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?aoa?ao

“Ia?ac ie?a a oeeinioee:

No?oeoo?a iauanoaa”

Iineianeee Einoeooo Yeaeo?iieee e Iaoaiaoeee

(oaoie/aneee oieaa?neoao)

Iineaa

1996

Any aeeciue ie?iaicaeaiey ieacuaaaony /?acau/aeii ei?ioeie, anee
niiinoaaeyoue a?aiy nouanoaiaaiey Iaoaaaeaeoeee ni a?aiaiai
nouanoaiaaiey aa ninoaaeythueo (iai?eia?, Nieioea). Enoi?ey yaiethoeee
Einiina ecia?yaony aeeciueth anaai aeaoo iieieaiee “ianaeaiey”
Iaoaaaeaeoeee. Yaiethoeey naiie Caiee e i?aaie/aneie i?e?iaeu
ieacuaaaony oaeaea auno?ie e ei?ioeie. Ca a?aiy nouanoaiaaiey Caiee iia
aianoa n nieioeai naeaeaea anaai 23 iai?ioa aie?oa oeaio?a aaeaeoeee, a
aianoa n /aeiaaeii, ath auea i?ieaeaia 1/130 /anoue yoie einie/aneie
i?aeou. Anee i?aaeiieiaeeoue, /oi caiey nouanoaoao 24 /ana, oi a?aiy
nouanoaiaaiey /aeiaaea ninoaaeo ieiei 1 ieioou, a enoi?ey /aeiaaea
nia?aiaiiiai oeia caeiao iaeio naeoiaeo.

Eae iaii?iaa?aeeii naeaeaoaeuenoaotho oaeou, auei a?aiy, eiaaea ia Caiea
ethaeae ia nouanoaiaaei. Ii n iiyaeaieai ethaeae iiyaeeinue e
/aeiaa/aneia iauanoai. Ethaee aia iauanoaa nouanoaiaaoue ia iiaoo. Aua
A?enoioaeue (IV a. aei i.y.) iacuaae /aeiaaea iieeoe/aneei aeeaioiui, oi
anoue aeeaouai a ainoaea?noaa (iieeoeea), a iauanoaa.

A. Oa?athnii a o?oaea “I/a?e enoi?ee a?aaeaeaineiai iauanoaa” (1767 a.)
ienae, /oi “*aeiaa/anoai neaaeoao ?anniao?eaaoue a a?oiiao, a eioi?uo
iii anaaaea nouanoaiaaei. Enoi?ey ioaeaeueiiai /aeiaaea–eeoue aaeeie/iia
i?iyaeaiea /oanoa e iuneae i?eia?aoaiiuo ei a nayce n aai ?iaeii e
eaaeaeia enneaaeiaaiea, ioiinyuaany e yoiio i?aaeiaoo, aeieaeii
enoiaeeoue ec oeaeuo iauanoa, a ia ioaeaeueiuo ethaeae”.

Niaianoiay aeeciue ethaeae–neiaeiia nenoaiiia ia?aciaaiea. Iauanoai
ioiineony e /eneo naii ?acaeaathueony, aeeiaie/iuo nenoai, “eioi?ua,
nio?aiyy naith ea/anoaaiioth ii?aaeaeaiiinoue, niiniaiu naiui
nouanoaaiiui ia?acii iaiyoue a? ninoiyiey”.[1] Iauanoai i?aaenoaaeyao
niaie iauanoaaiiia auoea[2] ethaeae; iauaeoeaioth ?aaeueiinoue, naiaai
?iaea nioeeaeueioth iaoa?eth, ?acoeueoao ooieoeeiie?iaaiey, yaiethoeee e
aeeooa?aioeeaoeee aeinoa?u a ?aieao aieaa oe?ieie
oeaeinoiinoe–?acaeaathuaeny Anaeaiiie. Eae iniaue o?iaaiue i?aaiecaoeee
iaoa?ee, /aeiaa/aneia iauanoai nouanoaoao aeaaiaea?y aeayoaeueiinoe
ethaeae e aeeth/aao a ea/anoaa iaycaoaeueiiai oneiaey naiaai
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey e ?acaeoey aeooiaioth aeeciue. Aeaaiaea?y
aeayoaeueiinoe ethaeae i?aaeiaou, eioi?ua ioaa/aiu i?aeoe/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoueth ethaeae, noaiiayony /anoueth nioeeaeueiiai ie?a.

