.

Сократ и Платон: фундамент классического этапа древнегреческой философии

Язык:
Формат: реферат
Тип документа: Word Doc
0 928
Скачать документ

?aoa?ao ii eo?no oeeinioee anie?aioa 1-ai aiaea iao/aiey

*iia A.I.

Oaia:

Nie?ao e Ieaoii : ooiaeaiaio eeanne/aneiai yoaia ae?aaiaa?a/aneie
oeeinioee.

IAOE – ?AOO

Iineaa 1998

Ieai ?aoa?aoa:

1.Iuneeoaee ia oiia naiae yiioe

2.Nie?aoe/aneee iaoiae

3.Oeiea Ieaoiia

4.Iooue Nie?aoa a oeeinioeth

5.Yoe/aneee eaeaaeeci Nie?aoa

6.Nia?oue Nie?aoa

7.Iieeoe/aneea eaeae Nie?aoa

8.Eaeaaeueiia ainoaea?noai Ieaoiia

9.Iauaeoeaiue eaeaaeeci Ieaoiia

10.Iniiaiua oeeinioneea i?eioeeiu ieaoiiecia

11.No?iaiea aeooe ii Ieaoiio

12.E?aoeia caeeth/aiea

Iuneeoaee ia oiia naiae yiioe

Ianiio?y ia oi, /oi yoe eaaaiaea?iua iuneeoaee auee oa?aeoa?iui
i?iaeoeoii iaeiie e oie aea yiioe e iauanoaaiiiai no?iy, aeeee a oii aea
ianoa a iaeii e oi aea a?aiy, eo aeeciue e o/aiey ai iiiaii ?aceoaeueii
ioee/athony. Nie?ao (469 – 399 aei i. y.) e Ieaoii (427 – 347 aei i. y.)
ano?aoeeenue a 408 a. aei i. y. e ia ?annoaaaeenue aei naiie nia?oe
Nie?aoa. A 20 eao Ieaoii, iiaeathuee iiiaeanoaaiiua iaaeaaeaeu
aiaeoeeiciue thiioa, aioiaeeny o/anoaiaaoue a iiyoe/aneii ni?aaiiaaiee
eae aaoi? o?aaaaeee e neo/aeii ia?aae oaao?ii oneuoae aeeneonneth, a
eioi?ie o/anoaiaae Nie?ao. Iia ianoieueei aai oaeaeea, /oi ii naeaa naie
noeoe e ?aoee iinayoeoue naay eneeth/eoaeueii oeeinioee.

Yoio neo/ae aue ia noieueei oaeeaeoaeai, neieueei caeiiiia?ai – ?a/e
Nie?aoa auee niiniaiu iiiaioaeueii ieieaeiaaoue /aeiaaea. Aeaaea oneuoaa
eo a iaoiaeii eceiaeaiee, nia?aiaiieee /oanoaiaaee iaiaeeaeaiiia
aieiaiea e o?aiao, a iaeiaaeaeu i?eiya o/anoea a aeeneonnee, iiiaea
«inaaeaee o aai iia» iaanaaaea. Nie?aoa e?iia iiiai/eneaiiuo o/aieeia
anaaaea nii?iaiaeaeaee oieiu caaae, iaaaaeanoai eioi?uo ia iicaieyei
iiiyoue anae aeoaeiu aai iuneae, ii naia ?a/ue caai?aaeeaaea. Ianoieueei
aa niaea?aeaiea eiio?anoe?iaaei n oi?iie, ia aiai?y oae i aiaoiinoe
Nie?aoa. Ii ecaaaae o?aaeeoeeiiiuo i?aoi?neeo i?eaiia, cae?oaeaiee
ia?eiaeia e i?i/aai oe?aoaoaeuenoaa, aai ?aceay e io?uaenoay ?a/ue auea
aeeaea e i?inoiia?iaeiie. Aai oeao?a e iaia?u niio?aeenue ia eia/a eae
aucia o?aaeeoeeiiiui eaeaaeai aioe/iie oeeaeeecaoeee n aa aeaneii e
eineii e iieeiiaieai oi?iaeueiie e?anioa. «Ieceiai ?inoa e eunue, n
?acaeooui aeeaioii, oienoie e ei?ioeie oaae, auio/aiiuie aeacaie,
oienouie aoaaie e acaea?ioouie iicae?yie, Nie?ao eacaeny aeeaui naoe?ii,
ni?aaaoeiny n iueaaeanoaea e aiacaiii iiyaeaoeiny n?aaee aiaia».

Oaeeaeoaeueii nei?aa oi, /oi Ieaoii niia acaaoaiii ioianoenue e o/aieth
Nie?aoa, ia n?aco n iei nae?oaeeeny, ia?aeeaeueii eco/ae e ae?oaea
oeeinioneea oeieu, iieiaeaiey eioi?uo caeinoaiaae aieaa ioe?iaaiii. Ceua
ycuee ooaa?aeaeaee, /oi «Oeiae», iaeii ec aeaaiuo aai ni/eiaiee, ia /oi
eiia, eae ia?aneac iaeiie ieoaai?aeneie eieae, eoieaiiie ca
aaniineiaioth oeaio. Oai ia iaiaa aiineaaenoaee iie noaiiayony aeeceeie
ae?ocueyie. Ca ainaiue eao ae?oaeau Nie?ao aeae Ieaoiio oi, /aai aio ia
oaaoaei: oaa?aeoth aa?o a nouanoaiaaiea enoeiu e aunoeo oeaiiinoae
aeecie, eioi?ua iiciathony /a?ac i?eiauaiea e aeaao e e?anioa o?oaeiui
iooai aioo?aiiaai naiiniaa?oainoaiaaiey. Nie?ao n/eoae Ieaoiia iaeiei ec
ethaeiaeoeo naieo o/aieeia. Ieaoii anaaaea auniei oeaiee Nie?aoa e eae
/aeiaaea e eae iuneeoaey. Eiaaea Nie?aoa noaeeee, Ieaoii iiaeaioiaee
ieaiaiioth ?a/ue a aai caueoo, oioy Nie?ao e aic?aaeae, /oiau aai
eoi-eeai caueuae ia noaea. Iani?aaaaeeeaia inoaeaeaiea Nie?aoa neeueii
iiaeeyei ia Ieaoiia. Ii oae caaieae, /oi ia niia i?eaeoe i?enoonoaiaaoue
i?e aai nia?oe. Aiineaaenoaee noeaia nia?oe Nie?aoa noaea nthaeaoii
iaeiiai ec aai auaeathueony ni/eiaiee.

Naiaia?aciui ia?oeioai?iui iaiyoieeii iuneeoaeth noaei /anoia
oiio?aaeaiea a aeeaeiaao Ieaoiia ia?aca Nie?aoa, eae ia?niiaaea,
aiai?yuaai «io aaoi?a». Oioy e ia ana ?a/e yoiai ia?niiaaea iu iiaeai
n/eoaoue Nie?aoianeeie, ii yoi iaeei ec iaiiiaeo aeioaaeoeo aei iaoaai
a?aiaie enoi/ieeia. Aoi?ie enoi/iee – «Ainiiieiaiey» Enaiioiioa, aieaa
iaaeaeae e iiaa?oiinoai, ii aeaaiaea?y aio oaeaeinue ioaeaeeoue eaeae
Nie?aoa io eaeae Ieaoiia, aeiaeaiiuo ei a onoa Nie?aoa-ia?niiaaea.

