooaiee neiiao?ee onoaiaaeeaaaony iiaue, aunoee
aeae neiiao?ee. I?eia? oaeiai ioiioaiey — onoaiiaeaiea N?O-neiiao?ee.
Ioe?uoea iaeioi?ie aneiiao?ee ia icia/aao io?eoeaiey i?eioeeia
neiiao?ee. “I?aaia” e “eaaia” naie ii naaa aneiiao?e/iu, ii acyoua
aianoa eae aaeeinoai i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoae ninoaaeytho aunooth neiiao?eth.
Aiiaua, aneiiao?ey iaiaoiaeeia eae i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue neiiao?ee.
Aneiiao?ey e neiiao?ey a aaeeinoaa ia?acotho aunooth iaoaneiiao?eth.

Neaaeiaaiea i?eioeeio neiiao?ee — nouanoaaiiue e yooaeoeaiue iaoiae
i?aiaeieaiey i?iaeaiiie neooaoeee, oao e?eceniuo iiiaioia, eiaaea
noaiiaeony i/aaeaeiie i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue iaaeaeo oai?eae e
yenia?eiaioaeueiuie oaeoaie eee iaaeaeo yeaiaioaie aioo?e naiie
oai?aoe/aneie eiioeaioeee. Eae ooiaeaiaio nia?aiaiiie
oai?aoeei-eiaa?eaioiie eiioeaioeee oaeie iaoiaeieiae/aneee i?eioeei
ieacuaaaony aaaeiaeoei oaeoi?ii, ii?aaeaeythuei no?oeoo?ioth
i?aaiecaoeeth oece/aneie oai?ee. “Auaeaeaeaiea ia ia?aaeiee ieai
oai?aoeei-eiaa?eaioiiai iiaeoiaea nicaeaao iaiaoiaeeiua i?aaeiinueee
aeey iouneaiey auoiaea ec ?acee/iuo i?iaeaiiuo neooaoeee a ?acaeoee
nia?aiaiiie oeceee,— ieoao A.I. Aecaei.— A yoii oaea iaiaeiie?aoii
oaaaeaeaeenue i?e enneaaeiaaiee ya?enoe/aneeo e i?iaiinoe/aneeo ooieoeee
i?eioeeia neiiao?ee e eae nenoaiaoe/aneiai niiniaa iino?iaiey oece/aneie
oai?ee, e eae niiniaa iienaiey ?acaeoey, e eae i?eioeeia i?aaiecaoeee”.

Aiaeece?oy aeaenoaea i?eioeeia neiiao?ee a ?acee/iuo i?iaeaiiuo
neooaoeeyo, A.I. Aecaei ioia/aao aeaa aeiiieieoaeueiuo iiiaioa: n iaeiie
noi?iiu, neiiao?ey e aa ia?ooaiey aunooiatho eae enoi/iee i?iaeaiiie
neooaoeee e iaeiia?aiaiii neiiao?ey neoaeeo iaoiaeii aa i?aiaeieaiey, a
n ae?oaie noi?iiu, ai?ei?ecaoeey (“caii?aaeeaaiea”) ii?aaeaeaiiiai aeaea
neiiao?ee i?aiyonoaoao ?ac?aoaieth i?iaeaiiie neooaoeee. Ia?aui oaaii e
i?iyniaieth i?iaeaiu yaeyaony ioe?uoea eiaa?eaioiinoe, onoaiiaeaiea
neiiao?e/iuo yeaiaioia. A naiii iauai neo/aa no?aieaiea ainnoaiiaeoue
ia?ooaiea neiiao?ee — yoi iooue i?aiaeieaiey i?iaeaiiie neooaoeee. Oaeay
ya?enoe/aneay neea i?eioeeia neiiao?ee eae iaoiaea iaoiaeaeaiey auoiaea
ec i?iaeaiiie neooaoeee aini?eieiaaony eae oaeoe/aneia ii?aaaeaiea
caeiia nio?aiaiey neiiao?ee, noi?ioee?iaaiiiai I.O. Ia/eiieeiaui a aeaea
oieaa?naeueiiai i?eioeeia i?e?iaeu e iao/iiai iiciaiey.

Aeaenoaea i?eioeeia neiiao?ee a i?iaeaiiuo neooaoeeyo iiaeii iieacaoue
ia iaeioi?uo i?eia?ao. Eiaaea oai?aoe/aneia iniuneaiea
yenia?eiaioaeueiuo oaeoia aaaeao e onoaiiaeaieth iaeioi?ie neiiao?e/iie
caeiiiia?iinoe, iaeiia?aiaiii iiyaeyaony e iaiaoiaeeiinoue a
ia?ainiuneaiee oai?ee, oae /oiau iia iauyniyea caaeneiinoe
neiiao?e/aneiai aeaea iaaeaeo yoeie yenia?eiaioaeueiuie oaeoaie. E.
Eaiea?, aiaeece?oy ?acoeueoaou ano?iiiie/aneeo iaaethaeaiee O. A?aaa,
ioe?ue caeiiu aeaeaeaiey ieaiao. Iiaeii caiaoeoue, /oi caeiiu Eaiea?a
eiatho neiiao?e/aneoth iniiao: ia?aue caeii aiai?eo ia yeeeioe/iinoe
i?aeo, aoi?ie e o?aoee caeiiu i?aaenoaaeytho niaie, ii nouanoao, caeiiu
nio?aiaiey — naeoi?iie nei?inoe ieaiao e niioiioaiey R3/O3. Oaeay
neiiao?ey ia iiaea auoue iauyniaia ia iniiaa ainiiaenoaiaaaoeo oiaaea
oai?aoe/aneeo i?aaenoaaeaiee A?enoioaey e Eiia?ieea. Aicieeea i?iaeaiiay
neooaoeey, eioi?ay auea ?ac?aoaia Iuethoiiii, nicaeaaoei oai?eth,
iauyniythuoth eaiea?ianeoth neiiao?eth.

Ae?oaie eioa?aniue i?eia? naycai n oai?eae aoiia aiaei?iaea,
noi?ioee?iaaiiie I. Ai?ii. Iiuou Y. ?aca?oi?aea ii ?annayieth
aeueoa-/anoeoe aeey auyniaiey no?iaiey aoiia iieacaee, /oi no?oeoo?a
aoiia neiiao?e/ia. Iaiauaiiay oi?ioea Aaeueia?a e eiiaeiaoeeiiiue
i?eioeei ?annayiey ?eoea eiatho neiiao?e/iue oa?aeoa?. Aianoa n
aeiioacie I. Ieaiea i eaaioao iie auoiaeyo ca ?aiee eeanne/aneie oeceee.
Ia?aciaaeanue eneeth/eoaeueii neiaeiay i?iaeaiiay neooaoeey, i eioi?ie
A. Yeiooaei a naiae oai?/aneie aaoiaeia?aoee ienae oae: “Ana yoi noaei
iia ynii oaea anei?a iinea iiyaeaiey iniiaiie ?aaiou Ieaiea, oae /oi y,
oioy e ia eiae caiaiu aeey eeanne/aneie iaoaieee, ana-oaee iia aeaeaoue,
e eaeei neaaenoaeyi aaaeao yoio caeii oaieiaiai eceo/aiey eae aeey
oioiyeaeo?e/aneiai yooaeoa e ae?oaeo ?iaenoaaiiuo aio yaeaiee, naycaiiuo
n i?aa?auaieyie eo/enoie yia?aee, oae e aeey oaieiaieinoe oae, a
/anoiinoe oaa?aeuo oae. Ii ana iie iiiuoee i?eniiniaeoue oai?aoe/aneea
iniiau oeceee e yoei ?acoeueoaoai iioa?iaee iieioth iaoaea/o. Yoi auei
oae, oi/ii ec-iiae iia ooea caiey e ieaaea ia auei aeaeii oaa?aeie
ii/au, ia eioi?ie iiaeii auei au no?ieoue. Iia anaaaea eacaeinue /oaeii,
/oi yoie eieaaethuaeny e iieiie i?ioeai?a/ee iniiau ieacaeinue
aeinoaoi/ii, /oiau iicaieeoue Ai?o — /aeiaaeo n aaieaeueiie eiooeoeeae e
oiieei /ooueai — iaeoe aeaaiaeoea caeiiu niaeo?aeueiuo eeiee e
yeaeo?iiiuo iaiei/ae aoiiia, aeeth/ay eo cia/aiea aeey oeiee. Yoi
eaaeaony iia /oaeii e oaia?ue. Yoi — iaeaunoay iocueaeueiinoue a iaeanoe
iunee”.