Iauanoai–i?iaeoeo niaianoiie aeayoaeueiinoe ethaeae niiniaiuo
nianoaaiiuie oneeeyie nicaeaoue iaiaoiaeeiua oneiaey nouanoaiaaiey.
Aeaaea a eeanniaii iauanoaa, aaea aicieeatho nioeeaeueiua eiioeeeou,
iaoiaeyony iauaeoeaiua iauea eioa?anu, oeaee, o?aaothuea niaianoiuo
oneeee, iai?aaeaiiuo ia iiaeaea?aeaiea aaeeinoaa i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoae.

Yeaiaiou iauanoaa

Ia?aui iaiaoiaeeiui yeaiaioii nioeeaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe yaeythony
aeeaua /aeiaa/aneea eiaeeaeaeu–noauaeou aeayoaeueiinoe, n eioi?uie
naycaiu a? ioneiaua e ?aaoeyoi?iua iaoaieciu. Ianiio?y ia oi, /oi
/aeiaae i?aaenoaaeyao oeaeue e oeaeinoiue “iee?ieiniin”, ii yaeyaony
yeaiaioii aeayoaeueiinoe, o.a. a? i?inoaeoei, aeaeaa iaaeaeeiui
ia?aciaaieai.

Aoi?ui yeaiaioii yaeyaony iauaeo nioeeaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe. Iauaeou
nioeeaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe iiaeii ?acaeaeeoue ia aeaa eeanna:

Aaue, “i?oaeey” n iiiiuueth eioi?uo ethaee ieacuaatho aicaeaenoaea ia
ie?oaeathuee eo ?aaeueiue ie?. N iiiiuueth yoeo aauae ethaee
inouanoaeytho aaeaioeaioth aeayoaeueiinoue, i?eniinaaeeaaynue e n?aaea
iooai a? aauanoaaiii–yia?aaoe/aneie ia?aaeaeee, oeaeaiai?aaeaiiiai
i?aia?aciaaiey.

Neiaieu, ciaee (eieae, ea?oeiu, eeiiu, e ae?.). Yoe i?aaeiaou neoaeao ia
iaiin?aaenoaaiiiio eciaiaieth ?aaeueiinoe, a eciaiaieth iaoeo
i?aaenoaaeaiee i ie?a. Iie aicaeaenoaotho ia iaoa niciaiea, no?aieaiey,
oeaee, e /a?ac ieo, iiin?aaeiaaiii, aicaeaenoaotho ia ioee/ioth io
niciaiey ?aaeueiinoue. Ooieoeey neiaieia–aiieiuaoue a naaa iniaui
ia?acii caeiaee?iaaiioth eioi?iaoeeth, neoaeeoue n?aaenoaii a? o?aiaiey,
iaeiieaiey, ia?aaea/e, iicaieythuae ethaeyi niaeaniauaaoue oeaee naiae
eieeaeoeaiie aeayoaeueiinoe. Iaiaoiaeeiinoue neiaieia naycaia n oai, /oi
ethaua eaeae, ia?acu, /oanoaa, i?ecaaiiua iiaeeyoue ia iiaaaeaiea
ethaeae, iiaoo naeaeaoue yoi, e eeoue a oii neo/aa ia?aooo iaeioi?oth
“oaeanioth iaiei/eo” noaiiaynue iaoa?eaeueiuie i?iaiaeieeaie,
“ia?aaic/eeaie niunea”.[1]

Anee aaue neoaeao i?yiui i?oaeeai aaeaioaoeee, oi neiaieu iaania/eaatho
oeaeaiai?aaeaiiinoue /aeiaa/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe.

Iaoaie/aneee iaai? ethaeae aauae e neiaieia ia nicaea?o oeaeinoiia
nenoaiiia ia?aciaaiea–iauanoai. Aeey aai nouanoaiaaiey iaiaoiaeeia
neiaeiay niaieoiiinoue aioo?aiieo naycae iaaeaeo anaie eeannaie
nioeeaeueiuo i?aaeiaoia.

