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Eeaaneee oieaa?neoao oo?ecia, yeiiiieee e i?aaa.

?aoa?ao

ia oaio:

Nie?ao.

Iaienaea: I?ieiiiaa Aeeoi?ey

25 a?oiia th?eaee/aneiai oaeoeueoaoa

aeiaaiie oi?ie iao/aiey

Eeaa 2002

Ieai:

Anooieaiea;

1. O/aieee Nie?aoa:

a) noae iaae Nie?aoii.

2. Au? eia-/oi i “Aiieiaee Nie?aoa”;

Caeeth/aiea;

Nienie eniieuecoaiie eeoa?aoo?u.

Anooieaiea

Nie?ao, ae?aaiaa?a/aneee oeeinio,469-399 aa. aei i.y., nui eaiaiioana
Nio?iienea e iiaeoooe Oaia?aou. Aiaoiinoue Nie?aoa ana iacuaaee
o?iaeeeaie. Ii aue iaaieueoiai ?inoa, n aieueoei aeeaioii, eo?iinue,
oienoiaoaue, n oienoie oaae e aieueoie euneiie. Aai iaeee ieeae ia
niioaaonoaiaae eaeaaeai oiai a?aiaie, e, /oi ii?aaeaei aieaa anaai,
aiaoiinoue oeeinioa ia niioaaonoaiaaea “e?anioa aai aeooe”. Ii ana yoi
eeoue iaeaai?aaeeaaei oiaiea Nie?aoa ainiiaenoaiaaoue iaae anai caiiui,
iaae niaie e iieacuaaei aaee/ea aai aeooa.

Nie?ao eae iauaeo eco/aiey i?aaenoaaeyao cia/eoaeueiua o?oaeiinoe.
Ianiiiaiii, /oi a ioiioaiee iiiaeo enoi?e/aneeo ee/iinoae iai i/aiue
iaei ecaanoii, oiaaea eae a ioiioaiee ae?oaeo ecaanoii iiiaia; /oi aea
eanaaony Nie?aoa, oi y ia oaa?aia, ciaai ee iu i iai i/aiue iaei eee
i/aiue iiiai. Aannii?ii, /oi ii aue aoeineei a?aaeaeaieiii, iaeaaeaaoei
iaaieueoeie n?aaenoaaie, eioi?ue i?iaiaeee naia a?aiy a aeeniooao e o/ee
iieiaeaaeue oeeinioee, ii ia ca aeaiueae, eae yoi aeaeaee nioenou.
Aeinoiaa?ii ecaanoii, /oi a 399 aiaeo aei i.y. , eiaaea Nie?aoo auei
ieiei 70 eao, ii aue inoaeaeai, i?eaiai?ai e nia?oe e eaciai ia aoeineee
iaia?. Aio aeaee auieoue /aoo n yaeii. Aannii?ii oaeaea oi, /oi ii aue
oi?ioi ecaanoiie ee/iinoueth a Aoeiao, iineieueeo A?enoioai ecia?acee
aai a ea?eeaoo?iii aeaea a naiae eiiaaeee “Iaeaea”.

1. O/aieee Nie?aoa.

Ii ca i?aaeaeaie yoeo oaeoia naaaeaiey i Nie?aoa i?eia?aoatho nii?iue
oa?aeoa?. Aeaia ec o/aieeia Nie?aoa, Enaiioiio e Ieaoii, iaienaee i iai
iiiai, ii ?anneacuaatho i iai aanueia ?acee/iua aaue. Aa?iao auneacae
iuneue, /oi aeaaea a oao neo/ayo, eiaaea iie a /ai-eeai niaeaniu ae?oa n
ae?oaii, oi yoi i?ienoiaeeo iioiio, /oi Enaiioiio iiaoi?yao Ieaoiia.
Eiaaea aea iie ?anoiaeyony ai iiaieyo, oi iaeie aa?yo iaeiiio,
ae?oaea-ae?oaiio, a o?aouee ia aa?yo ie iaeiiio ec ieo. ss ia ?eneio
i?eieiooue e oie eee eiie noi?iia a yoii iianiii nii?a, a eeoue e?aoei
eceiaeo oeacaiiua ?acee/iua oi/ee c?aiey.

Ia/iai n Enaiioiioa, aiaiiiai /aeiaaea, ia i/aiue uaae?i iaea?aiiiai
eioaeeaeoii e a oeaeii neeiiiiai i?eaea?aeeaaoueny o?aaeeoeeiiiuo
acaeyaeia. Enaiioiio iai?/ai oai, /oi Nie?aoa iaaeieee a ia/anoee e a
?aca?auaiee thiioanoaa; ii ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi, iaiai?io, Nie?ao aue
aanueia aeaai/anoea e /oi aeeyiea aai ia thiioanoai auei aiieia
aeaaioai?iui. Ii-aeaeeiiio, aai eaeae, aeaeaei ia yaeyeenue
?ac?ooeoaeueiuie, aoaeo/e nei?aa neo/iuie e aaiaeueiuie. Yoa caueoa
caoiaeeo neeoeii aeaeaei, iineieueeo iia inoaaeyao aac iauyniaiey
a?aaeaeaaiia ioiioaiea e Nie?aoo. Eae aiai?eo Aa?iao, “caueoa Nie?aoa
Enaiioiioii /a?an/o? oniaoia. Nie?aoa ieeiaaea au ia i?eaiai?eee e
nia?oe, anee au ii aue oaeei, eaeei aai iienuaaao Enaiioiio”.

Nouanoaiaaea oaiaeaioeey n/eoaoue, aoaeoi ana, /oi aiai?eo Enaiioiio,
aeieaeii auoue i?aaeeueii, iioiio /oi aio ia oaaoaei oia aeoiaoue i
/ai-eeai iai?aaeeueiii. Nnueaynue ia A. ?annaea, y oioaea au ioiaoeoue:
“Yoa eeiey a?aoiaioaoeee niaa?oaiii iainiiaaoaeueia. Ia?aneac aeoiui
/aeiaaeii oiai, /oi aiai?eo oiiue, ieeiaaea ia auaaao i?aaeeueiui,
iioiio /oi ii aanniciaoaeueii i?aa?auaao oi, /oi ii neuoeo, a oi, /oi
ii iiaeao iiiyoue. ss i?aaeii/ae au, /oiau iie neiaa ia?aaeaaae iie
ceaeoee a?aa n?aaee oeeinioia, /ai ae?oa, ia naaaeouee a oeeinioee.
Iiyoiio iu ia iiaeai i?eiyoue oi, /oi aiai?eo Enaiioiio, anee yoi
aeeth/aao eaeie-eeai o?oaeiue aii?in a oeeinioee eee yaeyaony /anoueth
a?aoiaioaoeee, iai?aaeaiiie ia oi, /oiau aeieacaoue, /oi Nie?ao aue
iani?aaaaeeeai inoaeaeai”.

