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Сократический поворот в философии: Идеи и метод философии Сократа. Проблема человека

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«Nie?aoe/aneee iiai?io» a oeeinioee: eaeae e iaoiae oeeinioee Nie?aoa.
I?iaeaia /aeiaaea.

Nie?ao auae?ae ecaanoiiai iieeoe/aneiai aeayoaey eee i?inoi ecaanoiiai
/aeiaaea, iinea oiai, eae oio i?i/eoae naith ?a/ue, e Nie?ao ia/eiae
caaeaaaoue naie ciaiaieoua aii?inu. I?e/ai aia/aea Nie?ao
aacoaea?aeii oaaeee naiaai niaanaaeieea, aiai?ee, /oi ii oaeie oiiue,
ecaanoiue /aeiaae a ai?iaea, e /oi aio ia ninoaaeo o?oaea ioaaoeoue ia
oaeie yeaiaioa?iue aii?in. Nie?ao caaeaaae naie aeaenoaeoaeueii
yeaiaioa?iue aii?in (ii oieueei ia ia?aue acaeyae). Niaanaaeiee
aea?cei e iaoioy ioaa/ae ia iaai, Nie?ao a naith i/a?aaeue caaeaaae
i/a?aaeiie aii?in, eanathueeny ana oiai aea aii?ina, niaanaaeiee
iiyoue ioaa/ae, Nie?ao ni?aoeaae e yoi aeioiaeeei aei oiai, /oi
niaanaaeiee, a eiioea eiioeia, naiei iineaaeiei ioaaoii i?ioeai?a/ee
naiaio ia?aiio ioaaoo. Oiaaea acaaoaiiue niaanaaeiee ni?aoeaae
Nie?aoa, a nai oi ii ciaao ioaao ia yoio aii?in, Nie?ao aea niaa?oaiii
niieieii ioaa/ae, /oi ia ciaao e niieieii oaeaeyeny. E yoie naiae
eneeth/eoaeueiinoueth, aaieaeueiinoueth, eca?aiiinoueth Nie?ao e
i?ineaaeeny.

Nie?ao i?e yoii iieuecoaony a?iciui e iaiiaaaeeiui i?oaeeai-e?iieae.
Cie?aoianeay e?iiey aunooiaao a ea/anoaa aeeaeaeoe/aneie eiaooee, i?e
iin?aaenoaa eioi?ie iauaeaiiue caei?iaue niune ieacuaaaony
auioaeaeaiiui aueoe ec any/aneiai naiaai ieinoaiaiey e aeieoe – ia aei
naiiaeiaieueiiai anaciaenoaa, a aei eiiaiaioiie aio naiiio enoeiu, -yoa
e?iiey anoue ia /oi eiia, eae oi?ia, naienoaaiiay oeeinioee a aa
noauaeoeaiii ioiioaiee e iauaeaiiiio niciaieth.

Yoa e?iiey eacaeanue eaeouae io eaeie-oi caaaaei/iie, aeaiiie/aneie
neeu Nie?aoa, noaayuae aai iaae ethaeueie, eae au oaeaioeeau e oiiu
iie ie auee. ?acaaaeea yoiai aioo?aiiaai i?aainoiaenoaa, yoie neeu,
ne?uoie ca aeia?iaeooiie ooiueeie, a oii, /oi nai Nie?ao iaoycaei. A
aai naeaathueo n oieeo ?a/ao ana a?aiy /oanoaoaony iaeay oaa?aiiinoue
e iniiaaoaeueiinoue /aeiaaea, eioi?ue oioy e ia eiaao aioiaiai ioaaoa
ia naie aii?inu, ii ciaao ia/oi aieueoaa, a eiaiii: ai eiy /aai eaeao
iiene e eae eiaiii aai iaaei aanoe, /oi i?eaeaao aai e?iiee
iaiai?eioth neeo Aioay. Yoa aioo?aiiyy iniiaaoaeueiinoue Nie?aoa
enoiaeeo oaeaea ec aai oaaaeaeaiey i aiciiaeiinoe ?aoeeiiaeueiiai
iniuneaiey e iinoeaeaiey aeecie ai anao naieo i?iyaeaieyo, ai anao,
aeaaea oaiiuo e ienoe/aneeo, noi?iiao e oii/aeoeo aeaeaeaieyo
/aeiaa/aneie aeooe e eioaeeaeoa. Nie?ao oaaaeaeai, /oi ai anae
iano?ioa aeeciaiiuo ia?aaeeaaiee anoue ia/oi iauaaeeiythuaa, iaeee
iauee niune, eioi?ue iiaeao auoue au?aaeai aaeeiie eaeaae, iiiyoeai.

Eniuouaay ae?oaeo ia ioae?inoue, Nie?ao nai ioithaeue ia i?aoaiaeoao ia
caaiea ioae?aoea, iii, ii aai iiaieth, i?eee/anoaoao aiao. Anee
/aeiaae naiiaeiaieueii iieaaaao, /oi ia ana ii ciaao aioiaua ioaaou,
oi oaeie /aeiaae aeey oeeinioee iiaeaoee, aio iaca/ai eiiaoue aieiao
a iieneao iaeaieaa aa?iuo iiiyoee, iaca/ai aeaeaaoueny aeaeueoa ii
aaneiia/iui eaae?eioai iunee. Ii ii/eaaao ia eaa?ao enoeiu, eioi?ua ia
iiaa?eo ieacuaathony nia?aieai naiuo oaiaeo, ieineeo i?aaenoaaeaiee
iauaaoaeueneie i?aioae?inoe. Oae ii/eoathuee naay ioae?aoeii
ieacuaaaony anaai eeoue i?aioae?ui ianea?ai.