Nie?aoe/aneee iaoiae

Nai Nie?ao ia iaienae e no?i/ee oeeinioneeo o?oaeia. A oa a?aiaia,
eiaaea eieaa auea ?oeiieniie ?aaeeinoueth, anai auee i/aaeaeiu
i?aeiouanoaa ?a/e ia?aae ienueiii, aa iaauaaeay au?aceoaeueiinoue e
aiciiaeiinoue ?aaeoeee ia aoaeeoi?eth. Aei iaoaai a?aiaie aeioea
eioi?iaoeey i 35 oeeinioneeo o?oaeao Ieaoiia ( aaoi?noai 11 ec eioi?uo
n/eoaaony niiieoaeueiui). Aieueoeinoai ec ieo auee eceiaeaiu a oi?ia
aeeaeiaa. Aeeaeia aeaaae aaoi?o aiciiaeiinoue oioue a /ai-oi
i?eaeeceoueny e aeeaie ?a/e. A oae eae noeeue Nie?aoa iniiauaaeny ia
?aaioa n niaanaaeieeii, io?aceoue aai ia ienueia auei oyaeaei. Ii
n/eoae, /oi ciaiea, iieo/aiiia /aeiaaeii a aioiaii aeaea, iaiaa oeaiii
aeey iaai e iioiio ia oae aeieaiaa/ii, eae i?iaeoeo nianoaaiiiai
iuoeaiey. E caaea/a o/eoaey eae au iiii/ue naiei neooaoaeyi
naiinoiyoaeueii ?iaeeoue ciaiey, eioi?ua a eaeii-oi niunea oaea
niaea?aeaony a eo aieiaao, eae ?aaaiie ai /?aaa iaoa?e. Yoio i?eai
Nie?ao iacuaae “iaeaaoeeie” – “iiaeaaeueiui eneonnoaii” (iaiae ia
i?ioanneth naiae iaoa?e). Nianoaaiii “nie?aoe/aneee” iaoiae – yoi
iineaaeiaaoaeueii e nenoaiaoe/anee caaeaaaaiua aii?inu, eiathuea naiae
oeaeueth i?eaaaeaiea niaanaaeieea e i?ioeai?a/eth n naiei niaie, e
i?eciaieth nianoaaiiiai iaaaaeanoaa e iineaaeothuaio oi?ie?iaaieth
iai?ioeai?a/eaiai ioaaoa, neaaeoy iooai, oeacuaaaiui aii?inaie Nie?aoa.
A oeaio?a nie?aoianeie aanaaeu – oaia /aeiaaea, i?iaeaiu aeecie e
nia?oe, aeia?a e cea, aeia?iaeaoaeae e i?i?ieia, i?aaa e aeieaa,
naiaiaeu e ioaaonoaaiiinoe, iauanoaa.

Oeiea Ieaoiia

Noeeue iauaiey Ieaoiia n o/aieeaie aiaoia aue noiae, ii a nouiinoe oiae
aanaaeu aue ca?aiaa ?anieaie?iaai. Ieaoii ia aanaaeiaae ia oeeoeao n
/a?iueth, n eaaeaeui eioa?anothueiny i?iaeaiaie i?aanoaaiiinoe, eae yoi
aeaeae Nie?ao, eioi?ue aicaae yoe «aanaaeu ?aaee iiciaiey nooe
aeia?iaeaoaee» a ?aia nianoaaiiiai i?aaeiacia/aiey. Ia aiai?y oae i oii,
/oiau caaee?aoue neeueiuo e ciaiaieouo, iieacuaay /oi iie c?y n/eoatho
naay ioae?uie. O/aieeaie Ieaoiia auee i?aeiouanoaaiii «oieaiua iieiaeua
aeaeaioeueiaiu» ec a?enoie?aoe/aneeo ?iaeia (aniiiiei oioy au naiiai
ecaanoiiai aai o/aieea – A?enoioaey). Aeey caiyoee auea iino?iaia
Aeaaeaiey a aeeaiieniii oaieea ia naaa?i-caiaaeiie ie?aeia ai?iaea.
(Ciaiaieoay oeeinioneay oeiea i?inouanoaiaaea aei naiiai eiioea
aioe/iinoe, aei 529 aiaea, eiaaea aecaioeeneee eiia?aoi? THnoeieai
cae?ue aa.) Oioy Ieaoii, iiaeiaii Nie?aoo e n/eoae /oi aceiaiea ieaou ca
ioae?inoue ie/ai ia eo/oa aceiaiey ieaou ca ethaiaue, e oae aea eae e ii
iacuaae nioenoia «i?inoeoooaie io oeeinioee» ca oi, /oi iie o?aaiaaee
aeaiueae n o/aieeia, yoi ia iaoaei Ieaoiio i?eieiaoue aiaaoua iiaea?ee e
any/aneoth iiiiuue io neeueiuo ie?a naai.

Ieaoii (ianoiyuaa eiy A?enoiee ), aue nuiii A?enoiia e Ia?eeoeiiu.
Ieaoii ?in a ciaoiie, noa?eiiie, oea?neiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey naiuea n
i?i/iuie a?enoie?aoe/aneeie o?aaeeoeeyie, niciathuae enoi?eth Aoei eae
enoi?eth naiaai ?iaea. Eae e iiaeiaaao /aeiaaeo oaeiai nioeeaeueiiai
iieiaeaiey, ii ieeiaaea ia neiiaoece?iaae ieaano. I?aaaea aiineaaenoaee
Ieaoii ?aci/a?iaaeny e a i?eaiaeiinoe ?iaeiaie a?enoie?aoee e i?aaeaieth
ainoaea?noaii. Yoi i?iecioei iinea iyoaaea e aanneaaiiai i?aaeaiey 30
oe?aiia, iiiaea ec eioi?uo auee aio aeecee. Aeey oi?aaeaiey naiei
i?iaeoii ooiie/aneiai ainoaea?noaa aio i?eoeinue o/?aaeeoue iiaue eeann
oeeinioia, niaoeeaeueiui ia?acii au?aueaaaiuo.

Iooue Nie?aoa a oeeinioeth

Nie?ao oiaea i?ace?ae /a?iue e any/anee auniaeaae ?aaeeeaeueiuo
aeaiie?aoia, /oi e i?eaaei e aai nia?oiiio i?eaiai?o. “Caieaaeaeueoeu e
ae?oaea ?aaioathuea aanueia aeaeaee io oiai, /oiau ciaoue naieo naay…
Aaaeue iie ciatho eeoue oi, /oi iaaeeaaeeo oaeo e neoaeeo aio… A
iioiio, anee iiciaiea naiiai naay anoue caeii ?acoia, ieeoi ec yoeo
ethaeae ia iiaeao auoue ?acoiiui io ciaiey naiaai i?ecaaiey”. Ioithaeue
ia a?enoie?ao, nui aoeineiai eaiaiioana Nio?iienea e iiaeoooe Oaia?aou
ia eiae aeaiaa, /oiau iieo/eoue auaeathuaany ia?aciaaiea. Ii noa?aieyie
aeaaiaeaoaeae, ia?aoeaoeo aieiaiea ia aai iaaethaeeiiue oi, ii iieo/ee
aiciiaeiinoue eco/eoue eo/oea oeeinioneea oeieu. A 25 eao ii caa?inee
iooeianeia ?aianei e caiyeny oeeinioeae. Ia?aua aai oeeinioneea
ec?a/aiey i?eoiaeyony ia a?aiy y?u Ia?eeea, o. a. ia ia/aei
Iaeiiiiianeie aieiu. Aio oaea auei ieiei 40 eao.

E nouanoaothuei oeeinioneei oeieai ii eniuouaae oieueei i?ac?aiea e
aiineaaenoaee aiai?ee, /oi aai aicc?aiey ainieoaea naia aeeciue. Ii
n/eoae yoeo oeeinioia ie/ai ia eo/oa noianoaaeoeo, eioi?ua naie ia
ciatho /aai iie aeiaeaathony. E?ueaoay o?aca «ss ciath oieueei oi, /oi
ie/aai ia ciath» icia/aao ia noieueei no?iaia e naaa ioiioaiea,
iaaeiioeaieo naiiai naay eee iaiaoiaeeiinoue aieaa aeoaieiai
naiiiiciaiey, neieueei iaiaoiaeeiinoue ia?aii/a?aaeiiai iiciaiey /oi
oaeia Enoeia, E?anioa, Aeia?iaeaoaeue. Ioaaoa ia yoio aii?in Nie?ao ia
iaoae o nia?aiaiiuo aio oeie e iioiio ?aoee, /oi iiciaiea i?e?iaeu eee
iaoaoeceee ia niiaeao oeo/oeoue aeeciue ethaeae, ia ?acae?athueony a
?aeeaeicii – i?aanoaaiiuo i?iaeaiao, a eioi?uo ii aai iiaieth
caeeth/aaony ii?aeueiua ii?iu.

