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Средневековая философия: Фома Аквинский

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Aineiieoao ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee ii aunoaio ia?aciaaieth

Othiaineee Ainoaea?noaaiiue Oieaa?neoao

TH?eaee/aneee oaeoeueoao

Eiio?ieueiay ?aaioa

ii i?aaeiaoo: Oeeinioey

aa?eaio: ? 4

oaia: N?aaeiaaaeiaay
oeeinioey:

Oiia
Aeaeineee

IEAI ?AAIOU:

(. Iniiaiua iieiaeaiey n?aaeiaaaeiaie oeeinioee
………………………. 3

((. Oiia Aeaeineee. Aeia?aoey
……………………………………………………. 5

(((. Nioeeaeueiua e eaeaieiae/aneea i?aaeiinueee aicieeiiaaiey
oeeinioee Oiiu Aeaeineiai
………………………………………………………………
………………. 7

1. Oaieiaey e iaoea
………………………………………………………………
……. 8

((. Iaoaoece/aneay oai?ey auoey
………………………………………………… 10

1. Nouiinoue e nouanoaiaaiea
……………………………………………………. 10

2. Iaoa?ey e oi?ia
………………………………………………………………
…… 11

(. “Aeieacaoaeuenoaa” auoey Aiaa
………………………………………………….. 12

((. Oai?ey iiciaiey
………………………………………………………………
………. 14

1. *oanoaaiiia iiciaiea
……………………………………………………………
14

2. Eioaeeaeooaeueiia iiciaiea
…………………………………………………. 16

3. Oai?ey enoeiu
………………………………………………………………
……… 17

4. E?eoa?ee enoeiu
………………………………………………………………
…. 18

(((. Yoeea

1. i?iaeaia cea. Oaiaeeoeay
………………………………………………………… 19

2. Naiaiaeiay aiey /aeiaaea e ieeinoue Aiaeuey
………………………….. 20

((((. I?aaiaay e iieeoe/aneay aeieo?eia

1. I?ienoiaeaeaiea e ooieoeee ainoaea?noaa
………………………………… 21

2. I?aai e aai aeaeu
………………………………………………………………
….. 22

Caeeth/aiea
………………………………………………………………
…………………. 23

Eniieueciaaiiay eeoa?aoo?a
………………………………………………………… 24

(. Iniiaiua iieiaeaiey n?aaeiaaaeiaie oeeinioee

N?aaeiaaaeiauea caieiaao aeeeoaeueiue io?acie enoi?ee Aa?iiu io
?aniaaea ?eineie eiia?ee a V aaea aei yiioe Aic?iaeaeaiey (XIV-XV
a.a.).

Oeeinioey, eioi?ay neeaaeuaaeanue a yoio ia?eiae eiaea aeaa
iniiaiuo enoi/ieea naiaai oi?ie?iaaiey. Ia?aue ec ieo – ae?aaiaa?a/aneay
oeeinioey, i?aaeaea anaai a aa ieaoiiianeie e a?enoioaeaaneie
o?aaeeoeeyo. Aoi?ie enoi/iee – Nayuaiiia ienaiea, iiaa?ioaoee yoo
oeeinioeth a ?onei o?enoeainoaa.

Eaeaaeenoe/aneay i?eaioaoeey aieueoeinoaa oeeinioneeo nenoai
n?aaeiaaaeiauey aeeeoiaaeanue iniiaiuie aeiaiaoaie o?enoeainoaa, n?aaee
eioi?uo iaeaieueoaa cia/aiea eiaee oaeea, eae aeiaiao i ee/iinoiie oi?ia
aiaa-oai?oea, e aeiaiao i oai?aiee aiaii ie?a “ec ie/aai”. A oneiaeyo
oaeiai aeanoieiai ?aeeaeiciiai aeeeoaoa, iiaeaea?aeeaaaiiai
ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoueth, oeeinioey auea iauyaeaia “neoaeaieie
?aeeaee”, a ?aieao eioi?ie ana oeeinioneea aii?inu ?aoaeenue n iiceoeee
oaioeaio?ecia, e?aaoeeiiecia, i?iaeaeaioeeaeecia.

Oaioeaio?eci – (a?a/. theos – Aia), oaeia iiieiaiea ie?a, a
eioi?ii enoi/ieeii e i?e/eiie anaai nouaai aunooiaao Aia. Ii oeaio?
ie?icaeaiey, aeoeaiia e oai?yuaa aai ia/aei. I?eioeei oaioeaio?ecia
?ani?ino?aiyaony e ia iiciaiea, aaea ia aunooth nooiaiueeo a nenoaia
ciaiey iiiauaaony oaieiaey; ieaea aa – iaoiaeyuayny ia neoaeaa o
oaieiaee oeeinioey; aua ieaea – ?acee/iua /anoiua e i?eeeaaeiua iaoee.

E?aaoeeiieci – (eao. creatio – nicaeaiea, nioai?aiea), i?eioeei, a
niioaaonoaee n eioi?ui Aia ec ie/aai nioai?ee aeeaoth e iaaeeaoth
i?e?iaeo, oeaiioth, i?aoiaeyuoth, i?aauaathuoth a iinoiyiiii eciaiaiee.

I?iaeaeaioeeaeeci – (eao. providentia – i?iaeaeaiea), nenoaia
acaeyaeia, a niioaaonoaee n eioi?ie anaie ie?iauie niauoeyie, a oii
/enea enoi?eae e iiaaaeaieai ioaeaeueiuo ethaeae, oi?aaeyao
aiaeanoaaiiia i?iaeaeaiea (i?iaeaeaiea – a ?aeeaeiciuo i?aaenoaaeaieyo:
Aia, aunoaa nouanoai eee aai aeaenoaey).

A n?aaeiaaaeiaie oeeinioee iiaeii auaeaeeoue, eae ieieioi, aeaa
yoaia aa noaiiaeaiey – iao?enoeeo e noieanoeeo, /aoeoth a?aieoeo
iaaeaeo eioi?uie i?iaanoe aeiaieueii o?oaeii.

Iao?enoeea – niaieoiiinoue oaieiai-oeeinioneeo acaeyaeia “iooeia
oea?eae”, eioi?ua acyeenue ca iainiiaaiea o?enoeainoaa, iie?aynue ia
aioe/ioth oeeinioeth e i?aaeaea anaai ia eaeae Ieaoiia.

A iao?enoeea auaeaeyaony o?e yoaia: 1) aiieiaaoeea (II-III a.a.),
nua?aaoay aaaeioth ?ieue a ioi?ieaiee e caueoa o?enoeaineiai
ie?iaicc?aiey; 2) eeanne/aneay iao?enoeea (IV-V
a.a.), nenoaiaoece?iaaaoay o?enoeaineia o/aiea; 3) caeeth/eoaeueiue
ia?eiae (VI-VIII a.a.), noaaeeece?iaaaoee aeiaiaoeeo.

Noieanoeea – i?aaenoaaeyao niaie oei oeeinionoaiaaiey, i?e eioi?ii
n?aaenoaaie /aeiaa/aneiai ?acoia iuoathony iainiiaaoue i?eiyoua ia aa?o
eaeae e oi?ioeu.

Noieanoeea a n?aaeiea aaea i?ioea oe? yoaia naiaai ?acaeoey: 1)
?aiiyy oi?ia (XI-XII a.a.); 2) c?aeay oi?ia (XII-XIII a.a.); 3) iicaeiyy
noieanoeea (XIII-XIV a.a.).

A n?aaeiaaaeiaie oeeinioee ino?i noiye nii? iaaeaeo aeooii e
iaoa?eae, /oi iiaeaeei ca niaie nii? iaaeaeo ?aaeenoaie e iiieiaeenoaie.
Nii? oae i i?e?iaea oieaa?naeee, oi anoue i i?e?iaea iaueo iiiyoee,
yaeythony ee iauea iiiyoey aoi?e/iuie, oi anoue i?iaeoeoii
aeayoaeueiinoe iuoeaiey, eee aea iie i?aaenoaaeytho niaie ia?ae/iia,
?aaeueiia, nouanoaotho naiinoiyoaeueii.

Iiieiaeeci i?aaenoaaeye niaie ca/aoee iaoa?eaeenoe/aneiai
iai?aaeaiey. O/aiea iiieiaeenoia ia iauaeoeaiii nouanoaiaaiee i?aaeiaoia
e yaeaiee i?e?iaeu aaei e iiae?uao oea?eiaiie aeiaiu i ia?ae/iinoe
aeooiaiiai e aoi?e/iinoe iaoa?eaeueiiai, e ineaaeaieth aaoi?eoaoa
oea?eae e Nayuaiiiai ienaiey.

?aaeenou iieacuaaee, /oi iauea iiiyoey ii ioiioaieth e ioaeaeueiui
aauai i?e?iaeu yaeythony ia?ae/iuie e nouanoaotho ?aaeueii, naie ii
naaa. Iie i?eienuaaee iauei iiiyoeyi naiinoiyoaeueiia nouanoaiaaiea, ia
caaeneiia io ioaeaeueiuo aauae e /aeiaaea. I?aaeiaou aea i?e?iaeu, ii eo
iiaieth, i?aaenoaaeytho eeoue oi?iu i?iyaeaiey iaueo iiiyoee.

N?aaeiaaaeiaue nii? i i?e?iaea oieaa?naeee cia/eoaeueii iiaeeye ia
aeaeueiaeoaa ?acaeoea eiaeee e aiinaieiaee, iniaaiii ia o/aiey oaeeo
e?oiiuo oeeinioia iiaiai a?aiaie, eae Aiaan e Eiee, Nieiica, Aa?eee e
THi . N?aaeiaaaeiaay oeeinioey aianea nouanoaaiiue aeeaae a aeaeueiaeoaa
?acaeoea aiinaieiaee, aeey oi?ie?iaaiey iniia anoanoaaiiiiao/iiai e
oeeinioneiai ciaiey.

(( Oiia Aeaeineee

Aeia?aoey.

Oiia Aeaeineee naiue aeaeiue e aeeyoaeueiue oeeinio-noieanoee
caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneiai n?aaeiaaaeiauey.

?iaeeiie Oiiu auea Eoaeey. ?iaeeeny a eiioea 1225a. eee ia/aea
1226 a. a caiea ?ieieeaea, aeec Aeaeii, a ei?ieaanoaa Iaaiieeoaineii.
Ioaoe Oiiu, a?ao Eaiaeieueo, aue aeaeiui eoaeueyineei oaiaeaeii a
Aeaeii. Iaoue, Oaiaei?a i?ienoiaeeea ec aiaaoiai iaaiieeoaineiai ?iaea.

Ia 5-ii aiaeo aeecie Oiio ii?aaeaeytho o/eoueny a iiianou?ue
aaiaaeeeoeioeaa a Iiioa Eanneii, aaea ii i?iaiaeeo ieiei 9-oe eao,
i?ioiaey eeanne/aneoth oeieo, ec eioi?ie auiineo i?ae?aniia ciaiea
eaoeineiai ycuea. A 1239 aiaeo aica?auaaony a ?iaeiie aeii, niya
iiiaoaneoth ?yno. Inaiueth oiai aea aiaea ii ioi?aaeyaony a Iaaiieue,
aaea iao/aaony a oieaa?neoaoa iiae ?oeiaiaenoaii ianoaaieeia Ia?oeia e
Iao?a E?eaiaeneiai.

