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Средства коммуникации и тип культуры

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?aoa?ao ii oaia:

“N?aaenoaa eiiioieeaoeee e oei eoeueoo?u. (Oiaa?oi Yei)”

Iineaa 1999 a.

Eiy Oiaa?oi Yei – iaeii ec naiuo iiioey?iuo a nia?aiaiiie eoeueoo?a
Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu. Naieioee, ynoaoee, enoi?ee n?aaeiaaaeiaie eeoa?aoo?u,
e?eoee e ynnaeno, i?ioanni? Aieeiineiai oieaa?neoaoa e ii/aoiue aeieoi?
iiiaeo oieaa?neoaoia Aa?iiu e Aia?eee, aaoi? aeanyoeia eiea, /enei
eioi?uo aaeaaiaeii oaaee/eaaaony. Aei oiai eae Oiaa?oi Yei a 1980 aiaeo,
ia ii?iaa iyoeaeanyoeeaoey, iioaeeeiaae ia?aia ooaeiaeanoaaiiia
i?iecaaaeaiea– ?iiai “Eiy ?icu”, — ii aue ecaanoai a aeaaeaie/aneeo
e?oaao Eoaeee e anaai iao/iiai ie?a eae aaoi?eoaoiue niaoeeaeeno ii
oeeinioee n?aaeieo aaeia e a iaeanoe naieioeee — iaoee i ciaeao.
?ac?aaaouaae ii, a /anoiinoe, i?iaeaiu acaeiiioiioaiee oaenoa n
aoaeeoi?eae, eae ia iaoa?eaea eeoa?aoo?u aaaiaa?aea, oaee ia
?acii?iaeiii iaoa?eaea ianniaie eoeueoo?u.

Yei aia?aua i?ineaaeeny a ia/aea 60-o eae ia?iaeeno. A i?ioeanna nai?a
eioi?iaoeee ii yoiio ?aoa?aoo iia iiiaeinue aai ynna “Iiieoa” –
aaeeeieaiiay ia?iaeey ia iaaieianeoth “Eieeoo”. “…Iaiy ciaoo Oiaa?oi
Oiaa?oi. Eiaaea ana yoi i?iecioei, y iueei i?aaeaaaeny ooaoai thiinoe.
Ni neia oao, eoi ciae iaiy a oa aiaeu, a ia oao, eoi aeaeeo iaiy
oaia?ue, /eoaoaeue, a yoie eaia?a, ooaeiai, n ia?auie i?eciaeaie
aeaeaeneie ai?iaeu, iie?uaathuae uaee oae aio, ni neia oao, eoi ciae
iaiy oiaaea, y aue aeiaeanoiui thiioae, oioy e ia aac oaie iaeaioieee,
oianeaaeiaaiiie, aeieaeii auoue, io iieoaeaiiuo o?iiinii eaeiai-ieaoaeue
i?aaeea-eaeaa?eeoea. …Io?ieiaeoe, eioi?uo y iiciae oiaaea, iiiith
ieioi, iioiio /oi y aue aea?oaie niaa?oaiii ae?oaie no?anoe, e iie
acaeyae eeoue i?iaaaae, ia inoaiaaeeaaynue, ii eo cieioenoui uaeai,
ia?aieaiiui oaeeiaenoui i?ic?a/iui iooeii.

ss ethaee, ae?oa iie /eoaoaeue, aacoiii e i?eeaaeii ethaee oao, eiai ou
?annayiii-iaaeioiaiii iacaae au “noa?ooaie”….” Aeaaea a ioe?iaaiiii
ooeeaainoaa iaeuecy ia ioiaoeoue aaeeeieaiiue ycue Yei.

Oaea a eiioea 50-o, Yei, n iiaeiaathuae na?ueaciinoueth ioiinynue e
nia?aiaiiie eoeueoo?a, iiae?iaii aiaeece?iaae no?eioec e iiaaaeaiea
oaeaaaaeoueo. Aio i?eiaaeeaaeeo oacen i oii, /oi ethaie oaeno a oaeie
aea ia?a oai?eony /eoaoaeai, a eaeie e aaoi?ii, oacen, noaaoee a
na?aaeeia 70-o iauei ianoii ia eaoaae?ao oeeieiaee aia?eeaineeo
oieaa?neoaoia e ?acaa?ioaoeeny a aeeneonnee i ianoa oaenoa a
eeaa?-i?ino?ainoaa e i oii, eiio aea ii a eiioea eiioeia i?eiaaeeaaeeo.
Aei?iao anai yoei ?annoaeaeaieyi i?ieiaeee Oiaa?oi Yei, iaia?iaeiaaa
naie oacenu a iaieoanoa 1962 aiaea “Ioe?uoue iion” (Opera aperta). Yei
i?iaeieaeaao ?aaioaoue, iniuneyy eioi?iaoeeiiioth ?aaiethoeeth, nianoea
oieon naiaai eioa?ana n aeooiaiie nouiinoe i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey e
iieeoe/aneei eiiiioaoeeyi oaoiieiaee. Ii, a /anoiinoe, nin?aaeioi/eeny
ia oae iacuaaaiie “Ioeueoeiaaeeeiie A?eaaea” (Multimedia Arcade). Ia
ia?aue acaeyae yoio i?iaeo iiaeao iieacaoueny /ai-oi a?iaea CD-ROMioe
ea?u, ii caiunae Yei ai?acaei aeoaaea — n iiiiuueth “A?eaaeu” ii
i?aaeiieaaaao eciaieoue iauanoai, a eioi?ii iu aeeaai. A iae
?aniieiaeeony ioaee/iay ioeueoeiaaeeeiay aeaeeioaea, eiiiuethoa?iue
o?aie?iai/iue oeaio? e aoiae a Naoue (Net). Ana yoi aoaeao iaoiaeeoueny
iiae yaeaeie ai?iaeneiai niaaoa ai?iaea Aieiiuey. Caeanue ca
neiaiee/aneoth ieaoo ianoiua aeeoaee niiaoo iieo/eoue aeinooi a Naoue,
iineaoue niiauaiea ii yeaeo?iiiie ii/oa, iciaeiieoueny n iiaie
i?ia?aiiie eee i?inoi iineaeaoue a eeaa?-eaoa. Ioe?uoea eiiieaena auei
iacia/aii ia eiiaoe 1997 aiaea. Ii aeieaeai eiaoue 50 oa?ieiaeia,
iauaaeeiaiiuo a aaeeioth naoue n auno?ui naoaaui niiauaieai,
ianeoaeeaaaioth ia?niiaeii i?aiiaeaaaoaeae, oaoieeia e aeaeeioaea?ae.
I?aaeiinueea yoie aeoeee i?inoa: anee Anaie?iay Iaooeia i?aaenoaaeyao
niaie iaiouaieaiia i?aai eaaeaeiai, neaaeiaaoaeueii, aeinooi e iae
aeieaeai aa?aioe?iaaoueny anai a?aaeaeaiai ai?iaea. Yei aeaeeo
Aieiiacneee yenia?eiaio eae ieeioiue a aeaea anaiaoeeiiaeueiiai e
anaie?iiai ?ani?ino?aiaiey ioaee/iuo aeaeeioae aunieie oaoiieiaee.
Iiaeii neacaoue, /oi aaoi? eaeae – /aeiaae, a eioi?ii aeeaa aa?iiaeneay
aoiaienoe/aneay aa?a a aeaeeioaeo eae iiaeaeue ni?aaaaeeeaiai iauanoaa e
aeooiaiiai aic?iaeaeaiey, /aeiaae, iaeiaaea i?iaicaeaneaoee, /oi
“aeaeeioaee iiaoo caiyoue aaeaineth Aiaa”.

Caieiaynue naieioeeie, oaeoe/anee iaoeie i ycuea e oaenoa, Yei i/aiue
na?ueacii ioiineony e n?aaenoaai eo o?aiaiey e ia?aaea/e – n?aaenoaai
eiiioieeaoeee. E iei ioiinyony eae eieae – iniiaiua n?aaenoaa
eiiioieeaoeee eoeueoo?u, oaeaaeaeaiea, aeiaaeueiua eioi?iaoeeiiiua naoe
e o.i..