Oai ia iaiaa, iaeioi?ua ec ainiiieiaiee Enaiioiioa aanueia
oaaaeeoaeueiu. Ii niiauaao (eae yoi aeaeaao e Ieaoii), /oi Nie?ao aue
iinoiyiii caiyo aii?inii i oii, eae aeiaeoueny oiai, /oiau aeanoue a
ainoaea?noaa i?eiaaeeaaeaea eiiiaoaioiui ethaeyi. Ii eiae iaueiiaaiea
caaeaaaoue oaeea aii?inu: “Anee au y oioae ii/eieoue aaoiae, e eiio au y
aeieaeai ia?aoeoueny?” Ia yoio aii?in iaeioi?ua ene?aiiea thiioe
ioaa/aee: ”E naiiaeieeo, i Nie?ao”. Ii eiae iaueiiaaiea ioi?aaeyoueny e
ieioieeai, eociaoeai e o.i. e caaeaaae iaeioi?ui ec ieo oaeie,
iai?eia?, aii?in: “Eoi aeieaeai /eieoue ei?aaeue ainoaea?noaa?” Eiaaea
ii anooiee a ai?ueao n o?eaeoeaoueth oe?aiaie, eo aeaaa, E?eoee, eioi?ue
aue ciaeii ni acaeyaeaie Nie?aoa, oae eae o/eeny o iaai, cai?aoee aio
i?iaeieaeaoue o/eoue iieiaeaaeue, neacaa : ”Iao, oaaa i?eaeaony, Nie?ao,
ioeacaoueny io yoeo naiiaeieeia, ieioieeia, eociaoeia: aeoiath, iie
nianai oaea eno?aiaeenue iooiai, /oi aa/ii iie o oaay ia ycuea”. Yoi
i?ienoiaeeei a ia?eiae e?aoeia?aiaiiiai ieeaa?oe/aneiai i?aaeaiey,
onoaiiaeaiiiai nia?oaioeaie a eiioea iaeiiiianneie aieiu. Ii aieueooth
/anoue a?aiaie a Aoeiao auei aeaiie?aoe/aneia i?aaeaiea, oae /oi aeaaea
aiaia/aeueieee ecae?aeenue ii ae?aaeth. Iaeiaaeaeu Nie?ao ano?aoee
thiioo, aeaeaaoaai noaoue aiaia/aeueieeii, e oaaaeee aai iio/eoueny
aiaiiiio eneonnoao. Iineaaeiaaa yoiio niaaoo, thiioa oaoae e i?ioae
iaaieueoie eo?n oaeoeee. Eiaaea ii aa?ioeny, Nie?ao oooeeai iioaaeee aai
e ioi?aaee ia?aoii i?iaeieaeaoue iao/aiea. Ae?oaiai thiioo Nie?ao
canoaaee eco/aoue iniiau iaoee i oeiainao. Iiaeiaiiai ?iaea ieai ii
iuoaeny i?iaiaeeoue ia iiiaeo ethaeyo, aeeth/ay no?aoaaa; ii auei
?aoaii, /oi eaa/a canoaaeoue caiie/aoue Nie?aoa i?e iiiiue oeeeoou, /ai
ecaaaeoueny io oiai cea, ia eioi?ia ii aeaeiaaeny.

Iienaiea ee/iinoe Nie?aoa o Ieaoiia aucuaaao cao?oaeiaiea niaa?oaiii
eiiai ?iaea, /ai iienaiea Enaiioiioa, a eiaiii – i/aiue o?oaeii noaeeoue
i oii, a eaeie ia?a Ieaoii oioae ecia?aceoue Nie?aoa eae enoi?e/aneoth
ee/iinoue e a eaeie ia?a ii i?aa?aoee eeoei, iacuaaaiia a aai aeeaeiaao
“Nie?aoii”, a au?aceoaey naieo nianoaaiiuo iiaiee. Ieaoii aue ia oieueei
oeeinioii, ii oaeaea oaeaioeeaui ienaoaeai, iaeaaeaaoei aeeaui
aiia?aaeaieai e iaayieai. Ieeoi ia i?aaeiieaaaao, aea e nai Ieaoii ia
i?aoaiaeiaae ana?ueac ia oi, /oi aanaaeu a aai aeeaeiaao i?ienoiaeeee
oi/ii oae, eae ii eo eceaaaao. Oai ia iaiaa, ai anyeii neo/aa, a aieaa
?aiieo aeeaeiaao, aanaaea aaaeaony niaa?oaiii anoanoaaiii e oa?aeoa?u aa
o/anoieeia aiieia oaaaeeoaeueiu. Eiaiii auaeathuaany ianoa?noai Ieaoiia
eae ienaoaey aucuaaao niiiaiea a iai eae a enoi?eea. Aai Nie?ao yaeyaony
iineaaeiaaoaeueiui e eneeth/eoaeueii eioa?aniui oa?aeoa?ii, eaeiai ia
niiaei au auaeoiaoue aieueoeinoai ethaeae; ii y n/eoath, /oi Ieaoii iia
au auaeoiaoue aai. Naeaeae ee ii yoi ia naiii aeaea, – yoi, eiia/ii,
ae?oaie aii?in.

2. Noae iaae Nie?aoii.

Aeeaeia, eioi?ue a?iiaaeiui aieueoeinoaii n/eoaaony enoi?e/aneei, – yoi
“Aiieiaey”. Yoi aini?iecaaaeaiea oie ?a/e, eioi?oth Nie?ao i?iecian ia
noaea a naith caueoo. Eiia/ii, yoi ia noaiia?aoe/aneee io/ao, a eeoue
oi, /oi nio?aieeinue a iaiyoe Ieaoiia /a?ac ianeieueei eao iinea yoiai
niauoey, – nia?aiiia aianoa e eeoa?aoo?ii ia?aaioaiiia. Ieaoii
i?enoonoaiaae ia noaea, e niaa?oaiii ynii, /oi iaienaiiia ei
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ainiiieiaiea Ieaoiia i oii, /oi aiai?ee Nie?ao, e
/oi Ieaoii aue iaia?ai, aiiaua aiai?y, nicaeaoue i?iecaaaeaiea
enoi?e/aneiai oa?aeoa?a. Yoiai, i?e anao iaiai?eao, aeinoaoi/ii, /oiau
aeaoue niaa?oaiii ii?aaeaeaiiia iienaiea oa?aeoa?a Nie?aoa.

Iniiaiua oaeou noaea iaae Nie?aoii ia aucuaatho niiiaiey. Noaeaaiia
i?aneaaeiaaiea auei iniiaaii ia iaaeiaiee a oii, /oi “Nie?ao iia?aoaao e
ia?anooiaao ia?o aeieaeiiai, enneaaeoy oi, /oi iiae caieath, e oi, /oi a
iaaanao, aeaeay aieaa neaaue aeiaiae aieaa neeueiui e iao/ay oiio aea
naiiio ae?oaeo”. Aeaenoaeoaeueiui iniiaaieai a?aaeaeaaiiai ioiioaiey e
Nie?aoo auei, ii anae aa?iyoiinoe, i?aaeiieiaeaiea, /oi ii naycai n
a?enoie?aoe/aneie ia?oeae; aieueoeinoai aai o/aieeia i?eiaaeeaaeaei e
yoie a?oiia, e iaeioi?ua ec ieo, iaoiaeynue o aeanoe, i?e/eieee aieueoie
a?aae. Ii yoi iniiaaiea iaeuecy auei naeaeaoue aeiaiaeii aneaaenoaea
aiienoee. Aieueoeinoaii aieinia Nie?ao aue i?eciai aeiiaiui, e, niaeanii
aoeineei caeiiai, ii iia i?aaeeiaeeoue, /oiau aio iacia/eee
eaeia-ieaoaeue iaeacaiea iaiaa oyaeaeia, /ai nia?oue. A neo/aa i?eciaiey
iaaeiyaiiai aeiiaiui noaeuee aeieaeiu auee iacia/eoue iaeii ec aeaoo
iaeacaiee, i?aaeeiaeaiiuo iaaeiaieai e caueoie. Iiyoiio a eioa?anao
Nie?aoa auei i?aaeeiaeeoue oaeia iaeacaiea, eioi?ia noae iia i?eiyoue
eae niioaaonoaothuaa aai aeia. Nie?ao aea i?aaeeiaeee oo?ao a 30 iei,
eioi?ue iaeioi?ua ec aai ae?ocae (a oii /enea Ieaoii) aioiau auee aianoe
ca iaai. Yoi auei ianoieueei eaaeei iaeacaieai, /oi noae aue ?acae?aaeai
e i?eaiai?ee Nie?aoa e nia?oe aieueoeinoaii, i?aainoiaeeaoei oi
aieueoeinoai, eioi?ia i?eciaei aai aeiiaiui. Nie?ao, ianiiiaiii,
i?aaeaeaeae yoio ?acoeueoao. ssnii, /oi o iaai ia auei aeaeaiey
ecaaaeaoue iaeacaiey nia?oueth iooai onooiie, eioi?ua iiaee au
iieacaoueny i?eciaieai aai aeiu.

