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Niune /aeiaaea

?aoa?ao ii
oeeinioee

*a?aiiaaoe 1998a

Iaeaaeaiea

N.N.

Aaaaeaiea. Iinoaiiaea i?iaeaiu niunea aeecie.
2

1. Niune aeecie a ioa/anoaaiiie oeeinioee
3

2. ?aoaiea i?iaeaiu niunea aeecie a oeeinioee e nioeeieiaee Caiaaea
18

Caeeth/aiea. 26

Aeaeeia?aoe/aneee nienie eeoa?aoo?u. 29

Aaaaeaiea.

Eiaaea aaoi? ?aoa?aoa iiciaeiieeny n oie iaeaiueeie oieeeie oeeinioneie
eeoa?aoo?u ii oeacaiiie oaia, ii iiiye, /oi iieiaeiio /aeiaaeo,
iaaeoiuaathuaio aeeciue e iiaeaeaaoaio ociaoue niune a? n naiiai ia/aea,
iao ae?oaiai iooe, eae oieueei ia?aoeony e oai, eoi a? oaea i?iaeee,
eiia/ii ioae?i, a au? eo/oa e eaoiiene /aeiaa/aneie ioae?inoe,
i?iaa?aiiie ia iiuoa ia oieueei iaeiiai /aeiaaea , ii e anaai
/aeiaa/anoaa. Iao iaaeaaeaeu aeey niaoaueo iieo/eoue aioiaue ioaao ia
yoio aii?in a ia/aea aeecie, /aeiaa/aneay ioae?inoue ionueaao eo e naiie
aeecie nia/aea aeeoue, iioii oeeinionoaiaaoue. Aanue iao o?aae/aneee
iiuo iieacuaaao, /oi iieo/aaony, eiaaea ec iaeeey ioae?inoe auae?atho
iaeee i?eieoea e i?aaeii/eoatho aai anaio inoaeueiiio. Oae eoi aea
an?-oaee ioaaoeo ia oaeea aii?inu: *oi anoue /aeiaae? A /?i
niaea?aeaiea, oeaiiinoue e niune /aeiaa/aneie aeecie? Eae aeeoue eo/oae
aeeciueth e eae i?iaeeoue aeeciue? Eaeiai niioiioaiea a /aeiaaea
?annoaei/iiai e ienoe/aneiai, ?aoeeiiaeueiiai e o?ainoeaiaeaioiiai,
oiic?aiey e ioe?iaaiey? *oi anoue aeeciue aeooa? Aeoiaaony, /oi yoe e
ae?oaea aii?inu ia eiatho iaeiicia/iuo eee i?aaeeueiuo ioaaoia e iiyoiio
o?aaotho iiauo ?aoaiee io eaaeaeiai iieieaiey. Eaaeaeay eoeueoo?a,
eaaeaeia iauanoai, iuneeoaeue eiatho naie aa?nee ioaaoia.

Oeeinioneay aio?iiieiaey ia iaoiaeeo aii?in i niunea e oeaee aeecie.
?aciua oeeinioneea o/aiey ioaa/atho ia iaai ii-?aciiio. I?aaenoaaeoaee
iaoa?eaeecia ia?auathony e ?anniio?aieth iauaeoeaiie aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe
e ?aaeueiie aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe ethaeae. I?aaenoaaeoaee
eaeaaeenoe/aneeo iai?aaeaiee ono?aieytho naie acaeyae e Aiao, e ?acoio,
aeooo, eaeayi e o. ae. Aii?in i aeecie, a? niunea e oeaee inoa?ony
ioe?uoui e iao ieeaeeo iniiaaiee n/eoaoue, /oi ii iiaeao auoue
ieii/aoaeueii ?ao?i a iaic?eiii aoaeouai.

Nouiinoue /aeiaaea iaia?aiea, i?iaeoeey, ono?aie?iiinoue a a?yaeouaa.
ssae?i yecenoaioeeaeueiinoe a oii, /oi an? aeaaiia aeey naay eaaeaeue
/oanoaoao e ?aoaao nai, eai enoiaeiui ioieoii aeieaeia auoue
noauaeoeaiinoue ioaeaeueiiai /aeiaaea. Aei oiai, eae Au ia/aee aeeoue,
aeeciue ia i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ie/aai. Eiaiii Au i?eaea?oa ae
ii?aaeae?iiue niune. Ia?ae/ia e iaiin?aaenoaaiia eiaeeaeaeoaeueiay
aeeciue. *aeiaa/aneay i?e?iaea aaneiia/ia, iao aieueoae iianiinoe,
i?aaeienuaaoue ae oo eee eioth i?eaioaoeeth, oio eee eiie niune, oo eee
eioth oeaeue. Eaaeaeue ec ian eeai ia?a/?i ia naith naiaiaeo, eeai aioia
noaoue ?aaii.

Aaoi?o ?aoa?aoa aaconeiaii, aei?iae iunee i niunea e oeaee aeecie naieo
niioa/anoaaiieeia, o. a. any iaoa ?inneeneay eoeueoo?a. ?acaa ia aa?oo
ca aeooo oaeea neiaa ?aaeeuaaa: ss acaeyioe ie?ano iaiy aeooa iiy
no?aaeaieyie /aeiaa/anoaa oycaeaia noaea. A aaee/aeoee ec ?onneeo
iiyoia? y aeeoue oi/o, /oia iuneeoue e no?aaeaoue.

Aea? iai?aniue, aea? neo/aeiue,

AEeciue, ca/ai ou iai aeaia?

Eeue, ca/ai noaeueaith oaeiie

Ou ia eaciue inoaeaeaia?

A ?acaa Aa?oeai ia iuneeo yecenoaioeeaeueii, aineeeoeay: Oeaeue aeecie
aeeciue!?. Anee aeoaiei aniio?aoueny a aeeciue, eiia/ii, aunoaa aeaai
anoue naii nouanoaiaaiea. Iao ie/aai aeoiaa, eae i?aiaa?a/ue ianoiyuei a
iieueco a?yaeouaai. Ianoiyuaa anoue ?aaeueiay noa?a auoey. Eaaeaeoth
ieiooo, eaaeaeia ianeaaeaeaiea aeieaeii eiaeoue, aeooa iai?a?uaii
aeieaeia auoue ?ane?uoa, iaiieiyoueny, ananuaaoue an? ie?oaeathuaa e
?aceeaaoue a iaai nai?.

1. Niune aeecie a ioa/anoaaiiie oeeinioee.

Niune aeecie a oeeinionei- Iniaaiii iiiai aieiaiey
aii?ino

-ooaeiaeanoaaiiie eeoa?aoo?a niunea aeecie oaeaeyaony a
oeeinioee yece

O.I. Aeinoiaaneiai noaioeeaeueiiai iai?aaeaiey. N
ia?iiiie neeie e anae naiae i?ioeai?a/eainoe ii aue iinoaaeai a ?onneie
oeeinioee Aeinoiaaneei, caino?eaoei aai aei eiae/aneiai naiioaeenoaa.
Aeinoiaaneee O?aei? Ieoaeeiae/ (1821 1881) ieacaeny a /enea i?ioeaieeia
?aaiethoeee e eaeae nioeeaeecia a 1861 1862 aa., e?eoeeoy eo ca
io?eoeaiea naiaiaeu, ca ieaaee?iaeo ee/iinoe. A 1864 a. Ii iioaeeeiaae
iiaanoue “Caienee ec iiaeiieuey”, a ca?ii oeeinioneie eaeae, iieiaeaiiia
a iniiao iiaanoe, auei eceiaeaii ienaoaeai au? a “Ceiieo caiaoeao i
eaoieo aia/aoeaieyo”, aaea i?iaiaeeeanue iuneue i oii, /oi /aeiaa/aneoth
aeeciue iaeuecy no?ieoue ia ?acoiiii iniiaaiee. A “Caieneao ec
iiaeiieuey” Aeinoiaaneee ?acaa?ioe yoio oacen a oeaeoth oeeinioneoth
eiioeaioeeth, niaeanii eioi?ie nioeeaeueiia ia?aono?ienoai e iaiiaeaiea
aeecie iaaiciiaeii, ia/ou i aoaeouai niaa?oaiiii iauanoaa
aania?niaeoeaiu, iineieueeo iie i?iaeeeoiaaiu ?acoiii. A ?acoi
/aeiaa/aneee i?ioeai?a/ea e iaiai/ea, e iiyoiio ia aai iniiaa ie/aai
iaeuecy iino?ieoue. Ienaoaeue iiiuoaeny aeieacaoue, /oi iaoo?a
/aeiaa/aneay iaiinoiyiia, naiaaieueia e eai?ecia. Iiaeiieueiue /aeiaae
n/eoaao, /oi /aeiaa/anoai iiaeao iino?ieoue ni?aaaaeeeaia
eiiioienoe/aneia iauanoai, ii a eiioea eiioeia, aio noaiao neo/ia
?aoeeiiaeenoe/aneay aa?iiiey o?onoaeueiiai aeai?oea, e iii,
iiaeaeaaoenue ieiooiiio eai?eco, a iaeei iiiaio ?ac?ooeo aai. Ii
iai?aaeaiiinoe oai?/anoaa e ii oeeinioe/iinoe ooaeiaeanoaaiiiai iuoeaiey
Aeinoiaaneiai iiaeii iinoaaeoue a ?yae, iiaeaeoe, oieueei n Oienoui. Iaa
iie auee iaeiia?aiaiii e ooaeiaeieeaie e iuneeoaeyie e iaa ieacaee
aeoaieia aeeyiea ia ?onneoth oeeinioeth. Aeinoiaaneee iiaeaa?a
niaoeeoe/aneiio aiaeeco oeaeue eiiieaen aii?inia ee/iie e iauanoaaiiie
aeecie /aeiaaea e a? niunea. Ii einioeny i?iaeaiu iaoeeiiaeueiinoe,
nioeeaeecia, i?aanoaaiiinoe, ?aeeaee. Ii ii i?aeiouanoao yoi aue
ienaoaeue ineoieia, aeaaiue eioa?an eioi?iai nin?aaeioa/eaaeny ia
/aeiaaea, ia aai i?e?iaeiie e nioeeaeueiie iaoneiaeaiiinoe, ia iioeaao
iiaaaeaiey a neiaeiuo ae?aiaoe/aneeo neooaoeeyo; ii i?iiee a naiua
aeoaeiiua oaeieee aeooiaiiai ie?a ethaeae, aeeth/ay e aieaciaiiua
i?iyaeaiey ineoeee.

Aii?in i niunea aeecie aeey Aeinoiaaneiai i?aa?auaaony a aii?in i Aiaa.
Oae a “Aanao” eiaeaia? Ee?eeia /oanoaoao, /oi Aia iaiaoiaeei aeey
ooaa?aeaeaiey aeecie, a iioiio e aeieaeai auoue. Ii aianoa n oai ii
ciaao, /oi aai iao, e auoue ia iiaeao. A nayce n yoei ii aineeeoeaao:
Iaoaeaee ou ia iiieiaaoue, /oi ec-ca yoiai iaeiiai iiaeii auno?aeeoue a
naay ?

A ioiioaiea Aeinoiaaneiai e iaoea, ?acoio ? Aeaaea ia?enenoai i?eoeinue
i?eciaoue, /oi e?aniie ieoueth, i?ioiaeyuae /a?ac an? oai?/anoai
Aeinoiaaneiai, yaeeanue iuneue i oii, /oi iaoea, ?acoi icia/atho
oii?iiia, ii?eoeathuaa ii?aeue noyaeaoaeuenoai. Aio neiaa Cineiu ec
“a?aoueaa Ea?aiaciauo”: O ieo iaoea. Ie? aea aeooiaiue, aunoay iieiaeia
nouanoaa /aeiaa/aneiai ioaa?aiooa aiana, ecaiaia n iaeei oi?aeanoaii,
aeaaea n iaiaaenoueth. I?iaicaeanee ie? naiaiaeo, a iineaaeiaa a?aiy
iniaaiii, e /oi iu aeaeei a naiaiaea eoiae: iaeii eeoue ?aanoai e
naiioaeenoai.

Ie neoaeaiea iaiiiia, ie i?ia?ann iaoee e oaoieee, ie i?inaauaiea, ie
naiaiaea ia aeaeatho /aeiaaea n/anoeeaui, an? yoi noyaeaoaeuenoai e
ineoaeaiea aeooiaiie aeecie /aeiaaea. Ii yoiio iiaiaeo oioaeinue au
ia?aoeony e ienueio Aeaeiia Noaeiaaea, aia?eeaineiai ienaoaey,
aeaoe?iaaiiiio io 5 iiya?y 1959 a. Yaeeath Noeaainiio. IuethEi?e
(i?eia/aiea: Yaeeae Noeaainii (1900 1965aa.) aia?eeaineee
iieeoe/aneee aeayoaeue, aeeieiiao, a 1952 e a 1956 aa. eaiaeeaeao
NOA io aeaiie?aoe/aneie ia?oee). Aio /oi ieoao ienaoaeue ia
Aia?eea: … i?anuoeaoenue oeaiiinoyie iaoa?eaeueiuie, iu aaniieieii
?uuai a iieneao aeooiaiuo. No?aiiua iu nouanoaa. Iu iiaeai i?aiaeieaoue
ethaua eniuoaiey, iinueaaiua iai Aiaii e i?e?iaeie, e?iia aeinoaoea.
Anee au iia i?eoei a aieiao iiaoaeoue iaoeeth, y aeae au ae neeoeii
iiiai anaai, e anei?a iia iiecaea au ia eieaiyo aeaeeay, ae/iay e
ineoe/anee iaiieiioeaiiay.