Yoe/aneee eaeaaeeci Nie?aoa

Nie?aoa enoiaeeo oaeaea ec naiaai oaaaeaeaiey i aiciiaeiinoe
?aoeeiiaeueiiai iniuneaiey e iinoeaeaiey aeecie ai anao naieo
i?iyaeaieyo, ai anao, aeaaea oaiiuo e ienoe/aneeo, noi?iiao e oii/aeoeo
aeaeaeaieyo /aeiaa/aneie aeooe e eioaeeaeoa. Nie?ao oaaaeaeai, /oi ai
anae iano?ioa aeeciaiiuo ia?aaeeaaiee anoue ia/oi iauaaeeiythuaa, iaeee
iauee niune, eioi?ue iiaeao auoue au?aaeai aaeeiie eaeaae, iiiyoeai.

Nie?ao aae i?iiaaaiaeo naiaai yoe/aneiai eaeaaeecia. ?ac?aaioea
eaeaaeenoe/aneie ii?aee ninoaaeyao iniiaiia yae?i oeeinioneeo eioa?ania
e caiyoee Nie?aoa. A aanaaeao e aeeneonneyo Nie?ao ia?auae aieiaiea ia
iiciaiea nooe aeia?iaeaoaee. Eae iiaeao auoue /aeiaae, anee ii ia ciaao,
/oi oaeia aeia?iaeaoaeue? A aeaiiii neo/aa iiciaiea nooe aeia?iaeaoaee,
iiciaiea oiai, /oi anoue “i?aanoaaiiia”, yaeyaony aeey iaai
i?aaeiinueeie i?aanoaaiiie aeecie e aeinoeaeaiey aeia?iaeaoaee. Nie?aoa
ioiaeaeanoaeyao ii?aeue n ciaieai. I?aanoaaiiinoue — ciaiea oiai, /oi
anoue aeaai e i?ae?aniia e aianoa n oai iieaciia aeey /aeiaaea, /oi
iiiiaaao aio aeinoe/ue aeaaeainoaa e aeeciaiiiai n/anouey. I?aanoaaiiue
/aeiaae aeieaeai ciaoue, /oi oaeia aeia?iaeaoaeue. Ii?aeue e ciaiea n
yoie oi/ee c?aiey niaiaaeatho. Aeey oiai, /oiau auoue aeia?iaeaoaeueiui,
iaiaoiaeeii ciaoue aeia?iaeaoaeue eae oaeiaoth, eae “anaiauaa”,
neoaeauaa iniiaiie anao /anoiuo aeia?iaeaoaeae.

Nia?aiaiiiio /aeiaaeo, ie?oaeaiiiio ni anao noi?ii aeaaaie, iieo/aiiuie
eae ?ac ca n/ao enneaaeiaaiey i?e?iaeu, oyaeaei iiiyoue a?aaa eco/aiey
i?e?iaeu («einiina»). Ii aeey Nie?aoa e aai nia?aiaiieeia ana auei
iaiai?io. Nie?ao neoaeee eo/oei i?eia?ii, /aai iiaeao aeinoe/ue /aeiaae,
neaaeothuee aai o/aieth – iiciaieth /aeiaa/aneiai aeooa. Aeinoaoi/ii
aniiiieoue ia?ac aeecie Nie?aoa, i?aanoaaiiua e iieeoe/aneea eieeecee a
aai noaeueaa, aai ioae?inoue, aieineoth aeiaeanoue e ioaeanoai,
o?aae/aneee oeiae. Neaaa, eioi?ie Nie?ao oaeinoieeny aua i?e aeecie,
eaaei ia?aaeeaaea oeaeua yiioe e, ia iiia?eioa, neaicue oieuo aeaoo n
iieiaeiie ouny/aeaoee aeioea aei iaoeo aeiae.

Nie?ao aei eiioea aeecie noaaee ioae?inoue iaecia?eii auoa aiaaonoaa.
Ceiie e eaoii, a oyaeaeuo aiaiiuo iioiaeao ii oiaeee a ieioiiueeii
oeoiia, aineeii. Oaa?aiiinoue a i?aaeeueiinoe naiaai iooe, a nianoaaiiie
aeia?iaeaoaee aeaaaee aio neeu aeeoue n aeaiie Enaioeiiie,
iaannia?oeaoae naia eiy aani?eia?iie naa?eeainoueth, ieeiaaea ia eaeoe
ia iiaiaeo e oieiu e oe?aiia, oioue au yoi e oa?iaeaei aai aeecie, eae
yoi e neo/eeinue ia noaea. A iiaeiaiuo neo/ayo ia?aae Nie?aoii ia
anoaaaea aeeeaiia, ia auei ieeaeiai io/eoaeueiiai auai?a. Inoaaaynue
aaniethoii niieiai, Nie?ao iinooiae oae, eae aaeaei aai ie?iaicc?aiea,
aai «aeaiii».

Nia?oue Nie?aoa

Yoio ciaiaieoue “aeaiii” Nie?aoa, aai iniaue aioo?aiiee aiein, yeiau
ianoaaeyaoee aai a aaaeiaeoeo aii?inao, iineoaeee a?aaai iaeiei ec
aeaaiuo iiaiaeia aeey iaaeiaiey. A iaeei ec aeiae 399 aiaea aei i. y.
aeeoaee Aoei /eoaee aunoaaeaiiue aeey anaiauaai ianoaeaeaiey oaeno: “Yoi
iaaeiaiea iaienae e eeyoaaiii canaeaeaoaeuenoaiaae Iaeao, nui Iaeaoa,
ieoaaoe, i?ioea Nie?aoa, nuia Nio?aieena ec aeiia Aeiiaee. Nie?ao
iaaeiyaony a oii, /oi ii ia i?eciaao aiaia, eioi?uo i?eciaao ai?iae, e
aaiaeeo ae?oaeo, iiauo aiaia. Iaaeiyaony ii e a ?aca?auaiee iieiaeaaee.
O?aaoaiia iaeacaiea – nia?oue”.

Ia?aui a?iiii, ia?aui iieooooeeaui, iieona?ueaciui iaaeiaieai i?ioea
Nie?aoa yaeeanue iinoaiiaea a 423 aiaeo eiiaaeee A?enoioaia “Iaeaea”. A
eioi?ie Nie?ao ecia?aaeaaony ianoa?ii “e?eauo ?a/ae”. Ii Nie?ao ie ca
/oi ia noae au aanoe naay inoi?iaeiaa. A ?a/ao Nie?aoa ia noaea, n
aieueoie ooaeiaeanoaaiiie neeie ia?aaeaiiuo Ieaoiiii, ii?aaeaao oi, /oi
ii nai niciaoaeueii e ?aoeoaeueii io?eoeaao naaa ana iooe e nianaieth,
ii nai eaeao iaano?a/o nia?oiiio i?eaiai?o. «Ia iaiy, Nie?aoa, noaeeoa
au, a naieo naay, ia iia auiineoa i?eaiai?, a naaa. Ia aan eiaeeoueny
ianiuaaaiia eeaeii. Eeoay aeecie ioae?iai e aeaai?iaeiiai /aeiaaea,
iauanoai naay eeoaao ioae?inoe e aeaai?iaenoaa, naay eeoaao
noeioee?othuae neeu, euouae, e?eoe/aneie, aaniieiyuae iunee. E aio iaiy,
/aeiaaea iaaeeeoaeueiiai e noa?iai( Nie?aoo auei oiaaea 70 eao ),
aeiaiaea oa, /oi ianoeaaao ia oae no?aieoaeueii, – nia?oue, a iieo
iaaeieoaeae, ethaeae neeueiuo e i?iai?iuo, – oa, /oi aaaeeo auno?aa, –
enii?/aiiinoue. ss ooiaeo ionthaea, i?eaiai?aiiue aaie e nia?oe, a iie
iaaeieoaee ooiaeyo, oee/aiiua i?aaaeith a ceiaeaenoaa e
iani?aaaaeeeainoe.» O ii?iaa nia?oe Nie?ao i?i?i/anoaoao, /oi oio/an
iinea aai aeaaee iinoeaiao aoeiyi ea?a aieaa oyaeaeay, /ai oa, eioi?ie
aai iiea?aee.