Iaaeieoaeyie Nie?aoa auee aeaiie?aoe/aneee iieeoe/aneee aeayoaeue Aieo,
iiyo-o?aaee Iaeao, ”iieiaeie e iaecaanoiue, n aeaaeeeie aieinaie,
neoaeiie ai?iaeeie e e?th/eiaaoui iinii”, e iaecaanoiue ?eoi? Eeeii. Iie
ooaa?aeaeaee, /oi Nie?ao aeiiaai a oii, /oi ia iieeiiyaony oai aiaai,
eioi?uo i?eciaao ainoaea?noai, ii aaiaeeo ae?oaea, iiaua aiaeanoaa e /oi
ii aeiiaai a ?aca?auaiee iieiaeaaee, oae eae o/ee aa oiio aea naiiio.

Inoaaea ia?ac?aoeiui aii?in ia ioiioaiee ieaoiiianeiai Nie?aoa e
aeaenoaeoaeueiiio Nie?aoo, iiniio?ei, /oi canoaaeyao Ieaoii aiai?eoue
aai a ioaao ia yoi iaaeiaiea.

Nie?ao ia/eiaao n oiai, /oi iaaeiyao naieo iaaeieoaeae a i?aoi?neii
eneonnoaa e ii?iaa?aaao yoi iaaeiaiea a i?eiaiaiee e naiiio naaa. Ii
aiai?eo, /oi aaeeinoaaiiia i?aoi?neia eneonnoai, ia eioi?ia ii niiniaai,
– yoi aiai?eoue i?aaaeo. E iie ia aeieaeiu na?aeeoueny, anee ii aoaeao
iieueciaaoueny i?eau/iui aeey iaai niiniaii au?aaeaiey e ia i?iecianao
“…?a/e, ecoe?aoaiiie ?eoi?e/aneeie iai?ioaie e yooaeoiuie neiaaie…”
Aio auei 70 eao, e ii ieeiaaea aei yoiai ia auaae a noaea; iiyoiio iie
aeieaeiu ecaeieoue aai ianoaeaaioth iaia?o ?a/e.

Ii neacae caoai, /oi, e?iia aai ioeoeeaeueiuo iaaeieoaeae, ii eiaao
iiiaeo iaioeoeeaeueiuo iaaeieoaeae, eioi?ua, n oao ii?, eiaaea yoe
noaeuee auee aua aeaoueie, aiai?eee, /oi “nouanoaoao iaeee Nie?ao,
ioae?ue ioae; aai caaioyo iaaaniua yaeaiey; ii enneaaeoao ana, /oi iiae
caieath, e “…aieaa neaaue aeiaiae aeaeaao aieaa neeueiui”. N/eoatho,
aiai?eo Nie?ao, /oi oaeea ethaee ia aa?yo a nouanoaiaaiea aiaia. Yoi
noa?ia iaaeiaiea ni noi?iiu iauanoaaiiiai iiaiey aieaa iianii, /ai
ioeoeeaeueiia iaaeiaiea, oai aieaa, /oi Nie?ao ia ciaao, eoi yoe ethaee,
io eioi?uo iii enoiaeeo, ca eneeth/aieai A?enoioaia. Ioaa/ay ia yoe
noa?ua a?aaeaeaaiua aeiaiaeu, Nie?ao oeacuaaao, /oi ii ia yaeyaony
o/aiui, e cayaeyao, /oi iiaeiaiiai ?iaea ciaiea “… aiana iaiy ia
eanaaony”, /oi ii ia o/eoaeue e ia aa?ao ieaou ca iao/aiea. Ii
auniaeaaao nioenoia e io?eoeaao ca ieie ciaiea, ia eioi?ia iie
i?aoaiaeotho. Iinea /aai ii aiai?eo : ”…y iinoa?athnue aai iieacaoue,
/oi eiaiii nicaeaei iia eiy (ioae?aoea) e iaaeaeei ia iaiy aeo?ioth
neaao”…

A) Ioae?inoue Nie?aoa.

Ii-aeaeeiiio, iaeiaaeaeu o aeaeueoeeneiai i?aeoea ni?ineee, eiaaony ee
/aeiaae aieaa ioae?ue, /ai Nie?ao, e i?aeoe ioaaoee, /oi ia eiaaony.
Nie?ao cayaeyao, /oi ii aue a iieiii iaaeioiaiee, iineieueeo aiana ia
i?eciaaae naay ioae?ui, oioy aia ia iiaeao eaaoue. Iiyoiio ii ioi?aaeeny
e ethaeyi, n/eoaaoeiny ioae?uie, /oiau iiniio?aoue, ia iiaeao ee ii
oaaaeeoue aiaa a aai ioeaea. I?aaeaea anaai, Nie?ao ioi?aaeeny e iaeiiio
ainoaea?noaaiiiio aeayoaeth, eioi?ue “…eaaeaony ioae?ui iiiaei
ae?oaei, a a iniaaiiinoe naaa naiiio…” Nie?ao nei?i iaia?oaeee, /oi
yoio /aeiaae ia aue ioae?ui, e aaaeeeai, ii oaa?aei iauyniee aio yoi.
“Ana yoi aicaoaeeei a yoii /aeiaaea… ei iia iaiaaenoue”. Iinea yoiai
Nie?ao ia?aoeeny e iiyoai, e iii?inee eo iauynieoue aio ioaeaeueiua
ianoa a eo i?iecaaaeaieyo, ii iie ia auee a ninoiyiee yoi naeaeaoue.
“Oaeei ia?acii, ociae y … /oi-oi, /oi iie ni/eiytho, ia ioae?inoueth
ni/eiytho iie, a aeaaiaea?y eaeie-oi i?e?iaeaeaiiie niiniaiinoe, a
ninoiyiee aaeioiiaaiey…” Caoai Nie?ao iioae e ?aianeaiieeai, ii iie
oaeaea ?aci/a?iaaee aai. A i?ioeanna yoiai caiyoey, aiai?eo ii, o iaai
iiyaeeinue iiiai iianiuo a?aaia. Iaeiiaoe ii i?eoae e auaiaeo, /oi
“ioae?ui ieacuaaaony aia e i?i?eoeaieai naiei ii oeacuaaao ia oi, /oi
/aeiaa/aneay ioae?inoue aeaoaai noieo, ie/aai ia noieo. E, eaaeaony, ii
ia eiaao a aeaeo ooo Nie?aoa, a oieueei ainiieueciaaeny iiei eiaiai
i?eia?a ?aaee, ana ?aaii eae anee au ii neacae: “I ethaee, oio ec aan
ioae?aa, eoi, iiaeiaii Nie?aoo, iiciae, /oi ii iienoeia ie/aai ia noieo
a niunea ioae?inoe”. Yoi caiyoea, ninoiyaoaa a oii, /oiau eciaee/aoue
ethaeae, i?aoaiaeothueo ia ioae?inoue, ioieiaei o Nie?aoa ana aai a?aiy
e niinianoaiaaei aai e?aeiae aaaeiinoe, ii ii n/eoae naiei aeieaii
iiaeoaa?aeeoue neiaa i?aeoea.