N?aaee eiiiuethoa?ueeia i/aiue ecaanoia i?aneiaooay iaoaoi?a i?i
“Windows” e DOS, eioi?oth aaae Yei. A iae ii ia?aui auneacaeny ian/ao
“i?ia?aiiiiai ?aneiea” iaaeaeo iieueciaaoaeyie iia?aoeaiuo nenoai
Windows e DOS. Windows, ooaa?aeaeae Yei, — yoi eaoiee/aneay nenoaia,
iineieueeo iniauaia “?ineioiuie eeiieaie” e eaaeaeiio iaauaao Oea?noaea
Iaaaniia(eee, ii e?aeiae ia?a, aai aiaeia — “iiiaio, eiaaea aao
aeieoiaio aueaeao ianaao aiaeee ec i?eioa?a”) /a?ac na?eth aeiaieueii
ianeiaeiuo aeaenoaee. DOS, a naith i/a?aaeue, — i?ia?aiia
i?ioanoaioneay: “iia aeiioneaao naiaiaeioth eioa?i?aoaoeeth Nayuaiiiai
Ienaiey, o?aaoao i?eiyoey ioaaonoaaiiuo ia?niiaeueiuo ?aoaiee… e
iinooee?oao, /oi nianaiea aa?aioe?iaaii ia eaaeaeiio”. A naaoa yoie aea
eiaeee Windows noaiiaeony “?aneieii a aiaeeeaineii aeooa — n
oi?aeanoaaiiuie o?aiiauie ?eooaeaie e aac anyeie aiciiaeiinoe oaeiiai
aica?aoa a DOS aeey i?iecaaaeaiey eaeie-eeai aeaeaaiie iiaeeoeeaoeee”.
(A ioaao ia i?inueao ?anoeo?iaaoue naith iaoaoi?o Yei iacaae Windows 95
“/enoaeoeie oeaeiioae?aiiaeoei eaoieeoeeciii. Windows 3.1 auea aua
aiaeeeainei-eaoiee/aneie i?ia?aiiie, a Windows 95 /enoiii?iaeii
aiaeeeaineay, aeeth/athuay a eeoo?aeth oanoue “Aeaa, Ia?ey” e aeiiu
Iaoa?eineie Oea?eae a Neyoea”.)

Oae Yei iaaeaoniuneaiii e i/aiue ecyuii naycuaaao ?acee/iua n?aaenoaa
o?aiaiey e ia?aaioee eioi?iaoeee iaoaai a?aiaie n ?acee/iuie aeaeaie
aa?ieniiaaaeaiee, naycaiiuo a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue n niaa?oaiii ae?oaei,
ioee/iui io iaoaai oeiii eoeueoo?u.

Nouanoaotho aeaa aaaeoueo (eaeaaeueiuo) oeia eoeueoo? – yoi iauanoaa
o?aaeeoeeiiiua e iauanoaa iiaea?ia. Iauanoaa eee eoeueoo?u iiaeii
ii?aaeaeeoue eo iin?aaeieeaie a /aeiaa/aneii iauanoaa. Yoi:
ycue(aa?aaeueiue, iaaa?aaeueiue), ii?iu (ii?aeueiua, eeiaaenoe/aneea,
nioeeaeueiua), aaue. O.Yei eae naieioee, a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue ia?auaaony
e ycueo, aai i?iecaiaeiui e n?aaenoaai aai ia?aaea/e eee eiiioieeaoeaiui
naycyi. sscue ii?aaeaeyao i/aiue iiiaia: ycue iauaaeeiyao e ?acaeaeyao,
i?ienoiaeeo naaeeieioaoeey cia/aiee e ethaee /anoi aaaeoo naay a
niioaaonoaee n eaiiiaie, iiaeneacaiiuie cia/aieyie ycuea.

Oeiu nayce eee eiiioieeaoeee iiaoo neoaeeoue iniiaaieai oeiieiaecaoeee
iauanoaa. Nouanoaotho nayce ee/iiai oeia e nayce aauiiai oeia. Iai?eia?
iauanoai o?aaeeoeeiiiia ii?aaeaeyaony ee/iie naycueth, aaea o?aaeeoeey
– yoi iniiaiay oi?ia aini?iecaiaenoaa, noeeue aeecie – eieaeecaoeey,
aeaaainoaoao oaiii?aeueiinoue e?oaa, ionoonoaoao iiiyoea oeaiiinoe
eiaeeaeaea. Eoeueoo?a iiaea?ia – nia?aiaiiia eiaeono?eaeueiia iauanoai,
yoi eoeueoo?a, aaea iin?aaeieee iinyo aeoaiei aano?aeoiue,
einoeoooeeiiaeueiue oa?aeoa?. A iai i?ienoiaeeo iiaia i?aaenoaaeaiea i
i?ino?ainoaa, i a?aiaie, eioi?ia ia/eiaao ia?a/eouaaoueny ia aeaiueae,
aicieeatho iiaua n?aaenoaa eiiioieeaoeee.

A ?aaioa “E naieioe/aneiio aiaeeco oaeaaeceiiiiai niiauaiey” O. Yei
ii?aaeaeyao iniiaioth eiiioieeaoeaioth iiaeaeue iaoaai iauanoaa iiaea?ia
– oaeoe/anee yoi oaeaaeaeaiea – c?eoaeue. A iae ii i?ioeaiiinoaaeyao
i?eioeei aaa??aioiiai (i?iecaieueiiai, neo/aeiiai) aeaeiaee?iaaiey
eeiaeiui iiaeaeyi ianniaie eiiioieeaoeee e iiae/a?eeaaao aeoeaioth ?ieue
aoaeeoi?ee a eioa?i?aoaoeee OA-niiauaiee. Oi, /oi n oi/ee c?aiey
eeiaeiuo iiaeaeae eiiioieeaoeee (ioi?aaeoaeue – eaiae – iieo/aoaeue)
yaeyaony “ooiii”, i?aiyonoaothuei ia ?aciuo yoaiao eiiioieeaoeaiiai aeoa
“i?aaeeueiiio” aeaeiaee?iaaieth niiauaiey, Yei ?anniao?eaaao eae
eoeueoo?ioth ?aieo, ea?athuoth ii?aaeaeythuoth ?ieue eae a i?ioeanna
nicaeaiey niiauaiey, oae e a i?ioeanna aai aini?eyoey aoaeeoi?eae.
Eoeueoo?ioth ?aieo eoeueoo?u iauanoaa iiaea?ia.

“Aeey oiai, /oiau iiiyoue noaiaiue aicaeaenoaey oaeaaeceiiiiai niiauaiey
ia aoaeeoi?eth, ia aeinoaoi/ii i?iaiaeeoue oieueei ia?eaoeiaiaua
enneaaeiaaiey c?eoaeueneeo i?aaeii/oaiee.

Iu n/eoaai aaaeiui iiiyoue ia, (a) /oi i?aaeony aoaeeoi?ee
(enneaaeiaaiea ianiiiaiii i/aiue iieaciia, ii niaa?oaiii iaiiaeoiaeyuaa
a ea/anoaa ?oeiaiaenoaa aeey i?aaiecaoeee, eioi?ay auiieiyao nei?aa
eoeueoo?ioth, iaaeaee eiiia?/aneoth ooieoeeth); ii (a) /oi iieo/aao
aoaeeoi?ey a ?acoeueoaoa i?iniio?a oaeai?ia?aii – e oao, eioi?ua ae
i?aayony, e oao, eioi?ua ae ia i?aayony.

Iineaaeiaa i?aaeiieaaaao eco/aiea OA-i?ia?aiiu eae niiauaiey (message),
ii ioiioaieth e eioi?iio iu auaeaeyai (1) iaia?aiey aai ioi?aaeoaey; (2)
iauaeoeaioth no?oeoo?o niiauaiey; (3) ?aaeoeee iieo/aoaey niiauaiey eae
ia ia?aia, oae e ia aoi?ia.

I/aaeaeii, /oi oaeia enneaaeiaaiea iai?aaeaii ia eco/aiea OA-i?iaeoeoeee
eae nenoaiu ciaeia. Eae e ni anyeie nenoaiie ciaeia, iineaaeiea aeieaeiu
caeanue ?anniao?eaaoueny a eo ioiioaiee n ioi?aaeoaeai e iieo/aoaeai, a
ioiioaiee eiaeia, ia eioi?uo iie iniiaaiu e eioi?ua aeieaeiu auoue
iaueie e aeey ioi?aaeoaey, e aeey iieo/aoaey, e a nayce n eiioaenoii, a
eioi?ii i?ienoiaeeo eiiioieeaoeey.

Enneaaeiaaiea oaeai?iaeoeoeee eae ciaeiaie nenoaiu ia eiaao oeaeueth
i?iyniaiea oi?iaeueiuo aniaeoia i?ioeanna eiiioieeaoeee. Iu aoaeai
?anniao?eaaoue oae iacuaaaiua o?iaie niaea?aeaiey. Nenoaia ciaeia – yoi
ia i?inoi nenoaia ciaeiauo n?aaenoa, ii nenoaia niuneia.