” ss ciath oieueei oi, /oi ie/aai ia ciath.” Yoi ecethaeaiiia
au?aaeaiea, e?aaei nie?aoianeie nianoaaiiie iiceoeee. ” ss ie/aai ia
ciath” – yoi cia/eo, /oi eae au aeaeaei y ie i?iaeaeioeny a iaeennayo
iunee, y ia oniieaeaathnue ia aeinoeaiooii, ia iaiaiuaath naay
eeethceae, /oi iieiae aea?-ioeoeo enoeiu. Ia aoaeai caauaaoue, /oi
Nie?aoa nii?iaiaeaeaee ia oieueei ainoi?aeaiiua acaeyaeu, ii e
acaeyaeu, iieiua iaiaaenoe. Iniaaiii aiciaiaaeaeaee Nie?aoa oa ec
nioenoia, eioi?ua naeaeaee eneonnoai aeieacuaaoue i?aaia e iai?aaia
naiae i?ioanneae. Eoi iieooaaony ia naiiaeiaieuenoai oaiiuo e ionouo
ethaeae, oio nia/aea /aeiaae aaniieieiue, iioii ianoa?ieiue, e
iaeiiaoe, i?anooiiee, caneoaeeaathuee nia?oe. Ia?aui iieooooeeaui,
iieona?ueaciui iaaeiaieai i?ioea Nie?aoa yaeeanue iinoaiiaea a 423
aiaeo eiiaaeee A?enoioaia “Iaeaea”. A eioi?ie Nie?ao ecia?aaeaaony
ianoa?ii “e?eauo ?a/ae”. A iaeei ec aeiae 399 aiaea aei i.y.. aeeoaee
Aoei /eoaee aunoaaeaiiue aeey anaiauaai ianoaeaeaiey oaeno: ” Yoi
iaaeiaiea iaienae e eeyoaaiii canaeaeaoaeuenoaiaae Iaeao, nui Iaeaoa,
ieoaaoe, i?ioea Nie?aoa, nuia Nio?aieena ec aeiia Aeiiaee. Nie?ao
iaaeiyaony a oii, /oi ii ia i?eciaao aiaia, eioi?uo i?eciaao ai?iae, e
aaiaeeo ae?oaeo, iiauo aiaia. Iaaeiyaony ii e a ?aca?auaiee
iieiaeaaee. O?aaoaiia iaeacaiea — nia?oue”. Iioaiieee iunee ia
i?inoeee Nie?aoo aai e?iiee, neeoeii ?aci?eoaeueiie aeey ieo. A ?a/ao
Nie?aoa ia noaea, n aieueoie ooaeiaeanoaaiiie neeie ia?aaeaiiuo
Ieaoiiii, ii?aaeaao oi, /oi ii nai niciaoaeueii e ?aoeoaeueii io?acaao
naaa ana iooe e nianaieth, ii nai eaeao iaano?a/o nia?oiiio i?eaiai?o.
A aai ?annoaeaeaieyo iiaenioaeii aueaony iuneue: ?ac oae, aoeiyia, au
aeioee aei oaeiai iici?a, /oi noaeeoa ioae?aeoaai ec yeeeiia, oi eniaeoa
/aoo iici?a aei aeia. Ia iaiy, Nie?aoa, noaeeoa au, a naieo naay, ia
iia auiineoa i?eaiai?, a naaa, ia aan eiaeeoueny ianiuaaaiia eeaeii.
Eeoay aeecie ioae?iai e aeaai?iaeiiai /aeiaaea, iauanoai naay eeoaao
ioae?inoe e aeaai?iaenoaa, eeoaao naay noeioee?othuae neeu, euouae,
e?eoe/aneie, aaniieiyuae iunee. E aio iaiy, /aeiaaea iaaeeeoaeueiiai e
noa?iai( Nie?aoo auei oiaaea 70 eao ), aeiaiaea oa, /oi ianoeaaao ia
oae no?aieoaeueii, – nia?oue, a iieo iaaeieoaeae, ethaeae neeueiuo e
i?iai?iuo, – oa, /oi aaaeeo auno?aa, – enii?/aiiinoue. ss ooiaeo
ionthaea, i?eaiai?aiiue aaie e nia?oe, a iie iaaeieoaee ooiaeyo,
oee/aiiua i?aaaeith a ceiaeaenoaa e iani?aaaaeeeainoe. O ii?iaa nia?oe
Nie?ao i?i?i/anoaoao, /oi oio/an iinea aai aeaaee iinoeaiao aoeiyi
ea?a aieaa oyaeaeay, /ai oa, eioi?ie aai iiea?aee. Nie?ao nai inoaeee
naay ia nia?oue, e, oaea inoaeaeaiiue, oaa?aei ioeacaeny io ?aaeueiie
aiciiaeiinoe aaaeaoue ec oth?ueiu e oeoe a ecaiaiea. Ii aeia?iaieueii
aeae ?aniyoue naay ia e?anoa ” ioa/aneeo caeiiia ” e iinooiee aanueia
oeo?ioiii e aeaeueiiaeaeii, eo/oei ia?acii i?iaeaiiino?e?iaaa
iaenoeiiinoue yoeo caeiiia anaio ie?o. I?i?i/anoai Nie?aoa naueinue:
iici? iae ia aieiau aai noaeae, e i?aaeaea anaai ia aieiau
iaaeieoaeae. Iie, oae aea eae oe?ai, noaeeaoee Caiiia Yeaeneiai, auee
iiaeou eaiaiueyie e, eae niiauaao Ieooa?o, iiaaneeenue, oae eae ia
auianee i?ac?aiey aoeiyi, eeoeaoeo eo “iaiy e aiaeu”.

Nia?oue Nie?aoa yaeeanue iineaaeiei e naiui iaee/eoaeueiui, naiui
aaieaeueiui aai oeeinioneei i?iecaaaeaieai, aucaaaoei aeoaieia
a?iaeaiea oiia e iiao/ee iauanoaaiiue ?aciiain ia i?ioyaeaiee iiiaeo
aaeia /aeiaa/aneie enoi?ee. THiue o/aiee Nie?aoa – Ieaoii,
i?enoonoaiaaaoee ia noaeaaiii i?ioeanna, eniuoae ianoieueei neeueiia
i?aanoaaiiia iio?ynaiea, /oi oyaeaei caaieae. ” Eae aeeoue aeaeueoa a
iauanoaa, eioi?ia ea?aao ca ioae?inoue ?” – aio aii?in, eioi?ue anoae
ia?aae Ieaoiiii ai anae naiae ae?aiaoe/iinoe e eioi?ue ii?iaeee ae?oaie
aii?in: ” Eaeei aeieaeii auoue iauanoai, iino?iaiiia a iieiii
niioaaonoaee n ioae?inoueth?” Oae ?iaeeeanue ia?aay oeeinioneay ooiiey
i “ni?aaaaeeeaii” (aeey naiaai a?aiaie) iauanoaaiiii no?ia, ieacaaoay
aiineaaenoaee aieueoia aeeyiea ia aicieeiiaaiea e ?acaeoea
ooiie/aneiai nioeeaeecia.