Iaeiaei Nie?ao ia ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi ioae?inoue – ia/oi i?eioeeieaeueii
iaiinoeaeeiia. E aai ciaiaieoue iinooeao: ”ss ciath oieueei oi, /oi
ie/aai ia ciath, a ae?oaea ia ciatho aeaaea yoiai”, icia/aao oieueei,
/oi aoeineee iuneeoaeue no?aieony ciaoue aieueoa e aeoaaea. ?onneee
oeeinio eiioea 19 a. ?anoeo?iauaaao nie?aoianeea neiaa oae: ”Eoi iiciae
naia iaciaiea, oio oaea ia/oi ciaao e iiaeao ciaoue aieueoa; ou ia
ciaaoue – oae ociaaae; ia iaeaaeaaoue i?aaaeie – oae eue aa; eiaaea
euaoue, iia oaea i?e oaaa, oieueei n cae?uoui eeoeii, e io oaiaai
oinoaaiiiai o?oaea caaeneo, /oiau iia ioe?ueanue”.

Iieiaeua ethaee, nuiiauey aiaaoaeoeo a?aaeaeai, eae aiai?eo Nie?ao, o
eioi?uo auaaao aieueoa anaai aeinoaa, n oaeiaieuenoaeai neooatho, eae ii
eniuouaaao ethaeae e /anoi naie, iiae?aaeay aio, i?iaotho eniuouaaoue
ae?oaeo e oai naiui niinianoaotho oaaee/aieth /enea aai a?aaia. Iioiio
/oi “ei ia oi/aony auoue eciaee/aiiuie a oii, /oi iie i?aaenoaaeythony,
aoaeoi /oi-oi ciatho, a ia naiii aeaea ie/aai ia ciatho”.

Yoie caueou aeinoaoi/ii aeey ia?auo iaaeieoaeae.

…Oaia?ue Nie?ao ia?aoiaeeo e ?anniio?aieth a?aoiaioaoeee naiaai
iaaeieoaey Iaeaoa, “…aeia?iai iao?eioa, eae ii aiai?eo…” Nie?ao
ni?aoeaaao o Iaeaoa, eoi aea oa ethaee, eioi?ua aeaeatho iieiaeuo
ethaeae eo/oeie. Nia/aea Iaeao iacuaaao noaeae, caoai iiae aeaaeaieai ii
aue auioaeaeai oaa ca oaaii i?eciaoue, /oi ana aoeiyia, e?iia Nie?aoa,
aeaeatho iieiaeuo ethaeae eo/oeie, aneaae ca /ai Nie?ao iicae?aaeyao
ai?iae n aai n/anoeeaie noaeueaie. Aeaeaa Nie?ao aiai?eo, /oi eo/oa
aeeoue n aeia?uie ethaeueie, /ai ni ceuie, e iiyoiio ii ia iia au auoue
oaeei aacoiiui, /oiau iaia?aiii ?aca?auaoue naieo nia?aaeaeai. Anee aea
ii ?aca?auaao eo ia iaia?aiii, oiaaea Iaeao aeieaeai aue au ia
i?eaeaeaoue aai e noaeo, a ianoaaeyoue e a?acoieyoue aai.

A iaaeiaiee auei neacaii, /oi Nie?ao ia oieueei ia i?eciaao aiaia,
eioi?uo i?eciaao ainoaea?noai, ii aaiaeeo ae?oaeo, naieo nianoaaiiuo
aiaia. Iaeiaei Iaeao aiai?eo, /oi Nie?ao yaeyaony iieiui aoaenoii, e
aeiaaaeyao :”…ii ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi Nieioea – eaiaiue, Eoia – caiey”.
Nie?ao ioaa/aao, /oi Iaeao ii-aeaeeiiio, aeoiaao, /oi ii iaaeiyao
Aiaenaai?a, /uee acaeyaeu iiaeii oneuoaoue a oaao?a ca iaeio ae?aoio (ii
anae aa?iyoiinoe, a iueanao Aa?eieaea). Nie?ao, eiia/ii, ioia/aao, /oi
yoi iiaia iaaeiaiea a iieiii aoaecia i?ioeai?a/eo naiiio aea
ioeoeeaeueiiio iaaeiaieth, e caoai ia?aoiaeeo e aieaa iauei
niia?aaeaieyi.

Inoaeueiay /anoue “Aiieiaee”, ii nouanoao, auaea?aeaia a ?aeeaeiciuo
oiiao. Nie?ao aniiieiaao, /oi, eiaaea ii aue aieiii e aio i?eeacuaaee,
ii inoaaaeny ia naiai iinoo. “…Oaia?ue, eiaaea iacia/ee iaiy aia aeey
oiai, /oiau … aeeoue, caieiaynue oeeinioeae e eniuoaieai naiiai naay e
anao i?i/eo…”, auei au oae aea iici?ii inoaaeoue no?ie, eae i?aaeaea
ai a?aiy n?aaeaiey. No?ao nia?oe ia yaeyaony ioae?inoueth, iineieueeo
ieeoi ia ciaao, ia yaeyaony ee nia?oue aeey /aeiaaea aaee/aeoei ec anao
aeaa. Anee au aio i?aaeeiaeeee nio?aieoue aeeciue i?e oneiaee, /oi ii
ia?anoaiao caieiaoueny oeeinioeae, eae ii yoi aeaeae aei neo ii?, ii
ioaaoee au: “ ss aan, aoeiyia, ethaeth e iaiaeath, ii iiaeiiaaoueny
aoaeo aieaa aiao, /ai aai, e, iiea aeuoo e a neeao, ia ia?anoaio
caieiaoueny oeeinioeae, anaaaea oaiaa?eaaoue e oeacuaaoue eaaeaeiio ec
aan, eiai ano?a/o… Eai oae iia iiaaeaaaao aia – aoaeueoa, oaa?aiu a
yoii; e, y aeoiath, /oi aeey aan ai anai ai?iaea iao aieueoa aeaaa, eae
yoi iia neoaeaiea aiao”. Ii i?iaeieaeaao aeaeaa:

“Aaaeue y aeoiath, /oi, neooay iaiy, au ecaea/aoa naaa iieueco. ss
iaia?ai neacaoue aai ia/oi oaeia, ii iiaiaeo /aai au, iiaeaeoe,
iiaeieieoa e?ee. Oieueei ieeiei ia?acii ia aeaeaeoa yoiai!

Aoaeueoa oaa?aiu: anee au iaiy oaueaoa, oaeiai, eaeia y anoue, au
aieueoa iia?aaeeoa ia iia, a naiei naaa! Iia-oi aaaeue ieiaei ia
i?eianoo a?aaea ie Iaeao, ie Aieo, – aea iie e ia niiaoo naeaeaoue
yoiai, oae eae, y aeoiath, ia iieaaaaony ooaeoaio iaiineoue a?aae
eo/oaio. Eiia/ii, iie iiaoo e oaeoue iaiy, iiaeaa?aiooue ecaiaieth,
eeoeoue a?aaeaeaineeo i?aa. Ii yoi iie e, iiaeaeoe, aua e eoi-eeai eiie
n/eoatho ca aaeeeia cei, y aea ia n/eoath, a n/eoath ai?acaei aieueoei
ceii iinooiaoue oae, eae iie oaia?ue iinooiatho, no?aiynue
iani?aaaaeeeai inoaeeoue /aeiaaea ia nia?oue”.