Nia?oue Nie?aoa yaeeanue iineaaeiei e naiui iaee/eoaeueiui, naiui
aaieaeueiui aai oeeinioneei i?iecaaaeaieai, aucaaaoei aeoaieia a?iaeaiea
oiia e iiao/ee iauanoaaiiue ?aciiain ia i?ioyaeaiee iiiaeo aaeia
/aeiaa/aneie enoi?ee. Ii nai inoaeee naay ia nia?oue, e, oaea
inoaeaeaiiue, oaa?aei ioeacaeny io ?aaeueiie aiciiaeiinoe aaaeaoue ec
oth?ueiu e oeoe a ecaiaiea. Nie?ao aeia?iaieueii aeae ?aniyoue naay ia
e?anoa “ioa/aneeo caeiiia”, iioiio /oi n/eoae, /oi eiaiii iiaeiiaaiea
caeiiai (ionoue e ia oaeei oi?ioei, eae neaaeiaaei au) n/eoae
aeia?iaeaoaeueth e i?iiiaaaeiaae.

Iieeoe/aneea eaeae Nie?aoa

Iaoaeiaeaoai?aiiue nouanoaothuae aeaiie?aoeae, Nie?ao i?aaeuyaeye i/aiue
aunieea o?aaiaaiey e iieeoe/aneei aeayoaeyi. Aeeaea anaai e yoei
o?aaiaaieyi iaoiaeeeanue a?enoie?aoey. Nie?ao aiai?eo i naaa, /oi
caaioeony, /oiau iiaeaioiaeoue eae iiaeii aieueoa eeoe, niiniaiuo
i?eiyoueny ca iieeoe/aneoth aeayoaeueiinoue. Ii e aieaecuyaeaiea
ia?iaea, aai caeiiu ii n/eoae nayuaiiuie. Auiieiyoue caeiiu – cia/eo
iinooiaoue ni?aaaaeeeai.

Ii Enaiioiioo, Nie?ao ainoi?aaaony “naiuie ae?aaieie e naiuie
ia?aciaaiiuie ainoaea?noaaie e ia?iaeaie”, iioiio /oi iie “naiua
iaaiaeiua”. Ii aeaaea ” …aeoiaao, /oi aio ia nouaeii aoaeao acyoue ca
ia?acaoe ia?neaeneiai oea?y”, iioiio /oi ia?neaeneee oea?ue n/eoaao
caieaaeaeea e aiaiiia eneonnoai aeaai?iaeiaeoeie caiyoeyie. Caiey e
aiaiiia eneonnoai – eneiiiay i?eiaaeeaaeiinoue “aeaai?iaeiuo ainiiae”,
?iaeiaie caieaaeaaeaeue/aneie a?enoie?aoee. Nie?ao ainiaaaao
caieaaeaeea. Ii aeaao aiciiaeiinoue noeeoue “oi?ioea iaauaiey ?aaai” e
“i?eioi/eaaoue ?aai/eo e neeiiyoue eo e iineooaieth”. Naeueneia
oicyenoai – iaoue e ei?ieeeoea anao eneonnoa, enoi/iee aeeciaiiuo
iio?aaiinoae aeey “aeey aeaai?iaeiiai ainiiaeeia”, eo/oaa caiyoea e
eo/oay iaoea. Iii niiauaao oaeo e?anioo e neeo, iiaoaeaeaao e o?aa?inoe,
aeaao ioee/iuo e iaeaieaa i?aaeaiiuo iauaio aeaao a?aaeaeai. I?e yoii
naeueneia oicyenoai i?ioeaiiieaaaaony ai?iaeneei caiyoeyi, ?aianeai eae
a?aaeyuei aeaeo e ?ac?ooathuei aeooo.

Nie?ao aanaaeoao i o?aa?inoe, aeaai?acoiee, ni?aaaaeeeainoe, ne?iiiinoe.
Ii oioae au aeaeaoue a aoeineeo a?aaeaeaiao ethaeae o?aa?uo, ii
ne?iiiuo, ia o?aaiaaoaeueiuo, aeaai?acoiiuo, ni?aaaaeeeauo a ioiioaieyo
ei naiei ae?ocueyi, ii ioithaeue ia e a?aaai. A?aaeaeaiei aeieaeai aa?eo
a aiaia, i?eiineoue ei aea?oau e aiiaua eniieiyoue ana ?aeeaeiciua
ia?yaeu, iaaeayoueny ia ieeinoue aiaia e ia iicaieyoue naaa “aea?cinoe”
eco/aoue ie?, iaai, ieaiaou. Neiaii, a?aaeaeaiei aeieaeai auoue nie?iui,
aiaiaiyciaiiui, iineooiui i?oaeeai a ?oeao “aeaai?iaeiuo ainiiae”.

Ni/eiaiea Enaiioiioa auei iaienaii eae aic?aaeaiea iani?aaaaeeeaiio
iaaeiaieth a iieeoe/aneie iaaeaaiiaaeaaeiinoe, iioiio a iai aaoi?
eceaaaao acaeyaeu Nie?aoa eiaiii oaeei ia?acii.

Neaaeoao, iaeiiaoe, oiiiyiooue, /oi Nie?ao iaiaoee oae aea
eeanneoeeaoeeth ainoaea?noaaiiuo oi?i, enoiaey ec iniiaiuo iieiaeaiee
naiaai yoeei-iieeoe/aneiai o/aiey. Ainoaea?noaaiiua oi?iu, oiiieiaaiua
Nie?aoii, oaeiau: iiia?oey, oe?aiey, a?enoie?aoey, ieooie?aoey e
aeaiie?aoey. Iiia?oey, n oi/ee c?aiey Nie?aoa, oai ioee/aaony io
oe?aiee, /oi iie?aaony ia caeiiiua i?aaa, a ia ia ianeeuenoaaiiue caoaao
aeanoe, a iiyoiio e iaeaaeaao ii?aeueiui cia/aieai, ionoonoaothuei o
oe?aiee. A?enoie?aoeth, eioi?ay ii?aaeaeyaony eae aeanoue iaiiiaeo
ciathueo e ii?aeueiuo ethaeae, Nie?ao i?aaeii/eoaao anai ae?oaei
ainoaea?noaaiiui oi?iai.

Eaeaaeueiia ainoaea?noai Ieaoiia

Ieaoii ?acaee e oniaa?oainoaiaae iieeoe/aneea eaeae naiaai o/eoaey.
Nioeeaeueii-iieeoe/aneei aii?inai iinayuaiu ianeieueei i?iecaaaeaiee
Ieaoiia: o?aeoao “Ainoaea?noai”, aeeaeiae “Caeiiu”, “Iieeoee”. Ana iie
iaienaiu a aeai?a aeeaeiaa iaaeaeo Nie?aoii e ae?oaeie a?a/aneeie
oeeinioaie, iai?eia?, Aeaaeiiii, Aaeeiaioii, Eaoaeii. A naieo
i?iecaaaeaieyo Ieaoii aiai?eo i iiaeaee “eaeaaeueiiai”, eo/oaai
ainoaea?noaa. Yoa iiaeaeue ia anoue iienaiea eaeiai-eeai nouanoaothuaai
no?iy, nenoaiu, a, iai?ioea, iiaeaeue oaeiai ainoaea?noaa, eioi?iai
ieaaea e ieeiaaea ia auei, ii eioi?ia aeieaeii aicieeiooue, oi anoue
Ieaoii aiai?eo ia eaeaa ainoaea?noaa, nicaeaao i?iaeo, ooiieth. Aaoi?
iaiaeiie?aoii i?iaiaae aiieioeoue a aeeciue naie i?iaeo iioeiaeueiiai
ainoaea?noaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey. Ia Neoeeeee, a Ne?aeocao, ai a?aiaia
Ieaoiia auei i?aaeaiea i?inaauaiiiai oe?aia Aeeiieney, a aai oo?ei Aeaii
aue iieeiiieeii Ieaoiia. Iiiuoee aoeineiai oeeinioa i?eiaieoue naie
oai?ee anee ia aeey oi?aaeaiey anae oa??eoi?eae, oi oioy au iaaieueoei
naeaieai, aaeaa ia caeii/eeenue aeaaeueth, e oieueei ec-ca Aeeiia aai
oieueei i?iaeaee a ?aanoai. Aiieea?eae, aeeoaeue Yaeiu, ociaa a aioiaii
aeey i?iaeaaee iaaieueieea ecaanoiiai oeeinioa, eoiee aai e iaiaaeeaiii
aeae aio naiaiaeo. Oae aea aanneaaii caeii/eeenue e aeaa iineaaeothuea
iiiuoee ono?ieoue a Ne?aeocao ainoaea?noaaiiia oi?aaeaiea ia iniiaao
?acoia.