[…]

Naieieiae/aneia enneaaeiaaiea, ?acoiaaony, – oieueei iaeei ec iiaeoiaeia
e eco/aieth OA-i?ia?aii, ii iii yaeyaony eeth/aaui aeey ioaaoa ia aii?in
“*oi a aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe iieo/atho ?aciua ethaee a ?aciuo
ianoiyoaeuenoaao, eiaaea y iinueath ei niiauaiea? Iieo/atho ee iie iaeii
e oi aea niiauaiea? Iioiaeea niiauaiey? Niaa?oaiii ?aciua?”

Iiaeiaiua aii?inu yaeythony iaueie aeey anao enneaaeiaaiee /aeiaa/aneie
eiiioieeaoeee, iaeiaei a neo/aa ianniaie eiiioieeaoeee iie yaeythony
iniaaiii aaaeiuie.

[…]

Ioi?aaeoaeue e iieo/aoaeue a iauai neo/aa iieuecothony ?aciuie eiaeaie
aeey eiaee?iaaiey/aeaeiaee?iaaiey niunea niiauaiey. Iaciaiea ycuea,
?acaeaeaiiinoue ai a?aiaie, ?acee/ey a aa?iaiaaoe/aneeo o?aaeeoeeyo,
eoeueoo?iua ?acee/ey – iaeioi?ua ec i?e/ei, ii eioi?ui aeaeiaee?iaaiea
iineaiiiai niiauaiey yaeyaony aaa??aioiui.

Eiaaea niiauaiea ia?aaeaaony iaaeeooa?aioee?iaaiiie ianna iieo/aoaeae,
ai?ei?ii i/aaeaeii, /oi ?aciua ethaee ?aneiaee?otho e iieioo aai
ii-?aciiio. Eioa?i?aoaoeee aia?eeaineeo eeiioeeueiia iaeaiaceeneeie
aai?eaaiaie, iaoiaeyueieny a ae?oaii yoe/aneii, nioeeaeueiii e
ineoieiae/aneii eiioaenoa, eniieuecothueie naith nianoaaiioth
?aoa?aioioth ?aieo, a?yae ee iioiaee ia eioa?i?aoaoeee yoeo oeeueiia
n?aaeiei aia?eeaioeai.

Aaa??aioiia aeaeiaee?iaaiea, eioi?ia ioiineoaeueii ?aaeei yaeyaony
i?e/eiie iaiiieiaiey iaaeaeo ioaeaeueiuie eiaeeaeaeaie, yaeyaony
i?aaeeii iann iaaeea…

…Naieieiae/aneee aiaeec niiauaiey aeieaeai, neaaeiaaoaeueii, iienaoue
“nenoaio icia/aiey”, eioi?oth niiauaiea eae oeaeia icia/aao (connotes) e
aeaoue ii?aaeaeaiea: (a) nenoaia icia/aiey ia?aaeathuae i?aaiecaoeee e
nenoaia icia/aiey, eioi?ay ii aa iiaieth anoue o iieo/aoaey; (a) nenoaia
icia/aiey oaoie/aneiai eioa?i?aoaoi?a (eioi?ay iiaeao ioee/aoueny io
nenoaiu icia/aiey i?aaiecaoeee) e nenoaia icia/aiey, eioi?ay ii aai
iiaieth anoue o iieo/aoaey.

*oi ia iiaeao ii?aaeaeeoue naieioe/aneee aiaeec, oae yoi
aeaenoaeoaeueioth nenoaio eaaeaeiai ioaeaeueiiai iieo/aoaey. Yoi iiaeao
auoue auyniaii oieueei iooai iieaaiai enneaaeiaaiey aoaeeoi?ee.

Oaeei ia?acii, naieioe/aneia enneaaeiaaiea yaeyaony oieueei iaeiei ec
aniaeoia enneaaeiaaiey i?ioeanna eiiioieeaoeee. Iii iiaeao ?ane?uoue
iaia?aiey ioi?aaeoaey (emitter), ii ia oi, /oi i?ienoiaeeo i?e i?eaia
niiauaiey. ”

Enoiaey ec yoiai iiaeii ioiaoeoue /oi aeey ?aciuo oeiia eoeueoo? ?aciua
oeiu eiiioieeaoeee i?inoi iaiaoiaeeiu, enoiaey ec iaioaeueiinoe
i?aaenoaaeoaeae yoeo eoeueoo?. Aeey oiai eiee/anoaa e ninoaaa
eioi?iaoeee eioi?oth iiaeao aini?eiyoue iaeaiaceeneee aai?eaai aiieia
aeinoaoi/ii aeanoia, i?eieoeaiiai ycuea e aiy aa?aaaiia, a oiaaea eae
n?aaeiaio aia?eeaioeo aeey yoiai iaiaoiaeeia neiaeiay nenoaia TV nayce e
ia?iiiia eiee/anoai ?acee/iuo ia?aaea/. Neiaieeci aea ycueiauo niiauaiee
inoaaony.

A oi aea a?aiy ?aaeueii ia nouanoaoao eaeaaeueiuo oeiia eoeueoo?. Ana
oeiu eoeueoo? niaoaiiua.

Iiyoiio Yei neeiiai niaaeeiyoue e yecioe/anee ia?aiaoeaaoue ?acee/iua
yiioe. A naiai ynna “N?aaeiea aaea oaea ia/aeenue” ii ia iniiaa iiaeaee
n?aaeiaaaeiaiai oeia eoeueoo?u, no?ieo iiaeaeue iaoaai a?aiaie,
ii?aaeaeyy aa eae eiieth e i?iaeieaeaiea o?aaeeoeeiiiiai
n?aaeiaaaeiaiai oeia iauanoaa ia iniiaa iauanoaaiiuo iin?aaeieeia e
oeiia nayce.

“N iaaeaaiaai a?aiaie n ?aciuo noi?ii ia/aee aiai?eoue i iaoae yiioa eae
i iiaii N?aaeiaaaeiauea. Anoaao aii?in, eaeao ee ?a/ue i i?i?i/anoaa eee
i eiinoaoaoeee oaeoa. Ae?oaeie neiaaie: iu oaea aioee a yiioo iiaiai
N?aaeiaaaeiauey, eee, ian iaeeaeaao “aeeaeaeoaa n?aaeiaaaeiaia
aoaeouaa”? Iiaeii neacaoue i aeaa?aaeaoeee e?oiiuo nenoai, oeie/iuo aeey
oaoiieiae/aneie y?u; iie neeoeii iaoe?iu e neiaeiu aeey oiai, /oiau
iaeia oeaio?aeueiay aeanoue iiaea eii?aeeie?iaaoue eo aeaenoaey, e
aeaaea aeey oiai, /oiau eaaeaeie ec ieo iia yooaeoeaii ?oeiaiaeeoue
oi?aaeai/aneee aiia?ao; yoe nenoaiu ia?a/aiu ia e?ooaiea, a a
?acoeueoaoa eo neiaeiuo acaeiiaeaenoaee iacaae ieaaeaony ioa?ioaia any
i?iiuoeaiiay oeeaeeecaoeey. ?anniio?ei naiue i?a/iue ec oao aa?eaioia
?acaeoey niauoee: ii aeaeeiinoe, yoi aanueia oaaaeeoaeueiue
oooo?enoe/aneee noeaia?ee.