Nie?ao – i?aaenoaaeoaeue eaeaaeenoe/aneiai ?aeeaeicii-i?aanoaaiiiai
ie?iaicc?aiey, ioe?uoi a?aaeaeaaiiai iaoa?eaeecio. Aia?aua eiaiii Nie?ao
niciaoaeueii iinoaaee ia?aae niaie caaea/o iainiiaaiey eaeaaeecia e
aunooiee i?ioea aioe/iiai iaoa?eaeenoe/aneiai ie?iiiieiaiey,
anoanoaaiiiiao/iiai ciaiey e aacaiaeey. Nie?ao enoi?e/anee aue
ca/eiaoaeai ” oaiaeaioeee, eee eeiee Ieaoiia ” a aioe/iie oeeinioee.

Nie?ao – aaeeeee aioe/iue ioae?aoe, – noieo o enoieia
?aoeeiiaeenoe/aneeo e i?inaaoeoaeueneeo o?aaeeoeee aa?iiaeneie iunee.
Aio i?eiaaeeaaeeo auaeathuaany ianoi a enoi?ee ii?aeueiie oeeinioee e
yoeee, eiaeee, aeeaeaeoeee, iieeoe/aneeo e i?aaiauo o/aiee. Aeeyiea,
ieacaiiia ei ia i?ia?ann /aeiaa/aneiai iiciaiey, iuouaaony aei iaoeo
aeiae. Ii iaanaaaea aioae a aeooiaioth eoeueoo?o /aeiaa/anoaa.

Ia?ac aeecie Nie?aoa, i?aanoaaiiua e iieeoe/aneea eieeecee a aai
noaeueaa, iiioey?iue noeeue oeeinionoaiaaiey, aieineay aeiaeanoue e
ioaeanoai, o?aae/aneee oeiae – ie?oaeeee aai eiy i?eoyaaoaeueiui
i?aieii eaaaiaea?iinoe. Neaaa, eioi?ie Nie?ao oaeinoieeny aua i?e
aeecie, eaaei ia?aaeeaaea oeaeua yiioe e, ia iiia?eioa, neaicue oieuo
aeaoo n iieiaeiie ouny/aeaoee aeioea aei iaoeo aeiae. Nie?aoii
eioa?aniaaeenue e oaeaeaeenue ai ana a?aiaia. Io aaea e aaeo
aoaeeoi?ey aai niaanaaeieeia eciaiyeanue, ii ia oauaaea. E naaiaeiy iia,
ianiiiaiii, iiiaiethaeiaa, /ai eiaaea au oi ie auei. A oeaio?a
nie?aoianeie iunee – oaia /aeiaaea, i?iaeaiu aeecie e nia?oe, aeia?a e
cea, aeia?iaeaoaeae e i?i?ieia, i?aaa e aeieaa, naiaiaeu e
ioaaonoaaiiinoe iauanoaa. E nie?aoianeea aanaaeu – iio/eoaeueiue e
aaoi?eoaoiue i?eia? oiai, eae iiaeii i?eaioe?iaaoueny a /aua yoeo
aa/ii aeooaeueiuo aii?inia. Ia?auaiea e Nie?aoo ai ana a?aiaia auei
iiiuoeie iiiyoue naay e naia a?aiy. E iu, i?e anai naiaia?acee iaoae
yiioe e iiaecia caaea/, ia eneeth/aiea.

Nie?ao – i?eioeeieaeueiue a?aa eco/aiey i?e?iaeu. ?aaioo /aeiaa/aneiai
?acoia a yoii iai?aaeaiee ii n/eoaao ia/anoeaui e aanieiaeiui
aiaoaoaeuenoaii a aeaei aiaia. Ie? i?aaenoaaeyaony Nie?aoo oai?aieai
aiaeanoaa, “noieue aaeeeiai e anaiiaouaai, /oi iii ana n?aco e aeaeeo,
e neuoeo, e iianthaeo i?enoonoaoao, e iai anai eiaao iiia/aiea”.
Ioaeiu aaaeaiey, a ia iao/iua enneaaeiaaiey, /oiau iieo/eoue oeacaiey
aiaia ioiineoaeueii eo aiee. E a yoii ioiioaiee Nie?ao ie/ai ia
ioee/aeny io ethaiai iaaaaeanoaaiiiai aeeoaey Aoei. Ii neaaeiaae
oeacaieyi aeaeueoeeneiai i?aeoea e niaaoiaae aeaeaoue yoi naiei
o/aieeai. Nie?ao aeeo?aoii i?eiinee aea?oau aiaai e aiiaua noa?aoaeueii
auiieiye ana ?aeeaeiciua ia?yaeu.

Iniiaiie caaea/ae oeeinioee Nie?ao i?eciaaae iainiiaaiea
?aeeaeicii-i?aanoaaiiiai ie?iaicc?aiey, iiciaiea aea i?e?iaeu,
iaoo?oeeinioeth n/eoae aeaeii iaioaeiui e aacaiaeiui.

Niiiaiea (“y ciath, /oi ie/aai ia ciath”) aeieaeii auei, ii o/aieth
Nie?aoa, i?eaanoe e naiiiiciaieth (“iiciae naiiai naay”). Oieueei
oaeei eiaeeaeaeoaeenoe/aneei, iooai, o/ee ii, iiaeii i?eeoe e
iiieiaieth ni?aaaaeeeainoe, i?aaa, caeiia, aeaai/anoey, aeia?a e cea.
Iaoa?eaeenou, eco/ay i?e?iaeo, i?eoee e io?eoeaieth aiaeanoaaiiiai
?acoia a ie?a, nioenou iiaeaa?aee niiiaieth e iniayee ana i?aaeiea
acaeyaeu, – iaiaoiaeeii iiyoiio, niaeanii Nie?aoo, ia?aoeoueny e
iiciaieth naiiai naay, /aeiaa/aneiai aeooa e a iai iaeoe iniiao
?aeeaee e ii?aee. Oaeei ia?acii, iniiaiie oeeinioneee aii?in Nie?ao
?aoaao eae eaeaaeeno: ia?ae/iui aeey iaai yaeyaony aeoo, niciaiea,
i?e?iaea aea – yoi ia/oi aoi?e/iia e aeaaea ianouanoaaiiia, ia noiyuaa
aieiaiey oeeinioa. Niiiaiea neoaeeei Nie?aoo i?aaeiinueeie aeey
ia?auaiey e nianoaaiiiio ss, e noauaeoeaiiio aeooo, aeey eioi?iai
aeaeueiaeoee iooue aae e iauaeoeaiiio aeooo – e aiaeanoaaiiiio ?acoio.
Eaeaaeenoe/aneay yoeea Nie?aoa ia?a?anoaao a oaieiaeth. ?acaeaay
naia ?aeeaeicii-i?aanoaaiiia o/aiea, Nie?ao a i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue
iaoa?eaeenoai, i?ecuaathuei “i?eneooeaaoueny e i?e?iaea”, nnueaoueny ia
iniaue aioo?aiiee aiein, yeiau ianoaaeyaoee aai a aaaeiaeoeo aii?inao,
– ciaiaieoue “aeaiii” Nie?aoa.