Aac aa?u a Aiaa ia iiaeao auoue niunea a aeecie, eae e n/anouey. ss
aeeoy aaea, aeeoy iaaa?ey e niiiaiey aei neo ii? e aeaaea (y ciath yoi)
aei a?iaiaie e?uoee. Eaeeo no?aoiuo io/aiee noieea, e noieo iia oaia?ue
yoa aeaaeaea aa?eoue, eioi?ay oai neeueiaa a aeooa iiae, /ai aieaa ai
iia aeiaiaeia i?ioeaiuo. E, iaeiaei aea, Aia iinueaao iia eiiaaea
ieioou, a eioi?ua y niaa?oaiii niieiai; a yoe ieioou y ethaeth e
iaoiaeo, /oi ae?oaeie ethaei, e a oaeea ieioou y neiaeee a naaa neiaie
aa?u, a eioi?ie an? aeey iaiy ynii e nayoi. Yoio neiaie i/aiue i?ino,
aio ii: aa?eoue, /oi iao ie/aai i?ae?aniaa, aeoaaea, neiiaoe/iaa,
?acoiiaa, ioaeanoaaiiaa e niaa?oaiiaa O?enoa e ia oieueei iao, ii n
?aaieaith ethaiaueth aiai?th naaa, /oi e ia iiaeao auoue. (Ienueii
Aeinoiaaneiai e I. Ae. Oiiaeceiie ec Iinea, 1854 a.)

Aeey ?aeeaeiciiai yecenoaioeeaeecia yoio aii?in i niunea aeecie ?aoaaony
ynoaoieiae/anee, o. a. aeeciue i?iaeieaeaaony e iioonoi?iiiai ie?a, aaea
i?ienoiaeeo naiaiaeiia oai?/anoai aeooe, ia ia?aiai?iiie oaeii, e aaea
iia ?aaeecoaony a oea?noaa Aiaeeai. Oaeei ia?acii, i?aiaeieaaaaony
o?aaeci caiiiai /aeiaa/aneiai nouanoaiaaiey, au?aaeathueeny a
i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoe e iai?eie?eiinoe auioaeaeaiiiai aaeeinoaa aeooe e
oaea.

Eeoa?aoo?a:

1. O.I. Aeinoiaaneee; Iiei. nia?. ni/. A 30 o.; O. 22 E., 1981 (Ienueii
e I.Ae. Oiiaeceiie ec Iinea yia.-oaa?. 1854a.)

2. A.A. Aaeaeoeiiia, I.O. Ieeaiae?ia; ?onneay oeeinioey 9-19 aa. E.,
1989, n.433-450

3. A.A. Caiueeianeee; Enoi?ey ?onneie oeeinioee, O. 1, /. 2, Eaieia?aae
Yai, 1991, n.220-224

4. Aeaeeioaea Iaii?e ? 52, 1985, Iiniio?ei i?aaaea a aeaca. Ienueia
Aeaeiia Noaeiaaea, I. ecaeao. I?aaaea, n. 45

Niune aeecie a oeeinionei-ooaeiaeanoaaiiie eeoa?aoo?a E.I.
Oienoiai.

Iiaeao auoue, aieueoa anaai iaae aii?inii i niunea aeecie ?aciuoeye e
io/eeny E. I. Oienoie (1828 1910 aa.). A ?acoeueoaoa ii i?eo?e e
auaiaeo, /oi niune aeecie e oeaeue caeeth/aaony a naiiniaa?oainoaiaaiee
ee/iinoe. Aianoa n oai aeey iaai auei ynii, /oi niune aeecie ioaeaeueiie
ee/iinoe iaeuecy eneaoue ioaeaeii io ae?oaeo ethaeae. Iaeiaei an? yoi
au? ia aiai?eo i oii, /oi Oienoie, a eiioea eiioeia, ?ac?aoee yoo
i?iaeaio. Ii aiai?ee, /oiau aeeoue /anoii, iaaei ?aaoueny, iooaoueny,
aeoueny, ioeaaoueny, ia/eiaoue e a?inaoue, e iiyoue ia/eiaoue e iiyoue
a?inaoue, e aa/ii ai?ioueny e eeoaoueny, a niieienoaea aeooaaiay
iiaeeinoue, io yoiaioi aeo?iay noi?iia iaoae aeooe e aeaeaao
niieienoaey, ia i?aae/oanoaoy, /oi aeinoeaeaiea nii?yaeaii n iioa?ae
anaai, /oi anoue a ian i?ae?aniiai, ia /aeiaa/aneiai, a ioooaea.

?aeeaeiciioeeinioneea ni/eiaiey Oienoiai iiiai/eneaiiu, iu aea aoaeai
eanaoueny, aeaaiui ia?acii, “Eniiaaaee”, o?aeoaoa “I aeecie” e aai ?aaio
“A /?i iiy aa?a”, “Oea?noai Aiaeea aioo?e ian” e, eiia/ii, aai
aeiaaieeia. Ii iiaieth Caiueeianeiai, Oienoie ia/ae oeeinionoaiaaoue
i/aiue ?aii, ii ia iieo/ee ieeaeiai nenoaiaoe/aneiai ia?aciaaiey a
oeeinioee. Oienoie /eoae anaaaea i/aiue iiiai, aeaaeii aieouaae a naay
?acee/iua aeooiaiua aeeyiey aai a?aiaie. N?aaee ieo aue ?onni e iniaaiii
A. Oiiaiaaoy?, ia?aae eioi?ui ii eniuouaae iaia?anoathuee ainoi?a.

Oienoie ynii iiieiae, /oi i?aaeaea /ai ?aoeoue aii?in i niunea aeecie,
/aeiaae aeieaeai iniciaoue, /oi oaeia aeeciue aiiaua. Ii ia?aae?aao ana
ecaanoiua oiaaea a anoanoaaiiuo iaoeao ii?aaeaeaiey aeecie, ii auoei
oae, /oi iie ia ii?aaeaeytho naio aeeciue, a naiaeyo iiiaiia?acea
/aeiaaea e aeieiae/aneiio nouanoaiaaieth. A iaaeaeo oai, oeacuaaao
Oienoie, aeeciue /aeiaaea iaaiciiaeia aac iauanoaaiiuo e i?aanoaaiiuo
iiaoaeaeaiee, e iioiio anai ii?aaeaeaieyi aeecie ii i?ioeaiiinoaaeyao
nai?: AEeciue anoue no?aieaiea e aeaao, nii?iaiaeaeathuaany /oanoaii
oaeiaieuenoaey eee no?aaeaiey. Oaeei ia?acii, aic?aaeay i?ioea
iaoo?aeenoe/aneiai enoieeiaaiey nouiinoe /aeiaa/aneie aeecie, ii?aeeno
Oienoie ia?aiineo a? a /enoi i?aanoaaiioth noa?o.

*aeiaae, eae nouanoai ?acoiiia, euao ?acoiiiai iauyniaiey yaeaiee
aeecie, e /ai aieueoa ii aeea?o, oai /aua a aai niciaiee aicieeaao
aii?in: ca/ai aeeoue, ca/ai aeaeaoue, ca/ai aeaeaoue ? Iia, ieoao
Oienoie a “Eniiaaaee”, ioaeii ciaoue niune naiae aeecie, a oi, /oi iia
anoue /anoeoea aaneiia/iiai, ia oieueei ia i?eaea?o ae niunea, ii
oie/oiaeaao anyeee aiciiaeiue niune. Oeeinioey, anee iia inoa?ony naia
niaie e ia auoiaeeo ca i?aaeaeu naieo aiciiaeiinoae, niiniaia eeoue ynii
iinoaaeoue aii?inu /oi? e ii/aio?, ii ia aii?in ca/ai? aeieaeia /anoii
ioaaoeoue: ia ciath. Noieue aea ia ooaoeoaeueiu ?acoeueoaou
nioeeieiae/aneie iaoee a ?aoaiee i?iaeaiu niunea aeecie. ?anniao?eaay
eaaeaeiai /aeiaaea eae /anoue /aeiaa/anoaa, nioeeieiae ooaa?aeaeatho,
/oi i?ecaaiea ethaeae ninoieo a niaeaenoaee inouanoaeaieth iauanoaaiiuo
eaeaaeia. Ii, ai-ia?auo, aic?aaeaao Oienoie, ioaeaeueiue eiaeeaeae ia
iiaeao ioaaoeoue anaai /aeiaa/anoaa, eioi?ia e oiio aea ninoieo ec oaeeo
aea ethaeae, ia iiieiathueo naieo naay; a, aiaoi?uo, /oi neaaeoao
iiieiaoue iiae eaeaaeaie /aeiaa/anoaa, oai aieaa ecaanoii, /oi iaaeaeo
ethaeueie ieeiaaea ia auei niaeaney i eo/oae aeecie. Ii iiaieth
Oienoiai, iaeuecy ii?aaeaeyoue niune aeecie, eaey io eaeaaea, iioiio /oi
nai eaeaae aicieeaao aneaaenoaea oiai eee eiiai naiaai aeeciaiiiai
i?ecaaiey.

I?eciaa, /oi ciaiea aaniiiiuii, Oienoie ia?auaaony e aeeoaeneie i?aeoeea
e iaoiaeeo a iae /aou?a ?ani?ino?ai?iiuo iiieiaiey niunea aeecie, a
eioi?uo ethaee euoo auoiae ec aeeciaiiuo neooaoeee. Ia?aue auoiae
iaaaaeaiea. Aoi?ie yieeo?aenoai. O?aoee auoiae neeu e yia?aee. Ii
aeinooiai oieueei oai, eoi niiniaai anoaoue ia iooue ai?ueau. Iaeiiaoe,
/aoa??oue auoiae neaainoe ecae?atho ethaee, i?eie?eaoeany n iaiaiii, a
eioi?ii aeeaoo. Ana yoe iiceoeee Oienoie n/eoaao eeethci?iuie, ia
niaea?aeaueie a naaa oaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiiai ?aoaiey aii?ina, o. e. iie
auaaaeaiu ?annoaei/ii. Ii iiieii ?acoia, eioi?ue ioaaouaaao ioiioaiey
iaaeaeo “y” e “iay”, /aeiaae iaeaaeaao iaeei aioo?aiiei, iaae?acoiiui
niciaieai aeecie, eioi?ia ei??aeoe?oao ?aaioo ?acoia. Iiaoi yoa
aeeciaiiay neea, caeeth/aaony a i?inoii ia?iaea, iiieiaiea niunea aeecie
eioi?ui ia aeaoi?ie?iaaii ie aeeyieai eiaeiiai ciaiey, ie oea?eiaiui
aiaineiaeai. Ia?acoiiia ciaiea ia?iaea anoue aa?a. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, a
ia?iaea e iaaei eneaoue niune aeecie.

Aa?ie ?iiaia “Aiia Ea?aieia” Eaaei (o. a. nai Oienoie) ia?a/eoae an?,
/oi eanaaony niunea aeecie, ii ia iao?e ioaaoa. A aio a neiaao
e?anoueyieia O?aei?a: aeeoue aeey Aiaa, aeey aeooe, aeeoue ii i?aaaea,
ii Aiaeuee aio iaiaeeaeaiii ioe?ueny niune aeecie.

Ii aeeciue /aeiaaea eiia/ia ia?aae eeoeii aaneiia/iiai ie?a, a ?ac
eiia/ia, cia/eo aanniuneaiia. Eaeia cia/aiea eiaao eiaeeaeaeoaeueiay
aeeciue, acyoay naia ii naaa ? Aio yoa iiaay iinoaiiaea aii?ina i?eaaea
Oienoiai e cayaeaieth, /oi oieueei ?aeeaeiciay aa?a ?ane?uaaao ia?aae
/aeiaaeii niune aai aeecie, iai?aaeyao aai ia iooue niaa?oainoaiaaiey
naay e iauanoaa.

Oeaeue aeecie oieueei iaeia: no?aieoueny e oiio niaa?oainoao, eioi?ia
oeacae iai O?enoin, neacaa: Aoaeueoa niaa?oaiiu, eae Ioaoe aao iaaaniue.
Yoa aaeeinoaaiiay aeinooiiay /aeiaaeo oeaeue aeecie aeinoeaaaony ia
aneaoeciii, a au?aaioeith a naaa ethaiaiiai iauaiey ni anaie ethaeueie.
Ec no?aieaiey e yoie i?aaeeueii iiieiaaiie oeaee auoaeatho ana iieaciua
/aeiaa/aneea aeayoaeueiinoe e niioaaonoaaiii yoie oeaee ?aoathony ana
aii?inu.