I?aaenoaaei naaa oaeoth ea?oeio: iaeiaaeaeu a Niaaeeiaiiuo Ooaoao ec-ca
aaoiiiaeeueiie i?iaee e aaa?ee ia aeaeaciie aei?iaa niaiiue ia?niiae
ay?iii?oa ia iiiaaeaao e ianoo ?aaiou. E aeeniao/a?ai ia i?eaeao caiaia,
eo ia?aooiieaiea i?eaaaeao e no?anno, e ii eo aeia i?iecieaeao
noieeiiaaiea aeaoo ?aaeoeaiuo eaeia?ia, eioi?ua oiaaeoo ia
aunieiaieueoioth eeieth yeaeo?iia?aaea/; aneaaenoaea yoiai oneeeony
iai?yaeaiea ia ae?oaeo e aac oiai ia?aiai?yaeaiiuo eeieyo, e i?iecieaeao
iieiia aueeth/aiea yeaeo?iyia?aee, iiaeiaiia oiio, eioi?ia eiaei ianoi a
Iueth-Ei?ea ianeieueei eao iacaae. Oieueei ia yoio ?ac aaa?ey aoaeao
cia/eoaeueiaa e i?iaeeeony ianeieueei aeiae. Iineieueeo iiaiaea
niaaeiay, a aei?iae inoathony ia ?an/euaiiuie, ia?acothony /oaeiaeuiua
neiieaiey aaoiiiaeeae; a ioenao aeey iaia?aaa aeaoo eino?u, e io yoiai
aniuoeaatho iiaea?u, aei eioi?uo iiaea?iua ia iiaoo aeia?aoueny, a
cia/eo, ia iiaoo iiaaneoue, Iiae iaoeneii iyoeaeanyoe ieeeeiiia
?acuy?aiiuo ethaeae, eioi?ua iuoathony ii i/a?aaee aeicaiieoueny ae?oa
aei ae?oaa, auoiaeeo ec no?iy oaeaoiiiay naoue. Aaeieue aei?ia ia/eiatho
aeaeaaoueny iaoea i?ioeannee, inoaaeyy ca niaie ia niaao ia?oauo….”

Oaeei ia?acii i?e ?ac?ooaiee iniiaiuo n?aaenoa eiiioieeaoeee
ii?aaeaeythueo e ieoathueo iaoa iauanoai iii iaiiaaiii ?ooeony.

“… Noia?ia?eaou a?aayo, a aeiiao eii/athony caianu naa/ae, ?anoao
/enei oie?athueo a aieueieoeao io oieiaea, aieiaea e enoiuaiey. Eiaaea
/a?ac ianeieueei iaaeaeue aoaeao n o?oaeii ainnoaiiaeai ii?iaeueiue
ii?yaeie, ieeeeiiu o?oiia a ai?iaeao e naeueneie ianoiinoe noaioo
enoi/ieeii yieaeaiee, i?eiany aaaenoaey, ?aaiua ii ianooaaai yieaeaiee
/a?iie /oiu, oianoae a XIV aaea aeaa o?aoe ianaeaiey Aa?iiu…

… Eiaaea neea caeiia ia aoaeao aieaa i?eciaaaoueny, a ana aeieoiaiou
aoaeoo oie/oiaeaiu, nianoaaiiinoue aoaeao iie?aoueny oieueei ia “i?aai
iau/ay”; n ae?oaie noi?iiu, nei?ue oiaaeie i?eaaaeao e oiio, /oi ai?iaea
aoaeoo ninoiyoue aia?aiaoeo ec ?acaaeei e aiaeiuo aeey aeeeuey aeiiia,
aaea iinaeyony oa, eoi noiaao caoaaoeoue eo; a ianoiua aeanoe iaeeiai
ianooaaa niiaoo nio?aieoue oioue eaeoth-oi aeanoue, eeoue iino?iea
e?aiinoiua noaiu e oe?aieaiey. Oiaaea iu ieaaeainy oaea iieiinoueth a
oaiaeaeueiie nenoaia…”

Iniaoth aaaeiinoue a yoie iiaeaee Yei oaeaeyao nio?aiaieth ciaiee e
nio?aiaieth n?aaenoaa ia?aaea/e yoeo ciaiee, iniiaiiai n?aaenoaa
eiiioieeaoeee iauanoaa o?aaeeoeeiiiiai – eieaa.

“Ia?aae eeoeii oaeie ia?niaeoeau, inoaaony oieueei iiaeoiaoue i oii,
/oiau caieaie?iaaoue nicaeaiea aiaeiaa iiiaoaneeo iauei, eioi?ua oaea
naaiaeiy o/eeenue au iiaeaea?aeeaaoue e ia?aaeaaaoue a ianoaiiaea oaeiai
oiaaeea iao/iua e oaoie/aneea ciaiey, iaiaoiaeeiua aeey i?eoiaea
aic?iaeaeaiey. Eae i?aaieciaaoue nio?aiaiea yoeo ciaiee, eae ecaaaeaoue
eo eneaaeaiey a i?ioeanna ia?aaea/e e ia eniieuecotho ee eo iaeioi?ua ec
oaeeo iauei aeey iieo/aiey iniaie aeanoe.”

Aeaeii /oi eieae e ae?oaea n?aaenoaa eiiioieeaoeee eae o?aieeeua ciaiee,
a iiaeaee, eioi?oth aiaeece?oao Oiaa?oi Yei yaeythony n?aaenoaii
iieo/aiey aeanoe a ethaii oeia eoeueoo?u: eae o?aaeeoeeiiiie oae e
iiaea?ia. Iiaeao auoue oieueei a iauanoaa iinoiiaea?ia oa?aeoa?ecoaiii
iauaaeinooiiinoueth eioi?iaoeee, eioi?ay i?ienoiaeeo aeaaiaea?y
?acaeoeth ana oao aea i?aneiaoouo n?aaenoa eiiioieeaoeee, ciaiey e eo
iineoaee ia?anoatho auoue n?aaenoaii aeanoe e aiaaonoaa. Yei
oa?aeoa?eciaae iino-iiaea?ieci eae “ioiioaiea, i?e eioi?ii iu ia a
ninoiyiee ioeacaoueny io aei?iaeo iaoaio na?aeoeo iaaeaaeae e aa?iaaiee,
ii a oi aea a?aiy ia iiaeai aeieaa ioaeaaaoueny ei n /enoina?aea/iui
i?yiiaeooeai.”

Aeaeueoa “ …Anee i?aaeiieiaeeoue, /oi N?aaeiea aaea iiaeii naanoe e
iaeiaio iiaeiaeth aano?aeoiie iiaeaee, n eaeei ec aeaoo ia?eiaeia
neaaeoao niioianoe iaoo yiioo? Anyeay iiiuoea onoaiiaeoue iieiia
niioaaonoaea auea au iaeaiie oioy au iioiio, /oi iu aeeaai a ia?eiae
iaaa?iyoii onei?aiiuo i?ioeannia, eiaaea i?ienoiaeyuaa ca iyoue iaoeo
eao iiaeao ii?ie niioaaonoaiaaoue i?ienoiaeeaoaio oiaaea a oa/aiea iyoe
aaeia. Ai-aoi?uo, oeaio? ie?a ?anoe?eeny aei ?acia?ia anae ieaiaou,
naaiaeiy ninouanoaotho oeeaeeecaoeee e eoeueoo?u, iaoiaeyueany ia
?acee/iuo noaaeeyo ?acaeoey, e a iauaeaiiie aeecie iu nei?aa neeiiiu
aiai?eoue i “n?aaeiaaaeiauo oneiaeyo aeecie” aaiaaeueneeo ia?iaeia, a oi
a?aiy eae Iueth-Ei?e i?aaenoaaeyaony iai i?ioeaaoathuei Aaaeeiiii, a
Iaeei — iiaeaeueth iiaie aic?iaeaeai/aneie oeeaeeecaoeee.
Neaaeiaaoaeueii, ia?aeeaeue, anee iia aeiionoeia, aeieaeia
onoaiaaeeaaoueny iaaeaeo iaeioi?uie iiiaioaie e neooaoeeyie iaoae
oeeaeeecaoeee e ?acee/iuie iiiaioaie enoi?e/aneiai i?ioeanna, eioi?ue
aeeeeny n V ii XIII aae iaoae y?u. Eiia/ii, n?aaiaiea aiieia
ii?aaeaeaiiiai enoi?e/aneiai iiiaioa (naaiaeiy) n ii/oe ouny/aeaoiei
ia?eiaeii ai iiiaii ioaeaao aanniuneaiiie ea?ie, e auei au oaeiaie, anee
au e a naiii aeaea eiaei ianoi. Ii caeanue iu iuoaainy ?ac?aaioaoue
“aeiioaco N?aaeieo aaeia”…

