.

Содержание и структура философских знаний: аксиология

Язык:
Формат: реферат
Тип документа: Word Doc
0 2016
Скачать документ

AUNOEE EIEEAAeAE EIOI?IAOEEE

IIAINEAE?NEIAI AINOAeA?NOAAIIIAI OIEAA?NEOAOA

EAOAAe?A AOIAIEOA?IUO AeENOeEIE

EIIO?IEUeIAss ?AAIOA II OEEINIOEE

OAIA:

No?oeoo?a e niaea?aeaiea oeeinioneeo ciaiee :

aeneieiaey

Aaoi?
Iao/iue ?oeiaiaeeoaeue

Aanaaa Aeaenaiae? Aeaaeeie?iae/ Aia?ia
Aeeoi? Aaneeueaae/ nooaeaio oaoie/aneiai oaeoeueoaoa
aeioeaio eaoaae?u aoiaieoa?iuo

611 o/aaiie a?oiiu
aeenoeeieei, e.oeein.i.

Naeae ia i?iaa?eo:

“____”___________1998 aiaea
Ioeaiea__________________

a. Iiaineae?ne 1998 a.

Aaaaeaiea.

Oeeinioey yaeyaony iaeaieaa aaeaeaaoiui n?aaenoaii naiiniciaiey e
aeooiaiiai naiiii?aaeaeaiey /aeiaa/anoaa .Ca aeaa n eeoiei ouny/e eao
iia aunooiaea ai iiiaeo eiinoaneyo : io caaiou i nia?oe e n?aaenoaa
oiiaeiaeaiey aiao o Ieaoiia aei iaoee iaoe e i?oaeey ?aaiethoeeiiiiai
ia?aono?ienoaa ie?a o Aaaaey e Ia?ena. Ii ai anao neo/ayo e ai ana
a?aiaia o oeeinioee auee e inoaeenue, anoanoaaiii, iauea oa?aeoa?iua
/a?ou.

Oeeinioey eiaao aiciiaeiinoue ioaa/aoue ia oaeea aii?inu, ia
eioi?ua a i?eioeeia iao e ia iiaeao auoue iaeiicia/iiai ioaaoa.
Iai?eia?, i nia?oe e aannia?oee , i niunea aeecie aiiaua e /aeiaa/aneie
a /anoiinoe , anoue ee Aia eee iao aai? Yoe aii?inu, iacuaaaiua aa/iuie,
e ninoaaeytho aeaaiue ia?a oeeinioee ia i?ioyaeaiee anae aa enoi?ee .
Ii anee eaaeaeue /aeiaae ioaa/aao ia oaeea aii?inu anae naiae aeeciueth,
oi a naiie oeeinioee ioaa/aoue ia ieo auiaei ia aeieth aa
aeneieiae/aneie ooieoeee e niioaaonoaothuaai ?acaeaea oeeinioneiai
ciaiey.

Ca naith enoi?eth oeeinioey ia?aaeeea o?e iniiaiuo ia?eiaea
(iioieiae/aneee, aiinaieiae/aneee e aeneieiae/aneee), eioi?ua iiaoo
auoue i?aaenoaaeaiu noaiaoe/anee a oaae.1 e niaieea o?e aaaeouea
oaiaeaioeee, eaaeaeay ec eioi?uo auc?aea a i?aaeuaeouae e inoaeanue a
niaea?aeaiee iineaaeothuae.

Oaae.1 Iniiaiua yoaiu ?acaeoey oeeinioee

Enoiaeiue iauaeo e iaoa?eae oeeinioee I?e?iaea (Einiin Aia ,
Anaeaiiay). Iauanoai (eae niaieoiiinoue eiaeeaeaeia). *aeiaae (eae
eiaeeaeae e ee/iinoue).

Iniiaiua yoaiu ?acaeoey oeeinioee Iioieiae/aneee (n VII-VI a. aei i. Y.
ii XVI a. i. y.) Aiinaieiae/aneee (XVII a. – 60-a aa. XIX)
Aeneieiae/aneee (2-y iie. XIX a. aei XXI a.)

Iniiaiua naienoaa /aeiaa/aneiai niciaiey. Aano?aae?iaaiea.
Oeaeaiieaaaiea Naii?aaoeyoeey.

Aaaeouea oeaiiinoe e eaeaaeu. Aeaai. N/anouea. Naiaiaea.

Niiniaiinoe io/oaeaeaiey e aeaeu ?aanoaa Oece/aneia. Yeiiiie/aneia.
Aeooiaiia.

Oeiu oeeaeeecaoeee Einiiaaiiay Oaoiiaaiiay Aio?iaaiiay

Aicieeiiaaiea e ?acaeoea oeaiiinoiuo eaoaai?ee.

A naiii iauai aeaea oeaiiinoe eiatho o?e iniaaiiinoe: ai-ia?auo, iie
oa?aeoa?ecothony iaeiia?aiaiii eae iauaeoeaiua e noauaeoeaiua;
ai-aoi?uo, ana oi, /oi ethaeyi i?aaenoaaeyaony iieiaeeoaeueiui, eiaao
niune eeoue a neeo iaee/ey naiaai aioeiiaea; a-o?aoueeo, niioiioaiea
iaaeaeo i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoyie ia?aie/eaaaony iaeioi?ui noauaeoeaii
ii?aaeaeyaiui i?aaeaeii, ca eioi?ui aeeneonney i oeaiiinoyo oa?yao naie
niune.

A iaoo?aeenoe/aneeo oai?eyo oeaiiinoe i?aaenoaaeaiu eae au?aaeaiea
anoanoaaiiuo iio?aaiinoae /aeiaaea eee caeiiia i?e?iaeu.
Ae?aaiaa?a/aneee oeeinio-iaoa?eaeeno Aeaiie?eo n/eoae, /oi
oaeiaieuenoaea anoue ninoiyiea, niioaaonoaothuaa i?e?iaea aeeaiai
i?aaiecia, a no?aaeaiea – ninoiyiea, /oaeaeia yoie i?e?iaea.
Oaeiaieuenoaea e no?aaeaiea neoaeao e?eoa?eyie aeey ?aoaiee /aeiaaea
ioiineoaeueii oiai, e /aio neaaeoao no?aieoueny e /aai neaaeoao
ecaaaaoue. A?aieoea iaaeaeo iieaciui e a?aaeiui anoue oaeiaieuenoaea e
iaoaeiaieuenoaea. Yoe ?annoaeaeaiey iaoiieeii i?eaaee aai e auaiaeo i
oii, /oi niune aeecie ninoieo eeoue a iiaiia ca oaeiaieuenoaeyie. Ii
aeeoaeneay i?aeoeea oaaaeaeaea Aeaiie?eoa a ia?aoiii. No?aieaiea e
i?eyoiiio aeaeaao ethaeae ?aaaie naieo aiaeaeaeaiee e aeia?i
i?aa?auaaony a naith i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue, o.a. a cei. Iiyoiio ii e
iineaaeothuea oeeiniou a naieo o?oaeao ii aeaiiie i?iaeaia eniieueciaaee
eaoaai?ee “ia?a”, “aa?iiiey”, “i?iii?oeey”, “cieioay na?aaeeia” e o.ae.
Oieueei ia?ooaiea aa?iiiee e ia?u i?eaiaeeo, ii eo iiaieth, e
i?ioeai?a/eyi iaaeaeo /aeiaaeii e aiaoiei caeiiii i?e?iaeu e iauanoaa.

Ia?aua oeeinioneea iiiyoey , eiathuea aeneieiae/aneee niune ,
aicieeatho aianoa n enoiaeiuie iioieiae/aneeie eaoaai?eyie a naiii
ia/aea aioe/iie oeeinioee . A n Nie?aoa iiaeii ia/eiaoue enoi?eth
aeneieiaee , eai ii aia?aua oi?ioee?oao nianoaaiii aeneieiae/aneee ,
o.a. oeeinioneee aii?in a iiaeeeiiii niunea neiaa : ia /oi oaeia, a eae
ono?iaii e ii/aio, ia eioi?ue ioaa/aao ethaay iaoea, a ca/ai? Eaeia
cia/aiea e niune eiaao eco/aaiia yaeaiea aeey /aeiaaea e aai aeooe?

Aei nie?aoianeay oeeinioey eiaea aeaei n aauaie, iinooieaie, oaeoaie
e eo neiaaniuie iaicia/aieyie. Nie?ao aia?aua noaaeo aii?in i
iaoiaeaeaiee iaueo iiiyoee. Aai oeeinioey eiaea aeaei ia n auoeai naiei
ii naaa, ii e ia n iiaeiaiie aai /oanoaaiiie aeaeeiinoueth, eae o
nioenoia, a ni ciaieai i auoea e eiaiii auoee /aeiaaea. Aeaaiue aii?in
aai ?aciuoeaiee – i?aanoaaiiue : eae aeeoue /aeiaaeo a yoii ie?a? E
ioaaoeoue ia iaai iiaeii oieueei n iiiiuueth ciaiey ia iniiaiuo
aeeciaiiuo oeaiiinoyo /aeiaaea, caeeth/athueo a naaa niune aai
nouanoaiaaiey : /oi oaeia aeaai, aeia?iaeaoaeue, ioaeanoai, e?anioa naie
ii naaa eae oaeiaua a ioee/ea io iinooieia aauae, eioi?ua yoe neiaa
iaicia/atho. O anao i?ae?aniuo yaeaiee anoue oi iauaa, /oi aeaeaao eo
oaeiauie, e yoi, ii neiaai Nie?aoa, anoue ie/oi eiia, eae
oeaeaniia?aciinoue. Aoaeo/e eo iauei i?eioeeiii (“a?oy”), niuneii
(“eiain”) e iauiinoueth (“eaoieie”), oeaeue (“oaein”) naycuaaao ai
aaeeii aioo?aiiaa e aiaoiaa, niaea?aeaiea e oi?io i?aaeiaoa, noaiiaynue
iniiaie aai niioaaonoaey naiaio iacia/aieth. Aeia?iaeaoaeue, o/ee ii, ia
aiooaiea aiaia, a iainiiaaiiia cia/aiea oiai, /oi aeaenoaeoaeueii oi?ioi
“/oi aeaeaao /aeiaaea niiniaiui aeeoue, ia oaniy ae?oaeo, a ioianynue e
iei ni?aaaaeeeai : niiniaiui neoaeeoue iauanoao, a ia naaa iaeiiio. Aac
yoiai iauanoai iaiuneaii.

Aaaaeaiea Nie?aoii i?eioeeia oeaeaniia?aciinoe, iauaai aeey aeaaa e
e?aniou , aicaiaeeo eo ec ioeaii/iuo iiiyoee (“Oi?ioaa”, “I?ae?aniia”) a
?aia eaeaaeueiuo oeaiiinoae.

Ieaoii ?anniao?eaae Aeaai eae aunooth oieaa?naeueioth oeaiiinoue :
“Aeaai ia anoue nouiinoue, ii ii aeinoieinoao e neea – noieo auoa
i?aaeaeia nouiinoe“ e iiyoiio “aac eaeae aeaaa ana /aeiaa/aneea ciaiey
aeaaea iaeaieaa iieiua auee au niaa?oaiii aaniieaciu “ (Ieaoii ,
Ainoaea?noai // Ni/. A 3-o o. I. , 1971 o. 3 n 317, 313 ). Aeaai eiaao
noieue aunieee noaoon i?aaeaea anaai iioiio , /oi o Ieaoiia iii aua
iaioaeaeeii io Aaeeiiai eae anaiauaai ia?aiia/aea e ia?ainouiinoe auoey,
aieaa oiai, a aeeaeiaa “Oeeaa” Aaeeiia e i?aaenoaaeyaony eae Aeaai. Yoi
aaeeinoai nouiinoe e nioeeaeueii cia/eiie oeaiiinoe n aa ooieoeeyie
ii?iu e ia?acoea. A oaeii ea/anoaa iii i?aaenoaaeyao niaie
aeiinoace?iaaiioth oieaa?naeueioth oeeinioneoth eaoaai?eth, io?aceaooth
e aia?aaooth a naay niaea?aeaiea aua neaai aeeooa?aioee?oaiuo oi?i
iauanoaaiiiai niciaiey. Nouiinoioth eaeath Ieaoii aeaeeo a oii, /oi a
naiie i?e?iaea nouanoaotho eaeae aeia?a e ni?aaaaeeeainoe. A ie?iaie
aeecie iiiai ceiai e iani?aaaaeeeaiai, ii ?yaeii n yoei caeiaeaiu iniiau
anaai oi?ioaai. ”Ii eneae iniiau i?aanoaaiiiai aia ie?a – a Eaeae,
caeiaeaiiie a ono?ienoaa ie?iaie aeecie, ii ia au?aaeathuaeny a iae
aiieia ii?aaeaeaiii. Aeooa aeey iaai auea neeyieai ?acoia, /oanoaa e
aiee, ec eioi?uo auoaeatho ioae?inoue, niaeinoue e naea?aeaiiinoue a
no?anoyo. Aai eaeaae auee Ethaiaue(Y?in), Ae?oaeaa; aai Y?in –
iaueoaeueiinoue, acaeiiia ni/oanoaea, neiiaoey. Ieaoii a “Ie?a” onoaie
Nie?aoa ooaa?aeaeaao e aeieacuaaao, /oi ethaiaue ia?ac?uaia n aeia?ii e
e?anioie; ethaiaue no?aieoueny i?eiaueoueny e aeia?iio e i?ae?aniiio, e,
oaeei ia?acii, ethaiaue naiaeeony e eneaieth aeia?a e e?aniou.

A?enoioaeue a ioee/ea io Ieaoiia aieueoa caiyo aiaeecii e ooi/iaieai
iiiyoee, nenoaiaoecaoeeae eaoaai?eaeueiiai aiia?aoa n iiiiuueth ei
oi?iaeueiie eiaeee eae eino?oiaioa oeeinioneiai iiciaiey. Iiyoiio a
eioa?anothuae ian noa?a ii aia?aua aeaeaao iiiuoeo ioaeaeeoue oeaiiinoe
(aeaai) io nouiinoae (aaeeiia), a a nouiinoyo ia/eiaao ?acee/aoue
ea/anoaaiioth (niaea?aeaoaeueioth) e eiee/anoaaiioth (/eneiaoth)
noi?iiu, neeoua i?aaeaea a aaeeiii .

Iiene Aaeeiiai eae aaniethoiie oi?iaeueii eiae/aneie, iaoaiaoe/aneie
aano?aeoeee aaaeao, ii A?enoioaeth, e “aeo?iie” aaneiia/iinoe e ia yoii
iooe ia iiaeao auoue iaeaeaii ia?aiia/aea auoey. Aeey oiai /oiau
inoaiiaeoueny ia iooe aaneiia/iiai aano?aae?iaaiey, ioaeii ia?aaanoe
i?iaeaio a i?eioeeieaeueii eioth ieineinoue, iinoaaeoue nie?aoianeee
aii?in : “ ?aaee /aai?”. Ioaao, aeaiiue anae aioe/iie
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoueth, caoeene?iaai oeeinioaie a eaoaai?ee “aeaaa” eae
oaeiaiai, ii oiaaea Aaeeiia, n/eoaao A?enoioaeue, ia iiaeao auoue aai
nouiinoueth. Ia yoie iniiaa ii i?eaiaeeo ?acee/ea niaea?aeaiey naieo
oeaiiinoiuo eaoaai?ee (i?aaeaea anaai “aeaaa”) eae “?aaee naay
i?aaeii/oeoaeueiiai” eee nioeeaeueii cia/eiuo aeooiaiuo ia/ae
/aeiaa/aneie aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe io anao ae?oaeo oeeinioneeo eaoaai?ee
e oi?i iiciaiey. Iauyniaiea i?aanoaaiiuo iiiyoee A?enoioaeue eneae a
aeaenoaeoaeueiie aeecie ethaeae : a eo eneaieyo naiaai n/anouey e naiae
iieuecu a ?acoia /aeiaaea. A yoeo eneaieyo, o/ee ii, au?aaaouaaeenue
aeaa aeaaiua iauanoaaiiua aeia?iaeaoaee : ae?oaeaa e ni?aaaaeeeainoue ia
a niunea ?aaiii?aaey. Aeia?iaeaoaeue, ii A?enoioaeth, – na?aaeeia aeaoo
cie – ecauoea e iaaeinoaoea.

Oneiaey iauanoaaiiie aeecie naiae iaiaoiaeeiinoueth niaeaniaaiey
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo iio?aaiinoae ethaeae noi?ie?iaaee nenoaio i?aanoaaiiuo
oeaiiinoae, ?aaoee?othueo a ni/aoaiee n ynoaoe/aneeie oeaiiinoyie
niaea?aeaiea iauanoaaiiuo ioiioaiee (naycae) a eaaeaeie nioeeaeueiie
a?oiia e iauanoaa a oeaeii. Yoo noi?iio oeaiiinoae eco/aao yoeea.

A “Ieeiiaoianeie yoeea” A?enoioaeue aaiaeeo niioaaonoaothuee oa?iei,
iacuaay aunoae oeaiiinoueth aanei?unoiia nica?oeaiea, “eai iii oeaiii
(oeiea) naii ii naaa”. A “Aieueoie yoeea” ii iuoaaony oaea onoaiiaeoue
ea?a?oeth naieo oeaiiinoae (aeaa) . “Ec aeaa iaeie ioiinyony oeaieiui
(timia), ae?oaea – e oaaeeiui (epaineta) aauai, o?aouee – e
aiciiaeiinoyi (dymameis). Oeaieiui y iacuaath aeaai aiaeanoaaiiia, naiia
eo/oaa, iai?eia?, aeooo, oi, oi, /oi ecia/aeueii, ia?aii?eioeei e oiio
iiaeiaiia . I?e/ai oeaieiia – yoi ii/eoaaiia , e eiaiii oaeiai ?iaea
aaue o ian a /anoe”(A?enoioaeue . Ni/. a 4-o o. I., 1975-1983. o.4
n286,300).