Oioy eiia/iay oeaeue aeecie ie?a e ne?uoa io /aeiaaea, oai ia iaiaa, ii,
ciay aeaei Aiaa, iiieiaao, /oi a yoii ii i?ecaai o/anoaiaaoue
iin?aaenoaii oaaee/aiey ethaae eee, eae aiai?eo Oienoie, onoaiiaeaieai
oea?noaa Aiaeey aioo?e ian e aia ian. *aeiaae i?iieeaaony niciaieai, /oi
ii i?oaeea, eioi?ui ?aaioaao Aia, e /oi aai ee/iia aeaai ninoieo a
o/anoee a yoie ?aaioa.

I?aeoe/aneia n?aaenoai aeey inouanoaeaiey yoie oeaee Oienoie aeaeeo a
i?eioeeia iai?ioeaeaiea ceo ianeeeai. Aaaiaaeueneea caiiaaaee neaaeoao
auiieiyoue, o. e. ii iaoiaeeo a ieo niaa?oaiiaeoaa au?aaeaiea ii?aeueiuo
ii?i. Ii oeaio?aeueiui naycothuei iieiaeaieai yoiai eiaeaena, ii aai
iiaieth, yaeyaony i?eioeei iai?ioeaeaiey. Ethaee ioeai/ii aeoiaee, /oi
i?iaaaeaiea a aeeciue yoiai caeiia iiaeii aeinoeaiooue n iiiiuueth
ianeeey, eioi?ia ii?aaaeuaaeinue iaiaoiaeeiinoueth aiciacaeey ca
ianiaethaeaiea caeiia. Iiyoiio iaeie a?aee ia naay eniieiaiea yoiai
aiciacaeey e ia yoii ?aca?auaeenue, ae?oaea iiaeiiaaeenue e oiaea
?aca?auaeenue iiei?iinoueth ia?aae ianeeeai aeanoe. Oaeiio oaeaeaieth io
ii?i enoeiiie aeecie niaeaenoaiaaea e oea?eiaue, ii eae iaiiue ia oooeo
iaiy, oae cei ia iiaeao iioooeoue cea. Oieueei aeia?i, ano?a/ay cei e ia
ca?aaeaynue ei, iiaaaeaeaao cei. Inoaeaeay iaeeiaeiai ca ianeeea e
i?aaeoaeuenoai, e ?aaiethoeeiia?ia, Oienoie aea?o neaaeothuea
?aeiiaiaeaoeee i?aeoe/aneie yoeee:

– ia?anoaoue naiiio aeaeaoue i?yiia ianeeea, a oae aea e aioiaeoueny
e iaio;

– ia i?eieiaoue o/anoey, a eaeii au oi ia auei ianeeee, aeaeaaiii
ae?oaeie ethaeueie;

– ia iaeia?youe ieeaeiai ianeeey.

Eoae, Oienoie ia niia iainiiaaoue oai?aoe/aneee niune aeecie, aeaeeii,
iaeuecy. Iiieii yoiai, ?aoaiey aii?ina i niunea aeecie i?aaeiieaaaao e
inouanoaeaiea nie?aoianeiai eiia?aoeaa iiciae naiiai naay, a yoi oaeaea
ioe?uaaao aii?in. Aeaoue aaniethoiue ioaao ia iaai, cia/eo en/a?iaoue
naio aeeciue, eioi?ay aani?aaeaeueia a nai?i nouanoaiaaiee e ia
en/a?iuaaaony ?aoeeiiaeueiui iauyniaieai. E?iia oiai, eae ooo ia
aniiiieoue neiaa Ieoeoa: iiciaaoee naiiai naay nianoaaiiue iaea/. Io e,
iaeiiaoe, aeey oiai /oiau iiciaoue niune aeecie, ioaaoeoue ia aii?in
aeey /aai iu aeea?i ?, iaiaoiaeeii, aeaeeii, iiciaoue e niune nia?oe e
ioaaoeoue ia aii?in aeey /aai iu oie?aai ? A yoio aii?in, eae iai
eaaeaony, eeo?i niunea.

Eeoa?aoo?a:

1. A.A. Caiueeianeee; Enoi?ey ?onneie oeeinioee, O. 1, /. 2, Eaieia?aae
Yai, 1991, n.195-208

2. A.A. Aaeaeoeiiia, I.O. Ieeaiae?ia; ?onneay oeeinioey 9-19 aa. E.,
1989, n.563-569

3. E.I. Oienoie, Iiei. nia?. ni/. A 90 o., Iineaa, 1934a.

4. E.I. Oienoie, Nia?. ni/. A 22 o., Iineaa, 1985a.

Niune aeecie a oeeinioneeo ?aaioao I.E. Iiaai?iaeoeaaa.

Iaaae Eaaiiae/ Iiaai?iaeoeaa (1863 1924 aa.), yiea?aio n 1917 a.,
noae ai aeaaa ?onneiai th?eaee/aneiai oaeoeueoaoa i?e I?aaeneii
oieaa?neoaoa. Aai eieaa “Ia iauanoaaiiii eaeaaea” eiaao
iaiin?aaenoaaiiia ioiioaiea e aii?ino i niunea aeecie. Iiaai?iaeoeaa
ienae a caeeth/eoaeueiie aeaaa eieae, /oi /aeiaae aeaaeaeao aaniethoiiai
e a ie?a ioiineoaeueiuo oi?i ii ia iaoiaeeo oaeiaeaoai?aiey e ii o?aaoao
noiyiey ia?aae eeoeii Aaniethoiiai. Any oaia eieae “Ia iauanoaaiiii
eaeaaea” a nouiinoe naycaia aeey Iiaai?iaeoeaaa n i?iaeaiie Aaniethoiiai
acyoie ia a aano?aeoiie oi?ia, a a nioeeaeueiii iuoeaiee. Oeeinio
iieacuaaao ?aceiaeaiea ooiiee caiiiai ?ay, eae iacaeiiiie
aaniethoecaoeee ioiineoaeueiuo oi?i nioeeaeueiie aeecie. Iiaai?iaeoeaa
ienae, /oi a ioiioaiee e ie?o oneiaiie aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe aaniethoiue
eaeaae anaaaea inoa?ony o?aaiaaieai, ii yoi o?aaiaaiea ieeiaaea ia
iiaeao auoue inouanoaeaii iieiinoueth e iioiio aai inouanoaeaiea iiaeao
auoue au?aaeaii oieueei oi?ioeie aaneiia/iiai ?acaeoey. Iaaiciiaeii
niaoaoue eee ioiaeaeanoaeoue aeaa noieue ?acee/iua eaoaai?ee eae
aaniethoiia e ioiineoaeueiia. Eo iiaeii ?acaeaeiooue, ii ia ioi?aaoue
iaeii io ae?oaiai (eai ethaia ioiineoaeueiia no?aieony e aaniethoiiio).
Iiaai?iaeoeaa aue oaaaeae?i, /oi a oeaio?a iino?iaiee iauanoaaiiie
oeeinioee aeieaeia auoue iinoaaeaia ia aoaeouay aa?iiiey enoi?ee, ia
eaeay aeia?a, a aa/iue eaeaae aeia?a, iineieueeo ia a nayce n aoaeouei,
a nayce n aa/iui iieo/aao cia/aiea e ii?aaaeaiea eaaeaeay yiioa.
Iiaai?iaeoeaa iinoiyiii e ianoie/eai ooaa?aeaeae, /oi oeaio?ii e
oeaeueth i?aanoaaiiiai ie?a yaeyaony /aeiaae, aeeaay /aeiaa/aneay aeooa,
eioi?ay ia iiaeao auoue i?eianaia a aea?oao iauanoao e aai ono?iaieth
iiieii ee/iinoe n a? iio?aaiinoueth naiaiaeiiai naiiii?aaeaeaiey, eae
yoi i?enoonoaoao ai anao ooiieyo. A oneiaeyo enoi?ee eaeaae naiaiaeiie
iauanoaaiiinoe ieeiaaea ia iiaeao auoue inouanoae?i, iiyoiio ieeiaaea ia
aeinoe/ue aaconeiaiiai ?aaiiaaney o?aaiaaiee, auoaeathueo ec iiiyoey
ee/iinoe.

Eeoa?aoo?a:

1. I.E. Iiaai?iaeoeaa, Ia iauanoaaiiii eaeaaea, I., 1991

2. I.I. Einneee, Enoi?ey ?onneie oeeinioee, Iineaa, 1991, n. 424-426

3. A.A. Caiueeianeee; Enoi?ey ?onneie oeeinioee, O. 2, /. 2, Eaieia?aae
Yai, 1991, n.126-128

Niune aeecie a oeeinioneeo Nai?i Ethaeaeaiae/ O?aie (1877, Iineaa
?aaioao N. E. O?aiea -1950, Eiiaeii),
nui a?a/a, eoaeaeneiai aa?ieniiaaaeaiey, e?auaiea i?eiye a 1912 a., aua
aoaeo/e aeiiacenoii, i?eieiae o/anoea a ia?enenoneii e?oaeea iiae
aeeyieai /aai iinooiee ia th?eaee/aneee oaeoeueoao Iineianeiai
Oieaa?neoaoa. A 1889 a. aue a?anoiaai e auneai ec oieaa?neoaoneeo
ai?iaeia e oaoae ca a?aieoeo, aaea ?aaioae a Aa?eeia e Ithioaia (ii
iieeoe/aneie yeiiiiee e oeeinioee). Iinea naea/e iaaenoa?neiai yecaiaia
O?aie (1912 a.) noae i?eaaoaeioeaioii Iaoa?ao?aneiai Oieaa?neoaoa. A
1922 a. aue aianoa n ae?oaeie auneai ec ?innee, ono?ieeny a Aa?eeia e
aio?e a ninoaa ?aeeaeiciiOeeinioneie Aeaaeaiee, i?aaieciaaiiie I. A.
Aa?aeyaaui. O?aieo i?eiaaeeaaeeo i/aiue iiiai ?aaio ii oeeinioee.
Iniiaiua ?aaiou “I?aaeiao ciaiey”, “Iaoiaeieiaey iauanoaaiiuo iaoe”,
“Aaaaeaiea a oeeinioeth”, “Aeooiaiua iniiau iauanoaa”, “Iaiinoeaeeiia”,
“Naao ai oueia”, “N iaie aia”, “?aaeueiinoue e /aeiaae”. Ii iiaieth A.
A. Caiueeianeiai, ii neea oeeinioneiai c?aiey O?aiea aac eieaaaiey
iiaeii iacaaoue naiui auaeathueiny ?onneei oeeinioii aiiaua. Ian
eioa?anoao aai ?aaioa “Niune aeecie”. Aiaeeca yoie ?aaiou iao ie o
Caiueeianeiai, ie o I. I. Einneiai.