*oi aea iai ioaeii, /oiau nicaeaoue oi?ioea N?aaeiea aaea? I?aaeaea
anaai, ia?iiiay ie?iaay eiia?ey, eioi?ay ?acaaeeaaaony, iiuiay
eioa?iaoeeiiaeueiay ainoaea?noaaiiay aeanoue, eioi?ay a naia a?aiy
iauaaeeieea /anoue ie?a n oi/ee c?aiey ycuea, iau/aaa, eaeaieiaee,
?aeeaee, eneonnoaa e oaoiieiaee e eioi?ay a iaeei i?ae?aniue iiiaio
?ooeony ec-ca neiaeiinoe naiae nianoaaiiie no?oeoo?u. ?ooeony, iioiio
/oi ia a?aieoeao ianaaeatho “aa?aa?u”, eioi?ua iaiaycaoaeueii
iaia?aciaaiiu, ii eioi?ua ianoo iiaua iau/ae e iiaia aeaeaiea ie?a. Yoe
“aa?aa?u” iiaoo a?uaaoueny neeie, iioiio /oi oioyo caaeaaeaoue
aiaaonoaii, a eioi?ii ei auei ioeacaii, eee iiaoo i?ina/eaaoueny a
nioeeaeueioth e eoeueoo?ioth iaoa?eth ainiiaenoaothuae ie?iaie eiia?ee,
?ani?ino?aiyy iiaua aa?iaaiey e iiaua acaeyaeu ia aeeciue. ?eineoth
eiia?eth iiaeoa/eaaao aiana ia o?enoeaineay yoeea; eiia?ey naia
iiaeoi/eea naay, n ?aaiie aioiaiinoueth i?eiya aeaenaiae?eeneoth
eoeueoo?o e ainoi/iua eoeueou Ieo?u eee Anoa?ou, caea?uaay n iaaeae,
iiauie o/aieyie ia yoeea naenoaeueiuo ioiioaiee, ?acee/iuie iaaeaaeaeaie
e i?aaenoaaeaieyie i nianaiee. Eiia?ey aeeth/eea a naay iiaua ?aniaua
eiiiiiaiou, a neeo ianoiyoaeuenoa oi?acaeieea iiiaea aeanoeea eeanniaua
aeaeaiey, oiaiueoeea ?acee/ea iaaeaeo a?aaeaeaiaie e iaa?aaeaeaiaie,
iaaeaeo iao?eoeeyie e ieaaayie, nio?aieea ?acaeaeaiea ii aiaaonoao, ii
?aciuea ?acee/ey iaaeaeo nioeeaeueiuie ?ieyie, aea e ia iiaea iinooieoue
eia/a. Iia niinianoaiaaea auno?iio ?ani?ino?aiaieth eoeueoo?u,
aiciiaeiinoue oi?aaeyoue iieo/eee i?aaenoaaeoaee oaeeo
iaoeeiiaeueiinoae, eioi?ua ca aeaanoe eao aei yoiai iin/eoaeenue au
iecoeie, oo?aoeee iacuaeaiue aeiaiaoeci iiiaea oaieiae/aneea oai?ee. A
iaeei e oio aea iiiaio i?aaeoaeuenoai iiaei iieeiiyoueny eeanne/aneei
aiaai, nieaeaou — Ieo?a, a ?aau — Eenono. Einoeieoeaii i?aneaaeiaaeanue
oa aa?a, eioi?ay a eiia/iii n/aoa i?aaenoaaeyeanue iaeaieaa nia?oaeueii
iianiie aeey nenoaiu, ii, eae i?aaeei, aunieee o?iaaiue oa?ieiinoe
iicaieyao i?eieiaoue ana…

…Ei?i/a aiai?y, eiaiii oai [a Aia?eea]nic?ae nia?aiaiiue caiaaeiue
/aeiaae, e eiaiii a yoii niunea iiaeaeue N?aaeieo aaeia iiaeao iiii/ue
iai iiiyoue oi, /oi i?ienoiaeeo a iaoe aeie: e?ooaiea Aaeeeie eiia?ee
nii?iaiaeaeaaony e?ecenii e iaoaa?aiiinoueth, a yoio iiiaio
noaeeeaathony ?acee/iua oeeaeeecaoeee e iinoaiaiii au?eniauaaaony ia?ac
iiaiai /aeiaaea. ..

…*oi naaiaeiy iu aeeaai a yiioo e?ecena Aaeeeie Aia?eeaineie eiia?ee,
noaei oaea iauei ianoii a enoi?eia?aoee iaoaai a?aiaie. ..

…Eoae, ia/eiaaony ea?a iacaaeneiuo /anoiuo eioa?ania, i?aaenoaaeoaee
eioi?uo aeinoeaatho eiii?iiennia e iiaeaea?aeeaatho acaeiiia ?aaiiaanea
aeaaiaea?y oneoaai /anoiie e iaaiiie iieeoeee, a oaeaea eiaao
nianoaaiiua oe?aieaiiua oeaio?u aeey nai?a nee e iai?iiu. A ?acoeueoaoa
iu noaiiaeiny naeaeaoaeyie oiai, /oi Eieiiai iacuaaao i?ia?anne?othuae
aueaoiaiecaoeeae oa??eoi?ee, ii eioi?ui ai ana noi?iiu aeaeaeoony
io?yaeu iiauo iaaiieeia (a eae aua iacaaoue “ieiuethoiai” eee “/a?iuo
iaioa?”?)…

… aieueoie ai?iae, ia caoaa/aiiue naaiaeiy aieinoaaiiuie aa?aa?aie e
ia ?aci?aiiue iiaea?aie, no?aaeaao io iaaeinoaoea aiaeu, iaoaaoee
naiaiaeiie yeaeo?iyia?aee, ia?aee/a aei?iaeiiai aeaeaeaiey…

…“Iaoaa?aiiinoue” — eeth/aaia neiai: yoi /oanoai neaaeoao iinoaaeoue a
eiioaeno “ieeeaia?enoneeo”, eee “oeeeanoe/aneeo”, o?aaia: aio-aio
ianooieo eiiaoe naaoa, caeeth/eoaeueiay eaoano?ioa caaa?oeo ouny/aeaoea.
Ciaiaieoua oaeanu ouny/iiai aiaea auee eaaaiaeie, yoi oaea aeieacaii, ii
aeieacaii oaeaea e oi, /oi a oa/aiea anaai O aaea ?ani?ino?aiyeny no?ao
ia?aae eiioeii naaoa (anee ia n/eoaoue, /oi e eiioeo ouny/aeaoey yoio
ineoic oaea i?ioae). *oi eanaaony iaoeo aeiae, iinoiyiii iiaoi?ythueany
oaiu aoiiiie e yeieiae/aneie eaoano?io yaeythony aeinoaoi/iui
naeaeaoaeuenoaii aiieaeeine/aneeo oaiaeaioeee…”

Oaeei ia?acii Yei naiaeeo aianoa aeaa oeia eoeueoo?u a na?ueaciie e
aeaaea i?a/iie iiaeaee caiaaeiiai iauanoaa /a?ac i?ecio n?aaeiaaaeiauey.

A iaiaa na?ueaciii, ii aieaa ia?aciii, iioiaeai ia aiaeaeio i?i
i?ia?aiienoia ynna “Aaaeeiineay aanaaea” ii a aeeaeiaa aeaoo ae?aaieo
i?ia?aiienoia iienuaaao aeaa i/aiue aeaeaeeo ae?oa io ae?oaa a?aiaie,
oaioanoe/ii niaoaiiuo /a?ac niaa?oaiii ?acee/iua i?eciaee eoeueoo?.
Nei?aa caeanue iienuaathony oaea iauanoaa iinoiiaea?ia e o?aaeeoeeiiiia.

“O?OE:

Eae oaaa yoa eeeiiienue? Iiy ?aaiia/aoiay nenoaia a aeanyoue /ania
caaa?oeea aanue eiaeaen Oaiio?aie.

IEIA?IAe:

A eaeay o oaay? Apple Nominator ec ?aeneie Aeieeiu?

O?OE:

Ou n oia nio?e! Eo aieueoa ia aeinoaiaoue aeaaea ia ?uiea ?aaia a Oe?a.
Iao, o iaiy aaeiaoneee ?aa-ienaoe, Toth 3 Megis-Dos. ?anoiaeoao i/aiue
iaei, ai?noue ?ena a aeaiue, e iiaeao ienaoue ea?iaeeoaie.

IEIA?IAe:

Ii o iaai aea ie/aai a iaiyoe ia inoaaony.

O?OE:

Caoi oi?iaoe?oao i?yii i?e eiie?iaaiee. Aieueoa ia ioaeai
?aa-oi?iaoe?iauee, eioi?ue aa??o aeeio, eaieo oaaeeoeo, nooeo a? ia
nieioea, /oiau ae?oaie iioii ia iae ienae. Ii eaieo, nooeo ia iaia e
n?aco ieoao.

IEIA?IAe:

Ii ii iieuecoaony oaaeeoeaie ia 5,25 aaeiaoneeo eieoae e aaneo aeia?uo
eeeia?aiiia oanoueaeanyo. Ii/aio ou ia caaaaeaoue naaa ii?oaoeaiiai?

