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?AOA?AO II OEEINIOEE.

OAIA: “NIE?AO, AAI O*AIEA E OEEINIONEEA IAOIAeU.”

Eaeeieia Eeuee

I aeecie e aeayoaeueiinoe Nie?aoa – iaeiiai ec aaee/aeoeo oeeinioia
Ae?aaiae A?aoeee – iiaeii ociaoue eeoue ii i?iecaaaeaieyi aai
nia?aiaiieeia e o/aieeia, a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue Ieaoiia, iioiio /oi nai
Nie?ao ienueiaiiuo enoi/ieeia iinea naay ia inoaaee. Ieaoii aea
iiciaeiieeny n Nie?aoii ca ainaiue eao aei aeaaee iineaaeiaai, eiaaea
Nie?aoo auei oaea ca oanoueaeanyo, e ano?a/a yoa i?iecaaea ?aaiethoeeth
a aeooa aoaeouaai ciaiaieoiai oeeinioa. Ieaoii aea iaienae e “Aiieiaeth
Nie?aoa”, ec eioi?ie iiaeii ociaoue i iaeioi?uo aniaeoao nie?aoianeie
oeeinioee. “Aiieiaey Nie?aoa” i?aaenoaaeyao niaith ii?aaaeaoaeueioth
?a/ue Nie?aoa, i?iecianaiioth ei ia aoeineii noaea a 399 aiaeo aei i.y.,
iinea oiai, eae auee caneooaiu ?a/e iaaeieoaeae. Iaaei caiaoeoue, /oi
yoi ooaeiaeanoaaiiia aini?iecaaaeaiea ?a/e Ieaoiiii, e n oi/ee c?aiey
eiaiii ooaeiaeanoaaiiinoe iia caneoaeeaaao aunieie ioeaiee. Eiiiiceoeey
aeeth/aao a naay:

1. ?a/ue iinea iaaeiaiey, i?aaeoanoaothuay i?eaiai?o. A iae Nie?ao
e?eoeeoao i?aaeieo e iiauo iaaeieoaeae ca eeaaaoo e aeaao naiiio naaa
iauoth oa?aeoa?enoeeo. Ii aiai?eo, /oi ia aieony nia?oe, a aieony eeoue
iaeiaeooey e iici?a; /oi aoaeao anaaaea caieiaoueny oeeinioeae; /oi
oaeenoai aai aoaeao no?aoii aeey noaeae, iioiio /oi iinea nia?oe Nie?aoa
a?yae ee iaeaeaony /aeiaae, eioi?ue aoaeao canoaaeyoue eo no?aieoueny e
enoeia. Oeeinio aiai?eo oaeaea, /oi aioo?aiiee aiein i?aiyonoaoao aio
i?eieiaoue o/anoea a iauanoaaiiuo aeaeao, eioi?ua iieiu
iani?aaaaeeeainoe. Ii ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi ieeiai ie/aio ia o/ee, a oieueei
ia i?aiyonoaiaae caaeaaaoue aii?inu e ioaa/aoue ia ieo – yoi auei
ii?o/aii Nie?aoo aiaii, e iao naeaeaoaeae, eioi?ua ooa?aeaeaee au, /oi
Nie?ao aiai?ee aeo?iia e ?aca?auathuaa.

2. ?a/ue Nie?aoa iinea iauaai iaaeiaiey. Ii oaeeaeai, /oi iaaeiaiea
iiaeaea?aeaii iacia/eoaeueiui aieueoeinoaii aieinia, e aiai?eo, /oi
noaeuee aio ia aa?yo e iiyoiio aai ia iieioo.