Aaoi? ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi aaeeiue aii?in i niunea aeecie aieioao e io/aao
a aeoaeia aeooe eaaeaeiai /aeiaaea, aeaaea naiiai ooiiai, caieuaoaai
aee?ii eee aeooiaii niyuaai /aeiaaea, iineieueeo oaeo i?eaeeaeaiey
nia?oe anoue aeey anyeiai /aeiaaea a?iciia e iaioayciia iaiiieiaiea
ia?aoaiiiai, ioeiaeaiiiai a noi?iio aii?ina i niunea aeecie. Yoio aii?in
ia oai?aoe/aneee aii?in, ia i?aaeiao i?acaeiie oinoaaiiie ea?u; yoio
aii?in anoue aii?in naiie aeecie, ii oae aea no?aoai e, nianoaaiii
aiai?y, au? ai?acaei aieaa no?aoai, /ai i?e oyaeeie ioaeaea aii?in i
eonea oeaaa aeey ooieaiey aieiaea, aiai?eo O?aie. Ii ia?iiiia
aieueoeinoai ethaeae ioiaoeaaaony io iaai e iaoiaeeo aeeciaiioth
ioae?inoue a oaeie no?aoniaie iieeoeea. Aa?iyoii, oiaiea ono?aeaaoueny a
aeecie aeiauaaoue aeeciaiiua aeaaa ia?aoii i?iii?oeeiiaeueii aieiaieth,
oaeaeyaiiio aii?ino i niunea aeecie. Ia?aaeien caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi
/ai niieieiaa, /ai aieaa ?acia?aia e oii?yaei/aia aiaoiyy aeeciue, /ai
aieaa caiyoa oaeoueie aeaeaie e caiiuie eioa?anaie, oai aeoaaea oa
aeooaaiay iiaeea, a eioi?ie iioi?iiai aii?in i niunea aeecie. Aaoi?
ioia/aao, /oi ?onneea ethaee ai?acaei aieueoa ae?oaeo caaeoiuaaeenue
iaae yoei aii?inii. I?ienoaaeoaa oaeanathuaa iio?ynaiea a eeoea
aieueoaaenoneie ?aaiethoeee, ianiio?y ia anth aai ai?a/ue, i?eianei
?onneei iaeii oeaiiaeoaa aeaai: iii iaiaaeeei ia?aae iaie aeeciue eae
iia anoue ia naiii aeaea. Auoiaeeo oae, /oi iu /anoi aeoiaee i oii, /oi
eiaiii aieueoaaeee auaeoiaee aieacie, nia?oue, noa?inoue, ioaeaeo,
aanniuneaiiinoue aeecie. Iie, eiia/ii, ia auaeoiaee e ia aia?aua aianee
a aeeciue, a oieueei cia/eoaeueii oneeeee, ?ac?ooea oi aiaoiaa e, n
aieaa aeoaieie oi/ee c?aiey, an?-oaee i?ec?a/iia aeaaiiieo/ea, eioi?ia
i?aaeaea oea?eei a aeecie. Aaaeue e ?aiueoa ethaee oie?aee e oie?aee
ii/oe anaaaea i?aaeaeaa?aiaiii, ia aeiaeaeaa naiaai aeaea, e
aanniuneaiii neo/aeii; e ?aiueoa ana aeeciaiiua aeaaa aiaaonoai,
caei?iauea, neaaa, iauanoaaiiia iieiaeaiea auee oaoee e iaiaae?aeiu; e
?aiueoa ioae?inoue ?onneiai ia?iaea ciaea, /oi io noiu e io oth?ueiu
ieeoi ia aeieaeai io?aeaoueny. Aaoi? i?iaiaeeo /?oeoth iuneue, /oi ie
iaeei ia?iae ia auian noieueei ai?y e no?aaeaiee eae ?onneee, ii,
eiia/ii, nai aeonee anth ai?a/ue yiea?aoeee (oae neacaoue,
aeia?iaieueiie), ?onneea yiea?aiou iuooeee aeecinoue e a?icioth
?aaeueiinoue nia?oe, ii ?acaa yoi oieueei ?aaeueiinoue naaiaeiyoiaai
aeiy ? O?aie ioaa/aao: N?aaee ?ineioiiai e aania/iiai auoa i?eaeai?iie
n?aaeu ainaiiaaeoeaoiai aaea ?onneee iiyo aineeeoeae: Aaea noie au ynoa,
oai a?ia noieo; aaea ie?oanoa ?acaeaaaeenue eeeee iaaea?iaiua oai
noiioo eeee e aeaaeia nia?oue ia anao aeyaeeo. Iu ia?a/aiu ia oyaeeee,
ecio?ythuee o?oae ?aaee aaeaaeiaaiiai i?iieoaiey ii ?acaa oaea Aaeaio,
i?e ecaiaiee ec ?ay, ia auei i?aae?a/aii e caiiaaaeaii: A iioa eeoea
naiaai ou aoaeaoue anoue oeaa naie ? Aiieia iiiyoii, /oi ethaee
iioa?yaoea ?iaeeio (a oaeaea e aeeaouea ia oaia?aoiae ?iaeeia,
ia?a/?iiua ia oyaeeee o?oae aeey naiaai i?iieoaiey) auioaeaeaiu noaaeoue
naaa aii?in: aeey /aai aeeoue ? Aeey /aai oyiooue yoo iaeaioth e
oyainoioth eyieo ? *ai ii?aaaeaiu iaoe no?aaeaiey ? Aaea iaeoe
iacuaeaioth iii?o, /oiau ia oianoue iiae oyaeanoueth aeeciaiiie ioaeaeu
? ?onneea ethaee aiiaua i?eaueee aeeoue ia/oaie i aoaeouai, i?ac?aiea e
?aaiiaeooea e ianoiyuaio e aioo?aiiyy eaeeaay, iainiiaaoaeueiay
eaeaaeecaoeey aoaeouaai yoi aeooiaiia ninoiyiea e anoue aaaeue
iineaaeiee ei?aiue oie i?aanoaaiiie aieacie, eioi?oth iu iacuaaai
?aaiethoeeiiiinoueth e eioi?ay caaoaeea ?onneoth aeeciue. Ii aicieeaao
au? iaeei aii?in aeieai ee iu aeieaeiu e iiaeai aeaeaoue e iiaeii ee
i?iaiaeeoue iaoo aeeciue a aacaeaenoaaiiii e aanniuneaiiii,
iaii?aaeae?iii aeieaii iaeeaeaiee ? Iiaeii ee iaiiaeoue iauoth aeeciue,
ia ciay aeey naay naiiai, aeey /aai ou aiiaua aeea?oue e eaeie aa/iue,
iauaeoeaiue niune eiaao aeeciue a a? oeaeii ? Iao, io aii?ina i niunea
aeecie iai eiaiii iai, a iaoai iuiaoiai iieiaeaiee e aeooiaiii
ninoiyiee ieeoaea ia oeoe.

*oi aeaeaoue ? oeie/iue aii?in, e eioi?iio i?eaue ?onneee eioaeeeaaio.
*oi iia aeaeaoue a aeaiiii neo/aa ? oaeie aii?in noaaei naaa
aaeaaeiaaii e eaaeaeue oaa iaoae i?aeoe/aneie aeecie anoue niune e
caeiiiinoue aii?ina *oi aeaeaoue ? a oaeie niaa?oaiii eiie?aoiie e
?annoaei/ii- aeaeiaie aai oi?ia, ii oaeie aii?in ii ioiioaieth e niuneo
aeecie ia eiaao a aeaeo n?iaenoai e aeinoeaeaieth ii?aaeae?iiie oeaee, a
aii?in i naiie oeaee aeecie e aeayoaeueiinoe. AEeciue oae, eae iia
iaiin?aaenoaaiii oa/?o, ii?aaeaeyaiay noeoeeiuie neeaie, aanniuneaiia;
/oi ioaeii naeaeaoue, eae iaeaaeeoue aeeciue, /oiau iia noaea
iniuneaiiie ? *oi aeaeaoue iia e ae?oaei, /oiau nianoe ie? e oai aia?aua
ii?aaaeaoue naith aeeciue ? Eae ia?aaeaeaoue ie?, /oiau inouanoaeoue a
i?i aaniethoiue niune ? Oienoiaoeu ia aii?in /oi aeaeaoue ? ioaa/atho:
i?aanoaaiii niaa?oainoaiaaoueny, o. a. iie ia oniao?eaatho
ianeeuenoaaiioth ?aaiethoeeiiioth aeayoaeueiinoue, a aioo?aiithth
ainieoaoaeueioth aeayoaeueiinoue iaae naiei niaie e ae?oaeie, neaaeai,
aaaaoa?eainoai, caieaaeaeue/aneee o?oae e o. i., ii aeaei oienoiaoeaa
inoa?ony aeaeii, o. a. ii /aeiaa/aneiio caiuneo e /aeiaa/aneeie neeaie
inouanoaeyaiay ieaiiia?iay ie?iaay ?aoi?ia, inaiaiaeaeathuay ie? io cea
e oai iniuneeaathuay aeeciue. A aio ii neeai ee yoi naeaeaoue ethaeyi ?
Aeoiaaony, /oi iao, yoi eeethcey, oae eae /aeiaae, eae /anoue e
nio/anoiee ie?iaie aeecie, ia iiaeao naeaeaoue ieeaeiai oaeiai aeaea,
eioi?ia au nianei aai e i?eaeaei niune aai aeecie. O?aie ynii au?acee
yoo iuneue: Eneaoue iaaeinoathuaai niunea aeecie a eaeii-eeai aeaea, a
niaa?oaiee /aai-oi cia/eo aiaaeaoue a eeethceth, eae aoaeoi /aeiaae nai
iiaeao nioai?eoue niune naiae aeecie. E ooo aea ii i?iaeieaeaao: *oiau
eneaoue niune aeecie ia aiai?y oaea i oii, /oiau iaeoe aai, iaaei
i?aaeaea anaai inoaiiaeoueny, nin?aaeioi/eoueny e ie i /?i ia
oeiiioaoue. A ia aii?in: *oi aeaeaoue, /oiau ia?aaeaeaoue ie? ia eo/oee
eaae? Iaeei ioaao: Ie/aai iioiio /oi yoio caiunae i?aauoaao
/aeiaa/aneea neeu. Cia/eo iaaei caaeaaaoue ia aii?in: Eae iia
ia?aaeaeaoue ie?, /oiau aai nianoe?, a Eae iia naiiio aeeoue, /oiau ia
ooiiooue e ia iiaeaiooue a yoii oaina aeecie? Aeaeaa aaoi? ionueaao e
Aaaiaaeeth, o. a. e o?enoeaineie aa?a. Eoae, /oi aeaeaoue? i?aaiia?ii
cia/eo oieueei: Eae aeeoue, /oiau iniuneeoue e /a?ac oi iacuaeaii
ooaa?aeeoue naith aeeciue? Ae?oaeie neiaaie, ia /a?ac eaeia-eeai
/aeiaa/aneia aeaei i?aiaeieaaaaony aanniuneaiiinoue aeecie e aiineony a
ia? niune, a aaeeinoaaiiia /aeiaa/aneia aeaei oieueei a oii e ninoieo,
/oiau aia anyeeo /anoiuo, caiiuo aeae eneaoue e iaeoe niune aeecie. Ii
aaea aai eneaoue e eae iaeoe?

Oneiaea aiciiaeiinoe niunea aeecie. Iinoa?aainy aaeoiaoueny, /oi yoi
icia/aao iaeoe niune aeecie, oi/iaa, /aai iu, nianoaaiii, euai, eaeie
niune aeeaaeuaaai a naii iiiyoea niune aeecie e i?e eaeeo oneiaeyo iu
iin/eoaee au aai inouanoae?iiui ? Aii?in i niunea /aai-eeai eiaao
anaaaea ioiineoaeueiia cia/aiea, ii i?aaeiieaaaao niune aeey
/aai-ieaoaeue, oeaeaniia?aciinoue i?e aeinoeaeaiee ii?aaeae?iiie oeaee.
AEeciue aea a oeaeii ieeaeie oeaee ia eiaao, e iioiio i niunea a?
iaeuecy noaaeoue aii?ina, ieoao O?aie. AEeciue iaoa iniuneaia, eiaaea
iia neoaeeo eaeie-oi ?acoiiie oeaee, niaea?aeaieai eioi?ie ia iiaeao
auoue i?inoi naia yoa yiie?e/aneay aeeciue, iia aeieaeia auoue aunoaio e
aaniethoiiio aeaao. Aunoaa aea aeaai ia iiaeao auoue ia /ai eiui, e?iia
naiie aeecie. AEeciue ai aeaaa, eee aeaaay aeeciue aio oeaeue iaoeo
no?aieaiee. O?aie iiaeaiaeeo oaeie eoia: Aeey oiai /oiau aeeciue eiaea
niune, iaiaoiaeeiu aeaa oneiaey: nouanoaiaaiea Aiaa e iaoa nianoaaiiay
i?e/anoiinoue aio, aeinoeaeeiay aeey ian a aeecie a Aiaa eee
aiaeanoaaiiie aeecie.