Nie?ao aiai?eo, /oi ii caueuaaony ia ?aaee naay, ii ?aaee naieo noaeae.
Ii yaeyaony naiaai ?iaea iaiaeii, eioi?iai aia i?enoaaee e ainoaea?noao,
e iaeaaei aoaeao iaeoe ae?oaiai oaeiai /aeiaaea, eae ii. “ I/aiue iiaeao
auoue, au, oyaioynue iiith, eae oa ethaee, eioi?uo aoaeyo, eiaaea iie
ae?aietho, iooieeiaoa iaiy, ii iaouaieth Aieoa, e n eaaeei na?aeoeai
oaueaoa. Ii oiaaea au e anth inoaeueioth aeeciue i?iaaaeaoa a niy/ea,
anee oieueei aia, a iiia/aiee i aan, ia iioeao aai eiai-ieaoaeue
ae?oaiai”.

Ii/aio ii aeaaae yoe niaaou oieueei /anoiui ia?acii, a ioaee/ii ia
aeaaae niaaoia ii ainoaea?noaaiiui aeaeai? “…Au iaiaeiie?aoii e
iianthaeo io iaiy neuoaee: ni iiith auaaao ia/oi aiaeanoaaiiia e
aeaiiie/aneia, iaae /ai e Iaeao iaaeniayeny a naiae aeaeiaa. Ia/aeinue
yoi o iaiy n aeaonoaa: eaeie-oi aiein, eioi?ue anyeee ?ac, eiaaea
auaaao, iinoiyiii ioeeiiyao iaiy io oiai, /oi y iaia?aaathnue naeaeaoue,
ii ieeiaaea ia neeiiyao e /aio-eeai. Aio yoi-oi e i?aiyonoaoao iia
caieiaoueny iieeoeeith”. Aeaeaa ii aiai?eo, /oi /anoiue /aeiaae ia
iiaeao aeieai i?iaeeoue, anee ii caieiaaony ainoaea?noaaiiuie aeaeaie.
Ii i?eaiaeeo aeaa i?eia?a oiai, eae aai i?ioea aeaeaiey aiaeaeee a
ainoaea?noaaiiua aeaea: a ia?aii neo/aa ii ieacae nii?ioeaeaiea
aeaiie?aoee, ai aoi?ii – o?eaeoeaoe oe?aiai; i?e/ai a eaaeaeii neo/aa,
eiaaea aeanoe aeaenoaiaaee i?ioeaicaeiiii.

Nie?ao ioia/aao, /oi n?aaee i?enoonoaothueo ia noaea iaoiaeeony iiiai
aai auaoeo o/aieeia, a oaeaea eo iooeia e a?aoueaa. Ie iaeei ec ieo ia
aue aucaai iaaeieoaeai a ea/anoaa naeaeaoaey oiai, /oi Nie?ao ?aca?auae
iieiaeaaeue (yoi ii/oe aaeeinoaaiiue a?aoiaio a “Aiieiaee”, eioi?ue
naieoeeiie?iaae au aaeaieao). Nie?ao ioeacuaaaony neaaeiaaoue iau/ath
i?eaiaeeoue a noae naieo iea/oueo aeaoae, /oiau niya/eoue na?aeoea
noaeae; oaeea aucuaathuea aeaeinoue noeaiu, aiai?eo ii, aeaeatho ?aaii
niaoiuie e iaaeiyaiiai e ai?iae. Aai oeaeue ninoiyea a oii, /oiau
oaaaeeoue noaeae, a ia i?ineoue o ieo ieeinoe.

Iinea iaeaoaiey i?eaiai?a e ioeaca noaeae iacia/eoue i?aaeeiaeaiiia
Nie?aoii iaeacaiea a 30 iei. (a nayce n yoei Nie?ao iacuaaao Ieaoiia a
ea/anoaa iaeiiai ec naieo ii?o/eoaeae, eioi?ue i?enoonoaoao ia noaea) ii
i?ieciineo naith iineaaeithth ?a/ue:

“Aai, inoaeeaoei iaiy, y oi/o naeaeaoue i?aaeneacaiea i oii, /oi
i?iecieaeao aneaae ca oai. Aaaeue y oaea iaoiaeonue a oaeii iieiaeaiee,
eiaaea ethaee a iniaaiiinoe aeatho i?aaeneacaiey – yoi eiaaea iie
aeieaeiu oia?aoue. ss aiai?th aai, oai, eioi?ua oaeee iaiy, /oi
aiciacaeea ia aan i?eaeao iaiaaeeaiii aea iinea iiae nia?oe, aiciacaeea
– eeyionue Caanii! – ai?acaei aieaa oyaeaeia, /ai iiy nia?oue, eioi?ie
au oaeaaaoa iaiy… A naiii aeaea: anee au aeoiaaoa, /oi, oaeaay
ethaeae, au oaea?aeeoa yoei eiai-eeai io iiiioaiey aan a iai?aaeeueiie
aeecie aaoae, au iai?aaeeueii iuneeoa. Aaaeue oaeiai ?iaea ecaaaeaiea e
ia i/aiue-oi aiciiaeii e ia oi?ioi; a aio ae?oaie niinia ecaaaeaiey – e
naiue i?ae?aniue e naiue eaaeee: ia ianeeiaaoue ae?oaeo, a naiiai naay
aea?aeaoue oae, /oiau auoue eae iiaeii eo/oa…”

Caoai Nie?ao ia?auaaony e oai naiei noaeueyi, eioi?ua aieiniaaee ca aai
ii?aaaeaiea, e aiai?eo ei, /oi a oa/aiea yoiai aeiy aai aiaeanoaaiiia
ciaiaiea ie ?aco ia i?ioeaiaeaenoaiaaei aio ie a aeaenoaeyo, ie a
neiaao, oioy a ae?oaeo neo/ayo iii iiiai ?ac oaea?aeeaaei aai n?aaee
?a/e. “…Naeaaony iia, – neacae ii, – /oi i?eeeth/eaoaany ni iiith
anoue aeaai, e ia iiaeao auoue, neaaeiaaoaeueii, i?aaeeueiui aaoa
i?aaeiieiaeaiea, iineieueeo iu aeoiaai, /oi nia?oue anoue cei”. Iioiio
/oi nia?oue yaeyaony eee niii aac niiaeaeaiee, /oi i?aaenoaaeyao
oaeeaeoaeueioth auaiaeo, eee ia?anaeaieai aeooe a ae?oaie ie?. E
“…/aai ia aeae au eaaeaeue ec aan, /oiau auoue aianoa n I?oaai,
Ionaai, Aaneiaeii, Aiia?ii? Aea y oioae au iiiai ?ac oia?aoue, anee yoi
i?aaaea!” A ae?oaii ie?a ii aoaeao aanaaeiaaoue n ae?oaeie ethaeueie,
eioi?ua oia?ee aneaaenoaea iani?aaaaeeeaiai noaeaaiiai ?aoaiey, e, e?iia
oiai, ii aoaeao i?iaeieaeaoue iaae?aoueny ciaiee. “Naii niaie
?acoiaaony, oaiioiea ethaee ca yoi ia oaeaatho, iioiio /oi iie, iiieii
anaai i?i/aai, aeaaeaiiaa caeaoieo e oaea ana inoaeueiia a?aiy
aannia?oiu, anee i?aaaea oi, /oi ia yoii aiai?yo…

Ii aio oaea e a?aiy ooiaeeoue, iia – /oiau oia?aoue, aai – /oiau aeeoue.
A eoi ec ian eaeao ia eo/oaa aeaei, ecaanoii iaeiiio aiao”.