Nie?ao aunooiaao i?ioea aeaoa?ieiecia ae?aaiaa?a/aneeo iaoa?eaeenoia e
iaia/aao iniiau oaeaieiae/aneiai ie?iiiieiaiey, i?e/ai caeanue
enoiaeiui ioieoii aeey iaai yaeyaony noauaeo, eai ii n/eoaao, /oi ana
a ie?a eiaao naiae oeaeueth iieueco /aeiaaea.

Oaeaieiaey Nie?aoa aunooiaao a e?aeia i?eieoeaiie oi?ia. I?aaiu /oanoa
/aeiaaea, niaeanii yoiio o/aieth, naiae oeaeueth eiatho auiieiaiea
ii?aaeaeaiiuo caaea/: oeaeue aeac – aeaeaoue, ooae – neooaoue, iina –
iaiiyoue e o.i. ?aaiui ia?acii aiae iinueatho naao, iaiaoiaeeiue
ethaeyi aeey c?aiey, ii/ue i?aaeiacia/aia aiaaie aeey ioaeuoa ethaeae,
naao eoiu e caacae eiaao naiae oeaeueth iiiiaaoue ii?aaeaeaieth
a?aiaie. Aiae caaioyony i oii, /oiau caiey i?iecaiaeeea ieuo aeey
/aeiaaea, aeey /aai aaaaeai niioaaonoaothuee ?anii?yaeie a?aiai aiaea;
aieaa oiai, aeaeaeaiea nieioea i?ienoiaeeo ia oaeii ?annoiyiee io caiee,
/oiau ethaee ia no?aaeaee io eceeoiaai oaiea eee /?acia?iiai oieiaea e
o.i.

Naiaai oeeinioneiai o/aiey Nie?ao a ienueiaiioth oi?io ia iaeaeae, ii
?ani?ino?aiye aai iooai onoiie aanaaeu a oi?ia naiaia?aciiai,
iaoiaeieiae/anee iai?aaeaiiiai e ii?aaeaeaiiie oeaee nii?a. Ia
ia?aie/eaaynue ?oeiaiaeyuae ?ieueth a i?aaeaeao naiaai
oeeinionei-iieeoa/aneiai e?oaeea, Nie?ao a?iaeee ii Aoeiai e anthaeo –
ia ieiuaaeyo, ia oeeoeao, a ianoao iauanoaaiiuo nia?aiee, ia
caai?iaeiie eoaeaeea eee iiae i?aii?iui ii?oeeii – aae “aanaaeu” n
aoeiyiaie e caacaeeie /oaeano?aioeaie, noaaee ia?aae ieie oeeinioneea,
?aeeaeicii-i?aanoaaiiua i?iaeaiu, aae n ieie aeeeoaeueiua nii?u,
noa?aeny iieacaoue, a /ai caeeth/aaony, ii aai oaaaeaeaieth,
aeaenoaeoaeueii ii?aeueiay aeeciue, aunooiae i?ioea iaoa?eaeenoia e
nioenoia, aae iaooiieioth onoioth i?iiaaaiaeo naiaai yoe/aneiai
eaeaaeecia.

?ac?aaioea eaeaaeenoe/aneie ii?aee ninoaaeyao iniiaiia yae?i
oeeinioneeo eioa?ania e caiyoee Nie?aoa. Iniaia cia/aiea Nie?ao
i?eaeaaae iiciaieth nouiinoe aeia?iaeaoaee. I?aanoaaiiue /aeiaae
aeieaeai ciaoue, /oi oaeia aeia?iaeaoaeue. Ii?aeue e ciaiea n yoie
oi/ee c?aiey niaiaaeatho; aeey oiai, /oiau auoue aeia?iaeaoaeueiui,
iaiaoiaeeii ciaoue aeia?iaeaoaeue eae oaeiaoth, eae “anaiauaa”,
neoaeauaa iniiaiie anao /anoiuo aeia?iaeaoaeae. Caaea/a
iaoiaeaeaiey “anaiauaai” aeieaeai aue, ii iunee Nie?aoa, niinianoaiaaoue
aai iniaue oeeinioneee iaoiae. “Nie?aoianeee” iaoiae, eiaaoee naiae
caaea/ae iaia?oaeaiea “enoeiu” iooai aanaaeu, nii?a, iieaieee, yaeeny
enoi/ieeii eaeaaeenoe/aneie “aeeaeaeoeee”. “Iiae aeeaeaeoeeie iiieiaee
a ae?aaiinoe eneonnoai aeiaeoueny enoeiu iooai