O?OE:

*oi, eaeie-ieaoaeue oaeaeaeneee aeci? ia aeeaeeii o?onoaea? I?eaaiaanu
aeey aieoaia.

IEIA?IAe:

Aea iao, ?o/iiai ?aaa-ienoea, ao?eeaineiai ieaiay ec Neaeiia. Io,
ciaaoue, eae aeaeatho oeieeeeoeu – aea?oo an? o aaeioyi, ii iioii
ieieaoth?ece?otho. Niio?e: eyioii, ieoao, neaey i?yii o oaay ia eieaiyo.

O?OE:

Ii ai?aaoue, eaeay ia?cinoue.

IEIA?IAe:

ss oaay oiieyth! Aio aiiioe?iaaee a nieio ieaoo aeey auno?i ayeaia.
Iaeei uae/ie oeunoii – e ii ieoao oaaa i?yii a Aeueoa-Aaoa, aeaeeoue,
aianoi a?aoe/aneiai ?aaeeia eniieuecoao oaenoiaie, aeinoaoi/ii
aeaaaeoeaoe iaeiiai ciaea. Caiaeoao oaaa aanue eiaeaen Oaiio?aie ia
ianeieueeeo oaaeeoeao 3,5.

O?OE:

Ii iioii aua i?eoiaeeony iieoiaoue ?aaa-eiaee?iaueea.

IEIA?IAe:

Ie/aai iiaeiaiiai. O yoiai ea?eeea aoeoue eiaee?iauee. Aua iaeei uae/ie
oeunoii – e ii an? ia?aienuaaao a eeeiiiene.

O?OE:

A a?aoeeo ii oiaea aeaeaao?

IEIA?IAe:

Ou /oi, ia aeaeeoue, /oi o iaai ?aciua oeaaoa? Eae ou aeoiaaoue, eoi
naeaeae iia ana ieaiu aeey Aaoie?

O?OE:

A ou aio aa?eoue? Aae?oa an? a?ioiaony?

IEIA?IAe:

Aea a?inue. ss caa?ocee aio a iaiyoue Ieoaai?a e Memphis Lotus. Aeaaoue
aio ieai, uae/ie – e ii ?enoao oaaa ceeeo?ao a o?ao ecia?aieyo. O
aaeioyi i?e iino?ieea ie?aieae aua auea aeanyoeeiiaiaeiay nenoaia
“Iienae”, caeeieiaaiiay n aeanyoeii ouny/ ?aaia-ienoeia. Eioa?oaenu o
ieo auee ia i/aiue ae?oaeanoaaiiua. An? onoa?aaoaa aeaeaci i?eoeinue
aua?ineoue a E?aniia Ii?a, aeaaea aiaea iiaeiyeanue

O?OE:

A aeey au/eneaiee?

IEIA?IAe:

Ii aua ciaao Ciaeeae. Iaiiaaiii iieacuaaao oaaa oaie ai?ineii, e – what
you see is what you get.

O?OE:

Aei?iai noieo?

IEIA?IAe:

Io, anee aoaeaoue iieoiaoue aai caeanue, oi oeaeiai o?iaeay ia oaaoeo, a
anee ia aeaeinneeo ?uieao, oi aicueiaoue ca iaoie iinaaiiai ca?ia.
Eiia/ii, ioaeii aai ei?ieoue oi?ioaiueei, iioiio /oi, nai ciaaoue,
garbage in – garbage out.

O?OE:

Io, iaiy iiea iie aaeioyiei aiieia ono?aeaaao. Ii anee oaie ea?eee
ieaaeaony niaianoeiui n iiei 3 Megis-Dos, iiaeaoue naeaeaoue, /oiau ii
iao/ee aai Ciaeeaeo?

IEIA?IAe:

Yoi iacaeiiii: eiaaea iieoiaaoue, aeieaeai iiaeoaa?aeeoue, /oi aa?aoue
aai oieueei aeey eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai iieueciaaiey… Io aea eaaeii, a
eiioea eiioeia oae ana aeaeatho, aeaaae eo caeiiiaeoei. Oieueei y ia
oi/o, /oiau o oaiaai ieacaeny ae?on.

O?OE:

Ii caei?ia eae aue. Iaiy aieueoa anaai ae?oaia ioaaao: eaaeaeue aeaiue
iiyaeyaony iiaia ia?a/ea, a eiioea eiioeia i?iecieaeao niaoaiea
i?ia?aii.

IEIA?IAe:

Oniieieny, oieueei ia a Aaaeeiia, oieueei ia a Aaaeeiia. ”

N?aaenoaa eiiioieeaoeee iauanoa iinoiiaea?ia e o?aaeeoeeiiiiai,
ieacuaathony i/aiue aeeceeie ii iaoiaeo eniieueciaaiey.

A naiai ?iiaia “Eiy ?icu” O. Yei iienuaaao n?aaeiaaaeiaue – ianiiiaiii
o?aaeeoeeiiiue oei eoeueoo?u. Ii oae iauyniyao naie a?aiaiiie auai?:

“…Nia?aa y niae?aeny iinaeeoue iiiaoia a nia?aiaiiii iiianou?a
(i?eaeoiae naaa iiiaoa-neaaeiaaoaey, iiaeien/eea “Iaieoanoa”). Ii
iineieueeo ethaie iiianou?ue, a a iniaaiiinoe aaaaonoai, aei neo ii?
aeeaao iaiyoueth n?aaeiaaaeiauey, y ?acaoaeee a naaa iaaeeaaenoa io
ceiiae niy/ee e ioi?aaee ?uoueny a nianoaaiiii a?oeaa. Iiiia?aoey 1956
aiaea ii n?aaeiaaaeiaie ynoaoeea, nioiy no?aieoe 1969 aiaea ia oo aea
oaio; ianeieueei noaoae iaaeaeo aeaeii; caiyoey n?aaeiaaaeiaie
eoeueoo?ie a 1962 aiaeo, a nayce n Aeaeienii; iaeiiaoe, a 1972 aiaeo –
aieueoia enneaaeiaaiea ii Aiieaeeineno e ii eeethno?aoeeyi e oieeiaaieth
Aiieaeeinena Aaaoa Eeaaaineiai: a iauai, iia n?aaeiaaaeiauea
iiaeaea?aeeaaeinue a aiaaie aioiaiinoe. ss aua?aa eo/o iaoa?eaeia –
eiiniaeoia, ena?ieiiee, auienie. Ana yoi iiaeae?aeinue ia/eiay n 1952
aiaea aeey naiuo iaiiiyoiuo oeaeae: aeey enoi?ee o?iaeia, aeey eieae i
n?aaeiaaaeiauo yioeeeeiiaaeeyo, aeey oai?ee nieneia… A eaeie-oi iiiaio
y ?aoee, /oi iineieueeo n?aaeiaaaeiauea – iiy iuneaiiay
iianaaeiaaiinoue, i?iua anaai iiianoeoue aeaenoaea i?yii a
n?aaeiaaaeiauea. Eae y oaea aiai?ee a eaeeo-oi eioa?aueth,
nia?aiaiiinoue y ciath /a?ac ye?ai oaeaaeci?a, a n?aaeiaaaeiauea –
iai?yioth…

… Eoae, y ?aoee ia oieueei, /oi ?anneac iieaeao i n?aaeieo aaeao. ss
?aoee e /oi ?anneac iieaeao ec n?aaeieo aaeia, ec ono eaoiienoea oie
yiioe.”

Enoi?e/aneee iiiaio, e eioi?iio i?eo?i/aii aeaenoaea “Eiaie ?icu”,
ii?aaeaeai a ?iiaia oi/ii. Ii neiaai Aaeniia, “ca ianeieueei ianyoeaa
aei niauoee, eie aoaeoo iienaiu, Ethaeiaee, caeeth/ea n ?acaeoui
O?aaea?eeii nithc, anooiee a Eoaeeth”, Ethaeiaee Aaaa?neee,
i?iaicaeaoaiiue eiia?aoi?ii, anooiee a Eoaeeth a 1327 aiaeo.