2. Au? eia-/oi i “Aiieiaee Nie?aoa”.

“Aiieiaey Nie?aoa” aeaao yniia ecia?aaeaiea /aeiaaea ii?aaeaeaiiiai
oeia: /aeiaaea oaa?aiiiai a naaa, aaeeeiaeooiiai, ?aaiiaeooiiai e
caiiiio oniaoo, aa?yuaai, /oi ei ?oeiaiaeeo aiaeanoaaiiue aiein, e
oaaaeaeaiiiai a oii, /oi aeey aeia?iaeaoaeueiie aeecie naiui aaaeiui
oneiaeai yaeyaony yniia iuoeaiea, Anee eneeth/eoue iineaaeiee ioieo, oi
Nie?ao iaiiieiaao o?enoeaineiai io/aieea eee io?eoaieia. A iineaaeiae
/anoe naiae ?a/e, a eioi?ie ii ianoaeaeaao oi, /oi i?ienoiaeeo iinea
nia?oe, iaaiciiaeii ia ii/oanoaiaaoue, /oi ii oaa?aei aa?eo a aannia?oea
e /oi auneacuaaaiay ei iaoaa?aiiinoue eeoue iaioneiay. Aai ia o?aaiaeeo,
iiaeiaii o?enoeaiai, no?ao ia?aae aa/iuie ioeaie; ii ia niiiaaaaony a
oii, /oi aai aeeciue a caa?iaiii ie?a aoaeao n/anoeeaie. A “Oaaeiia”
ieaoiiianeee Nie?ao i?eaiaeeo iniiaaiey aeey aa?u a aannia?oea.
Aeaenoaeoaeueii ee yoe iniiaaiey ieacaee aeeyiea ia enoi?e/aneiai
Nie?aoa, neacaoue iaeuecy.

Aaeaa ee iiaeii neieueei-ieaoaeue niiiaaaoueny a oii, /oi enoi?e/aneee
Nie?ao ooaa?aeaeae, /oi ei ?oeiaiaeee i?aeoe eee aeaiii. Iaaiciiaeii
onoaiiaeoue; aiaeiae/ii ee yoi oiio, /oi o?enoeaiei iacaae au aieinii
niaanoe, eee yoi yaeyeinue aio eae aeaenoaeoaeueiue aiein. AEaiio Ae.A?e
aaeioiiaeyee aieina, /oi i?aaenoaaeyao niaie iau/iue neiioii aeooaaiie
aieacie. Nie?ao aue iiaeaa?aeai eaoaeaioe/aneei o?ainai; ai anyeii
neo/aa, yoi i?aaenoaaeyaony anoanoaaiiui iauyniaieai oiai neo/ay,
eioi?ue iaeiaaeaeu i?iecioae n iei, eiaaea ii aue ia aiaiiie neoaeaa:

“Iia?oceaoenue n ?aiiaai oo?a a eaeia-oi ?aciuoeaiea, ii noiye e aeoiae;
oae eae aeaei o iaai ia iiaeaeaaeinue aia?aae, ii ia i?ae?auae oa/aiey
naieo iuneae e ana noiye. Ianooiee iieaeaiue; ethaee noaee ia?auaoue ia
yoi aieiaiea e n oaeeaeaieai aiai?eee iaeei ae?oaiio: “Aio Nie?ao n
?aiiaai oo?a noieo /ai-oi icaai/aiiue”. Iaeiiaoe, eiaaea ianooiee oaea
aa/a?, iaeioi?ua ec oao, eoi aue iiiieiaea – aeaei i?ienoiaeeei eaoii, –
auianee (ec iaeaoie), iinea aa/a?iae aaeu, iao?aoeu, io/anoe /oiau
niaoue ia oieiaeea, io/anoe /oiau iaaethaeaoue, aoaeao ee Nie?ao noiyoue
e ii/ueth. Ii i?inoiye aei ca?e e nieia/iiai ainoiaea, caoai, niaa?oea
iieeoao Nieioeo, ooae”.

Iiaeiaiiai ?iaea oaeou a iaiueoae noaiaie auee iau/iui yaeaieai o
Nie?aoa. A ia/aea “Ie?a” o Ieaoiia iienuaaaony, eae Nie?ao e A?enoiaeai
ioi?aaeeenue aianoa ia iaaae, ii Nie?ao, aoaeo/e a ninoiyiee
?annayiiinoe, ionoae io A?enoiaeaia. Eiaaea A?enoiaeai i?eoae, oicyei
aeiia, Aaaoii, ni?inee: “A Nie?aoa-oi /oi aea ou ia i?eaae e iai?”
A?enoiaeai oaeeaeeny, iaia?oaeea, /oi Nie?aoa ia ieacaeinue n iei;
iineaee ?aaa eneaoue Nie?aoa, e ii iaoae aai o ninaaeiae aoiaeiie
aeaa?e. “Nie?ao yoio iioae iacaae, inoaiiaeeny o ninaaeiae aoiaeiie
aeaa?e e ia iie cia neacae, /oi ia aeaeaao eaeoe e iai”, – neacae ?aa.
Oa, eoi oi?ioi ciaee Nie?aoa, iauynieee, /oi “…o iaai oaeay i?eau/ea –
ioieaeao eiie ?ac, eoaea i?eaeaony, e noieo”. Iie inoaaeee Nie?aoa a
iieia, e ii i?eoae, eiaaea iaaae iaiieiaeio aue oaea ieii/ai.

Ana niaeaniu a oii, /oi Nie?ao aue i/aiue aacia?acai; ii aue eo?iinue e
eiae aieueoie aeeaio. Ii “…aacia?aciaa anao neeaiia a naoe?e/aneeo
ae?aiao”. Ii anaaaea aue iaeao a noa?oth, iio?aiaiioth iaeaaeaeo e
anthaeo oiaeee aineeii. Aai ?aaiiaeooea e aea?a e oieiaeo, aieiaeo e
aeaaeaea oaeeaeyei anao. A “Ie?a” Ieaoiia Aeeeaeaae, iienuaay Nie?aoa ia
aiaiiie neoaeaa, aiai?eo neaaeothuaa:

“…Nie?ao i?aainoiaeee ia oieueei iaiy, ii e anao i?i/eo naiae
o?oaeiniiniaiinoueth. Ia?aaeei neo/aeinue, /oi iaueiiaaiii auaaao a
iioiaeao, iai auoue io?acaiiuie (io iiaeaica i?iaeiaieuenoaey) e iioiio
aieiaeaoue. E oiaaea a auiineeainoe ana auee a n?aaiaiee n iei ie/oi…
A auiineeainoe io oieiaea, – a ceiu oai aeanoieea – ii iieacuaae
/oaeana. A iniaaiiinoe iaeei ?ac, eiaaea noiyea aeanoi/aeoay nooaea e
ana eeai nianai ia auoiaeeee ec iaeaoie, eeai, anee eoi e auoiaeee,
oaeeaeoaeueii, eae neeueii caeoouaaeny, iiaeaycuaae iiae iiae e
iaiaouaae eo aieeieii e iaa/ueeie oeo?aie, Nie?ao e ooo auoiaeee a oii
ieaua, eaeie ii iaueiiaaiii iinee ?aiaa, e ia aino iiao oiaeee ii eueaeo
eaa/a, /ai ana inoaeueiua, iaooua. Aieiu noaee eini niio?aoue ia iaai,
aeoiay, /oi ii ecaeaaaaony iaae ieie”.