Onoie/eaua, aini?iecaiaeeiua nayce iaaeaeo niaianoii aeaenoaothueie
ethaeueie iacuaathony iauanoaaiiuie ioiioaieyie. Yoe ioiioaiey
naycuaatho ethaeae eae a i?ioeanna iauanoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe ia iniiaa
?acaeaeaiey ooieoeee, oae e i?e ?acaeaeaiee niaianoii nicaeaiiuo
?acoeueoaoia o?oaea: aioiauo i?iaeoeoia o?oaea e n?aaenoa eo nicaeaiey.
Iiaeiaiua ioiioaiey aeaaeaeueoeaie caiee, noaieia e i?. e ethaeueie
eeoaiiuo iaiaoiaeeiuo n?aaenoa o?oaea, E. Ia?en iacuaae
i?iecaiaenoaaiii–yeiiiie/aneeie ioiioaieyie, ioaiaey ei aaaeiaeooth
?ieue a i?aaiecaoeee iauanoaaiiie aeecie ethaeae.

Iiaenenoaiu iauanoaa, noa?u iauanoaaiiie aeecie.

Ethaie aeo niaianoiie aeayoaeueiinoe aiciiaeai i?e iaee/ee
acaeiinaycaiiuo ethaeae, aauae, neiaieia.

Aeey aeecie ethaeae, eioi?ui i?enoua aeoeaiia i?eniiniaeaiea e n?aaea,
iaiaoiaeeiu niioaaonoaothuea aaue, nicaeaieai eioi?uo caieiaaony
iaoa?eaeueiia i?iecaiaenoai. Iaoa?eaeueiia i?iecaiaenoai nicaeaao
n?aaenoaa aeayoaeueiinoe, eioi?ua eniieuecothony ai anao a? aeaeao,
iicaieyy ethaeyi oece/anee eciaiyoue i?e?iaeioth e nioeeaeueioth
?aaeueiinoue.

I?iecaiaey iaiaoiaeeiua aaue, ethaee nicaeatho ii?aaeaeaiioth nenoaio
iauanoaaiiuo ioiioaiee. (Eniieueciaaiea iiaie i?iecaiaeeoaeueiie oaoieee
a Aa?iia iiaiai a?aiaie i?eaaei e ca?iaeaeaieth e ooaa?aeaeaieth
eaieoaeenoe/aneeo ioiioaiee, eioi?ua nicaeaee ia iieeoeee, a ?aaioieee
iaoa?eaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa).

A i?ioeanna iaoa?eaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa ethaee nicaeatho e cae?aieytho
ii?aaeaeaiiue oei iaioaeueiinoe, niinia iuoeaiey e /oanoaiaaiey.

Iauanoaaiiay aeeciue i?aaeiieaaaao neiaeiaeooth nenoaio nioeeaeueiuo
naycae, niaaeeiythueo aiaaeeii yeaiaiou iauanoaaiiie aeecie. A iaeioi?uo
neo/ayo iie aicieeatho noeoeeii, a ea/anoaa “i?iaiiai i?iaeoeoa”,
iai?eia? iaoa?eaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa. Iaeiaei aieueoae /anoueth eo
ioaeii nicaeaaaoue oeaeaiai?aaeaiiie niaoeeaeece?iaaiiie
aeayoaeueiinoueth, o?aaothueo ?aaeueiuo oneeee. Yoi ?aaoey?iue oei
aeayoaeueiinoe. Aunoae oi?iie yoie aeayoaeueiinoe yaeyaony iieeoe/aneay
aeayoaeueiinoue.

Iieeoe/aneay noa?a iauanoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe eiaao neiaeioth
aioo?aiithth no?oeoo?o, aaea aeaaiui caaiii yaeyaony Ainoaea?noai.
Ainoaea?noai a naith i/a?aaeue i?aaenoaaeyao niaie neiaeiaeoee
eino?oiaio, eiathuee iiiaeanoai ooieoeee, naycaiiuo n caeiiiaeaoaeueiie,
eniieieoaeueiie, noaeaaiie aeanoueth, a?ieae, aiia?aoii i?eioaeaeaiey,

Ca nicaeaiea e ainniaaeeiaiea yeaiaioia iauanoaa–neiaiee/aneeo e
ethaeae, ioaa/atho aeooiaiue e nioeeaeueiue oeiu aeayoaeueiinoe.