Ii eaeie auoiae ec i?iaeaiiie neooaoeee iaoae Ai?? Iie?aynue ia
aeiioaco Ieaiea i eaaioao, Ai? oaeoe/anee ainnoaiiaee i?aaa i?eioeeia
neiiao?ee, oae eae aai iinooeao — yoi, ii nouanoao, caeii nio?aiaiey
yia?aee e iiiaioa eiioeuena. Yeiooaei iauyniee oioiyooaeo, eniieuecoy
eaaioiaoth aeiioaco. Aai o?aaiaiea oaeoe/anee i?aaenoaaeyao niaie caeii
nio?aiaiey yia?aee. Ieaie oaeaea n iiiiuueth aeiioacu i eaaioao
i?aiaeieae i?iaeaiioth neooaoeeth — “oeueo?aoeieaoiaoth eaoano?ioo”. Ii
ooo anoanoaaiiui ia?acii aicieeatho aii?inu: eaeiai ioiioaiea naiie
eaaioiaie aeiioacu e i?eioeeio neiiao?ee? ia oeacuaaao ee iinoiyiiay
Ieaiea ia nio?aiaiea? eae ioiinyony i?eioeei iaii?aaeaeaiiinoe e
i?eioeei aeiiieieoaeueiinoe e i?eioeeio neiiao?ee? iiaeao ee i?iaeaiiay
neooaoeey a eaaioiaie oai?ee — ai?ianeie eiioeaioeee aeiiieieoaeueiinoe
— auoue inaauaia n iiceoeee i?eioeeia neiiao?ee?

Ecaanoii, /oi neiiao?ey, iaia?oaeaiiay a iaoaiaoe/aneii aiia?aoa, noaea
enoi/ieeii i?iaeaiiie neooaoeee e iaeiia?aiaiii iaoiaeii i?aiaeieaiey
aa. A yoii ioiioaiee i?eia/aoaeueia niaoeeaeueiay oai?ey
ioiineoaeueiinoe. Eiaa?eaioiinoue o?aaiaiee Iaenaaeea ioiineoaeueii
i?aia?aciaaiee Ei?aioea ii?iaeeea i?iaeaiioth neooaoeeth, ec eioi?ie
Yeiooaei iaoae auoiae, ia?aniio?aa i?aaenoaaeaiey i i?ino?ainoaa e
a?aiaie e iainiiaaa iiaoth neiiao?eth. I?e yoii niaoeeaeueiay oai?ey
ioiineoaeueiinoe nicaeaea iiaoth i?iaeaiioth neooaoeeth, ii
i?aaeneacaiiua ath ?aeyoeaenoneea yooaeou (caaeneiinoue iannu io
nei?inoe e ae?.) niinianoaiaaee ooaa?aeaeaieth e i?eciaieth aeaiiie
oai?ee.

Iieacaoaeai e i?eia? ?iee neiiao?ee a oeceea yeaiaioa?iuo /anoeoe.
?a/ue eaeao i i?aaeneacaiee iiaaa-aeia?iia ia iniiaa SU-neiiao?ee.
Oai?aoe/aneea oniaoe oeceee yeaiaioa?iuo /anoeoe auee au iaiuneeiu aac
ioe?uoey nio?aiaiey aa?eiiiiai ca?yaea, eaioiiiiai ca?yaea,
ecioiie/aneiai nieia, no?aiiinoe e ae?., eioi?ui niioaaonoaoao
ii?aaeaeaiiay neiiao?ey. Eaeay neiiao?ee iiaeneacaea eaa?eiaoth
iiaeaeue. Yoi ii?iaeeei iiaoth i?iaeaiioth neooaoeeth, auoiae ec eioi?ie
oaeaea naycai n eniieueciaaieai i?eioeeia neiiao?ee.

I?eaaaeaiiua i?eia?u, aeaiiino?e?othuea ?ieue i?eioeeia neiiao?ee a
?ac?aoaiee i?iaeaiiuo neooaoeee, iicaieytho ooaa?aeaeaoue, /oi eae
oieueei oeene?oaony ooiaeaiaioaeueiia ia?ooaiea neiiao?ee, iai?eia?
?-neiiao?ee eee N?-neiiao?ee, oae n?aco aea aicieeaao ino?ay i?iaeaiiay
neooaoeey, auoiae ec eioi?ie naycai n onoaiiaeaieai iiaie, aieaa aunieie
neiiao?ee. E eae oieueei yoa neiiao?ey auyaeaia, oae n?aco aea oeceea
iieo/aao iiaue noeioe aeey naiaai ?acaeoey. Eiuie neiaaie, caeii
nio?aiaiey neiiao?ee ii?aaeaeyao iooe ?acaeoey oeceee. E iaiai?io,
ai?ei?ecaoeey ii?aaeaeaiiiai aeaea neiiao?ee, aa aaniethoecaoeey
oi?iicyo ?aoaiea i?iaeaiiie neooaoeee, a oai naiui e ?acaeoea oece/aneie
oai?ee. Enoi?ey oeceee aeaao iiiai i?eia?ia oaeie aaniethoecaoeee e aa
iineaaenoaee: yoi aaniethoecaoeey a?enoioaeaaneie neiiao?ee i?ino?ainoaa
e a?aiaie, iuethoiiianeie neiiao?ee i?ino?ainoaa e a?aiaie, ?acee/iua
iiiuoee ?aaecee oai?ee ioiineoaeueiinoe, aeaeaiea i?eienaoue ioaeaeueiui
aeaeai neiiao?ee oieaa?naeueiinoue e o.ae.

Aeaa oaiaeaioeee: aeaeaeaiea neiiao?ee e aa aunoei eiie?aoiui oi?iai e
no?aieaiea e ia?aie/aieth oaeiai aeaeaeaiey, i?iyaeythuaany a
aaniethoecaoeee ii?aaeaeaiiiai aeaea neiiao?ee,— iaoiaeyony a iinoiyiiii
eiioeeeoa. A.I. Aecaei ieoao ii yoiio iiaiaeo: “Neiiao?ey — i?oaeea
iaithaeiino?ia: n iaeiie noi?iiu, neiiao?ey e aa ia?ooaiey anoue
enoi/iee i?iaeaiiie neooaoeee e iaoiae eo i?aiaeieaiey, a n ae?oaie —
anyeay neiiao?ey, acyoay ioaeaeueii e aicaaaeaiiay a ?aia oieaa?naeueiie
e aaniethoii aeinoiaa?iie enoeiu, anoue nouanoaaiiay i?aa?aaea ia iooe
?acaeoey oeceee. Yoe aeaa iniaaiiinoe neiiao?ee ia?aaeei oae
ia?aieaoathony iaaeaeo niaie, /oi iaeie oeceee aeaeyo a ia?ooaiee
neiiao?ee e?ao oai?aoe/aneie nenoaiu e iuoathony ethaie oeaiie
caeiina?ae?iaaoue i?eioeeiu eiaa?eaioiinoe, eioi?ua eaaeoony ei
ia?ooeiuie. Ae?oaea oeceee a yoi aea a?aiy aeaeyo a oaeii ia?ooaiee
noeioe ?acaeoey oai?ee, ieiaeioai?iue e i?aia?acothuee. Eiaiii oaeia
?acaeoea i?iaeaiiie neooaoeee, naycaiiia n neiiao?eae, /anoi
nii?iaiaeaeaeinue aea?eeie nii?aie e enoeiiui ae?aiaoeciii (ai?ueaa
Aaeeeay i?ioea noieanoeee A?enoioaey, eieeecey Aaeeeae — Eaiea?, ai?ueaa
Eaeaieoea e Atheaaina i?ioea eiioeaioeee aaniethoiiai i?ino?ainoaa e
a?aiaie, iaaaeeeaeiaa aaiiao?ey, aeeneonnee aie?oa NOI e IOI, enoi?ey
ioe?uoey ianio?aiaiey /aoiinoe e o. ae.)”.