?ane?uoey i?ioeai?a/ee a noaeaeaiee i?ioeaieea e i?aiaeieaiey yoeo
i?ioeai?a/ee. A ae?aaiinoe iaeioi?ua oeeiniou n/eoaee, /oi ?ane?uoea
i?ioeai?a/ee a iuoeaiee e noieeiiaaiea i?ioeaiiieiaeiuo iiaiee yaeyaony
eo/oei n?aaenoaii iaia?oaeaiey enoeiu”. Iaaeaeo oai eae Aa?aeeeo
o/ee i ai?ueaa i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoae, eae i aeaeaeouae neea ?acaeoey
i?e?iaeu, nin?aaeioi/ea naia aieiaiea, aeaaiui ia?acii, ia iauaeoeaiie
aeeaeaeoeea, Nie?ao, iie?aynue ia yeaeneoth oeieo ( Caiii ) e nioenoia
( I?ioaai? ), aia?aua io/aoeeai iinoaaee aii?in i noauaeoeaiie
aeeaeaeoeea, i aeeaeaeoe/aneii niiniaa iuoeaiey. Iniiaiua ninoaaiua
/anoe “nie?aoe/aneiai” iaoiaea: “e?iiey” e “iaeaaoeea” – ii oi?ia,
“eiaeoeoeey” e “ii?aaeaeaiea” – ii niaea?aeaieth. “Nie?aoe/aneee”
iaoiae – yoi i?aaeaea anaai iaoiae iineaaeiaaoaeueii e nenoaiaoe/anee
caaeaaaaiuo aii?inia, eiathueo naiae oeaeueth i?eaaaeaiea niaanaaeieea
e i?ioeai?a/eth n naiei niaie, e i?eciaieth nianoaaiiiai iaaaaeanoaa.
A yoii e ninoieo nie?aoianeay “e?iiey”. Iaeiaei Nie?ao noaaee naiae
caaea/ae ia oieueei “e?iie/aneia” ?ane?uoea i?ioeai?a/ee a
ooaa?aeaeaieyo niaanaaeieea, ii e i?aiaeieaiea yoeo i?ioeai?a/ee n
oeaeueth aeiaeoueny “enoeiu”. Iiyoiio i?iaeieaeaieai e aeiiieiaieai
“e?iiee” neoaeeea “iaeaaoeea” – “iiaeaaeueiia eneonnoai” Nie?aoa (
iaiae ia i?ioanneth aai iaoa?e ). Nie?ao oioae yoei neacaoue, /oi ii
iiiiaaao naiei neooaoaeyi ?iaeeoueny e iiaie aeecie, e iiciaieth
“anaiauaai” eae iniiau enoeiiie ii?aee. Iniiaiay caaea/a
“nie?aoe/aneiai” iaoiaea – iaeoe “anaiauaa” a i?aanoaaiiinoe,
onoaiiaeoue anaiauoth i?aanoaaiioth iniiao ioaeaeueiuo, /anoiuo
aeia?iaeaoaeae. Yoa caaea/a aeieaeia auoue ?ac?aoaia i?e iiiiue
naiaia?aciie “eiaeoeoeee” e “ii?aaeaeaiey”.