I?iaeoeoii aeooiaiie aeayoaeueiinoe (iaoea, eoeueoo?a, eneonnoai)
ethaeae yaeyaony eioi?iaoeey, aae?aniaaiiay /aeiaa/aneiio
niciaieth–eaeae, ia?acu, /oanoaa. Oae, e nicaeaieth (a oe?ieii aai
iiieiaiee, ioaaouaathuai anth iaeanoue /aeiaa/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe)
ioiinyony ioee/iua io ?aoeaenia eaeaaeueiua iiaoaeaeaiey, eioi?ua
ioiinyony e noa?a iainiciaiiiai. Ceaioiae O?aeae iieacae, eaeoth
ia?iiioth ?ieue ea?atho a /aeiaa/aneii iiaaaeaiee iooiua aeaeaiey e
iainiciaiiua aea/aiey.

A noa?o nioeeaeueiie aeecie aeeth/aaony ia?iiiue e ?aciiia?aciue ie?
/aeiaa/aneiai auoa. Eiaiii a yoie noa?a ?iaeaeaaony /aeiaae, i?ienoiaeeo
aai ia?ae/iay nioeeaeecaoeey–ainieoaiea aeaoae ainieoaiea aeaoae a
naiuea e n?aaenoaaie naiuee. Iaeiaei iineaaeiaa neeoeii aaaeiia e
neiaeiia aeaei, /oiau iauanoai iiaei anaoeaei ia?aaeiaa?eoue aai
eiaeeaeaeai e ia?ae/iui nioeeaeueiui a?oiiai. ?aii eee iicaeii iii aa?ao
ia naay iiiaea ooieoeee naiuee. Iauanoai aeoeaii aeeth/aaony a i?ioeann
ainieoaiey e i?ioanneiiaeueiie iiaeaioiaee.

Ooieoeeiie?iaaiea e ?acaeoea iauanoaa

Eaeei ia?acii nenoaia, ninoiyuay ec iiiaeo /anoae, niiniaia
nouanoaiaaoue e eciaiyoueny eae aaeeiia oeaeia, eae aicieeatho
eioaa?aeueiua n?aaenoaa oeaeiai, eioi?uo eeoaiu aai /anoe?

I?aaenoaaeoaee iiienoe/aneiai oa/aiey n/eoatho, /oi ia eaaeaeii
“yoaaea” nioeeaeueiie no?oeoo?u iiaeii aeaeaoue aeaaiue
nenoaiiia?acothuee oaeoi?, eioi?ue aicaeaenoaoao ia ana i?i/ea yaeaiey
(o.a. /anoe nenoaiu iaoiaeyony a noai?aeeiaoeeiiiie caaeneiinoe).

Noi?iiieee ieth?aeenoe/aneiai iai?aaeaiey oaaaeaeaiu a oii, /oi /anoe
ethaie iauanoaaiiie aaeeieoeu, iaoiaeyony iaaeaeo niaie a
eii?aeeiaoeeiiiie caaeneiinoe: acaeiii aeeyy ae?oa ia ae?oaa, iie ia
?acaeaeythony ia ii?aaeaeythuea e ii?aaeaeyaiua.

Oaeaea ?acee/iua oi/ee c?aiey ia yoo i?iaeaio o iaoa?eaeenoia (E.
Ia?en) e eaeaaeenoia (I. Ni?ieei).

“Eioaa?aeueiay eiioeaioeey” I. Ni?ieeia enoiaeeo ec eaeae aaconeiaiiai
niciaiey a iauanoaaiiie aeecie ethaeae, oa?aeoa? nioeeaeueiuo i?aaeiaoia
e i?ioeannia ii?aaeaeyaony eaeayie, oeaeyie, a ia
aauanoaaiii–yia?aaoe/aneeie n?aaenoaaie, eniieuecoaiuie aeey eo
aiieiuaiey. Aeooiaiia anaoeaei ii?aaeaeyao iaoa?eaeueiia a aeecie
iauanoaa.

?annoaeaeay i no?iaiee iauanoaa, Ni?ieei auaeaeaaao aeaa o?iaiy
i?aaiecaoeee: o?iaaiue eoeueoo?iuo nenoai (niaieoiiinoue acaeiinaycaiiuo
eaeae) e o?iaaiue nianoaaiii nioeeaeueiuo nenoai (niaieoiiinoue
acaeiinaycaiiuo ethaeae). I?e/ai aoi?ie o?iaaiue anaoeaei iiae/eiyaony
ia?aiio. Ni?ieei ?acee/aao ioiioaiey noai?aeeiaoeee iaaeaeo eoeueoo?iui
e iaoa?eaeueiui o?iaiyie e ioiioaiey eii?aeeiaoeee (acaeiiaeeyiey)
iaaeaeo aaaeiaeoeie ninoaaeythueie Eoeueoo?u.