Aanniuneaiiinoue aeecie. *oi aeeciue, eae iia oaeoe/anee anoue,
aanniuneaiia, /oi iia ie a iaeaeoae ia?a ia oaeiaeaoai?yao oneiaeyi, i?e
eioi?uo a? iiaeii auei au i?eciaoue eiathuae niune, yoi anoue enoeia, a
eioi?ie ian an? oaaaeaeaao: e ee/iue iiuo, e iaiin?aaenoaaiiua
iaaethaeaiey iaae aeeciueth, e enoi?e/aneia iiciaiea noaeueau
/aeiaa/anoaa, e anoanoaaiiiiao/iia iiciaiea ie?iaiai ono?ienoaa e
ie?iaie yaiethoeee. O?aie naeaeae nnueee ia ae?aaieo ioae?aoeia, ia
Yeeeaneano ec Aeaeee e neacae, /oi eae aanniuneaiia eaaeaeay aaeeie/iay
aeeciue /aeiaaea, oae aea aanniuneaiia e iauay aeeciue /aeiaa/anoaa; e
aeaaea nineaeny ia Inaaeueaea Oiaiaea?a, /oi anaie?iay enoi?ey anoue
i?eioeeieaeueii aanniuneaiiay niaia ?iaeaeaiey, ?anoeaaoaiey, oiaaeea e
nia?oe ioaeaeueiuo eoeueoo?. Eiaeeaeaeoaeueiay /aeiaa/aneay aeeciue a a?
yiie?e/aneii inouanoaeaiee eiaao oieueei iaeei niune iao/eoue ian oie
aeeciaiiie ioae?inoe, /oi n/anouea iainouanoaeii, /oi ana iaoe ia/ou
auee eeethci?iu e /oi i?ioeann aeecie, eae oaeiaie, aanniuneai, oae e
ana/aeiaa/aneay aeeciue anoue oyaeeay iiuoiay oeiea, iaiaoiaeeiay aeey
i/euaiey ian io eeethcee ana/aeiaa/aneiai n/anouey, aeey iaee/aiey
noaoiinoe e iaiai/eainoe anao iaoeo oiiaaiee ia aiieiuaiea a yoii ie?a
oea?noaa aeia?a e i?aaaeu, anao iaoeo /aeiaa/aneeo caiuneia eaeaaeueiiai
iauanoaaiiiai naiiono?iaiey. ?anniao?eaay ie?, eae ii anoue, iu
iaecaaaeii i?eoiaeei a aii?ina i aai ia?aii?e/eia eee i aeaenoaee aiaa a
i?i e aeeeaiia. Iaeii ec aeaoo: eee Aiaa nianai iao, e ie? anoue
oai?aiea aanniuneaiiie neaiie neeu, eee aea Aia anoue, eae anaaeaaia e
anaaaaeouaa nouanoai, anoue, ii oiaaea ii ia anaiiaou e ia anoue Oai?aoe
e aaeeiiaea?aeaaiue I?iiuneeoaeue ie?a. Ii a oii e ae?oaii neo/aa, anee
Aiaa iao, e anee ii ia a neeao iai iiii/ue e ian nianoe io ie?iaiai cea
e aanniuneey iaoa aeeciue iaeeiaeiai aanniuneaiia. Ii aeaaea e
nouanoaiaaiea Aiaa iaei aeey ia?aoaiey niunea iaoae aeecie: aeey yoiai
ioaeia aiciiaeiinoue iaoaai /aeiaa/aneiai nio/anoey a naaoa e aeecie
Aiaeanoaa, ioaeia aa/iinoue, niaa?oaiiay i?inaaoe?iiinoue e iieie
oaeiaeaoai??iiinoe iaoae nianoaaiiie, /aeiaa/aneie aeecie. ?acthia
O?aiea oaeia: Aanniuneaiiinoue aeecie ioe?ueanue ia ni a/a?aoiaai aeiy,
a? ooaa?aeaeaea ae?aaiyy ioae?inoue. E an? aea /aeiaa/anoai ecaeaaia
eiaei ?aeeaeiciia niciaiea, aa?eei a Aiaa e aiciiaeiinoue nianaiey
/aeiaaea e oai ooaa?aeaeaei inouanoaeiinoue niunea aeecie. Iu aeieaeiu
naie aeoaaea aaeoiaoueny a aeaei, iieiaa ioeaieoue iioeau ?oeiaiaeyuea
?aeeaeiciui niciaieai /aeiaa/anoaa e iinoaaeoue oaia?ue naaa aii?in:
anoue ee oiicaeeth/aiea io yiie?e/aneie i?e?iaeu ie?a e aeecie
aeinoaoi/iue e aaeeinoaaiiue e?eoa?ee aeey ?aoaiey aii?ina i niunea
aeecie?

Naiii/aaeaeiinoue enoeiiiai auoey. Ioaao iai?aoeaaaony auoue
io?eoeaoaeueiui, ii anoue iaeii e i/aiue aaaeiia. ?ac iu ynii aeaeei
iaoo neaiioo, cia/eo, iu an? aea ia nianai neaiu, ii e c?y/e, eai
nouanoai, aaniethoii e anaoeaei eeo?iiia niunea, ia iiaei au iniciaaaoue
naith aanniuneaiiinoue. Anee au aeeciue e ie? auee nieioiui oainii
neaiuo, aanniuneaiiuo nee, oi a ieo ia iaoeinue au nouanoaa, eioi?ia yoi
niciaaaei e auneacuaaei au. Eoae, ie? oae ono?iai, /oi, aoaeo/e neaiui e
aanniuneaiiui a nai?i oa/aiee, a naieo aeaenoaaiiuo neeao, ii, a eeoea
/aeiaa/aneiai ?acoia, aianoa n oai i?iiecai eo/ii naaoa, ica??i ciaieai
naiiai naay. O?aie ieoao, /oi iu eneaee yoio niune ia oai, aaea anoue
iaaeaaeaea aai iaeoe, e /oi yoie o?iiie e oaioe/aneie iaeanoueth nianai
ia en/a?iuaaaony auoea, a anoue oeaeue iiaue e iaecia?eii aieaa aeoaieee
e i?i/iue ie? ie? enoeiiiai, aeooiaiiai auoey.

E anee /aeiaae ia?auaaony e nianoaaiiiio eneaieth niunea aeecie, oi ii
ynii aeaeeo, /oi iii naii anoue i?iyaeaiea a i?i ?aaeueiinoe oiai, /oi
ii euao. Aaaeue eneaiea Aiaa anoue oaea aeaenoaea aiaa a /aeiaa/aneie
aeooa. Ia oieueei Aia anoue aiiaua, eia/a iu ia iiaee au Aai iiiuneeoue
e eneaoue. Ii a ian aeaenoaoao, e eiaiii Aai aeaenoaea iaia?oaeeaaaony a
yoii no?aiiii, noieue iaoeaeaniia?aciii e iaiiiyoiii n ie?neie oi/ee
c?aiey iaoai aaniieienoaa, iaoae iaoaeiaeaoai??iiinoe, iaoai eneaiee
oiai, /oi a ie?a ia auaaao Ou nicaeae ian aeey Naay, e ianiieieii
na?aeoea iaoa, iiea ia iaeae?o Oaay. O?aie n oaa?aiiinoueth cayaeyao:
Aeia?i, aa/iinoue, iieiioa aeaaeaiiie oaeiaeaoai??iiinoe, eae e naao
enoeiu an? oi, /oi iai ioaeii aeey oiai, /oiau iaoa aeeciue ia?aea
niune,

Ii?aaaeaiea aa?u. Aeaiiay aeaaa i?aeoe/anee iinayuaia nnueeai ia
Aaaiaaeea. Aaoi? oaaaeae?i, /oi /aeiaae anee oa??aei onaieo e aa?ii
onaieo Neiai Aiaeea, oi aeeciue aoaeao eiaoue niune, e yoio niune eaaei
e i?inoi inouanoaeony aeey eaaeaeiai ec ian, eai Aia n iaie, a ian.
Aeaeaa O?aie caaea?o aii?in: Ii ca/ai aea ioaeii auei aiiaua
nouanoaiaaiea yoiai aanniuneaiiiai ie?a ? Io/aai Aia ia iia nioai?eoue
/aeiaaea e anaeaineoth aeeciue oae, /oiau iia n?aco ?ac e iaanaaaea auea
a I?i, auea i?iieeiooa Aai aeaaiaeaoueth e Aai ?acoiii ? Eiio e aeey
/aai ioaeiu iaoe no?aaeaiey, iaoe iaiiue, iaoa neaiioa. ?ac iie anoue,
aeeciue an?-oaee aanniuneaiia e iaeuecy iaeoe ae ieeaeiai ii?aaaeaiey.
Ii aaaeue iooe Ainiiaeie iaeniiaaaeeiu, iu caauaaai, /oi Aia, aoaeo/e
anaaeaa e anaaaaeou, aaaeaao oa aeoaeiu aeaaa e ?acoia, eioi?ua iai
iaaeinooiiu. I/aaeaeii, aanniuneaiiinoue aeecie ioaeia eae i?aa?aaea,
o?aaothuay i?aiaeieaiey, eai oe?iee a?aoa e i?ino?aiai iooue, aaaeouae a
iiaeaaeue, e oaniu a?aoa e ocie iooue, aaaeouee a aeeciue. Neaaeoao
iiiyoue, /oi niune aeecie ia aeai, ii caaeai. Niune iaoae aeecie
aeieaeai auoue a ian, iu naie naiath aeeciueth aeieaeiu yaeyoue aai.
Iaeoe niune aeecie cia/eo naeaeaoue oae, /oiau ii aue, iai?y/ue naie
aioo?aiiea neeu aeey aai iaia?oaeaiey, aieaa oiai aeey aai
inouanoaeaiey, iiyoiio eneaiea niunea aeecie anoue anaaaea ai?ueaa ca
niune i?ioea aanniuneeoeu.

Iniuneaiea aeecie. Eneaiea niunea aeecie anoue nianoaaiii iniuneaiea
aeecie ?ane?uoea e aianaiea a ia? niunea, eioi?ue aia iaoae aeooiaiie
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe ia oieueei ia iia au auoue iaeaeai, ii a yiie?e/aneie
aeecie e ia nouanoaiaae au. *aeiaae, aeeaouee a noaoa iai?a?uaiiai
aiaoiaai iauaiey n iiiaeanoaii ethaeae, aioiaue ai an?i ei iiae?aaeaoue,
auoue, eae ana e aeeoue aianoa ni anaie, ciathuee oieueei ia?oaeioth
iiaa?oiinoue caiiie aeecie, ieacuaaaony iee/?iiui nouanoaii, ieeiio ia
ioaeiui e aa/ii iaeeiieei, eai a i?i iaei aioo?aiiae aeooiaiie ?aaiou.
Iaoa io?aaeaiiia iaoa?eaeeciii a?aiy niaa?oaiii oo?aoeei iiiyoea i
anaeaineie, einie/aneie, iaae/aneie neea iieeoa e aeooiaiiai iiaeaeaa.
Iaeeiieee aieoaaiee a naiae eaeuea, a caoai?a, iaaeaeeiue e ianeuoeiue
ieeai, oai?eo aeaei, n?aco aeaenoaothuaa ia aeeciue a oeaeii e
cao?aaeaathuaa anao ethaeae. O?aie ieoao: Niune aeecie a a?
ooaa?aeae?iiinoe a aa/iii, ii inouanoaeyaony, eiaaea a ian e aie?oa ian
i?inooiaao aa/iia ia/aei… eeoue iineieueeo iaoa aeeciue e iao o?oae
nii?eeanaaony n aa/iui, aeea?o a i?i, i?iieeaaony ei, iu iiaeai
?ann/eouaaoue aiiaua ia aeinoeaeaiea niunea aeecie. *oiau nouanoaaiii
eciaieoue iaoo aeeciue e eni?aaeoue a?, iu aeieaeiu oniaa?oainoaiaaoue
a? n?aco eae oeaeia Aaeeinoaaiiia aeaei, iniuneeaathuaa aeeciue anoue ia
/oi eiia, eae aeaenoaaiiia nio/anoea a Aiai/aeiaa/aneie aeecie. E iu
iiieiaai neiaa Nianeoaey, ia aii?in: /oi iai aeaeaoue ?, ioaa/aaoaai:
Aio aeaei Aiaeea, /oiau au aa?iaaee a Oiai, Eiai Ii iineae.(Aa. Eiaii,
6, 29)