3. ?a/ue Nie?aoa iinea nia?oiiai i?eaiai?a. Oa, eoi aieiniaae ca
nia?oioth eaciue, – aiai?eo Nie?ao – i?e/eieee cei naaa, eai eo aoaeoo
ana iaaeiyoue, a aai n/eoaoue ioae?aoeii. Nie?aoo aea ia oaaoaao
aannouaenoaa e aea?cinoe, /oiau oieaeaoueny ia?aae ia iiieiathueie aai
noaeueyie. Nia?oue Nie?ao a aeaiiii neo/aa i?eciaao aeaaii, a anee yoi
anoue, eae aiai?yo, ia?aoiae a Aeae, oi e i?eia?aoaieai: ii iaeaeao oai
ni?aaaaeeeauo noaeae e noaiao aannia?oiui.

A caeeth/aiee Nie?ao aiai?eo, /oi eaeao ia nia?oue, a aai iaaeieoaee
aoaeoo i?iaeieaeaoue aeeoue. Ii ia ynii, /oi eo/oa, a /oi ooaea.

Eiiaaea Ieaoii a naiai i?iecaaaeaiee, aeaeeii, a no?aieaiee iieacaoue
Nie?aoa a iaeaieaa auaiaeiii naaoa, aeiioneaao eiae/aneea ioeaee:
i?eaiaeeiia ei i?inoia io?eoeaiea oaeoa /ia caieiaeny iaoo?oeeinioeae/
aua ia anoue aeieacaoaeuenoai aai ionoonoaey. Aeiioneaao ii e aanueia
oi?iaeueiua ?annoaeaeaiey:”Anee y aacaiaeiee, y ia aaiaeee iiauo
aiaeanoa” e iaiai?io. A “Aiieiaee” Nie?ao aiai?eo, /oi ia caieiaeny
iauanoaaiiuie aeaeaie, e a oi aea a?aiy ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi ai?ieny e
aoaeao ai?ioueny n iani?aaaaeeeainoueth, /oi aai oeeinioey – ai?ueaa ca
iauanoaaiiia aeaai e ca onoie ainoaea?noaa. E?iia oiai, i?aeoe/anee ia
i?aaenoaaeai i?eaeiaeueiue e ino?ue aii?inii-ioaaoiue iaoiae oeeinioee
Nie?aoa, ca eneeth/aieai iano, aaea Nie?ao iuneaiii eae au anooiaao a
?acaiai? n Iaeaoii. Oii aa?iy-Nie?aoa aeiaieueii naiioaa?aiiue, eioi?ue,
ii aeaiiui ae?oaeo nia?aiaiieeia, aue nianai aio ia naienoaaiai.

Eoae, i?e anae nii?iinoe iaeaieaa aaniiiai ienueiaiiiai enoi/ieea,
?anneacuaathuaai iioiieai i caia/aoaeueiaeoai oeeinioa ae?aaiinoe,
“Aiieiaey” aeaao iai i?aaenoaaeaiea, ionoue e ia iieiia, i oeeinioee
Nie?aoa e aai iaoiaeao. Eoi aea aue yoio no?aiiue /aeiaae, ia iaienaaoee
ie iaeiie eieae, e ana aea inoaaoeeny a aaeao eae iaeia ec y?/aeoeo
ee/iinoae Ae?aaiae A?aoeee?

Nie?ao aue /aeiaaeii i?eaeiaeueiui a auoo, /oaeaeii a oeeinioee,
iiaaaeaiea aai auei ia anaaaea iau/ii. Ii i?ienoiaeee ec i?inoie e
aaaeiie naiuee – aue nuiii eaiaiioana a iioiio ia iieo/ee a aeaonoaa e
thiinoe ooii/aiiiai ia?aciaaiey e ainieoaiey, eioi?ia auei iaycaoaeueiui
aeey thiioae ec a?enoie?aoe/aneeo naiae.