A enoi?ee nouanoaotho iiia?aiaiii niaiyy aeaa iniiaiuo aeaea
ie?iaicc?aiey–“aeooiaiue ” e “/oanoaaiiue”, eaaeaeiio ec eioi?uo
niioaaonoaoao naie oei iauanoaaiiiai ono?ienoaa (“nioeeieoeueoo?iay
noia?nenoaia”).

Ethaee, eioi?ua aeeaoo a iauanoaao ia?aiai oeia, enoiaeyo ec oaaaeaeaiey
a oii, /oi ie?oaeathuay eo ?aaeueiinoue eiaao aeooiaiia, aiaeanoaaiiia
i?ienoiaeaeaiea. Niioaaonoaaiii niune naiaai nouanoaiaaiey iie aeaeyo a
iiae/eiaiee aiaeanoaaiiiio aaniethoo, n i?ac?aieai eee nienoiaeaeaieai
ioiinynue ei anaio ie?neiio, ia?aoiaeyuaio. Iiyoiio iaoa?eaeueiia
i?iecaiaenoai a oaeeo iauanoaao eiaao ii nouanoao iiaeaea?aeeaathuee
oa?aeoa?. Iniiaiui iauaeoii aicaeaenoaey n/eoaaony ia i?e?iaea, a
/aeiaa/aneay aeooa, eioi?ay aeieaeia no?aieoueny e neeyieth n Aiaii.

I?yii i?ioeaiiieiaeiua oa?aeoa?enoeee naienoaaiiu iauanoaai aoi?iai
oeia, iniiaaiiui ia iaoa?eaeenoe/aneii aini?eyoee ie?a, aeoeaioe?othuea
/oanoaaiiua noi?iiu /aeiaa/aneiai auoey. Iaeiiaoe Ni?ieei aeiioneaao
nouanoaiaaiea i?iiaaeooi/iiai oeia nioeeieoeueoo?iie
i?aaiecaoeee–eaeaaeenoe/aneiai, no?aiyuaainy aa?iiie/ii ni/aoaoue
i?eioeeiu aeooiaiinoe e /oanoaaiiinoe “aeaaea iauay eoeueoo?a eiaeeaeaea
(eae naiiai iaeaiueeiai eoeueoo?iiai a?aaea) ia yaeyaony iieiinoueth
eioaa?e?iaaiiie a iaeio i?e/eiii–niuneiaoth nenoaio. Iia i?aaenoaaeyao
niaie ninouanoaiaaiea iiiaeanoaa eoeueoo?iuo nenoai–/anoe/ii
aa?iiie?othueo ae?oa n ae?oaii, /anoe/ii iaeo?aeueiuo e /anoe/ii
i?ioeaiiieiaeaiiuo ae?oa ae?oao–iethn, ninouanoaiaaiea iiiaeanoaa
neiieaiee, eaeei-oi ia?acii iiiaaoeo a iauoth eoeueoo?o eiaeeaeaea e
inaaoeo oai.”

Enoi?e/aneia ?acaeoea /aeiaa/anoaa aaoi? eieae “Nioeeieiae/aneea oai?ee
nia?aiaiiinoe” ?anniao?eaaao eae iinoiyiioth oeeeee/aneoth niaio
“nioeeieoeueoo?iuo noia?nenoai”. I?e/eio iinoiyiiie niaiu nenoai Ni?ieei
aeaeeo a ianiiniaiinoe iaeoe eaeaaeueiue aaeain oeaiiinoae
nouanoaiaaiey, eioi?ue iia au iaania/eoue aa?iiie/iia ?acaeoea iauanoaa.