I aeooiaiii e ie?neii aeaeaiee. Ii eae aea auoue ni anaie inoaeueiuie
/aeiaa/aneeie aeaeaie, ni anaie eioa?anaie iaoae yiie?e/aneie aeecie, ni
anai oai, /oi ioianthaeo ian ie?oaeaao e caiieiyao iaoo iau/ioth aeeciue
? Aaoi? eieae aea?o ioaao: AEeciue iniuneeaaaony oieueei io?a/aieai io
a? yiie?e/aneiai niaea?aeaiey; oa??aeoth iiaeeeiioth iii?o aeey ia? iu
iaoiaeei eeoue aia a?; eeoue ia?aoaaioa ca i?aaeaeu ie?a, iu iouneeaaai
oo aa/ioth iniiao, ia eioi?ie ii ooaa?aeae?i. I?aauaay a i?i iu ioaa/aiu
e aianoa n iei oaoaainy e e?oaeeiny a aanniuneaiiii aeo?a. Yoi cia/eo,
/oi ieeaeia caiiia /aeiaa/aneia aeaei, ieeaeie caiiie eioa?an ia iiaeao
iniuneeoue aeeciue, e a yoii ioiioaiee iie ana niaa?oaiii aanniuneaiiu;
ii eiaaea aeeciue oaea iniuneaia eiui ia/aeii naiath iineaaeiae
aeoaeiie, oi iia iniuneaiia anaoeaei e, neaaeiaaoaeueii, an? a?
niaea?aeaiea. AEeciue eae ianeaaeaeaiea, aeanoue, aiaaonoai, eae
oii?iiinoue ie?ii e naiei niaie anoue aanniuneeoea; aeeciue eae
neoaeaiea anoue Aiai/aeiaa/aneia aeaei e, neaaeiaaoaeueii, anaoeaei
iniuneaiii. Ii ioaeii iiiieoue, /oi /aeiaae i?aaaaeii naiaiaeai io
ie?neiai o?oaea e ie?neie ai?ueau oieueei a oii neo/aa, anee ii a naiae
aeooiaiie aeecie inouanoaeyao au? aieaa oyaeeee o?oae, aaae?o au? aieaa
iianioth e o?oaeioth ai?ueao. Na?aoei Na?ianeee, i?inoiyaoee ia eieaiyo
ia eaiia 1000 aeiae e ii/ae e aiai?eaoee i oeaee yoiai iiaeaeaa: Oiiith
oiiyuaai iy iaia?oaeee iaecia?eii aieueoa oa?iaiey e ioaeanoaa, /ai
naiue aa?ie-nieaeao ia aieia. Eoi aeea?o a naaiaeiyoiai aeia, ia
ioaeaaaynue aio, a iiae/eiyy aai naaa, oio aeea?o a aa/iinoe. Nai?
i?aanoaaiii-ineoieiae/aneia au?aaeaiea oaeay i?aaeeueiay onoaiiaea
iaoiaeeo a nie?aiee, a niciaiee ia?aie/aiiinoe naieo nee e aianoa n oai
a aeooaaiie oeoeia e i?i/iinoe, n eaeith niaa?oathony yoe aeaea
naaiaeiyoiaai aeiy, yoi nio/anoea a eiie?aoiie aeecie ie?a; oiaaea eae
eaeieiiieeiiie/aneia neoaeaiea ie?o, n ae?oaie noi?iiu, anaaaea
i?iyaeyaony a ai?aeuia e ainoi?aeaiiinoe e naycaii n /oanoaii
aaniieienoaa, iaoaa?aiiinoe e noaou. Oaeei ia?acii, aiaoiaa, ie?neia
aeaeaiea, aoaeo/e i?iecaiaeiui io iniiaiiai, aeooiaiiai aeaeaiey e ei
oieueei iniuneyynue, aeieaeii noiyoue a iaoae iauae aeooiaiie aeecie ia
iaaeeaaeauai aio ianoa, /oiau ia auei ii?ieeiooi ii?iaeueiia aeooiaiia
?aaiiaanea. Neeu aeooa, oe?aie?iiua e ieoaaiua ecioo?e, aeieaeiu
naiaiaeii eceeaaoueny ia?oaeo, eai aa?a aac aeae ia?oaa, naao, eaeouee
ec aeoaeiu, aeieaeai ica?youe oueio aiaia. Ii neeu aeooa ia aeieaeiu
eaeoe a oneoaeaiea e a ieai e aanniuneaiiui neeai ie?a, e oueia ia
aeieaeia caaeooeoue aa/iiai Naaoa.

Eeoa?aoo?a:

1. I.I. Einneee, Enoi?ey ?onneie oeeinioee, Iineaa, 1991, n. 339-372

2. A.A. Caiueeianeee; Enoi?ey ?onneie oeeinioee, O. 2, /. 2, Eaieia?aae
Yai, 1991, n.157-179

3. Aii?inu oeeinioee ? 3, 1992, Iineaa, Iaoea, 1992, Iaoa?eaeu e
aeia?aoee N.E. O?aiea, n. 128-130

4. N.E. O?aie, Aeooiaiua iniiau iauanoaa, Iineaa, Ecae. ?anioaeeea,
1992, Niune aeecie, n. 148-216

Niune aeecie a ?aaioao N.E. O?aie iinoaaee ianno aii?inia i
niunea

A.A.?icaiiaa e I.O.O?aei?iaa aeecie, a ana ioaaou iaoae a Aaaiaaeee.
Ii aaaeue ii ia ia?aue e ia iineaaeiee a yoii ieaia. Iu iciaeiieeenue n
iuneyie Aeinoiaaneiai, Oienoiai, Iiaai?iaeoeaaa e oiaea i?eoiaeeee e
auaiaeo, /oi ?aoeoue aii?in i niunea aeecie aac Ainiiaea Aiaa
iaaiciiaeii. Aea e naia iinoaiiaea aii?ina i niunea aeecie aiai?eo i
oii, /oi /aeiaae, eioi?ue iinoaaeo oaeie aii?in, oaea eae-oi i?eiau?i e
Aiao, eia/a ie/aai ia aueaeao ec aai oiicaeeth/aiee. Aniiiiei A.A.
?icaiiaa, eioi?iai oeaiee A.A. Caiueeianeee, a I.I. Einneee, oioy e
n/eoae aai i?eaeiaeueiui iuneeoaeai e iaaethaeaoaeai aeecie, ii
iiae/??eeaae, e niaeaeaieth, iaoieiae/iinoue aai ee/iinoe ai iiiaeo
ioiioaieyo. A.A. ?icaiia a “Oaaeei?iiii” ieoao: AEeae eaaeaeue aeaiue
oae, eae au ou aeee anth aeeciue eiaiii aeey yoiai aeiy… Eai aeeciue
anoue aeaiue iie, e ii eiaiii iie aeaiue, a ia Nie?aoa eee
Nieiicu(“Oaaeei?iiia” no?. 11) eee ss au? ia oaeie iiaeeaoe, /oiau
aeoiaoue i ii?aee. Ieeeeii eao i?ioei, iiea iiy aeooa auiouaia auea
iiaoeyoue ia aaeue naao; e aae?oa au y ae neacae: ou, aeooaiueea, ia
caauaaeny e aoeye ii ii?aee. Iao, y ae neaaeo: aoeye aeooaiueea, aoeye,
neaaiaiueeay, aoeye aeia?aiueeay, aoeye eae naia ciaaoue. A e aa/a?o
iieae?oue e Aiao (no?. 48) e, iaeiiaoe, iineaaeiaa: Aeaeaaoueny oi?ioi n
caianii aieueoie oeoeiu a aeooa; iai?eia?, iooaoanoaiaaoue. Oiaaea an?
eaaeaony y?ei, iniuneaiii, an? oeeaaeuaaaony a oi?ioee ?acoeueoao. Ii e
neaeaoue ia ianoa oi?ioi oieueei n caianii aieueoiai aeaeaeaiey a aeooa.
Eaio anth aeeciue neaeae: ii o iaai a aeooa auei noieueei aeaeaeaiey,
/oi io neaeaiey aai aeaeioeenue ie?u. (no?. 48)

N/anouea a oneeee aiai?eo iieiaeinoue,

N/anouea a iieia aiai?eo nia?oue.

An? i?aiaeieath aiai?eo iieiaeinoue,

Aea, ii an? eii/eony, aiai?eo nia?oue.

Aiciiaeii, aio oaeie ioaao aeae au ?icaiia ia iiiaea aii?inu,
iinoaaeaiiua N.E. O?aieii. A.A. ?icaiia oiaea eneae niune aeecie. A
?aaioa “Naiuey e aeeciue” ?icaiia aeaeeo naiueth aaeeinoaaiiui ianoii, a
eioi?ii /aeiaae iiaeao i?iyaeoue ee/iia oai?/anoai, any/anee no?aieony
?ane?uoue nayuaiiia cia/aiea naiuee, ?iaeaeaiea aeaoae, a /?i e
oniao?eaaao niune aeecie, i?aaeia/a?oaiiue /aeiaaeo.

Iniaia ianoi a ?acaeoee o?enoeaineie oeeinioee i?eiaaeeaaeeo Ieeieath
O?aei?iae/o O?aei?iao (1828 1903 aa.). O?aei?ia naycuaaao nai? o/aiea n
o?enoeainoaii, a /anoiinoe n i?aaineaaeai, eae ?aeeaeae, a niune aeecie
iaoiaeeo a ai?ueaa ni nia?oueth n eaeaae aine?aoaiey e aa/iinoe aeecie.
O?aei?ia ?acei e?eoeeiaae io?eoeaoaeueiia ioiioaiea Oienoiai e aunoei
eoeueoo?iui oeaiiinoyi, iaoea e eneonnoao. Iaeiaaeaeu, eiaaea Oienoie
i?eo?e a ?oiyioeaaneoth aeaeeioaeo (aaea O?aei?ia ?aaioae a ea/anoaa
aeaeeioaea?y a Iineaa), O?aei?ia ia/ae iieacuaaoue aio eieaeiua
nie?iaeua. Eae iiiai ethaee ieooo aeoiinoae, caiaoee Oienoie, An? yoi
noieei au naea/ue. O?aei?ia aniueee: ss aeaeae ca naith aeeciue iiiai
aeoioeia, ii oaeeo eae Au, au? ia aeaeae.

E niaeaeaieth ?aiee ?aoa?aoa ia iicaieytho io?aceoue oeaiiua iunee i
niunea aeecie ae?oaeo ?onneeo iuneeoaeae: Caiaeaaa A.O. (“Oacenu ?onneie
i?aanoaaiiinoe”); Ea?aaa I.E. (“Iunee ia iniiaao i?aanoaaiiinoe”);
?icaiia A.A. (“Oeaeue /aeiaa/aneie aeecie”); O?oaaoeeie A.I. (“Niune
aeecie”); Eiiaoei E.I. (“Oai?aoe/aneea iniiau niciaoaeueiie i?aanoaaiiie
aeecie”); Nieiaue?a A.N. (“Eaeieu e eaeaaeu”); A?io I.ss. (“Onoie
i?aanoaaiiie aeecie e aeayoaeueiinoe”); Aaaeaineee A.E. (“Oneiaea
iicaieeoaeueiinoe aa?u a niune aeecie”); Aaciinia A.A. (“?onneay
oeeinioey eiioea 19 e ia/aea 20 aaea i niunea aeecie e iacia/aiee
/aeiaaea”). Iniaia ianoi n?aaee ieo caieiaao iaeiecaanoiue e iicaauoue
?aeeaeiciue oeeinio E.I. Eaiioueaa (1831 1891 aa.) iiai?iee
I?aaineaaey, iaeioi?ua o?oaeu eioi?iai ia oo?aoeee aeooaeueiinoe e ii
nae aeaiue, iai?eia? aai ?aaioa “I anaie?iie ethaae” (ii iiaiaeo ?a/e
O.I. Aeinoiaaneiai ia Iooeeineii i?acaeieea).

Eeoa?aoo?a:

1. I.I. Einneee, Enoi?ey ?onneie oeeinioee, Iineaa, Aunoay oeiea, 1991,
n.105, (noaouey i I.O. O?aei?iaa.)

2. I.I. Einneee, Enoi?ey ?onneie oeeinioee, Iineaa, Aunoay oeiea, 1991,
n.435-436, (noaouey i A.A. ?icaiiaa.)

2. ?aoaiea i?iaeaiu niunea aeecie a oeeinioee e nioeeieiaee Caiaaea.

Oaiiiai “ AEeciue iinea aeecie” Ana ?anniio?aiiua oai?ee a
enoi?ee ?on-

?aeiiiaea Iioaee neie oeeinioee niunea
e oeaee aeecie oae eee eia/a i?eoiaeyo e ?aeeaee, a
ana ?aeeaee oayo a naaa iiiaea enoeiu , e a?yae ee eiio-oi ii neeai
iiciaoue aei eiioea yoe aeoaieea, ooiaeaiaioaeueiua enoeiu, caeeth/aiiua
a ethaie ec ieo. Aaoi?o ?aoa?aoa oioaeinue au ia?aoeoueny e ?aaioa
?aeiiiaea Iioaee “AEeciue iinea aeecie”. Aeaei a oii, /oi a iineaaeiea
aiaeu ia Caiaaea e o ian auee i?iaaaeaiu iaaethaeaiey iaae oaie, eoi
ia?ai?n eeeie/aneoth nia?oue. Eo ninoiyiea e iniaaiii ?anneacu i oii,
/oi ei i?eoeinue ia?aaeeoue iinea oie?aiey, canoaaeee iiiaeo ii-iiaiio
acaeyiooue ia i?iaeaiu aeecie e nia?oe, ia caaaaei/iua e aei neo ii?
iaiauynieiua i?iyaeaiey /aeiaa/aneie ineoeee.

Aaoi? eieae iieo/ee a 1969 aiaeo aeeieii aeieoi?a oeeinioee ni
niaoeeaeecaoeeae ii yoeea, eiaeea a oeeinioee ycuea, a caoai ?aoee
iinooieoue a iaaeeoeeineee eieeaaeae n iaia?aieai noaoue ineoeao?ii e
i?aiiaeaaaoue oeeinioeth iaaeeoeeiu. An? yoi iaeiaeeei ioia/aoie ia
oi?ie?iaaiea iiaeoiaea e eco/aieth i?iaeaiu auaeeaaiey iinea oece/aneie
nia?oe. Aaoi? ia iuoaaony aeieacaoue, /oi anoue aeeciue iinea nia?oe e
ia i?aoaiaeoao ia oi, /oi eco/ee naii yaeaiea nia?oe, ii ec iieneia
noaiiaeony i/aaeaeiui, /oi oie?athuee iaoeeaio i?iaeieaeaao iniciaii
ioiineony e ie?oaeathuaio e iinea eeeie/aneie nia?oe. Ii oa??aei
oaaaeae?i, /oi yoio oaiiiai eiaao ia?iiiia cia/aiea ia oieueei ni
noi?iiu oai?ee e i?aeoeee, iniaaiii a iaeanoyo ineoieiaee, ineoeao?ee,
iaaeeoeeiu, oeeinioee, oaieiaee, ii e aeey iaoae aeecie iianaaeiaaiie.