Aiaoia oeeinio aue eun, i?ecaieno, ni ciaiaieoie aiineaaenoaee oeoeie ia
eao. Iin aue i?eiethnioo, aoau oienoua, aeaca iaaueaoa, a iaeaaaeny
aaeaa ee ia ooaea, /ai ?aau e iaeayiey naiaai ia iaiye a caaeneiinoe io
iiaiaeu. Niaoeeaeueiinoe o iaai ia auei, /ai ii ca?aaaouaae ia aeeciue,
iaecaanoii. I?aaaea, ii o?eaeaeu auaae a aiaiiuo iioiaeao, eae e iiiaea
nia?aaeaeaia, iaaaaeuaaeny a Ia?iaeiia nia?aiea, ii ?aaoey?ii ie/ai ia
caieiaeny ie ia iauanoaaiiii, ie ia ainoaea?noaaiiii iii?eua. Iaeiaei
n?aaee ia?iaea ii aue i/aiue iiioey?iui /aeiaaeii, e iiyoiio a 404 aiaeo
aei i.y. i?aaeoaeuenoai O?eaeoeaoe oe?aiia aeaaea oioaei i?eaea/ue aai
ia naith noi?iio, iaeiaei Nie?ao io noieue “ii/aoiiai” aeiaa?ey
oeeiieeny.

Ii nooe, aaeeinoaaiiui aai caiyoeai auei caaeaaaoue aii?inu. Iniaui
oaeiaieuenoaeai aeey Nie?aoa auea aanaaea n naiiaeiaieueiui /aeiaaeii,
eioi?ue aeiiaoe caiooaaoenue a aai eaaa?ciuo aii?inao, oa?ye anth naith
nianue. Nie?ao, ai?i/ai, ecia?aaeae naay i?inoaeii, iaoaea/e iiiiiaioa
i?eienuaae naaa, iaceiaeai e aeia?iaeooii iiniaeaaynue iaae
niaanaaeieeii.

Iaaei neacaoue, /oi yoio iaoiae – aii?inii-ioaaoiue – aue iiaui a
nia?aiaiiie Nie?aoo oeeinioee. N aai iiiiuueth iiaeii auei eaaei
?acaeaaoue iauaaoaeueneea i?aaenoaaeaiey i ie?a e aai ono?ienoaa.
Eiia/ii, oi?ia aeeaeiaa “aii?in-ioaao” eniieueciaaeanue e ae?oaeie
oeeinioaie. Oae, nioenou oiaea ethaeee nii?u, ii nei?aa eae i?ioeann,
nii? ?aaee nii?a, nii? nioenoia a eiia/iii eoiaa noaiiaeeny
naiioeaeueth. Nie?ao aea ieeiaaea ia aeioiaeee aei ionoineiaey e
aani?eioeeiiinoe.

A ioee/ea io iaoo?oeeinioia, aii?inu, caaeaaaaiua Nie?aoii, eanaeenue a
iniiaiii ia i?e?iaeu, ia iaoe e ia aiaia, a auee i /aeiaa/aneii
niciaiee, aeooa, ii?aee e iacia/aiee /aeiaa/aneie aeecie, iieeoeee e
ynoaoeee. Nie?ao ii nooe ia?aue ia?aoeeny e /aeiaaeo e aai nouiinoe. Ii
iuoaeny auynieoue, /oi anoue aeia?i e cei, ni?aaaaeeeainoue e caeii,
i?ae?aniia e aacia?aciia – o.a. iaeoe ioaaou ia aii?inu, eioi?ua
ioiinyony ia oieueei e oeeinioneiio ie?iaicc?aieth, ii e e ynoaoeea:
iaoea ia nieaaa oeeinioee, eneonnoaa e eneonnoaiaaaeaiey.