Eoae, i?eioeei neiiao?ee, i?aa?auaiiue a iaoiae, ii?aaeaeyao iooe
aeaeaeaiey oece/aneie oai?ee e enoeia, niinianoaoao oniaoiiio
i?aiaeieaieth i?iaeaiiuo neooaoeee. E?iia oiai eae aaeeinoai
i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoae i?eioeei neiiao?ee oi?aaeyao e i?ioeannii
naii?acaeoey — ai?ueaie aeaoo i?ioeaiiieiaeiuo oaiaeaioeee,
onoaiiaeaieai iiauo oi?i neiiao?ee e nio?aiaieai eo. Ionthaea noaiiaeony
i/aaeaeiui, /oi nouanoaoao naiay oaniay naycue iaaeaeo neiiao?eae e
nio?aiaieai.

CAEII NIO?AIAIEss.

A oeeinioneii yioeeeeiiaaee/aneii neiaa?a /eoaai “Caeii – aioo?aiiyy
nouanoaaiiay e onoie/eaay naycue yaeaiee, iaoneiaeeaathuay eo
oii?yaei/aiiia eciaiaiea. Ia iniiaa ciaiey caeiia aiciiaeii aeinoiaa?iia
i?aaeaeaeaiea oa/aiey i?ioeanna. Iiiyoea caeiia aeecei e iiiyoeth
caeiiiia?iinoe, eioi?ay i?aaenoaaeyao niaie niaieoiiinoue
acaeiinaycaiiuo ii niaea?aeaieth caeiiia, iaania/eaathueo onoie/eaoth
oaiaeaioeeth eee iai?aaeaiiinoue a eciaiaieyo nenoaiu. Aianoa n oai
caeii au?aaeaao iaeio ec noi?ii nouiinoe, iiciaiea eioi?ie a oai?ee
niaiaaeaao n ia?aoiaeii io yiie?e/aneeo oaeoia e oi?ioee?iaea caeiiia
eco/aaiuo i?ioeannia”.

Iiiyoea caeiia noi?ioee?iaaeinue a ?acoeueoaoa aeeeoaeueiiai ?acaeoey
iaoee e oeeinioneie iunee. Ec eaeeo aea enoi/ieeia ii/a?iiooi yoi
iiiyoea? Iaeiei ec oaeeo enoi/ieeia yaeyaony nioeeaeueii-enoi?e/aneay
i?aeoeea /aeiaa/anoaa. A ae?aaiai iauanoaa, a oneiaeyo ia?aiauoiiai
?iaeiaiai no?iy caeii aunooiaao i?aaeaea anaai eae iaiienaiiia, ii oai
ia iaiaa iaycaoaeueiia i?aaeei, eioi?iio aeieaeii iiae/eiyoueny
iiaaaeaiea ethaeae.

I?e yoii oi?ie?iaaiea iiiyoey caeiia naycaii n aeaoiy oi?iaie
iauanoaaiiiai niciaiey, oa?aeoa?iuie aeey ia?aiauoiiai iauanoaa –
ieoieiaeae e ?aeeaeae.

Iaeiei ec oeaio?aeueiuo yeaiaioia aioe/iie ieoieiaee auei i?aaenoaaeaiea
i ainiiaenoaothuae a ie?a anaiauae iaiaoiaeeiinoe, noaeueaa. Noaeueaa
neo/aaa eae iaeay aano?aeoiay neea, iauaeoeaiay iaiaoiaeeiinoue. Oae
ca?iaeaeaaony iaeii ec aaaeiaeoeo iiiyoee aioe/iiai ie?iaicc?aiey –
iiiyoea iaiaoiaeeiinoe, eioi?ia a iineaaeothuai yaeeinue i?aaeiinueeie
eaeae caeiiiia?iinoe a i?e?iaea.

A ia?ac?uaiie nayce n ieoieiaeae a ia?aiauoiii iauanoaa aicieeaao oaeaea
e ?aeeaey, n iiiiuueth eioi?ie ethaee iuoathony iniuneeoue naia
nianoaaiiia nouanoaiaaiea.

Eae e ieoieiaey, ?aeeaey i?aaenoaaeyao niaie oaioanoe/aneia io?aaeaiea a
/aeiaa/aneii niciaiee caiiiai, iaoa?eaeueiiai ie?a, a eioi?ii
ainiiaenoaothuea iaae /aeiaaeii a aai iianaaeiaaiie aeecie aiaoiea neeu
i?eieiatho oi?io iacaiiuo, naa?ouanoanoaaiiuo. A ?aeeaeiciii
ie?iaicc?aiee iiiyoea caeiia iieo/eei eneaaeaiiia oieeiaaiea. Caeii n
?aeeaeiciie oi/ee c?aiey – yoi i?aaeienaiea aiaeanoaa, o.a. ia/oi
iaaycaiiia ie?o naa?ouanoanoaaiiie neeie. Eiaiii ia iniiaa ?aeeaeiciiai
niciaiey aicieeei i?aaenoaaeaiea, /oi aia-aea nicaeae ana aaue, a caoai
iiae/eiee eo naiae aiea a oi?ia caeiiia i?e?iaeu, iinea /aai eo
iiaaaeaiea noaei ii?aaeaeyoueny aiaeanoaaiiui niecaieaieai. ?aeeaeiciia
iiiyoea i caeiia iaoei iiae?iaiia au?aaeaiea a oae iacuaaaiuo nayuaiiuo
eieaao – Aeaeee, Ei?aia, Aaaeao e ae?.

Ia?aua iiiuoee noi?ie?iaaoue i?aaenoaaeaiea i caeiiiia?iii oa?aeoa?a
ie?iauo i?ioeannia, naiaiaeiii io ?aeeaeiciuo e ieoieiae/aneeo
iiaeoiaeia, auee i?aaei?eiyou oeeinioaie ae?aaiaai ie?a. Ia?yaeo n
iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneie i?aeoeeie, ec eioi?ie auea caeinoaiaaia eaeay
caeiia, aaaeiue enoi/ieeii iiiyoey caeiia i?e?iaeu aeey iuneeoaeae oiai
a?aiaie yaeyeny nai iauaeoeaiue iaoa?eaeueiue ie?, ie?oaeathuay /aeiaaea
i?e?iaea. I?aaenoaaeaiea i aa?iiie/iinoe Anaeaiiie, i iiaoi?yaiinoe,
eiaa?eaioiinoe i?ioaeathueo a iae i?ioeannia auei ii/a?iiooi eie ec
iaiin?aaenoaaiiiai iaaethaeaiey ca yaeaieyie aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe. Yoi
iaoei naia au?aaeaiea a ?yaea oiic?eoaeueiuo oeeinioneeo nenoai,
nicaeaiiuo ae?aaieie iuneeoaeyie, a iniaaiiinoe a nenoaiao aioe/iuo
oeeinioia – Aa?aeeeoa, Aeaiie?eoa, Yieeo?a, Ieaoiia, A?enoioaey e iiiaeo
ae?oaeo. Anoanoaaiii, iaeiaei, /oi yoa iiiuoea auea aua aanueia
ianiaa?oaiiie. Aaaeue anoanoaiciaiea a oi a?aiy oieueei ca?iaeaeaeinue e
i?aaenoaaeyei niaie ?yae ianenoaiaoece?iaaiiuo io?uai/iuo naaaeaiee i
i?e?iaea.