Anoanoaaiii , /oi iaa “Yoeee” A?enoioaey , eae e aai “Iieeoeea” ,
iino?iaiu ,a iniiaiii, ia niaea?aeaoaeueiii aiaeeca e nenoaiaoecaoeee
i?aeoe/anee anao ooieoeeiie?iaaaoeo a oi a?aiy aeooiaii-i?aanoaaiiuo e
nioeeaeueii-cia/eiuo oeaiiinoae.

Ia neo/aeii ia?yaeo n ia?aie oeeinioeae e oi?iaeueiie eiaeee
A?enoioaey , iniaaiii iiioey?iui e eniieuecoaiui a n?aaeiaaaeiaie
oeeinioee noaei e aai o/aiea i aeaaa.

Ae?aaiaa?a/aneay yoeea aeaea i?aeoe/anee aanue iaai? i?aanoaaiiuo
oeaiiinoiuo i?eaioaoeee eee iiaeaeae iiaaaeaiea ethaeae a iauanoaa: 1)
Aeaiie?eo e A?enoioaeue i?ecuaaee e iaania/aieth n/anouey ethaeae eae
aunoae oeaiiinoe; 2) A?enoeii eoeueoeae?iaae aaaeiieci (/oanoaaiiua
ianeaaeaeaiey); 3) Aioenoai e Aeeiaai o?aaiaaee naanoe iio?aaiinoe
/aeiaaea e i?e?iaeiie ia?aiiniiaa (aneaoecio); 4) Nie?ao ioiaeaeanoaeye
aeia?iaeaoaee e ciaiey. Aai acaeyaeu iieo/eee iacaaiea eae
ii?aeece?othuee eioaeeaeooaeeci; 5) O?aneiao e ae?oaea ieaaeoea nioenou
aaniethoece?iaaee ianoi e ?ieue eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo eioa?ania, naiaaieea
ee/iinoe (aiethioa?eci); 6) Ieaoii i?eaioe?iaae ia
nica?oeaoaeueii-aeooiaioth aeayoaeueiinoue, a aai iineaaeiaaoaee –
iaiieaoiieee – o?aaiaaee i?aanoaaiii-i/enoeoaeueiiai aneaoecia e o.ae.

A eiioea iioieiae/aneiai ia?eiaea O. Eaiiaiaeea a naiae “Iaoaoeceea”
i?inoi e oi/ii oi?ioee?oao niaoeeoeeo i?ae?aniiai eae i?iaiaeieea e
iineoaey aeooiaiuo oeaiiinoae /aeiaaea. “E?anioa, – ieoao ii,- anoue
i?eciae aiaeanoaaiiiai aeaaa a i?e?iaea eee eneonnoaa … E?anioa … anoue
i?eciae aeaaa, iieaciiai, aeaai?iaeiiai eee i?eyoiiai. Aacia?aciia aea
anoue i?eciae cea, aaniieaciiai, aan/anoiiai eee iai?eyoiiai… *aeiaae
aea – eo/oaa e aunoaa nouanoai, aunoaa iaaeaee ie? e yeaiaiou”.

Iaeiaei n?aaeiaaaeiaueth eae aeooiaiiio i?aiaeieaieth e?ecena,
aucaaiiiai aeaaeueth aioe/iie oeeaeeecaoeee, i?aaeoanoaiaaee oanoue
aaeia yeeeiecia (III a. aei i.y. -III a.i.y.). E a o/aiee eeieeia,
iai?eia?, iniiaaoaeai eioi?iai aue nui ?aauie Aioenoai, iiyaeyaony oaea
e “io/oaeaeaiea” (alienatio), i?ioeaiiieiaeiue ii niuneo “aeaao”. Ia
neo/aeii eeieci noae eaeaeiui i?aaeoanoaaiieeii oeeinioee e yoeee
noieoeecia, aia?aaoaai a naay i?aeoe/anee ana io/oaeaeaiea ia?aeiiiie
e?eceniie yiioe.

Ia aiinaieiae/aneii yoaia noaeueaa e niaea?aeaiea oeaiiinoiuo
eaoaai?ee, iaiyaony nouanoaaiiui ia?acii. I/a?aaeiay niaia nenoaiu
iauanoaaiiuo ioiioaiee io ?aaiaeaaeaiey e oaiaeaeecio iiaeaeea ca niaie
ia?aoiae io yoeee, eae niaieoiiinoe aeia?iaeaoaeae, e yoeea eae nenoaia
iauacia/eiuo ii?i e i?aaee iiaaaeaiey. Noaeueaa iiaie yoeee, io?aceaoae
eioa?anu iiaiai eeanna nianoaaiieeia, ieacaeanue naycaiiie n
iiiioaenoe/aneie ?aeeaeae.

Eoeueo iao/iiai ciaiey noaiiaeoueny anaiauaiethuei (“Ciaiea-neea”)
iao niiiaiee ai ananeeea iaoee, a oii /enea e aeey n/anoeeaiai
ia?aono?ienoaa /aeiaa/aneie aeecie. Nii? eaeao eeoue ia enoi/ieeao
iiciaiey aea iaeaieaa i?eaieaiuo e?eoa?eyo enoeiu. Iiyoiio oeaiiinoiua e
ioeaii/iua noaeaeaiey, iaiiaeaeanoiua ie iaeiiio ec ecaanoiuo
aiinaieiae/aneeo e?eoa?eaa e i?eaiia aa?eoeeaoeee, ieacaeenue eeoieie e
aucaaee aiieia iiiyoiia ?acae?aaeaiea iiauo oeeinioia e o/aiuo .

Oae, O. Ayeii – ?iaeiia/aeueiee “aiaeeeneiai iaoa?eaeecia e anae
nia?aiaiiie yenia?eiaioe?othuae iaoee” a naiae anaiauaiethuae
eeanneoeeaoeee “/aeiaa/aneeo iiciaiee” e iniiaaiiuo ia ieo iaoe aeeth/ee
,iai?eia?, iocueo e ecia?aceoaeueiua eneonnoaa a ?acaeae o/aiee i
/aeiaa/aneii oaea ia?yaeo n iaaeeoeeiie , einiaoeeie e aoeaoeeie. A
oai?eth iocuee e a?oeoaeoo?o – a ?acaeae “niaoaiiie iaoaiaoeee”, o/aiey
i i?e?iaea aianoa n ano?iiiieae e oai?eae iaoei (Ayeii O. Ni/. a 2-o o.
I.,1977 o.1.n.236-266). Eiuie neiaaie “/aeiaae e aai n/anouea -/a?ac
iaoeo e oaoieeo,- oaeia oeiae anaai oeeinionoaiaaiey Ayeiia”(Ia?neee N.
Caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneay oeeinioey XVII aaea I., n 68).

Iineaaeiaaoaeue e nenoaiaoee ayeiiianeiai iaoa?eaeecia O. Aiaan ioian
oo aea a?oeoaeoo?o e o/aieyi i oyaeanoe, ia?yaeo n ii?aoiaenoaii, a
iocueo ii?aaeaeee eae “ciaiea iineaaenoaee caoea” ec ?ac?yaea “ea/anoaa
aeeaioiuo aiiaua” (Aiaan O. Ni/. a 2-o o. I., 1991 o.2 .n. 65).
Ianeo/aeii ii i?eoiaeeo e eaeaa i/euaiey ?acoia e oeeinioneiai iuoeaiey
io iai?aaeneacoaiuo oeaiiinoiuo i?aaenoaaeaiee, iineieueeo iie
iaoneiaeaiu /aeiaa/aneeie eioa?anaie e iaeeiiiinoyie e iiyoiio aanueia
ioiineoaeueiu : “Oaeiau, iai?eia?, eiaia aeia?iaeaoaeae e ii?ieia, eai,
oi, /oi iaeei /aeiaae iaciaao ioae?inoueth, ae?oaie iacuaaao no?aoii;
iaeei iacuaaao aeanoieinoueth, a ae?oaie – ni?aaaaeeeainoueth; iaeei –
iioianoaii, a ae?oaie -aaeeeiaeooeai …e o.i. Aio ii/aio oaeea eiaia
ieeiaaea ia iiaoo auoue enoeiiuie iniiaaieyie aeey eaeiai-ieaoaeue
oiicaeeth/aiey”(Aioieiaey ie?iaie oeeinioee a 4-o o. I., 1969-1972. O.2
n.326).

Iiyoiio a naiai “Eaaeoaia” O. Aiaan ?anniao?eaaao iniiaiua
oeaiiinoiua iiiyoey e i?aaenoaaeaiey n iiceoeee eeanne/aneiai
ao?aeoaciiai ooeeeoa?ecia , aaea /aeiaae i?aaenoaao nouanoaii e iauaeoii
aiaoiaai nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneiai aicaeaenoaey .”Noieiinoue eee
oeaiiinoue /aeiaaea , iiaeiaii anai ae?oaei aauai , anoue aai oeaia , oi
anoue iia ninoaaeyao noieueei neieueei iiaeii aeaoue ca iieueciaaieai
aai neeie , e iiyoiio yaeyaony aauueth ia aaniethoiie , a caaenyuae io
ioaeaeu a iai e ioeaiee ae?oaiai”. E aeaaea aeinoieinoaa /aeiaaea anoue
, ii Aiaano , ie/oi eiia eae aai “iauanoaaiiay oeaiiinoue … oi anoue oa
oeaia , eioi?ay aeaaony aio ainoaea?noaii (Aiaan O. Ni/. O.2.n.66-67).

A. Nieiica a “Yoeea” au?acee iaaaoeaiia ioiioaiea ei anai oeaiiinoiui
iiiyoeyi , iineieueeo iie anoue /aeiaa/aneea i?aae?annoaeee i aeia?a e
cea , caneoaa e a?aoa , iioaaeueiii e iinouaeiii , ii?yaeea e
aanii?yaeea , e?anioa e aacia?aciii e i?i/ai a oii aea ?iaea (Nieiica A.
Yoeea// Eca?aiiua i?iecaaaeaiey a 2-o o. I., 1957 o.1.n.395), a eioi?ua
iaoatho enoeiiiio iiciaieth e aeinoeaeaieth ethaeueie naiaai n/anouey
.Ia neo/aeii e naia “Yoeea” iaienaia a aeaea aeneii , oai?ai , noieee e
o.i. , o.a. ii ia?acoeo e iiaeiaeth iaoaiaoeee . *aai noieo , iai?eia? ,
aeneiia 50 : ”Nino?aaeaiea a /aeiaaea , aeeaouei ii ?oeiaiaenoao ?acoia
, naii ii naaa aeo?ii e aaniieacii (oai aea n.562). Nieiica n/eoae, /oi
a i?e?iaea ieaaea ia nouanoaoao aeieaeiiai : anoue oieueei iaiaoiaeeiia.
Ii no?iee naith i?aanoaaiiinoue ia yaaeaiiienoe/aneii ia/aea, o.a. ia
eneaiee /aeiaa/aneiai n/anouey. *aeiaae, aiai?ee ii, no?aieoueny e
iaeaieueoaio n/anoueth, e ec yoiai no?aieaiey aai ?acoi auaiaeeo
i?aanoaaiiua i?aaeea aeecie, ii i?e yoii /aeiaae ia naiaiaeai, o.e. ii
iiaeao aeaeaoue oieueei oi, /oi iaiaoiaeeii auoaeaao ec aai i?e?iaeu.

Iaeiaei io?eoeaoaeueiue ?acoeueoao – oi aea ?acoeueoao .Ia auei a
XVII a. neieueei-ieaoaeue caiaoiiai iuneeoaey , ia auneacaaoaai naiaai
ioiioaiey e oeaiiinoiie i?iaeaiaoeea, eioi?ay iaoaea eae caiica , ia
oeeaaeuaaynue a no?iaea ?aiee iainoeeaioenoneiai iaioaeeoaoa .

Oaeei ia?acii , aiinaieiae/aneay ia?ai?eaioaoeey oeeinioee a XVII a.
iecaaea aeooiaii-oeaiiinoiua ia/aea /aeiaa/aneie aeecie n
iauaeinie/aneeo aiaeanoaaiiuo aunio aei o?iaiy iaaaeaeaaoiuo , niooiuo
oi?i iiciaiey e naienoa /aeiaa/aneiai aiia?aaeaiey . Ia/aoue yiioie
Aic?iaeaeaiey aeooiaii-eoeueoo?iue i?ioeann inaiaiaeaeaiey e , eacaeinue
au , aicaaee/eaaiea /aeiaaea n oeaeueth naeaeaoue aai oeaio?ii
ie?iaicc?aiey ia naiii aeaea eeoue i?eiecee aai , /oi iieacaee e eino?u
eieaeceoeee , caiueaaoea eiaiii a yoo yiioo , naeeaay oaei e
“inaiaiaeaeay” aeoo . Eai noaeaeaiea i oii , /oi aeooiaiua e
iaua/aeiaa/aneea oeaiiinoe , oieueei e aeaeathuea /aeiaaea /aeiaaeii ,
ieacaeenue ioa?ioaiiuie ec noa? I?e?iaeu e Aeooa ia o?iaaiue nioeeoia ,
iecaaaeaiiui aei eeethcee , /oi n/anouea eee ian/anouea ethaeae caaeneo
eeoue io noaiaie ?acaeoey eo iaoe e oi?i ainoaea?noaaiiiai ono?ienoaa ,
– iianiaeoaa caaeoaeaeaiea , eioi?ia aeeaao e aeanoaoao naaiaeiy .

Iaaeaeo oai, e eiioeo aoi?iai yoaia, iniaaiii ia/eiay n ?oaaaea XVIII
e XIX aa., aiinaieiae/aneay oeeinioey ioianeanue e naiaio oeaiiinoiiio
aniaeoo n aieaa ii/oeoaeueiui aieiaieai. E ?aoeoaeueiia neiai caeanue
i?eiaaeeaaeeo E. Eaioo.

?ac?aaaouaay i?iaeaio aeoeaiinoe /aeiaaea eae noauaeoa iiciaiey, Eaio
ia oieueei i?ioeaiiinoaaee oeaiiinoiii?aeoe/aneia niciaiea
oai?aoe/aneiio, ii e auaae ia?aia ca i?aaeaeu aiinaieiaee. A
?acoeueoaoa, ie? /aeiaaea n aai ianiaianoeiuie niiniaiinoyie iiciaiey e
aeaeaiey ieacaeny eae au ?aci?aaiiui ia ianayciua iaaeaeo niaie oea?noaa
iaoaie/aneie iaiaoiaeeiinoe e i?aanoaaiiie naiaiaeu aano?aeoiiai
iiciaiey e aeooiaiuo oeaiiinoae. ?aniaeny eaeaae e niune /aeiaa/aneie
aeecie ia nouaa e aeieaeiia eae naia eaioianeay oeeinioey ia
aiinaieiaeth (“E?eoeea /enoiai ?acoia” 1781) e yoeeo (“E?eoeea
i?aeoe/aneiai ?acoia” 1788).

Aeaenoaeoaeueii, ec iaoaiaoe/aneeo caeiiiia?iinoae iaoaie/aneiai
aeaeaeaiey a i?e?iaea iaaiciiaeii auaanoe aunoaa oeaee /aeiaa/aneiai
auoey e caeiiu aai aeooiaii-i?aanoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe. Iiyoiio a
ea/anoaa aaeeinoaaiii aiciiaeiie iniiau eo acaeiinayce Eaio ia?auaaony e
i?eioeeio oeaeaniia?aciinoe (eae Nie?ao). Oae, a oeeinioneie nenoaia
Eaioa iiyaeeanue aa o?aouey /anoue “E?eoeea niiniaiinoe noaeaeaiey”
(1790 a.), ninoiyuay ec aeaoo e?eoee: ynoaoe/aneie e oaeaieiae/aneie
niiniaiinoae noaeaeaiey. Iineaaeiyy iinayuaia iauaeoeaiie
oeaeaniia?aciinoe i?e?iaeu e caeai/eaaaony ii?aeueiui aeieacaoaeuenoaii
auoey Aiaa, oiaaea eae ia?aay i?eaiaeeo e i?aaenoaaeaieth i e?anioa eae
neiaiea i?aanoaaiiinoe.

Iniiaiui caeiiii yoeee Eaio i?iaicaeanee aaconeiaiia iiaaeaiea
(“eaoaai?e/aneee eiia?aoea”), o?aaothuaa ?oeiaiaenoaiaaoueny oaeeie
i?aaeeii, eioi?ia iacaaeneii io i?aanoaaiiiai niaea?aeaiey iinooiea
iiaei au noaoue i?aaeeii iiaaaeaiey aeey anao.

A yoeea Eaio auaeaeioe i?eioeei naiioeaiiinoe eaaeaeie ee/iinoe,
eioi?ay ia aeieaeia auoue i?eiineia a aea?oao aeaaea ai eiy aeaaa anaai
/aeiaa/anoaa.

Ai aaaaeaiee e “E?eoeea niiniaiinoe noaeaeaiey” Eaio aeaao iaci?ioth
oaaeeoeo anao aunoeo niiniaiinoae /aeiaa/aneie aeooe (oaae.2) (Eaio E.
Ni/. a 6-oe o. I., 1966.o.5.n.199).

Oaae.2 Niiniaiinoe aeooe a niaieoiiinoe

Niiniaiinoe aeooe a niaieoiiinoe Iiciaaaoaeueiua niiniaiinoe Ai?ei?iua
i?eioeeiu I?eiaiaiea eo e

Iiciaaaoaeueiay niiniaiinoue ?annoaeie Caeiiiia?iinoue I?e?iaea

*oanoai oaeiaieuenoaey e iaoaeiaieuenoaey Niiniaiinoue noaeaeaiey
Oeaeaniia?aciinoue Eneonnoao

Niiniaiinoue aeaeaiey ?acoi Eiia/iay oeaeue Naiaiaea

*oanoaa oaeiaieuenoaey e iaoaeiaieuenoaey, ?aniieiaeaiiua Eaioii
iaaeaeo iiciaieai e aieae, anoue ie/oi eiia, eae ioeaii/iia ioiioaiea
ii/oe a /enoii aeaea, a niiniaiinoue noaeaeaiey- aai oeenaoeey a
ioeaii/iii noaeaeaiee eee iiiyoee. Ionthaea e niioaaonoaothuay
oa?ieiieiaey : ioeaiea (Beurteilung), /oanoaaiiay ioeaiea (Sinneurteil),
ioeaii/iua /oanoaa (Urteilsgefuhle), ioeaii/iia noaeaeaiea
(Urteilsurteil) , i?iecaiaeiua io Urteil (iiaiea , noaeaeaiea ,
i?eaiai?).