E. Ia?en, a naith i/a?aaeue, aiieia i?ecia?o oio oaeo, /oi ioee/ea
enoi?ee io i?e?iaeiuo i?ioeannia naycaii eiaiii n iaee/eai niciaiey,
niiniaiinoueth /aeiaaea “no?ieoue a aieiaa” oi, /oi iioii aoaeao
iino?iaii a ?aaeueiinoe. E. Ia?en ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi ia?aii?e/eiie ethauo
/aeiaa/aneeo aeaenoaee yaeyaony iauaeoeaiua o.a. ia caaenyuea io
aeaeaiee ethaeae iio?aaiinoe, oeacuaathuea ia oi, /oi iaiaoiaeeii
ethaeyi aeey nouanoaiaaiey e ?acaeoey. A oai?ee Ia?ena iio?aaiinoe
iiieiathony eae naienoai /aeiaa/aneie i?e?iaeu, ioiioaiea /aeiaaea e
iaiaoiaeeiui oneiaeyi nouanoaiaaiey, eioi?ia ioee/ii io niciaiey e
i?aaeoanoaoao aio: ”Niciaiea ieeiaaea ia iiaeao auoue /ai-eeai eiui, eae
iniciaiiui auoeai, a auoea ethaeae anoue ?aaeueiue i?ioeann eo aeecie”.

?anniao?eaay niciaiea eae ?aaeueioth i?e/eio nioeeaeueiuo eciaiaiee,
Ia?en eaoaai?e/anee ioeacuaaaony i?eciaoue eo ia?aii?e/eiie, eae yoi
aeaeaee e aeaeatho oeeiniou–eaeaaeenou (iai?eia?, I. Ni?ieei).

Iaeiaei niciaiea ieacuaaaony niiniaiui aeeyoue ia oieueei ia
ooieoeeiie?iaaiea, ii e ia noaiiaeaiea yeiiiie/aneeo ?aaeee, eae yoi
i?ienoiaeeo a nia?aiaiiie enoi?ee (Aiieia niciaoaeueiie ?aoi?iaoeeae
yeiiiie/aneeo iniia iauanoaa yaeyaony “Iiaue eo?n” i?aceaeaioa O.
?ocaaeueoa a NOA).

Eaeay ia?aainoaa iauaeoeaiuo iio?aaiinoae ia?aae io?aaeathuei eo
niciaieai iineaaeiaaoaeueii i?iaiaeeony E. Ia?enii. Iiyoiio a iniiaa
auaeaeaiey iiaenenoai iauanoaa o iaai ieacuaathony ia aaaeiaeoea eaeae
(aeia?i, ni?aaaaeeeainoue, E?anioa,–o I. Ni?ieeia ), a aaaeiaeoea
iio?aaiinoe iauanoaa a i?iaeoeoao iaoa?eaeueiiai e aeooiaiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa, i?iecaiaenoaa iaiin?aaenoaaiii /aeiaa/aneie aeecie e
“oi?i iauaiey“ ethaeae, o.a. iauanoaaiiuo ioiioaiee. I?aeoe/aneia a
aeecie iauanoaa ii?aaeaeyao aeooiaiia. Ii e a naiie i?aeoeea Ia?en
auaeaeyao ii?aaeaeythuoth oi?io aeayoaeueiinoe–iaoa?eaeueiia
i?iecaiaenoai, eioi?ia oai naiui noaiiaeony iniiaie ooieoeeiie?iaaiey e
?acaeoey iauanoaa a oeaeii.

Caeii ii?aaeaeythuae ?iee iaoa?eaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa eiaao ?acee/iua
i?iyaeaiey. I?aaeaea anaai, ii naycai n iniaie cia/eiinoueth i?iaeoeoia
oaeiai i?iecaiaenoaa. I?aaeaea /ai auoue niiniaiui caieiaoueny
iieeoeeie, iaoeie eee eneonnoaai, ethaee aeieaeiu anoue, ieoue,
iaeaaaoueny, iio?aaeyy oi, /oi nicaea?o iaoa?eaeueiia i?iecaiaenoai. A
?acoeueoaoa ana aeaeu aeayoaeueiinoe, a ia oieueei aeooiaiay auioaeaeaiu
iiaeno?aeaaoueny iiae o?aaiaaiey iaoa?eaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa, neoaeeoue
n?aaenoaii aai iioeiecaoeee, iinoiyiiiai ?acaeoey e niaa?oainoaiaaiey.