Oieueei a Iiaia A?aiy iiiyoea caeiia i?e?iaeu ia/eiaao ana aieaa
aeoaiei ?ac?aaaouaaoueny oeeinioaie e o/aiuie. Yoi noaei aiciiaeiui
aeaaiaea?y oiio, /oi ?acaeoea iaoaiaoeee, ano?iiiiee, iaoaieee
i?iaeaeioeinue aeinoaoi/ii aeaeaei, a ?acoeueoaoa /aai auei ioe?uoi
iiiai iaiaeiaaaeiuo caeiiia iaoa?eaeueiiai ie?a.

Ii iaaei caiaoeoue, /oi caeiiu i?e?iaeu aeey iuneeoaeae yoiai a?aiaie: a
eiaiii XVII e XVIII a. Naiaeeeenue e caeiiai iaoaieee, caeiiai
iaoaie/aneiai aeaeaeaiey, eioi?ua iia ?anniao?eaaee eae anaiauea
oieaa?naeueiua caeiiu i?e?iaeu. Iiiyoey iao/iiai caeiia a oi a?aiy aua
ia auei. Caeiiu i?e?iaeu ?anniao?eaaeenue eae aa/iua, iinoiyiiua e
iaeciaiiua.

Cia/eoaeueiue oaa a aeaeueiaeoae ?ac?aaioea iiiyoey caeiia aue naeaeai
eeanneeaie iaiaoeeie oeeinioee eiioea XVIII – ia/aea XIX aa. E. Eaioii e
A. Aaaaeai. A yoi a?aiy anoanoaaiiua iaoee ec iienaoaeueiuo ia/eiatho
i?aa?auaoueny a iaoee ia ioiioaieyo, naycyo iaaeaeo yeaiaioaie
no?oeoo?u, i caeiiao ooieoeeiie?iaaiey e ?acaeoey iauaeoia. A iao/iue
iaeoiae i?iieeaao eaeay ?acaeoey i?e?iaeu, a Aaaaeue i?eaeaao
enoieeiaaieth iiiyoeth caeiia aeeaeaeoe/aneee oa?aeoa?.

Caeanue iiaeii aua aeieai aiai?eoue i iiiyoee caeiia: ?anniio?aoue oeiu
caeiiia, i?eioeeiu nicaeaiey, iaoiaeu eiino?oe?iaaiey; ioa?aeoa?eciaaoue
eo (caeiiia) i?inoioo e ecyuanoai, neacaoue i ?acee/iuo iiaeaeyo
caeiiia. Inoaiiaethnue eeoue e?aoei ia iiiyoee aeiioacu e aa ?iee a
iiciaiee caeiiia, aaaeue aa auaeaeaeaiea, ai?iaaoeey – yoi iaeei ec
aaaeiaeoeo iaoiaeia ioe?uoey caeiiia.

Aeiioaca – yoi aeiaaaeea, i?aaeiieiaeaiea. E eiaaea euoo eaeoth-oi
iiaoth, iiea aua iaecaanoioth ii, aiciiaeii, nouanoaothuoth
caeiiiia?iinoue, auneacuaaaony ii?aaeaeaiiia i?aaeiieiaeaiea. Yoi
i?aaeiieiaeaiea iiaeao ieacaoueny aa?iui eee aea – iieiinoueth eee
/anoe/ii – iaaa?iui, eiaeiui. Aaeeinoaaiiui noaeueae, eioi?ue auiineoue
yoio “aa?aeeeo”, yaeyaony iiuo, i?aeoeea.

“Aiiaua aiai?y, – ieoao ?. Oaeiiai a eieaa “Oa?aeoa? oece/aneeo
caeiiia”, – iiene iiaiai caeiia aaaeaony neaaeothuei ia?acii. I?aaeaea
anaai i iai aeiaaaeuaathony. Caoai au/eneytho neaaenoaey yoie aeiaaaeee
e auyniytho, /oi iiaea/ao ca niaie yoi caeii, anee ieaaeaony, /oi ii
ni?aaaaeeea. Caoai ?acoeueoaou ?an/aoia n?aaieaathony n oai, /oi
iaaethaeaaony a i?e?iaea, n ?acoeueoaoaie yenia?eiaioia eee n iaoei
iiuoii e auyniytho, oae yoi eee ia oae. Anee ?an/aou ?anoiaeyony n
yenia?eiaioaeueiuie aeaiiuie, oi aeiioaca iai?aaeeueia. A yoii i?inoii
ooaa?aeaeaiee – naiia ca?ii iaoee…”

Aeaenoaeoaeueii, aeiioaca, eiooeoeaiia iao/iia i?aaeiieiaeaiea, yaeyaony
iaeciaiiui niooieeii o/aiiai a aai oai?/aneie ?aaioa. Iia i?aaenoaaeyao
niaie niinia ioe?uoey iiaiai, iaoiae ?acaeoey iaoee. Iao/iua caeiiu e
oai?ee ioe?uaathony e oi?ioee?othony a ?acoeueoaoa eioaeeaeooaeueiie
aeayoaeueiinoe, nouanoaaiiui eiiiiiaioii eioi?ie yaeyaony auaeaeaeaiea
aeiioac. Aac aeiioacu ia iiaeao auoue oai?/anoaa, a aac oai?/anoaa iao
iiaeeeiiie iaoee.

Iai?eia?, eiaiii ia?a?aaioea iiiaeanoaa aeiioac oaiiiaia yaeaiey
b-?aniaaea, i eioi?ii aoaeao aiai?eoue ieaea, e iicaieeea onoaiiaeoue
nouanoaiaaiea iiaie /anoeoeu – iaeo?eii. Eae e ia eaeeo iniiaaieyo
niaa?oaeinue aeaiiia ioe?uoea – yoiio e iinayuaia neaaeothuay aeaaa.

Ii aeey ia/aea ia?aoeiny e oece/aneiio yioeeeeiiaaee/aneiio neiaa?th.
Aio /oi oai aiai?eony i caeiiao nio?aiaiey.

Caeiiu nio?aiaiey – oece/aneea, caeiiiia?iinoe, niaeanii eioi?ui
/eneaiiua cia/aiey iaeioi?uo oece/aneeo aaee/ei ia eciaiythony ni
a?aiaiai a ethauo i?ioeannao eee a eeanna i?ioeannia.

Eaeay nio?aiaiey, o.a. eaeay i oii, /oi nouanoaotho iaeciaiiua nouiinoe,
ianoieueei aea noa?a, ianeieueei ae?aaie aiiaua ana enoi/ieee iaoee, e
iia anaaaea neoaeeea “aioo?aiiei iniiaaieai” nenoaiaoecaoeee ciaiee i
i?e?iaea. Eneeth/eoaeueia ?ieue eaeae nio?aiaiey a enoi?ee eoeueoo?u,
/oi iieacaii a ?aaioa I.O. Ia/eiieeiaa. Aaoi? ioia/aao, /oi eiaiii yoa
ooiaeaiaioaeueiay iuneue — iuneue i iaeciaiiuo nouiinoyo — oa?aeoa?ecoao
i?ioeann i?aa?auaiey ciaiey a iaoeo. A ?acaeoee e eiie?aoecaoeee iao/iie
eaeae nio?aiaiey iia i?eieiaea ?aciua oi?iu e i?eaiaeeea e ioe?uoeth
“enoeiiuo caeiiia ie?a”. “Yiioa ca?iaeaeaiey iaoee,— ieoao I.O.
Ia/eiieeia,— niaiaaeaao n yiioie aicieeiiaaiey eaeae nio?aiaiey, a eaeie
noaiaie yoa eaeay i?eieiaea eiie?aoiua oi?iu, ciaiea, iie?athuaany ia
iaa, noaiiaeeinue iao/iui ciaieai… Yoa eaeay i?aaenoaaeyao niaie
iaiaoiaeeioth i?aaeiinueeo iao/iiai iuoeaiey aiiaua. A ?acaeoee e
niaa?oainoaiaaiee eaeae nio?aiaiey aeaeeony ?aoathuaa oneiaea ?acaeoey e
niaa?oainoaiaaiey nenoaiu iao/iiai ciaiey”.