Oaeei ia?acii, iu aeaeei o Eaioa, ai-ia?auo, ?acee/ea noa? iiciaiey,
ioeaiee e oeaiiinoe, ioianaiiuo, niioaaonoaaiii, e aiinaieiaee, ynoaoeea
e yoeea. A yoi i?eaaei, ai-aoi?uo, e iiaeeeiiiio iainiaeaieth ia oieueei
ynoaoeee n?aaee oeeinioneeo aeenoeeieei, ii e ioa?aie/aieth, iai?eia?,
naiie noa?u “ynoaoe/aneiai”. Oa?iei “ynoaoeea” (io “ynoacen” –
/oanoaaiiia iiciaiea) iiyaeeinue a 1735a. , a a 1750 e a 1758 auoee aeaa
oiia “Ynoaoeee” A. Aaoiaa?oaia eae ia?aia nenoaiaoe/aneia eceiaeaiea
iiaiai ?acaeaea oeeinioneiai ciaiey. Ii iiiyoea “ynoaoe/aneia” aioei a
iao/iue iaeoiae eiaiii iinea Eaioa. Oiaaea aea iiyaeeanue e oeaeay
a?oiia i?iecaiaeiuo oa?ieiia : “ynoaoe/aneee aeon”, “ynoaoe/aneia
noaeaeaiea”, “ynoaoe/aneay ioeaiea” e “ynoaoe/aneay oeaiiinoue” .

Iainiaeaiea aieioue aei i?ioeaiiinoaaeaiey aiinaieiaee (o/aiea i
iiciaiea), yoeea (i naa?o oeaiiinoyo) e ynoaoeee (ia ioeaii/iii)
noaeaeaiee aeona) auei iaiaoiaeeii Eaioo aeey auyaeaiey oaeei iooai eo
niaoeeoeee. A oeaeii aea, ii Eaioo, oeeinioey, aoaeo/e “nenoaiie
oeeinioneeo ciaiee”, yaeyaony iaoeie “i iineaaeieo oeaeyo /aeiaa/aneiai
?acoia. Yoi aunieia iiiyoea niiauaao oeeinioee aeinoieinoai, o.a.
aaniethoioth oeaiiinoue. E aeaenoaeoaeueii iia anoue oi, /oi iaeii
oieueei e eiaao aioo?aiithth oeaiiinoue e aia?aua i?eaeaao oeaiiinoue
anai ae?oaei ciaieyi. Noa?o oeeinioee a yoii anaie?ii-a?aaeaeaineii
cia/aiee iiaeii iiaeaanoe iiae neaaeothuea aii?inu :

1. *oi y iiao ciaoue ?

2. *oi y aeieaeai ciaoue ?

3. Ia /oi y niath iaaeayoueny ?

4. *oi oaeia /aeiaae ?

Ia ia?aue aii?in ioaa/aao iaoaoeceea, ia aoi?ie – ii?aeue, ia o?aoee
– ?aeeaey e ia /aoaa?oue – aio?iiieiaey. Ii a nouiinoe ana yoi iiaeii
auei au naanoe e aio?iiieiaee , eai o?e ia?auo aii?ina ioiinyony e
iineaaeiaio“ (Eaio E. O?aeoaou e ienueia. I., 1980.n.332).

Aaaaeue a ioee/ea io Eaioa iino?iee naith oeeinioneoth nenoaio ia
iniiaa niaea?aeaoaeueiie acaeiinayce iiciaiey, ioeaiee e oeaiiinoe. Aeey
eo neioaca ii eniieueciaae i?eioeei oeaeaniia?aciinoe. O iaai oeaeue
?acaeaaaony a eaeath, niaaeeiythuoth eiaeeo iiiyoee n iauaeoeaiie
?aaeueiinoueth /a?ac oeaeaniia?acioth aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue. Iiyoiio
aaaaeaaneay eaeay aunooiaao a “aeaieiii ia?aca”. Yoa eaeay ii naiaio
niaea?aeaieth anoue ie /oi eiia eae /aeiaa/aneia niciaiea a aaeeinoaa
iiciaiee e ioeaiee, enoeiu e oeaiiinoe. E yoi aaeeinoai Aaaaeue oaeaea
iacuaaao iiciaieai, ii aieaa aunieiai o?iaiy, ianouai a naaa enoeio “eae
oaeiaoth” (Aaaaeue A.A.O. Yioeeeeiiaaeey oeeinioneeo iaoe. A 3-o o.
I.,1974 .o.1.n.395,402,405,409-410,419).

I?ieaey ia iooe naiae naii?aaeecaoeee yoaiu “aeecie” e “iiciaiey” ,
eaeay noaiiaeony aaniethoiie eaeaae, caaa?oay oai naiui “Eiaeeo”. Yoa
aaniethoiay eaeay /a?ac yoaiu oeeinioee i?e?iaeu
(iaoaieea-oeceea-i?aaieea) e noauaeoeaiiai aeooa (eiaeeaeaeoaeueiia
niciaiea) a aaeeinoaa oai?aoe/aneiai e i?aeoe/aneiai aeooa i?eaiaeeo e
o?iaith iauaeoeaiiai aeooa (i?aai – ii?aeue-i?aanoaaiiinoue).
I?aanoaaiiinoue, a naith i/a?aaeue, ?anniao?eaaaony iineaaeiaaoaeueii ia
o?iaiyo naiuey-iauanoai-ainoaea?noai, aaea ia?iaeiue aeoo, niaea?aeauee
a naaa i?e?iaeioth iaiaoiaeeiinoue, /a?ac anaie?ioth enoi?eth
aicauoaaony aei aaniethoiiai aeooa, oi?iaie naiiiiciaiey eioi?iai
noaiiayony eneonnoai, ?aeeaey e oeeinioey.

Ia ia?aie nooiaie aaniethoiiai aeooa “inouanoaeaiiie e?aniou a
?acee/iuo eneonnoaao e ioaeaeueiuo ooaeiaeanoaaiiuo i?iecaaaeaieyo …
yaeyaony i?ae?aniia, a enoeiii i?ae?aniia … anoue iieo/eaoay naith oi?io
aeooiaiinoue, eaeaae, oi/iaa aiai?y, aaniethoiue aeoo naia enoeia”
(Aaaaeue A. A. O. Ynoaoeea . A 4-o o. I., 1968 o.1.n.88). Iiyoiio
oeaeueth eneonnoaa ia iiaeao auoue, ii Aaaaeth, ie iiae?aaeaiea
i?e?iaea, ie /oanoaa, ie ii?aeueiia niaa?oainoaiaaiea. Enoeiiie aai
oeaeueth yaeyaony “iniciaiea aunoeo eioa?ania aeooa”, /oi aicaiaeeo
eneonnoai ia iaeei o?iaaiue n ?aeeaeae e oeeinioeae, a eioi?uo
aaniethoiue aeoo oieueei e iiaeao aaeaeaaoii aiieioeoueny. Eneonnoai
iiyoiio e yaeyaony niiniaii “iniciaiey e au?aaeaiey aiaeanoaaiiiai,
aeoai/aeoeo /aeiaa/aneeo eioa?ania, anaiauaiethueo enoei aeooa”. O
iaeioi?uo ia?iaeia iii noaiiaeony “aaeeinoaaiiui eeth/ii aeey iiieiaiey
eo ioae?inoe e ?aeeaee … ia?aui o/eoaeai ia?iaeia “, aeaaiaea?y oiio,
/oi ?aaeueii a niaea?aeaiea ooaeiaeanoaaiiuo ia?acia aoiaeyo e “naiua
aeoaieea anaiauaa /aeiaa/aneea eioa?anu … e /aeiaa/aneea ioiioaiey (oai
aea .n.13-14,19,46-47,50-51,60-61), o.a. iaua/aeiaa/aneea e aeooiaiua
oeaiiinoe .

Oaeei ia?acii, ia niioaaonoaothueo yoaiao naii?aaeecaoeee aaniethoiie
eaeae a aaaaeaaneie nenoaia iiyaeyaony niaea?aeaoaeueiue aiaeec oi?i ia
oieueei iiciaiey, ii oaeaea oeaiiinoae e ioeaiie, niaoeeoe/aneia
?acee/ea eioi?uo Aaaaeue aeaeeo, iacuaay eo “aunoeie”, ii iuoaaony ana
aea aeeth/eoue eo a eiae/aneee ?yae ana oneiaeiythueony oi?i e aeaeia
aaeeiie iiciaaaoaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe. Aeey yoiai ii auioaeaeai aeaaea
ia?ooaoue naie “o?eaaeiue” i?eioeei iino?iaiey nenoaiu, /oi iaeaieaa
iaaeyaeii i?iyaeeinue a aai “O/aiee i iiiyoee” (o?aoueai ?acaeaea “Iaoee
eiaeee”).

?anniao?eaay yoaiu oi?ie?iaaiey enoeiiuo iiiyoee a ?acaeaathuainy
noaeaeaiee, Aaaaeue ia iiaeao ia?aie/eaaoueny o?aiy iineaaeiaaoaeueii
oneiaeiythueieny aeaeaie nianoaaiii iiciaaaoaeueiuo noaeaeaiee e
auioaeaeai aaanoe naa?o eeanne/aneie o?eaaeu “eeoithth” /aoaa?ooth oi?io
– naii “noaeaeaiea iiiyoey”. Ii ia/eiaao naie aiaeec n ia?aie, iaeaieaa
i?inoie oi?iu – “noaeaeaiey iaee/iiai auoey”, eioi?ia i?ioiaeeo o?e
nooiaie ?acaeoey : iieiaeeoaeueiia noaeaeaiea “?ica e?aniay”;
io?eoeaoaeueiiai – “?ica ia aieoaay”; aaneiia/iia – “?ica ia anoue
neii”. ?acaeoea noaeaeaiey i?eaiaeeo ei aoi?ie oi?ia- “noaeaeaiea
?aoeaenee”, eioi?ia aunooiaao a o?ao aeaeao : neiaoey?iia – “yoio
/aeiaae nia?oai”; ia?oeeoey?iia – “iaeioi?ua ethaee nia?oiu”;
oieaa?naeueiia – “ana ethaee nia?oiu” eee “/aeiaae nia?oai”.

Noaeaeaiea ?aoeaenee niaiyaony o?aoueae oi?iie – “noaeaeaiea
iaiaoiaeeiinoe”, eioi?ia aia?aua niioaaonoaoao “a
naaa-oe-aeey-naay-nouay eee iauaeoeaiay anaiauiinoue”. Iia ?aaeecoaony :
a eaoaai?e/aneii noaeaeaiee : “?ica anoue ?anoaiea”; a aeiinoaoe/aneii
– “anee A, oi anoue A”; a ?acaeaeeoaeueiii – “A anoue eee A eee N”
(Aaaaeue. Ni/.I.,1939.o.6.n.66-98).

A ea/anoaa /aoaa?oie, iineaaeiae e aunoae oi?iu noaeaeaiey, Aaaaeue
aaiaeeo naii “noaeaeaiea iiiyoey”, aaea aia?aua eiaaony “niioiioaiea
i?aaeiaoa n iiiyoeai”. Iiiyoea iieiaeaii a iniiao yoiai noaeaeaiey eae
iaeioi?ia aeieaeainoaiaaiea. Noaeaeaiea iiiyoey i?ioiaeeo o?e noaaeee
?acaeoey : anna?oi?e/aneia noaeaeaiea “yoio aeii ieio”, “yoi aeaenoaea
oi?ioi”; i?iaeaiaoe/aneia – “aeii eee iaeioi?ue aeii oi?io … niio?y ii
oiio, eaeia aai oa?aeoa?“; aiiaeeeoe/aneia – “aeii , ono?iaiiue oae-oi e
oae-oi oi?io”. Eai oieueei noaeaeaiea iiiyoey, ii Aaaaeth, “aia?aua
niaea?aeao a naaa enoeiioth ioeaieo; i?aaeeeaou “oi?ioee”, “aeo?iie”,
“enoeiiue”, “i?ae?aniue”, “i?aaeeueiue” e o.ae. neoaeao au?aaeaieth
oiai, /oi e aaue i?eeeaaeuaaaony ianooaa aa anaiauaai iiiyoey eae
aaciaiai?i/ii i?aaeiieiaeaiiiai aeieaeainoaiaaiey, /oi iia niioaaonoaoao
aio (oai aea n.98-105).

Eiuie neiaaie, ana o?e oi?iu noaeaeaiey iiiyoey i?aaenoaaeytho niaie
ioeaii/iua noaeaeaiey a naiai /enoii aeaea e aeeth/aao a naay ia oieueei
ioeaii/iua iiiyoey, ii e e?eoa?ee eo ii?aaeaeaiey. I?aaeoanoaothuea ei
noaeaeaiey iaee/iiai auoey, ?aoeaenee e iaiaoiaeeiinoe anoue yoaiu
oi?ie?iaaiey e aeaeu nianoaaiii iiciaaaoaeueiiai noaeaeaiey (noaeaeaiey
oaeoia), aunoae oi?iie eioi?iai e yaeyaony noaeaeaiea iaiaoiaeeiinoe.
Ioeaii/iua aea noaeaeaiea iiiyoey Aaaaeue acye ec ae?oaiai – i?aeoe/anee
oeaiiinoiiai – ?yaea ?acaeaathuaainy niciaiey eae aai ?aoeeiiaeueiue
?acoeueoao e a neeo niaoeeoe/aneie neiaeiinoe yoiai noaeaeaiey n/ae aai
aunoae oi?iie anyeiai noaeaeaiey. Aioo?aiiei iniiaaieai noaeaeaiey
yaeyaony oeaiiinoue (aeieaeainoaiaaiea), noaaoay ii?iie e e?eoa?eai
ioeaiee, ii ia i?iyaeythuaainy iaiin?aaenoaaiii.

A. Oiiaiaaoy? naeaeae aieaa ?aoeoaeueiue oaa a yoii iai?aaeaiee. Aai
aeaaiue o?oae “Ie? eae aiey e i?aaenoaaeaiea”(1819) auoae a naao /a?ac
o?e aiaea iinea aaaaeaaneie “Iaoee eiaeee”(1816). Oiiaiaaoy? n/eoae, /oi
nicaeae i?eioeeieaeueii iiaoth oeeinioeth. A naiii aeaea, ec eaioianeie
noaiu /aeiaa/aneeo niiniaiinoae ii acye ca iniiao ia iiciaiea,
aeiaaaeaii aei aaniethoiie eaeae, a aeaeaiea, ?anoe?aiiia aei ie?iaie
aiee.

E anee o Aaaaey aiey caieiaao ie/oiaeiia ianoi “aeaeeiinoe” a ?aieao
“iiciaiey” eae aoi?ie nooiaie naii?aaeecaoeee eaeae, oi o Oiiaiaaoy?a
iia noaiiaeony “aauueth a naaa”, iiaeeeiiie nouiinoueth e aioo?aiiei
niaea?aeaieai ie?a e aeecie a oeaeii. “Aiey eae oaeiaay naiaiaeia”, a
“/aeiaae – yoi niaa?oaiaeoaa yaeaiea aiee”(Oiiaiaaoy? A. Nia?aiea
ni/eiaiee a 5-oe o. I., 1992. O.1.n.278-279). Neaaeiaaoaeueii,
oaeaeaoue e iauynieoue ie? eae iniuneaiiue e i?aanoaaiii-oeaiiue iiaeii
eeoue enoiaey ec naiiai /aeiaaea e aai naiaiaeu aiee . Ia /aeiaae ec
ie?a e a ie?a i?aauaathuee, eae auei ai anae i?aaeoanoaothuae oeeinioee,
a ie? – ec /aeiaaea e a /aeiaaea – aio i?eioeeieaeueiay noaia
oeeinioneeo ia?aaeeai, i?aaeeiaeaiiay Oiiaiaaoy?ii. Aaaaeue n iiceoeee
iiciathuaai ?acoia niia oieueei caoeene?iaaoue yoi ?acee/ea : “A oi
a?aiy eae eioaeeaeo…-, ienae ii,- noa?aaony a?aoue ie? eeoue oae, eae ii
anoue, aiey, iai?ioea, no?aieoueny e oiio, /oiau naeaeaoue ie?, /ai ii
aeieaeai auoue”(Aaaaeue. Yioeeeeiiaaeey oeeinioneeo iaoe. O.1.n.418).

Eiuie neiaaie, nioeeieoeueoo?iay ii/aa aeey nianoaaiii
aeneieiae/aneiai iiaeoiaea a ia/aea XIX a. auea aua ia aioiaa, a niaeay
iiiuoea A. Oiiaiaaoy?a, naeaeaaoay oaeie iiaeoiae i?aaeoa/ae oeeinioee
aeecie e yecenoaioeeaeecia, inoaaaeanue aua a ?aieao e o?aaeeoeeyo
aiinaieiae/aneie oeeinioee. Eai eae ii nai ieoao, “iaeiiai oieueei
aeaeaiey e oiaiey naieo ii naaa ia aeinoaoi/ii, e /aeiaae aeieaeai
ciaoue, /oi ii oi/ao, e ciaoue, /oi ii iiaeao (Oiiaiaaoy? A.
Oeac.ni/.n.292). Ia neo/aeii e iauanoaaiiia i?eciaiea, anee oaea ia
neaaa, i?eoee e Oiiaiaaoy?o a iineaaeiaa aeanyoeeaoea aai aeecie.

