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Стоицизм в римской и эллинистической философии

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Iineianeee Ainoaea?noaaiiue Aaeaoeeiiiue Einoeooo

(Oaoie/aneee Oieaa?neoao)

?aoa?ao

ii oeeinioee

ia oaio “Noieoeeci a ?eineie e

yeeeienoe/aneie oeeinioee. Yieeo?.”

nooaeaioa a?. 07-107 Eieueoeiaa I. A.

I; 1995 a.

Niaea?aeaiea:

1. ?eineay oeeinioey……………………3

2. Yeeeienoe/aneay oeeinioey……..9

1. ?eineay oeeinioey.

N ia/aea III noieaoey aei i. y. a ?aaeiia N?aaeecaiiiai ii?y nouanoaaiii
oneeeaaaony aeeyiea ?eia, eioi?ue ec ai?iaeneie ?anioaeeee noaiiaeony
neeueiie aea?aeaaie. Ai II a. aei i. y. ii aeaaeaao oaea aieueoie
/anoueth ae?aaiaai ie?a. Iiae aai yeiiiie/aneia e iieeoe/aneia aeeyiea
iiiaaeatho e ai?iaea eiioeiaioaeueiie A?aoeee. Oai naiui a ?ei
ia/eiaaony i?iieeiiaaiea a?a/aneie eoeueoo?u, ninoaaiie /anoueth eioi?ie
auea oeeinioey. ?eineay eoeueoo?a e ia?aciaaiea ?acaeaaeenue a
niaa?oaiii ae?oaeo oneiaeyo, /ai oa, eioi?ua auee ianeieueei noieaoee
aei yoiai a A?aoeee. ?eineea iioiaeu, ono?aieaiiua ai ana noi?iiu
ecaanoiiai oiaaea ie?a (n iaeiie noi?iiu, a iaeanoe c?aeuo oeeaeeecaoeee
ae?aaiaai ie?a, a n ae?oaie ia oa??eoi?eth “aa?aa?neeo” ieaiai),
ia?acotho oe?ieea ?aiee aeey oi?ie?iaaiey ?eineiai iuoeaiey. Oniaoii
?acaeaaeenue anoanoaaiiua e oaoie/aneea iaoee, iaauaaeiai ?aciaoa
aeinoeaatho iieeoe/aneea e th?eaee/aneea.

Aeey ?eineie eoeueoo?u oa?aeoa?ii no?aieaiea iaiaaoeoueny eo/oei
ec oiai, n /ai noaeeeaaaony ?ei, no?aiyueeny e ie?iaiio ainiiaenoao.
Eiae/iui iiyoiio yaeyaony oi, /oi e ?eineay oeeinioey oi?ie?oaony iiae
?aoathuei aeeyieai a?a/aneiai, a /anoiinoe yeeeienoe/aneiai,
oeeinioneiai iuoeaiey. Ii?aaeaeaiiui eiioeuenii aeey ?anoe?aiey
a?a/aneie oeeinioee a ?eia auei iinauaiea aai aoeineeie iineaie, n?aaee
eioi?uo auee iaeaieaa auaeathueany i?aaenoaaeoaee nouanoaiaaaoeo a oi
a?aiy a?a/aneeo oeeinioneeo oeie (na?aaeeia 11 a. aei i. y.).

I?eaeeceoaeueii n yoiai a?aiaie a ?eia ?acaeaathony o?e oeeinioneeo
iai?aaeaiey, eioi?ua noi?ie?iaaeenue oaea a yeeeienoe/aneie A?aoeee, (
noieoeeci, yieeo?aeci e neaioeoeeci.

Iaeaieueoaa ?ani?ino?aiaiea eae a ?anioaeeeaineii, oae e iicaea a
eiia?aoi?neii ?eia iieo/ee noieoeeci. Eiiaaea aai n/eoatho aaeeinoaaiiui
oeeinioneei iai?aaeaieai, eioi?ia a ?eineee ia?eiae i?eia?aei iiaia
cao/aiea. Aai ia/aea iiaeii oaeaeaoue oaea ai aeeyiee Aeeiaaia ec
Naeaaeee e Aioeiao?a ec O?ana (eioi?ua i?eauee a ?ei n oiiiyiooui
aoeineei iinieuenoaii). Caiaoioth ?ieue a ?acaeoee noieoeecia a ?eia
nua?aee oaeaea i?aaenoaaeoaee n?aaeiae noie ( Iaiyoee ec ?iaeina e
Iineaeiiee, eioi?ua n?aaieoaeueii i?iaeieaeeoaeueiue ia?eiae ?aaioaee a
?eia. Eo caneoaa ninoieo a oii, /oi iie niinianoaiaaee oe?ieiio
?ani?ino?aiaieth noieoeecia a n?aaeieo e aunoeo eeannao ?eineiai
iauanoaa. N?aaee o/aieeia Iaiyoey auee oaeea auaeathueany ee/iinoe
Ae?aaiaai ?eia, eae Noeeieii Ieaaeoee e Oeeoea?ii. Iaiyoee a iniiaiuo
iieiaeaieyo naiaai o/aiey a cia/eoaeueiie ia?a i?eaea?aeeaaeny noa?iai
noieoeecia. Oae, o iaai ano?a/aaony iiiyoea eiaina, aiaeiae/iia
iiiyoeth, iai?eia?, o O?eneiia, eioi?ue i?eaea?aeeaaeny noiaeiuo
iioieiae/aneeo aicc?aiee. A iaeanoe yoeee ii ianeieueei i?eaeecee e
i?aeoe/aneie aeecie eaeaae noie/aneiai ioae?aoea.

Ia aeaeueiaeoaa ?acaeoea ?eineiai noieoeecia aieueoia aeeyiea ieacae
Iineaeiiee. A iaeanoe iioieiaee ii ?acaeaaao iniiaioth oeeinioneoth
i?iaeaiaoeeo o/aiee A?enoioaey, a oaeaea aii?inu, a?aie/auea n
anoanoaaiiiiao/iie i?iaeaiaoeeie e einiieiaeae. Enoiaeiua oeeinioneea
e yoe/aneea aicc?aiey a?a/aneiai noieoeecia ii niaaeeiyao n yeaiaioaie
o/aiey Ieaoiia, a a iaeioi?uo neo/ayo e n ieoaai?aeneei ienoeoeeciii. (A
yoii i?iyaeyaony ii?aaeaeaiiue yeeaeoeoeeci, eioi?ue aue oeie/ai aeey
?eineie oeeinioee oiai ia?eiaea.)

Iaeaieaa aeaeiui i?aaenoaaeoaeai ?eineiai noieoeecia (iiaie noie)
auee Naiaea, Yieeoao e Ia?e Aa?aeee. Naiaea (oe. 4 a. aei i. y. ( 65 a.
i. y.) i?ienoiaeee ec nineiaey “anaaeieeia”, iieo/ee ananoi?iiiaa
anoanoaaiiiiao/iia, th?eaee/aneia e oeeinioneia ia?aciaaiea,
n?aaieoaeueii aeeeoaeueiue ia?eiae oniaoii caieiaeny aaeaieaoneie
i?aeoeeie. Iicaea noaiiaeony ainieoaoaeai aoaeouaai eiia?aoi?a Ia?iia,
iinea ainoanoaey eioi?iai ia o?ii ii iieo/aao iaeaunoaa iauanoaaiiia
iieiaeaiea e ii/anoe. Ai aoi?ie aiae aeanoe Ia?iia ii iinayuaao aio
o?aeoao “I ieeina?aeee”, a eioi?ii i?ecuaaao Ia?iia eae i?aaeoaey
nio?aiyoue oia?aiiinoue e i?eaea?aeeaaoueny ?anioaeeeaineiai aeooa.

Ii ia?a ?inoa i?anoeaea e aiaaonoaa Naiaea aoiaeeo a eiioeeeo ni
naiei ie?oaeaieai. Iinea iiaea?a a 64 a. i. y. iaiaaenoue e Naiaea a
?eia ?anoao. Ii iieeaeaao ai?iae e aeeaao a naiai aeeceaaeauai eiaiee.
Iaaeiaiiue a iiaeaioiaea caaiai?a, ii aue auioaeaeai iieii/eoue
naiioaeenoaii .