A 1244 a. Oiia i?eieiaao ?aoaiea anooieoue a i?aeai aeiieieeaioeaa,
ioeacaaoenue io aeieaeiinoe aaaaoa Iiioa Eanneii, /oi aucaaei
?aoeoaeueiue i?ioano naiuee. Niaa?oea iino?eaeaiea a iiiaoe ii
ianeieueei ianyoeaa i?aauaaao a iiianou?a a Iaaiiea. Caeanue auei ?aoaii
iineaoue aai a Ia?eaeneee oieaa?neoao, yaeyaoeeny a oi a?aiy oeaio?ii
eaoiee/aneie iunee. Ia iooe e Ia?eaeo ii aue noaa/ai a?oiiie anaaeieeia
– aai a?aoueyie e aue aica?auai a iooeianeee caiie e caeanue a
i?ioeeaeoe/aneeo oeaeyo aue caeeth/ai a aaoith. a eioi?ie iaoiaeeeny
nauoa aiaea. A aeaeueiaeoai naiuey, ia i?aiaa?aaay ieeaeeie n?aaenoaaie,
iuoaaony canoaaeoue nuia ioeacaoueny io i?eiyoiai ?aoaiey. Ii aeaey, /oi
ii ia i?eeeiiai, nie?eeanue e 1245 a. ii ioi?aaeeny a Ia?eae.

Ai a?aiy i?aauaaiey a Ia?eaeneii oieaa?neoaoa (1245-1248 a.a.) ii
neooae eaeoeee naiaai o/eoaey Aeueaa?oa Aieueooaaeoa, iicaea i?icaaiiiai
Aeueaa?oii Aaeeeei, eioi?ue ieacae ia iaai ia?iiiia aeeyiea. Aianoa n
Aeueaa?oii Oiia 4-a aiaea i?iaae oae aea a Eaeueineii oieaa?neoaoa, ai
a?aiy caiyoee Oiia ia i?iyaeye iniaie aeoeaiinoe, ?aaeei i?eieiae
o/anoea a aeeniooao, ca /oi eieeaae aai i?icaaee Iaiui Aueii. A 1252a.
ii aica?auaaony a Ia?eaeneee oieaa?neoao, aaea iineaaeiaaoaeueii
i?ioiaeeo ana nooiaie, iaiaoiaeeiua aeey iieo/aiey noaiaie iaaeno?a
oaieiaee e eeoeaioeeaoa, iinea /aai i?aiiaeaao a Ia?eaea oaieiaeth aei
1259a. Caeanue aea auoiaeeo ?yae aai oaieiae/aneeo o?oaeia, eiiiaioa?eaa
e Nayuaiiiio ienaieth, ii ia/eiaao ?aaioo iaae “Oeeinioneie noiiie”.

A 1259a. iaia O?aai IV aucaae aai a ?ei, i?aauaaiea a eioi?ii
aeeeeinue aei 1268a. Iiyaeaiea Oiiu i?e iaineii aeai?a ia auei
neo/aeiui. ?eineay eo?ey oniio?aea a iai /aeiaaea, eioi?ue aeieaeai aue
niaa?oeoue aaaeiue aeey oea?eae o?oae, a eiaiii aeaoue o?aeoiaeo
a?enoioaeecia a aeooa eaoieeoeecia. Caeanue Oiia caaa?oaao ia/aooth aua
a Ia?eaea “Oeeinioneoth noiio” (1259-1269 a.a.), ieoao o?oaeu, oae aea
i?enooiaao e ?aaioa iaae aeaaiui o?oaeii naiae aeecie – “Oaieiae/aneay
noiia”.

Inaiueth 1269a. ii oeacaieth ?eineie eo?ee Oiia ioi?aaeyaony a
Ia?eae, aaaeao iaeanoi/aiioth ai?ueao i?ioea eaoeineeo aaa??ienoia e eo
aeaau Neaa?a A?aaaioneiai, a oaeaea iieaieeo i?ioea eiina?aaoeaiuo
eaoiee/aneeo oaieiaia, aeaeaaoeo ii-i?aaeiaio i?eaea?aeeaaoueny oieueei
i?eioeeiia aaaonoeiecia. A yoii nii?a ii caiye nianoaaiioth iiceoeeth,
aunooiea eae i?ioea oao, oae e ae?oaeo Aaaonoeaioeaa ii oi?aeae ca
eiina?aaoeci e iai?eyoea iiauo eaeae. Oeeinioneea acaeyaeu aaa??ienoia
iiae?uaaee iniiau o?enoeainei-eaoiee/aneie aa?u, caueoa eioi?ie noaea
aeaaiui niuneii anae aeecie Aeaeineiai.

A 1272 a. Oiia aue aica?auai a Eoaeeth. Ii i?aiiaeaao oaieiaeth a
Iaaiiea, aaea i?iaeieaeaao ?aaioo iaae “Oaieiae/aneie noiiie”, eioi?oth
caeai/eaaao a 1273a. Oiia – aaoi? e ?yaea ae?oaeo i?iecaaaeaiee, a
oaeaea eiiiaioa?eaa e ni/eiaieyi A?enoioaey e ae?oaeo oeeinioia.

Nionoy 2-a aiaea Aeaeineee iieeaeaao Iaaiieue, /oiau i?eiyoue
o/anoea a nicaaiiii iaiie A?eai?eai X niai?a, i?ienoiaeeaoai a Eeiia. Ai
a?aiy iiacaeee ii oyaeaei caaieaaaao e oie?aao 7 ia?oa 1274a. a
iiianou?a aa?ia?aeeioeaa a Oinnaioiaa.

Iinea nia?oe aio aue i?enaiai oeooe “aiaaeueneee aeieoi?”. A 1323a.,
ai a?aiy iiioeoeeaoa iaiu Eiaiia XXII, Oiia aue i?e/eneai e eeeo nayouo,
a a 1567a. i?eciai iyoui “o/eoaeai oea?eae”.

(((. Nioeeaeueiua e eaeaieiae/aneea i?aaeiinueee

aicieeiiaaiey oeeinioee Oiiu Aeaeineiai

XIII aae – oa?aeoa?iay /a?oa yoiai noieaoey – iaaeeaiiia, ii
iaoeeiiiia ia?anoaiea a eiia oaiaeaeecia aai ?aceiaeaiea, oi?ie?iaaiea
ca/aoeia iiaiai, eaieoaeenoe/aneiai no?iy.

?acaeoea oiaa?ii-aeaiaaeiiai oicyenoaa a no?aiao Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu
aucaaei cia/eoaeueiia yeiiiie/aneia iaeeaeaiea. Eciaiaiea a
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo ioiioaieyo, iaecaaaeii aucaaee ii?aaeaeaiiua
i?aia?aciaaiey a eaeaieiae/aneie iaaeno?ieea. Aneaaenoaea yoiai a eiioea
XII a. e ia?aie iieiaeia XIII a. oaiaeaeueiua ai?iaea ia/eiatho
no?aieoueny e nicaeaieth nianoaaiiie eioaeeaeooaeueiie e eoeueoo?iie
aoiinoa?u. Ai?iaeneay ao?aeoacey no?aieony e ?acaeoeth ai?iaeneeo oeie,
aicieeiiaaieth oieaa?neoaoia.

Oeeinioneei au?aaeaiea i?iaoaeaeaiey yoie aeecie e ?anoe?aiey
iao/iiai iiciaiey aue aini?eiyoue a?enoioaeeci. A oeeinioee A?enoioaey
iuoaeenue iouneaoue ia noieueei i?aeoe/aneea ?aeiiaiaeaoeee, eioi?ua
iiaee auoue eniieueciaaiu a yeiiiie/aneie e iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneie
aeecie. Yoa oeeinioey yaeeanue oie/eii aeey o/aiuo oiai a?aiaie,
auioaeaeaiiuo i?eciaoue, /oi aaaonoeieci oaea ia?anoae niioaaonoaiaaoue
neiaeeaoaeny eioaeeaeooaeueiie neooaoeee. Aaaeue aaaonoeieci,
iie?aaoeeny ia ieaoiiianeea o?aaeeoeee, aue iai?aaeai i?ioea
anoanoaaiiiiao/iuo enneaaeiaaiee. Aaaonoei ooaa?aeaeae, /oi iiciaiea
iaoa?eaeueiiai ie?a ia i?eiineo ieeaeie iieuecu, eai ia oieueei ia
i?eoiiiaeaao /aeiaa/aneiai n/anouey, ii iiaeiuaao a?aiy, iaiaoiaeeiia
aeey nica?oeaiey ai?acaei aieaa aaaeiuo e aicauoaiiuo i?aaeiaoia. Aeaaec
oeeinioee Aaaonoeia: “Oi/o iiiyoue aiaa e aeooo. E ie/aai aieaa?
Niaa?oaiii ie/aai!”

?acoiaaony, iiieiaaiay oaeei ia?acii oeeinioey ia iiaea auoue
aaeioiiaeoaeai iiauo aeooiaiuo oa/aiee. Eioaeeaeooaeueiua cai?inu
o?aaiaaee iiaie oeeinioee. Eiaiii oaeei aue a?enoioaeeci, oioy ii e ia
aue iaoa?eaeenoe/aneei iai?aaeaieai, ii yaii i?ioeai?a/ee oea?eiaiie
aeieo?eia. A?enoioaeaaneee oia?aiiue ?aaeeci aue iiiuoeie i?eie?aiey
iaoa?eaeecia n eaeaaeeciii. Aaa??iyn, eioa?i?aoe?oy oia?aiiue
a?enoioaeaaneee ?aaeeci, ooaa?aeaeae, /oi aaeeie/iua i?aaeiaou ia
oai?aiea aiaa, a einaaiiue i?iaeoeo aiaeanoaaiiiai eioaeeaeoa, a yoi
auei ?aaiicia/ii io?eoeaieth aiaeanoaaiiiai i?iaeaeaiey e aai aeeyiey ia
caiiie ie?. Oaeei ia?acii, a?enoioaeeci noae oa?iaeaoue ia oieueei
ioeoeeaeueiie oea?eiaiie oeeinioee, ii e i?eaiaeee e iiae?uao iniiaiuo
aeiaiaoia eaoieeoeecia. Iiyoiio iao ie/aai oaeeaeoaeueiiai, /oi
oea?eiaue aeoeaii ?aaae?iaaea ia ?ani?ino?aiaiea a?enoioaeaaneie
aeieo?eiu, e iaeeaaeuaaea cai?ao ia eco/aiea o?oaeia A?enoioaey.

Ii eioa?an e A?enoioaeth ia oiaiueoeeny. ?eineay eo?ey aeiionoeea
aiciiaeiinoue eco/aiey o?oaeia A?enoioaey i?e oneiaee, /oi iie aoaeoo
iiaeaa?aioou enneaaeiaaieth e i/euaiu io anyeiai iaiaea ia ioeaee, oi
anoue eeoaiu anao iaoa?eaeenoe/aneeo yeaiaioia. Caaea/o i?eniiniaeaiey
a?enoioaeecia e iio?aaiinoyi oea?eae auei ?aoaii aeiaa?eoue o/aiui ec
i?aeaia aeiieieeaioeaa.

Ia/aoay iainoaii eaeaieiae/aneay ai?ueaa i?ioea eioa?ana
eioaeeaeooaeueiuo e?oaia e anoanoaaiiiiao/iui i?iaeaiai, auea oi?ioi
i?iaeoiaia. Yoa eiiiaiey iiaeaioaaeeaaeanue a oa/aiee iiiaeo eao e
i?eianea ii?aaeaeaiiua ieiaeu a aeaea anneieeyoeee a?enoioaeecia e
i?eniiniaeaiea aai e ioaeaeai oea?eiaiie aeieo?eiu. Eiaiii yoie
o?enoeaiecaoeee a?enoioaeecia Oiia Aeaeineee iinayoee aieueooth /anoue
naiae aeecie. Yoiai aeiaeeny i?aeai aeiieieeaioeaa a oeaeii e Oiia
Aeaeineee a iniaaiiinoe.