Iinoiyiii iiae/a?eeaaaony oiaiea Nie?aoa ainiiaenoaiaaoue iaae anaie
ieioneeie no?anoyie. Ii ?aaeei iee aeii, ii eiaaea iee, oi iia ia?aieoue
ethaiai; ii ieeoi ieeiaaea ia aeaeae aai iueyiui. A ethaae, aeaaea i?e
naiuo neeueiuo niaeaciao, ii inoaaaeny “ieaoiie/aneei”, anee Ieaoii
aiai?eo i?aaaeo. Ii aue niaa?oaiiui i?oe/aneei nayoui: a aeoaeecia
iaaaniie aeooe e caiiiai oaea ii aeinoea iieiiai ainiiaenoaa aeooe iaae
oaeii. ?aoathuei, a eiia/iii n/aoa, aeieacaoaeuenoaii yoiai ainiiaenoaa
yaeyaony aai ?aaiiaeooea e nia?oe. A oi aea naiia a?aiy Nie?ao ia
yaeyaony i?oiaeienaeueiui i?oeeii. Ii i?eieiaao eeoue iniiaiua
aeieo?eiu, ii ia noaaa?ey e ia oea?aiiiee i/euaiey.

Ieaoiiianeee Nie?ao i?aaeainoeuaao e noieeia e eeieeia. Noieee
ooaa?aeaeaee, /oi aunoei aeia?ii yaeyaony aeia?iaeaoaeue, e /oi /aeiaae
ia iiaeao auoue eeoai aeia?iaeaoaee a neeo aiaoieo i?e/ei; yoa oai?ey
iiae?acoiaaaaony a ooaa?aeaeaiee Nie?aoa, /oi aai noaeuee ia iiaoo
iia?aaeeoue aio. Eeieee i?ace?aee caiiua aeaaa e i?iyaeyee naia
i?ac?aiea a oii, /oi ecaaaaee oaeianoa oeeaeeecaoeee; yoi oa aea naiay
oi/ea c?aiey, eioi?ay canoaaeyea Nie?aoa oiaeeoue aineeii e ieioi
iaeaoui.

I?aaenoaaeyaony niaa?oaiii ii?aaeaeaiiui, /oi Nie?ao aue iiaeiuai
yoe/aneeie aii?inaie, a ia iao/iuie. Eae iu aeaeaee, ii aiai?eo a
“Aiieiaee”, /oi iiaeiaiiai ?iaea ciaiea “…aiana iaiy ia eanaaony”.
Naiua ?aiiea ec aeeaeiaia Ieaoiia, eioi?ua iau/ii n/eoathony iaeaieaa
nie?aoe/aneeie, iinayuaiu a iniiaiii iieneai ii?aaeaeaiee yoe/aneeo
oa?ieiia. “Oa?ieae” iinayuai ii?aaeaeaieth oia?aiiinoe, eee
aicaea?aeaiey; “Eenen” – ae?oaeau; “Eaoao” – ioaeanoaa. Ie a iaeiii ec
ieo ia naeaeaii auaiaeia, ii Nie?ao ynii aiai?eo, /oi ii n/eoaao aaaeiui
?anniio?aiea yoeo aii?inia.

Ii ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi ie iaeei /aeiaae ia a?aoeo niciaoaeueii e iiyoiio
iaiaoiaeeii eeoue ciaiea, /oiau naeaeaoue anao ethaeae niaa?oaiii
aeia?iaeaoaeueiuie.

Aeey Nie?aoa oa?aeoa?ii ooaa?aeaeaiea oaniie nayce iaaeaeo
aeia?iaeaoaeueth e ciaieai. A iaeioi?ie noaiaie yoi oa?aeoa?ii aeey anae
a?a/aneie oeeinioee a i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue oeeinioee o?enoeainoaa.
Niaeanii o?enoeaineie yoeea, nouanoaaiiui yaeyaony /enoia na?aeoea,
eioi?ia iiaeii ano?aoeoue n iaeeiaeiaie aa?iyoiinoueth, eae o
iaaaaeanoaaiiuo ethaeae, oae e n?aaee o/aiuo. Yoi ?acee/ea iaaeaeo
a?a/aneie e o?enoeaineie yoeeie i?iaeieaeaao nio?aiyoueny aieioue aei
ianoiyuaai a?aiaie.

Aua iaeei aaaeiue aeey oa?aeoa?enoeee acaeyaeia Nie?aoa iiiaio.
Ae?aaiaa?a/aneee iuneeoaeue – au?aaeaiiue aeeaeaeoee. Aeeaeaeoeea, oi
anoue iaoiae i?eia?aoaiey ciaiey iooai aii?inia e ioaaoia, ia auea
ecia?aoaia Nie?aoii. Ii ii aue ianoa?ii auyniyoue nooue aii?inia e
ioaaoia a iai?eioaeaeaiiie aanaaea, i?aaeiieaaathuae noieeiiaaiea
iuneae, ioa?anuaaiea eiaeiuo iooae, auai? iaaiaeyueo aii?inia e, eae
neaaenoaea, iinoaiaiiia i?eaeeaeaiea e enoeia. Eiaiii a yoie nayce
aiai?yo i nie?aoianeie e?iiee, iaoiaea Nie?aoa. Nooue aai a no?aieaiee
aeinoe/ue i?aaeeueiiai ciaiey, iaia?oaeeaay i?ioeai?a/ey a
ooaa?aeaeaieyo niaanaaeieea. I?eia?u eniieueciaaiey Nie?aoii aeeaeaeoeee
a eneonnoaa nii?a iiaeii iaeoe o Ieaoiia.

A aeeaeiaa Ieaoiia “Ia?iaieae” Caiii iiaeaa?aaao Nie?aoa oiio aea naiiio
?iaeo ia?auaiey, eaeiio iianthaeo o Ieaoiia Nie?ao iiaeaa?aaao ae?oaeo.
Ii eiathony ana iniiaaiey i?aaeiieaaaoue, /oi Nie?ao i?eiaiye ia
i?aeoeea e ?acaeaae yoio iaoiae. Eae iu aeaeaee, eiaaea Nie?aoa
i?eaiai?eee e nia?oe, ii n ?aaeinoueth ?aciuoeyao i oii, /oi a
caa?iaiii ie?a aio iiaeii i?iaeieaeaoue aa/ii caaeaaaoue aii?inu e aai
ia niiaoo i?aaeaoue nia?oe, oae eae ii aoaeao aannia?oiui. Eiia/ii, anee
ii i?eiaiye aeeaeaeoeeo oae, eae yoi iienaii a “Aiieiaee”, oi eaaei
iauynieoue a?aaeaeaaiia e iaio ioiioaiea: ana oaanooiu a Aoeiao aeieaeiu
auee iauaaeeieoueny i?ioea iaai.