Ianeaaeea Naiaee aanueia iaoe?ii. E aai iaeaieaa auaeathueiny ?aaioai
ioiinyony “Ienueia Eooeeeeth”, “?annoaeaeaiea i i?iaeaeaiee”, “I
noieeinoe oeeinioa”, “I aiaaa”, “I n/anoeeaie aeecie”, “I naiaiaeiii
a?aiaie”, “I aeia?iaeaoaee” e o. ae. Ca eneeth/aieai “Aii?inia
i?e?iaeu” (“Quastiones naturales”), ana aai ?aaiou iinayuaiu
yoe/aneei i?iaeaiai. Anee noa?ay noiy iieaaaea oeceeo aeooie, oi
oeeinioey iiaie noie n/eoaao aa iieiinoueth iiae/eiaiiie iaeanoueth. A
aicc?aieyo ia i?e?iaeo (oae aea eae e a inoaeueiuo /anoyo naiaai
oai?/anoaa) Naiaea, iaeiaei, a i?eioeeia i?eaea?aeeaaaony o/aiey noa?ie
noie. Yoi i?iyaeyaony, iai?eia?, a iaoa?eaeenoe/anee i?eaioe?iaaiiii
aeoaeecia iaoa?ee e oi?iu. ?acoi n/eoaaony aeoeaiui i?eioeeiii, eioi?ue
niiauaao iaoa?ee oi?io. I?e yoii iaeiicia/ii i?eciaaony ia?ae/iinoue
iaoa?ee. Aeooo (iiaaio) ii oaeaea iiieiaao a aeooa noa?iai noieoeecia,
eae aanueia oiieoth iaoa?eth, nianue yeaiaioia iaiy e aicaeooa. A
aiinaieiaee Naiaea, eae e ae?oaea i?aaenoaaeoaee noieoeecia, yaeyaony
noi?iiieeii aioe/iiai nainoaeecia. Ii iiae/a?eeaaao, /oi ?acoi eiaao
naia ia/aei a /oanoaao. I?e ?aoaiee aii?ina ia aeoeaiinoe aeooe ii,
iaeiaei, i?eieiaao iaeioi?ua yeaiaiou ieaoiiianeie oeeinioee, /oi
i?iyaeyaony i?aaeaea anaai a i?eciaiee aannia?oey aeooe e oa?aeoa?enoeea
oaeaniinoe eae “ieia” aeooe. Naiaea enoiaeeo ec oiai, /oi ana a ie?a e
ai anaeaiiie iiae/eiaii aeanoe no?iaie iaiaoiaeeiinoe. Yoi auoaeaao ec
aai iiiyoey aiaa eae eiiaiaioiie, i?aayuae neeu, aeanoaothuae iaae
?acoiii (eiainii). Naiaea oa?aeoa?ecoao aa eae “aunoaa aeaai e
iaeaunooth ioae?inoue”, eioi?ay ?aaeecoaony a aa?iiiee ie?a e aai
oeaeaniia?aciii ono?ienoaa. A ioee/ea io noa?ie noie Naiaea (oae aea eae
e aanue ?eineee noieoeeci) ii/oe ia caieiaaony eiae/aneie i?iaeaiaoeeie.
Oeaio?ii e n?aaeioi/eai aai nenoaiu yaeyaony yoeea. Eae iniiaiie
auaeaeyaony i?eioeei niaeaney n i?e?iaeie (aeeoue n/anoeeai ( cia/eo
aeeoue a niioaaonoaee n i?e?iaeie) e i?eioeei iiae/eiaiiinoe /aeiaaea
noaeueaa. Aii?ino, eae i?iaeeoue aeeciue, iinayuaiu aai o?aeoaou “I
e?aoeinoe aeecie” e “I n/anoeeaie aeecie”. A ieo i?iaoee?othony eae
ee/iue iiuo Naiaee, oae e iauanoaaiiua ioiioaiey oiaaeaoiaai ?eia.
Oo?aoa a?aaeaeaineeo naiaiae e oiaaeie ?anioaeeeaineeo aeia?iaeaoaeae a
yiioo eiia?aoi?neie aeanoe i?eaiaeyo aai e cia/eoaeueiui niiiaieyi
ioiineoaeueii aoaeouaai. “Ia o?e ia?eiaea aeaeeony aeeciue: i?ioeia,
ianoiyuaa e aoaeouaa. Ec ieo oio, a eioi?ii aeeaai, e?aoie; oio, a
eioi?ii aoaeai aeeoue, niiieoaeai, e eeoue oio, eioi?ue iu i?iaeeee,
ii?aaeaeaiiue. Oieueei ii onoie/ea, ia iaai ia aeeyao noaeueaa, ii e
aica?aoeoue aai oaeaea ia iiaeao ieeoi”. Naiaea ioaa?aaao no?aieaiea e
iaeiieaieth eiouanoaa, e naaoneei ii/anoyi e aeieaeiinoyi: “*ai auoa eoi
acioae, oai aeeaea ii e iaaeaieth. I/aiue aaaeia e aanueia e?aoea
aeeciue oiai /aeiaaea, eioi?ue n aaeeeeie oneeeyie i?eia?aoaao oi, /oi
aua n aieueoeie oneeeyie aeieaeai ii oaea?aeeaaoue”. Iaeiaei ii
eniieueciaae naia iauanoaaiiia iieiaeaiea e noae iaeiei ec iaeaieaa
aiaaouo e aeeyoaeueiuo ethaeae ?eia. Eiaaea aai a?aae oeacuaaee ia
oaeo, /oi aai nianoaaiiay aeeciue aanueia ?acei ioee/aaony io eaeaaeia,
eioi?ua ii i?iaicaeaoaao, ii ioaaoee ei a o?aeoaoa “I n/anoeeaie
aeecie”: “…ana oeeiniou aiai?yo ia i oii, eae aeeaoo naie, ii i oii,
eae aeieaeii aeeoue. Aiai?th i aeia?iaeaoaee, ii ia i naaa e aithth
i?ioea a?aoia, a yoi cia/eo e i?ioea naieo nianoaaiiuo: eiaaea eo
iaeieath, aoaeo aeeoue eae iaaei”. Niune aeecie Naiaea aeaeeo a
aeinoeaeaiee aaniethoiiai aeooaaiiai niieienoaey. Iaeiie ec iniiaiuo
i?aaeiinueie yoiai yaeyaony i?aiaeieaiea no?aoa ia?aae nia?oueth.
Yoie i?iaeaiaoeea ii ioaiaeeo aanueia iiiai ianoa a naieo o?oaeao. A
yoeea ii i?iaeieaeaao eeieth noa?ie noie, iiae/a?eeaay iiiyoea /aeiaaea
eae eiaeeaeaea, no?aiyuaainy e niaa?oainoaiaaieth a aeia?iaeaoaeyo.

AEeciue, a eioi?ie /aeiaae ana eee iiaeaaeythuoth /anoue naieo oneeee
iinayuaao nianoaaiiiio niaa?oainoaiaaieth, aeeciue, a eioi?ie ii
ecaaaaao o/anoey a iauanoaaiiuo aeaeao e iieeoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe,
yaeyaony, niaeanii Naiaea, iaeaieaa aeinoieiie. “Eo/oa eneaoue oe?uoey a
oeoie i?enoaie, /ai auoue aeia?iaieueii a?inaaiui ooaea-nthaea anth
aeeciue. Iiaeoiae, neieueeei oaea?ai aiee ou oaea iiaeaa?aaeny,
neieueei ao?ue i?iianeinue a oaiae /anoiie aeecie, neieueei eo ou
aanniciaoaeueii aucaae ia naay a ioaee/iie aeecie! Ia eiath a aeaeo,
/oiau ou oiiee naie aeie ai nia e a ianeaaeaeaieyo. Yoi y ia iacuaath
iieiioeaiiie aeeciueth. No?aienue iaeoe caaea/e aieaa aaaeiua, /ai oa,
eioi?uie ou aei neo ii? caieiaeny, e aa?ue, /oi aaaeiaa ciaoue n/ao
nianoaaiiie aeecie, /ai iauaai aeaaa, i eioi?ii ou iaeny aei neo ii?!
Anee aoaeaoue oae aeeoue, aeaeao oaay iauaiea n ioae?uie ioaeaie,
i?ae?aniia eneonnoai, ethaiaue e naa?oaiea aeaaa; iniciaiea oiai,
eae oi?ioi aeeoue e iaeiaaeaeu oi?ioi oia?aoue.” Aai yoe/aneea aicc?aiey
i?iieoaiu eiaeeaeaeoaeeciii, eioi?ue yaeyaony ?aaeoeeae ia ao?ioth
iieeoe/aneoth aeeciue a ?eia.