Ieaoii a “Aiieiaee Nie?aoa” i?eaiaeeo oaeea noaeaeaiey o/eoaey: aeaaooea
iiaeao auoue i?ae?aniie, ii /oi oaeia i?ae?aniia naii ii naaa? Aaaeue e
eioaaeue iiaeao auoue i?ae?aniie, oae /oi aea oaeia aiiaua e?anioa?
*oiau ?aoeoue yoio aii?in, iaei ?anniio?aoue iaeio eioaaeue eee iaeio
aeaaooeo, aea e eco/aiey iiiaeo eioaaeae e aeaaooae iaaeinoaoi/ii. Oae
iiyaeeny eiaeoeoeaii – aeaoeieoi?iue iaoiae iienea enoeiu. Eiaeoeoeey –
yoi aua iaeei iaoiae nie?aoianeie oeeinioee, aeathuee aiciiaeiinoue
?anniio?aiey i?aaeiaoa n ?aciuo noi?ii, n o/aiii ?aciiia?aciuo iiaiee,
i?ioeannia. A?enoioaeue aiineaaenoaee n/eoae, /oi Nie?ao eneae
oi?ioee?iaee iaueo iiiyoee ia iniiaa eco/aiey ioaeaeueiuo aauae, eioi?ua
iiaeii iiaeaanoe iiae yoe iiiyoey. Ii enoiaeee ec oiai, /oi iauaaoaeue
/anoi iiaeiaiyao iiiyoea i?aaenoaaeaieai eee oa?aeoa?enoeeie ioaeaeueiie
oi?ioi ecaanoiie aaue. A ainea ?acuyniaiee Nie?aoa o niaanaaeieeia yniua
iiiyoey noaiiaeeenue niooiuie, o?aaothueie aeaeueiaeoaai ?acuyniaiey.
Iauaaoaeueneea i?aaenoaaeaiey ?acaeaaeenue Nie?aoii a ioo e i?ao.

Nie?ao eniieueciaae aua iaeei iaoiae – iaaaoeeo, oi anoue oaeoth oi?io
aanaaeu, i?e eioi?ie oiaiea aanoe aeeaeia icia/aei oiaiea caaeaaaoue
iaaiaeyuea aii?inu.

Aua iaeiei iaoiaeii Nie?aoa auea e?iiey. Aa, eae e iaae/aneia
aicaeaenoaea nie?aoianeeo ?a/ae, ioia/aee iiiaea nia?aiaiieee. Nie?ao
caaeaaae aii?inu a e?iie/iie oi?ia e oaeaeae niaanaaeieea naiei
“iaciaieai”. Eiia/ii, iiaeiaiue e?iie/iue e ne?uoi-ecaeaaaoaeueneee
iiaeoiae ia eaaeaeiio aue ii aeooa.

Iaiaoiaeeii ianeieueei neia neacaoue i a?aiaie, a eioi?ii aeee Nie?ao.
Nia?aiaiiay aio aoeineay aeaiie?aoey ooa?yea naie i?inoua, no?iaua e
e?aneaua eaeaaeu, eioi?ua auee a ia?aie iieiaeia 5 aaea aei i.y. Iie
auee caauou a iiaiia aa?uoaie, iiauie oa??eoi?eyie e ?aaaie. A yoi a?aiy
Aoeiu aeeee a?aaeoaeueneeie aieiaie, aeaiie?aoey au?iaeeaeanue. Nie?ao
aea a naiie aoua ia?iaea aae aanaaeu, e naieie n aeaeo i?inouie
aii?inaie noaaee a ooiee noi?iiieeia aeaiaaiae/aneiai ?aaeeia:
a?enoie?aou n/eoaee aai i?inoiethaeeiii, eioi?ue iiiai naaa iicaieyao, a
aeaiie?aou aiyeenue aai oeanoeiai ?aciaea/aiey. Iaeiaei Nie?ao aue
neeoeii iiioey?ai. Aai aaneiia/iua nii?u aei ii?u aei a?aiaie oa?iaee,
ii a 399 a. aei i.y. “aeaiie?aoe/aneea” aeanoe noaeeee oeeinioa e
auianee aiiethuee noaeaaiue i?eaiai? – ia?aue a Aoeiao nia?oiue i?eaiai?
ca ioaea/aiiua eaeaeiua ?aciiaeaney. Nie?aoo, i?aaaea, auea
i?aaeinoaaeaia aiciiaeiinoue iaaeanii aaaeaoue ec oth?ueiu, oeoe a
ecaiaiea, ii ii inoaeny aa?ai naiaio ie?iaicc?aieth e auiee
i?eaioiaeaiioth /aoo n oeeeooie. Iineaaeiae aai i?inueaie ia?aae
nia?oueth auea i?inueaa i aea?oaa aiao a?a/aaaieth Aneeaieth. Oaeoth
aea?oao i?eiineee a neo/aa oniaoiiai aucaei?iaeaiey. E caeanue Nie?ao
aue e?iie/ai: iiae aucaei?iaeaieai iiieiae ii ooiae a ae?oaoth aeeciue.