1. Oaieiaey e iaoea

?acaeaathuayny a eiioea XII e a XIII noieaoee a no?aiao Caiaaeiie
Aa?iiu eioaeeaeooaeueiia aeaeaeaiea, oeeinioneei aaeioiiaeoaeai eioi?iai
auei a?enoioaeaaneia o/aiea, iiaeaeei ca niaie ?ino oaiaeaioeee e
ioaeaeaieth iaoee io oaieiaee, ?acoia io aa?u. Yoa oi/ea c?aiey
iaoiaeeeanue a yaiii i?ioeai?a/ee n eioa?anaie oea?eae, e iiyoiio
iaiaoiaeeii auei eneaoue niiniau ?aoaiey aii?ina ia ioiioaiee oaieiaee e
iaoee. Yoi auei iaeaaeei aeaeii, eai ?a/ue oea i au?aaioea oaeiai
iaoiaea, eioi?ue ia i?iiiaaaeoy iieiiai i?aiaa?aaeaiey e ciaieth,
iaeiia?aiaiii aue au a ninoiyiee iiae/eieoue ?aoeeiiaeueiia iuoeaiea
aeiaiaoai ioe?iaaiey, oi anoue nio?aieoue i?eiao aa?u iaae ?acoiii. Yoo
caaea/o inouanoaeye Oiia, iie?aynue ia eaoiee/aneia oieeiaaiea
a?enoioaeaaneie eiioeaioeee iaoee. Iiyoiio eaoiee/aneea enoi?eee
oeeinioee oaaaeaeaiu, /oi Oiia Aeaeineee aaoiiiiece?iaae iaoeo,
i?aa?aoea aa a iaeanoue, niaa?oaiii iacaaeneioth io oaieiaee.

A nayce n oai, /oi oaieiaey yaeyaony aunoae ioae?inoueth, eiia/iue
iauaeo eioi?ie – eneeth/eoaeueii Aia eae “ia?aii?e/eia” anaeaiiie,
ioae?inoueth, iacaaeneiie io anao inoaeueiuo ciaiee, Oiia ia ioaeaeyao
iaoeo io oaieiaee. A nouiinoe eiioeaioeey iaoee Aeaeineiai i?aaenoaaeyea
niaie eaeaieiae/aneoth ?aaeoeeth ia ?aoeeiiaeenoe/aneea oaiaeaioeee,
iai?aaeaiiua ia oi, /oiau inaiaiaeeoue iaoeo io aeeyiey oaieiaee.
Iiaeii, i?aaaea, neacaoue, /oi ii iainiaeyao oaieiaeth io iaoee a
aiinaieiae/aneii niunea, oi anoue n/eoaao, /oi oaieiaey /a?iaao naie
enoeiu ia ec oeeinioee, ia ec /anoiuo aeenoeeieei, a eneeth/eoaeueii ec
ioe?iaaiey. Ia yoii Oiia ia iia inoaiiaeoueny, eai ia yoi o?aaiaaeinue
oaieiaee. Oaeay oi/ea c?aiey eeoue iiaeoaa?aeaeaea i?aainoiaenoai
oaieiaee e aa iacaaeneiinoue io ae?oaeo iaoe, ii iia ia ?aoaea naiie
nouanoaaiiie aeey oiai a?aiaie caaea/e, noiyaoae ia?aae ?eineie eo?eae,
a eiaiii iaiaoiaeeiinoe iiae/eieoue oaieiaee ?acaeaathuaany iao/iia
oa/aiea, iniaaiii oa/aiea eiathuaa anoanoaaiiiiao/ioth i?eaioaoeeth.
?a/ue oea i?aaeaea anaai i oii, /oiau aeieacaoue iaaaoiiiiiinoue iaoee,
i?aa?aoeo aa a “neoaeaieo” oaieiaee, iiae/a?eiooue, /oi ethaay
aeayoaeueiinoue /aeiaaea, eae oai?aoe/aneay, oae e i?aeoe/aneay,
enoiaeeo a eiia/iii n/aoa ec oaieiaee e naiaeeony e iae.

A niioaaonoaee n yoeie o?aaiaaieyie Aeaeineee au?aaaouaaao
neaaeothuea oai?aoe/aneea i?eioeeiu, ii?aaeaeythuea aaia?aeueioth eeieth
oea?eae ii aii?ino ia ioiioaiee oaieiaee e iaoee:

1. Oeeinioey e /anoiua iaoee auiieiytho ii ioiioaieth e oaieiaee
neoaeaaiua ooieoeee. Au?aaeaieai yoiai i?eioeeia yaeyaony ecaanoiia
iieiaeaiea Oiiu i oii, /oi oaieiaey “ia neaaeoao ae?oaei iaoeai eae
aunoei ii ioiioaieth e iae, ii i?eaaaaao e iei eae e iiae/eiaiiui ae
neoaeaieai”. Eniieueciaaiea eo, ii aai iiaieth, ia yaeyaony
naeaeaoaeuenoaii ianaiiaeinoaoi/iinoe eee neaainoe oaieiaee, a,
iai?ioea, auoaeaao ec oaiainoe /aeiaa/aneiai oia. ?aoeeiiaeueiia ciaiea
aoi?e/iui ia?acii iaeaa/aao iiieiaiea ecaanoiuo aeiaiaoia aa?u,
i?eaeeaeaao e iiciaieth “ia?aii?e/eiu” anaeaiiie, oi anoue Aiaa;

2. Enoeiu oaieiaee eiatho naiei enoi/ieeii ioe?iaaiea, enoeiu iaoee
– /oanoaaiiue iiuo e ?acoi. Oiia ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi n oi/ee c?aiey
niiniaa iieo/aiey enoeiu, ciaiea iiaeii ?acaeaeeoue ia 2-a aeaea:
ciaiey, ioe?uoua anoanoaaiiui naaoii ?acoia, iai?eia? a?eoiaoeea, e
ciaiey, /a?iathuea naie iniiau ec ioe?iaaiey.;

3. Nouanoaoao iaeanoue iaeioi?uo iauaeoia, iaueo aeey oaieiaee e
iaoee. Oiia n/eoaao, /oi iaeia e oa aea i?iaeaia iiaeao neoaeeoue
i?aaeiaoii eco/aiey ?acee/iuo iaoe. Ii nouanoaotho ii?aaeaeaiiua enoeiu,
eioi?ua iaeuecy aeieacaoue i?e iiiiue ?acoia, e iioiio iie ioiinyony
eneeth/eoaeueii e noa?a oaieiaee. E yoei enoeiai Aeaeineee ioiinee
neaaeothuea aeiaiaou aa?u: aeiaiao aine?aoaiey, enoi?eth aiieiuaiey,
nayooth o?ieoeo, nioai?aiea ie?a ai a?aiaie e oae aeaeaa;

4. Iieiaeaiey iaoee ia iiaoo i?ioeai?a/eoue aeiaiaoai aa?u. Iaoea
aeieaeia iiin?aaeiaaiii neoaeeoue oaieiaee, aeieaeia oaaaeaeaoue ethaeae
a ni?aaaaeeeainoe aa i?eioeeiia. No?aieaiea iiciaoue Aiaa – iiaeeeiiay
ioae?inoue. A ciaiea – yoi eeoue neoaeaiea oaieiaee. Oeeinioey,
iai?eia?, iie?aynue ia oeceeo, aeieaeia eiino?oe?iaaoue aeieacaoaeuenoaa
nouanoaiaaiey Aiaa, caaea/a iaeaiioieiaee ninoieo a iiaeoaa?aeaeaiee
Eieae auoey e oae aeaeaa.

A nayce n yoe Aeaeineee ieoao: “?aciuoeyth i oaea, /oiau
?aciuoeyoue i aeooa, a i iae ?aciuoeyth, /oiau ?aciuoeyoue iaae
ioaeaeueiie noanoaioeeae, iaae iath aea ?aciuoeyth, /oiau aeoiaoue i
Aiaa”.

Anee ?aoeeiiaeueiua ciaiey ia auiieiytho yoie caaea/e, iie
noaiiayony aaniieaciuie, aieaa oiai, ia?a?iaeaeathony a iianiua
?annoaeaeaiey. A neo/aa eiioeeeoa ?aoathuei yaeyaony e?eoa?ee enoei
ioe?iaaiey, eioi?ua i?aainoiaeyo naiae enoeiiinoueth e oeaiiinoueth
ethaua ?aoeeiiaeueiua aeieacaoaeuenoaa.

Oaeei ia?acii, Oiia ia ioaeaeee iaoeo io oaieiaee, a iai?ioea, aac
inoaoea iiae/eiee aa oaieiaee.

Aeaeiao, au?aaeay eioa?anu oea?eae e oaiaeaeueiuo neiaa, ioaiaeee
iaoea aoi?inoaiaiioth ?ieue. Oiia iieiinoueth ia?aeecoao nia?aiaiioth
aio iao/ioth aeeciue.

A ia?eiae Aic?iaeaeaiey e a aieaa iicaeiaa a?aiy oaieiae/aneay
eiioeaioeey iaoee, nicaeaiiay Oiiie, noaiiaeony aeie?eiaeueiui e
eaeaieiae/aneei oi?iicii iao/iiai i?ia?anna.

((. Iaoaoece/aneay oai?ey auoey

Oeeinioey Oiiu Aeaeineiai, eae e aai iineaaeiaaoaeae, yaeyaony
ia ?aaeeciii, a iauaeoeaiui eaeaaeeciii. A iiea i?eoyaeaiey iauaeoia
eaeaaeecia iaoiaeyony ?acee/iua iooaiee nie?eooaeecia, ooaa?aeaeathuaai,
/oi aaue e yaeaiey – yoi eeoue i?iyaeaiey aeoo.

Ia aii?in i oii, /oi yaeyaony ia?ae/iui, oiieci ioaa/aao ,
/oi ia?ae/ai aeoo – aia, a iaoa?ey – yoi aai oai?aiea e yaeyaony /ai-oi
aoi?e/iui. Oeeinioey Aeaeineiai i?eciaao nouanoaiaaiea ia oieueei aeoo,
ii e oeaeie ea?a?oee /enouo aeooia, eee aiaaeia. Oiieci i?eciaao
nouanoaiaaiea iaoa?eaeueiiai ie?a iacaaeneii io noauaeoa, ii ia io?eoeay
nouanoaiaaiea iauaeoeaiie aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, i?eciaao oaeaea
nouanoaiaaiea iaiaoa?eaeueiiai ie?a, eioi?ue yaeyaony ia?ae/iui.

Eaeaaeenoe/aneee oa?aeoa? oeeinioee Aeaeineiai neeoeii
i/aaeaeai, eai ii iaaeaoniuneaiii auoaeaao ec naiie eaeae e?aaoeeiiecia
– nioai?aiey ie?a ec ie/aai.