Ae?oaie aeaeiue i?aaenoaaeoaeue ?eineiai noieoeecia ( Yieeoao (
ia?aiia/aeueii aue ?aaii Iinea oiai eae aai ioionoeee ia naiaiaeo,
iieiinoueth iinayoee naay oeeinioee. A aai aicc?aieyo iiiai io noa?ie
noie, eioi?ay iiaeeyea ia iaai, e io oai?/anoaa Naiaee. Nai ii ia
inoaaee ieeaeeo ?aaio. Aai iunee caoeene?iaae aai o/aiee A??eai ec
Ieeiiaaeee a o?aeoaoao “?annoaeaeaiey Yieeoaoa” e “?oeiaiaenoai
Yieeoaoa”. Yieeoao ionoaeaae oi/eo c?aiey, niaeanii eioi?ie oeeinioey,
nianoaaiii, yaeyaony ia oieueei iiciaieai, ii e i?eiaiaieai a
i?aeoe/aneie aeecie. Ii ia aue i?eaeiaeueiui iuneeoaeai, aai caneoaa
aeaaiui ia?acii ninoieo a iiioey?ecaoeee noie/aneie oeeinioee. A naieo
iioieiae/aneeo i?aaenoaaeaieyo e ai acaeyaeao a iaeanoe oai?ee iiciaiey
ii enoiaeee ec a?a/aneiai noieoeecia. Eneeth/eoaeueiia aeeyiea ia iaai
eiaee o?oaeu O?eneiia. ssae?ii oeeinioee Yieeoaoa yaeyaony yoeea,
iniiaaiiay ia noie/aneii iiieiaiee aeia?iaeaoaee e aeecie a niaeanee n
iauei oa?aeoa?ii ie?a. Enneaaeiaaiea i?e?iaeu (oeceea) aaaeii e iieacii
ia iioiio, /oi ia aai iniiaa iiaeii eciaieoue i?e?iaeo (ie?oaeathuee
ie?), ii iioiio, /oiau a niioaaonoaee n i?e?iaeie /aeiaae iia
oii?yaei/eoue naith aeeciue. *aeiaae ia aeieaeai aeaeaoue oiai, /aai ii
ia iiaeao ineeeoue: “Anee oi/aoue, /oiau oaie aeaoe, oaiy aeaia e oaie
ae?ocuey aeeee iinoiyiii, oi ou eee noianoaaeoee, eee oi/aoue, /oiau
aaue, eioi?ua ia iaoiaeyony a oaiae aeanoe, auee au a oaiae aeanoe e
/oiau oi, /oi yaeyaony /oaeei, auei oaiei”. A oae eae eciaieoue
iauaeoeaiue ie?, iauanoai ia a neeao /aeiaaea, ia neaaeoao e no?aieoueny
e yoiio.

Yieeoao e?eoeeoao e inoaeaeaao oiaaeaoiee iauanoaaiiue ii?yaeie. Ii
aeaeaao oii? ia iunee i ?aaainoaa ethaeae, inoaeaeaao ?aaiaeaaeaiea.
Yoei aai aicc?aiey ioee/athony io noie/aneiai o/aiey. Oeaio?aeueiue
iioea aai oeeinioee ( nie?aiea n aeaiiie ?aaeueiinoueth ( aaaeao,
iaeiaei, e ianneaiinoe. “Ia aeaeae, /oiau ana i?ienoiaeeei, eae ou
oi/aoue, ii aeaeae, /oiau ana i?ienoiaeeei eae i?ienoiaeeo, e aoaeao
oaaa oi?ioi a aeecie”. Aeaenoaeoaeueiie nouiinoueth /aeiaaea Yieeoao
n/eoaao ?acoi. Aeaaiaea?y aio /aeiaae o/anoaoao a iauai ii?yaeea ie?a.
Iiyoiio neaaeoao ia/ueny ia i aeaaininoiyiee, oaeianoaao e aiiaua i
oaeaniuo oaeiaieuenoaeyo, ii oieueei i naiae aeooa. Iiaeiaii oiio eae
?acoi aeanoaoao iaae /aeiaaeii, oae e a ie?a aeanoaoao ie?iaie ?acoi (
eiain (aia). Ii enoi/iee e ii?aaeaeythuee oaeoi? ?acaeoey ie?a. Aauai
aea, eae oi?aaeyaiui aiaii, neaaeoao aio iiae/eiyoueny. Naiaiaeo e
iacaaeneiinoue, eioi?ui ii i?eaeaaae aieueoia cia/aiea, Yieeoao
ia?aie/eaaao eeoue aeooiaiie naiaiaeie, naiaiaeie nie?aiey n
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoueth. Yoeea Yieeoaoa a nouiinoe yaeyaony
?aoeeiiaeenoe/aneie. E oioue iia au?aceoaeueii ioia/aia noauaeoeaeciii,
ana aea caueuaao (a ioee/ea io oi?ie?othueony a oi a?aiy
e??aoeeiiaeenoe/aneeo oa/aiee) neeo /aeiaa/aneiai ?acoia. A nouiinoe any
oeeinioey Yieeoaoa yaeyaony au?aaeaieai ianneaiiai i?ioanoa iecoeo
iauanoaaiiuo eeannia i?ioea nouanoaothueo iauanoaaiiuo ii?yaeeia. Yoio
i?ioano, iaeiaei, ia iaoiaeeo ?aaeueiiai auoiaea. Iiyoiio ii aueeaaaony
a i?ecua nie?eoueny n nouanoaothuei iieiaeaieai aeae.

E ?eineei noieeai ioiineony e eiia?aoi? Ia?e Aa?aeee Aioiiei, ai
a?aiy i?aaeaiey eioi?iai e?eceniua yaeaiey noaiiayony aua aieaa
eioaineaiuie. Aunoea iauanoaaiiua eeannu ioeacuaathony /oi-eeai
eciaieoue, /oiau nio?aieoue nouanoaothuee iauanoaaiiue no?ie. A
noie/aneie yoeea iie aeaeyo ii?aaeaeaiiia n?aaenoai ii?aeueiiai
aic?iaeaeaiey iauanoaa. Eiia?aoi? a ?aciuoeaieyo “E naiiio naaa”
i?iaicaeaoaao, /oi “aaeeinoaaiiia, /oi iaoiaeeony ai aeanoe /aeiaaea,(
yoi aai iunee”. “Caaeyie a naia ioo?i! Oai, aioo?e, enoi/iee aeia?a,
eioi?ue niiniaai aeoue ia ennyeay, anee aei iaai iinoiyiii
aeieaiuaaoueny” . Ie? ii iiieiaao eae aa/ii oaeouee e eciai/eaue.
Iniiaiie oeaeueth /aeiaa/aneeo no?aieaiee aeieaeii auoue aeinoeaeaiea
aeia?iaeaoaee, o. a. iiae/eiaiea “?acoiiui caeiiai i?e?iaeu a niaeanee n
/aeiaa/aneei anoanoaii”. Ia?e Aa?aeee ?aeiiaiaeoao: “Niieieioth iuneue
i?e anai, /oi i?eoiaeeo ecaia, e ni?aaaaeeeainoue i?e anai, /oi
?aaeecoaony ii oaiaio nianoaaiiiio oniio?aieth, oi “anoue oaia aeaeaiea
e aeaenoaea, ionoue caeeth/athony a aeaenoaeyo iauaiieaciuo, eai yoi
nooue a niaeanee n oaiei anoanoaii”. Ia?e Aa?aeee ( iineaaeiee
i?aaenoaaeoaeue aioe/iiai noieoeecia, e ii nooe ia yoii noieoeeci
caeai/eaaaony. A aai oai?/anoaa i?iyaeythony ii?aaeaeaiiua neaaeu
ienoeoeecia, eioi?ue oanii naycai n oiaaeeii ?eineiai iauanoaa.
Noie/aneia o/aiea, a /anoiinoe iiae/a?eeaaiea iaiaoiaeeiinoe
“iiae/eieoue naay” (ie?iaiio ?acoio ( eiaino ( aiao), ai iiiaii iiaeeyei
ia oi?ie?iaaiea ?aiiaai o?enoeainoaa.