Iioaee ieoao: Niauoey, naycaiiua n ?acee/iuie nooiaiyie eniuoaiey ia
nia?oiii iae?a, i/aiue iaiau/iu. Ii n oa/aieai a?aiaie oaeeaeaiea iie
?inei an? aieueoa e aieueoa ii ia?a oiai, eae y an? /aua noaeeeaaeny n
oeaeui ?yaeii ioaeiieythueo ia?aeeaeae. Yoe ia?aeeaee ano?a/athony a
ae?aaieo oaeiuo ienueiaiao naiuo ?acee/iuo oeeaeeecaoeee e eoeueoo?.
(no?. 53)

1. Aeaeey. Aaooee caaao, niaeanii o/?iui aiaineiaai a i?i oieueei aeaa
io?uaea iaaeaoniuneaiii aiai?yo i aeecie iinea nia?oe:

Eieaa i?i?iea Enaee, 26 : 19

Iaeeaoo ia?oaaoeu Oaie, ainnoaioo i??oaua oaea ! Aini?yiueoa e
oi?aeanoaoeoa, iiaa?aeaiiua ai i?aoa, eai… caiey ecaa?aiao ia?oaaoeia.

Eieaa i?i?iea Aeaieeea, 12 :2

E iiiaea ec niyueo ai i?aoa caiee i?iaoaeyony, iaeie aeey aeecie aa/iie,
ae?oaea ia aa/iia ii?oaaiea e iin?aieaiea, a oae aea Aeayiey Aiinoieia
26 : 13 26, Ia?aia iineaiea e Ei?eioyiai 15 : 35 52.

2. Ieaoii.

3. Oeaaoneay “Eieaa i??oauo”.

4. Yiiaioee Naaaeaiai?a.

5. Aii?inu.

6. Iauyniaiey.

7. Aia/aoeaiey.

Inaauaiea i?iaeaiu aeecie iinea nia?oe iaiaoiaeeii i?aaenoaaeoaeyi
iiiaeo i?ioannee e iao/iuo iai?aaeaiee. Iii iaiaoiaeeii e a?a/o, e
nayuaiieeo, e ineoieiao, e ineoeao?o, a a?a/ai i?aaeaea anaai iaaei
ciaoue, /oi oaeia oi, iiaeao ee ii nouanoaiaaoue ioaeaeueii io
oece/aneiai oaea. E?iia oiai, aii?in yoio auoiaeeo ca ?aiee
aeaaeaie/aneeo e i?ioanneiiaeueiuo eioa?ania. Ii aeoaiei cao?aaeaaao
ee/iua noi?iiu aeecie eaaeaeiai /aeiaaea, eai a caaeneiinoe io oiai, /oi
iu ciaai i nia?oe, aoaeai no?ieoue naith nianoaaiioth aeeciue, n a?
oeaeyie e caaea/aie, n a? niuneii. Anee an?, /oi a aeaiiie eieaa
ianoaeaeaeinue ?aaeueii, oi yoi ia iiaeao ia eiaoue ia?iiiiai cia/aiey
aeey eaaeaeiai ec ian. Oiaaea iienoeia auoiaeeo, /oi iu ia iiaeai
iieiinoueth iinoe/ue yoo AEeciue, ia a?inea acaeyae ia oi, /oi eaaeeo ca
a? /a?oie

Eeoa?aoo?a:

1. AEeciue caiiay e iineaaeothuay, Iineaa, Ecae. Iieeo. Eeo., 1991a.
(nai?iee: 1. ?. Iioaee, AEeciue iinea aeecie; 2. A.
Eainaa?a, *. Oaea, Ano?a/e n oai, /oi iu iacuaaai nia?oueth; 3. E.
Oionii, Ioeaea ?iiai.)

?aoaiea i?iaeaiu niunea Oi/aony aeoiaoue, /oi e ?aoaieth
aii?ina i

aeecie a ni/eiaieyo Aeeoi?a niunea e oeaee aeecie, eae e e
naiiio yoiio

Yieey O?aieea e eiaioa?aiey aii?ino ia neaaeoao iiaeoiaeeoue aaniethoii
io?eoeaoaeueii, eaoaai?e/anee ooaa?aeaeay, /oi ii nai ii naaa aano?aeai.
I?eiaieoaeueii e aeecie ioaeaeueiie ee/iinoe ii eiaao ?aaeueiue niune e
cia/aiea. Aieaa oiai, anee au eaaeaeue ia ioaa/ae aeey naay eae-oi ia
yoio aii?in, oi naii nouanoaiaaiea /aeiaaea auei au aeaenoaeoaeueii
aanniuneaiiui ni anaie auoaeathueie ionthaea io?eoeaoaeueiuie
iineaaenoaeyie. Aeinoiaaneee ii yoiio aii?ino i/aiue oi?ioi neacae, /oi
aac oa??aeiai i?aaenoaaeaiey naaa, aeey /aai aio aeeoue, /aeiaae ia
niaeaneony e nei?ae eno?aaeo naay, /ai inoaiaony ia caiea, oioy au
e?oaii aai auee ana oeaau. N ae?oaie noi?iiu, iiiai aeoaieiai niunea e
ioae?inoe niaea?aeao neiaa Ieoeoa: oio, eoi eiaao ca/ai aeeoue, iiaeao
auianoe ethaia eae.

A yoie nayce eiaao aieueoia cia/aiea oai?ey e i?aeoeea eiaioa?aiee,
?ac?aaioaiiay A. O?aieeii. ?a/ue eae?o i oii, /oi nioeeaeueiay oeeinioey
aeieaeia ea?aoue aaeaioaoeeiiioth e aeeciaooaa?aeaeathuoth ?ieue ia
oieueei aeey eaaeaeiai ia?iaea, ii e eaaeaeiai /aeiaaea, niinianoaiaaoue
oi?ie?iaaieth aoiaienoe/aneeo oeaiiinoae e eaeaaeia, ooaa?aeaeaieth
iiceoeaiiai niunea e oeaee aeecie. Iia, oaeei ia?acii, i?ecaaia
inouanoaeyoue ooieoeeth eioaeeaeooaeueiie oa?aiee, eioi?ay iniaaiii
aaaeia a ia?eiaeu ianoaaeeueiiai ninoiyiey iauanoaa, eiaaea i?aaeiea
eoie?u e eaeaaeu ?ooaony, a iiaua ia oniaee noi?ie?iaaoueny eee
caaiaaaoue aaoi?eoao; eiaaea /aeiaa/aneia ninoiyiea iaoiaeeony a
iia?aie/iie neooaoeee, ia a?aie auoey eee iaauoey, e eaaeaeue aeieaeai
aeaeaoue naie iae?aeee auai?, eioi?ue ii?ie i?eaiaeeo e o?aae/aneie
?acaycea. Niaa?oaiii, ia neo/aeii, /oi aia?aua yoo eioaeeaeooaeueii
oa?aiaaoe/aneoth ooieoeeth oeeinioee auaeaeee Yieeo? eiaiii a ia?eiae
e?ecena e e?ooaiey ae?aaiaa?a/aneiai iieena. Ionou neiaa oiai oeeinioa,
ienae ii, eioi?uie ia a?a/oaony no?aaeaiea /aeiaaea. Eae io iaaeeoeeiu
iao ieeaeie iieuecu, anee iia ia ecaiiyao aieacie ec oaea, oae e io
oeeinioee, anee iia ia ecaiiyao aieacie aeooe.

Eiaioa?aiey, (io a?a/. Logos niune e therapeia ea/aiea) nicaeaiiay A.
O?aieeii, niiaea iiii/ue ieeeeiiai ethaeae. A? caaea/a ninoieo a oii,
/oiau ni?aaeoueny n oaie no?aaeaieyie, eioi?ua aucaaiu oeeinioneeie
i?iaeaiaie, iinoaaeaiiuie /aeiaa/aneie aeeciueth. Iacaaiea oai?ee
ia?aciaaii ii aiaeiaee n ineoioa?aieae. Iaeiaei o/?iue noaaeo
eiaioa?aieth ai?acaei auoa ii naiaio cia/aieth, eai /aeiaae, ii aai
iiaieth, yoi aieueoa, /ai ineoeea, yoi aeoo, eioi?ue i?ecaaia ea/eoue
oeeinioey. Eiaioa?aiey Aeeoi?a O?aieea noaaeo naiae caaea/ae iiii/ue
ia?anoe ethaeyi, ioaeaeathueiny a yoii, niune aeecie e oai naiui
ecea/eoue aeooo, eai ia oae oae no?aoia nia?oue, ii aieueoiio n/?oo, a
no?aoia aeeciue, eeoaiiay niunea.

Aeeoi? Yieeue O?aiee ?iaeeeny 26 ia?oa 1905 a. a Aaia, eioi?ay a oa
aiaeu auea i/aaii iiaaoi?neeo eaeae a ineoieiaee. A 1905 a. aeoeaii
ooieoeeiie?iaaei Aaineia ineoiaiaeeoe/aneia iauanoai ai aeaaa n
Ceaioiaeii O?aeaeii. A aai canaaeaieyo oaea i?eieiaee o/anoea Aeueo?aae
Aaeea? e Ea?e Aonoaa THia, eioi?ua naa?ioee n aei?iae ineoiaiaeeca e
ia/aee i?ieeaaeuaaoue naie i?eaeiaeueiua iooe a iaoea. A 1930 a. O?aiee
iieo/ee noaiaiue aeieoi?a iaaeeoeeiu, e ia/aeo aieiu auea caeii/aia
?oeiienue ia?aie eieae “A?a/aaaiea aeooe”. N 1942 ii 1945 o/?iue aue a
eiioeeaaa?yo, eiaiii oai iieo/ee i?iaa?eo e iiaeoaa?aeaeaiea aai acaeyae
ia /aeiaaea, e a?yae ee oaeanony iaeoe au? oioue iaeio oeeinioneoth eee
ineoieiae/aneoth oai?eth ee/iinoe, eioi?ay auea au a oaeie noaiaie ee/ii
auno?aaeaia e iiea/aia oaeie aei?iaie oeaiie. Aai eieae oeeinioneea,
ineoieiae/aneea, iaaeeoeeineea iiyaeythony iaeia ca ae?oaie: “…E an?
aea neacaoue aeecie Aea” (1946 a.), “Yecenoaioeeiiaeueiue aiaeec e
i?iaeaiu a?aiaie” (1947 a.), “A?aiy e ioaaonoaaiiinoue” (1947 a.),
“Ineoioa?aiey ia i?aeoeea” (1947 a.), “Iiaeniciaoaeueiue Aia” (1948 a.),
“Aaconeiaiue /aeiaae” (1949 a.), “*aeiaae no?aaeathuee” (1950a.). N 1947
a. ii ia/eiaao i?aiiaeaaaoue a Aaineii oieaa?neoaoa, a 1949 a. iieo/aao
noaiaiue aeieoi?a oeeinioee, a 1950 a. aicaeaaeyao aano?eeneia iauanoai
a?a/ae-ineoioa?aiaaoia. O?aiee iiiai acaeee ii ie?o, aue a Iineaa a
ia?oa 1985 a. e /eoae eaeoeee a IAO.