1. Nouiinoue e nouanoaiaaiea

Oiia n/eoae, /oi ?aaeueii nouanoaotho eeoue aaeeie/iua aaue, eee
noanoaioeee, ninoiyuea ec nouiinoe e nouanoaiaaiey. Ii n/eoae, /oi
?acee/ea iaaeaeo nouiinoueth e nouanoaiaaieai ia anoue ia/oi oieueei
iuneaiiia, caaenyuaa io iaoeo aeoia niciaiea, a yaeyaony /ai-oi
oaeoe/aneei, ?aaeueii nouanoaothuei. Ii ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi aauai i?enoua
nouiinoue, ii iia ia eiieeoee?oao eo nouanoaiaaiea. Yoi i?ienoiaeeo
iioiio, /oi ana nouanoaothuaa a ie?a nicaeaii aiaii, a neaaeiaaoaeueii
caaeneo io iaai. *aeiaae e aeeaioiia nouanoaotho ia aeaaiaea?y naiae
nouiinoe, a aeaaiaea?y nii?e/anoiinoe aiaeanoaaiiiio aeoo oai?aiey.
Aeaeineee n/eoaao, /oi ie? iaoa?eaeueiuo aauae nouanoaoao ia a neeo
nianoaaiiie i?e?iaeu, a yaeyaony /ai-oi niaa?oaiii neo/aeiui, caaeneiui
io nicaeaoaey e nouanoaiaaoue ia aeieaeai. A i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue aio aia
– auoea aaniethoii iaiaoiaeeiia, a neaaeiaaoaeueii, aeieaeai
nouanoaiaaoue aaconeiaii, eai yoi caeeth/aii a aai i?e?iaea.

2. Iaoa?ey e oi?ia

Eaoaai?ee iaoa?ee e oi?iu Oiia oaeaea caeinoaoao ec
a?enoioaeaaneie iaoaoeceee. ?acee/ay a noanoaioeeyo 2-a eiiiiiaioa –
iaoa?eth e oi?io, A?enoioaeue no?aieeny nicaeaoue oeeinioneoth iniiao
aeey i?ioeannia iaiauaiey e eeanneoeeaoeee a anoanoaaiiuo iaoeao,
no?aieeny ?aoeoue i?iaeaio ia ioiioaiee iauaai e aaeeie/iiio e iaiai?io.

A oieeiaaiee Oiiu Aeaeineiai ?aaeueii nouanoaotho eeoue
aaeeie/iua aaue, ninoiyuea ec iaoa?ee e oi?iu. Iaoa?ey i?aaenoaaeyao
iniiao eiaeeaeaeoaeecaoeee, iaoa?ey eeoaiiay oi?iu, ianneaia, ia iiaeao
aac iaa nouanoaiaaoue. Oi?ia yaeyaony aeoeaiui yeaiaioii.

A?enoioaeue i?eciaaae nouanoaiaaiea aaeeie/iuo aauae, ii ia ii/aa
naiae nenoaiu iauaaeeiye iaoa?eaeenoe/aneea e eaeaaeenoe/aneea yeaiaiou.

Aeaeineee “i/enoee” a?enoioaeeci eiaiii io iaoa?eaeenoe/aneeo
yeaiaioia, eioi?ua iaeuecy auei i?eie?youe ie n enoeiaie ioe?iaaiey, ie
n oea?eiaiie oeeinioeae oiai ia?eiaea, iniiaaiiie ia ieaoiiianeeo
o?aaeeoeeyo. Iaeiaei oi?ia a oieeiaaiee Oiiu i?eia?aoaao eiie niune, /ai
o A?enoioaey. A iiieiaiee iineaaeiaai iia auea niaieoiiinoueth iaueo
nouanoaothueo i?eciaeia, i?enoueo aauai ii?aaeaeaiiiai aeaea, e ia
nouanoaiaaea aia eee aei ieo.

I?aaaea, Aeaeiao oaeaea n/eoae, /oi iauaa, eee oi?ia,
niaea?aeeony a aaeeie/iuo aauao, ii ia yoii ii ia inoaiiaeeny. Ii
?acee/aao a noanoaioeeyo 3-e ?iaea oi?i, eee oieaa?naeee: 1)
oieaa?naeey, niaea?aeauayny a aaue, a ea/anoaa aa nouiinoe,
iaiin?aaenoaaiiay oieaa?naeey; 2) oieaa?naeey, aano?aae?iaaiiay io
noanoaioeee, oi anoue nouanoaothuay a /aeiaa/aneii oia. A yoii aeaea
?aaeueii iia nouanoaoao oieueei a oia, a a aaue eiaao eeoue naith
iniiao. Yoo oieaa?naeeth Oiia iacuaaao ?aoeaeneaiie; 3) oieaa?naeey –
iacaaeneiay io aaue a aiaeanoaaiiii oia. Oieaa?naeee a oia oai?oea – yoi
iaeciaiiua, iinoiyiiua, aa/iua oi?iu, eee iniiau aauae.

Aaiaey a?aaeaoeeth oi?i, Oiia, aeaao oeeinioneia iainiiaaiea
ea?a?oe/iinoe ia oieueei ie?a i?e?iaeu, ii e iauanoaaiiiai ii?yaeea.
E?eoa?eai, ioee/athuei iaeio aauue io ae?oaie, aunooiatho ia eo
anoanoaaiiua iniaaiiinoe, a ?acee/ey a niaa?oainoaa oi?i, yaeythueony
“ia /ai eiui, eae iiaeiaeai aiaa, eioi?iio aaue nii?e/anoiu”.

O Aeaeineiai iaoa?ey ia nouanoaoao ecaa/ii, a ieacuaaaony
nicaeaiiie aiaii ec ie/aai, a iioiio – aoi?e/ia. Aiciiaeiinoue i?enoua
ae ia a neeo i?e?iaeu, a aeiaeaia a iaa oai?oeii e oieueei aeaaiaea?y
aio inouanoaeyaony.

A ia?eiae, eiaaea ?acaeaathuayny ao?aeoacey iiae/a?eeaaea
oeaiiinoue caiiie aeecie, i?ecuau i?aiaa?a/ue a?aiiie aeeciueth auee ia
a eioa?anao oea?eae. ?a/ue oea i oii, /oiau, n iaeiie noi?iiu,
aeieacaoue aaconeiaioth caaeneiinoue ie?a io oai?oea, n ae?oaie aea –
iieacaoue, /oi naa?ouanoanoaaiiua oeaee ?aaeecothony /a?ac oeaee
?aaeueiua, caiiua. Iiyoiio Aeaeineee aaiaeeo iiiyoea anoanoaaiiuo i?e/ei
iin?aaenoaii eioi?uo aia i?aaeo ie?ii.

Ai ana eaoaai?ee a?enoioaeaaneie iaoaoeceee Oiia aeeaaeuaaao
oaieiae/aneia niaea?aeaiea, eeoay eo yoei anoanoaaiiiiao/iiai oa?aeoa?a.
Aeaeineee ?anniao?eaaao i?iaeaiu iiciaiey yoeee, iieeoe/aneiai e
i?aaiaiai o/aiey, anoanoaaiiie oaieiaee, na?aeoeaaeiie eioi?ie yaeythony
oae iacuaaaiua “aeieacaoaeuenoaa” auoey, aiaa.

(. “Aeieacaoaeuenoaa” auoey Aiaa

Oiia Aeaeineee iiae?acaeaeyao enoeiu ioe?iaaiey ia aeaa ?iaea:
enoeiu, aeinooiiua ?acoio, e enoeiu, auoiaeyuea ca i?aaeaeu aai
iiciaaaoaeueiuo aiciiaeiinoae. Oeaio?aeueiie i?iaeaiie anoanoaaiiie
oaieiaee yaeythony oae iacuaaaiua oiienoeea “aeieacaoaeuenoaa” auoey
aiaa.

Aeaeineee ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi aeieacaoue nouanoaiaaiea oai?oea
iiaeii aeaoiy niiniaaie: /a?ac i?e/eio e /a?ac neaaenoaea. Ia?aaiaey yoo
noieanoe/aneoth oa?ieiieiaeth ia nia?aiaiiue ycue, iiaeii neacaoue, /oi
a ia?aii neo/aa ?a/ue eaeao i aeieacaoaeuenoaa ai?ei?iii, oi anoue io
i?e/eiu e neaaenoaeth, ai aoi?ii – ia aiinoa?ei?iii, oi anoue io
neaaenoaey e i?e/eia. Aeaeiao oi?ioee?oao iyoue “aeieacaoaeuenoa-iooae”
auoey aiaa.

1. Aeieacaoaeuenoai io aeaeaeaiey, iacuaaaiia a ianoiyuaa a?aiy
eeiaoe/aneei aeieacaoaeuenoaii, enoiaeeo ec oiai, /oi aaue iaoiaeyony a
aeaeaeaiee, a ana aeaeaeouaany i?eaiaeeony a aeaeaeaiea /ai-oi ae?oaei,
eai aeaeaeaiea yoi niaaeeiaiea iaoa?ee n oi?iie. Anee au eaeia-oi auoea,
i?eaiaeyuaa ia/oi a aeaeaeaiea, naii auei i?eaaaeaii a aeaeaeaiea, oi
yoi auei au niaa?oaii /ai-oi ae?oaei, a yoi ae?oaia a naith i/a?aaeue
i?eaiaeeeinue a aeaeaeaiea o?aoueei e oae aeaeaa. Iaeiaei oeaiue
aeaeaaoaeae ia iiaeao auoue aaneiia/iie, eai a oaeii neo/aa ia auei au
ia?aiai “aeaeaaoaey”, a neaaeiaaoaeueii, e aoi?iai, e iineaaeothueo, e
aiiaua ia auei au aeaeaeaiey. Iiyoiio, aeaeaao auaiae Oiia, iu aeieaeiu
aeieoe aei ia?aie i?e/eiu aeaeaeaiey, eioi?ay ieeai ia aeaeaeaony e
eioi?ay ana aeaeaeao. Oaeie i?e/eiie aeieaeia auoue /enoay oi?ia, /enoue
aeo, eioi?ui yaeyaony aia, iaoiaeyueeny ca i?aaeaeaie ie?a.

2. Aeieacaoaeuenoai io i?iecaiaeyuae i?e/eiu, aeaneo, /oi a
iaoa?eaeueiii ie?a nouanoaoao ii?aaeaeaiiue i?e/eiiue ii?yaeie, aa?ouee
naia ia/aei io ia?aie i?e/eiu, oi anoue aiaa. Oiia n/eoaao, /oi
iaaiciiaeii, /oiau ia/oi auei nianoaaiiie i?iecaiaeyuae i?e/eiie,
iineieueeo iii nouanoaiaaei au ?aiueoa naay, a yoi iaeaii. Anee a oeaie
i?iecaiaeyueo i?e/ei ia i?eciaoue aaniethoii ia?aoth i?e/eio, oi oiaaea
ia iiyayony e n?aaeiea e iineaaeiea i?e/eiu, e, iaiai?io, anee a iieneao
i?e/ei iu oeaeai a aaneiia/iinoue, oi ia iaia?oaeei ia?aie i?iecaiaeyuae
i?e/eiu. “Neaaeiaaoaeueii, – ieoao Aeaeineee a “Oaieiae/aneie noiia”, –
iaiaoiaeeii iieiaeeoue iaeioi?oth ia?ae/ioth i?iecaiaeyuoth i?e/eio,
eaeiaoth ana eiaiotho aiaii”.

3. Aeieacaoaeuenoai io iaiaoiaeeiinoe e neo/aeiinoe enoiaeeo ec
oiai, /oi a i?e?iaea e iauanoaa nouanoaotho aaeeie/iua aaue, eioi?ua
aicieeatho e oie/oiaeathony eee iiaoo nouanoaiaaoue eeai ia
nouanoaiaaoue. Ae?oaeie neiaaie, yoe aaue ia yaeythony /ai-oi
iaiaoiaeeiui, a, neaaeiaaoaeueii, eiatho neo/aeiue oa?aeoa?. Iaaiciiaeii
i?aaenoaaeoue, ii iiaieth Oiiu, /oiau iiaeiaiiai ?iaea aaue nouanoaiaaee
anaaaea, eai oi, /oi iiaeao nouanoaiaaoue a?aiaiaie, ?aaeueii ia
nouanoaoao. Ionthaea oaeaea neaaeoao, /oi anee ethaua aaue iiaoo ia
nouanoaiaaoue, oi iaeiaaea iie ia nouanoaiaaee a i?e?iaea, a anee oae,
oi iaaiciiaeii, /oiau iie aicieeee naie niaie. “Iiyoiio iaiaoiaeeii
iieiaeeoue iaeoth iaiaoiaeeioth nouiinoue, – ieoao Oiia, – iaiaoiaeeioth
naiia ii naaa, ia eiathuoth aiaoiae i?e/eiu naiae iaiaoiaeeiinoe anao
eiuo; ii iauaio iiaieth, yoi anoue aia”.