Iiaeeeiiui ieiia?ii yecenoaioeeaeueiie oeeinioee aeooiaii-oeaiiinoiie
ii naiaio niaea?aeaieth, a ?aieao aiinaieiae/aneiai yoaia noae N.
Euea?eaai?, ana?ueac n/eoaaoee naay Nie?aoii naiaai a?aiaie. E yoi
iaoaeeaeoaeueii, aaaeue any nia?aiaiiay aio oeeinioey aeaaea e ia
noaaeea aii?ina i oii, /oi aeaeaoue e eae aeeoue /aeiaaeo a yoii ana
aieaa io/oaeaeaiiii ie?a. Iiyoiio, iieaaae Euea?eaai?, oeeinioey
aeieaeia au?aaoueny ec iiae aeanoe iao/iiai eiae/aneiai iuoeaiey, eai
aii?in “auoue” eee “ia auoue” eaaeaeue ?aoaao nai ca naay. Iiyoiio
oeeinioey aeieaeia auoue ee/iinoiie eee yecenoaioeeaeueiie. E aiai?y ia
enoeia, ioaeii eiaoue a aeaeo ia aa iinoeaeaiea e iiieiaiea, a eeoue
niinia auoey a enoeia eae oei yecenoaioeee, iiieiay iiae yecenoaioeeae
ia naii auoea /aeiaaea, a eiaeeaeaeoaeueiay ia?aaeeaaiea yoiai auoey.
Ionthaea iiaeeeiiue niune aeey /aeiaaea eiatho ia aiaoiea oneiaey e
ianoiyoaeuenoaa aai aeecie, a aai aioo?aiiea aeooiaiia ninoiyiea.

Oeeinioey aeooa N. Euea?eaai?a iniiaaia ia naiaiaea aiee, ii a
ioee/ea io Aaaaey aai aeoo eiaeeaeaeoaeai, a a ioee/ea io Oiiaiaaoy?a
yoa aiey ee/iinoiay. A eiia/iii eoiaa ?a/ue caeanue eaeao i aeooiaiie
naiaiaea ee/iinoe. Ia iooe e iae /aeiaae /a?ac nianoaaiiue auai?
“eee-eee” i?ioiaeeo o?e noaaeee aeeciaiiie yaiethoeee : io ?aaa
iaiin?aaenoaaiiie /oanoaaiiinoe ia ynoaoe/aneie noaaeee, /a?ac
ii?aeueiue aeiea ia?aae iauanoaii ia noaaeee yoe/aneie aei ?uoea?y
o?enoeaineie aa?u ia noaaeee ?aeeaeiciie, aaea ii ia?aoaao aunooth
noaiaiue aeooiaiinoe, aica?auaynue e naiiio naaa /a?ac aa?o a aiaa .

Iinoaaea aioo?aiiee aeooiaiue ie? /aeiaaea auoa aunoeo oneiaee aai
nouanoaiaaiey, Euea?eaai? ia?aaae oeeinioneia iuoeaiea a
aeooiaii-oeaiiinoiia ecia?aiea. Ii niaea?aeaoaeueii caaa?oee
o?aaeeoeeiiii iioeienoe/aneia ?acaeoea aa?iiaeneie oeeinioee e noae
i?aaeoa/ae o?aae/aneiai ie?inica?oeaiey XX a., a eioi?ii i?iecaaaeaiey
oieueei e ia?aee enoeiioth cia/eiinoue e iiioey?iinoue.

THi ioaeaeee i?aanoaaiiinoue io ?aeeaee e io?eoeae cia/aiea a
au?aaioea i?aanoaaiiuo iiiyoee. Iniaia cia/aiea THi i?eaeaaae
ni/oanoaeth(neiiaoee). Iii niya/aao iaoe oceinaayeaaua aea/aiey e aianoa
n iauae aeaaiaeaeaoaeueiinoueth /aeiaaea aa?ao aa?o iaae ieie; oae /oi
anee i?aaenoaaeaiea i iieaciinoe oiai eee ae?oaiai niiniaa aeaenoaee
eiaao iaeioi?ia cia/aiea, oi aiana ia iii ?aoaao a i?aanoaaiiuo
aii?inao.

Aeey aeeaeaeoe/aneiai iaoa?eaeecia enoiaeiui a iiieiaiee oeaiiinoiuo
i?ioeannia a iiciaiee yaeythony o?e aai nooiaie : io aeeaiai nica?oeaiey
e aano?aeoiiio iuoeaieth e io iaai e i?aeoeea. Naii aeeaia nica?oeaiea
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie yoai /oanoaaiiiai iiciaiey, iaoneiaeaiiue
iaiaoiaeeiinoueth i?eniiniaeaiey eiaeeaeaea e n?aaea iaeoaiey. Yoio
i?ioeann inouanoaeyaony ia iniiaa eiathuaainy o iaai iiuoa anao
i?aaeoanoaothueo iieieaiee e nianoaaiiiai, i?eaeeciaiii i?eia?aoaiiiai.
Iiyoiio ?acoeueoaou o?oaea i?aaenoaaeoaeae aeooiaiiai i?iecaiaenoaa,
io?aaeathuea iauaeoeaioth ?aaeueiinoue e aini?iecaiaeeiua ia ecaanoiii
ethaeyi ycuea, ieacuaatho neeueiia aeeyiea ia oi?ie?iaaiea aeooiaiie
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe n?aaee ii?aaeaeaiiuo a?oii ianaeaiey iin?aaenoaii
ynoaoe/aneeo e i?aanoaaiiuo ioeaiie oaeoia iaoa?eaeueiie e nioeeaeueiie
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, niioaaonoaothueo aeooaeece?iaaiiui iio?aaiinoyi
ethaeae.

Ai aoi?ie iieiaeia XIX a. iiyaeeenue e auoee ia ia?aue ieai
aeneieiae/aneea, niuneiaeeciaiiua oeeinioee, eioi?ua
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneea yaeaiey, oaeou e niauoey iuoathony ia i?inoi
iauynieoue, a ?ane?uoue eo aioo?aiiea, aeooiaii-oeaiiinoiia
niaea?aeaiea, Iaeiie ec i?e/ei iiyaeaiey auea yaiay ianinoiyoaeueiinoue
aiinaieiae/aneie oeeinioee, oaa?aiii iauynieaoae aeaaea iaoeiaeiua
ii?uau aeooa eiaeeie i?e/eiii-neaaenoaaiiuo naycae niauoee aiaoiaai ie?a
. Anoanoaaiii, /oi aeey iiaeiaiie ia?ai?eaioaoeee oeeinioee iio?aaiaaeny
e iiaue eaoaai?eaeueiue aiia?ao.

Aeeieiae/aneee yoai a enoi?ee oeeinioneiai ciaiey

Oeaiiinoue anoue ia/oi anai?iieeathuaa ,

ii?aaeaeythuaa niune e anaai ie?a a

oeaeii , e eaaeaeie ee/iinoe , e eaaeaeiai

niauoey , e eaaeaeiai iinooiea.

I.I. Einneee.

Oi?iaeueii ia/aeii aeneieiae/aneiai yoaia iiaeii n/eoaoue iiyaeaiea
o?ao /anoae eieae ?.A. Eiooea “Iee?ieiniin” (1856-1864 aa.). Oa?iei
“aeneieiaey” – (a?a/. axios – oeaiiue, logos – iiiyoea, o/aiea) – aioae
a iai?io a ia/aea OO aaea. Aaoi?noai i?eiaaeeaaeeo I. Eaie e Y.
Aa?oiaio, iie iaicia/eee ei iiaue e noaaoee naiinoiyoaeueiui ?acaeae
oeeinioee , caieiathueeny oeaiiinoiie i?iaeaiaoeeie. Iie aaaee a
ea/anoaa naiinoiyoaeueiiai iiiyoey “cia/eiinoue” (Geltung) a ioee/ea io
nouanoaiaaiey , eioi?ia ia caaeneo io iiuoa e ea?aao ?ieue e?eoa?ey
enoeiu a iiciaiee, iieiaeea oai naiui ia/aei ?ac?aaioea oeaiiinoiie
i?iaeaiaoeee .

Oeeiniou Aaaeaineie (A. Aeiaeaeueaaiae, A. ?eeea? e ae?.) e
Ia?ao?aneie (A. Eiaai e ae?.) oeie iaieaoeainoaa, ?acaeaay yoo
oaiaeaioeeth, eniieuecotho e?iia iiiyoey “cia/eiinoue” iiiyoey
“aeieaeainoaiaaiea”(sollen) e “oeaiiinoue”(wert,value,valeur- io eao.
Valere – eiaoue cia/aiea). Aanue ?aaeueiue ie? iiae?acaeaeyaony eie ia
auoea (aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue, nouanoaiaaiea) e oeaiiinoe, eioi?ua ia
nouanoaotho, iaoiaeyony aia e iaae auoeai, ii oo noi?iio e iauaeoa, e
noauaeoa, yaeyynue aeey iineaaeiaai eeoue iauaeoeaiie, iauaiaycaoaeueiie
cia/eiinoueth e aeieaeainoaiaaieai. Nouiinoue oeaiiinoae, ienae A.
?eeea?o, eae ?ac e “ninoieo a eo cia/eiinoe, a ia a eo
oaeoe/iinoe”(?eeea?o A. Iaoee i i?e?iaea e iaoee i eoeueoo?a. NIa.,
1911.n.128).

Ii iiaieth A. Eiaaia, enoeia, i?ienoiaeeo ia ec niioaaonoaey ciaiey
?aaeueiinoe, a ec yoe/aneeo ii?i e oeaiiinoae, i?eaiineiuo a iiciaiea.
Iiyoiio, iai?eia?, “oiaeaeanoai”, ii?aaeaeythuaa i?eioeei iai?a?uaiinoe
iuoeaiey, anoue ii nooe naiae ie/oi eiia eae aeaai eee oeaiiinoe.
Oeaiiinoue e iaania/eaaao acaeiinaycue o?ao nianoaaiii oeeinioneeo iaoe
: eiaeee, yoeee, ynoaoeee a iainiiaaiee aaeeinoaa e oeaeinoiinoe
aeooiaiie eoeueoo?u.

A oeaeii iiceoeeth o/aiuo auoa iacaaiiuo iai?aaeaiee iiaeii au?aceoue
neiaaie A. Aeiaeaeueiaia : “ss iiao,- iieaaae ii,- iiieiaoue oeeinioeae
a nenoaiaoe/aneii aa niunea oieueei e?eoe/aneoth iaoeo ia
iauaiaycaoaeueiuo oeaiiinoyo : yoi ii?aaeaeyao i?aaeiao oeeinioee … aa
iaoiae”(Aeiaeaeueaaiae A. I?aethaeee. NIa., 1964.n.23). Ii anee
Aeiaeaeueaaiae ia?yaeo n iiiyoeai “oeaiiinoue” aua oiio?aaeyao eae
iaeiiii?yaeeiaua iiiyoey “anaiauee caeii”, “ii?ia”, “aaniethoiay
ioeaiea”, oi aai iineaaeiaaoaeue A. ?eeea?o aicaiaeeo “oeaiiinoue” a
?aia nenoaii- e niuneiia?acothuae oeeinioneie eaoaai?ee. Eai, ii aai
iiaieth, “oi, /oi iaeuecy ioianoe e oeaiiinoyi, ia eiaao aaniethoii
ieeaeiai niunea”(?eeea? A. Oeeinioey enoi?ee. NIa., 1908.n.100). Iiyoiio
iaeuecy niaoeaaoue iiiyoey, eae “caeii” e “oeaiiinoue”, “iaecaaaeiinoue”
e “aeieaeainoaiaaiea”, “auoea” e ”niune”, /ai, ii iiaieth ?eeea?oa,
a?aoeee i?aaeoanoaothuea oeeiniou, e?iia E. Eaioa. Ana aaeeeea
iuneeoaee, eioi?ua ?acaeaaee o/aiea i niunea /aeiaa/aneie aeecie,
nicaeaaaee oai naiui e nenoaio oeaiiinoae ( ?eeea? A, Oeeinioey enoi?ee.
NIa. , 1908. n. 110-112).

Niuneiaeeciaiiua, yecenoaioeeaeueiua, oaiiiaiieiae/aneea,
aio?iiieiae/aneea e ?aeeaeiciua oeeinioee, aicieeoea e eiioeo XIX a. ,
aoaeo/e oeaiiinoiuie ii naiaio niaea?aeaieth, ia caieiaeenue, eae
i?aaeei, niaoeeaeueiui aiaeecii oeaiiinoiuo eaoaai?ee. Eo ioiioaiea e
oeaiiinoiie i?iaeaiaoeea iiaeii ii?aaeaeeoue neiaaie O. Ieoeoa,
inouanoaeaoaai a i?aaeaeaa?ee XX a. iaeaieaa ea?aeeiaeueioth ia?aioeaieo
ioaeeaoeo oeaiiinoae e onoa?aaoeo eaeaaeia: “Aii?in i oeaiiinoyo,-
ooaa?aeaeae ii,- ooiaeaiaioaeueiaa aii?ina i aeinoiaa?iinoe : iineaaeiee
ia?aoaao anth naith na?ueaciinoue eeoue i?e oneiaee, /oi iu ioaaoeee ia
aii?in i oeaiiinoyo” (Ieoeoa O. Aiey e aeanoe . Iiuo ia?aioeaiee anao
oeaiiinoae. I., 1910.n.287).

Noauaeoeaii-eaeaaeenoe/aneea oai?ee, i?aaenoaaeaiiua eiae/aneei
iiceoeaeciii, yiioeaeciii, eeiaaenoe/aneei aiaeecii a yoeea,
aooaeoeaii-aieaaie eiioeaioeeae O. Y?aaia, Ae. I?ieea, E. Euethena e
ae?., a oeaiiinoe aeaeyo i?iyaeaiea ineoe/aneiai iano?iy, noauaeoeaiiai
ioiioaiey /aeiaaea e ioeaieaaaiui ei iauaeoai. Oeaiiinoe aunooiatho a
ea/anoaa aeaeaeouae neeu eae eaeae e eae aiey, ia?auaiiua e
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe.

Aeey aeeaeaeoe/aneiai iaoa?eaeecia oeaiiinoe – niaoeeoe/aneea yaeaiey
iaoa?eaeueiiai e aeooiaiiai oa?aeoa?a, iaeaaeathuea iieiaeeoaeueiie
cia/eiinoueth aeey /aeiaaea, eeanna e iauanoaa a oeaeii.

E ia/aeo XX a. ia inoaaony neieueei-ieaoaeue na?ueaciie oeeinioee,
eioi?ay ia iaicia/eea au naiaai ioiioaiey e oeaiiinoyi, eo niaoeeoeee e
?iee a aeecie /aeiaaea e iauanoaa. E a?yae ee noieo oaeeaeyoueny oiio,
/oi a oai?aoe/aneoth ?ac?aaioeo i?iaeaiu oeaiiinoae aanueia caiaoiue
aeeaae aianee oeeiniou iiceoeaiiai iai?aaeaiey. Yoi ioiineony e
iai?aaeecio (?.A. Ia??e), iaoo?aeecio (O. Iai?i), i?aaiaoecio (Ae.
Aeuethi), eiioaenooaeecio (No. Iaia?) e yiioeaecio (*. Iaaeai, A.
?e/a?aen). I?e yoii iaiiiceoeaeci (io A. ?annaea aei E. Aeoaaiooaeia)
ieii/aoaeueii ii?aaeaeeee oeaiiinoiua e ioeaii/iua noaeaeaiey eae
iaaa?eoeoee?oaiua e iiyoiio ia eiathuea ioiioaiey ie e enoeia, ie e
iaoea.

Iaeiaei iiaeeeiiui ioe?uoeai oeaiiinoiiai aeaeaiey noaea oeeinioey
?aeeaeiciiai ?aiannaina. Iia ?ane?uaaea a iaua/aeiaa/aneeo oeaiiinoyo eo
aeooiaiia niaea?aeaiea eae aioo?aiithth iniiao /aeiaa/aneiai
anaaaeeinoaa. Oaeaeaa oeaiiinoiua ia/aea /aeiaa/aneiai auoey ia a
iiciathuai ?acoia, ionoue e ie?iaii, a a aiaeanoaaiiie aeooiaiinoe,
?onneea oeeiniou (io A.N. Nieiaueaaa aei I.I. Einneiai) iieacaee
aeoaeiioth acaeiinaycue e i?aaie/aneia aaeeinoai o?eaaeu XX aaea !
Aeoo-Naiaiaea-Ee/iinoue.

“Aeooiaiinoue ianao n niaie inaiaiaeaeaiea, iia ianao n niaie
/aeiaa/iinoue”,- ienae I.A. Aa?aeyaa, iiyoiio “aeoo, naiaiaea, ee/iinoue
eiatho iiiaiaeueiia cia/aiea … Aiciiaeai i?i?ua aeooiaiinoe a
nioeeaeueioth aeeciue, e ana eo/oaa a nioeeaeueiie aeecie enoiaeeo ec
yoiai enoi/ieea. Ioaeii inoaaeoue niaa?oaiii eiaeioth eaeath aoi?ie
iieiaeiu XIX aaea, /oi /aeiaae anoue nicaeaiea nioeeaeueiie n?aaeu.
Iaiai?io, nioeeaeueiay n?aaea anoue nicaeaiea /aeiaaea” (Aa?aeyaa A. I
iacia/aiee /aeiaaea. I., 1993 n.324). Yoio i?aia?acothuee /aeiaaea ii?ua
aiaeanoaaiiie aeooiaiinoe a nioeeoia e ?aaeecoaony a aeaea
iaua/aeiaa/aneeo e aeooiaiuo oeaiiinoae. Iiyoiio, ii neiaai I.I.
Einneiai, “any aeeciue aeaeaeaony ethaiaueth e oeaiiinoyi (Einneee I.I.
Oneiaey aaniethoiiai aeia?a. I., 1991.n.182).

?onneay oeeinioey iaoea e iieacaea /aeiaa/anoao a oeaeii e eaaeaeiio
/aeiaaeo a ioaeaeueiinoe iooue aeooiaiiai aic?iaeaeaiey a aai caiiie
aeecie.

Iaoaeeaeoaeueii, /oi a ia?aie o?aoe XX a. aeneieiaey ia?aaeeea naiue
ianoiyuee aoi, eai oeaiiinoiia o/aiea i /aeiaaea, iauanoaa e eoeueoo?a
iicaieeei acaeyiooue ia ieo ecioo?e e iai?aaeacyoi, iacaaeneii io ethauo
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeo e ia?oeeii-iieeoe/aneii i?eno?anoee. Eiaiii
iiyoiio oeaiiinoiia o/aiea iaaeaaeii ca?aaioaei ia oieueei a
nioeeieoeueoo?iie, ii e a iieeoeeii?aaiaie n?aaea.