Yieeo?aeci. Aaeeinoaaiiie iaoa?eaeenoe/aneie (aeey naiaai a?aiaie
io/aoeeai iaoa?eaeenoe/aneie) oeeinioeae a aioe/iii ?eia aue yieeo?aeci,
eioi?ue cia/eoaeueii ?ani?ino?aieeny a iineaaeiea aiaeu ?eineie
?anioaeeee e a ia/aea eiia?aoi?neiai i?aaeaiey. Iaeaieaa auaeathueiny
aai i?aaenoaaeoaeai aue Oeo Eoe?aoeee Ea?, iaienaaoee oeeinioneoth
iiyio “I i?e?iaea”, eioi?ay yaeyaony oaeaea e oeaiiui
ooaeiaeanoaaiiui i?iecaaaeaieai oiaaeaoiae eeoa?aoo?u.

Eoe?aoeee iieiinoueth ioiaeaeanoaeyao naie acaeyaeu n o/aieai
Aeaiie?eoa e Yieeo?a; iineaaeiaai ii n/eoae iaeeo/oei a?a/aneei
oeeinioii. A naiai i?iecaaaeaiee ii ianoa?nee iauyniyao, aeieacuaaao e
i?iiaaaiaee?oao aicc?aiey ?aiieo i?aaenoaaeoaeae aoiienoe/aneiai o/aiey,
iineaaeiaaoaeueii caueuaao iniiaiua i?eioeeiu aoiiecia eae io aieaa
?aiieo, oae e io nia?aiaiiuo aio i?ioeaieeia, aeaaay iaeiia?aiaiii
iaeaieaa oeaeueioth e eiae/anee oii?yaei/aiioth eioa?i?aoaoeeth
aoiienoe/aneie oeeinioee. I?e yoii ii ai iiiaeo neo/ayo ?ac?aaaouaaao e
oaeoaeyao iunee Aeaiie?eoa e Yieeo?a. Aaeeinoaaiiui nouei Eoe?aoeee
n/eoaao aoiiu e ionoioo. Iaoa?ey, i?aaeaea anaai, yoi ia?ae/iua oaea
aauae, ai-aoi?uo, ana, /oi anoue niaieoiiinoue iacaaiiuo yeaiaioia. Ie
iaeia neea, iaeiaei, aoiiu oie/oiaeeoue ia iiaeao, iie anaaaea
iiaaaeaeatho naiae iai?iieoeaaiinoueth. Ia?aia aea aeoaiei ?acee/ii,
aeaieiie oa?aeoa? eiatho oa aeaa aaue, eae yoi neacaii auoa, iaoa?ey e
i?ino?ainoai, a iai aea ana i?ienoiaeeo; iaiaoiaeeiu naie iie ii naaa e
/enou. Eoaea i?inoe?aaony ionoioa, oae iacuaaaiia i?ino?ainoai, oai iao
iaoa?ee; a oai, aaea i?inoa?eanue iaoa?ey, iao ionoiou e i?ino?ainoaa
ieeiei ia?acii. Ia?aua oaea nooue iieiu aac ionoiou. Ai-aoi?uo, a
aicieeoeo aauao ionoioa nouanoaoao, aicea iaa aea oeaeueiay iaoa?ey “.

A oaeie oi?ia Eoe?aoeee eceaaaao o/aiea Aeaiie?eoa e Yieeo?a ia
aoiiao e ionoioa, iiae/a?eeaay a oi aea a?aiy ianioai?eiinoue iaoa?ee
eae oaeiaie. “Anee aea ia?aua oaea, nieioiua e aac iieinoae, eae oaea y
ia yoii aiai?ee, iie ianiiiaiii aa/iu”. N iaoie/oiaeeiinoueth e
ianioai?eiinoueth iaoa?ee, o. a. n aa aaneiia/iinoueth ai a?aiaie,
naycaia e aaneiia/iinoue iaoa?ee a i?ino?ainoaa. Naia anaeaiiay naay ia
iiaeao ia?aie/eoue: i?aaaea (caeii i?e?iaeu; ii aeaeaao, /oiau a?aieoeu
iaoa?ee ia?aciaaea ionoioa, a iaoa?ey—a?aieoeu ionoiou, caneoaie yoiai
/a?aaeiaaiey anoue aac eiioea anaeaiiay “.

2. Yeeeienoe/aneay oeeinioey.

Yeeeienoe/aneee ia?eiae aeeeeny io ia/aea iioiaeia Aeaenaiae?a
Aaeeeiai aei iaeaaeaiey ?eieyi Aaeioii. Ia?aeii IV e III a. aei i. y.
yaeyaony ia?eiaeii, eiaaea aeinoeaaao eoeueieiaoeee e?ecen a?a/aneeo
naiaiaeiuo iieenia. Ii?aaeaiea a Oye?iiaa (338 aei i. y.) e i?iea?aiiay
Eaieeneay aieia ciaiaiotho niaie eiiaoe naiaiaeiie iieeoe/aneie aeecie
a eiioeiaioaeueiie A?aoeee. A?a/aneea ai?iaea iiiaaeatho nia/aea
iiae aeanoue Iaeaaeiiee, a iicaea iinoaiaiii iiae ?eineia aeeyiea. Yoio
i?ioeann caaa?oaaony ia?aciaaieai ?eineie i?iaeioeee Aoay a 146 a.
aei i. y.

Yeiiiie/aneee e iieeoe/aneee oiaaeie A?aoeee, caeao ?iee iieena
io?aaeathony a a?a/aneie oeeinioee. Oneeey, iai?aaeaiiua ia iiciaiea
iauaeoeaiiai ie?a (oeeinioey A?enoioaey), aeoeaiia o/anoea a
iieeoe/aneie aeecie, eioi?ia i?iyaeeinue o a?a/aneeo oeeinioia,
iinoaiaiii caiauathony eiaeeaeaeoaeeciii, yoece?iaaieai e
ii?aeece?iaaieai eeai neaioeoeeciii e aaiinoeoeeciii. Ni a?aiaiai
eioa?an e oeeinioneiio iuoeaieth aiiaua ?acei iaaeaao. I?eoiaeeo ia?eiae
ienoeee, ?aeeaeicii-oeeinioneiai neie?aoecia, o?enoeaineie oeeinioee.