4. Aeieacaoaeuenoai io noaiaie niaa?oainoaa enoiaeeo ec
i?aaeiinueee, /oi a aauao i?iyaeythony ?acee/iua noaiaie niaa?oainoaa a
oi?ia auoey e aeaai?iaenoaa, aeia?a e e?aniou. Ii iiaieth Aeaeiaoa, i
?acee/iuo noaiaiyo niaa?oainoaa iiaeii aiai?eoue eeoue ii n?aaiaieth n
/ai-oi iaeaieaa niaa?oaiiui. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, aeieaeii nouanoaiaaoue
ia/oi naiia enoeiiia e naiia aeaai?iaeiia, naiia eo/oaa e naiia aunieia
eee ia/oi iaeaaeathuaa iaeaunoae noaiaiueth auoey. “Ionthaea neaaeoao, –
ieoao Oiia, – /oi anoue iaeioi?ay nouiinoue, yaeythuayny aeey anao
nouiinoae i?e/eiie aeaaa e any/aneiai niaa?oainoaa; e aa iu eiaioai
aiaii”.

5. Aeieacaoaeuenoai io aiaeanoaaiiiai ?oeiaiaenoaa ie?ii enoiaeeo
ec oiai, /oi a ie?a eae ?acoiiuo, oae e ia?acoiiuo nouanoa, a oaeaea a
aauao e yaeaieyo iaaethaeaaony oeaeaniia?aciinoue aeayoaeueiinoe e
iiaaaeaiey. Oiia n/eoaao, /oi yoi i?ienoiaeeo ia neo/aeii e eoi-oi
aeieaeai oeaeaiai?aaeaiii ?oeiaiaeeoue ie?ii. “Neaaeiaaoaeueii, anoue
?acoiiia nouanoai, iieaaathuaa oeaeue aeey anaai, /oi i?ienoiaeeo a
i?e?iaea, e aai iu eiaioai aiaii”, – ienae Aeaeineee.

Ec anaai auoaia?a/eneaiiiai neaaeoao, /oi Oiia eaeaioeoeoee?oao
oeaeaniia?aciinoue e caeiiiia?iinoue, oi/iaa, i?eieaeaao caeiiiia?iinoue
e naiaeeo aa e oeaeaniia?aciinoe. Oeaeue e eioi?ie yeiau no?aieony ana
iaoiaeyuaany iiae nieioeai, ia aicieeaao, niaeanii Oiia, eiaeoeoeaiui
iooai, a i?aaeii?aaeaeaia ca?aiaa, ai?ei?iui niiniaii, eioi?iio ii
no?aieony iiae/eieoue ethaie i?ioeann a i?e?iaea e iauanoaa.

Iiaeii caiaoeoue, /oi oiienoeea “aeieacaoaeuenoaa” auoey aiaa
i?aaenoaaeytho niaie iyoue aa?eaioia iaeiiai e oiai aea niiniaa
iainiiaaiey. A ieo ?a/ue eaeao ia noieueei i aiaa, neieueei i iaeioi?uo
yaeaieyo iaoa?eaeueiiai ie?a, a eioi?uo iouneeaathony neaaeu “ia?aie
i?e/eiu”. Oiia iuoaaony, iie?aynue ia yaeaiey iaoa?eaeueiiai ie?a,
aeieacaoue nouanoaiaaiea “ia?aiai aeaeaaoaey”, oi anoue aiaa.

((. Oai?ey iiciaiey

Oiia Aeaeineee a naieo ?aaioao, iinayuaiiuo oai?ee iiciaiey i/aiue
/anoi ioia/aao aieueooth ?ieue yiie?ee e /oanoaaiiiai iiciaiey, ii/oe ai
anao o?oaeao eniieuecothony iiiyoey “iiuo”, “/oanoaa”, “/oanoaaiiia
iiciaiea”. Oiia iaiaeiie?aoii iiae/a?eeaae, /oi “anyeia anoanoaaiiia
ciaiea i?ienoiaeeo ec /oanoa”, /oi i?aaeiaoii iiciaiey yaeyaony
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue aia /oanoa, iacaaeneiay io noauaeoa, eee io
/aeiaa/aneiai niciaiey. Aeaeineee n/eoae, /oi nouiinoue iiciaiey
caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi iiciathuee noaiiaeony iiciaaaaiui. Yoi
i?ienoiaeeo iioiio, /oi oi iaoaeanai e ia iiaeao iiaeaa?aaoueny
aicaeaenoaeth /oanoaaiiuo aauae. ?aoeeiiaeueiia iiciaiea anaaaea
yaeyaony iauei, e iioiio ioaeaeueiua, aaeeie/iua aaue ia iiaoo auoue aai
iauaeoii. Anee a aaeeie/iuo aauao eiaeeaeaeoaeueiui yaeyaony iaoa?ey, oi
iauei aeieaeii auoue ia/oi iaiaoa?eaeueiia. Yoi auaiae neaaeoao ec oiai
oaeoa, /oi eioaeeaeo eae iiciathuee i?aai aeooe ia iiaeao iiaeaa?aaoueny
aicaeaenoaeth iaoa?eaeueiuo i?aaeiaoia. Noauaeo a ecaanoiii niunea
oiiaeiaeyaony iauaeoo, ii ia iaoa?eaeueiie aai oi?ia, a aeooiaiie,
eaeaaeueiie. Ii iiaieth Aeaeineiai, iiciaiea iniiaaii ia niiniaiinoe
aini?eieiaoue io aaeeie/iuo aauae aeooiaiua iiciaaaoaeueiua oi?iu e
yaeyaony niiniaiinoueth nii?e/anoaiaaoue iaiaoa?eaeueiiio aiaeanoaaiiiio
nouanoaiaaieth. A iioiio yoi neaaeu aiaa a anoanoaaiiuo i?aaeiaoao,
“ioe?uoea” eo caaeneiinoe io oai?oea. Aanue i?ioeann iiciaiey o Oiiu
iiae/eiai ioe?uoeth a aauao eiia/iie, aiaeanoaaiiie i?e/eiu.

1. *oanoaaiiia iiciaiea

Oiia ia/eiaao aiaeec i?ioeanna iiciaiey n iauyniaiey
iiae?acaeaeaiey, ea?a?oee e ooieoeee /oanoaaiiuo iiciaaaoaeueiuo
i?aaiia. Ii iiae?acaeaeyao eo ia aiaoiea e aioo?aiiea /oanoaa.

A ea?a?oee iyoe aiaoieo /oanoa naiia ieceia iieiaeaiea
caieiaao inycaiea, iioiio /oi iii iaeaieaa iaoa?eaeueii, oi anoue aieaa
anaai naycaii n oaeii. Iaeiaei, aoaeo/e naiui ieceei, iii auiieiyao
iniiaioth ?ieue, iineieueeo io iaai caaeneo ia oieueei oaiia?aiaio
/aeiaaea, ii e i?aaeeueiia ooieoeeiie?iaaiea eae /oanoaaiiuo, oae e
oinoaaiiuo iiciaaaoaeueiuo i?aaiia. E ?ac?yaeo iecoeo /oanoa Oiia
ioiineo e?iia inycaiey aieaa aunieee, /ai iii, aeon e aieaa niaa?oaiiia,
/ai iineaaeiee, iaiiyiea. N?aaee aiaoieo /oanoa auoa anaai noiyo neoo e
c?aiea,, eioi?ua n/eoathony /oanoaaie iaeaieaa iiciathueie e
ieacuaathueie iaeaieueoea oneoae ?acoio.

Aiaoiea /oanoaa, naycuaathuea /aeiaaea ni n?aaeie, iiaeaa?aathony
aicaeaenoaeth iaoa?eaeueiuo oae, eioi?ua ioia/aouaatho ia ieo
/oanoaaiiua ia?acu aaeeie/iuo i?aaeiaoia. Oiia ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi anyeia
/oanoaaiiia iiciaiea yaeyaony i?inoi ioiaeanoaeaiea a ii?aaeaeaiiii
ioiioaiee noauaeoa n iiciaaaaiie aauueth, eioi?ia i?ienoiaeeo i?e
iin?aaenoaa oi?iu. Iiyoiio iieo/aiea /oanoaaie iuouaiee ia iiaeao
eiaoue /enoi iaoa?eaeueiiai oa?aeoa?a. A oiaea /oanoaaiiiai iiciaiey, ii
iiaieth Oiiu, i?ienoiaeyo aeaa eciaiaiey. Ia?aia ec ieo iineo
iaoa?eaeueiue oa?aeoa?, aoi?ia – iaiaoa?eaeueiue. “Anoanoaaiiia
eciaiaiea, – ieoao Oiia a “Oaieiae/aneie noiia”, – iniiaaii ia oii, /oi
noauaeo, iiaeaa?aathueeny eciaiaieyi, i?eieiaao oi?io noauaeoa,
i?iecaiaeyuaai eciaiaiea a aai anoanoaaiiii nouanoaiaaiee; oae a
iaa?aoii i?aaeiaoa iaoiaeeony oaiei. Iaiaoa?eaeueiia aea eciaiaiea
aicieeaao oiaaea, eiaaea oi?io noauaeoa, aucuaathuaai eciaiaiea,
i?eieiaao noauaeo, iiaeaa?aathueeny yoiio eciaiaieth a aai
iaiaoa?eaeueiii nouanoaiaaiee”.

Oiia n/eoaao, /oi aeey i?aaeeueiiai ooieoeeiie?iaaiey /oanoa
iaiaoiaeeii iaiaoa?eaeueiia eciaiaiea, iineieueeo aeaaiaea?y aio
iiciaaaoaeueiay oi?ia ia/eiaao nouanoaiaaoue a ii?aaeaeaiiii
iiciaaaoaeueiii i?aaia /oanoa. Oa?aeoa? eciaiaiee a ?aciuo aiaoieo
/oanoaao ?acee/ai. A c?aiee, iai?eia?, i?ienoiaeyo eeoue iaiaoa?eaeueiua
eciaiaiey. A inoaeueiuo aea iu aeaeei eae oi, oae e ae?oaia eciaiaiea.
Yoi caaeneo io noaiaie oaeaniinoe ioaeaeueiuo /oanoa.

Oaeaea a iiciaiee eiaaony iauaa /oanoai, eioi?ia aianoa n
aiia?aaeaieai, iaiyoueth e i?aaiii iuoeaiey ioiineony e a?oiia
aioo?aiieo /oanoa. Iaiaoiaeeiinoue nouanoaiaaiey /oanoaa iiaeiaiiai
?iaea auoaeaao ec oiai, /oi iuouaiey, iieo/aaiua i?e iiiiue ioaeaeueiuo
aiaoieo /oanoa, ioee/athony oaioe/iinoueth, iie ia neii?aeeie?iaaiu, ia
naycaiu ae?oa n ae?oaii. Caaea/ae iauaai /oanoaa yaeyaony eiaiii
a?oiie?iaea, ii?aaeia/eaaiea yoeo iaoii?yaei/aiiuo aia/aoeaiee,
aeinoaaeaiiuo aiaoieie /oanoaaie, iii ea?aao ?ieue eii?aeeiaoi?a,
i?iaiaeeo ?acee/aiea ea/anoa e eo aiieiuaiea, yaeyaony i?e/eiie
aiia?aaeaiey. Iii iaania/eaaao iai?a?uaiinoue /oanoaaiiie aeecie,
cae?aieyao iaeiieaiiua iauei /oanoaii i?aaenoaaeaiey i ?aiaa
iaaethaeaaoeony i?aaeiaoao, ia aeaao iioa?youe onoaiiaeaiiue n ieie
eiioaeo.