Auoa oaea auei neacaii i iaoiaeao Nie?aoa. Aua iaeei, ciaiaieoaeoee –
yoi nie?aoianeay aeeaeaeoeea. Oeeinioey Nie?aoa auea iai?aaeaia ia
iienee iieiaeeoaeueiie enoeiu. Eioa?an e /aeiaaeo o Nie?aoa e nioenoia
aue iauae /a?oie, a ioee/ea io iaoo?oeeinioia, eioa?anothueony i?e?iaeie
e iaoeaie. Ii nioenoeea auea i?inoi e?aneaui i?aoi?neei eneonnoaii,
Nie?ao aea, no?aiynue aeieoe aei iieiaeeoaeueiie enoeiu, ia niaoee n aa
ooaa?aeaeaieai e oi?ioee?iaeie. Aeeaeaeoeea a aa iieiaeeoaeueiiei
niunea, a aa iinoiyiiii eneaiee iauaeoeaiie enoeiu ioee/aea oeeinioeth
Nie?aoa io iaoo?oeeinioee e nioenoeee.

Iiiyoue, eae o/ee Nie?ao, iiiai eaa/a, /ai ii?aaeaeeoue, /aio aea ii
o/ee. Eae oaea auei neacaii, aeaaea a “Aiieiaee” aniaeou nie?aoianeie
oeeinioee i?aeoe/anee ia i?aaenoaaeaiu. Ii iaeioi?ua i?iaeaiu ana aea
iiaeii auaeaeeoue.

Iaeiie ec i?iaeai, aieiothueo aioe/iuo oeeinioia, auea i?iaeaia ?aeeaee.
Nie?aoo ia noaea i?aaeuyaeee iaaeiaiea a oii, /oi ii aaiaeeo iiaua
aiaeanoaa e ?aca?auaao thiioanoai. N ae?oaie noi?iiu, Nie?ao ia aue
aoaenoii, eae ia aue e aeaai/anoeaui caueoieeii nouanoaothuaai
iaioaecia.

Eiia/ii, iaeuecy aa?eoue A?enoioaio, eioi?ue a eiiaaeee “Iaeaea” auaae
Nie?aoa eae iieeiiieea iiauo aiaeanoa – Iaeaeia. Nie?ao inoaaaeny
?aoeeiiaeenoii, aeeaeaeoeeii, eioi?ue ia aiyeny ?annoaeaeaoue anee ia i
o?aaeeoeeiiiuo aiaao, oi i aunoeo neeao, eioi?ua oeaeaniia?acii
oi?aaeytho /aeiaaeii. I?eioeei aunoae ni?aaaaeeeainoe, /aeiaa/aneie e
iauaie?iaie, ia eiae aeey Nie?aoa eiaie. Ii ?annoaeaeaiey i iai e auee
i?eiyou nia?aiaiieeaie ca ?annoaeaeaiey i iiaii aiaa, ia aio?iiiii?oiii
e aacuiyiiii. Iiaeiaiia iaieoieiae/iia, iaeoeueoiaia aiaeanoai auei aeey
nia?aiaiieeia-aoeiyi aeeeinoueth.