Aeaeeii, iaeaieaa auaeathueiny iuneeoaeai yeeeien-oe/aneiai ia?eiaea
aue Yieeo?. Aai oeeinioneia iuoeaiea aini?eiyei iaoa?eaeenoe/aneea
yeaiaiou i?aaeoanoaothuae a?a/aneie oeeinioee. Aeiieiaioioth ?ieue
n?aaee oai?aoe/aneeo enoi/ieeia Yieeo?iaa o/aiey ea?aao aoiienoe/aneay
nenoaia Aeaiie?eoa. Aeaaiue oii? Yieeo?, eae ii/oe ana iai?aaeaiey
yeeeienoe/aneiai e iicaeiaeoaai, ?eineiai ia?eiaea, aeaeaao ia yoeeo.
Eaiiieea iieacuaaao iooe nicaeaiey oeeinioneie nenoaiu, iia auea
eceiaeaia a o?aeoaoa n iacaaieai “I?aaeei” (eaiii). Oeceea ( o/aiee i
i?e?iaea ( Yieeo? iinayoee o?aeoao “I i?e?iaea” (37 eiea), caieiaeny ii
ath e a “Ienueiao”. Yoeea o?aeooao i auai?a e ia ioeaca, e Yieeo?
?annoaeaeaao ia yoii a eieaao “Ia ia?aca aeecie”, a “Ienueiao” e a
o?aeoaoa “I eiia/iie oeaee”. O/aiea Aeaiie?eoa Yieeo? ia i?eieiaao
ianneaii, ii iii?aaeyao aai, aeiiieiyao e ?acaeaaao. Anee Aeaiie?eo
oa?aeoa?ecoao aoiiu ii aaee/eia, oi?ia e iieiaeaieth a i?ino?ainoaa, oi
Yieeo? ei i?eienuaaao aua iaeii naienoai ( oyaeanoue. “… Neaaeoao
iieaaaoue, /oi aoiiu ia iaeaaeatho ieeaeeie naienoaaie aeaeeiuo
i?aaeiaoia, e?iia eae oi?iie, aanii, aaee/eiith” e oaie naienoaaie,
eioi?ua anoanoaaiii naycaiu n oi?iie”. Aianoa n Aeaiie?eoii ii i?eciaao,
/oi aoiiu , aeaeaeoony a ionoioa: “… anee au ia nouanoaiaaei oiai, /oi
iu iacuaaai ionoioie, i?inoi?ii eee iainycaaiie i?e?iaeie, oi oaeai ia
auei au aaea aeaeaaoueny” e neaicue /oi aeaeaaoueny, iaaeaeo oai eae
i/aaeaeii, /oi iie aeaeaeoony”. A ioee/ea io Aeaiie?eoa, eioi?ue,
enoiaey ec auaeaeiooiai ei i?eioeeia aeaoa?ieiecia, i?eienuaaao aoiiai
eeoue i?yiieeiaeiia aeaeaeaiea, Yieeo? aeiioneaao e i?eciaao
caeiiiia?iui e ii?aaeaeaiiia ioeei- iaiea io i?yiieeiaeiiai,
aeaeaeaiey (ia?aieeeoe/aneia aeaeaeaiea). “Aeaeaeoony aoiiu iai?a?uaii e
aa/ii… iaeie ( iiiaeaeue ae?oa io ae?oaa, a ae?oaea ( eieaaeynue ia
ianoa, anee iie neo/aeii noeaiyony eee aoaeoo ioaa/aiu noeaieaiiuie
aoiiaie. Oaeia eieaaaiea i?ienoiaeeo iioiio, /oi i?e?iaea ionoiou,
?acaeaeythuae aoiiu, ia niiniaia ieacaoue ei nii?ioeaeaiea; a
oaa?aeinoue, i?enouay aoiiai, canoaaeyao eo i?e noieeiiaaiee
ioneaeeaaoue ianoieueei, ianeieueei noeaieaiea aoiiia aie?oa
noieeiiaaiey aeaao ei i?inoi?o. Ia/aea yoiio ia auei, eai e aoiiu e
ionoioa nouanoaotho aa/ii”. Yieeo? eceaaaao iniiaiua oacenu
aoiienoe/aneie eiioeaioeee ie?a ai iiiaii aeinooiiaa, /ai Aeaiie?eo.
Aaniethoiue aeaoa?ieieci Aeaiie?eoa ia niioaaonoaiaae iauae eiioeaioeee
Yieeo?a, caaa?oathuaeny aai yoe/aneeie acaeyaeaie e i?aaenoaaeaieyie ia
iauanoaaiiii ono?ienoaa. Aeiiouaiea ioeeiiaiey io i?yiieeiaeiiai
aeaeaeaiey aeaao aiciiaeiinoue aieaa “aeeaeaeoe/aneiai” iiieiaiey
i?iaeaiu aeaeaeaiey. I?eciaiea nouanoaiaaiey ioeeiiaiey yaeyaony aaaeiui
iiiaioii, a /anoiinoe, i?e au?aaioea iiiyoey i?e/eiiinoe. Iiieiaiea
i?e/eiiinoe o Aeaiie?eoa iaeiicia/ii ioaa?aaei ethaie iaiae ia
iauaeoeaiia nouanoaiaaiea neo/aeiinoe, /oi aiineaaenoaee aaei e
oaoaeecio. Yieeo? yoo aaniethoioth iaiaoiaeeiinoue nieiaao. “A naiii
aeaea, eo/oa oae aa?eoue aaniyi i aiaao, /ai iiei?youeny noaeueaa,
auaeoiaiiie oeceeaie, ( aanie aeatho iaaeaaeaeo oieeinoeaeoue aiaia
ii/eoaieai, a noaeueaa aea caeeth/aia iaoiieeiay iaecaaaeiinoue.
Oi/ii oae aea e neo/ae aeey iaai e ia aia, eae aeey oieiu, iioiio /oi
aeaenoaey aiaa ia auaatho aanii?yaei/iu; e ia aaciniiaaoaeueiay i?e/eia,
iioiio /oi ii ia n/eoaao, aoaeoi neo/ae aeaao /aeiaaeo aeia?i e cei,
ii?aaeaeythuea aai aeaaeaiioth aeeciue, a n/eoaao, /oi neo/ae auaiaeeo
ca niaie eeoue ia/aea aieueoeo aeaa eee cie”. Yieeo?iai iiieiaiea
neo/aeiinoe ia eneeth/aao, iaeiaei, i?e/eiiiai iauyniaiey. Iii yaeyaony
nei?aa aeinoeaeaieai ii?aaeaeaiiie “aioo?aiiae” i?e/eiiie acaeii-nayce,
/oi a aicc?aieyo ia iauanoai aaaeao e auaeaeaieth i?ia-eaiu acaeiinayce
naiaiaeu e iaiaoiaeeiinoe. Oai naiui /aeiaaeo ioe?uaaaony aiciiaeiinoue
naiaiaeiiai (a cia/aiee: ia ii?aaeaeaiiiai anoanoaaiiie
iaiaoiaeeiinoueth) auai?a. Aiaeiae/ii noaayony i?iaeaiu e a yoeea
Yieeo?a. A o/aiee i aeooa Yieeo? ionoaeaaao iaoa?eaeenoe/aneea acaeyaeu.
Niaeanii Yieeo?o, aeooa ( yoi ia ia/oi aanoaeaniia, a no?oe-oo?a
aoiiia, oii/aeoay iaoa?ey, ?annayiiay ii anaio i?aaiecio. Ionthaea
auoaeaao e io?eoeaiea aannia?oey aeooe. N ?aceiaeaieai oaea, niaeanii
Yieeo?o, ?annaeaaaony e aeooa, iiyoiio no?ao ia?aae nia?oueth
iaiainiiaai: “I?eaueae aeoiaoue, /oi nia?oue aeey ian ( ie/oi: aaaeue
ana e oi?ioaa e aeo?iia caeeth/aaony a iuouaiee, a nia?oue anoue eeoaiea
iuo-uaiee… Oaeei ia?acii, nia?oue ia nouanoaoao ie aeey aeeauo, ie
aeey ia?oauo, oae eae aeey iaeieo iia naia ia nouanoaoao, a ae?oaea aeey