Iiieiaiea ioaeaeueiuo aauae, aiieiuaiiia a iauai /oanoaa e
nio?aiaiiia a aiia?aaeaiee, ia?aieiaao neaaeothuee ii i/a?aaee i?aai
aioo?aiieo /oanoa – iaiyoue. Iia yaeyaony iauei naienoaii /aeiaaea e
aeeaioiuo. ?acee/ea iaaeaeo iaiyoueth /aeiaaea e aeeaioiiai, ii iiaieth
Aeaeiaoa, iniiaaii ia oii, /oi ia?aue iaeaaeaao niiniaiinoueth aeoeaii
aniiieiaoue oi, /oi nio?aiaii a iaiyoe, aoi?ia aea yoie niiniaiinoueth
ia iaeaaeaao.

Caeeth/eoaeueiui aeei?aeii /oanoaaiiiai iiciaiey yaeyaony
aeayoaeueiinoue i?aaia noaeaeaiey. Yoio i?aai, i?enouee aeeaioiui,
iicaieyao ei aneaaenoaea iaaiciiaeiinoe iieueciaaoueny iiiyoeyie
i?aaeeueii ioeaieoue, /oi aeey ieo oi?ioi, a /oi ieioi, /aai ioaeii
ecaaaaoue, a /aai ia ioaeii. Anee aea ?a/ue eaeao i /aeiaaea, oi Oiia
aiai?eo ia i?aaia iuoeaiey. Yoi ?acee/ea auoaeaao ec oiai, /oi /aeiaae
iaeaaeaao eioaeeaeoii, eioi?ue aicaeaenoaoao ia /oanoaaiiua i?aaiu
iiciaiey. AEaeay a naith i/a?aaeue iiae/a?eiooue noiaenoai iaaeaeo
eioaeeaeoii e aioo?aiiei /oanoaii /aeiaaea – i?aaiii iuoeaiey, Aeaeiao
iacuaaao yoio iineaaeiee iniaui ?acoiii, eioi?ue aaiaeeo ian eae au a
i?aaeaeaa?ea aoi?iai o?iaiy iiciaiey – eioaeeaeooaeueiiai iiciaiey.

2. Eioaeeaeooaeueiia iiciaiea

Oiia Aeaeineee, enoiaey ec i?aaeiinueee, /oi a eioaeeaeoa iao
ie/aai, /aai aei yoiai ia auei a /oanoaao, ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi anyeia
eioaeeaeooaeueiia iiciaiea, eioi?ia iaoiaeeony a i?aaeaeao aiciiaeiinoae
/aeiaaea, /a?iaao naia niaea?aeeiia ec iaoa?eaea, iieo/aiiiai io /oanoa.
Oiia auaeaeaaao iainiiaaiea aaeeinoaa /oanoaaiiiai e eioaeeaeooaeueiiai
iiciaiey, a eiaiii iioieiae/aneia. Yoi – i?eioeei nii?e/anoiinoe.

Iiaeiaii anyeiio i?aaio /oanoaaiiiai iiciaiey eioaeeaeo iaeaaeaao
aaeaeaaoiui naaa, oi anoue i?eniiniaeaiiui e naiei aiciiaeiinoyi,
iauaeoii iiciaiey, eioi?ui yaeyaony nouiinoue oaeaniuo aauae, eee oi,
/oi a ieo iauaa, aeooiaiia. Ec oaeiai iiieiaiey iauaeoa
eioaeeaeooaeueiiai iiciaiey Oiia aeaeaao auaiae, /oi eioaeeaeo ia iiaeao
eiaoue iaoa?eaeueiiai, oaeaniiai oa?aeoa?a, a aeieaeai auoue
iaiaoa?eaeueiui, aeooiaiui. Oiia n/eoaao, /oi iaoa?ey a
i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue oi?ia, iaeaa/athuae iiciaiea, cao?oaeiyao aai e
aeaeaao iaiaa niaa?oaiiui. Iiyoiio oi a i?ioeanna iiciaiey aeieaeai
iineaaeiaaoaeueii ioa?anuaaoue iaoa?eaeueiia e ecaeaeaoue iauaa,
aeooiaiia. Yoo ooieoeeth, niaeanii Oiia, auiieiyao iniaue i?aai aeooe –
aeoeaiue eioaeeaeo, eioi?ue ec /oanoaaiiuo ia?acia, o?aiyueony a
/oanoaao, ecaeaeaao aeooiaiia niaea?aeaiea e nicaeaao eioaeeaeooaeueiua
iiciaaaoaeueiua oi?iu. Iaiaoiaeeiinoue aeiiouaiey iiciaaaoaeueiiai
i?aaia oaeiai ?iaea neaaeoao, ii iiaieth Aeaeiaoa, ec naiie i?e?iaeu
iiciaiey eae ia?aoiaea aiciiaeiinoe a aeo.

*aeiaa/aneay aeooa iaaeaeaia oiii eiaiii iioiio, /oi nii?e/anoia
aieaa aunieiio, /ai iia, eioaeeaeooaeueiiio i?aaio, oi anoue aeoeaiiio
eioaeeaeoo, eioi?ue ieacuaaao ae iiiiuue a eioaeeaeooaeueiii iiciaiee.

Aano?aae?iaaiiua ec /oanoaaiiuo ia?acia eioaeeaeooaeueiua
iiciaaaoaeueiua oi?iu iiiauathony a neaaeothuee i?aai aeooe –
aiciiaeiinoiue eioaeeaeo. Iaiaoiaeeiinoue nouanoaiaaiey iiaeiaiiai
iiciaaaoaeueiiai i?aaia auoaeaao, ii iiaieth Oiia, ec oiai, /oi
eioaeeaeo eae iniiaa eioaeeaeooaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe yaeyaony ia oaeii,
a oi?iie /aeiaa/aneiai oaea e iioiio ia iiaeao niaaeeieoueny n iei
iaiin?aaenoaaiii. Iiyoiio aiciiaeiue eioaeeaeo iiaeao aoiaeeoue a
eiioaeo n oaeii eeoue iin?aaenoaii eioaeeaeooaeueiie iiciaaaoaeueiie
oi?iu, eioi?ay yaeyaony aai oi?iie. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, iiaeii neacaoue,
/oi i?e?iaea iaueo eioaeeaeoia iaeia e oa aea, ii oai ia iaiaa iaaeaeo
ieie eiathony ooieoeeiiaeueiua ?acee/ey. Eae oio, oae e ae?oaie, aoaeo/e
i?aaiaie aeooe, yaeythony ioaeaeaiiuie, oi anoue ia yaeythony aeoii
oaea. Aini?eieiay iiciaaaoaeueiua oi?iu iauaeoia, aiciiaeiinoiue
eioaeeaeo eae au ioiaeaeanoaeyaony n aauaie. Iaeiaei a aiciiaeiinoiii
eioaeeaeoa eioaeeaeooaeueiua iiciaaaoaeueiua oi?iu iiaoo iaoiaeeony a
?acee/iuo ninoiyieyo: eiiaaea eioaeeaeo inoaaony ii ioiioaieth e iei
eeoue a aiciiaeiinoe; eiiaaea aea iie iieiinoueth aeooaeece?othony; e,
iaeiiaoe, iiciaaaoaeueiua oi?iu iaoiaeyony a i?iiaaeooi/iii ninoiyiee
iaaeaeo aiciiaeiinoueth e aeoii, e oiaaea, eae ooaa?aeaeaao Oiia,
eioaeeaeo “iiaeaioiaeai e iiciaieth”.

Eioaeeaeo auiieiyao a i?ioeanna eioaeeaeooaeueiiai iiciaiey o?e
iniiaiua iia?aoeee: 1) nicaeaiea iiiyoee; 2) niaaeeiaiea e
?acuaaeeiaiea; 3) ?annoaeaeaiea. ?acoi auiieiyao eiaiii o?aoueth
ooieoeeth, oi anoue naycuaaao noaeaeaiey a ii?aaeaeaiiue oiae
?annoaeaeaiee.

A i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue oneiaeiaiiiio /aeiaa/aneiio iiciaieth
aiaaeueneia e aiaeanoaaiiia iiciaiea, niaeanii Oiia, yaeyaony i?inoui,
e, neaaeiaaoaeueii, aieaa aunieei e niaa?oaiiui. N?aaee nouanoa,
ninoiyueo ec iaoa?ee e oi?i, /aeiaa/aneia iiciaiea – naiia niaa?oaiiia,
iaeiaei ii n?aaiaieth n iiciaieai /enouo aeooia iii ianiaa?oaiii.
*aeiaae ie/aai ia iiciaao iin?aaenoaii naiae nouiinoe, ii iiciaao ana
eeoue i?e iiiiue /oanoaaiiuo e eioaeeaeooaeueiuo iiciaaaoaeueiuo oi?i.
Aiaae aea, eioi?ue naiiai naay iiciaao iin?aaenoaii naiae nouiinoe, a
ana inoaeueiia – i?e iiiiue eioaeeaeooaeueiuo iiciaaaoaeueiuo oi?i,
caeiaeaiiuo a iaai aiaii. Niaeanii Oiia, eeoue ia?aay ooieoeey
eioaeeaeoa a ca/aoi/iie nooiaie oiiaeiaeyao iaoa iiciaiea iiciaieth
/enouo aeooia. Anee aea ?a/ue eaeao i aiaa, oi aai iiciaiea auoa ia
oieueei /aeiaa/aneiai, ii e aiaaeueneiai iiciaiey. Ii aeaeeo ana a naaa
iin?aaenoaii naiae nouiinoe.

3. Oai?ey enoeiu

Oai?ey enoeiu Oiiu oanii naycaia n aai iaoaoeceeie, oae e n
oai?eae iiciaiey a oeaeii. “Eaaeaeay aauue, – ooaa?aeaeaao Oiia, –
iinoieueeo iacuaaaony enoeiiie, iineieueeo i?eaeeaeaaony e noiaenoao n
aiaii… Iiaeiaii oiio eae aeooe e ae?oaea aaue iacuaathony enoeiiuie ii
naiae i?e?iaea, iineieueeo ei i?enoua noiaenoai n yoie aunoae i?e?iaeie,
eioi?ay, yaeyynue naiei iiiyoui auoeai, anoue naia enoeia, oae e oi, /oi
iiciaaony aeooie, anoue enoeia, iineieueeo a iae nouanoaoao noiaenoai n
oie aiaeanoaaiiie enoeiie, eioi?oth iiciaao aia.”

Oiienoeay enoeia – yoi niioaaonoaea ?acoia aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, ii
ia oie, eioi?ay anoanoaaiii nouanoaoao, a aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, nicaeaiiie
aiaii. Oaeei ia?acii, iu eiaai caeanue aeaei n enoeiie a iioieiae/aneii
e eiae/aneii niunea. Eiae/aneay enoeiiinoue i?enoua iaoei noaeaeaieyi,
iioieiae/aneay aea – aauai. Iiciathuee noauaeo ia iiaeao auoue ia?ie
aauae, a aeieaeai i?eniinaaeeaaoueny e iei, a i?ioeaiii neo/aa ii aue au
eo nicaeaoaeai. Oaeei ia?acii, eiae/aneay enoeia yaeyaony iecoei aeaeii
enoeiu, iiae/eiaiiui enoeia iioieiae/aneie, aiaeanoaaiiie.