Nioeeieiaey, iai?eia?, noaea iiaeeeiiui e yooaeoeaiui o/aieai ia
iauanoaa, eiaaea a aa iniiao aue iieiaeai iaoiae “ioianaiey e
oeaiiinoyi” A. ?eeea?oa, ?acaeoue I. Aaaa?ii e ae?. I?aaenoaaeyaony
niaa?oaiii caeiiiia?iui, /oi ec aeaeiaeoeo nioeeieiaia XX a. eiaiii
I.A. Ni?ieei “i?iecaae ?aaiethoeeth a oai?ee nioeeieiaee, iiae/eiea
iineaaeithth oeaiiinoyi eae aeaaiie iiaoaeeoaeueiie aeaeaeouae neea a
iauanoaa”. Ii iieacae ia aeaea, /oi “nioeeieiaey yaeyaony, ii
i?aeiouanoao oai?eae oeaiiinoe” (Covel F.R. Values in human society. The
contributions of Pitirim A. Sorokin to sociology. Boston, 1970.P.49).

Aua a i?aaeaeaa?ee aaeeeie aia?eeaineie aeai?annee 30-o aiaeia auea
auneacaia iuneue i oii, /oi “oeaiiinoe aiciiaeii aeaaeoo eeth/, eioi?ue,
a eiia/iii n/aoa, inaiaiaeeo ana aoiaieoa?iua iaoee io eo nia?aiaiiiai
iieiaeaiey iaoaoe/aneie… iiaa?oiinoe (Loird J. The Idea of value.
Cambridge Univ. Press, 1929. P.XIX).

Oaeei ia?acii, ei aoi?ie iieiaeia XX a. aeneieiaey i?i/ii caiyea naia
ianoi ai anao noa?ao nia?aiaiiiai nioeeiaoiaieoa?iiai ciaiey. A ?innee
aieioue aei ia/aea 60-o aiaeia aeneieiaey iaoiaeeeanue iiae
ioeoeeaeueiui cai?aoii eae ao?aeoaciay “eaeaiaoea”. E oieueei a 1960 a.
auea iioaeeeiaaia iiiia?aoey A.I. Ooaa?eiiaa “I oeaiiinoyo aeecie e
eoeueoo?u”, iieiaeeaoay ia/aei ?ac?aaioea iniiaiuo aeneieiae/aneeo
iiiyoee n ia?enenoneeo, anoanoaaiii, iiceoeee. Caoai iiyaeeenue aeanyoee
noaoae ia yoo oaio, a a 1964 a. ia oe?aeineii ycuea auoea eieaa A.A.
Aaneeaiei “Oeaiiinoue e ioeaiea”. Enneaaeiaaiey o/aiuo ooaa?aeaeaee
“i?aaiia?iinoue” ?anniio?aiey iiiyoee “oeaiiinoue” e “ioeaiea” a
ea/anoaa eaoaai?ee ia?enenonei-eaieineie oeeinioee; oa?iei aea
“aeneieiaey” eniieueciaaeanue eeoue i?e e?eoeea ao?aeoaciuo eiioeaioeee.
A Niaaoneii Nithca oeeinioneay aeeneonney ii i?iaeaia oeaiiinoae aia?aua
ninoiyeanue a 1965 aiaeo (Oaeeene). Iaeiaei ia/aei ?ac?aaioea
oeaiiinoiie i?iaeaiaoeee auei iieiaeaii.

Iaoe?iay iiiiia?enenoneay eeoa?aoo?a ii aeaiiie oaiaoeea, auoaaeoay a
?innee a 60-a-80-a aiaeu, iaecaaaeii i?ecaieeea aa, auoieinoea ec
oeaiiinoae eo aeooiaiia niaea?aeaiea. Anoanoaaiii iiyoiio, /oi
i?a?aaiiay a 30-a-50-a aiaeu ie?iaay e, iniaaiii, ?onneay o?aaeeoeey a
?acaeoee oeaiiinoiie oeeinioee oae e ia auea ainnoaiiaeaia.

A yoie eeoa?aoo?a iiaeii auaeaeeoue o?e iniiaiuo iiaeoiaea e
ii?aaeaeaieth niaoeeoeee enoiaeiuo aeneieiae/aneeo eaoaai?ee. Ia?aui e
iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiiui yaeyaony iiieiaiea oeaiiinoe eae cia/eiinoe
i?aaeiaoia e yaeaiee aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe aeey /aeiaaea, eo niiniaiinoe
oaeiaeaoai?youe aai iaoa?eaeueiua e aeooiaiua iio?aaiinoe. Iaeaieaa
iineaaeiaaoaeueii yoa eiioeaioeey i?aaenoaaeaia a ?aaioao A.A. Aaneeaiei
e aai noi?iiieeia. Aeaaiue aa iaaeinoaoie caeeth/aaony a naaaeaiea
oeaiiinoe e n?aaenoao oaeiaeaoai?aiey iio?aaiinoae, o.a. ii nooe aeaea,
e iieaciinoe eae iieiaeeoaeueiie cia/eiinoe. A cia/eo noaiiayony
oaeoe/anee ia?acee/eiuie e naia oeaiiinoue eae cia/eiinoue, e aa
iauaeo-iineoaeue, ec-ca /aai i?e eiie?aoiii aiaeeca iiiyoea oeaiiinoe
ia?aiineony , eae i?aaeei, ia yoio i?e?iaeiue eee nioeeaeueiue iauaeo.

I?aaenoaaeoaee aoi?iai aa?eaioa, iaeaieaa iineaaeiaaoaeueii
eceiaeaiiiai E.N. Ia?neei, ioiinyo e oeaiiinoyi eeoue aunoea
aiaeanoaaiiua eaeaaeu. N yoie oi/ee c?aiey, oeaiiinoe yaeythony oaea ia
n?aaenoaii, a oeaeueth, ia nouei, a aeieaeiui. Ia neo/aeii yoa
eiioeaioeey iaeaieaa iiioey?iie a yoeea. N /aeiaa/aneeie aea
iio?aaiinoyie oeaiiinoe-eaeaaeu naycaiu eeoue aaiaoe/anee, ii eae e a
ia?aie eiioeaioeee eiatho noauaeoeaii-iauaeoeaioth iniiao.

O?aoee iiaeoiae, iaiin?aaenoaaiii iauaaeeiyao enoiaeiua iniiaaiey
aeaoo ia?auo. A iai oeaiiinoe ii?aaeaeythony eae cia/eiinoue e eaeaae
nia?aiaiiiai. Yoo eiioeaioeeth ?acaeaaee ?aaiou A.I. Ooaa?eiiaa e I.A.
Ae?iaieoeeiai e oae aea a ?aieao noauaeoeaii-iauaeoeaiuo ioiioaiee.
Oaeia ia?aie/aiea ia neo/aeii, iineieueeo ana o?e eiioeaioeee
?anniao?eaatho niaoeeoeeo oeaiiinoae n iiceoeee ia?enecia eiaiii eae
yeiiiie/aneiai iaoa?eaeecia, /oi n?aco aea aucaaei oeaeue ?yae
cao?oaeiaiee.

Ai-ia?auo, noauaeoeaii-iauaeoeaiia ioiioaiey a iieiie ia?a
niioaaonoaotho iiieiaieth oeaiiinoe eeoue eae cia/eiinoe iauaeoa aeey
noauaeoa, oiaaea eae ai aoi?ii e o?aoueai aa?eaioao a iiiyoea oeaiiinoe
aeeth/athony ii?iu (aeieaeiia), oeaee e eaeaaeu. A ?aieao ioiioaiey
noauaeoa e iauaeoo iie oaea iaiauynieiu, oai aieaa, /oi naie yaeythony
e?eoa?eyie iiaeiaiuo ioiioaiee.

Ai-aoi?uo, naaaeaiea oeaiiinoe e cia/eiinoe i?eaiaeeo e ia
?acee/aieth oeaiiinoe e aa iaoa?eaeueiiai iineoaey, a naaaeaiea aa e
eaeaaeo aaaeao, iai?ioea, e io?uao oeaiiinoe io aa iaoa?eaeueiiai
iniiaaiey.

A iineieueeo, a-o?aoueeo, e ioeaiea i?aaenoaaeyaony eae
noauaeoii-iauaeoiia ioiioaiea e niinia ii?aaeaeaiey oeaiiinoe eee
auneacuaaiey i iae, oi yoi i?eaiaeeo oaeoe/anee e ia ?acee/aieth
niaoeeoeee oeaiiinoe e ioeaiee eae enoiaeiuo aeneieiae/aneeo eaoaai?ee.
“A ioeaiea au?aaeaii ioiioaiea noauaeoa e iauaeoo,- ienae I.I.
Aaeo?aaeca.-…Niaoeeoeeie noaeaeaiey oeaiiinoe yaeythony eiaiii oi /oi,
au?aaeaao ioiioaiea noauaeoa e iauaeoo”(Aaeo?aaeca I.I. I i?e?iaea
ii?aeueiiai noaeaeaiey// Aeooaeueiua i?iaeaiu ia?enenoneie yoeee.
Oaeeene, 1967.n.327,329).

Anoue ana iniiaaiey n/eoaoue, /oi niaoeeoeea oeaiiinoae, eo
i?iyaeaiea e ooieoeeiie?iaaiea a iauanoaa ii?aaeaeyaony ia
noauaeoii-iauaeoiuie, a iaaenoauaeoiuie ioiioaieyie e a eo aea, a naith
i/a?aaeue, ?aaeecothony. Ioiioaiea aea noauaeoa e iauaeoo, n oi/ee
c?aiey aai cia/eiinoe, ii?aaeaeyao niaoeeoeeo ioeaiee, a ia oeaiiinoe.
Yoi iicaieyao /aoei ?acee/aoue iiiyoea ioeaiee eae noauaeoii-iauaeoiiai
ioiioaiey e oeaiiinoe, oeene?othuae iaeaieaa iauea oeiu ioiioaiee
iaaeaeo noauaeoaie ethaiai o?iaiy io ee/iinoe aei iauanoaa a oeaeii,
eniieiythuea ia?aoioth ii?iaoeaii-?aaoee?othuoth ?ieue a iauanoaa. I?e
yoii eiaaony a aeaeo ioiioaiey ia oieueei iaaeaeo ee/iinoueth e
iauanoaii, eioi?ua /aua anaai oiiieiathony a eeoa?aoo?a, a ana
aiciiaeiua aa?eaiou iaae/aeiaa/aneeo ioiioaiee.

Oeaiiinoe, a ioee/ea io iao/iuo eaoaai?ee, iaeaaeatho ia oieueei
iiciaaaoaeueiuie, ii e ?aaoeyoeaii-oeaeaaui cia/aieai, aunooiay a
ea/anoaa ii?i e eaeaaeia a nenoaia ?aaeueii aeaenoaothueo iauanoaaiiuo
ioiioaiee. Yoi i?ienoiaeeo aua e iioiio, /oi a eo niaea?aeaiea ia?yaeo n
iiciaieai aoiaeeo e ioeaiea (“ii?aaeaeaiea cia/eiinoe”) a ea/anoaa
ieaeiaai yoaaea eee ia?aie nooiaie oeaiiinoiiai ioiioaiey, e eioi?ie
naii iii eae iaaenoauaeoiia, anoanoaaiii, ia naiaeeony.

Iniiaiua o?oaeiinoe ?aoaiey oeaiiinoiuo i?iaeai a oii e ninoiyo, /oi
ii niiniaai naiaai auoey oeaiiinoe eiatho neiaeiaeoee, iiiaio?iaiaaue
oa?aeoa?. Iie nouanoaotho e ooieoeeiie?otho iauaeoeaii a i?aeoeea
?aaeueiuo nioeeaeueiuo ioiioaiee e noauaeoeaii iniciathony e
ia?aaeeaathony eae oeaiiinoiua eaoaai?ee, ii?iu, oeaee e eaeaaeu,
eioi?ua, a naith i/a?aaeue, /a?ac niciaiea e aeooiaii-yiioeeiiaeueiia
ninoiyiea ethaeae e nioeeaeueiuo iauiinoae ieacuaatho ia?aoiia
aicaeaenoaea ia ana noa?u /aeiaa/aneie aeecie. Eaeie au
aiaeanoaaiii-anaeaineee eee einie/aneee oa?aeoa? ii naiaio
i?ienoiaeaeaieth e nouiinoe oeaiiinoe ia eiaee, noaeeoue i ieo iu iiaeai
eeoue ii eo ?aaeueiiio i?iyaeaieth a iaoae aeecie, a iiiaiia?aciuo
ioiioaieyo /aeiaaea e naiiio naaa, e ae?oaei ethaeyi, iauanoao e
i?e?iaea. Iiyoiio nouaa e cia/eiia, aeieaeiia e aeaeaaiia, ii?ia e
eaeaae aoiaeyo ia ?aciuo o?iaiyo a oeaeinoioth no?oeoo?o ethaie
oeaiiinoe e eeoue i?iyaeythony niioaaonoaothuei ia?acii a caaeneiinoe io
nioeeieoeueoo?iie neooaoeee.

Eaoaai?ee ynoaoe/aneiai inaiaiey ie?a.

Ynoaoeea (a?a/. aisthetikos – eiathuee ioiioaiea e /oanoaaiiiio
aini?eyoeth), eco/aao /oanoaaiiua oeaiiinoiua ioeaiee eiaeeaeaeii
iauaeoeaiie aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe e eo iineaaeothuaa aini?iecaiaenoai a
aa?aaeueiuo e iaaa?aaeueiuo n?aaenoaao i?eaia -ia?aaea/e eioi?iaoeee.

Ynoaoe/aneia – iaoaeaoaai?ey, o.a. oe?ieay e ooiaeaiaioaeueiay
eaoaai?ey ynoaoeee. Iia io?aaeaao oi iauaa, /oi i?enoua i?ae?aniiio,
aacia?aciiio, aicauoaiiiio, ieciaiiiio, o?aae/aneiio, eiie/aneiio,
ae?aiaoe/aneiio e ae?. oa?aeoa?enoeeao aeecie e eneonnoaa. A enoi?ee
ynoaoe/aneie iunee neiaeeeenue iyoue oai?aoe/aneeo iiaeaeae
ynoaoe/aneiai.

I iiaeaeue (iauaeoeaiue eaeaaeeci) : ynoaoe/aneia – ?acoeueoao
iaeooioai?aiey ie?a aiaeanoaaiiui ia/aeii eee eaeaae. ?acaeoea yoie
eiioeaioeee iaaiciiaeii ia iniiaa aoaenoe/aneiai ie?iaicc?aiey;

II iiaeaeue (noauaeoeaiue eaeaaeeci) : ynoaoe/aneia – i?iaeoeey
aeooiaiiai aiaaonoaa eiaeeaeaea ia yoe/anee iaeo?aeueioth
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue. A yoie eiioeaioeee oa?yaony e?eoa?ee ioeaiee
ynoaoe/aneie oeaiiinoe.

III iiaeaeue (aeoaeeci) : ynoaoe/aneia aicieeaao aeaaiaea?y aaeeiaieth
iauaeoeaiiai e noauaeoeaiiai ia/ae.

IV iiaeaeue (iaoaoece/aneee iaoa?eaeeci) : ynoaoe/aneia – anoanoaaiiua
naienoaa i?aaeiaoia.

V iiaeaeue (aeeaeaeoe/aneee iaoa?eaeeci) : iia i?aaenoaaeyao a
“iauanoaaiiie” eiioeaioeee, niaeanii eioi?ie ynoaoe/aneia – iauaeoeaiia
naienoai yaeaiee, iaoneiaeaiiia eo niioianaiiinoueth n aeeciueth
iauanoaa, /aeiaa/anoaa, iaua/aeiaa/anee cia/eiia a yaeaieyo. Yoa
eiioeaioeey aeaao aiciiaeiinoue iauynieoue i?e?iaeo ynoaoe/aneiai,
enoiaey ec aaeeiiai iniiaaiey.

Auyniaiea i?e?iaeu ynoaoe/aneiai i?aaeeaaaao ioaaou ia neaaeothuea
aii?inu : eaeia iauaeo ynoaoe/aneiai ioiioaiey, eaeiaa ?ieue
iauanoaaiiie i?aeoeee a aai auoee, eae naycaii ynoaoe/aneia n iieaciui?

Ynoaoe/aneia e Iieaciia.

Nie?ao ioiaeaeanoaeye i?ae?aniia eae iieaciia : ynoaoe/aneia –
i?iecaiaeiia io ooeeeoa?ii-i?aeoe/aneie cia/eiinoe i?aaeiaoa. Eneonii
oe?aoaiiue ueo, ia caueuathuee aieia io a?aaia, iaeuecy iacaaoue
i?ae?aniui, a ei?ceia n iaaicii i?ae?ania, o.e. iieacia.

Eaio ooaa?aeaeae, /oi i?e ynoaoe/aneii aini?eyoee i?aaeiaoa,
ai-ia?auo, iaoa ioiioaiea e iaio aanei?unoii, ia caeioa?aniaaiii, /ai
i?eioeeieaeueii ioee/aaony io ii?aeueiiai e i?aeoe/aneiai ioiioaiey;
ai-aoi?uo, iu iieo/aai oaeiaieuenoaea “aac iiiyoey”; a-o?aoueeo,
i?aaeiao aini?eieiaaony eae oeaeaniia?aciue “aac i?aaenoaaeaiey i
oeaee”; a-/aoaa?ouo, i?aaeiao ?anniao?eaaaony “eae i?aaeiao
iaiaoiaeeiiai oaeiaieuenoaey”. Eaio ia?auaao aieiaiea ia aeooiaioth
niaoeeoeeo ynoaoe/aneiai, auaeaeyao ec noa?u ooeeeoa?iiai, ii
aaniethoece?oao i?aeoe/aneoth iacaeioa?aniaaiiinoue /aeiaaea a i?aaeiaoa
ynoaoe/aneiai ianeaaeaeaiey.