iaa naie ia nouanoaotho”. A iaeanoe oai?ee iiciaiey Yieeo? ( nainoaeeno.
A nouiinoe ii ia?aiye noeoeeii-iaoa?eaeenoe/aneoth oai?eth io?aaeaiey
Aeaiie?eoa. A iniiaa anyeiai iiciaiey eaaeao iuouaiey, eioi?ua
aicieeatho i?e ioaeaeaiee io?aaeaiee io iauaeoeaii nouano-aothueo
i?aaeiaoia e i?iieeatho a iaoe i?aaiu /oanoa. Oaeei ia?acii, iniiaiie
i?aaeiinueeie anyeiai iiciaiey yaeyaony nouanoaiaaiea iauaeoeaiie
?aaeueiinoe e aa iiciaaaaiinoue n iiiiuueth /oanoa. I ?iee /oanoa
Yieeo? aiai?ee: “Anee ou inia?eaaaoue ana iuouaiey aei aaeeiiai, oaaa ia
ia /oi aoaeao nnueaoueny, aeaaea eiaaea ou noaeeoue, /oi oaeea-oi ec ieo
eiaeiu”. Aieueoia aieiaiea oaeaeye Yieeo? e iiiyoeyi. ssniinoue e
oi/iinoue oiio?aaeyaiuo iiiyoee ii n/eoae iniiaie ethauo ?annoaeaeaiee.
Iauea iiiyoey oa?aeoa?ecothony ei eae iaiauaiea iiuoa, iaeiieaiiiai
/oanoaaiiui iiciaieai. A niioaaonoaee n aic?inoei eioa?anii e /aeiaaeo e
aai i?iaeaiai, eioi?ue i?ienoiaeeo a yeeeienoe/aneee ia?eiae, Yieeo?
i?eaeaaae yoe/aneiio o/aieth nouanoaaiii aieueoaa cia/aiea, /ai
Aeaiie?eo. Ii enoiaeee ec eiaeeaeaeoaeenoe/aneeo, a nouiinoe
nainoaeenoneeo iiceoeee. *aeiaae, ii Yieeo?o, yaeyaony /oanoaothuei
nouanoaii, e aai /oanoaa nooue iniiaiie e?eoa?ee ii?aee. Aunoei aeaaii
Yieeo? i?eciaaae aeaaeainoai, ianeaaeaeaiea (aaaeiia). Iii ninoieo a
oaeiaeaoai?aiee anoanoaaiiuo iio?aaiinoae e a aeinoeaeaiee
ii?aaeaeaiiiai aeooaaiiai ?aaiiaaney ( niieienoaey aeooe (aoa?aeney), a
oai naiui e n/anouey (yaaeaiiiey), yoe ii?aeueiua o?aaiaaiey ii n/eoae
anoanoaaiiuie, auoaeathueie ec /aeiaa/aneie nouiinoe. A ieo e
i?iyaeyaony acaeiinaycue aai o/aiey i auoee e yoeee. Iiiyoea
“ianeaaeaeaiea” o Yieeo?a eo/oa anaai oa?aeoa?ecoao neaaeothuay aai
iuneue: “Aeey ieioe i?aaeaeu ianeaaeaeaiey aaneiia/iu, e a?aiy aeey
oaeiai ianeaaeaeaiey ioaeii aaneiia/iia. A iuneue, iinoeaioa i?aaeaeu e
eiia/ioth oeaeue ieioe e ?annaya no?aoe ia?aae aa/iinoueth, yoei naiui
oaea i?eaiaeeo e niaa?oaiiie aeecie e a aaneiia/iii a?aiaie ia
ioaeaeaaony. I?e yoii iuneue ie ianeaaeaeaiee ia /oaeaeaaony, ie i?e
enoiaea ec aeecie ia aaaeao naay oae, aoaeoi ae /aai-oi aua ia oaaoeei
aeey n/anouey”. Yoe/aneea e aiiaua oeeinioneea aicc?aiey Yieeo?a
oaniaeoei ia?acii naycaiu n aai ioe?uoui e aieinoaothuei aoaeciii.
Iniiaiui enoi/ieeii aicieeiiaaiey e nouanoaiaaiey ?aeeaee ii n/eoae
no?ao nia?oe e iaciaiea anoanoaaiiuo caeiiia. No?ao nia?oe e no?ao
ia?aae aiaaie e a aai yoe/aneie eiioeaioeee i?aaenoaaeythony eae aeaaiua
i?aiyonoaey aeinoeaeaiey /aeiaaeii n/anouey. Iaeiaei ii ia aue
iineaaeiaaoaeueiui aoaenoii—ii aeiioneae nouanoaiaaiea aiaia, eioi?ua
yeiau aeeaoo a “iaaeie?iauo” i?ino?ainoaao, yaeythony aac?acee/iuie e
ie?o e ia aiaoeaathony a noaeueau ethaeae. E ana aea aai aicc?aiey ia
?aeeaeth, a?aoiaiou i?ioea nouanoaiaaiey aiaia, a oaeaea ii-ieiaiea
ii?aee ii n?aaiaieth, n yoe/aneeie aicc?aieyie ae?oaeo i?aaenoaaeoaeae
yeeeienoe/aneiai ia?eiaea auee aanueia i?ia?anneaiu. Iiae/a?eeaaiea
Yieeo?ii ?iee ianeaaeaeaiey eae yoe/aneiai i?eioeeia iaeuecy niaoeaaoue
n neaa?eonoaii. A yoii niunea o/aiea Yieeo?a aoeueaa?ece?iaaee
iicaeiaeoea noi?iiieee yieeo?aecia, a /anoiinoe aiaaoua auoiaeoeu ec
aunoeo e?oaia ?eineiai iauanoaa. Aoeueaa?ece?iaaiiay yieeo?aeneay yoeea
noaiiaeony iauaeoii iaiaaeie ni noi?iiu eaeaaeenoia, a /anoiinoe
o?enoeaineeo oeeinioia. I?eioeei ianeaaeaeaiey io?aaeaeny e ia
nioeeaeueiuo aicc?aieyo Yieeo?a. Iauanoai, n/eoae ii, yaeyaony
niaieoiiinoueth eiaeeaeaeia, eioi?ua aeiaiai?eeenue iaaeaeo niaie i oii,
/oi ia aoaeoo a?aaeeoue ae?oa ae?oao. Niaethaeaiea yoiai aeiaiai?a ii
iacuaae ni?aaaaeeeainoueth: “Ii ioiioaieth e oai aeeaioiui, eioi?ua ia
iiaoo caeeth/aoue aeiaiai?u, /oiau ia i?e/eiyoue e ia oa?iaoue a?aaea,
iao ie ni?aaaaeeeainoe, ie iani?aaaaeeeainoe,( oi/ii oae aea, eae e ii
ioiioaieth e oai ia?iaeai, eioi?ua ia iiaoo eee ia oioyo caeeth/aoue
aeiaiai?u, /oiau ia i?e/eiyoue, e ia oa?iaoue a?aaea”. “Ni?aaaaeeeainoue
ia nouanoaoao naia ii naaa; yoi ( aeiaiai? i oii, /oiau ia i?e/eiyoue e
ia oa?iaoue a?aaea, caeeth/aiiue i?e iauaiee ethaeae e anaaaea
i?eiaieoaeueii e oai ianoai, aaea ii caeeth/aaony”. Nianoaaiii, Yieeo? a
ii?aaeaeaiiie ia?a i?aaeainoeuaao iicaeiaeooth oai?eth iauanoaaiiiai
aeiaiai?a. Enoiaey ec naiae yoeee, Yieeo? ?aeiiaiaeoao, /oiau ioae?ue
/aeiaae (oeeinio) ecaaaae iauanoaaiiie (iieeoe/aneie) aeayoaeueiinoe.
Caieiooinoue a /anoiie aeecie yaeyaony oeie/iui i?iyaeaieai
eiaeeaeaeoaeecia, e eioi?iio i?eaaaaee oeeiniou yeeeienoe/aneiai
ia?eiaea, ooiaey io aeao/eo i?iaeai nia?aiaiiie ei aeecie.