Yei aiai?eo, /oi niaoeeaeueii iaienae ia?aua noi no?aieoe ?iiaia oae
neiaeii e oyao/a, oieueei aeey oiai /oiau aaanoe /eoaoaey a aoiinoa?o
n?aaeiaaaeiaiai iiianou?y, a eioi?ii ?acai?a/eaaaony nthaeao ?iiaia.
Aeaenoaeoaeueii, caieiooue, oaeoe/anee io?acaiiue io inoaeueiiai ie?a
iiianou?ue yoi eae au iiaeaeue o?aaeeoeeiiiiai iauanoaa n aai
i?eaycaiiinoueth e ianoo, a?aiaiai eaeouai ii e?oao e inoaeueiuie
i?eciaeaie i?enoueie oaeei iauanoaai. A oi aea a?aiy ?iiai ioeaiai
e?eoeeaie eae iinoiiaea?ienoneee. Nai Yei ?aaae?oao ia yoi oae:

“ E niaeaeaieth, “iinoiiaea?ieci” – oa?iei aiaeiue a tout faire (ia
ethaie neo/ae (o?) . O iaiy oaeia /oanoai, /oi a iaoa a?aiy ana
oiio?aaeythuea aai i?eaaaatho e iaio anyeee ?ac, eiaaea oioyo /oi-oi
iioaaeeoue. E oiio aea aai ianoie/eai i?iaeaeaatho a aeoaue aaeia.
Nia?aa ii i?eiaiyeny oieueei e ienaoaeyi e ooaeiaeieeai iineaaeiaai
aeaaaeoeaoeeaoey; iioii iaei-iiiaeo ?ani?ino?aieeny e ia ia/aei aaea;
caoai aua aeaeueoa; inoaiiaie ia i?aaeaeaeeony, e nei?i” eaoaai?ey
iinoiiaea?iecia caoaaoeo Aiia?a.

Aeieaeai neacaoue, /oi y nai oaaaeaeai, /oi iinoiiaea?ieci – ia
oeene?iaaiiia o?iiieiae/anee yaeaiea, a iaeia aeooiaiia ninoiyiea, anee
oaiaeii, Kunstwollen (aiey eneonnoaa) – iiaeoiae e ?aaioa. A yoii niunea
i?aaiia?ia o?aca, /oi o ethaie yiioe anoue nianoaaiiue iinoiiaea?ieci,
oae aea eae o ethaie yiioe anoue nianoaaiiue iaiuea?eci (oioue y e ia
?aoee aua – ia yaeyaony ee iinoiiaea?ieci anaai eeoue ia?aeiaiiaaieai
iaiuea?ecia eae iaoaenoi?e/aneie eaoaai?ee). Ii-aeaeeiiio, eaaeaeay
yiioa a naie /an iiaeoiaeeo e ii?iao e?ecena, iiaeiaiiai iienaiiiio o
Ieoeoa a “Ianaiaa?aiaiiuo ?aciuoeaieyo”, oai, aaea aiai?eony i a?aaea
enoi?ecia. I?ioeia aeaaeo, oyaioeo, oaioaaee?oao. Enoi?e/aneee aaaiaa?ae
(iaeiaei a aeaiiii neo/aa y aa?o e aaaiaa?ae eae iaoaenoi?e/aneoth
eaoaai?eth) oi/ao ioe?anoeoueny io i?ioeiai. “Aeieie eoiiue naao!” –
oooo?enoneee eicoia – oeie/iay i?ia?aiia ethaiai aaaiaa?aea; iaaei
oieueei caiaiyoue “eoiiue naao” ethauie ae?oaeie iiaeoiaeyueie
neiaaniuie aeieaie. Aaaiaa?ae ?ac?ooaao, aeaoi?ie?oao i?ioeia.
“Aaeiueiineea aa?uoie” – i/aiue oeie/iue aeey aaaiaa?aea iinooiie.
Aaaiaa?ae ia inoaiaaeeaaaony: ?ac?ooaao ia?ac, ioiaiyao ia?ac, aeioiaeeo
aei aano?aeoeee, aei aacia?aciinoe, aei /enoiai oienoa, aei aeu?ee a
oienoa, aei niaeaeaiiiai oienoa; a a?oeoaeoo?a o?aaiaaiey ieieiaeecia
i?eaiaeyo e naaeiaiio caai?o, e aeiio-ei?iaea, e ia?aeeaeaieiaaeo; a
eeoa?aoo?a – e ?ac?ooaieth aeeneo?na aei e?aeiae noaiaie – aei eieeaaeae
Ay??ioca, e aaaeoo aua aeaeueoa – e iaiioa, e aaeie no?aieoea. A iocuea
yoe aea o?aaiaaiey aaaeoo io aoiiaeueiinoe e ooio, a caoai e aaniethoiie
oeoeia (a yoii niunea ?aiiee ia?eiae Eaeaeaea – iiaea?ienoneee).

Ii ianooiaao i?aaeae, eiaaea aaaiaa?aeo (iiaea?iecio) aeaeueoa eaeoe
iaeoaea, iineieueeo ii i?eoae e nicaeaieth iaoaycuea, iienuaathuaai
iaaiciiaeiua oaenou (/oi anoue eiioeaiooaeueiia eneonnoai).
Iinoiiaea?ieci – yoi ioaao iiaea?iecio: ?ac oae i?ioeia iaaiciiaeii
oie/oiaeeoue, eai aai oie/oiaeaiea aaaeao e iaiioa, aai ioaeii
ia?ainiuneeoue, e?iie/ii, aac iaeaiinoe.”

Yei, eae e ai anao naieo i?iecaaaeaieyo ia ?aaioaao, n eaeaaeueiuie
iiaeaeyie. Yiioe ana ?aaii niaoaiu. Oaeei ia?acii aai neaaeothuee ?iiai
“Iayoiee Ooei” iiaeii a iaeioi?ii niunea iacaaoue i?iaeieaeaieai “Eiaie
?icu”. Iaa ?iiaia ianeaicue i?iieoaiu neiaieieciii. Oaea oi, /oi
ioee/athueeny caia/aoaeueiie i?iieoeaoaeueiinoueth o?aioeeneaineiai
iiiaoa aiaee/aieia XIV aaea ciaoo Aeeueaaeuei Aanea?aeeueneee, n?aco
canoaaeyao aniiiieoue caia/aoaeueiia i?iecaaaeaiea Eiiai Aeieea “Niaaea
Aanea?aeeae” e aai aa?iy – nuueea Oa?eiea Oieina. A eiy eaoiienoea
iiiaoa Aaenii –yoi i?ic?a/iue iaiae ia aeieoi?a Aaoniia. Neiaieu
ia?auatho ian nia/aea e Aiaeee XIX aaea. Ii iienaiea oea?eiaiuo neoaea a
iiianou?a e ia?aua aeeaeiae aica?auatho ian a aae XIII.

Yei, oeeinia-naieiieia i?eaeaao aieueoia cia/aiea e iacaaieth naieo
?iiaiia, eioi?ua oaea ianoo niuneiaoth iaa?oceo. Ii iauyniyao yoi oae:

“oeeoaoa acyoa ec iiyiu “De contemptu mundi

(?ica aeay, ci?ueeie yniie

Aicauoaaoueny, ai?aeaeeaa,

Aaa?aoeii e e?aneith e?aniie

Enoaeatho oaie ecaeau,

Ii oioue ou e aeeaii e?aneaa,

Ana ?aaii ou aoaeaoue ian/anoia.

Ooaia Eian aeaea E?on (ia?. n eni. A.Einotheiae/).

Iiiaoeiy Ooaia Eiaa aea ea E?on (O.E. aea Anaaoa) (1648- 1695) )

” aaiaaeeeoeioea Aa?ia?aea Ii?eaineiai (XII a.). Ii ?ac?aaaouaaao oaio
“ubi sunt” (ioeoaea aiineaaenoaee e “ie sont les neiges d’antan” (Ii
aaea niaaa aueuo a?aiai?” (o?.) Aeeiia). Ii o Aa?ia?aea e
o?aaeeoeeiiiiio oiiino (aaeeeea ioaee, iuoiua ai?iaea, i?ae?aniua
i?eioeannu — ana i?aa?aoeony a ie/oi) aeiaaaeaia aua iaeia iuneue: /oi
io en/acioaoeo aauae inoathony ionoua eiaia. Iaiiieiath – o Aaaey?a
i?eia? “nulla rosa est” (caaeaaea ia?aiai aa?eaioa (1821) ?iiaia
eoaeueyineiai eeanneea A.Iaiaeciie “Ia?o/aiiua) eniieueciaai aeey
aeieacaoaeuenoaa, /oi ycue niiniaai iienuaaoue e en/acioaoea e
ianouanoaothuea aaue. Canei i?aaeeaaath /eoaoaeyi aeaeaoue nianoaaiiua
auaiaeu.