Ieaoiia iiiaia a oaea nouanoaothueo ainoaea?noaao ia ono?aeaaei
i?eioeeieaeueii. A o?aeoaoa “Ainoaea?noai” Ieaoii ieoao i oii, /oi
aeaaiay i?e/eia ii?/e iauanoa e ainoaea?noa (eioi?ua eiaaea-oi, ai
a?aiaia “cieioiai aaea” eiaee “niaa?oaiiue” no?ie) caeeth/aia a
“ainiiaenoaa ei?unoiuo eioa?ania”, iaoneaaeeaathueo iinooiee e
iiaaaeaiea ethaeae. A niioaaonoaee n yoei iniiaiui iaaeinoaoeii Ieaoii
iiae?acaeaeyao ana nouanoaothuea ainoaea?noaa ia /aou?a ?aciiaeaeiinoe a
ii?yaeea oaaee/aiey, ia?anoaiey “ei?unoiuo eioa?ania” a eo no?ia.

1. Oeiie?aoey aeanoue /anoiethaoeaa, ii iiaieth Ieaoiia, aua nio?aieea
/a?ou “niaa?oaiiiai” no?iy. A ainoaea?noaa oaeiai oeia i?aaeoaee e aieiu
auee naiaiaeiu io caieaaeaeue/aneeo e ?aianeaiiuo ?aaio. Aieueoia
aieiaiea oaeaeyaony nii?oeaiui oi?aaeiaieyi, iaeiaei oaea caiaoii
no?aieaiea e iaiaauaieth, e “i?e o/anoee aeai” nia?oaineee ia?ac aeecie
ia?aoiaeeo a ?ineioiue, /oi iaoneaaeeaaao ia?aoiae e ieeaa?oee.

2. Ieeaa?oey. A ieeaa?oe/aneii ainoaea?noaa oaea eiaaony /aoeia
?acaeaeaiea ia aiaaouo (i?aayuee eeann) e aaaeiuo, eioi?ua aeaeatho
aiciiaeiie niaa?oaiii aaccaaioioth aeeciue i?aayuaai eeanna. ?acaeoea
ieeaa?oee, ii oai?ee Ieaoiia, i?eaiaeeo e aa ia?a?iaeaeaieth a
aeaiie?aoeth.

3. Aeaiie?aoey. Aeaiie?aoe/aneee no?ie aua aieaa oneeeaaao
?aciauaiiinoue aaaeiuo e aiaaouo eeannia iauanoaa, aicieeatho ainnoaiey,
e?iaii?ieeoey, ai?ueaa ca aeanoue, /oi iiaeao i?eaanoe e aicieeiiaaieth
iaeooaeoae ainoaea?noaaiiie nenoaiu oe?aiee.

4. Oe?aiey. Ii iiaieth Ieaoiia, anee iaeia aeaenoaea aeaeaaony neeoeii
neeueii, oi yoi i?eaiaeeo e i?ioeaiiieiaeiiio ?acoeueoaoo. Oae e
caeanue: ecauoie naiaiaeu i?e aeaiie?aoee i?eaiaeeo e aicieeiiaaieth
ainoaea?noaa, aiiaua ia eiathuaai naiaiaeu, aeeaouaai ii i?eoioe iaeiiai
/aeiaaea oe?aia.

Io?eoeaoaeueiua oi?iu ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe Ieaoii i?ioeaiiinoaaeyao
naiaio aeaeaieth “eaeaaeueiiai” iauanoaaiiiai ono?ienoaa. Ia?iiiia
aieiaiea aaoi? oaeaeyao ii?aaeaeaieth a ainoaea?noaa ianoa i?aayuaai
eeanna. Ii aai iiaieth, i?aaeoaeyie “eaeaaeueiiai” ainoaea?noaa aeieaeiu
auoue eneeth/eoaeueii oeeiniou, aeey oiai /oiau a ainoaea?noaa
aeanoaiaaee ?annoaeeoaeueiinoue, ?acoi. Eiaiii oeeiniou iaoneaaeeaatho
aeaaininoiyiea, ni?aaaaeeeainoue ainoaea?noaa Ieaoiia, aaaeue ei
naienoaaiiu “…i?aaaeeainoue, ?aoeoaeueiia iai?eyoea eaeie au oi ie
auei eaee, iaiaaenoue e iae e ethaiaue e enoeia”. Ieaoii n/eoaao, /oi
ethaia iiaoanoai a eaeaaeueiii ainoaea?noaa iaecaaaeii oooaeoeo aai
(iaeuecy oeo/oeoue “eaeaaeueiia”). I/aaeaeii, /oi eiaiii oeeiniou aoaeoo
io?aiyoue “eaeaaeueiue” no?ie, caeiiu io any/aneeo iiaiaaaaeaiee, aaaeue
iie iaeaaeatho “…anaie ea/anoaaie i?aaeoaeae e no?aaeae eaeaaeueiiai
ainoaea?noaa”. Eiaiii iiyoiio aeayoaeueiinoue oeeinioia iaoneaaeeaaao
nouanoaiaaiea “eaeaaeueiiai” ainoaea?noaa, aai iaeciaiiinoue. Ii
nouanoao, oeeiniou io?aiytho inoaeueiuo ethaeae io ii?iea, eaeei
yaeyaony ethaia iiaiaaaaeaiea a ainoaea?noaa Ieaoiia. Ia iaiaa aaaeii e
oi, /oi aeaaiaea?y oeeinioai i?aaeaiea e any aeeciue “eaeaaeueiiai”
ainoaea?noaa aoaeao iino?iaia ii caeiiai ?acoia, ioae?inoe, oai ia
aoaeao ianoa ii?uaai aeooe e /oanoaai.

Anee a ainoaea?noaa Ieaoiia nouanoaotho ethaee, eioi?ua caieiathony
caeiiaie e ono?ienoaii ainoaea?noaa, oi anoanoaaiii i?aaeiieiaeeoue, /oi
a iai nouanoaotho e ethaee, caieiathueany eneeth/eoaeueii caieaaeaeeai,
?aianeii. Aeaenoaeoaeueii, iniiaiie caeii nouanoaiaaiey “eaeaaeueiiai”
ainoaea?noaa ninoieo a oii, /oi eaaeaeue /eai iauanoaa iaycai auiieiyoue
oieueei oi aeaei, e eioi?iio ii i?eaiaeai.

Anao aeeoaeae “eaeaaeueiiai” ainoaea?noaa aaoi? ?acaeaeyao ia o?e
eeanna. Iecoee eeann iauaaeeiyao ethaeae, eioi?ua i?iecaiaeyo
iaiaoiaeeiua aeey ainoaea?noaa aaue eee niinianoaotho yoiio; a iaai
aoiaeyo naiua ?aciua ethaee, naycaiiua n ?aianeii, caieaaeaeeai,
?uii/iuie iia?aoeeyie, aeaiueaaie, oi?aiaeae e ia?ai?iaeaaeae yoi
caieaaeaeueoeu, ?aianeaiieee, oi?aiaoeu. Ia niio?y ia oi, /oi
oi?aiaoeaie e caieaaeaeueoeaie iiaoo auoue niaa?oaiii ?acee/iua ethaee,
ana iie, ii Ieaoiio, noiyo i?eaeeceoaeueii ia iaeiie nooiaie
i?aanoaaiiiai ?acaeoey. Aioo?e yoiai iecoaai eeanna oaeaea nouanoaoao
/aoeia ?acaeaeaiea o?oaea: eociaoe ia iiaeao caiyoueny oi?aiaeae, a
oi?aiaaoe ii nianoaaiiie i?eoioe ia iiaeao noaoue caieaaeaeueoeai.