Yieeo? eiae ?yae o/aieeia, ec eioi?uo iaeaieaa auaeathueieny auee
Iao?iaei? ec Eaiinaea e Aa?ia?o ec Ieoeeaiu. Iaeei ec iicaeiaeoeo
yieeo?aeoeaa ( Oeeiaeai ( ia?aiineo o/aiea Yieeo?a a I a. aei i. y. a
?ei, aaea iii n?aaieoaeueii auno?i ?ani?ino?aieeinue. Yieeo?aeci
i?aaenoaaeye niaith a a?a/aneie oeeicooee III—I a. aei i. y. iaeaieaa
/aoei au?aaeaiiia iaoa?eaeenoe/aneia iai?aaeaiea e a i?eioeeia nua?ae
iieiaeeoaeueioth ?ieue.

A eiioea IV a. aei i. y. a A?aoeee oi?ie?oaony noieoeeci, eioi?ue a
yeeeienoe/aneii, a oaeaea a aieaa iicaeiai ?eineii ia?eiaea noaiiaeony
iaeiei ec naiuo ?ani?ino?aiaiiuo oeeinioneeo oa/aiee. Aai iniiaaoaeai
aue Caiii ec Eeoey. A Aoeiao ii iiciaeiieeny n iineanie?aoianeie
oeeinioeae (eae n aeaaeaie/aneie, oae e n oeeinioeae eeie/aneie e
iaaa?neie oeie) e i?eaeeceoaeueii a 300 a. aei i. y. iniiauaaao
nianoaaiioth oeieo. Aeeiaai Eay?oneee niiauaao, /oi Caiii, aeaeeii,
ia?aue i?iaicaeanee a o?aeoaoa “I /aeiaa/aneie i?e?iaea”, /oi iniiaiay
oeaeue ( “aeeoue niaeanii n i?e?iaeie, e yoi oi aea naiia, /oi aeeoue
niaeanii n aeia?iaeaoaeueth”. Yoei naiui ii aeae noie/aneie oeeinioee
iniiaioth i?eaioaoeeth ia yoeeo e aa ?ac?aaioeo. Auaeaeiooue eaeaae ii
nai ?aaeeciaae a naiae aeecie. Io Caiiia enoiaeeo oaeaea oneeea
niaaeeieoue o?e /anoe oeeinioee (eiaeeo, oeceeo e yoeeo) a iaeio
oeaeueioth nenoaio. Noieee /anoi n?aaieaaee oeeinioeth n /aeiaa/aneei
i?aaieciii. Eiaeeo iie n/eoaee neaeaoii, yoeeo (iuooeaie, a
oeceeo—aeooie.

O/aieeii e iineaaeiaaoaeai Caiiia aue Eeaaio ec Anna, eioi?ue
iineaaeiaaoaeueii i?eaea?aeeaaeny oeeinioneeo i?eioeeiia o/eoaey. Aieaa
ii?aaeaeaiioth oi?io noie/aneiio iuoeaieth i?eaeaao O?eneii ec Nie. Ii
i?aa?auaao noie/aneoth oeeinioeth a iaoe?ioth nenoaio.

Noieee oa?aeoa?eciaaee oeeinioeth eae “oi?aaeiaiea a ioae?inoe”.
I?oaeeai oeeinioee, aa iniiaiie /anoueth iie n/eoaee eiaeeo. Iia o/eo
ia?auaoueny iiiyoeyie, ia?aciauaaoue noaeaeaiey e oiicaeeth/aiey. Aac
iaa iaeuecy iiiyoue ie oeceeo, ie yoeeo, eioi?ay yaeyaony oeaio?aeueiie
/anoueth noie/aneie oeeinioee. Oeceeo, o. a. oeeinioeth i?e?iaeu, iie,
iaeiaei, ia ia?aioeaieaaee. Yoi auoaeaao ec eo aeaaiiai yoe/aneiai
o?aaiaaiey “aeeoue a niaeanee n anoanoaii”, o. a. n i?e?iaeie e
ii?yaeeii ie?a ( eiainii. Iaeiaei a i?eioeeia iie ia aianee a yoo
iaeanoue ie/aai iiaiai. Aaaaeue oi/ii oa?aeoa?ecoao noie/aneoth
oeceeo: “…i?aaeaea anaai, a iae iaei naiaia?aciiai, eai iia
i?aaenoaaeyao niaith aieueoa nia?aiiia ec noa?uo oeceeia oeaeia, e
aieueoa anaai Aa?aeeeoa”. A iioieiaee (eioi?oth iie iiiauaee a
“oeeinioeth i?e?iaeu”) noieee i?eciatho aeaa iniiaiuo i?eioeeia:
iaoa?eaeueiue i?eioeei (iaoa?eae), eioi?ue n/eoaaony iniiaie, e
aeooiaiue i?eioeei ( eiain (aia), eioi?ue i?iieeaao /a?ac anth iaoa?eth
e ia?acoao eiie?aoiua aaeeie/iua aaue. Yoi ii?aaeaeaiii aeoaeeci,
eioi?ue ano?a/aaony e a oeeinioee A?enoioaey. Iaeiaei anee A?enoioaeue
aeaeae “ia?aoth nouiinoue” a aaeeie/iii, eioi?ia yaeyaony aaeeinoaii
iaoa?ee e oi?iu, e aicauoae oi?io eae aeoeaiia ia/aei iaoa?ee, oi
noieee, iaiai?io, nouiinoueth n/eoaee iaoa?eaeueiue i?eioeei (oioy, oae
aea eae e ii, i?eciaaaee iaoa?eth ianneaiui, a eiain (aia) ( aeoeaiui
i?eioeeiii). Iiiyoea aiaa a noie/aneie oeeinioee iiaeii
ioa?aeoa?eciaaoue eae iaioaenoe/aneia. Eiain, niaeanii eo acaeyaeai,
i?iieouaaao anth i?e?iaeo, i?iyaeyaony aacaea a ie?a. Ii yaeyaony
caeiiii iaiaoiaeeiinoe, i?iaeaeaieai. Iiiyoea aiaa niiauaao anae eo
eiioeaioeee auoey aeaoa?ieienoneee, aieioue aei oaoaeecia, oa?aeoa?,
eioi?ue i?iiecuaaao e eo yoeeo. A iaeanoe oai?ee iiciaiey noieee
i?aaenoaaeytho ii i?aeiouanoao aioe/ioth oi?io nainoaeecia. Iniiaie
iiciaiey, niaeanii eo acaeyaeai, aunooiaao /oanoaaiiia aini?eyoea,
eioi?ia aucuaaaony eiie?aoiuie, aaeeie/iuie aauaie. Iauaa nouanoaoao
eeoue iin?aaenoaii aaeeie/iiai. Caeanue caiaoii aeeyiea o/aiey
A?enoioaey i acaeiiioiioaiee iauaai e aaeeie/iiai, eioi?ia i?iaoee?oaony
e ia eo iiieiaiea eaoaai?ee. Noieee, iaeiaei, cia/eoaeueii oi?i-uatho
a?enoioaeaaneoth nenoaio eaoaai?ee. Iie ia?aie/eee aa eeoue /aou?ueiy
iniiaiuie eaoaai?eyie: noanoaioeey (nouiinoue) eiee/anoai, ii?aaeaeaiiaa
ea/anoai e ioiioaiea, niaeanii ii?aaeaeaiiiio ea/anoao. N iiiiuueth
aeaiiuo eaoaai?ee iinoeaaaony aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue. Aieueoia aieiaiea
noieee oaeaeytho i?iaeaia enoeiu. Naith ii nooe nainoaeenoe/aneoth
iiceoeeth a aii?inao oai?ee iiciaiey iie aeiiieiytho iiiaioaie, eioi?ua
a cia/eoaeueiie ia?a eiatho niaeoeyoeaiue oa?aeoa?. Oeaio?aeueiui
iiiyoeai e ii?aaeaeaiiui e?eoa?eai enoeiiinoe iiciaiey yaeyaony, ii eo
iiaieth, o/aiea i oae iacuaaaiii noaaouaathuai (eaoaeaioe/aneii)
i?aaenoaaeaiee (oaioacey eaoaeaioeea), eioi?ia aicieeaao iiae
aicaeaenoaeai aini?eieiaaiiai i?aaeiaoa i?e aeoeaiii o/anoee noauaeoa
aini?eyoey Eaoaeaioe/aneia i?aaenoaaeaiea iaiin?aaenoaaiii ynii
“caoaaouaaao” aini?eieiaaiue i?aaeiao. Oieueei yoi yniia e i/aaeaeiia
aini?eyoea iaiaoiaeeii aucuaaao niaeanea ?acoia (neieaoioacen) e n
iaiaoiaeeiinoueth noaiiaeony iiieiaieai (eaoaeainen). Eae oaeiaia
iiieiaiea yaeyaony iniiaie iiiyoeeiiai iuoeaiey.