Aua a eeanne/aneie oeceea eaeay nio?aiaiey i?aa?aoeeanue a i?eioeei.
Auee noi?ioee?iaaiu niioaaonoaothuea eiie?aoiua caeiiu — caeiiu
nio?aiaiey yia?aee, iannu, eiioeuena, iiiaioa eiioeuena, yeaeo?e/aneiai
ca?yaea. Eneeth/eoaeueii aaaeioth ?ieue ea?aao ioe?uoea TH. Iaea?ii
caeiia nio?aiaiey yia?aee. I. Oa?aaeae iacaae yoio caeii aunoei
oece/aneei caeiiii, a ?. Oaeiiai ooaa?aeaeae, /oi “ec anao caeiiia
nio?aiaiey yoio caeii naiue o?oaeiue e aano?aeoiue, ii e naiue
iieaciue”. Ii iiaieth Oaeiiaia, ai iiiaeo oece/aneeo caeiiao
niaea?aeeony a caoeo?iaaiiii aeaea caeii nio?aiaiey yia?aee. Enoi?ey
oeceee iieacuaaao, /oi iao ieeaeeo iniiaaiee niiiaaaoueny a enoeiiinoe
yoiai caeiia, e anee /oi-eeai, eae eaaeaony, i?ioeai?a/eo aio, oi
“iau/ii ieacuaaaony, /oi ia caeii ioeai/ai, a i?inoi iu iaaeinoaoi/ii
ciaai yaeaiea”.

Iauee caeii nio?aiaiey, eiie?aoece?oaiue a aeaea ?acee/iuo /anoiuo
oece/aneeo caeiiia nio?aiaiey, eaaeeo a iniiaa aaeeiie oece/aneie
ea?oeiu ie?a. A yoii niunea “iienee caeiiia oeceee — yoi a?iaea aeaoneie
ea?u a eoaeee, ec eioi?uo ioaeii nia?aoue oeaeoth ea?oeieo. O ian
ia?iiiia iiiaeanoai eoaeeia, e n eaaeaeui aeiai eo noaiiaeony ana
aieueoa. Iiiaea aaeythony a noi?iia e eae aoaeoi au ia iiaeoiaeyo e
inoaeueiui. Ioeoaea iu ciaai, /oi ana iie ec iaeiiai iaai?a? Ioeoaea iu
ciaai, /oi aianoa iie aeieaeiu ninoaaeoue oeaeueioth ea?oeieo? Iieiie
oaa?aiiinoe iao, e yoi ian ianeieueei aaniieieo. Ii oi, /oi o iiiaeo
eoaeeia anoue ia/oi iauaa, anaeyao iaaeaaeaeo. Ia anao ia?eniaaii
aieoaia iaai, ana naeaeaiu ec aea?aaa iaeiiai ni?oa. Ana oece/aneea
caeiiu iiae/eiaiu iaeiei e oai aea caeiiai nio?aiaiey”.

N ?acaeoeai oece/aneiai ciaiey oaaee/eaaaony /enei eiie?aoiuo caeiiia
nio?aiaiey ?acee/iuo oece/aneeo aaee/ei. Oae, a oeceea iee?iie?a ioe?uou
caeiiu nio?aiaiey aa?eiiiiai ca?yaea, eaioiiiiai ca?yaea, /aoiinoe,
no?aiiinoe. A no?oeoo?a oece/aneeo oai?ee iiyaeythony iiaua oi?iu
au?aaeaiey nio?aiaiey — eiaa?eaioiinoue. E oaeei oi?iai ioiineony, a
/anoiinoe, i?eioeei oieoa?iinoe a eaaioiaie oai?ee, eioi?ue, ii iiaieth
I.O. Ia/eiieeiaa, i?aaenoaaeyao niaie nia?aiaiioth oi?ioee?iaeo
i?eioeeia nio?aiaiey iaoa?ee. Iniaia ianoi caieiaao oae iacuaaaiue
i?eioeei eiaa?eaioiinoe iao/iuo caeiiia, eiathuee y?ei au?aaeaiioth
iaoiaeieiae/aneoth ie?aneo. Oai?ey ioiineoaeueiinoe o?aaoao niaethaeaiey
eiaa?eaioiinoe oece/aneeo caeiiia ioiineoaeueii ii?aaeaeaiiuo
i?aia?aciaaiee. Niaeanii A. Aeaia?o, eiaa?eaioiua i?eioeeiu ea?atho
?ieue caeiiia caeiiia. Eo ooieoeey ninoieo a oii, /oiau iaaeaeyoue
no?oeoo?ie caeiiu i?e?iaeu eee onoaiaaeeaaoue iaaeaeo ieie aioo?aiithth
naycue, “oae aea eae caeiiu i?e?iaeu onoaiaaeeaatho no?oeoo?o eee
acaeiinaycue a ie?a yaeaiee”.

Oaeei ia?acii, n ?acaeoeai oece/aneie iaoee i?eioeei nio?aiaiey
iaiaauaao naia niaea?aeaiea. Eae iaoiaeieiae/aneee i?eioeei ii io?aaeaao
oaiaeaioeeth, no?aieaiea iiciaiey e ?ane?uoeth iaeciaiiuo yeaiaioia. A
eaaeaeii eiie?aoiii neo/aa aeaiiue i?eioeei o?aaoao eneaoue
niioaaonoaothuoth eiie?aoioth iaeciaiythuothny aaee/eio — iaeioi?oth
oece/aneoth eiinoaioo, eee eiaa?eaioiia ioiioaiea. O/eouaay ana yoi,
I.O. Ia/eiieeia i?aaeeiaeee naith eeanneoeeaoeeth caeiiia nio?aiaiey,
eioi?ua ii iacuaaao i?eioeeiaie nio?aiaiey. Ii noaiaie iauiinoe iie
iiaoo auoue ?acaeaeaiu ia iauea e /anoiua. E ia?aiio eeanno ioiinyony
i?eioeeiu, eioi?ua niioaaonoaotho ecaanoiui naaiaeiy eeannai oece/aneeo
acaeiiaeaenoaee: i?eioeeiu nio?aiaiey aeaeaeaiey (yia?aee, eiioeuena,
iiiaioa eiioeuena), yeaeo?e/aneiai ca?yaea, oieoa?iinoe e o.i. Ei
aoi?iio eeanno iiaeii ioianoe i?eioeeiu n ia?aie/aiiui aeaenoaeai,
aeiioneathuea ia?ooaiey a ii?aaeaeaiiuo neooaoeeyo: i?eioeeiu nio?aiaiey
ecinieia, /aoiinoe, no?aiiinoe e ae?.