Aii?inu, eioi?ua iiaoo auoue ?anniio?aiu iin?aaenoaii iaoiaea Nie?aoa, –
yoi oa aii?inu, i eioi?uo iu oaea eiaai aeinoaoi/iua iiciaiey, /oiau
i?eeoe e i?aaeeueiiio auaiaeo, ii ec-ca iooaieoeu eee iaaeinoaoi/iiai
aiaeeca ia noiaee eiae/anee eniieueciaaoue oi, /oi iu ciaai. Oaeie
aii?in, eae “/oi oaeia ni?aaaaeeeainoue?”, aiieia aiaeeony aeey
ianoaeaeaiey a ieaoiiianeii aeeaeiaa. Ana iu naiaiaeii oiio?aaeyai neiaa
“ni?aaaaeeeaue” e “iani?aaaaeeeaue”, e, eco/ay, a eaeii niunea iu eo
oiio?aaeyai, iu iiaeai eiaeoeoeaii i?eeoe e ii?aaeaeaieth, eioi?ia eo/oa
anaai aoaeao niioaaonoaiaaoue oiio?aaeaieth yoeo neia. O?aaoaony eeoue
ciaiea oiai, eae oiio?aaeythony yoe neiaa a aii?ina. Ii eiaaea iaoa
enneaaeiaaiea aoaeao caeii/aii, oi ieaaeaony, /oi iu naeaeaee eeoue
eeiaaenoe/aneia ioe?uoea, a ia ioe?uoea a iaeanoe yoeee.

Iaeiaei iu iiaeai n iieuecie i?eiaiyoue yoio iaoiae aeey eaeiai-oi aieaa
oe?ieiai ?yaea neo/aaa. Eiaaea oi, /oi ianoaeaeaaony, yaeyaony aieaa
eiae/aneei, /ai oaeoe/aneei, oiaaea ianoaeaeaiea yaeyaony oi?ioei
iaoiaeii auyaeaiey enoeiu. I?aaeiieiaeei, /oi eoi-oi ooaa?aeaeaao,
iai?eia?, /oi aeaiie?aoey oi?ioa, ii eeoeai, i?eaea?aeeaathueiny
ii?aaeaeaiiuo iiaiee, ia neaaeiaaei au ?ac?aoaoue aieiniaaoue; iu iiaeai
oaaaeeoue oaeiai /aeiaaea a oii, /oi ii iaiineaaeiaaoaeai, e aeieacaoue
aio, /oi ii e?aeiae ia?a iaeii ec aai aeaoo ooaa?aeaeaiee aeieaeii auoue
aieaa eee iaiaa ioeai/iui. ss n/eoath, /oi eiae/aneea ioeaee eiatho
aieueoaa i?aeoe/aneia cia/aiea, /ai iiiaea iieaaatho; iie aeatho
aiciiaeiinoue oiio, eoi eo niaa?oaao, i?eaea?aeeaaoueny oaeiaiiai iiaiey
ii eaaeaeiio aii?ino. Anyeay eiae/anee nayciay oai?ey aeieaeia auoue
io/anoe oyainoiie e i?ioeai?a/eoue ?ani?ino?aiaiiui i?aae?annoaeeai.
Aeeaeaeoe/aneee iaoiae, eee, a aieaa iauai niunea, i?eau/ea e
naiaiaeiiio ianoaeaeaieth, aaaeao e eiae/aneie iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe e
yaeyaony a yoii ioiioaiee iieaciui. Ii ii niaa?oaiii iai?eaiaeai, eiaaea
oeaeueth aai yaeyaony iaia?oaeaiea iiauo oaeoi?ia.

Nie?aoa eioa?anoao ia oieueei ii?aeue, ii e iieeoeea, i?aai,
a?aaeaeaineea caeiiu, i?iaeaiu aieiu e ie?a – ana, /oi oai eee eiui
ia?acii eanaeinue eaaeaeiai a?aaeaeaieia Aoei. Ii aeaaiia aeey iaai –
yoeea. ?acaeaay e ionoaeaay a ?acaiai?ao e aeeneonneyo naie acaeyaeu,
oeeinio no?aieony iiii/ue ethaeyi iaeoe “naieo naay”, iao/eoueny aanoe
naay a niioaaonoaee n caeiiaie e ii?iaie i?aanoaaiiinoe.

Caeeth/aiea.

?anniao?eaay yoiai oieeaeueiiai /aeiaaea e oeeinioa Nie?aoa, y oioaea au
i?eaanoe neiaa E. Oanoiaa, eioi?ue i/aiue oi/ii e iauaiii
ioa?aeoa?eciaae aai: ”I?e anae aai aiaoiae ne?iiiinoe, i?e anae aai
aeaeeiie iao?aaiaaoaeueiinoe : ii ?acaiaa?eaae e n ?aianeaiieeaie, e n
?aaaie, e n aeaoueie; ii aeee aaaeii, iaeaaaeny aaaeii, ae, /oi Aia
iioeao, oa?iaeeai niinee aeaeiau e a?aiue naiae Enaioeiu – i?aai
iacuaaoueny ioae?aeoei ii ionoaeaae anaie neeaie naiaai caia/aoaeueiiai
oia. Ii onooiae ae?oaei aiaaonoaa, ii/anoe… ii i?aaiou naiae ii ia
onooiee au ieeiio; oio, eoi oioae auoue i?aaui, aeieaeai aue eaeoe ca
Nie?aoii. Aea e iia au Nie?ao io?a/ueny io yoiai naiaai i?aaa? Ii
ioeacaeny… io anaai, /ai ethaee aeeee, – io anao /oanoaaiiuo aeaa. Ii,
ia eieaaeynue, ooaa?aeaeae, /oi eo/oa i?aoa?iaoue iani?aaaaeeeainoue,
/ai naiiio auoue iani?aaaaeeeaui. E a aai onoao yoi ia auei ionoie
o?acie. Ana ae?aaiea ienaoaee aaeeiiaeanii naeaeaoaeuenoaotho, /oi neiaa
Nie?aoa auee aai aeaeii – e ia a ia?aiiniii niunea, a a aoeaaeueiii. Ii
i?eieiae, eiaaea ioaeii auei, iani?aaaaeeeainoue – e oyaeeoth
iani?aaaaeeeainoue, ii naaa ia ?ac?aoae auoue iani?aaaaeeeaui aeaaea ii
ioiioaieth e iaeae/eeo. E oae eae a aeecie /aeiaaeo, eioi?ue nai ia
oi/ao iaeaeaoue, i?eoiaeeony iinoiyiii oa?iaoue iaeaeu io ae?oaeo, oi
aeeciue Nie?aoa auea i/aiue o?oaeiie e io/eoaeueiie…” E /ai aea iia
aeeoue Nie?ao, eiaaea ii ?icaeae ana, /oi o iaai auei? E aio ii nicaeae
nai naaa aeooiaioth ieuo – ia oeaaii aoaeao aeeoue /aeiaae, ia ii/anoyie
e ae?oaeie /oanoaaiiuie /aeiaa/aneeie ?aaeinoyie, a niciaieai naiae
ni?aaaaeeeainoe, naiae i?aaiou. *aeiaae iiaeao oae aeeoue, /oiau anaaaea
/oanoaiaaoue naay i?aaui, e eiaaea ii /oanoaoao naay i?aaui, aio aieueoa
ie/aai e ia ioaeii.

Yoa iuneue Nie?aoa, yoi aeaei Nie?aoa eaaei a iniiaaiea anae a?a/aneie
oeeinioee – iii eaaei a iniiaaiea anae aaeiaie ioae?inoe /aeiaa/anoaa.

Nienie eniieuecoaiie eeoa?aoo?u:

1. A. Oaoia? Auaeathueany ii?o?aou aioe/iinoe: 337 ii?o?aoia a neiaa
e ia?aca. – I.,1984 a.

2. A. ?annae Enoi?ey caiaaeiie oeeinioee. – I.,1993 a.

3. I. Aaeueyii Iniiau oeeinioneie eoeueoo?u. – I.,1994 a.

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