Oeaio?ii e iineoaeai iiciaiey, niaeanii noie/aneie oeeinioee,
yaeyaony aeooa. Iia iiieiaaony eae ia/oi oaeaniia, iaoa?eaeueiia.
Eiiaaea aa iaicia/atho eae iiaaia (niaaeeiaiea aicaeooa e iaiy). Aa
oeaio?aeueioth /anoue, a eioi?ie eieaeece?oaony niiniaiinoue e iuoeaieth
e aiiaua ana oi, /oi iiaeii ii?aaeaeeoue a iuiaoieo oa?ieiao eae
ineoe/aneoth aeayoaeueiinoue, noieee iacuaatho ?acoiii (aaaaiiieeii).
?acoi naycuaaao /aeiaaea ni anai ie?ii. Eiaeeaeaeoaeueiue ?acoi yaeyaony
/anoueth ie?iaiai ?acoia.

Oioy noieee n/eoatho iniiaie anyeiai iiciaiey /oanoaa, aieueoia aieiaiea
iie oaeaeytho e i?iaeaiai iuoeaiey. Iie eioaineaii caieiaeenue
enneaaeiaaieai caeiiia iuoeaiey e aianee cia/eoaeueiue aeeaae a ?acaeoea
eiaeee (ii/oe iieiaeia i?iecaaaeaiee O?eneiia iinayuaia aii?inai eiaeee)
. Noie/aneay eiaeea oanii naycaia n iniiaiui i?eioeeiii noie/aneie
oeeinioee ( eiainii. “… Oae eae iie (noieee) aicaaee a i?eioeei
aano?aeoiia iuoeaiea, oi iie ?ac?aaioaee oi?iaeueioth eiaeeo. Eiaeea
iiyoiio yaeyaony o ieo eiaeeie a oii niunea, /oi iia au?aaeaao
aeayoaeueiinoue ?annoaeea eae niciaoaeueiiai ?annoaeea”. Aieueoia
aieiaiea iie oaeaeyee oiicaeeth/aieth, a /anoiinoe i?iaeaiai
eiieeeaoeee. Noieee au?aaioaee aioe/ioth oi?io eiaeee auneacuaaiee.

Noie/aneay yoeea auaeaeaaao ia aa?oeio /aeiaa/aneeo oneeee
aeia?iaeaoaeue. Aeia?iaeaoaeue, ii eo i?aaeinoaaeaieyi,( aaeeinoaaiiia
aeaai. A iiieiaiee noieeia, “aeia?iaeaoaeue iiaeao auoue i?inoie
caaa?oaiiinoueth /aai au oi ie auei (iai?eia?, “aeia?ay noaooy”); iiaeao
auoue iaoinoaaiiie, eae caei?iauea, iyi oinoaaiiie, eae ?acoiaiea”.
Aeia?iaeaoaeue icia/aao aeeoue a niaeanee n ?acoiii. Noieee i?eciatho
/aou?a iniiaiua aeia?iaeaoaee: ?acoiiinoue, a?aie/auoth n neeie aiee,
oia?aiiinoue, ni?aaaaeeeainoue e aeiaeanoue. E /aou?ai iniiaiui
aeia?iaeaoaeyi i?eaaaeythony /aou?a i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoe: ?acoiiinoe
i?ioeainoieo ia?acoiiinoue, oia?aiiinoe ( ?aniouaiiinoue,
ni?aaaaeeeainoe ( iani?a-aaaeeeainoue e aeiaeanoe ( o?oninoue,
iaeiaeooea. Iaaeaeo aeia?ii e ceii, iaaeaeo aeia?iaeaoaeueth e a?aoii
/aoeia, eaoaai?e/aneia ?acee/ea, ia?aoiaeiuo ninoiyiee iaaeaeo ieie iao.
Ana inoaeueiia noieee ioiinyo e eaoaai?ee aac?acee/iuo aauae
(aaeeaoi?a). Ia aaue /aeiaae ia iiaeao iiaeeyoue, iaeiaei ii iiaeao iaae
ieie “aicauneoueny”. A yoie iiceoeee i?iyaeyaony iiiaio “nie?aiey n
noaeueaie”, eioi?ue ?acaeo, a /anoiinoe, a oae iacuaaaiii n?aaeiai e
iiaii noieoeecia. *aeiaae aeieaeai iiae/eiyoueny einie/aneiio ii?yaeeo,
ii aea aeieaeai aeaeaoue oiai, /oi ia iaoiaeeony a aai aeanoe. Eaeaaeii
noie/aneeo ono?aieaiee aunooiaao iieie (aoa?aeney) eee, ii e?aeiae ia?a,
aaco/anoiia oa?iaiea (aiaoay). Noie/aneee ioae?aoe (eaeaae /aeiaaea)
yaeyaony aiieiuaiiui ?acoiii. Ii ioee/aaony oa?ieiinoueth e
naea?aeaiiinoueth, a aai n/anouea “ninoieo a oii, /oi ii ia aeaeaao
ieeaeiai n/anouey”. A yoii noie/aneii eaeaaea io?aaeaaony neainen iecoeo
e n?aaeieo neiaa oiaaeaoiaai iauanoaa, aucaaiiue aai i?ia?anne?othuei
?aceiaeaieai, oio oaeo, /oi /aeiaae ia iiaeao eciaieoue iauaeoeaiue oiae
niauoee, /oi n ieie ii iiaeao eeoue “aioo?aiia ni?aaeoueny”.

Noie/aneay ii?aeue auea iieiie i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoueth yieeo?aeneie
ii?aee. Iiiyoea aeia?iaeaoaee i?aaenoaaeyao i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue
yieeo?aeneiai iiiyoey ianeaaeaeaiey. Iiae/a?eeaaiea iaiaoiaeeiinoe e
iiae/eiaiea ae i?ioeainoiyo e yieeo?aeneiio iiieiaieth naiaiaeu. Oae aea
aeeaiao?aeueii ioee/aaony io yieeo?aeneiai e noie/aneia iiieiaiea
iauanoaa. Iauanoai, ii i?aaenoaaeaieyi noieeia, aicieeaao anoanoaaiiui
ia?acii (a ia iooai eiiaaioeee, eae o yieeo?aeoeaa). Ana ethaee,
iacaaeneii io iiea, nioeeaeueiiai iieiaeaiey eee yoie/aneiai
i?ienoiaeaeaiey, ?aaiu naiui anoanoaaiiui ia?acii. A yoii a
cia/eoaeueiie ia?a i?iyaeyaony e oa?aeoa?iue aeey oiai a?aiaia
einiiiieeoeci, naycaiiue n ?anoe?aieai ai?eciioia aioe/iiai ie?a.
Noie/aneay oeeinioey, aeaeeii, eo/oa anaai no?auaao ?acaeaathueeny
e?ecen aeooiaiie aeecie a?a/aneiai iauanoaa, eioi?ue yaeeny neaaenoaeai
yeiiiie/aneiai e iieeoe/aneiai ?aceiaeaiey. Eiaiii noie/aneay yoeea
iaeaieaa aaeaeaaoii io?aaeaao “naia a?aiy”. Yoi yoeea “niciaoaeueiiai
ioeaca”, niciaoaeueiiai cie?aiey n noaeueaie. Iia ioaiaeeo aieiaiea io
aiaoiaai ie?a, io iauanoaa e aioo?aiiaio ie?o /aeiaaea. Eeoue aioo?e
naay /aeiaae iiaeao iaeoe aeaaioth e aaeeinoaaiioth iii?o. Iiyoiio
noieoeeci aiiaue iaeeaaao a ia?eiae e?ecena ?eineie ?anioaeeee e caoai a
ia?eiae ia/eiathuaainy ?aniaaea ?eineie eiia?ee.

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