I?eiaaeeaaeiinoue /aeiaaea ei aoi?iio e o?aoueaio eeannai, a yoi eeannu
aieiia-no?aaeae e i?aaeoaeae-oeeinioia, ii?aaeaeyaony oaea ia ii
i?ioanneiiaeueiui, a ii i?aanoaaiiui e?eoa?eyi. I?aanoaaiiua ea/anoaa
yoeo ethaeae Ieaoii noaaeo ai?acaei auoa i?aanoaaiiuo ea/anoa ia?aiai
eeanna.

Oae Ieaoii nicaeaao oioaeeoa?ioth nenoaio ?acaeaeaiey ethaeae ia
?ac?yaeu, eioi?ay iaiiiai niya/aaony aiciiaeiinoueth ia?aoiaea ec eeanna
a eeann (yoi aeinoeaaaony iooai aeeeoaeueiiai ainieoaiey e
naiiniaa?oainoaiaaiey). Ia?aoiae yoio inouanoaeyaony iiae ?oeiaiaenoaii
i?aaeoaeae. Oa?aeoa?ii, /oi anee aeaaea n?aaee i?aaeoaeae iiyaeony
/aeiaae, aieueoa iiaeoiaeyuee aeey iecoaai eeanna, oi aai iaiaoiaeeii
“iiieceoue” aac niaeaeaiey. Oaeei ia?acii, Ieaoii n/eoaao, /oi aeey
aeaaininoiyiey ainoaea?noaa eaaeaeue /aeiaae aeieaeai caieiaoueny oai
aeaeii, aeey eioi?iai ii i?eniiniaeai iaeeo/oei ia?acii. Anee /aeiaae
aoaeao caieiaoueny ia naiei aeaeii, ii aioo?e naiaai eeanna, oi yoi aua
ia aeaaeueii aeey “eaeaaeueiiai” ainoaea?noaa. Eiaaea aea /aeiaae
iacaneoaeaiii ec naiiaeieea (ia?aue eeann) noaiiaeony aieiii (aoi?ie
eeann), eee aea aiei iacaneoaeaiii noaiiaeony i?aaeoaeai (o?aoee eeann),
oi yoi a?iceo e?aoii anaio ainoaea?noao, iiyoiio oaeie “ia?aneie”
n/eoaaony “aunoei i?anooieaieai” i?ioea nenoaiu, aaaeue aeey aeaaa anaai
ainoaea?noaa a oeaeii /aeiaae aeieaeai aeaeaoue oieueei oi aeaei, e
eioi?iio ii iaeeo/oei ia?acii i?eniiniaeai.

Aneaae ca Nie?aoii, n/eoaaoei o?aiy iniiaiuie aeia?iaeaoaeyie
oia?aiiinoue (ciaiea, eae iaocaeuaaoue no?anoe), o?aa?inoue (ciaiea, eae
i?aiaeieaoue iianiinoe), ni?aaaaeeeainoue (ciaiea, eae niaethaeaoue
caeiiu aiaeanoaaiiua e /aeiaa/aneeo), Ieaoii ieoao i oii, /oi
“eaeaaeueiia” ainoaea?noai aeieaeii iaeaaeaoue, ii iaiueoae ia?a,
/aou?ueiy aeaaiuie aeia?iaeaoaeyie: ioae?inoueth, ioaeanoaii,
?annoaeeoaeueiinoueth, ni?aaaaeeeainoueth.

Ioae?inoueth ia iiaoo iaeaaeaoue ana aeeoaee ainoaea?noaa, ii
i?aaeoaee-oeeiniou, eca?aiiua ethaee, aaconeiaii, ioae?u e i?eieiatho
ioae?ua ?aoaiey. Ioaeanoaii iaeaaeaao aieueoaa eiee/anoai ethaeae, yoi
ia oieueei i?aaeoaee-oeeiniou, ii e aieiu-no?aaee. Anee ia?aua aeaa
aeia?iaeaoaee auee oa?aeoa?iu oieueei aeey ii?aaeaeaiiuo eeannia
ethaeae, oi ?annoaeeoaeueiinoue aeieaeia auoue i?enoua anai aeeoaeyi,
iia “iiaeiaia iaeie aa?iiiee”, iia “iano?aeaaao ia naie eaae ?aoeoaeueii
ana oeaeeeii”. Iiae /aoaa?oie aeia?iaeaoaeueth ni?aaaaeeeainoueth aaoi?
iiieiaao oaea ?anniio?aiiia aeaeaiea ethaeae ia ?ac?yaeu, eanou:
“…caieiaoueny naiei aeaeii e ia aiaoeaaoueny a /oaeea yoi anoue
ni?aaaaeeeainoue”. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, ?acaeaeaiea ethaeae ia eeannu eiaao
aeey Ieaoiia ia?iiiia cia/aiea, ii?aaeaeyao nouanoaiaaiea “eaeaaeueiiai”
ainoaea?noaa (aaaeue iii ia iiaeao auoue iani?aaaaeeeaui), e oiaaea
iaoaeeaeoaeueii, /oi ia?ooaiea eanoiaiai no?iy n/eoaaony aunoei
i?anooieaieai. Oae ainoaea?noai Ieaoiia iacaiaoii, ?aaee eo/oae oeaee,
i?eia?aoaao oa iaaeinoaoee, eioi?ua ?anniao?eaae nai aaoi?, iienuaay
“ii?i/iua” ainoaea?noaa (iai?eia?, ?anneiaiea iauanoaa a ieeaa?oe/aneii
ainoaea?noaa).

Oa?aeoa?ii, /oi Ieaoii, aeeaoee ai a?aiaia anaiauaai
?aaiaeaaeaeue/aneiai no?iy, ia oaeaeyao ?aaai iniaiai aieiaiey. A
“Ainoaea?noaa” ana i?iecaiaenoaaiiua caaiou aiceaaathony ia
?aianeaiieeia e caieaaeaeueoeaa. Caeanue aea Ieaoii ieoao, /oi a ?aanoai
iiaeii ia?auaoue oieueei “aa?aa?ia”, iayeeeiia, ai a?aiy aieiu. Iaeiaei
ii aea aiai?eo, /oi aieia cei, aicieeathuaa a ii?i/iuo ainoaea?noaao
“aeey iaiaauaiey”, e a “eaeaaeueiii” ainoaea?noaa aieiu neaaeoao
ecaaaaoue, neaaeiaaoaeueii, ia aoaeao e ?aaia. Eae ienae A.O. Anion, a
o?aeoaoa “Ainoaea?noai” “…eeann ?aaia eae iaeei ec iniiaiuo eeannia
ia?acoeiaiai ainoaea?noaa ia i?aaeoniao?eaaaony, ia oeacuaaaony, ia
iacuaaaony”. Yoi ia cia/eo, /oi aaoi? aunooiaao i?ioea oaiaoaiey
/aeiaaea /aeiaaeii, i?inoi, ii aai iiaieth, aunoea ?ac?yaeu (eanou) ia
aeieaeiu eiaoue /anoiie nianoaaiiinoe, /oiau nio?aieoue aaeeinoai. Oai
ia iaiaa, a aeeaeiaa “Caeiiu”, aaea oaeaea ianoaeaeathony i?iaeaiu
ainoaea?noaaiiiai ono?ienoaa, Ieaoii ia?aeeaaeuaaao iniiaiua
oicyenoaaiiua caaiou ia ?aaia e /oaeano?aioeaa, ii inoaeaeaao aieiu.