A caaeneiinoe io iauaeoa eee aaee/eiu, eioi?ua nio?aiythony, iiaeii
auaeaeyoue i?eioeeiu nio?aiaiey aauae, naienoa e ioiioaiee. Niaeanii
I.O. Ia/eiieeiao, iaeiei ec aaee/aeoeo ioe?uoee a enoi?ee oeceee
yaeyaony ioe?uoea nio?aiaiey ioiioaiee. E eiaaea aiai?yo i nio?aiaiee
i?e?iaeiuo caeiiia, au?aaeathueo nouanoaaiiua ioiioaiey, auaeaeytho
niaoeeaeueiue eeann i?eioeeiia nio?aiaiey — eeann eiaa?eaioiuo
i?eioeeiia.

Aeaeaa, eeanneoeeaoeeth iiaeii i?iaiaeeoue a caaeneiinoe io
iaoaiaoe/aneie oi?iu nio?aiythuaeny aaee/eiu. N yoeo iiceoeee i?eioeeiu
iiae?acaeaeytho ia ianeieueei eeannia, e caeanue naiaia?aciue eeann
ninoaaeytho ooiaeaiaioaeueiua eiinoaiou. Eae ioia/aao I.O. Ia/eiieeia,
iau/ii ia i?eiyoi iacuaaoue ooiaeaiaioaeueiua eiinoaiou i?eioeeiaie
nio?aiaiey. Ii iineieueeo iinoiyiiay Ieaiea e nei?inoue naaoa ea?atho
ooiaeaiaioaeueioth ?ieue a eaaioiaie oai?ee e oai?ee ioiineoaeueiinoe,
“iiaeii n iieiui i?aaii neacaoue, /oi iie eiatho ooieoeee i?eioeeiia
nio?aiaiey a no?oeoo?a yoeo oai?ee. ssnii, /oi ooiaeaiaioaeueiua
iinoiyiiua i?aaenoaaeytho niaie naiaia?aciue eeann i?eioeeiia
nio?aiaiey. Aeey anao i?eioeeiia nio?aiaiey oa?aeoa?iu aeaa ?aoathueo
i?eciaea: nio?aiaiea oece/aneie aaee/eiu e, aoi?ia, ooiaeaiaioaeueiinoue
yoie aaee/eiu. Iaa yoe i?eciaea caeanue iaeeoei. A iau/iii i?eioeeia
nio?aiaiey eiaa?eaioiay aaee/eia nio?aiyaony i?e ii?aaeaeaiiuo
i?aia?aciaaieyo. A ooiaeaiaioaeueiua eiinoaiou nio?aiythony ii
ioiioaieth ei anai i?aia?aciaaieyi, eioi?ua iiaoo nouanoaiaaoue a
aeaiiie oai?ee”.

Ec neacaiiiai iiaeii naeaeaoue auaiae, /oi ooiaeaiaioaeueiay iinoiyiiay
Ieaiea — oa, eioi?ay niioaaonoaoao eaaioiaui ia?aoiaeai e
iaii?aaeaeaiiinoe a iee?iie?a, eioi?ay i?aaenoaaeyao niaie oece/aneoth
iniiao i?eioeeia aeiiieieoaeueiinoe Ai?a, — oeacuaaao ia nio?aiaiea.
Aeaenoaeoaeueii, eaeia niune iinoiyiiie Ieaiea? Auoue iiaeao, yoa iauay
eaeay i oii, /oi ooiaeaiaioaeueiua iinoiyiiua au?aaeatho nio?aiaiea,
i?ieeaaao iiaue naao ia i?iaeaio iniuneaiey “eaaioiaie neooaoeee”,
aicieeoae a oeceea n aaaaeaieai iinoiyiiie Ieaiea? Aua a 1928 a.
Yeiooaei iinoaaee caaea/o ?ane?uoue niune eiinoaiou e iiae/a?eioe, /oi
“n i?eioeeieaeueiie oi/ee c?aiey ?aaeecaoeey yoie i?ia?aiiu ninoaaeyao
niaea?aeaiea aaaeiaeoaai iai?aaeaiey ?acaeoey iiaie oai?aoe/aneie
oeceee”.

I?eioeeiu nio?aiaiey iiaeii eeanneoeoee?iaaoue a caaeneiinoe io aeaea
neiiao?ee, oae eae iaaeaeo nio?aiaieai e neiiao?eae nouanoaoao
ooiaeaiaioaeueiay naycue. Ecaanoii, /oi neiiao?ee i?aia?aciaaiey a?aiaie
niioaaonoaoao caeii nio?aiaiey yia?aee. Neiiao?e/aneia i?aia?aciaaiea
i?ino?ainoaa ioaa/aao caeiio nio?aiaiey eiioeuena, ecio?iiiinoue
i?ino?ainoaa — nio?aiaieth iiiaioa eiioeuena. Anyeie neiiao?ee
niioaaonoaoao iaeioi?ue caeii nio?aiaiey. Oiaaea anee iinoiyiiay Ieaiea
oeacuaaao ia nio?aiaiea, oi eaeay neiiao?ey ae niioaaonoaoao? Eaeoth
neiiao?eth iiaeneacuaaao yoa eiinoaioa? Iiaeao auoue, iauaaeeiaiea
iaoiaeieiae/aneeo i?eioeeiia a nenoaio, /oi iu a aeaeueiaeoai iiiuoaainy
naeaeaoue, iiiiaeao aeaoue ioaao ia yoio aii?in. Ai anyeii neo/aa,
iiieiaiea iinoiyiiie Ieaiea eae nio?aiaiey iiaeao noaoue oai caaiii a
nenoaia, eioi?ia iicaieeo nenoaiaoece?iaaoue iaoiaeieiae/aneea i?eioeeiu
neiiao?e/iui ia?acii.

Caeiiu nio?aiaiey a iee?iie?a.

Anee iaoaieci aicieeiiaaiey aeueoa- e aaiia-eceo/aiey aac iniauo
o?oaeiinoae aue iauyniai eaaioiaie iaoaieeie, oi enioneaiea b-/anoeoe
(yeaeo?iiia) ieacaeinue iaeiie ec o?oaeiaeoeo aeey iiieiaiey i?iaeai
yaea?iie oeceee. Aeaenoaeoaeueii, i?e a-?aniaaea yae?i aoiia enioneaao
a-/anoeoeo, i?aaenoaaeythuoth niaie yae?i aaeey, ninoiyuaa ec aeaoo
i?ioiiia e aeaoo iaeo?iiia. Oaeei ia?acii, i?e a-?aniaaea ia ia?acoaony
iiauo /anoeoe, iineieueeo e i?ioiiu e iaeo?iiu oaea eiaeenue a yae?a.
Aue iiiyo e i?ioeann g-eceo/aiey, i?e eioi?ii ec yae?a aueaoaea iiaay
(ia auaoay, ?aiaa a iai) /anoeoea – g-eaaio (oioii). Ii aue naycai n
oai, /oi iooai g-?aaeeiaeoeaiinoe yae?i aoiia inaiaiaeaeaeinue io
ecauoi/iie yia?aee aiaeiae/ii oiio, eae ?iaeaeaeny oioii a aoiia i?e
ia?aoiaea yeaeo?iia n aa?oiae i?aeou ia ieaeithth. Eae a-, oae e
g-?aaeeiaeoeaiinoue i?ioaeaea a iieiii niioaaonoaee n caeiiii nio?aiaiey
yia?aee, eiioeuena e iiiaioa eiee/anoaa aeaeaeaiey.