Oae i?ei?eoaoiie oeaeueth e aioo?aiiae e aiaoiae iieeoeee ethaiai
aeaeueiiaeaeiiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa yaeyaony nicaeaiea e iiaeaea?aeaiea
iaiaoiaeeiuo oneiaee aeey ii?iaeueiie ?aaiou iaoa?eaeueiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa. I/aaeaeii, /oi ie iaeei iieeoee ia a ninoiyiee
eiio?iee?iaaoue neooaoeeth a iauanoaa, a eioi?ii ia?ooaia oaeay
ii?iaeueiay ?aaioa, yaeythuayny aaaeiaeoei aa?aioii iieeoe/aneie
noaaeeueiinoe. An? aeaei a oii, /oi iiieii oaoie/aneiai iaania/aiey anao
aeaeia /aeiaa/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe, eiaiii iaoa?eaeueiia i?iecaiaenoai
nicaea?o aeeciaiaania/eaathuea i?iaeoeou, io eioi?uo caaeneo ia oieueei
“aeaaiiieo/ea iauanoaa”, a oece/aneia auaeeaaiea eaaeaeiai eiie?aoiiai
/aeiaaea a naiie aeeaeaeoae a?aiaiiie ia?niaeoeaa. Oaeea i?iaeoeou
yaeythony i?aaeiaoii ia i?inoi iio?aaiinoe, a oaeie iio?aaiinoe, eioi?ay
aeieaeia auoue oaeiaeaoai?aia a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue, ethauie n?aaenoaaie e
ethaie oeaiie, n “iiaeeecaoeeae” anao nee, niiniaiuo iiii/ue a ?aoaiee
yoie caaea/e: io iieeoeeia aei o/aiuo.

Iiaeiaiay neooaoeey oa?aeoa?ecoao eae ae?aaiea, oae e nia?aiaiiua
iauanoaa–aeaaea ?aaeeeaeueiay iao/ii-oaoie/aneay ?aaiethoeey ia a
ninoiyiee ii?iaa?aiooue ii?aaeaeythuae ?iee iaoa?eaeueiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa.

Iaeiaei ia oieueei n aaaeiinoueth i?iaeoeoia naycuaaao Ia?en
ii?aaeaeythuoth ?ieue iaoa?eaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa. Yoa ?ieue
i?iyaeyaony e a oii, /oi a i?ioeanna nicaeaiey aauae ethaee anooiatho a
iniaua i?iecaiaenoaaiiua ioiioaiey, eioi?ua ii?aaeaeytho aanue ia?ac eo
aeecie, oi?ie?otho eo a ea/anoaa nioeeaeueiuo nouanoa. Eiathony a aeaeo
i?iecaiaenoaaiii–yeiiiie/aneea ioiioaiey nianoaaiiinoe. Oa?aeoa?
nianoaaiiinoe ia neo/aai, e caaeneo io o?iaiy ?acaeoey
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee (n?aaenoa i?iecaiaenoaa, niaaeeiaiiuo n ?aai/ae
neeie) e i?ioanneiiaeueiiai ?acaeaeaiey o?oaea.

Nianoaaiiinoue ia n?aaenoaa i?iecaiaenoaa ea?aao, ii oaaaeaeaieth
Ia?ena, aaaeiaeooth ?ieue a aai ?acaeoee. Nianoaaiiinoue ieacuaaao
aaaeiaeoaa aeeyiea e ia iauanoaaiioth aeeciue, acyooth a oeaeii.
Naycaiiua n yeiiiieeie iniaaiiinoe i?aeoe/aneie aeecie ethaeae
aicaeaenoaotho, a eiia/iii n/aoa, e ia oa?aeoa? i?enouaai ei iuoeaiey e
/oanoaiaaiey. Noa?aioeiu iiaaaeaiey, i?aaenoaaeaiey i i?eee/iii e
iai?eee/iii, aeinoieiii e iaaeinoieiii, ynoaoe/aneea i?eno?anoey, iauee
oei eoeueoo?u, ii Ia?eno, ?aciyoueny o i?aaenoaaeoaeae ?acee/iuo neiaa
iauanoaa.