Aeaaiay ynoaoe/aneay aioeiiiey (i?ae?aniia – iieaciia; i?ae?aniia
-aaniieaciia) noaaouaaao ?aaeueioth i?ioeai?a/eainoue /aeiaa/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoe, eioi?ay, oioy e iineo i?aaiaoe/anee-ooeeeoa?iue
oa?aeoa?, aeeth/aao a naay e ynoaoe/aneia ia/aei.

Ioiaeaeanoaeaiea ynoaoe/aneiai n iieuecie naienoaaiii oai
ie?iaicc?ai/aneei oa/aieyi, eioi?ua iaiauatho iiuo niciaiey, ia
iinoeaoaai aua naiae aeooiaiie i?e?iaeu, iaeiaei oaea inaieaoaai noa?o
i?aeoe/aneeo eioa?ania, iia?oaeaiiiai a ie? i?aaeiaoia. Eiioeaioeee,
o?aeoothuea ynoaoe/aneia eae aaniieaciia, iaiai?io, ?acaeaatho iiieiaiea
ynoaoe/aneiai eae noa?u noaoai /aeiaa/anee-aeooiaiiai ioiioaiey.
Auaeaeaiea ynoaoe/aneiai ec noa?u ooeeeoa?iinoe yaeeinue iiiuoeie
ooaa?aeeoue aai iauacia/eiue enoi?eei-eoeueoo?iue niune eae nouiinoiie
niiniaiinoe aeayoaeueiinoe eiaeeaeaea.

Ynoaoe/aneia eae Oeaiiinoue.

Ynoaoe/aneia aunooiaao a ?iee iieaciiai aei oao ii?, iiea a
iauanoaaiii-enoi?e/aneie i?aeoeea iieii ia auyaeyaony e ia oi?ie?oaony
iiiiceoeey : i?e?iaea-eoeueoo?a, anoanoaaiiia-iauanoaaiiia. *aeiaae
ianeaaeaeaaony i?ae?aniui ia aeey oaeiaeaoai?aiey ooeeeoa?iuo ioaeae
(aieiae, aeaaeaea). I?e ynoaoe/aneii aini?eyoee nouanoaoao oa aunoay
caeioa?aniaaiiinoue, eioi?ay aicieeaao, eeoue, eiaaea o /aeiaaea
oaeiaeaoai?aiiu aai iaiin?aaenoaaiiua iio?aaiinoe e eiaaea neeaaeuaaaony
neiaeiay naoue iauanoaaiiuo eioa?ania, /anoi aeaeaeeo io ooeeeoa?iuo
iio?aaiinoae.

Ynoaoe/aneee iauaeo e ioiioaiea e iaio niaea?aeaoaeueii ii?aaeaeaiu
anaie?ii-enoi?e/aneei ?acaeoeai /aeiaa/anoaa. Aini?eieiny a i?aaeiaoa
ynoaoe/aneia, iu noaaouaaai aai naioth oe?ieoth
iauanoaaiii-i?aeoe/aneoth cia/eiinoue, aai oeaiiinoue aeey /aeiaa/anoaa
a oeaeii, aeey anaai /aeiaa/aneiai ?iaea.

Niiniaiinoue i?aaeiaoa auoue iineoaeai nioeeaeueiuo e eoeueoo?iuo
cia/aiee e ninoaaeytho iniiao eo ynoaoe/aneie oeaiiinoe. Aauanoaaiiay
ii?aaeaeaiiinoue, /oanoaaiiay eiie?aoiinoue e iaoo?aeueiua naienoaa
i?aaeiaoia anoue anoanoaaiii-i?e?iaeiue iaoa?eae ynoaoe/aneiai.
Aeaaiaea?y iauanoaaiii-enoi?e/aneie i?aeoeea i?aaeiaou e yaeaiey
aoyaeaathony a noa?o eioa?ania /aeiaaea e ia?aoatho iauanoaaiiua
naienoaa, “/oanoaaiii-naa?o/oanoaaiioth” i?e?iaeo, naith oeaiiinoue aeey
/aeiaa/anoaa, o.a. naia ynoaoe/aneia ia/aei, naie ynoaoe/aneea naienoaa.

Ynoaoe/aneay oeaiiinoue i?aaeiaoa caaeneo ia oieueei io aai
anoanoaaiiuo ea/anoa, ii e io oao iauanoaaiiuo ianoiyoaeuenoa, a eioi?ua
ii aeeth/ai. Cieioi ieacuaaao ia /aeiaaea ii?aaeaeaiiia ynoaoe/aneia
aicaeaenoaea ia oieueei aoaeo/e “naii?iaeiui naaoii”, ii e eae iaoaee,
ieeoeaoai?ythuee aeaiueae, o.a. a eiia/iii eoiaa eae ii?aaeaeaiiue oei
iauanoaaiiuo ioiioaiee. Ynoaoe/aneia naienoai i?aaeiaoia ia
oiaeaeanoaaiiu oeaaoiaui. Iaeuecy ioiaeaeanoaeyoue ynoaoe/aneia naienoai
cieioa n aeaneii, eae iaeuecy n/eoaoue cieioii ana, /oi aeanoeo.
(Noieiae/ E.I. I?e?iaea ynoaoe/aneie oeaiiinoe. I.1972, n.116). Oaeei
ia?acii, a ynoaoe/aneii aiieiuaiu i?e?iaeiua e nioeeaeueiua iniaaiiinoe
i?aaeiaoa a eo niioiioaiee n i?aeoeeie /aeiaa/anoaa, a eo cia/aiee aeey
/aeiaa/anoaa eae ?iaea.

I?ae?aniia.

Aioe/iua ynoaoe/aneea eaeae aicieeee eae iiiuoea ae?aaieo oeeinioia
iniuneeoue ooaeiaeanoaaiioth i?aeoeeo naiaai a?aiaie.

Aeey ieoaai?aeoeaa ie? – no?ieiue einiin, “ana iaai – aa?iiiey e
/enea”. E?anioa aeey ieo aa?iiie/ia. Aa?iiiey aunooiaao oai, aaea anoue
ia?aaainoai, aaeeinoai iiiaiia?aciiai. ?aaiia e iai?ioeai?a/eaia a
aa?iiiee ia ioaeaeaaony. Oai aea, aaea i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoe iaoiaeyony a
“ni?acia?iie niane”, oai aeaai /aeiaaea. E?anioa aunooiaao eae ia?a
aa?iiie/iinoe, enoeiiinoe auoey, nicao/iinoe einiino.

Aeey Aa?aeeeoa aa?iiiey ia noaoe/aneia ?aaiiaanea, eae aeey
ieoaai?aeoeaa, a aeaeaeouaany, aeeiaie/aneia ninoiyiea. Naiui neeueiui e
oeaio?aeueiui ia?acii o iaai yaeyaony iaiiue. E?anioa aeecie anoue
e?anioa ai?ueau, aa/iiai oie?aiey e aa/iiai noaiiaeaiey, aic?iaeaeaiey
ec iaiea ai ana iiauo oi?iao. E?anioa – ecaa/iay i?e?iaea iaiy, ec
i?ioeai?a/ee nieaoaiiiai, a aoaeouaa ono?aieaiiia. I?ioeai?a/ea –
niceaeaoaeue aa?iiiee e oneiaea nouanoaiaaiey i?ae?aniiai :
?anoiaeyuaany noiaeeony. Aa?ieeeo aia?aua a enoi?ee ynoaoeee aiai?eo i
oa?aeoa?a aini?eyoey i?ae?aniiai, eioi?ia iinoeaaaony eeoue iooai
nica?oeaiey.

Yiiaaeieeo i?enoua aaeeinoai einiiaiiee e ynoaoeee, ii iieaaae, /oi
ie? ninoieo ec /aou?ao ia?aiyeeiaioia : iaiy, aicaeooa, aiaeu e caiee.
Eo niaaeeiyao ethaiaue, eioi?ay ?iaeaeaao aa?iiieth e e?anioo, a
?acuaaeeiyao a?aaeaea, aucuaathuay oain e aanii?yaeie.

Aeaiie?eo auaeaeioe eaoaai?eth ia?u e ?acaee aaaeiienoe/aneoth
eiioeaioeeth : aeeoue ioaeii ianeaaeaeaynue oieueei i?ae?aniui e a ia?o.
“Ia neaaeoao no?aieoueny ei anyeiio ianeaaeaeaieth, ii oieueei e oaeiio,
eioi?ia naycaii n i?ae?aniui”. “Oiio, eoi i?anooiaao i?aaeeueioth ia?o,
naiia i?eyoiia iiaeao noaoue naiui iai?eyoiui”.

Oaeei ia?acii, ieoaai?aeoeu, Aa?aeeeo, Yiiaaeiee e Aeaiie?eo a
iiiyoee “i?ae?aniia” aeaeaee ia/oi iauaeoeaiia, i?enouaa einiino,
yaeythuaiony aeey ieo aiieiuaieai no?ieiinoe, ii?yaeea e aa?iiiee. Yoe
iaoa?eaeueiua naienoaa ie?a i?aaenoaaeyeenue ei iauaeoeaiie iniiaie
e?aniou.

Ieaoii a aeeaeiaao aeaao iiiainoi?iiiee e aeoaieee aiaeec i?iaeai
e?aniou. A aeeaeiaa “Aeiiee Aieueoee”, ioaa/ay ia aii?in “/oi anoue
i?ae?aniia?”, ii i?eoiaeeo e auaiaeo, /oi “I?ae?aniia –
o?oaeii”(eiie?aoiia aaeeie/ii, iauaa, i?iyaeythuaany /a?ac aaeeie/iia,
eiie?aoiinoue, iaeaaeathuay anaiauiinoueth e oianoiia, iiaeoiaeyuaa,
i?eaiaeiia…). A aeeaeiaa “Oeeaa” Ieaoii ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi e?anioa ia
anoue e?anioa naieo aeeauo nouanoa eee ea?oei, a “i?yiia e e?oaeia”,
o.a. aano?aeoiay e?anioa iiaa?oiinoe oaea, oi?ia, ioaeaeaiiay io
niaea?aeaiey. A eiia/iii n/aoa e?anioa aeey Ieaoiia ynoaoe/anee
naiaia?aciay eaeay, iiciaoue eioi?oth /aeiaae iiaeao, oieueei iaoiaeynue
a iniaii ninoiyiee iaea?aeeiinoe, aaeioiiaaiey, /a?ac ainiiieiaiea
aannia?oiie aeooe yoiai a?aiaie, eiaaea iia aua ia anaeeeanue a nia?oiia
oaei e i?aauaaea a ie?a eaeae. Ieaoii ?anniao?eaaao e?anioo eae iiiaio
ynoaoe/anee-aeooiaiiai ioiioaiey /aeiaaea, a ia eae /enoi i?e?iaeiia
naienoai aiaoieo i?aaeiaoia. Iaeiaei iai?eaiaeiinoue e?aniou aeey
Ieaoiia anoue neaaenoaea ia?ae/iinoe aeooa, ?ieue a aa ia?aciaaiee
iauanoaaiii-enoi?e/aneie i?aeoeea niaa?oaiii ia o/eouaaaony. Ieaoii
aeeaeaeoe/anee aiaeece?iaae i?ae?aniia eae naienoai iniaiai ?iaea, eae
?acoeueoao aeooiaii-/aeiaa/aneiai, iaeooioai?aiiiai ioiioaiey e ie?o.

Ieaoii aea, a niioaaonoaee ni naiae eiioeaioeeae naiinoiyoaeueii
nouanoaothueo eaeae, noi?ioee?iaae o/aiea i aaeioiiaaiee, a eioi?ii
ooaa?aeaeae i i?e?iaea ynoaoe/aneiai eae i “oaiyo oaiae”, o.a. ia
io?aaeaiee aauae (oaiae eaeae).

A?enoioaeue, a ioee/ea io Ieaoiia, no?aieeny iaeoe iauaeoeaiua iniiau
i?ae?aniiai a aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe e oeacuaae ia neaaeothuea iiiaiou:
ni?acia?iinoue, ii?aaeaeaiiinoue, ii?yaeie a i?ino?ainoaa, aaeeinoai a
iiiaiia?acee e o.ae. Iniaia ianoi a aai oai?ee ynoaoeee caieiaee eaeae i
iiae?aaeaiee (“ieiacen”), ia iniiaa eioi?uo A?enoioaeue noi?ioee?iaae
eiioeaioeeth eaoa?nena eee i/euaiey ethaeae iin?aaenoaii ynoaoe/anee
ioi?ieaiiuo iiaeaeae iiaaaeaiey ethaeae, a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue o?aaaaeee.
Oaeei ia?acii ii ?anniio?ae iaoaieciu oeaeaiai?aaeaiiiai aicaeaenoaey ia
ethaeae i?iecaaaeaieyie eneonnoaa e nicaeae oai?eth ynoaoe/aneiai
ainieoaiey. Oeeinioneia ianeaaeea A?enoioaey i?aaeii?aaeaeeei ia
ouny/aeaoey i?aaenoaaeaiey ethaeae i nouiinoiie i?e?iaea ynoaoe/aneiai.

A n?aaeiea aaea ainiiaenoaiaaea eiioeaioeey aiaeanoaaiiiai
i?ienoiaeaeaiey e?aniou : aia, iaeooioai?yy einioth iaoa?eth, i?eaeaao
ae ynoaoe/aneea naienoaa. *oaeaniay e?anioa eacaeanue a?aoiaie e
ianeaaeaeaiea aa – iaaeicaieaiiui.

A i?ioeaiaan yoiio aoiaienou yiioe Aic?iaeaeaiey (Eaiia?aei aea
Aei/e, Oaenie?) ooaa?aeaeaee e?anioo naiie i?e?iaeu e ?aaeinoue aa
aini?eyoey. Eneonnoai iie ?anniao?eaaee eae ca?eaei, eioi?ia ooaeiaeiee
aea?aeeo ia?aae i?e?iaeie.

Ynoaoeea eeanneoeecia (Aoaei) naiaeeea i?ae?aniia e ecyuiiio;
i?ae?aniia ia any i?e?iaea a oeaeii oeaaoaiee e aoenoaa, a eeoue
iiaeno?eaeaiiay, ooiaeaiiay i?e?iaea. Aunoei i?aaeiaoii eneonnoaa
eeanneoeeci i?iaicaeanee e?anioo a iauanoaaiiie aeecie,
ioiaeaeanoaeythuoth ei n aeia?ii e ainoaea?noaaiiie oeaeaniia?aciinoe.

O?aioeocneea i?inaaoeoaee XVIII a. (Aieueoa?, Aeeae?i) aiiaue
?anoe?ytho noa?o e?aniou e aica?auatho aa anae aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe. Aeey
ieo i?ae?aniia – anoanoaaiiia naienoai naiie i?e?iaeu, oaeia aea, eae
aan, oeaao, iauai e ae?.

Ynoaoe/aneay oai?ey E. Eaioa aicieeea eae ?aaeoeey ia
noauaeoeaenonei-ineoieiae/aneoth eiioeaioeeth Ae. THia,
?aoeeiiaeenoe/aneea acaeyaeu Aaoiaa?oaia e iaoa?eaeenoe/aneea aicc?aiey
Ae. Aeeae?i. A iae enneaaeiaaiu oneiaey aini?eyoey /aeiaaeii aiaoiaai
ie?a. Iiiyoey “e?anioa” e “i?ae?aniia” ioaeaeaiu a iae io i?aanoaaiiuo
ioeaiie e ?anniao?eaathony ii ea/anoao, eiee/anoao, ioiioaieth e
iiaeaeueiinoe. Eaio naiaeeo i?ae?aniia e “iacaeioa?aniaaiiiio”
oaeiaieuenoaeth, ia caaenyuaio io oiai, nouanoaoao eee ia nouanoaoao
i?aaeiao, ecia?aaeaiiue a i?iecaaaeaiee eneonnoaa, e iaoneiaeaiiiio
oieueei oi?iie ecia?aaeaaiiai. Eaio a ynoaoeea a i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue
oi?iaeecio a iiieiaiee i?ae?aniiai iauyaee aunoei aeaeii eneonnoaa
iiyceth, eai iia aicauoaaony aei ecia?aaeaaiiai eaeaaea, e o.ae.
(Aioieiaey ie?iaie oeeinioee. A 4-o o. O.3.n.91.). Iiaeii i?aaenoaaeoue
oaeoth e?eoa?ee Eaioa(oaae.3).

Oaae.3 Oaaeeoea e?eoa?ee Eaioa

1. Eiee/anoaa Aaeeinoai, Iiiaeanoaaiiinoue, Oeaeieoiiinoue

2. Ea/anoaa ?aaeueiinoue, Io?eoeaiea, Ia?aie/aiea

3. Ioiioaiey I?enouiinoue e naiinoiyoaeueiia nouanoaiaaiea(substantia),
i?e/eiiinoue e caaeneiinoue(i?e/eia e aeaenoaea),
iauaiea(acaeiiaeaenoaea iaaeaeo aeaenoaothuei e iiaeaa?aathueiny
aeaenoaeth)

4. Iiaeaeueiinoe Aiciiaeiinoue – iaaiciiaeiinoue, Nouanoaiaaiea –
ianouanoaiaaiea, Iaiaoiaeeiinoue – neo/aeiinoue.

Iiaeoiae Aaaaey e eaoaai?ee i?ae?aniiai i?iiecai enoi?eciii. A
i?ae?aniii ii aeaeae iaeei ec yoaiia iauaie?iaiai aeaeaeaiey aeooa
(aaniethoiie eaeae). A naiai ?acaeoee aeoo ia?aoaao aa?iiie/iia
aaeeinoai n iaoa?eaeueiie oi?iie, eaeay iaoiaeeo iieiia e aaeaeaaoiia
au?aaeaiea a oi?ia, e yoi i?ae?anii. Oaeiai ninoiyiey aaniethoiay eaeay
aeinoeaaao a aae eeanne/aneiai eneonnoaa (ae?aaiyy A?aoeey). E?anioa
aeey Aaaaey – noa?a eneonnoaa.