Aanaaea Nie?aoa enoiaeeo ec oaeoia aeecie, ec eiie?aoiuo yaeaiee. Ii
n?aaieaaao ioaeaeueiua yoe/aneea oaeou, auaeaeyao ec ieo iauea yeaiaiou,
aiaeece?oao eo, /oiau iaia?oaeeoue i?aiyonoaothuea eo iauaaeeiaieth
i?ioeai?a/auea iiiaiou, e, a eiia/iii n/aoa, naiaeeo eo e aunoaio
aaeeinoao ia iniiaa iouneaiiuo nouanoaaiiuo i?eciaeia. Oaeei iooai ii
aeinoeaaao iauaai iiiyoey. Oae, iai?eia?, enneaaeiaaiea ioaeaeueiuo
i?iyaeaiee ni?aaaaeeeainoe eee iani?aaaaeeeainoe ioe?uaaei
aiciiaeiinoue ii?aaeaeaiey iiiyoey e nouiinoe ni?aaaaeeeainoe eee
iani?aaaaeeeainoe aiiaua. “Eiaeoeoeey” e “ii?aaeaeaiea” a aeeaeaeoeea
Nie?aoa acaeiii aeiiieiytho ae?oa ae?oaa. Anee “eiaeoeoeey” – yoi
iouneaiea iauaai a /anoiuo aeia?iaeaoaeyo iooai eo aiaeeca e
n?aaiaiey, oi “ii?aaeaeaiea” – yoi onoaiiaeaiea ?iaeia e aeaeia, eo
niioiioaiey, “niiiae/eiaiey”. Aio eae, iai?eia?, a ?acaiai?a n
Aaoeaeaiii, aioiaeaoeiny e ainoaea?noaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe e aeaeaaoei
ciaoue, /oi oaeia ni?aaaaeeeainoue e iani?aaaaeeeainoue, Nie?ao
i?eiaiee naie “aeeaeaeoe/aneee” iaoiae iuoeaiey. Nia/aea Nie?ao
i?aaeeiaeee aeaea ni?aaaaeeeainoe caiineoue a a?aoo “aeaeueoa”, a
aeaea iani?aaaaeeeainoe – a a?aoo “aeueoa”, caoai ii ni?inee Aaoeaeaia,
eoaea caianoe eiaeue. Aaoeaeai i?aaeeiaeee caianoe eiaeue a a?aoo
“aeueoa” (iani?aaaaeeeainoe). Oi aea i?aaeeiaeee ii e a ioiioaiee
iaiaia, ai?ianoaa e iioeuaiey ethaeae aeey i?iaeaaee a ?aanoai. ?aaiui
ia?acii ia aii?in Nie?aoa iiaeii ee /oi-eeai ec ia?a/eneaiiiai caianoe
a a?aoo “aeaeueoa” (ni?aaaaeeeainoe), Aaoeaeai ioaa/ae ?aoeoaeueiui
io?eoeaieai. Oiaaea Nie?ao caaeae Aaoeaeaio aii?in oaeiai ?iaea:
ni?aaaaeeeai ee ia?auaiea a ?aanoai aeeoaeae iani?aaaaeeeaiai
iai?eyoaeueneiai ai?iaea. Aaoeaeai i?eciae iiaeiaiue iinooiie
ni?aaaaeeeaui. Oiaaea Nie?ao caaeae iiaeiaiue aea aii?in ioiineoaeueii
iaiaia iai?eyoaey e ioiineoaeueii e?aaee e a?aaaaea aeia?a o aeeoaeae
iai?eyoaeueneiai ai?iaea. Ana yoe iinooiee Aaoeaeai i?eciae
ni?aaaaeeeauie, oeacaa, /oi ii ia?aiia/aeueii aeoiae, aoaeoi au
aii?inu Nie?aoa eanathony oieueei ae?ocae. Oiaaea Nie?ao oeacae, /oi
ana iinooiee, ia?aiia/aeueii ioianaiiua e a?aoa iani?aaaaeeeainoe,
neaaeoao iiianoeoue a a?aoo ni?aaaaeeeainoe. Aaoeaeai niaeaneeny n
yoei. Oiaaea Nie?ao cayaee, /oi, neaaeiaaoaeueii, i?aaeiaa
“ii?aaeaeaiea” iai?aaeeueii e /oi neaaeoao auaeaeiooue iiaia
“ii?aaeaeaiea”: “Ii ioiioaieth e a?aaai oaeea iinooiee ni?aaaaeeeau, a
ii ioiioaieth e ae?ocueyi iani?aaaaeeeau, e ii ioiioaieth e iei,
iai?ioea, neaaeoao auoue eae iiaeii ni?aaaaeeeaaa”. Iaeiaei e ia yoii
Nie?ao ia inoaiiaeeny e, niiaa i?eaaaay e “eiaeoeoeee”, iieacae, /oi e
yoi “ii?aaeaeaiea” iai?aaeeueii e o?aaoao caiaiu aai ae?oaei. Aeey
aeinoeaeaiey yoiai ?acoeueoaoa Nie?ao niiaa iaia?oaeeaaao i?ioeai?a/ey
a iieiaeaiee, i?eciaiiii niaanaaeieeii ca enoeiiia,a eiaiii a oacena i
oii, /oi a ioiioaiee ae?ocae neaaeoao aiai?eoue oieueei i?aaaeo.
I?aaeeueii ee iinooieo aiaia/aeueiee, ni?aoeaaao Nie?ao, anee ii, aeey
oiai /oiau iiaeiyoue aeoo aienea, nieaeao naiei aieiai, aoaeoi au
i?eaeeaeathony nithcieee. Aaoeaeai niaeaoaaony, /oi iiaeiaiiai ?iaea
iaiai ae?ocae neaaeoao caianoe a a?aoo “aeaeueoa”, a ia “aeueoa”, eae
yoi i?aaeiieaaaaony i?aaeuaeouei “ii?aaeaeaieai”. ?aaiui ia?acii,
i?iaeieaeaao “eiaeoeoeeth” Nie?ao, ia ni?aaaaeeeai ee aoaeao, anee
ioaoe iaiaiao naiaai caaieaaoaai nuia, ia aeaeathuaai i?eieiaoue
eaea?noai, e iiae aeaeii ieue canoaaeo aai yoi eaea?noai i?eiyoue, e
oai naiui naiae eiaeueth aa?iao nuio caei?iauea. Aaoeaeai niaeaoaaony,
/oi e oaeiai ?iaea iaiai neaaeoao i?eciaoue aeaeii ni?aaaaeeeaui.
Oiaaea Nie?ao ni?aoeaaao aai, eae iacaaoue iinooiie oiai /aeiaaea,
eioi?ue, aeaey naiaai ae?oaa a ninoiyiee io/ayiey e aiynue, eae au ii
ia eii/ee aeeciue naiioaeenoaii, oe?aaeao eee i?inoi ioieiao o iaai
i?oaeea. Yoo e?aaeo, eee yoio a?aaaae, Aaoeaeai oaeaea auioaeaeai
caianoe a a?aoo ni?aaaaeeeainoe, ia?ooay niiaa i?aaeuaeouaa
“ii?aaeaeaiey” e i?eoiaey e auaiaeo, iiaeneacaiiiio Nie?aoii, /oi e n
ae?ocueyie ia ai anao neo/ayo iaaei auoue i?aaaeeauie. Iinea yoiai
Nie?ao ia?aoiaeeo e aii?ino i ?acee/ee aeia?iaieueiiai e
iaaeia?iaieueiiai iinooiea, i?iaeieaeay naith “eiaeoeoeeth” e
aeiaeaaynue iiaiai, aua aieaa oi/iiai “ii?aaeaeaiey” ni?aaaaeeeainoe e
iani?aaaaeeeainoe. A eiia/iii eoiaa iieo/aaony ii?aaeaeaiea
iani?aaaaeeeauo iinooieia eae oao, eioi?ua niaa?oathony a ioiioaiee
ae?ocae n iaia?aieai ei iaa?aaeeoue. Enoeia e i?aanoaaiiinoue aeey
Nie?aoa – iiiyoey niaiaaeathuea. ” Iaaeaeo ioae?inoueth e
i?aanoaaiiinoueth Nie?ao ia aeaeae ?acee/ey: ii i?eciaaae /aeiaaea
aianoa e oiiui e i?aanoaaiiui, anee /aeiaae, iiieiay, a /ai ninoieo
i?ae?aniia e oi?ioaa, ?oeiaiaenoaoaony yoei a naieo iinooieao e,
iaiai?io, ciay, a /ai ninoieo i?aanoaaiii aacia?aciia, ecaaaaao aai…

Ni?aaaaeeeaua iinooiee e aiiaua ana iinooiee, iniiaaiiua ia
aeia?iaeaoaee, i?ae?aniu e oi?ioe. Iiyoiio ethaee, ciathuea, a /ai
ninoiyo oaeea iinooiee, ia caoioyo niaa?oeoue ieeaeie ae?oaie iinooiie
aianoi iaai, a ethaee, ia ciathuea, ia iiaoo eo niaa?oeoue e, aeaaea
anee iiiuoathony niaa?oeoue, aiaaeatho a ioeaeo. A oae eae
ni?aaaaeeeaua e aiiaua ana i?ae?aniua e oi?ioea iinooiee iniiaaiu ia
aeia?iaeaoaee, oi ec yoiai neaaeoao, /oi e ni?aaaaeeeainoue e anyeay
ae?oaay aeia?iaeaoaeue anoue ioae?inoue”.

Enoeiiay ni?aaaaeeeainoue, ii Nie?aoo, yoi ciaiea oiai, /oi oi?ioi e
i?ae?anii, aianoa n oai e iieacii /aeiaaeo, niinianoaoao aai
aeaaeainoao, aeeciaiiiio n/anoueth.

O?aiy iniiaiuie aeia?iaeaoaeyie Nie?ao n/eoae:

1. Oia?aiiinoue (ciaiea, eae iaocaeuaaoue no?anoe)

2. O?aa?inoue (ciaiea, eae i?aiaeieaoue iianiinoe)

3. Ni?aaaaeeeainoue (ciaiea, eae niaethaeaoue caeiiu aiaeanoaaiiua e
/aeiaa/aneea). Oieueei “aeaai?iaeiua ethaee” iiaoo i?aoaiaeiaaoue ia
ciaiea. A “caieaaeaeueoeu e ae?oaea ?aai/ea i/aiue aeaeaee io oiai,
/oiau ociaoue naieo naay… aaaeue iie ciatho oieueei oi, /oi eiaao
ioiioaiea e oaeo e neoaeeo aio… A iioiio, anee iiciaiea naiiai naay
anoue i?eciae ?acoiiinoe, ieeoi ec yoeo ethaeae, ia iiaeao auoue
?acoiiui a neeo iaeiiai naiaai ?aianea”. ?aai/aio, ?aianeaiieeo,
caieaaeaeueoeo, o.a. anaio aeaiino (ia aiai?y oaea i ?aaao), iaaeinooiii
ciaiea.