Eoae, oa?aeoa?ecoy iaoa?eaeenoe/aneia iiieiaiea enoi?ee E. Ia?ena,
iiaeii neacaoue, /oi iii naycaii n ianeieueeeie ooiaeaiaioaeueiuie
eaeayie, niaeanii eioi?ui:

A eaaeaeie ec oi?i /aeiaa/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe (aeeth/ay nthaea iaoeo,
eneonnoai, ?aeeaeth) oeaee e caiuneu ethaeae, i?enouaa ei niciaiea
aeaoa?ieie?iaaiu, a eiia/iii n/aoa, iauaeoeaiuie iio?aaiinoyie e
eioa?anaie noauaeoa;

Ec aeaoo oeiia /aeiaa/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe–oeaeaiai?aaeaiiiai eciaiaiey
ie?a e oeaeaiai?aaeaiiiai eciaiaiey i?aaenoaaeaiee i ie?a, io?aaeathueo
e iiaeaee?othueo aai–i?aeoe/aneay aeayoaeueiinoue ii?aaeaeyao
aeooiaioth, iiae/eiyao a? naiei oeaeyi e caaea/ai;

Ec nouanoaothueo oi?i i?aeoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe, iaoa?eaeueiia
i?iecaiaenoai (i?iecaiaenoai aauae) ieacuaaao aicaeaenoaea ia
i?iecaiaenoai iaiin?aaenoaaiii iauanoaaiiie aeecie e i?iecaiaenoai “oi?i
iauaiey ethaeae”;

A ?aieao eieeaeoeaiie aeayoaeueiinoe ethaeae, eo ioiioaiea e i?aaeiaoai,
n?aaenoaai i?iecaiaenoaa ieacuaaao ii?aaeaeythuaa aicaeaenoaea ia aanue
ia?ac aeecie, aeeth/ay nthaea eo ioiioaiea e iaoaieciai aeanoe, niinia
aini?iecaiaenoaa iaiin?aaenoaaiiie aeecie, neeaae iuoeaiey e
/oanoaiaaiey.

?annoaeaeay i iaeaieaa aeoaieeo enoi/ieeao iauanoaaiiuo eciaiaiee, Ia?en
naycuaaao eo ia ni niaiie “oi?i nioeeieoeueoo?iie aeooiaiinoe”, a n
iaoeeiiiui ?inoii iauanoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa–i?aaeaea anaai,
i?iecaiaenoaa iaoa?eaeueiiai.

Iaeiaei iu aeaeei, /oi nia?aiaiiay enoi?ey, ia?ooea iaeiicia/ioth naycue
iaaeaeo nianoaaiiinoueth ia n?aaenoaa i?iecaiaenoaa e aeaaininoiyieai
ethaeae, eo eiouanoaaiiui noaoonii, nouanoaaiii ei??aeoe?oao oai naiui
eaeath Ia?ena i caaeneiinoe iaaeaeo “aacenii” iauanoaa e nioeeaeueiui
oeeaaeii iauanoaaiiie aeecie. Iu ia iiaeai aieaa iai?yioth auaiaeeoue
ia?ac aeecie ethaeae, niinia eo naii aini?iecaiaenoaa ec iieiaeaiey a
nenoaia i?iecaiaenoaaiii–yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaiee.

[1] A.E. Eociaoeia “*oi oaeia auoea”

[2] “Auoea”–ie?, eioi?ue nouanoaoao eae iai?aoiaeyuaa aaeeinoai aia e
iacaaeneii io aiee e niciaiey /aeiaaea. Yoi aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue, eioi?ay
eiaao aioo?aiithth eiaeeo naiaai nouanoaiaaiey, ?acaeoey, e ?aaeueii
i?aaecaaeaia niciaieth, aeaenoaeth ioaeaeueiuo eiaeeaeaeia e iieieaiee
ethaeae.

[1] I.A. Ni?ieei “Nioeeieiae/aneea oai?ee nia?aiaiiinoe”.

Yeaiaiou iauanoaa

*aeiaae–noauaeo aeayoaeueiinoe

Nioeeaeueiua i?aaeiaou

Eeann neiaieia

Eeann aauae

I?aaeiaou o?oaea

I?oaeey o?oaea

Aeooiaiay aeayoaeueiinoue

Iiaenenoaiu iauanoaaiiie aeecie

(Oeiu niaianoiie aeayoaeueiinoe ethaeae)

Iaoa?eaeueiia i?iecaiaenoai

?aaoeyoeaiay aeayoaeueiinoue

Nioeeaeueiay aeayoaeueiinoue

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