*oi aea eanaaony b-?aniaaea, oi yoi yaeaiea ieacaeinue cia/eoaeueii
aieaa neiaeiui e iinoaaeei ia?aae o/aiuie ?yae i?iaeai. I?aaeaea anaai
iioiio, /oi i?e yoii aeaea ?aaeeiaeoeaiinoe ec yae?a aueaoaao ?aiaa ia
iaoiaeeaoayny oai b-/anoeoea – yeaeo?ii. Eiaaea e yoiio yaeaieth auee
i?eiaiaiu caeiiu nio?aiaiey, oi auyaeeanue niaa?oaiii iaiau/iay
neooaoeey: yia?aey, eiioeuen e iiiaio eiee/anoaa aeaeaeaiey ia/aeueiiai
yae?a ia auee ?aaiu, eiioeueno e iiiaioo eiee/anoaa aeaeaeaiey
i?iaeoeoia ?aniaaea aiiaue ia?aciaaaoaainy yae?a e eniouaiiiai
yeaeo?iia. Aaeain oeacaiiuo aaee/ei ia oieueei ii/oe ieeiaaea ia
noiaeeeny, ii e eaaeaeue ?ac aeaaae ?acee/ioth aaee/eio. ssae?i iaeiiai
e oiai aea ?aaeeiaeoeaiiai ecioiia enioneaao yeaeo?iiu ?acee/iie
yia?aee, ia/eiay io iaeioi?ie iaeneiaeueiie aei ioeaaie. I?e yoii
ieacuaaaony, /oi ia?acothuaany eiia/iia yae?i eiaao anaaaea iaeio e oo
aea yia?aeth. Ia/aeueiia aea yae?i, i?aa?auaynue a ?acoeueoaoa
?aaeeiaeoeaiiai ?aniaaea a iiaia yae?i, oa?yao iaeio e oo aea yia?aeth,
a oi/iinoe ?aaioth iaeneiaeueii aiciiaeiie yia?aee eniouaiiiai
yeaeo?iia. Aiciee, anoanoaaiii, aii?in: eoaea aeaaaaony yia?aey a oao
neo/ayo, eiaaea yia?aey yeaeo?iia iaiueoa iaeneiaeueiie?

Yoi aue ioithaeue ia aaeeinoaaiiue nth?i?ec, i?aiiaeianaiiue oeceeai
b-?aaeeiaeoeaiinoueth. Eiaaea iiaen/eoaee eiioeuen enoiaeiiai yae?a e
aai iiiaio eiee/anoai aeaeaeaiey e n?aaieee n eiioeuenii e iiiaioii
eiee/anoaa aeaeaeaiey aiiaue ia?aciaaaoaainy yae?a e yeaeo?iia, oi
ieacaeinue, /oi e caeanue aaeain ia noiaeeony. Oaeei ia?acii, a
i?ioeanna b-?aniaaea eae aoaeoi ia?ooaeenue ana o?e eeanne/aneeo caeiia
nio?aiaiey, iaaeaeo oai eae ai anao ae?oaeo ecaanoiuo yaeaieyo iee?iie?a
iie iaoeinieoaeueii niaethaeaeenue.

Aeey iauyniaiey caaaaeee b-?aniaaea auei i?aaeeiaeaii iiiai aeiioac,
eiathueo a ianoiyuaa a?aiy eeoue, enoi?e/aneee eioa?an. A 1922 a. E.
Iaeoia? i?aaeeiaeeea, /oi b-yeaeo?iiu ?ano?a/eaatho /anoue naiae yia?aee
aioo?e aoiia, eiaaea i?ieaoatho /a?ac aai yeaeo?iiioth iaiei/eo. Yoa
aeiioaca iiaeaa?aeanue no?iaie iiuoiie i?iaa?ea a 1927 a. Yeeenii e
Aonoa?ii. Iiuo yoeo o/aiuo ninoiye a neaaeothuai: ?aaeeiaeoeaiue
i?aia?ao RaA a oienoinoaiiie naeioeiaie iaiei/ea iiiauaeny a iaaeiue
eaei?eiao?. Eiee/anoai yia?aee, auaeaeaiiie i?aia?aoii ca ii?aaeaeaiiue
i?iiaaeooie a?aiaie, oi/ii ecia?yeinue. Niaeanii aeiioaca Iaeoia?
neaaeiaaei iaeeaeaoue, /oi n?aaeiyy yia?aey, i?eoiaeyuayny ia iaeei aeo
?aniaaea, aeieaeia auea au ?aaiyoueny iaeneiaeueiie yia?aee a b-niaeo?a.
A aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe aea yoa yia?aey ieacaeanue ?aaiie n?aaeiae yia?aee,
ninoaaeythuae ieiei iaeiie o?aoe io aaee/eiu a?aie/iie yia?aee
b-/anoeoe. Aua aieaa ouaoaeueiua iiuou, inouanoaeaiiua a 1930 a. naiie
Iaeoia? niaianoii n I?oiaiii, iiaeoaa?aeeee ?acoeueoao Yeeena e Aonoa?a.
Oaeei ia?acii, aiiaue auei onoaiiaeaii, /oi /anoue yia?aee yaea?iiai
i?aa?auaiey aanneaaeii en/acaao.

Aaeeinoaaiiui auoiaeii ec iieiaeaiey i?aaenoaaeyeinue aeiiouaiea i oii,
/oi a i?ioeanna b-?aniaaea caeii nio?aiaiey yia?aee ia?ooaaony. Eiaiii
oaeie auoiae e i?aaeeiaeee Ai? a 1930 a. Aeiioaca Ai?a, eae e
?anniio?aiiay auoa, caeeth/aeanue a i?aaeiieiaeaiee, /oi caeii
nio?aiaiey yia?aee ia?ooaaony a yeaiaioa?iuo aeoao b-?aniaaea, ii
auiieiyaony noaoenoe/anee aeey aeinoaoi/ii aieueoiai /enea oaeeo aeoia.
Ai eiy ?aoaiey iaeiie i?iaeaiu Ai? i?aaeeaaae noieue aieueooth aea?oao,
/oi anee au iia ii?aaaeaeanue, oi yoi icia/aei au ii nouanoao e?ooaiea
ia oieueei oeceee, ii e anaai anoanoaiciaiey a oeaeii. Eai n iiiaioa
i?eciaiey caeiia nio?aiaiey e i?aa?auaiey yia?aee eae iniiau oece/aneiai
anoanoaiciaiey iaoea ia aue ecaanoai ie iaeei oaeo, eioi?ue i?ioeai?a/ee
au yoiio caeiio. Iinea enneaaeiaaiee Eiiioiia e ae?oaeo oeceeia ia auei
niiiaiee a auiieiaiee yoiai caeiia e a iaeanoe iee?iie?a.

Aeiioaca Ai?a i noaoenoe/aneii auiieiaiee caeiia nio?aiaiey yia?aee a
b-?aniaaea auea ii?iaa?aiooa a 1933 a. iiuoaie Yeeena e Iiooa.

N?aco aea iinea iiyaeaiey iia ano?aoeea ae?oaeiua aic?aaeaiey oeceeia.
Oae neeoeii aaeeea auea aea?oaa. Iaeei ec iniiaiiieiaeieeia nia?aiaiiie
oai?ee b-?aniaaea oaaeoea?neee oecee A. Iaoee ienae ii yoiio eniiaeo:
“Ia iie acaeyae, yoa aeiioaca ia oieueei iaoaeiaeaoai?eoaeueia, ii
aeaaea iaaeiionoeia. I?aaeaea anaai, a yoeo i?ioeannao yeaeo?e/aneee
ca?yae nio?aiyaony, a y ia aeaeo iniiaaiee n/eoaoue nio?aiaiea ca?yaea
aieaa ooiaeaiaioaeueiui, /ai nio?aiaiea aia?aee e eiioeuena”.

A 1931 a. ia oece/aneie eiioa?aioeee a Ianaaeaia Iaoee aeieiaeee o/aiui
i naiae eioa?i?aoaoeee b-?aniaaea: “Caeiiu nio?aiaiey auiieiythony, oae
eae enioneaiea b-/anoeoe nii?iaiaeaeaaony i?iieeathuae ?aaeeaoeeae ec
iaeo?aeueiuo /anoeoe… Noiia yia?aee b-/anoeoeu e iaeo?aeueiie
/anoeoeu…, eniouaiiuo yae?ii a ioaeaeueiii aeoa, ?aaia yia?aee,
niioaaonoaothuae aa?oiae a?aieoea b-niaeo?a. Naii niaie ?acoiaaony, /oi
iu aeiioneaai ai anao yeaiaioa?iuo i?ioeannao ia oieueei nio?aiaiea
yia?aee, ii e nio?aiaiea eiioeuena e iiiaioa eiee/anoaa aeaeaeaiey”.