Nie?ao aue iai?eie?eiui a?aaii aoeineeo ia?iaeiuo iann. Ii aue
eaeaieiaii a?enoie?aoee, aai o/aiea i iacuaeaiinoe, aa/iinoe e
iaeciaiiinoe ii?aeueiuo ii?i au?aaeaao eaeaieiaeth eiaiii yoiai
eeanna. Nie?aoianeay i?iiiaaaeue aeia?iaeaoaee eiaea iieeoe/aneia
iacia/aiea. Ii nai aiai?eo i naaa, /oi caaioeony, /oiau iiaeaioiaeoue
eae iiaeii aieueoa eeoe, niiniaiuo i?eiyoueny ca iieeoe/aneoth
aeayoaeueiinoue. I?e yoii iieeoe/aneia ainieoaiea aoeineiai
a?aaeaeaieia aaeinue ei a oaeii iai?aaeaiee, /oiau iiaeaioiaeoue
ainnoaiiaeaiea iieeoe/aneiai ainiiaenoaa a?enoie?aoee, aa?iooueny e
“caaaoai iooeia”.

Ii Enaiioiioo, Nie?ao ainoi?aaaony “naiuie ae?aaieie e naiuie
ia?aciaaiiuie ainoaea?noaaie e ia?iaeaie”, iioiio /oi iie “naiua
iaaiaeiua”. Aieueoa oiai: ” …ii aeoiaao, /oi aio ia nouaeii aoaeao
acyoue ca ia?acaoe ia?neaeneiai oea?y”, iioiio /oi ia?neaeneee oea?ue
n/eoaao caieaaeaeea e aiaiiia eneonnoai aeaai?iaeiaeoeie caiyoeyie.
Caiey e aiaiiia eneonnoai – eneiiiay i?eiaaeeaaeiinoue “aeaai?iaeiuo
ainiiae”, ?iaeiaie caieaaeaaeaeue/aneie a?enoie?aoee. Nie?ao, ii
Enaiioiioo, ainiaaaao caieaaeaeea. Ii aeaao aiciiaeiinoue noeeoue
“oi?ioea iaauaiey ?aaai” e “i?eioi/eaaoue ?aai/eo e neeiiyoue eo e
iineooaieth”. Naeueneia oicyenoai – iaoue e ei?ieeeoea anao eneonnoa,
enoi/iee aeeciaiiuo iio?aaiinoae aeey “aeey aeaai?iaeiiai ainiiaeeia”,
eo/oaa caiyoea e eo/oay iaoea. Iii niiauaao oaeo e?anioo e neeo,
iiaoaeaeaao e o?aa?inoe, aeaao ioee/iuo e iaeaieaa i?aaeaiiuo iauaio
aeaao a?aaeaeai. I?e yoii naeueneia oicyenoai i?ioeaiiieaaaaony
ai?iaeneei caiyoeyi, ?aianeai eae a?aaeyuei aeaeo e ?ac?ooathuei
aeooo. Nie?ao ia noi?iia ionoaeie aea?aaie — i?ioea ai?iaea n aai
?aianeaie, i?iiuoeaiiinoueth e oi?aiaeae. Oaeia eaeaae Nie?aoa. Iaaei
auei ainieoaoue aaeaioia yoiai eaeaaea. Ionthaea iaonoaiiay,
iai?a?uaiay, eci aeiy a aeaiue aaaeouayny i?iiaaaiaee/aneay
aeayoaeueiinoue Nie?aoa. Nie?ao aanaaeoao i o?aa?inoe, aeaai?acoiee,
ni?aaaaeeeainoe, ne?iiiinoe. Ii oioae au aeaeaoue a aoeineeo
a?aaeaeaiao ethaeae o?aa?uo, ii ne?iiiuo, ia o?aaiaaoaeueiuo,
aeaai?acoiiuo, ni?aaaaeeeauo a ioiioaieyo ei naiei ae?ocueyi, ii
ioithaeue ia e a?aaai. A?aaeaeaiei aeieaeai aa?eoue a aiaia, i?eiineoue
ei aea?oau e aiiaua eniieiyoue ana ?aeeaeiciua ia?yaeu, iaaeayoueny ia
ieeinoue aiaia e ia iicaieyoue naaa “aea?cinoe” eco/aoue ie?, iaai,
ieaiaou. Neiaii, a?aaeaeaiei aeieaeai auoue nie?iui, aiaiaiyciaiiui,
iineooiui i?oaeeai a ?oeao “aeaai?iaeiuo ainiiae”. Neaaeoao,
iaeiiaoe, oiiiyiooue, /oi Nie?ao iaiaoee oae aea eeanneoeeaoeeth
ainoaea?noaaiiuo oi?i, enoiaey ec iniiaiuo iieiaeaiee naiaai
yoeei-iieeoe/aneiai o/aiey. Ainoaea?noaaiiua oi?iu, oiiieiaaiua
Nie?aoii, oaeiau: iiia?oey, oe?aiey, a?enoie?aoey, ieooie?aoey e
aeaiie?aoey.

Iiia?oey, n oi/ee c?aiey Nie?aoa, oai ioee/aaony io oe?aiee, /oi
iie?aaony ia caeiiiua i?aaa, a ia ia ianeeuenoaaiiue caoaao aeanoe, a
iiyoiio e iaeaaeaao ii?aeueiui cia/aieai, ionoonoaothuei o oe?aiee.
A?enoie?aoeth, eioi?ay ii?aaeaeyaony eae aeanoue iaiiiaeo ciathueo e
ii?aeueiuo ethaeae, Nie?ao i?aaeii/eoaao anai ae?oaei ainoaea?noaaiiui
oi?iai, a iniaaiiinoe iai?aaeyy ino?ea naiae e?eoeee i?ioea aioe/iie
aeaiie?aoee eae iai?eaieaiie n aai oi/ee c?aiey aaci?aanoaaiiie oi?iu
ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe.