Aaoi? ia aeieaeai eioa?i?aoe?iaaoue naia i?iecaaaeaiea. Eeai ii ia
aeieaeai aue ienaoue ?iiai, eioi?ue ii ii?aaeaeaieth – iaoeia-aaia?aoi?
eioa?i?aoaoeee. Yoie onoaiiaea, iaeiaei, i?ioeai?a/eo oio oaeo, /oi
?iiaio o?aaoaony caaeaaea.

Caaeaaea, e niaeaeaieth,- oaea eeth/ e eioa?i?aoaoeee. Aini?eyoea
caaeaaony neiaaie “E?aniia e /a?iia” eee “Aieia e ie?”. Naiua oaeoe/iua,
ii ioiioaieth e /eoaoaeth, caaeaaey – oa, eioi?ua naaaeaiu e eiaie
aa?iy-yiiieia. Iai?eia?, “Aeaaeae Eiiia?oeeueae” eee “?iaeicii E?oci”.
Ii e ionueea e eiaie yiiieia auaaao aa?eaioii iaaycuaaiey aaoi?neie
aiee. Caaeaaea “Ioaoe Ai?ei” oieone?oao aieiaiea /eoaoaeae ia oeao?a
noa?eea, oioy aeey ?iiaia ia iaiaa aaaeiu ?anoeiueye eee Aio?ai-Eieai.
Iaaa?ii, eo/oa oaeay /anoiay ia/anoiinoue, eae o Aethia. Oai oioy au
ynii, /oi “O?e iooeaoa?a” – ia naiii aeaea i /aou?ao. ?aaeeay ?ineioue.
Aaoi?u iicaieytho naaa oaeia, eaaeaony, oieueei ii ioeaea.

O iiae eieae auei ae?oaia ?aai/aa caaeaaea – “Aaaaonoai i?anooieaiee”.
ss caa?aeiaae aai. Iii iano?aeaaei /eoaoaeae ia aeaoaeoeaiue nthaeao e
naeei au n oieeo oao, eiai eioa?anoao oieueei eio?eaa. Yoe ethaee eoieee
au ?iiai e ai?ueei ?aci/a?iaaeenue. Ia/oie iiae auei iacaaoue ?iiai
“Aaenii ec Iaeueea”. Naiia iaeo?aeueiia caaeaaea, iineieueeo Aaenii eae
iiaanoaiaaoaeue noieo iniaiyeii io ae?oaeo aa?iaa. Ii a iaoeo
ecaeaoaeuenoaao ia ethayo eiai nianoaaiiuo. Ia?aaeaeaee aeaaea “Oa?ii e
Eth/eth”. O ian e?aeia iaei caaeaaee ii yiiieiai, oaeeo, eae “Eaiiiiei
Ai?ai”, “?oaa”, “Iaoaeei”. E?aeia iaei, iniaaiii a n?aaiaiee n
ieeeeiiaie eocei Aaoo , Aa??e Eeiaeiiia, A?iain e Oiiia Aeaeiinia “,
ianaeythueo inoaeueiua eeoa?aoo?u.

Caaeaaea “Eiy ?icu” aicieeei ii/oe neo/aeii e iiaeioei iia, iioiio /oi
?ica eae neiaiee/aneay oeao?a aei oiai ianuuaia niuneaie, /oi niunea o
iaa ii/oe iao: ?ica ienoe/aneay , e ?ica iaaeiay aeeea ia aeieueoa ?icu
, aieia Aeie e Aaeie ?icu, ?ica anoue ?ica anoue ?ica anoue ?ica,
?icaie?aeoea?u, ?ica iaoiao ?icie, oioue ?icie iaciae aa, oioue iao,
rosa fresca aulentissima (“?ica naaaeay, aeaaiooathuay” (eoae.) – ia?aua
neiaa aiiieiiiai noeoioai?aiey-nii?a “Contrasto” (1231), ecaanoiiai eae
iaeii ec ia?auo noeoioai?aiee ia eoaeueyineii ycuea.). Iacaaiea, eae e
caaeoiaii, aeaci?eaioe?oao /eoaoaey. Ii ia iiaeao i?aaeii/anoue
eaeoth-oi iaeio eioa?i?aoaoeeth. Aeaaea anee ii aeiaa?aony aei
iiae?acoiaaaaiuo iiieiaeenoneeo oieeiaaiee iineaaeiae o?acu, ii ana
?aaii i?eaeao e yoiio oieueei a naiii eiioea, oniaa naeaeaoue ianno
ae?oaeo i?aaeiieiaeaiee. Iacaaiea aeieaeii caioouaaoue iunee, a ia
aeenoeeieeie?iaaoue eo.”

Iia eaaeaony, /oi a yoii iaiieiaiiii neiaieaie ?iiaia iniiaiie
ia?niiaae – yoi ia ethaee, a aeaeeioaea e eieae aa ianaeythuea. Ana
aeaenoaea ?iiaia ?acai?a/eaaaony aie?oa yoie aeaeeioaee. Ana oaeenoaa
aiauai-oi i?ienoiaeyo ec-ca eiea o?aiyueony a iae. Ni neia Aaeniia “…
ss oaea ia oaeeaeyeny oiio, /oi oaeia ceiaeaeneeo e?iaii?ieeoee eae-oi
niiauaia n aeaeeioaeie. Aeey caeaoieo iaeoaoaeae, anaoeaei iinayoeaoeo
naay neiaaniinoe, aeaeeioaea aaeeiia?aiaiii i?aaenoaao e Ea?onaeeiii
iaaaniui e iiaecaiiui oea?noaii ia ia?aoiaea io terra incognita e
i?aeniiaeiae. Caeanue aeeciue eaaeaeiai ii?aaeaeyaony e oi?aaeyaony
aeaeeioaeie, aa caiiaaaeyie, aa cai?aoaie. Iie aa aeeaoo, aeeaoo aeey
iaa e, iiaeii aeaaea iiaeoiaoue, io/anoe i?ioea iaa, eai i?anooiii
oiiaatho a iaeei i?ae?aniue aeaiue iaiaaeeoue aa oaeiu. *oi au
oaea?aeaei eo io nia?oaeueiaeoaai ?enea ia iooe e oaeiaeaoai?aieth
ethaiciaoaeueiiai oia eee io oaeenoaa eiai-oi, eoi, neaaeai, ooeo?eeny
au iaeaaeaoue eo ?aaieai o?aieiui nae?aoii?”

Iniiaiui n?aaenoaii eiiioieeaoeee a n?aaeiaaaeiaii iauanoaa auee ycue
e eieaa, eae iniiaiie iineoaeue e o?aieoaeue ycuea, ioia?aaeaiiiai a
ciaieyo. Ii oo oeaiiinoue, eioi?oth ia?aoaao eieaa a yoii aeaeaeii
iiianou?a, naienoaaiia nei?aa iauanoaai iinoiiaea?ia , aaea eioi?iaoeey
i?eia?aoaao iniiaioth oeaiiinoue.

A caeeth/aiea iiaeii ioiaoeoue, /oi O.Yei a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue oeeinio,
a ia ienaoaeue, ii e ienaoaeue ii i?ae?aniue. A iao/iuo noaoueyo ii
naieioeea, a ia?iaeeeiuo ynna, a ooaeiaeanoaaiiuo i?iecaaaeaiey o iaai
aeaaiue aa?ie yoi ycue e ana ciaee e neiaieu eae i?iaeieaeaiey ycuea.
Ii enneaaeoao eae eo oae e n?aaenoaa eo ia?aaea/e.

Nienie eeoa?aoo?u:

Oiaa?oi Yei. “Caiaoee ia iieyo “Eiaie ?icu”.
http://bernoulli.mi.ras.ru/library/koi/UMBEKO/”

Oiaa?oi Yei. “E naieioe/aneiio aiaeeco oaeaaeceiiiiai niiauaiey.”
Aea?yaei A.A., nie?au. ia?. n aiae., 1998

Oiaa?oi Yei. “Aaaeeiineay aanaaea”. Ia?aaiae n eoaeueyineiai

Ieoaeea Aecaey.

Oiaa?oi Yei. Aioo?aiiea ?aoeaicee

Ee Ia?oaee e Oiaa?oi Yei. “Iiae Naoueth” (eioa?aueth). Ia?aaiae n
aiaeeeneiai Ieiu Oeu?eoi. “Enneonoai eeii” 9/1997

Oiaa?oi Yei . “N?aaeiea aaea oaea ia/aeenue” 1973 by Casa Ed. V.
Bompiani & C.S.P

Oiaa?oi Yei. “Eiy ?icu”. Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a. 1997 a.

Oiaa?oi Yei. “Iayoiee Ooei”. Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a. 1997 a.

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