A nayce n ?anniio?aiiui ?acaeaeaieai ethaeae ia ?ac?yaeu aicieeaao
aii?in: eoi aea aicueiao ia naay ioaaonoaaiiinoue ii?aaeaeaiey
niiniaiinoe /aeiaaea e iaeiaio aeaeo, e oieueei e iaio? Ii-aeaeeiiio, a
“eaeaaeueiii” ainoaea?noaa yoo ooieoeeth aicueioo ia naay ioae?aeoea e
ni?aaaaeeeaaeoea ethaee i?aaeoaee-oeeiniou. I?e yoii iie, anoanoaaiii,
aoaeoo auiieiyoue caeii, aaaeue caeii aaaeiaeoay ninoaaeythuay
“eaeaaeueiiai” ainoaea?noaa, e aai auiieiytho ana aac eneeth/aiey
(aeioiaeeo aei oiai, /oi aeaoe aeieaeiu ea?aoue (!) ii caeiiai
ainoaea?noaa). Oaeei ia?acii, i?aaeoaee-oeeiniou aa?oao noaeueau anao
inoaeueiuo ethaeae. Iie ia oieueei ii?aaeaeytho niiniaiinoe /aeiaaea, ii
e inouanoaeytho ?aaeaiaioaoeeth a?aea, eiatho i?aai (e aeieaeiu)
oaeaaoue iaeieaoieo aeaoae n oece/aneeie iaaeinoaoeaie (caeanue, eae e a
iaeioi?uo ae?oaeo neo/ayo, Ieaoii aa?ao ca ia?acaoe ainoaea?noaaiiia
ono?ienoai nia?aiaiiie aio Nia?ou).

Oeeiniou, ia iniiaao ?acoia, oi?aaeytho inoaeueiuie eeannaie,
ia?aie/eaay eo naiaiaeo, a aieiu ea?atho ?ieue “niaae”, aea?aeaueo a
iiaeiiaaiee iecoaa “noaaei”. Yoei onoaoaeyaony e aac oiai aeanoieia
?acaeaeaiea ia ?ac?yaeu . Iai?eia?, aieiu ia aeeaoo a iaeieo ianoao n
?aianeaiieeaie, ethaeueie o?oaea. Ethaee “iecoae” ii?iaeu nouanoaotho
aeey iaania/aiey “aunoeo” anai iaiaoiaeeiui. “Aunoea” aea io?aiytho e
iai?aaeytho “iecoeo”, oie/oiaeay neaaaeoeo e ?aaeaiaioe?oy aeeciue
inoaeueiuo.

Iiaeii i?aaeiieiaeeoue, /oi oaeay ananoi?iiiyy iaei/iay ?aaeaiaioaoeey
aaaeiaeoeo iinooieia /aeiaaea, eioi?ua ii, ii nia?aiaiiui iiiyoeyi,
aeieaeai ?aoaoue nai, i?eaaaeao e ?aciauaieth ethaeae, iaaeiaieuenoao,
caaenoe. Iaeiaei a “eaeaaeueiii” ainoaea?noaa yoiai ia i?ienoiaeeo,
iai?ioea, aaeeinoai ethaeae Ieaoii n/eoaao iniiaie oaeiai ainoaea?noaa.
Ai a?aiaia ae?aaiinoe, “cieioiai aaea”, eiaaea naie aiae oi?aaeyee
ethaeueie, ethaee ?iaeaeaeenue ia io ethaeae, eae nae/an, ii io naiie
caiee. Ethaee ia ioaeaeaeenue a iaoa?eaeueiuo aeaaao e iiiai a?aiaie
iinayuaee caiyoeyi oeeinioeae. Ai iiiaii aaeeinoai ae?aaieo
iaoneaaeeaaeinue ionoonoaeai ?iaeeoaeae (o anao iaeia iaoue caiey).
Ieaoii oi/ao aeinoe/ue oiai aea ?acoeueoaoa, “iaiauanoaea” ia oieueei
ethaeneia eiouanoai, ii e aeai, aeaoae. Aaoi? oi/ao, /oiau ieeoi ia iia
neacaoue: “Yoi iiy aauue”, eee “Yoi iiy aeaia”. Ii eaeaa Ieaoiia,
ioae/eiu e aeaiueiu ia aeieaeiu anooiaoue a a?ae ii nianoaaiiie i?eoioe.
Ieacuaaaony, a?aeii oaeii oi?aaeytho oeeiniou, niaieoieyy eo/oeo n
eo/oeie, a ooaeoeo n ooaeoeie. Iinea ?iaeia aeaoe ioae?athony, e
ioaeathony iaoa?yi /a?ac iaeioi?ia a?aiy, i?e/ai ieeoi ia ciaao, /ae
?aaaiie aio aeinoaeny, e ana ioae/eiu (a i?aaeaeao eanou) n/eoathony
iooeaie anao aeaoae, a ana aeaiueiu iaueie aeaiaie anao ioae/ei. Eae
ienae A.Anion, aeey Ieaoiia iauiinoue aeai e aeaoae yaeyaony aunoae
oi?iie aaeeinoaa ethaeae. Oaeay iauiinoue iienaia ei aeey eeanna
aieiia-no?aaeae, eioi?ui aaoi? oaeaeyao ia?iiiia aieiaiea. Ii aai
iiaieth, ionoonoaea a?aaeaeu aioo?e eeanna no?aaeae iiaea/ao ca niaie
aaeeinoai iecoaai eeanna e ionoonoaea ainnoaiee.

Oaeei ia?acii, i?aayuea eeannu ainoaea?noaa Ieaoiia ninoaaeytho
eiiioienoe/aneia aaeeinoai. Yoio eiiioieci, eae oaea aiai?eeinue, ia
aeiioneaao n?aaee aunoeo eeannia aaaeiinoe eee aiaaonoaa, a
neaaeiaaoaeueii, ii eiaeea aaoi?a, oie/oiaeaao n?aaee ieo ?acaei?u.
I?iia?ac aeanoe o Ieaoiia yoi ianooo, ianouee noaaei. Anee i?eaaaiooue e
yoiio n?aaiaieth, oi a “eaeaaeueiii” ainoaea?noaa ianoooe yoi i?aaeoaee,
aieiu yoi noi?iaeaaua niaaee. *oiau oaea?aeaoue noaaei iaaoe a ii?yaeea,
ianoooe e niaaee aeieaeiu auoue aaeeiu a naieo aeaenoaeyo, /aai e
aeiaeaaaony aaoi?. Ieaoiiianeia ainoaea?noai ia?auaaony n “/aeiaa/aneei
noaaeii”, eae ioae?ue, ii aeanoieina?aeiue ianooo ni naieie iaoeaie.
Yoiai ne?anoeoue n oai-oi, yoeo ia aieith. Aeaeii, /oi, ii iaoei
i?aaenoaaeaieyi, yoi oioaeeoa?iay i?ia?aiia, i?e eioi?ie eo/ea ethaeae
(ionoue aeaaea ioae?aeoeo) iiae/eiyao “…aeaeeea aiaeaeaeaiey
aieueoeinoaa … ?acoiiui aeaeaieyi iaiueoeinoaa”.

I?ioaaeoea ouny/aeaoey iieacaee, /oi iineaaeothuea ooiiee iaaeaeaei
ooee io i?a?iaeeoaeueieoeu, nicaeaiiie aaieai Ieaoiia, eioi?ue y?ei
i?iyaeeny e a nicaeaiee iniia iauaeoeaiiai eaeaaeecia e ?ac?aaioea aai a
oeaeinoiii aeaea.

Iauaeoeaiue eaeaaeeci Ieaoiia

Ie? ii Ieaoiio e ia oaeaniue einiin, eeoaiiue eiaeeaeaeoaeueiinoe, e ia
ioaeaeueiua iaoa?eaeueiua aaue, iaiieiythuea Anaeaiioth. I?ae?aniue,
iaoa?eaeueiue einiin, nia?aaoee iiiaeanoai aaeeie/iinoae a iaeii
ia?acaeaeueiia oeaeia, aeeaao e aeuoeo, aanue iaiieiai aaneiia/iuie
oece/aneeie neeaie, ii caoi ii oi?aaeyaony caeiiaie, iaoiaeyueieny aia
aai, ca aai i?aaeaeaie. Yoi naiua iauea caeiiiia?iinoe, ii eioi?ui
aeeaao e ?acaeaaaony aanue einiin. Iie ninoaaeytho iniaue
iaaeeinie/aneee ie? e iacuaathony o Ieaoiia ie?ii eaeae. Oaeaeaoue eo
iiaeii ia oece/aneei c?aieai, a oinoaaiiui, iuneaiii. Eaeae,
oi?aaeythuea Anaeaiiie, ia?ae/iu. Iie ii?aaeaeytho aeeciue
iaoa?eaeueiiai ie?a. Ie? eaeae iaoiaeeony aia a?aiaie, ii ia aeeaao, a
i?aauaaao, iieieony a aa/iinoe. E naiay aunoay eaeay eaeae – yoi
aano?aeoiia aeaai, oiaeaeanoaaiiia aaniethoiie e?anioa.