Nie?ao – i?ioeaiee aoeineie aeaiie?aoee. Ia ianoi aii?ina i einiina,
aii?ina i /aeiaaea ni anaie aai naycyie ii noaaeo aio?iiiceoeci. Nie?ao
i?aoaiaeiaae ia ?ieue i?inaaoeoaey. Ii aea a?aa eco/aiey i?e?iaeu
(aiaoaoaeuenoaa a aeaei aiaia). Caaea/a aai oeeinioee – iainiiaaiea
?aeeaeicii-i?aanoaaiiiai ie?iaicc?aiey, iiciaiea i?e?iaeu – aacaiaeiia
aeaei. Ii Nie?aoo, niiiaiea aaaeao e naiiiiciaieth, caoai e iiieiaieth
ni?aaaaeeeainoe, i?aaa, caeiia, cea, aeia?a. Ii aea neacae, /oi
iiciaiea /aeiaa/aneiai aeooa – aio aeaaiia. Niiiaiea aaaeao e
noauaeoeaiiio aeooo (/aeiaae), a caoai aaaeao e iauaeoeaiiio aeooo
(aia). Iiyoue aea ii Nie?aoo, iniaia cia/aiea eiaao iiciaiea nouiinoe
aeia?iaeaoaee. Ii iinoaaee aii?in i aeeaeaeoe/aneii iaoiaea iuoeaiey. Ii
aea oaaaeee, /oi enoeia – yoi i?aanoaaiiinoue. A enoeiiay
i?aanoaaiiinoue — yoi ciaiea oiai, /oi oi?ioi. E yeeoa?iinoue ciaiey
aaaeao e aeia?iaeaoaee.

Nie?ao aue oeaeueiui /aeiaaeii, aeey eioi?iai nianoaaiiay aeeciue auea
oeeinioneie i?iaeaiie, a aaaeiaeoei ec i?iaeai oeeinioee aue aii?in i
niunea aeecie e nia?oe. Ia ioaeaeyy oeeinioee io aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, io
anao i?i/eo noi?ii aeayoaeueiinoe, ii aua iaiueoa iiaeiai a eaeii au oi
ie auei ?an/eaiaiee naiie oeeinioee. Aai ie?iaicc?aiea auei noieue aea
oeaeueiui, caiiui, aeeciaiiui, noieue aea iieiui e aeoaieei
au?aaeaieai aeooiaiie aeecie e aioe/iiai ie?a.

Ii oi, /aai ia naeaeae nai Nie?ao, naeaeaea ca iaai enoi?ey. Iia oi?ioi
iio?oaeeeanue iaae oai, /oiau eaoaeiaece?iaaoue iaeie aai auneacuaaiey
eae yoe/aneea, ae?oaea – eae aeeaeaeoe/aneea, iaeie – eae
eaeaaeenoe/aneea, ae?oaea – eae noeoeeii-iaoa?eaeenoe/aneea, iaeie –
eae ?aeeaeiciua, ae?oaea — eae a?eoe/aneea. Aai i?eciaaaee “naiei”
naiua ?aciua eaeaieiae/aneea oa/aiey, aio a aeio noaaeeenue
oeeinioneea iaeiinoi?iiiinoe e iaeiiaieinoe, a eioi?uo Nie?ao ia iia
auoue iiaeiai. Oa e?eoa?ee, eioi?uie iu eaeaieiae/anee ?an/eaiyai
oeeinioeth iiaiai a?aiaie ia ?acee/iua oeieu e iai?aaeaiey, Nie?aoo, a
oai aieaa e aai i?aaeoanoaaiieeai, iai?eiaieiu.

Enoi?ey oi?ioi ii?aaioaea oaeaea iaae oai, /oiau ana ia?oai?iaeaeaiiia
a ianeaaeee Nie?aoa aeiaanoe aei naieo e?aeieo i?aaeaeia ieaiaiaeinoe,
aei eaiiiece?iaaiiuo eaeieia ianniaiai niciaiey, iooaiea oai naiui
aeeaua e aeeaioai?iua ?iaeieee nie?aoianeie iunee – aai e?iieth e
aeeaeaeoeeo.

Ynoiinei-Aia?eeaineee Aecian Eieeaaeae

Naaa?i – Ainoi/iue oeeeae

OEEINIOEss

/enei:

———–

I. Oiiyeia

Yeiiiie/aneee o-oao

WE-202

—————

—————

Aaaeouee i?aiiaeaaaoaeue

IA?AA 1997

Nienie eeoa?aoo?u:

« Nie?ao, Ieaoii, A?enoioaeue, Naiaea » AEeciue caia/aoaeueiuo ethaeae,
aeia?aoe/aneay aeaeeioaea O. Iaaeaieiaa. Iineaa, Ecaeaoaeuenoai
«?anioaeeea» 1995.

« Enoi?ey caiaaeiie oeeinioee » A. ?annae «Ieo» Iineaa 1993.

« E?aoeee i/a?e enoi?ee oeeinioee ». Ecaeaoaeuenoai «Iuneue» Iineaa.
1967. Iiae ?aaeaeoeeae I. O. Eia/oea, O. E. Ieca?iaia, E. ss. Ueiaiiaa.

« 106 oeeinioia. AEeciue, noaeueaa, o/aiea », «Oaa?ey» Neioa?iiieue,
1995. 1-ue oii, Aiaoiiey ioae?inoe.

« Oeeinioneay yioeeeeiiaaeey ». Aeaaiue ?aaeaeoi? O. A. Eiinoaioeiia.

« Enoi?ey oeeinioee a e?aoeii eceiaeaiee » Iineaa «Iuneue» 1991.

« Enoi?ey oeeinioee: Caiaae – ?inney – Ainoie: Eieaa ia?aay. Oeeinioey
ae?aaiinoe e n?aaeiaaaeiauey. » Iiae ?aaeaeoeeae i?io., I. A.
Iio?ioeeiaie, Iineaa 1996.

« Caiaaeiay oeeinioey io enoieia aei iaoeo aeiae » 1-ue oii aioe/iinoue.
OII OE «Iao?iiieen» Naieo – Iaoa?ao?a 1994. Aeaeiaaiie ?aaea e Aea?ei
Aioena?e.

« Enoi?ee aioe/iie oeeinioee » a eiiniaeoeaiii eceiaeaiee A. O. Einaa,
Iineaa «Iuneue» 1989.

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