4. E?eoa?ee enoeiu

A oaniie nayce n oiienoneie eiioeaioeeae enoeiu iaoiaeeony
e?eoa?ee enoeiiinoe “anoanoaaiiiai” ciaiey. Yoi e?eoa?ee, ii iiaieth
Oiiu, niaea?aeeony a ia?auo i?eioeeiao, eioi?ua iioaioeeaeueii
nouanoaotho a ethaii iiciathuai noauaeoa. Aeaeiao iiieiaao iiae ieie oae
iacuaaaiua aunoea caeiiu iuoeaiey, a eiaiii i?eioeei oiaeaeanoaa,
i?ioeai?a/ey, eneeth/aiiiai o?aoueaai e aeinoaoi/iiai iniiaaiey. Yoe
i?eioeeiu nouanoaotho a ?acoia eae a?iaeaeaiiua ciaiey, ii iu eo niciaai
iiae aeeyieai iiuoa. Ii iiaieth Aeaeineiai, aunoea i?eioeeiu iuoeaiey,
eioi?ua aunooiatho a ea/anoaa e?eoa?ey ciaiey, ia yaeythuaainy
ioe?iaaieai, oaeaea a?iaeaeaiiu, n oie oieueei ?acieoeae, /oi /aeiaae
iniciaao eo aeaaiaea?y iiuoo.

Oaeei ia?acii, oiienoneee e?eoa?ee enoeiu oaeaea iiae/eiai
oaieiae/aneei oeaeyi e neoaeeo aeieacaoaeuenoao caaeneiinoe /aeiaaea,
aai ianiaa?oainoaa ii n?aaiaieth n oai?oeii. “Aiaeanoaaiiay enoeia, –
ieoao Oiia, – anoue ia?a anyeie enoeiu. Iineieueeo aia – yoi ia?aue oi e
ia?aue iauaeo iiieiaiey, anyeay ?acoiiay enoeia aeieaeia ecia?youeny aai
enoeiie”.

Oiia n/eoaao, /oi /aeiaae yaeyaony aaeeinoaii oaea e aeooe. Oaei
auiieiyao ooieoeeth aiciiaeiinoe, aeooa aea anoue aai oi?ia, aeo.
Iaeiaei, caueuay naiinoiyoaeueiinoue e aannia?oea aeooe, Aeaeiao aaiaeeo
iiiyoea iieiuo e iaiieiuo noanoaioeee. Iieiie noanoaioeeae yaeyaony
/aeiaae eae aaeeinoai oaea e aeooe, aeooa aea, acyoay ioaeaeueii,
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie iaiieioth noanoaioeeth. Oaei ia yaeyaony ieiaaie
aeooe, iai?ioea, eo niaaeeiaiea – aeaai aeey aeooe. Aia, nicaeaa aeooo e
aaeioioa aa a /aeiaa/aneee yia?eii, eae au i?eniinaaeeaaao aa e oiio
oaeo, eioi?ia aeieaeii ninoaaeyoue iniiao aa eiaeeaeaeoaeueiinoe e
aannia?oey. A ea?a?oee aeaeia caiiiai auoey iia yaeyaony naiie
niaa?oaiiie oi?iie, naiinoiyoaeueiie, niiniaiie nouanoaiaaoue aac
iaoa?ee, ii iia ieaea /enouo aeooia. Oaeei ia?acii, /aeiaae ieacaeny
iiiauaiiui iin?aaeeia – iaaeaeo aeeaioiui ie?ii e aiaaeaie.

(((. Y O E E A

1. I?iaeaia cea. Oaiaeeoeay.

O?aaeeoeeiiiay oaia o?enoeaineie oeeinioee – caueoa niaa?oainoaa
aiaa e oiai, /oi ei nioai?aii, ia?aae eeoeii nouanoaothuaai a ie?a cea –
caieiaao iiiai ianoa a ?aaioao Aeaeineiai. Ia?auaiea aai e yoie i?iaeaia
e oe?ieia aa ?anniio?aiea aeeeoiaaeenue enoi?e/aneeie e aeieo?eiaeueiuie
iio?aaiinoyie oea?eae.

A n?aaeiaaaeiauea aeaenoaiaaee ?acee/iua a?aoe/aneea naeou,
o/aiey eioi?uo eiaee y?ei au?aaeaiiue aioeoaiaeaeueiue e,
neaaeiaaoaeueii, aioeoea?eiaiue oa?aeoa?. Oiienoneay oaiaeeoeay auea
i?aaeaea anaai iai?aaeaia i?ioea eaeaieiaee eaoa?ia e ae?oaeo
a?aoe/aneeo naeo. Eaoa?u i?iaicaeaoaee, /oi iaoa?eaeueiue ie? ii naiae
i?e?iaea anoue cei, i?iaeoeo ceiai aeooa, a iineieueeo /aeiaa/aneia oaei
yaeyaony aai ninoaaiie /anoueth, neaaeiaaoaeueii, iii ii naiaio
i?ienoiaeaeaieth anoue cei e aeinoieii i?ac?aiey. Niaaeeiaiea oaea e
aeooe aeey iineaaeiae ia aeaaiaeayiea, a, iai?ioea, iaeacaiea, ieiau. A
anee oae, oi O?enoin ia iia aiieioeoueny a /aeiaaea. Ec yoeo i?eioeeiia
neaaeiaaei io?eoeaiea iaiaoiaeeiinoe oea?eae, inoaeaeaiea aa eae
nianoaaiieea iaoa?eaeueiuo aiaaonoa.

Ia?aae o?enoeaineie oeeinioeae auea iinoaaeaia aaaeiay aeeeaia:
anee aia – oai?aoe anaai e ii aeia?, oi ioeoaea aea aa?ao ia/aei cei? Ec
iaiaoiaeeiinoe ioaaoeoue ia yoio aii?in, aicieeea iniaay iaeanoue
o?enoeaineie oeeinioee, iacuaaaiay oaiaeeoeaae e caieiathuayny caueoie
niaa?oainoaa aiaa e oiai, /oi nioai?aii ei, ia?aae eeoeii nouanoaothuaai
a ie?a cea.

Enoiaeiui ioieoii oaiaeeoeae Oiiu auea i?aaeiinueea, /oi cei ia
yaeyaony iiceoeaiui yaeaieai e ia nouanoaoao naii ii naaa, eae aeia?i, a
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie i?inoi iau/iia iaauoea, oua?aiinoue aeia?a. Iiiyoea
cea Oiia auaiaeeo ec iiiyoey aeia?a, enoiaey ec
oai?aoeei-iiciaaaoaeueiie i?aaeiinueee i oii, /oi iaeia
i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue iiciaaony /a?ac ae?oaoth, eae iai?eia?, oaiiioa
/a?ac naao. Yoi ioiineony oaeaea e aeia?o e ceo.

Aoi?ie oacen oiienoneie oaiaeeoeae au?aaeaaony a ooaa?aeaeaiee,
/oi “aeia?i yaeyaony noauaeoii cea”. Oiia ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi ana, a
neaaeiaaoaeueii, e cei, eiaao naith i?e/eio. I?e/eiie aea iiaeao auoue
eeoue oi, /aio i?enoua iiiyoea auoey, a neaaeiaaoaeueii, e aeia?a. Cei
aea, aoaeo/e iieiui iaauoeai, ia iiaeao aunooiaoue a ?iee eaeie au oi ie
auei i?e/eiu. A oaeii neo/aa inoaaony i?eiyoue, /oi noauaeoii eee
enoi/ieeii cea yaeyaony aeia?i. Enoiaeiie oi/eie aeey Aeaeineiai
yaeythony neiaa Aaaonoeia: “Aia ia yaeyaony nicaeaoaeai cea, eai ia ii
i?e/eia no?aieaiey e iaauoeth”. ?acaeaay yoo iuneue, Oiia iaiiieiaao,
/oi a iaeanoe ii?aee cei iniiaaii ia ianiaa?oainoaa iiaaaeaiey, eioi?ia
a naith i/a?aaeue neaaeoao ec ianiaa?oainoaa ii?aeueiiai noauaeoa. A
anee aia – yoi aaniethoiia niaa?oainoai, oi ii ia iiaeao auoue i?e/eiie
ii?aeueiiai cea.

Ianeieueei eia/a ianoieo aeaei n anoanoaaiiuie aauaie. Caeanue
cei iniiaaii i?inoi ia eo ii?/a e ?aniaaea. A caiuneao aea oai?oea
eaaeaeay oi?ia auea caaeoiaia eae aeaai ie?icaeaiey, eae aai
niaa?oainoai, eioi?ia o?aaoao, /oiau “a aauao nouanoaiaaei ii?aaeaeaiiia
ia?aaainoai, /oiau inouanoaeyeenue ana noaiaie aeia?a” . *oiau a ie?a
auea aa?iiiey, iaiaoiaeeiu ?acee/iua noaiaie aeia?a, aaue ?acee/iiai
niaa?oainoaa. Eae e?anioa aeaeaaony aieaa i/aaeaeiie ia oiia o?iaenoaa,
oae e aeia?i aieaa caiaoii i?e n?aaiaiee ni ceii, e iaiai?io. Oaeei
ia?acii au?eniauaaaony o?aoee oacen oiienoneie oaiaeeoeae: iaeioi?ia
cei ia ii?oeo aa?iiiee anaeaiiie, iai?ioea, iii iaiaoiaeeii aeey yoie
aa?iiiee. Aia nicaeaao cei a aauao ia iaia?aiii, a eeoue neo/aeii.

Aeey iaania/aiey ii?yaeea anaeaiiie iaiaoiaeei oaeaea ii?yaeie
ni?aaaaeeeainoe, eioi?ue o?aaoao nouanoaiaaiey eae a?aoieeia, oae e
oi?ioeo ethaeae. Caeanue “aia yaeyaony oai?oeii cea eae iaeacaiea, a ia
eae aeiu”. Yoi /aoaa?oue oacen oaiaeeoeae Oiiu.

2. Naiaiaeiay aiey /aeiaaea e ieeinoue Aiaeuey.

Oiia iiiauaao /aeiaaea ia a?aieoea iaaeaeo ie?ii aeeaioiuo e
ie?ii /enouo aeooia, iaaeaeo aeeaioiuie, n iaeiie noi?iiu, e aiaaeii – n
ae?oaie. A n?aaiaiee n iineaaeiei /aeiaa/aneay ee/iinoue yaeyaony /ai-oi
ian?aaiaiii aieaa ieceei e ianiaa?oaiiui. A naith i/a?aaeue a ea?a?oee
oaeaniuo nicaeaiee /aeiaae iaoiaeeony ia naiii aunieii ianoa eae
niaa?oaiiia aeeaioiia. Ioee/aaony aea /aeiaae io aeeaioiuo yoiai ie?a,
ii iiaieth Oiiu, iaiaoa?eaeueiie ?acoiiie aeooie e naiaiaeiie aieae.
Aeaaiaea?y iineaaeiae /aeiaae ioaaonoaaiai ca naie iinooiee, eai,
iaeaaeay naiaiaeiie aieae, ii a ninoiyiee auae?aoue iaaeaeo aeia?ii e
ceii. *oiau iiaee nouanoaiaaoue a?ao e aeia?iaeaoaeue, iaeacaiea eee
iaa?aaea, ei aeieaeii i?aaeoanoaiaaoue iaee/ea naiaiaeiie aiee.