Ieaoiiianeee eaeaaeeci iioiio e iacuaaaony iauaeoeaiui, /oi ii
i?ecia?o nouanoaiaaiea aiieia ?aaeueiiai, iacaaeneiiai io niciaiey
/aeiaaea, oi anoue iauaeoeaiiai eaeaaeueiiai auoey.

Iniiaiua oeeinioneea i?eioeeiu ieaoiiecia:

1. Eaeay aaue anoue niune aaue.

2. Eaeay aaue anoue oaeay oeaeueiinoue anao ioaeaeueiuo /anoae e
i?iyaeaiee aaue, eioi?ay oaea ia aeaeeony ia ioaeaeueiua /anoe aeaiiie
aaue e i?aaenoaaeyao niaith a n?aaiaiee n ieie oaea iiaia ea/anoai.

3. Eaeay aaue anoue oa iauiinoue ninoaaeythueo a? iniaaiiinoae e
aaeeie/iinoae, eioi?ay yaeyaony caeiiii aeey aicieeiiaaiey e iieo/aiey
yoeo aaeeie/iuo i?iyaeaiee aaue.

4. Eaeay aaue iaaauanoaaiia.

5. Eaeay aaue iaeaaeaao naiei nianoaaiiui e aiieia naiinoiyoaeueiui
nouanoaiaaieai, iia oiaea anoue iniaiai ?iaea eaeaaeueiay aauue, eee
noanoaioeey, eioi?ay a naiai iieiii e niaa?oaiiii aeaea nouanoaoao
oieueei ia iaaa eee auoa iaaa.

Iaeiaei, neeueiie noi?iiie oeeinioee Ieaoiia, aai iieiaeeoaeueiui
aeeaaeii a enoi?eth oeeinioee iaiaa anaai yaeyaony aai iauaeoeaiue
eaeaaeeci eae ie?iaicc?aiea. Iauaa ia inoaaony o Ieaoiia eeoue
i?ioeainoiyuei aaeeie/iiio, iii iniuneyao anyeoth aaeeie/iinoue e
o?aeooao eae i?eioeei aaeeie/iiai, eae caeii i?iyaeaiey yoiai
aaeeie/iiai, eae iiaeaeue aai iino?iaiey.

No?iaiea aeooe ii Ieaoiio

Aeooe ethaeae, niaeanii Ieaoiio oanii nii?eeanathony n ie?ii eaeae. Iie
– aanoaeaniu, aannia?oiu, iie ia aicieeatho iaeiia?aiaiii n oaeii, ii
nouanoaotho aa/ii. Oaei iiae/eiyaony ei. Ninoiyo iie ec o?ao
ea?a?oe/anee oii?yaei/aiiuo /anoae:

1. ?acoi,

2. aiey e aeaai?iaeiua aeaeaiey

3. aea/aiea e /oanoaaiiinoue.

Ecia/aeueii nouanoaoy a ie?a eaeae, iaeioi?ua aeooe ia iiaoo iaocaeaoue
naie ia/enoua aea/aiey e iioiio ioi?aaeythony a iaoa?eaeueiue ie?. Ca
n/ao yoiai /aeiaae niiniaai iinoeaaoue eaeae. Ii ia a ninoiyiee eo
i?iecaiaeeoue, ii iiae aeeyieai i?aaiia /oanoa e naieo aia/aoeaiee,
niiniaai i?eiiiieoue, oi /oi aai aeooa aeaeaea a ie?a eaeae. Aeooe, a
eioi?uo i?aiaeaaeaao ?acoi, iiaeaea?aeeaaaiue aieae e aeaai?iaeiui
ono?aieaieyie, i?iaeaeioony iaeaieaa aeaeaei a i?ioeanna ainiiieiaiey.

E?aoeia caeeth/aiea

Nie?ao – i?aaenoaaeoaeue eaeaaeenoe/aneiai ?aeeaeicii-i?aanoaaiiiai
ie?iaicc?aiey, ioe?uoi a?aaeaeaaiiai iaoa?eaeecio. Aia?aua eiaiii Nie?ao
niciaoaeueii iinoaaee ia?aae niaie caaea/o iainiiaaiey eaeaaeecia e
aunooiee i?ioea aioe/iiai iaoa?eaeenoe/aneiai ie?iiiieiaiey,
anoanoaaiiiiao/iiai ciaiey e aacaiaeey. Nie?ao enoi?e/anee aue
ca/eiaoaeai ” oaiaeaioeee, eee eeiee Ieaoiia ” a aioe/iie oeeinioee.

Nie?ao – aaeeeee aioe/iue ioae?aoe, – noieo o enoieia
?aoeeiiaeenoe/aneeo e i?inaaoeoaeueneeo o?aaeeoeee aa?iiaeneie iunee.
Aio i?eiaaeeaaeeo auaeathuaany ianoi a enoi?ee ii?aeueiie oeeinioee e
yoeee, eiaeee, aeeaeaeoeea, iieeoe/aneeo e i?aaiauo o/aiee. Aeeyiea,
ieacaiiia ei ia i?ia?ann /aeiaa/aneiai iiciaiey, iuouaaony aei iaoeo
aeiae. Ii iaanaaaea aioae a aeooiaioth eoeueoo?o /aeiaa/anoaa.

Ieaoii nicaeae oai?eth iauaai eae caeiia aeey aaeeie/iiai, oai?eth
iaiaoiaeeiuo e aa/iuo caeiiiia?iinoae i?e?iaeu e iauanoaa,
i?ioeainoiyuoth eo oaeoe/aneiio niaoaieth e neaiie ia?an/eai?iiinoe,
i?ioeainoiyuoth anyeiio aeiiao/iiio iiieiaieth. Eiaiii yoa noi?iia
o/aiey Ieaoiia ia eaeayo a cia/eoaeueiie ia?a iaoneiaeea aai
ouny/aeaoithth cia/eiinoue a enoi?ee /aeiaa/aneie iunee.

Ieaoii – ia?aue a Aa?iia iineaaeiaaoaeueiue i?aaenoaaeoaeue iauaeoeaiiai

eaeaaeecia, iniiaaoaeue yoie oeeinioee. Iauaeoeaiue eaeaaeeci Ieaoiia
anoue o/aiea i naiinoiyoaeueiii nouanoaiaaiee eaeae eae iaueo e ?iaeiauo
iiiyoee. Ieaoii anth aeeciue i?iiiaaaeiaae anaiauoth aa?iiieth. Eiaaea
Ieaoii caoioae i/a?oeoue i?aaeiao naiae ynoaoeee, ii iacaae a? ie
aieueoa ie iaiueoa, eae ethaiaueth. Ieaoii n/eoae, /oi oieueei ethaiaue
e i?ae?aniiio ioe?uaaao aeaca ia yoi i?ae?aniia e /oi oieueei iiieiaaiia
eae ethaiaue ciaiea anoue ciaiea iiaeeeiiia. Aa?iiiey /aeiaa/aneie
ee/iinoe, /aeiaa/aneiai iauanoaa e anae ie?oaeathuae /aeiaaea i?e?iaeu –
aio iinoiyiiue e iaeciaiiue eaeaae Ieaoiia a oa/aiea anaai aai
oai?/aneiai iooe.

Eeoa?aoo?a

1. «Nie?ao. Ieaoii. A?enoioaeue. Naiaea» AECE. – I.1995

2. Anion A.O. «Enoi?ey aioe/iie oeeinioee.» – I., 1965

Ieaoii, nia?. ni/. O.1. «Ainoaea?noai» – I.1971.

«E?aoeee neiaa?ue ii oeeinioee», – I.1979

Нашли опечатку? Выделите и нажмите CTRL+Enter

Похожие документы
Обсуждение

Оставить комментарий

avatar
  Подписаться  
Уведомление о
Заказать реферат!
UkrReferat.com. Всі права захищені. 2000-2020