?onneee iuneeoaeue I.A. *a?iuoaaneee iieaaae, /oi i?ae?aniia anoue
aeeciue, niioaaonoaothuay iaoaio iiieiaieth i oii, eaeie iia aeieaeia
auoue. Yoa eiioeaioeey i?eaioe?iaaia ia iaoa?eaeenoe/aneia iiieiaiea
e?aniou, ii ianao ia naaa ia/aoue aio?iiieiaecia, eai, ii *a?iuoaaneiio,
i?ae?aniia a i?e?iaeai?aaeainoeuaao /aeiaaea.

Ia?aaeeaiu oai?aoe/aneiai iinoeaeaiey e?aniou.

Eaaeaeay ec iiiai/eneaiiuo eiioeaioeee i?ae?aniiai, auaeaeioouo a
enoi?ee ynoaoe/aneie iunee, oae eee eia/a oyaioaao e iaeiie ec
?anniio?aiiuo oai?aoe/aneeo iiaeaeae ynoaoe/aneiai. Ae?oaeie neiaaie,
ana ?aciiia?acea oai?aoe/aneeo eiioeaioeee i?ae?aniiai iiaeii naanoe e
iyoe ia?aaeeaiai.

Ia?aay ia?aaeeaia (Ieaoii, Oa?ooeeeai, Oiia Aeaeineee, Aaaaeue) :
i?ae?aniia anoue ia/aoue eee aiieiuaiea aiaa (aaniethoiie eaeae) a
eiie?aoiuo aauao e yaeaieyo.

Aoi?ay ia?aaeeaia : aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue ynoaoe/anee iaeo?aeueia,
enoi/iee aa e?aniou – a aeooa eiaeeaeaea (O. Eeiin, O. Eaei, Y. Iaeiai),
iia aicieeaao aeaaiaea?y “nnaeaeaieth”, “iaeaeaeeaaieth” (AEai Iieue),
“a/oanoaiaaieth” (A. E?i/a), “i?iaoee?iaaieth” (I. Aa?oiai) aeooiaiiai
aiaaonoaa /aeiaaea ia aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue; e?anioa – ?acoeueoao
eioaioeeiiaeueiiai (iai?aaeaiiiai, aeoeaiiai, “iaiuneeaathuaai”)
aini?eyoey i?aaeiaoa noauaeoii (O. A?aioaii, A. Iaeiiia e ae?oaea
oaiiiaiieiae).

O?aouey ia?aaeeaia (Nie?ao, A?enoioaeue, *a?i) : i?ae?aniia anoue
?acoeueoao niioianaiey naienoa aeecie n /aeiaaeii eae ia?ie e?aniou eee
n aai i?aeoe/aneeie iio?aaiinoyie, n aai eaeaaeaie e i?aaenoaaeaieyie i
i?ae?aniie aeecie.

*aoaa?oay ia?aaeeaia (Ae. Aeeae?i e ae?oaea o?aioeocneea iaoa?eaeenou) :
i?ae?aniia anoue anoanoaaiiia naienoai yaeaiee i?e?iaeu.

Iyoay ia?aaeeaia (niaaoneea o/aiua, noi?iiieee “iauanoaaiiie
eiioeaioeee”) : i?ae?aniia anoue iauaeoeaiua yaeaiey n eo anoanoaaiiuie
ea/anoaaie, aoyiooua iauanoaaiiui i?iecaiaenoaii, i?aeoeeie a noa?o
eioa?ania /aeiaaea e ia?aoathuea iieiaeeoaeueioth oeaiiinoue aeey
/aeiaa/anoaa eae ?iaea, “iaeooioai?aiiua”, i/aeiaa/aiiua o?oaeii e
noaaoea noa?ie naiaiaeu, o.a. noa?ie aeaaeaiey /aeiaaeii
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoueth.

Aa?iiiey, neiiao?ey a ie?oaeathuai ie?a aini?eieiathony iaie eae
i?ae?aniia. Iie caeiaeaiu eae au a naiii ooiaeaiaioa iaoa?ee.
Acaeiiaeaenoaea i?e?iaeu e iauanoaa, ?iaeaeaao e?anioo eae iauaeoeaiia
naienoai ie?a, eae cia/eiinoue aai i?aaeiaoia aeey /aeiaa/anoaa, eae
noa?o inaiaiiinoe ie?a /aeiaaeii e iioiio naiaiaeu.

Ia?auie i?aaeiaoaie ynoaoe/aneiai ioiioaiey /aeiaaea e
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe auee i?oaeey o?oaea. *aeiaae iieo/ae oaeiaieuenoaea
io oi?ioi naeaeaiiiai i?oaeey, a eioi?ii oi?ia niioaaonoaiaaea aai
ooieoeee, aai iacia/aieth. Nai o?oae noaiiaeeny enoi/ieeii ynoaoe/aneiai
ianeaaeaeaiey, aicaoaeaeathuei a ethaeyo ai?aeinoue, ?aaeinoue e
oaeeaeaiea eo niiniaiinoueth e oai?/anoao. N ?anoe?aieai iauanoaaiiie
i?aeoeee aic?anoaao e e?oa ynoaoe/aneeo oeaiiinoae. *aeiaae ia/eiaao
ynoaoe/anee aini?eieiaoue e ioeaieaaoue i?e?iaeoa naiiai naay e
iauanoai, a eioi?ii ii aeeaao. Oi, /oi aeey ieaiaie, ?iaea auei
iieaciui, aeaeaoaeueiui, aaaeiui, aunooiaee eae neiaie iiue, aiaaonoaa,
ioeaieaaeinue eae i?ae?aniia.

O?oae noa?oa eneonnoaa. O /aeiaaea nia/aea iiyaeyaony ooeeeoa?iia e
oieueei aiineaaenoaee ia aai iniiaa ynoaoe/aneia ioiioaiea e ie?o.
Eiaiii o?oaeiaay aeayoaeueiinoue i?aaeaea anaai iaeaaeaao ynoaoe/aneie
oa?aeoa?enoeeie.

Aicauoaiiia.

Aicauoaiiia ia?aiia/aeueii auei iniuneaiii ia eae ynoaoe/aneay
eaoaai?ey, a eae noeeenoe/aneay oeao?a ?eoi?eee. A 1a. A?a/aneee ?eoi?
Oeaoeeeee iaienae ni/eiaiea “I aicauoaiiii”, aaea ?anniao?eaae i?aaeea
aicauoaiiiai noeey, oaoieea i?aoi?neie ?a/e e eeanneoeoee?iaaeenue
noeeenoe/aneea oeao?u e o?iiu. Aac eiaie aaoi?a aeioae aei ian e ae?oaie
o?aeoao “I aicauoaiiii”, yaeythueeny ioaaoii ia ni/eiaiea Oeaoeeeey,
ai?i/ai aeaeaei ia?a?inoee yoi naia i?yiia iacia/aiea (aiineaaenoaee
aaoi?a iacaaee Inaaaei-Eiiaeiii).

Inaaaei-Eiiaei nio?aiyao oeaoeeeeaineoth o?aeoiaeo aicauoaiiiai eae
noeeenoe/aneiai iiiyoey, ii iaeiia?aiaiii ?anoe?yao aai niaea?aeaiea aei
cia/aiey ynoaoe/aneie eaoaai?ee. Ana eo/oaa a eeoa?aoo?a ii ioiineo e
noa?a aicauoaiiiai.

Ia?a/eneyy aaaeiaeoea aeooiaiua enoi/ieee aicauoaiiiai (iaiau/aeiua
iunee e no?aoe, e?anioa ?a/e a niaaeeiaiee n aaeeeeie iuneyie),
Inaaaei-Eiiaei iiae/a?eeaaao, /oi aicauoaiiia aeaeaei io ie?neie noaou,
iaei/iiai ouaneaaey, aiaaonoaa, ii/anoae, neaau, iaia?aie/aiiie aeanoe.
Ana yoi i?aeueuaao ethaeae aiaoiei aeaneii.

A aicauoaiiii Inaaaei-Eiiaei aeaeeo iiao/ea, i?iyaeythuea aaee/ea
aiaa neeu i?e?iaeu, eioi?ua eiatho aeoaieia oeeinioneia cia/aiea e
neoaeao enoi/ieeii ?aoaiey i?iaeaiu nooe aeecie. Aicauoaiiia, ii
Inaaaei-Eiiaeio, iiaeieiaao /aeiaaea aei aaee/ey aiaeanoaa, aea?eo
ethaeyi aannia?oea, iiuii e iaecaeaaeeii caia/aoeyao naay a iaiyoe.

A 1757 a. Aiaeeeneee oai?aoee Y. Aa?e iioaeeeiaae “Oeeinioneia
enneaaeiaaiea i i?ienoiaeaeaiee eaeae aicauoaiiiai e i?ae?aniiai”, aaea
iieiaeee ia/aei i?ioeaiiinoaaeaieth yoeo eaoaai?ee. Ii aai iiaieth,
eaeae aicauoaiiiai e i?ae?aniiai ianoieueei i?eioeeieaeueii ?acee/iu,
/oi o?oaeii e aeaaea iaaiciiaeii niaaeeieoue eo a iaeiii /oanoaa.

Eaio n/eoae, /oi “aicauoaiiinoue niaea?aeaiey ia a eaeie-eeai aaue a
i?e?iaea, a oieueei a iaoae aeooa” … aicauoaiiia oi i?eoyaeaaao, oi
iooaeeeaaao, ia aeinoaaeyy iieiaeeoaeueiiai oaeiaieuenoaey, a
aicaoaeaeay oaeeaeaiea e ii/oaiea, eioi?ua iiaeii iacaaoue
io?eoeaoaeueiui ianeaaeaeaieai. Iii anoue ai?aeinoue /aeiaaea,
aicieeathuay aeaaiaea?y i?aiaeieaiey no?aoa a i?ioeanna aa?u.
?aoeeiiaeueii a noaeaeaiee Eaioa oi, /oi ii ioia/aao ianooaaiinoue e
iainaiaiiinoue aicauoaiiiai yaeaiey, ionoonoaea ii ioiioaieth e iaio
naiaiaeu /aeiaaea.

?acei i?ioeaiiinoaaeye i?ae?aniia e aicauoaiiia O. Oeeea?, n/eoaaoee,
/oi aicauoaiiia, a ioee/ea io i?ae?aniiai, aucuaaao iai?eyoiia /oanoai;
iai?eyoia, iai?eia?, aaee/anoaaiiay a?ica e aniuoee iieiee.

A enoi?ee ynoaoe/aneie iunee nouanoaiaaea e eiay oi/ea c?aiey,
naeeaeathuay i?ae?aniia e aicauoaiiia. Oae, o?aioeocneea ynoaoeee XIX a.
Iieaaaee, /oi aicauoaiiia anoue aunoay noaiaiue i?ae?aniiai (A. No?ei,
I. AEioo?oa) eee aea i?ae?aniia “a naaa, aaneiia/iay e?anioa, eioi?oth
iaeuecy iinoeaiooue (A. Eaaae).

Aaaaeue aeaeae a aicauoaiiii oio yoai aeaeaeaiey aaniethoiiai aeooa,
yoai ie?iaiai enoi?e/aneiai i?ioeanna, eioi?iio niioaaonoaoao
?iiaioe/aneay noaaeey ?acaeoey eneonnoaa, eiaaea aeoo, niaea?aeaiea
i?aaaee?otho iaae iaoa?eae, oi?iie. ?iiaioe/aneie noaaeee, ii Aaaaeth,
i?enoua ?acaeoea iiycee e iocuee – aeaeaa eneonnoai, iaeneiaeueii
oaeiaeaoai?aiiuo e ii/oe ioi?aaiiuo io iaoa?eaeueiiai ia/aea. Eiaiii,
iiyoiio, eae ii iieaaae, iiycee e iocuea iniaaiii aeecee aicauoaiiua
ia?acu.

I.A. *a?iuoaaneee no?aieeny iaeoe ?aaeueiua iniiaaiey aicauoaiiiai,
i?eaanoe e caiiie iniiaa. Ii iieaaae, /oi aicauoaiiia ai?acaei aieueoa,
ai?acaei neeueiaa ae?oaeo yaeaiee, n eioi?uie n?aaieaaaony iaie.
Aicauoaiiia ?ane?uaaaony /a?ac n?aaiaiea n ie?oaeathueie yaeaieyie.
Ii?aaeaeaioa aicauoaiiiai iineo o *a?iuoaaneiai eiee/anoaaiiue e
/?acia?ii oe?ieee oa?aeoa? e iiyoiio ia ?ane?uaaao aaeaeaaoii i?e?iaeo
yoiai yaeaiey. E ana aea ii?aaeaeaiea aicauoaiiiai, aeaiiia
*a?iuoaaneei, oeaiii naiae iaoa?eaeenoe/aneie i?eaioaoeeae ia
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue.

Iaiaoeeee oeeinio I. Aa?oiai iiaeioae e aicauoaiiiio n oi/ee c?aiey
aai aini?eyoey. Aeey iaai aicauoaiiia – i?ae?aniia, eaeouaa iaano?a/o
iio?aaiinoe /aeiaaea a aaeeeii, i?aainoiaeiii. Anyeay a?aiaeeiciay,
iiaouanoaaiiay neea aeaenoaoao ia /aeiaaea ono?auathua, iiaeaaeyao aai.
Aini?eieiay aicauoaiiia, /aeiaae nii?ioeaeyaony aai aicaeaenoaeth,
i?aiaeieaaaao a naaa /oanoai nianoaaiiie cia/eiinoe.

Noiie?oy neacaiiia, iiaeii naeaeaoue auaiae, /oi a enoi?ee ynoaoeee
neiaeeeenue aeaa oi/ee c?aiey ia acaeiiioiioaiea i?ae?aniiai e
aicauoaiiiai : 1) aicauoaiiia anoue i?aainoiaeiay noaiaiue i?ae?aniiai,
iniaiai ?iaea i?ae?aniia, ioee/athuaany aaee/eiie eee iiuueth; 2)
aicauoaiiia i?ioeaiiieiaeii i?ae?aniiio, e eae aai aini?eyoea aicieeaao
ynoaoe/anee iaaaoeaiay ?aaeoeey.

Eoae, aicauoaiiia – yoi iauaeoeaiia ynoaoe/aneia naienoai, i?enouaa
i?aaeiaoai e yaeaieyi, eioi?ua iaeaaeatho oe?ieie iieiaeeoaeueiie
iauanoaaiiie cia/eiinoueth, ieacuaatho aeeyiea ia aeeciue oeaeuo
ia?iaeia e anaai /aeiaa/anoaa.

O?aae/aneia.

*aeiaae nia?oai, e ee/iinoue ia iiaoo ia aieiiaaoue i?iaeaiu niunea
aeecie, nia?oe e aannia?oey. Enoi?ey /aeiaa/anoaa ianuuaia o?aaaaeeeiuie
niauoeyie. Eneonnoai a naieo oeeinioe/aneeo ?aciuoeaieyo i ie?a
aioo?aiia oyaioaao e o?aaaaeeeiie oaia. Ae?oaeie neiaaie, e aeeciue
ee/iinoe, e enoi?ey iauanoaa, e ooaeiaeanoaaiiue i?ioeann iiiaie?aoii
ia?anaeaeny n i?iaeaiie o?aae/aneiai.

Ia?aoiae io nei?ae e ?aaeinoe – iaeei ec aaeeeeo nae?aoia
o?aae/aneiai. Aua Ae. THi a o?aeoaoa “I o?aaaaeee” ia?auae aieiaiea ia
oi, /oi o?aae/aneay yiioeey aeeth/aao a naay nei?aue e ?aaeinoue, oaean
e oaeiaieuenoaea.

Ae?aaiea ia?iaeu, yeiiiieea eioi?uo ceaeaeeeanue ia caieaaeaeee,
nicaeaee eaaaiaeu ia oie?athueo e aine?anathueo aiaao. Ai a?aiy
eoeueoiauo i?acaeianoa a /anoue yoeo aiaia nei?aue ii iiaiaeo eo nia?oe
niaiyeanue ?aaeinoueth e aanaeueai ii iiaiaeo eo aine?aoaiey. Ii ia?a
ia?anoaiey iauanoaaiiuo i?ioeai?a/ee i?e?iaeiay iniiaa yoeo ieoia
oneiaeiyeanue e ana aieaa nioeeaeece?iaaeanue. Ni nia?oueth e
aine?anaieai aiaia noaee naycuaaoue oiiaaiea ia ecaaaeaiea io caiiuo
no?aaeaiee, iaaeaaeaeu ia aa/ioth aeeciue (eaaaiaea i O?enoa).

Caeiiiia?iinoue o?aae/aneiai a eiioeaiooaeueii-niauoeeiie noa?a –
ia?aoiae aeaaee a aine?anaiea, a a yiioeeiiaeueiie noa?a – ia?aoiae
nei?ae a ?aaeinoue. O?aae/aneay yiioeey – ni/aoaiea aeoaieie ia/aee e
aunieiai ainoi?aa – i?iyaeyaony a eneonnoaa ?aciuo ia?iaeia.

Iniuneyy aeaaeue iaiiaoi?eiie eiaeeaeaeoaeueiinoe eae iaiii?aaeiia
e?ooaiea oeaeiai ie?a, o?aaaaeey aianoa n oai ooaa?aeaeaao i?i/iinoue,
aanei?unoiinoue ie?icaeaiey, ianiio?y ia ooiae ec iaai eiia/iiai
nouanoaa. E a naiii eiia/iii nouanoaa o?aaaaeey iaoiaeeo aannia?oiua
/a?ou, ?iaeiyuea ee/iinoue n ie?icaeaieai, eiia/iia – n aaneiia/iui.
O?aaaaeey – oeeinioneia eneonnoai, noaayuaa e ?aoathuaa aunoea
iaoaoece/aneea i?iaeaiu aeecie e nia?oe, iniciathuaa niune auoey,
aiaeece?othuea aeiaaeueiua i?iaeaiu aai onoie/eainoe, aa/iinoe,
aaneiia/iinoe, ianiio?y ia iinoiyiioth eciai/eainoue.