Ainoaea?noai e iauanoai oiaea caieiaei Nie?aoa, oioy ii noi?iieeny
ethaie iauanoaaiiie e ainoaea?noaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe. Nie?ao ia
ni/oanoaiaae ainoaea?noaaiiie nenoaia, nouanoaiaaaoae a A?aoeee,
iauanoao n aai i?aaaie e iau/ayie iiaeaathuaai iieena. A?aiy auei
no?aiiia: io ?anoeaaoa iauanoaa aei oiaaeea ia i?ioei e noieaoey. A
ia/aea aaea Aoeiu i?aaenoaaeyee niaith thiue iieen ?aaiaeaaeaeue/aneie
aeaiie?aoee, iiaaaeeoaey Ia?nee. A na?aaeeia aaea ianooiee “cieioie aae”
aoeineie aeaiie?aoee, i?iaeeeaoeeny anaai ianeieueei aeanyoeeaoee. A ai
aoi?ie iieiaeia aaea i?iecioea o?aae/aneay Iaeiiiiianneay aieia, noa?ua
eaeaaeu auee ?ac?ooaiu, Nia?oa i?aaeaao Aoeiu e anooiaao a nithc n
Ia?neae, a 404 aiaeo aei i.y. i?ienoiaeeo ieeaa?oe/aneee ia?aai?io,
aeaiie?aoey a Aoeiao oi?iaeueii ainnoaiaaeeaaaony, ii ai aoi?ie iieiaeia
4 aaea aei i.y. A?aoeey iaecaaaeii noaiiaeony aeaeeie i?iaeioeeae,
iioa?yaoae iacaaeneiinoue. *oanoaoy ianinoiyoaeueiinoue eae
a?enoie?aoia, oae e aeaiie?aoia, aeaey ia?ooaiey caeiia ni?aaaaeeeainoe
eae n oie, oae e n ae?oaie noi?iiu, Nie?ao ia iia i?eiyoue noi?iio ie
iaeiiai ec nineiaee e noi?iieeny eae nioeeaeueii-iieeoe/aneeo neiiaoee,
oae e aioeiaoee.

Ae?aaiea eeoaeoeu aiai?eee:”Ia aeae aia oaaa ?iaeeoueny a yiioo
ia?aiai”. Ii eiaiii oaeea ia?aoiaeiua ia?eiaeu e nicaeaaaee aaieaa.
Nie?ao aue iaeiei ec ia?auo. Ii aioae a aioe/ioth oeeinioeth e
eeoa?aoo?o eae aaieaeueiue niaanaaeiee, i?iieoeaoaeueiaeoee nii?uee e
aeeaeaeoee, aa/iue o/aiee, eioi?ue /a?iae ciaiey aeaaea io ethaeae
iaeiiaea?aiiuo e iaeiia?aciaaiiuo, e?iie/iue, ii aeia?iaeooiue ino?ye,
ethaeoaeue i?aaaeu, naieie iaaeiiuie aii?inaie ?aciaea/aaoee iai?aaaeo e
nianue. Yoi /aeiaae noae ia?ana/aieai iiiaeo ie?iaicc?ai/aneeo
oaiaeaioeee. Eiaiii Nie?aoo iu iaycaiu iiyaeaieai Ieaoiia-oeeinioa.
Ieaoii, a naith i/a?aaeue, noae ?iaeiia/aeueieeii ieaoiiecia, o/eoaeai
A?enoioaey, e io yoeo neeueiuo ei?iae au?anee iiiaea oeeinioneea aaoae:
noieoeeci, aaaeiieci e yieeo?aenoai, ieoaai?aenoai, neaioeoeeci,
iaiieaoiieci, iaoneiaeaoee aicieeiiaaiea nia?aiaiiie oeeinioee.
Aaconeiaii, aac Nie?aoa nia?aiaiiay oeeinioey ia noaea au oaeie, eaeay
iia anoue.

Nienie eeoa?aoo?u:

Ieaoii. Ni/eiaiey a o?ao oiiao. Oii ia?aue. “Aiieiaey Nie?aoa” Iineaa,
1968 aiae.

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