Ii iiaieth Aeaeineiai, naiaiaeiay aiey /aeiaaea e naycaiiua n
iath i?iecaieueiua ?aoaiey auai?a eiatho naie enoi/iee a
eioaeeaeooaeueii-iiciaaaoaeueiuo i?aaiao, oi/iaa, ei?iai anyeie naiaiaeu
yaeyaony ?acoi. Iineieueeo Oiia i?iaicaeaoaao i?eiao eioaeeaeoa iaae
aieae, aai iiceoeey a aii?ina i naiaiaea /aeiaaea iieo/eea iacaaiea
yoe/aneiai eioaeeaeooaeecia. Iia iniiaaia ia oii, /oi aeinoaoi/ii eiaoue
iiaeeeiiia ciaiea i aeia?a e cea, /oiau iinooiaoue ii?aeueii. Oiia
i?eciaao, /oi aiey eiiaaea iiaeao auiieiyoue ii ioiioaieth e eioaeeaeoo
ooieoeeth i?iecaiaeyuae i?e/eiu, eae au iiaoaeaeay aai e iiciaieth, e a
yoii niunea iia aieaa niaa?oaiia, /ai eioaeeaeo.

Naiaiaea aiee, ei?aiyuayny a eioaeeaeoa, iicaieyao /aeiaaeo
iinooiaoue a niioaaonoaee n ii?aeueiuie aeia?iaeaoaeyie. Naiaiaea aiee
nouanoaoao eeoue oiaaea, eiaaea aa iiaeaea?aeeaaao aia, eai ii yaeyaony
ia?aui enoi/ieeii eae anoanoaaiiuo i?e/ei, oae e naiaiaeiuo /aeiaa/aneeo
?aoaiee. Oiia aiai?eo, /oi /aeiaaeo i?enoua aiey, eai a i?ioeaiii neo/aa
iai?aniu auee au niaaou e iaiiieiaiey, iiaaeaiey e cai?aou, iaeacaiey e
iiiu?aiey.

Niaeanii Aeaeiaoo e anae eaoiee/aneie yoeea, /aeiaae caneoaeeaaao
inoaeaeaiey ca iaii?aeueiue iinooiie. Ii ieioie iinooiie oaeaea
iniiauaaaony ia naiaiaeiii ?aoaiee e ia iiaeao auoue niaa?oai aac
iiaeaea?aeee aiaa. Iiyoiio aia a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue e caneoaeeaaao
aaeneeo ioe.

((((. I?aaiaay e iieeoe/aneay aeieo?eia

1. I?ienoiaeaeaiea e ooieoeee ainoaea?noaa

Oiia, a ca iei e ana eaoiee/aneea oeeiniou ia?aiyee io Noaae?eoa
i?aaeaea anaai eiioeaioeeth /aeiaaea – iieeoe/aneiai aeeaioiiai, e
o/aiea i ainoaea?noaa eae auoee, eiae/anee aieaa ?aiiai, /ai aai
a?aaeaeaia. Oiia ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi ainoaea?noai, eae auoea eiae/anee
aieaa ?aiiaa, aa?ao naia ia/aei io aiaa, i /ai o Noaae?eoa ?a/e ia auei.
Anyeia niiauanoai auiieiyao ii?aaeaeaiiua ooieoeee, noaaeo ia?aae niaie
ii?aaeaeaiiua oeaee, i?e ?aaeecaoeee eioi?uo ia iiaeao iaieoenue aac
aaaaiiia. Iiyoiio aicieeaao iaiaoiaeeiinoue a oii, /oiau eoi-ieaoaeue
?oeiaiaeee yoei iauanoaii e aae aai e oeaee, oaeei eiaiii ?oeiaiaeeoaeai
e yaeyaony ainoaea?noai.

Aeaeiao ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi nouanoaotho ?acee/iua oi?iu aeanoe,
iaeiaei ia ana iie a iaeeiaeiaie noaiaie ?aaeecoth n/anouea e aeaai
iauanoaa. Ii ?acee/aao ieeaa?oeth, iiia?oeth, oe?aieth e aa
?aciiaeaeiinoue – aeaiie?aoeth. Iaeeo/ooth oi?io aeanoe i?aaenoaaeyao
ainoaea?noai, a eioi?ii ni/aoathony yeaiaiou iiia?oe/aneea,
a?enoie?aoe/aneea e aeaiie?aoe/aneea.

Oiia aaiaeeo ?acee/ea nouiinoe aeanoe io aa oi?iu. Ia?aay
i?ienoiaeeo io aiaa, oi anoue aeieaeia nouanoaiaaoue i?aaiecaoeey,
iaania/eaathuay ii?yaeie e aaaeouay ethaeae e ii?aaeaeaiiie oeaee. Iiae
oi?iie aea iiae?acoiaaaaony niinia i?aaeaiey, no?oeoo?a aeanoe. I?aaaea
Oiia i?eaiaeeo i/aiue ooiaiioth oi?io, /oi “anyeay aeanoue oaeaea
i?ienoiaeeo io aiaa, oioy a aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe ia i?ienoiaeeo io aiaa”.

Neaaeiaaoaeueii, oioy anyeay aeanoue i?ienoiaeeo io aiaa, iia
iiaeao oaeaea ia i?ienoiaeeoue io iaai. Iineaaeiee neo/ae eiaao ianoi
oiaaea, eiaaea: a) i?aaeoaeue i?eoae e aeanoe i?e iiiiue iani?aaaaeeeauo
n?aaenoa; a) eiaaea ii i?aaeo iani?aaaaeeeai, oi anoue aii?aee eioa?anai
oea?eae. Yoi neo/aaony, eiaaea aia onoaiaaeeaaao a niioaaonoaee ni
naieie ieaiaie ieiooth aeanoue a oeaeyo iaeacaiey iiaeaeaiiuo.

Aeaeineee aiai?eo oaeaea i i?aaa ainnoaoue i?ioea ainoaea?noaaiiie
aeanoe, eiaaea: a) aeanoue aunooiaao i?ioea caeiiia aiaa e yeaiaioa?iuo
ii?aeueiuo i?eioeeiia, a yoii neo/aa iiaeaeaiiua aeieaeiu ioeacaoueny
iiaeiiaaoueny ae; a) a neo/aa i?aauoaiey aeanoueth aa eiiiaoaioeee; a)
neo/ae, eiaaea i?aaeoaeue, eca?aiiue eaaaeueii, ia/eiaao iinooiaoue
iani?aaaaeeeai.

Oae auaeyaeeo o/aiea Oiiu i ainoaea?noaa, iii niaea?aeeo eeoue
aeaeeiinoue aeaiie?aoe/aneeo yeaiaioia, a a nouiinoe au?aaeaao eioa?anu
oea?eae.

2. I?aai e aai aeaeu

A) Aa/iia i?aai. I?aai eae niaieoiiinoue i?aaee e ii?i ninoaaeyao
?acoiiia ?anii?yaeaiea i?aayuaai iiaeaeaiiuie. Aai caaea/a – aanoe
ethaeae ei anaiauaio aeaao. Aa/iia i?aai – aunoaa i?aai, iiae eioi?ui
iiieiaaony niaieoiiinoue iaueo aiaeanoaaiiuo i?eioeeiia i?aaeaiey ie?ii.

A) Anoanoaaiiia i?aai. Aa/iia i?aai yaeyaony enoi/ieeii
anoanoaaiiiai i?aaa, nouanoaothuaai aeaaiaea?y nii?e/anoiinoe aiao. Iii
aiaa?aiaiiia, aa/iia, iaeciaiiia e eiaao ?acoiiue oa?aeoa?, oi anoue
aeinooiii eeoue ?acoiiui nicaeaieyi, eioi?ua iiciatho aai i?e iiiiue
nianoaaiiiai eioaeeaeoa.

A) *aeiaa/aneia, eee iiceoeaiia i?aai. I?eiaiaiea i?eioeeiia
anoanoaaiiiai i?aaa e iauanoaaiiie aeecie. Iii auaiaeeony ec aa/iiai
i?aaa ia iaiin?aaenoaaiii, a iiin?aaeiaaiii e yaeyaony eciaiyaiui, oioy
e eiaao iaeioi?ua iinoiyiiua yeaiaiou.

Caeeth/aiea

Ec ?acee/ey oi?i, yaeythueony iiaeiaeai aiaa a aauao, Oiia auaiaeeo
nenoaio ii?yaeea iaoa?eaeueiiai ie?a. Oi?iu aauae iacaaeneii io noaiaie
eo niaa?oainoaa nii?e/anoiu oai?oeo, aeaaiaea?y /aio caieiatho
ii?aaeaeaiiia ianoi a oieaa?naeueiie ea?a?oee auoey. Yoi eanaaony anao
iaeanoae iaoa?eaeueiiai ie?a e iauanoaa. Ii iiaieth Oiiu, iaiaoiaeeii,
/oiau iaeie caieiaeenue naeueneei oicyenoaii, ae?oaea auee ianoooaie, a
o?aouee – no?ieoaeyie. Aeey aiaeanoaaiiie aa?iiiee nioeeaeueiiai ie?a
iaiaoiaeeii oaeaea, /oiau nouanoaiaaee ethaee, caieiathueany aeooiaiui
o?oaeii e ?aaioathuea oece/anee. Eaaeaeue /aeiaae auiieiyao
ii?aaeaeaiioth ooieoeeth a aeecie iauanoaa, e ana oai?yo ii?aaeaeaiiia
aeaai.

Oaeei ia?acii, niaeanii o/aieth Oiiu, ?acee/ey a ooieoeeyo,
auiieiyaiuo ethaeueie, yaeythony ?acoeueoaoii ia iauanoaaiiiai
?acaeaeaiey o?oaea, a oeaeaaie aeayoaeueiinoe aiaa. Nioeeaeueiia e
eeanniaia ia?aaainoai – yoi ia neaaenoaea aioaaiienoe/aneeo
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo ioiioaiee, a io?aaeaiea ea?a?oee oi?i a aauao. Ana yoi
ii nouanoao neoaeeei Aeaeiaoo aeey ii?aaaeaiey oaiaeaeueiie nioeeaeueiie
eanoieoeu.

Oeeinioey Oiiu Aeaeineiai ia n?aco iieo/eea anaiauaa i?eciaiea
n?aaee noieanoe/aneeo oa/aiee n?aaeiaaaeiauey. Oiia Aeaeineee eiae
i?ioeaieeia a i?aeaia aeiieieeaioeaa, n?aaee iaeioi?uo i?aaenoaaeoaeae
aeooiaainoaa, eaoeineeie aaa??ienoaie. Iaeiaei, ianiio?y ia
ia?aiia/aeueiua iaiaaeee, n XIV a. Oiia noaiiaeony aunoei aaoi?eoaoii
oea?eae, i?eciaaoae aai aeieo?eio a ea/anoaa naiae ioeoeeaeueiie
oeeinioee. N yoiai a?aiaie oea?eiaue eniieuecoao aai o/aiea a ai?ueaa ni
anyeeie aeaeaeaieyie, iai?aaeaiiuie i?ioea aa eioa?ania.

N yoiai a?aiaie ia i?ioyaeaiee ianeieueeeo noieaoee oeeinioey Oiiu
Aeaeineiai eoeueoeae?iaaeanue.

Eniieueciaaiiay eeoa?aoo?a:

1. “Aioieiaey ie?iaie oeeinioee” o. 1

2. Ai?aio TH. ” Oiia Aeaeineee”

3. Nieieia A.A. “Enoi?ey ae?aaiae e n?aaeiaaaeiaie

ca?oaaaeiie oeeinioee”

PAGE 23

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