Iineieueeo a ?acoeueoaoa b-?aniaaea ca?yae yae?a eciaiyaony ia
aaeeieoeo, i?aaeiieaaaaiay /anoeoea aeieaeia auoue yeaeo?e/anee
iaeo?aeueiie. Oaeie /anoeoeae iia au auoue e oioii, ii yoo aiciiaeiinoue
io?eoeae iiuo Yeeena e Aonoa?a. Ianna yae?a i?e b-?aniaaea i?aeoe/anee
ia eciaiyaony, e iiyoiio /anoeoea aeieaeia auea iaeaaeaoue ie/oiaeii
iaeie iannie. Oaeei ia?acii, iinooee?iaaiiay Iaoee /anoeoea ii niiei
naienoaai ioee/aeanue io ecaanoiuo a oi a?aiy /anoeoe. Iicaea iia auea
iacaaia iaeo?eii. Aaaaeaiea yoie aeiioaoe/aneie /anoeoeu iauyniyei
ia?aaeienu b-?aniaaea. Oeacaiiua naienoaa iaeo?eii i?eaiaeeee e oiio,
/oi iii niaa?oaiii naiaiaeii i?ioiaeeei neaicue noaiee i?eai?ia, ia
eniuouaay yeaeo?iiaaieoiuo acaeiiaeaenoaee, e iiyoiio oiineiay ei
yia?aey ia iiaea auoue, anoanoaaiii, o/oaia.

Aeiioaca iaeo?eii iicaieeea oaeaea ionoiyoue e caeii nio?aiaiey iiiaioa
eiee/anoaa aeaeaeaiey a yae?a. O?oaeiinoe n yoei caeiiii aicieeee a 1932
a., eiaaea A. Aaecaiaa?aii e E. Eaaiaiei auea i?aaeeiaeaia
iaeo?iiii-i?ioiiiay noaia no?iaiey aoiiia yae?a. Niaeanii yoie noaia
yeaeo?iiia, a yae?a auoue ia aeieaeii, iie ?iaeaeathony a i?ioeanna
b-?aniaaea. Oai?ey yae?a i?eaiaeeea e caeeth/aieth, /oi niei enoiaeiiai
yae?a a aaeeieoeao h/2p aeieaeai au?aaeaoueny oeaeui /eneii. Iaaeaeo oai
niei yeaeo?iia ?aaai iieiaeia, a i?aeoaeueiue iiiaio eiee/anoaa
aeaeaeaiey yeaeo?iiia iia auoue oieueei oeaeui /eneii h/2p. Iiyoiio
iieo/aeinue, /oi a ?acoeueoaoa b-?aniaaea oeaeue niei yae?a aeieaeai aue
au ia?aoiaeeoue a iieooeaeue e iaiai?io. Yoi icia/aei ia?ooaiea caeiia
nio?aiaiey iiiaioa eiee/anoaa aeaeaeaiey. Yoa o?oaeiinoue nae/an
ono?aiyeanue, anee iaeo?eii i?eienaoue iieooeaeue niei (1/2).

Oaeei ia?acii, niaeanii aeiioaca Iaoee iaeo?eii yaeeinue oie /anoeoeae,
eioi?ay eiiiaine?iaaea eae iaaeinoathuoth yia?aeth, oae e niei. A
aeaeueiaeoai aue ooi/iai e caeii nio?aiaiey eiioeuena ia iniiaa
aeiiouaiey, /oi eiioeuen yae?a ioaea/e aeieaeai auoue ?aaai ii aaee/eia
e iai?aaeai i?ioeaiiieiaeii noiia?iiio eiioeueno yeaeo?iia e iaeo?eii.

A iaeiii ec naieo aieaa iicaeieo aunooieaiee Iaoee iiae/a?eioe, /oi ii
anaaaea aue i?ioea oiai, /oiau ?aoaoue eaeea au oi ie auei o?oaeiinoe a
oece/aneeo i?iaeaiao iooai ioeaca io caeiia nio?aiaiey yia?aee:
“Ai-ia?auo, y n/eoath, /oi aiaeiaey iaaeaeo caeiiaie nio?aiaiey yia?aee
e nio?aiaiey yeaeo?e/aneiai ca?yaea eiaao aeoaieia cia/aiea e iiaeao
yaeyoueny iaaeaaeiie ?oeiaiaeyuae ieoueth. A?yae ee iiaeii,
ioeacaaoenue io caeiia nio?aiaiey yia?aee, nio?aieoue caeii nio?aiaiey
yeaeo?e/aneiai ca?yaea, a yoio iineaaeiee caeii ieeiaaea aua ia
i?eaiaeee ie e eaeei cao?oaeiaieyi. Iiyoiio y n naiiai ia/aea
ioeacuaaeny aa?eoue a ia?ooaiea nio?aiaiey yia?aee”.

Aeiioaca Iaoee i iaeo?eii auea eceiaeaia aia?aua a ia/aoe n aai
?ac?aoaiey aeaoiy o/anoieeaie naieia?a Ea?eniiii e Iiiaiaaeia?ii a
1932a., a aiae nionoy aaoi? aa, aunooiay ia naaeueiii Nieueaaaaneii
eiia?anna, iinayuaiiii oaia “No?iaiea e naienoaa aoiiiuo yaea?”,
ianoiyoaeueii aeieiaeee o/anoieeai eiia?anna i oao i?aaeiinueeao,
eioi?ua i?eaaee aai e noieue iaiau/iie aeiioaca).

A 1934 a. eoaeueyineee oecee Y. Oa?ie ia iniiaa aeiioacu i iaeo?eii e
i?ioiiii-iaeo?iiiie noaiu no?iaiey aoiiiiai yae?a nicaeae oai?eth
b-?aniaaea, eioi?ay oniaoii iauynieea ana iniiaiua /a?ou yoiai
i?ioeanna. A iineaaeothuea aiaeu iiiai oneeee auei cao?a/aii ia
yenia?eiaioaeueiia aeieacaoaeuenoai nouanoaiaaiey iaeo?eii. Nia/aea yoe
aeieacaoaeuenoaa auee iieo/aiu einaaiii, a a ia?eiae 1953-1955 aa. iooai
iinoaiiaee aeiaieueii neiaeiuo yenia?eiaioia aia?eeaineea oeceee Eioyi e
?ieiaa iaia?oaeeee iaeo?eii a naiaiaeiii ninoiyiee.

Aio /oi aiai?eo oece/aneay yioeeeeiiaaeey i iaeo?eii.

“I?aaenoaaeaiea i iaeo?eii aaaaeaii a 1930 oaaeoea?neei oeceeii A. Iaoee
n oeaeueth iauynieoue iai?a?uaiue yia?aaoe/aneee niaeo? yeaeo?iiia i?e
b-?aniaaea: iauea i?eioeeiu eaaioiaie iaoaieee e caeii nio?aiaiey
yia?aee o?aaiaaee, /oiau yeaeo?iiu eiaee ii?aaeaeaiioth yia?aeth,
?aaioth yia?aee, auaeaeyaiie i?e b-?aniaaea. Niaeanii aeiioaca Iaoee, a
b-?aniaaea aianoa n yeaeo?iiii ?iaeaeaaony iiaay iaeo?aeueiay neeueii
i?iieeathuay e, neaaeiaaoaeue- ii, o?oaeii iaia?oaeeiay /anoeoea n
iannie

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