A o?aaaaeee, iieaaae Aaaaeue, aeaaeue ia anoue oieueei oie/oiaeaiea.
Iia icia/aao oaeaea nio?aiaiea a i?aia?aaeaiiii aeaea oiai, /oi a
aeaiiue oi?ia aeieaeii iiaeaiooue. Nouanoao, iiaeaaeaiiiio einoeieoii
naiinio?aiaiey, Aaaaeue i?ioeaiiinoaaeyao /aeiaaea, naiaiaeiiai io
“?aaneiai niciaiey” e niiniaiiai aea?oaiaaoue aeeciueth ?aaee aunoeo
oeaeae. Oiaiea iinoeaiooue eaeath aaneiia/iiai ?acaeoey aeey Aaaaey –
aaaeiaeoay oa?aeoa?enoeea /aeiaa/aneiai niciaiey.

A iniuneaiee o?aaaaeeeiuo neooaoeee a ie?iaie ooaeiaeanoaaiiie
eoeueoo?a iaicia/eeenue aeaa e?aeia iiceoeee : yecenoaioeeaeenoneay e
aoaeaeenoneay.

Yecenoaioeeaeeci i?aa?aoee nia?oue a oeaio?aeueioth i?iaeaio
oeeinioee e eneonnoaa. Yecenoaioeeaeenou aaniethoece?otho naiioeaiiinoue
ee/iinoe e iiae/a?eeaatho aa iaeiiioieeaaaeueiinoue, iooi?aeaiiinoue io
iauanoaa, /oi i?eaiaeeo eo eiioeaioeeth e ia?aaeieno : aeaaeue ee/iinoe
ia?anoaao auoue iauanoaaiiie i?iaeaiie. Anee ee/iinoue iooi?aiooa io
ethaeae, eaeia ei aeaei aei aa nia?oe? Ee/iinoue, inoaaoothny iaeei ia
iaeei n ie?icaeaieai, ia iuouathuoth aie?oa naay /aeiaa/anoaa,
ioaaouaaao oaean iaecaaaeiie eiia/iinoe auoey. Iaaeaeeiay
naa?ooeaiiinoueth, iooi?aiooay io ethaeae ee/iinoue ia aeaea ieacuaaaony
aano?aeiie, a aa aeeciue – eeoaiiie niunea e oeaiiinoe.

Aeey aoaeaeecia /aeiaae, oie?ay, i?aa?auaaony a ae?oaia nouanoai.
Anee yecenoaioeeaeeci i?e?aaieaaao aeeciue e nia?oe (aeeciue noieue aea
aano?aeia, eae e nia?oue), oi aoaeaeenoneay eaeaieiaey i?e?aaieaaao
nia?oue e aeecie (/aeiaae, oie?ay, i?iaeieaeaao aeeoue, iiyoiio nia?oue
ie/aai ia iaiyao). E a oii e a ae?oaii neo/aa oaeoe/anee nieiaaony
anyeee o?aaeci. Aeaaeue ee/iinoe i?eia?aoaao o?aae/aneia cao/aiea
oieueei oai, aaea /aeiaae, iaeaaeay naiioeaiiinoueth, aeeaao ai eiy
ethaeae, eo eioa?anu noaiiayony niaea?aeaieai aai aeecie. A yoii, n
iaeiie noi?iiu, nouanoaoao iaiiaoi?eii eiaeeaeaeoaeueiia naiaia?acea e
oeaiiinoue ee/iinoe, a n ae?oaie – iiaeaathuee aa?ie iaoiaeeo
i?iaeieaeaiea a aeecie iauanoaa. Iiyoiio aeaaeue oaeiai aa?iy
o?aaaaeeeia e ?iaeaeaao /oanoai aacaica?aoiie oo?aou /aeiaa/aneie
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiinoe (ionthaea nei?aue), a a oi aea a?aiy aicieeaao eaeay
i?iaeieaeaiey aeecie ee/iinoe a /aeiaa/iinoe ( e ionthaea iioea
?aaeinoe).

Enoi/ieeii o?aae/aneiai yaeythony niaoeeoe/aneea iauanoaaiiua
i?ioeai?a/ey – eieeecee iaaeaeo iauanoaaiii iaiaoiaeeiui, iac?aaoei
o?aaiaaieai e a?aiaiiie i?aeoe/aneie iaaiciiaeiinoueth aai
inouanoaeaiey. Iaecaaaeiay iaaeinoaoi/iinoue ciaiey, iaaaaeanoai /anoi
noaiiayony enoi/ieeii aaee/aeoeo o?aaaaeee. O?aae/aneia – noa?a
iniuneaiey anaie?ii-enoi?e/aneeo i?ioeai?a/ee, iiene auoiaea aeey
/aeiaa/anoaa. A yoie eaoaai?ee io?aaeaaony ia i?inoi aucaaiiia /anouie
iaiieaaeeaie ian/anouey /aeiaaea, a aaaenoaey /aeiaa/anoaa, iaeea
ooiaeaiaioaeueiua ianiaa?oainoaa auoey, neacuaathueany ia noaeueaa
ee/iinoe.

Oaeei ia?acii, o?aaaaeey ?ane?uaaao : 1) aeaaeue eee oyaeeea
no?aaeaiey ee/iinoe; 2) iaainiieieiinoue aeey ethaeae aa oo?aou; 3)
aannia?oiua iauanoaaiii oeaiiua ia/aea, caeiaeaiiua a iaiiaoi?eiie
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiinoe, e aa i?iaeieaeaiee a aeecie /aeiaa/anoaa; 4) aunoea
i?iaeaiu auoey, iauanoaaiiue niune aeecie /aeiaaea; 5) aeoeaiinoue
o?aae/aneiai oa?aeoa?a ii ioiioaieth e ianoiyoaeuenoaai; 6) oeeinionee
iniuneaiiia ninoiyiea ie?a; 7) enoi?e/anee, a?aiaiii ia?ac?aoeiua
i?ioeai?a/ey; 8) o?aae/aneia, aiieiuaiiia a eneonnoaa, ieacuaaao
i/euathuaa aicaeaenoaea ia ethaeae.

Eiie/aneia.

*aeiaa/aneia iauanoai – enoeiiia oea?noai eiiaaeee, oae aea eae e
o?aaaaeee. *aeiaae – aaeeinoaaiiia nouanoai, eioi?ia iiaeao e niayoueny,
e aucuaaoue niao, eee, oi/iaa, /aeiaa/aneia, iauanoaaiiia niaea?aeaiea
anoue ai anao iauaeoao eiiaaeeeiiai niaoa.

Eiie/aneia anaaaea iauaeoeaiay iauanoaaiiay oeaiiinoue yaeaiey.
Iaeiaei ia ana niaoiia eiie/ii, oioy eiie/aneia anaaaea niaoii.

Eiie/aneay – i?ae?aniay noi?iia niaoiiai, ii?iaeaeathuay nioeeaeueii
cia/eiue, iaeooioai?aiiue ynoaoe/aneeie eaeaaeaie, naaoeue, aunieee
niao, io?eoeathuee iaeie /aeiaa/aneea ea/anoaa e iauanoaaiiua yaeaiey e
ooaa?aeaeathuee ae?oaea. A caaeneiinoe io ianoiyoaeuenoa yaeaiea iiaeao
auoue eee niaoii, eee eiie/ii.

Eiieci nioeeaeai iauaeoeaiie (iniaaiiinoe i?aaeiaoa) e naiae
noauaeoeaiie (oa?aeoa? aini?eyoey) noi?iiie.

Eiie/aneia eae i?ioeai?a/ea.

Nouiinoue eiie/aneiai – a i?ioeai?a/ee. Eiieci – ?acoeueoao
eiio?anoa, ?aceaaea, i?ioeainoiyiey : aacia?aciiai – i?ae?aniiio
(A?enoioaeue), ie/oiaeiiai- aicauoaiiiio (E. Eaio), iaeaiiai –
?annoaeeoaeueiiio (AEai Iieue, A. Oiiaiaaoy?), aaneiia/iie
i?aaeii?aaeaeaiiinoe – aaneiia/iiio i?iecaieo (A. Aa?anii), eiaeiiai,
iieii iniiaaoaeueiiai – cia/eoaeueiiio, i?i/iiio e enoeiiiio (Aaaaeue),
aioo?aiiae ionoiou – aiaoiinoe, i?eoycathuae ia cia/eiinoue (I.A.
*a?iuoaaneee), ieaean?aaeiaai – auoan?aaeiaio (I. Aa?oiai) e o.ae.
Eaaeaeia ec yoeo ii?aaeaeaiee, au?aaioaiiuo a enoi?ee ynoaoe/aneie
iunee, auyaeyao e aaniethoece?oao iaeei ec oeiia eiiaaeeeiiai
i?ioeai?a/ey. Iaeiaei oi?iu eiie/aneiai i?ioeai?a/ey ?aciiia?aciu. A iai
anaaaea i?enoonoaotho aeaa i?ioeaiiieiaeiuo ia/aea, ia?aia ec eioi?uo
eaaeaony iieiaeeoaeueiui e i?eaeaeaao e naaa aieiaiea, ii ia aeaea
iai?a/eaaaony io?eoeaoaeueiui naienoaii. E. Eaio aeaeae nouiinoiue
eiie/aneiai ai aiacaiiii ?ac?aoaiee iai?yaeaiiiai iaeeaeaiey a ie/oi.
O?aioeocneee oeeinio-i?inaaoeoaeue XVIII a. O. Iiioaneuea ienae :
“Eiaaea aacia?aciia aeey ian iaiaeeaeaiii, iii iiaeao aucaaoue naiaai
?iaea aanaeuea e aeaaea niao”.

Aeey i?ioeai?a/ee, ii?iaeaeathueo eiie/aneia, oa?aeoa?ii oi, /oi
ia?aay ii a?aiaie aini?eyoey noi?iia i?ioeai?a/ey auaeyaeeo
cia/eoaeueiie e i?iecaiaeeo ia ian aieueoaa aia/aoeaiea, aoi?ay aea
noi?iia, eioi?oth iu aini?eieiaai ii a?aiaie iicaea, ?aci/a?iauaaao
naiae ianinoiyoaeueiinoueth.

Iiiaiia?acea ynoaoe/aneeo naienoa.

Aacia?aciia.

A enoi?ee ynoaoeee aioeiiae i?ae?aniiai – aacia?aciia ia eiaao
aeoaieie oai?aoe/aneie o?aaeeoeee. Aua ae?aaiea aaeioyia, iinoeaay
aeeaeaeoeeo i?ae?aniiai e aacia?aciiai, ioia/aee, /oi a i?ioeanna
noa?aiey ana caei?iaia e e?aneaia noaiiaeony aieueiui e aacia?aciui,
“oi?ioaa i?aa?auaaony a aeo?iia, aeon oa?yaony”. Ia?aoeiinoue e
acaeiiia?aoiae i?ae?aniiai e aacia?aciiai ?ane?uaathony a
ae?aaaaaeiaoneii ieoa ia Eneaea.

Aii?in i aacia?aciii a eneonnoaa aia?aua oai?aoe/anee iinoaaee
A?enoioaeue. I?iecaaaeaiea anaaaea eiaao i?ae?anioth oi?io, a i?aaeiao
aea eneonnoaa aoiaeeo ia oieueei i?ae?aniia, ii e aacia?aciia. Aeaaea
yaeaiey ioa?aoeoaeueiu a aeecie, aoaeo/e ecia?aaeaiu a ooaeiaeanoaaiiii
i?iecaaaeaiee, aeinoaaeytho ynoaoe/aneia oaeiaieuenoaea. A iniiaa yoiai
oaeiaieuenoaey eaaeeo ?aaeinoue ociaaaiey aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, eioi?oth
ianoa?nee ia?aaeae a i?iecaaaeaiee ooaeiaeiee.

Ii O. Aiaeea?o, aacia?aciia eeoei – yoi eeoei aeenaa?iiie/iia,
iaoieiae/aneia, iaiaeooioai?aiiia, eeoaiiia naaoa, aioo?aiiaai
aiaaonoaa.

Oaeei ia?acii, aacia?aciia – ynoaoe/aneia naienoai i?aaeiaoia,
anoanoaaiiua, i?e?iaeiua aeaiiua eioi?uo i?e nia?aiaiiii o?iaia ?acaeoey
iauanoaa e aai i?iecaiaenoaa eiatho io?eoeaoaeueiia iaua/aeiaa/aneia
cia/aiea, oioy e ia i?aaenoaaeytho na?ueaciie oa?icu /aeiaa/anoao, o.e.
caeeth/aiiua a yoeo i?aaeiaoao neeu inaiaiu /aeiaaeii e iiae/eiaiu aio.

Ieciaiiia.

Ieciaiiia i?ioeaiiieiaeii aicauoaiiiio. Niaeanii i?aaenoaaeaieth
ae?aaieo aaeioyi, iieeaeay ie?, nieioea iiaa?aaao caieth e ethaeae ai
i?ae, oaean nia?oe ioaaouaaao anao.

?anniao?eaay ynoaoe/aneea naienoaa aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, eioi?ui
iiae?aaeaao eneonnoai, A?enoioaeue aia?aua a enoi?ee ynoaoe/aneie iunee
aiai?eo i ieciaiiii.

Ieciaiiia – e?aeiyy noaiaiue aacia?aciiai, /?acau/aeii iaaaoeaiay
oeaiiinoue. Yoi yaeaiey eee i?aaeiaou, eiathuea io?eoeaoaeueioth
iaua/aeiaa/aneoth cia/eiinoue e oayuea a naaa oa?ico aeey /aeiaa/anoaa,
o.e. iie aua ia inaiaiu, ia iiae/eiaiu ethaeyi e iiaoo i?aaenoaaeoue
aeey ieo a?icioth iianiinoue. Anee /aeiaa/anoai ia aeaaeaao nianoaaiiuie
iauanoaaiiuie ioiioaieyie, oi yoi iiaeao noaoue enoi/ieeii aieueoeo
aaaenoaee. E ana yaeaiey, ioiinyueany e yoie a?iciie iianiinoe,
aini?eieiathony eae ieciaiiia (oaoeci, aoiiiay aieia e o.i.).

Oaeaniia.

Oaeaniia – aeeceay e o?aae/aneiio, ii aeoaiei aio i?ioeaiiieiaeiay
eaoaai?ey. Anee o?aae/aneia anaaaea eiaao naia ?ac?aoaiea a aoaeouai, oi
oaeaniia aacunoiaeii, aaciaaeaaeii. Yoi aeaaeue, ia ianouay a naaa
ie/aai i?inaaoeythuaai, ia noeyuay ethaeyi a?yaeouaa inaiaiaeaeaiea io
ian/anoey, aaaenoaey, ia eiio?iee?oaiia ethaeueie, iaiiaeaeanoiia ei,
ainiiaenoaothuaa iaae ieie. A o?aae/aneii ian/anouea aaee/anoaaiii, iii
ana aea aicauoaao /aeiaaea, o.e. iineaaeiee inoaaony ainiiaeeiii
ianoiyoaeuenoa e, aeaaea iiaeaay, ooaa?aeaeaao naith aeanoue iaae ie?ii.
A oaeaniii, iai?ioea, /aeiaae – ?aa ianoiyoaeuenoa, ii ia aeaaeaao
ie?ii.

Oaeaniia – ynoaoe/aneay aeiieiaioa n?aaeiaaaeiaiai ?aeeaeiciiai
niciaiey, ioaaaoaai a?aoieeia aaeiauie ioeaie e a?yaeouei no?aoiui
noaeii.

Eaoaai?ey oaeaniiai ioaaouaaao oa yaeaiey aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, eioi?ua
/aeiaae naiaiaeii ia aeaaeaao e eioi?ua ianoo aio ian/anouey e aeaaeue,
ia?ac?aoeiua aeaaea ia enoi?e/aneii o?iaia (ionthaea ianneienoe/aneia
ie?iiuouaiea).

Aacia?aciia, ieciaiiia, oaeaniia – iaaaoeaiua oeaiiinoe,
io?eoeaoaeueiua naienoaa ie?a, caia/aoeaaaaiua eneonnoaii e
io?aaeathueany a ynoaoeea. Yoe eaoaai?ee aioee a nenoaio nia?aiaiiie
ynoaoe/aneie iaoee. Aac ieo iaeuecy iiiyoue, iai?eia?, i?iecaaaeaiey
ecia?aaeathuea oaeanu oaoecia.

Eeoa?aoo?a:

Aia?ia A.A. Aaaaeaiea a oeeinioeth : O/aaiia iiniaea. – Iiaineae?ne :
Ecaeaoaeuenoai IAO, 1998.

Ai?aa TH.A. Ynoaoeea. 4-a ecaeaiea. I: Iieeoecaeao, 1988.

Auaeeaioeaa A.I. Nioeeaeueii-iieeoe/aneee aeo?iae//Aeneieiaey
:noaiiaeaiea e iniiaiua yoaiu ?acaeoey. 1995 a. ?6 e 1996 a. ?1.

E?iiioeei I.A. Yoeea. I.: Iieeoecaeao,1991.

Niaea?aeaiea.

1. Aaaaeaiea……..……………………………………………………………..2

2. Aeneieiae/aneee yoai a enoi?ee oeeinioneiai ciaiey………..…13

3. Eaoaai?ee ynoaoe/aneiai inaiaiey ie?a

Ynoaoe/aneia e Iieaciia………..………….……………….19

Ynoaoe/aneia eae oeaiiinoue…….………………………….…19

I?ae?aniia…….…………………………………………….…20

Ia?aaeeaiu oai?aoe/aneiai iinoeaeaiey
e?aniou……23

Aicauoaiiia…….………………………………………………24

O?aae/aneia………………………………………………………26

Eiie/aneia……………………………………………………….28

Eiie/aneia eae i?ioeai?a/ea…………………………..28

Iiiaiia?acea ynoaoe/aneeo naienoa

Aacia?aciia………………………………………………..29

Ieciaiiia………………………………………………….30

Oaeaniia……………………………………………………..30

4. Eeoa?aoo?a………………………………………………………………..31

PAGE

PAGE 32

PAGE \# “‘Page: ‘#’

Нашли опечатку? Выделите и нажмите CTRL+Enter

Похожие документы
Обсуждение

Оставить комментарий

avatar
  Подписаться  
Уведомление о
Заказать реферат!
UkrReferat.com. Всі права захищені. 2000-2020