Aeaiiue nai?iee ioe?uaaaony noaoue?e “*aeiaae ia?aae aii?inii i niunea”,
a eioi?ie O?aiee iainiiauaaao nioeeaeueioth cia/eiinoue eiaioa?aiee eae
ineoioa?aiee iaoaai a?aiaie. O eaaeaeiai a?aiaie naie iaa?icu e
eaaeaeiio a?aiaie o?aaoaony naiy ineoioa?aiey, oae ia/eiaaony noaouey.
O?aiee aeaeaa iauyniyao, ii/aio ii nae/an aiai?eo ia yecenoaioeeaeueiii
aaeooia, eae aeoaeiiii /oanoaa oo?aou niunea, iuouaieai ionoiou. Anee ai
a?aiaia O?aeaea /aeiaae no?aaeae o?ono?aoeeae (?anno?ienoaii)
naenoaeueiuo iio?aaiinoae, oi naaiaeiy ii no?aaeaao o?ono?aoeeae
iio?aaiinoae yecenoaioeeaeueiuo, /oi aucuaaao iiiaaiiua iaa?icu,
i?ienoaeathuea ec oeaiiinoiuo eiioeeeoia oa?ucaiee niaanoe. Aaoi?
aeieacuaaao, /oi iio?aaiinoue e aii?in i niunea aeecie aicieeaao eiaiii
oiaaea, eiaaea /aeiaaeo aeea?ony ooaea iaeoaea. Naeaeaoaeuenoaii oiio
yaeythony oie?athuea ethaee ec /enea iaoeo iaoeeaioia, a oaeaea
ooeaeaaoea auaoea ocieee eiioeeaaa?ae e
eaaa?ae aeey aiaiiiieaiiuo. Oeeinio n/eoaao, /oi

iu caeanue ano?a/aainy n oaiiiaiii, eioi?ue yaeyaony ooiaeaiaioaeueiui
aeey iiieiaiey /aeiaaea: n naiio?ainoeaiaeaioeeae /aeiaa/aneiai
nouanoaiaaiey. Ca yoei iiiyoeai noieo oio oaeo, /oi /aeiaa/aneia auoea
anaaaea i?eaioe?iaaii aiaia ia ia/oi, /oi ia yaeyaony ei naiei, ia
/oi-oi eee ia eiai-oi: ia niune, eioi?ue iaiaoiaeeii inouanoaeoue, eee
ia ae?oaiai /aeiaaea, e eioi?iio iu oyiainy n ethaiaueth. O?aiee
ioia/aao au? i/aiue aaaeiue oaeo, /oi aa?anneaiua eiioeuenu
?ac?anoathony i?aaeaea anaai oai, aaea iaeeoei yecenoaioeeaeueiue
aaeooi. *oi oaeaea aa?ii ii ioiioaieth e i?anooiiinoe, iiaeao auoue
i?eiaiaii e e naenoaeueiinoe: eeoue a yecenoaioeeiiaeueiii aaeooia
iaae?aao neeo naenoaeueiia eeaeaei e /oi yoa aeia?o?ioey a oneiaeyo
aaeooia iiauoaao aioiaiinoue e iaa?ioe/aneei naenoaeueiui ?aaeoeeyi.
Neaaeoao iiiyoue, iiae/??eeaaao O?aiee, /oi /ai neeueiaa /aeiaae
no?aieony e ianeaaeaeaieth, oai neeueiaa iii io iaai oneieuecaao. O?aiee
nnueaaony ia neiaa Yeiooaeia, /oi oio, eoi iuouaao naith aeeciue
eeo?iiie niunea, ia oieueei ian/anoeea, ii e a?yae ee aeecianiiniaai.
Iiiuoea aea aeaoue /aeiaaeo niune, naaeanue au e ii?aeece?iaaieth, a
ii?aeue a noa?ii niunea neiaa oaea aeiaeeaaao naie aae. O?aiee /anoi
iiaoi?yao: niune iaeuecy aeaoue, aai ioaeii iaeoe. I?ioeann iaoiaeaeaiey
niunea iiaeiaai aini?eyoeth aaooaeueoa (oeaeinoiiai) … niune aeieaeai
auoue iaeaeai, ii ia iiaeao auoue nicaeai. Nicaeaoue iiaeii eeai
noauaeoeaiue niune, i?inoia iuouaiea niunea, eeai aanniuneeoeo. Ii
aianoa n oai niune ia oieueei aeieaeai, ii e iiaeao auoue iaeaeai, e a
iieneao niunea /aeiaaea iai?aaeyao aai niaanoue. Iaeiei neiaii, niaanoue
anoue i?aai niunea, ii aeaaea niaanoue aea?aeeo /aeiaaea a
iaecaanoiinoe oiai, iinoea ee ii niune naiae aeecie. Oi, /oi iu aeaaea
ia iaoai nia?oiii iae?a ia ociaai, ia aaea ee ian iaoa niaanoue i?aai
niunea ii eiaeiiio iooe, icia/aao, /oi iaeiiio /aeiaaeo ia aeaii
ciaoue, aue ee i?aa ae?oaie, iinooiay ii naiae niaanoe. Enoeia iiaeao
auoue eeoue iaeia, iaeiaei ieeoi ia iiaeao iioaanoaoueny ciaieai, /oi
yoie enoeiie iaeaaeaao eiaiii ii e ieeoi ae?oaie.

A aae, eiaaea aeanyoue caiiaaaeae, ii-aeaeeiiio, oaea iioa?yee aeey
iiiaeo naith neeo, /aeiaae aeieaeai auoue i?eaioiaeai e oiio, /oiau
aini?eiyoue 10000 caiiaaaeae, caeeth/?iiuo a 10000 neooaoeee, n eioi?uie
noaeeeaaao aeeciue, a yoii oaaaeae?i aaoi?. Ii a aeecie ia nouanoaoao
neooaoeee, eioi?ua au auee aeaenoaeoaeueii eeoaiu niunea. Iiyoiio
no?aaeaiea caeeth/aao a naaa aiciiaeiinoue niunea, o. e. inouanoaeyy
niune, /aeiaae ?aaeecoao nai naay. Inouanoaeyy aea niune, caeeth/?iiue a
no?aaeaiee, iu ?aaeecoai naiia /aeiaa/aneia a /aeiaaea.

O/aiea i niunea aeecie o/eo, /oi niune aeinooiai ethaiio /aeiaaeo.
Iaeiaei iaoiaeaeaiea niunea yoi aii?in ia iiciaiey, a i?ecaaiey. Ia
/aeiaae noaaeo aii?in i niunea

naiae aeecie, aeeciue noaaeo yoio aii?in ia?aae iaie, e /aeiaaeo
i?eoiaeeony aaeaaeiaaii e aaea/anii ioaa/aoue ia iaai ia neiaaie, a
aeaenoaeyie. Niune ia noauaeoeaai, /aeiaae ia ecia?aoaao aai, a iaoiaeeo
a ie?a, a iauaeoeaiie aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, eiaiii iiyoiio ii aunooiaao
aeey /aeiaaea eae eiia?aoea, o?aaothuee naiae ?aaeecaoeee. A
ineoieiae/aneie aea no?oeoo?a ee/iinoe O?aiee auaeaeyao iniaia,
iiyoe/aneia ecia?aiea, a eioi?ii eieaeeciaai niune. Yoi ecia?aiea, eae
yanoaoao ec iino?iaiiie O?aieeii /?acau/aeii iaaeyaeiie aeeiaiceiiiie
iioieiaee, ianaiaeeii e ecia?aieyi aeieiae/aneiai e ineoieiae/aneiai
nouanoaiaaiey /aeiaaea; niioaaonoaaiii, niuneiaay ?aaeueiinoue ia
iiaeaea?ony iauyniaieth /a?ac ineoieiae/aneea e oai aieaa aeieiae/aneea
iaoaieciu e ia iiaeao eco/aoueny o?aaeeoeeiiiuie ineoieiae/aneeie
iaoiaeaie.

Ooaa?aeaeay oieeaeueiinoue e iaiiaoi?eiinoue niunea, O?aiee oai ia
iaiaa, ioaa?aaao iaeioi?ua ec oeeinioee aeecie. Oae niuneii aeecie ia
iiaeao auoue ianeaaeaeaiea, eai iii anoue aioo?aiiaa ninoiyiea /aeiaaea
(noauaeoa). Ii oie aea eiaeea /aeiaae ia iiaeao no?aieoueny e n/anoueth,
ii iiaeao eneaoue eeoue i?e/eiu aeey n/anouey. Aeaeaa ii aaiaeeo
i?aaenoaaeaiea i oeaiiinoyo aeecie niuneiauo oieaa?naeeyo: oeaiiinoe
oai?/anoaa, oeaiiinoe ia?aaeeaaiey e oeaiiinoe ioiioaiey.

I?ei?eoao i?eiaaeeaaeeo oeaiiinoyi oai?/anoaa, iniiaiui ioo?i
?aaeecaoeee eioi?uo yaeyaony o?oae. I?e yoii niune e oeaiiinoue
i?eia?aoaao o?oae /aeiaaea eae aai aeeaae a aeeciue iauanoaa, a ia
i?inoi eae aai caiyoea. Oeaiiinoe oai?/anoaa yaeythony iaeaieaa
aaaeiuie, ii iaiaoiaeeiuie. Ec /enea oeaiiinoae ia?aaeeaaiey O?aiee
iiae?iaii inoaiaaeeaaaony ia ethaae. Aianoa n oai e ethaiaue ia yaeyaony
iaiaoiaeeiui oneiaeai eee eo/oei aa?eaioii iniuneaiiie aeecie.
Eiaeeaeae, eioi?ue, ieeiaaea ia ethaee e ia aue ethaei, oai ia iaiaa,
iiaeao noi?ie?iaaoue naith aeeciue aanueia iniuneaiiui ia?acii.

Iiaecia iiaeoiaea O?aieea naycaiu n o?aoueae a?oiiie oeaiiinoae
oeaiiinoyie ioiioaiey. E yoei oeaiiinoyi /aeiaaeo i?eoiaeeony
i?eaaaaoue, eiaaea ii ieacuaaaony ai aeanoe ianoiyoaeuenoa, eioi?ua ii
ia a ninoiyiee eciaieoue. AEeciue /aeiaaea nio?aiyao naie niune aei
eiioea aei iineaaeiaai aeuoaiey.

I?aaeeueiie iinoaiiaeie aii?ina yaeyaony, niaeanii O?aieeo, ia aii?in i
niunea aeecie aiiaua, a aii?in i eiie?aoiii niunea aeecie aeaiiie
ee/iinoe a aeaiiue iiiaio, eai eaaeaeay neooaoeey ian?o a naaa naie
niune, ?aciue aeey ?aciuo ethaeae, ii aeey eaaeaeiai ii yaeyaony
aaeeinoaaiiui e aaeeinoaaiii enoeiiui. Ia oieueei io ee/iinoe e
ee/iinoe, ii e io neooaoeee e neooaoeee yoio niune iaiyaony.

Iniiaiie oacen O?aieea: aeeciue /aeiaaea ia iiaeao eeoeoueny niunea ie
i?e eaeeo ianoiyoaeuenoaao; niune aeecie anaaaea iiaeao auoue iaeaeai.

Iniiaiie oacen o?aoueaai o/aiey O?aieea o/aiey i naiaiaea aiee aeaneo,
/oi /aeiaae naiaiaeai iaeoe e ?aaeeciaaoue niune aeecie, aeaaea anee aai
naiaiaea caiaoii ia?aie/aia iauaeoeaiuie ianoiyoaeuenoaaie. I?eciaaay
i/aaeaeioth aeaoa?ieie?iaaiiinoue (iaoneiaeaiiinoue) /aeiaa/aneiai
iiaaaeaiey, O?aiee io?eoeaao aai iaiaeaoa?ieie?iaaiiinoue
(naa?oiaoneiaeaiiinoue). Iaiaoiaeeiinoue e naiaiaea eieaeeciaaiu ia ia
iaeiii o?iaia; naiaiaea aicauoaaony, iaaeno?iaia iaae ethaie
iaiaoiaeeiinoueth. Naiaiaea ii ioiioaieth e aea/aieyi i?iyaeyaony a
aiciiaeiinoe neacaoue ei iao, i?eiyoue eee ioaa?aiooue eo. Aeaaea eiaaea
/aeiaae aeaenoaoao iiae aeeyieai iaiin?aaenoaaiiie iio?aaiinoe, ii
iicaieyao ae ii?aaeaeeoue nai? iiaaaeaiea e nio?aiyao naiaiaeo ia
iicaieeoue yoiai. Aiaeiae/iui ia?acii ianoieo aeaei e oiaaea, eiaaea
?a/ue eae?o i aeaoa?ieiaoeee /aeiaa/aneiai iiaaaeaiey oeaiiinoyie eee
ii?aeueiuie ii?iaie, /aeiaae iicaieyao eee ia iicaieyao naaa auoue eie
aeaoa?ieie?iaaiiui. Naiaiaea ii ioiioaieth e ianeaaenoaaiiinoe yoi
ioiioaiea e iae eae e iaoa?eaeo, aiciiaeiinoue naiaiaeiiai aeooa
no?ieoue ec yoiai iaoa?eaea oi, /oi aio iaiaoiaeeii. O?aiee
oa?aeoa?ecoao i?aaieci eae eino?oiaio, eae n?aaenoai, eioi?ui
iieuecoaony ee/iinoue aeey ?aaeecaoeee naieo oeaeae. Iioiaeea ioiioaiey
nouanoaotho iaaeaeo ee/iinoueth e oa?aeoa?ii, eioi?ue nai ii naaa ia
ii?aaaeuaaao iiaaaeaiey. Iai?ioea, a caaeneiinoe io ee/iinoe oa?aeoa?
iiaeao i?aoa?iaaaoue eciaiaiey eee nio?aieoue naith iaeciaiiinoue.
Naiaiaea /aeiaaea ii ioiioaieth e aiaoiei ianoiyoaeuenoaai oioy e
iaaani?aaeaeueia, ii nouanoaoao, au?aaeaynue a aiciiaeiinoe caiyoue ii
ioiioaieth e iei oo eee eioth iiceoeeth. Oai naiui naii aeeyiea
ianoiyoaeuenoa ia /aeiaaea ii?aaeaeyaony iiceoeeae /aeiaaea ii
ioiioaieth e iei. *aeiaae naiaiaeai aeaaiaea?y oiio, /oi aai iiaaaeaiea
ii?aaeaeyaony i?aaeaea anaai, oeaiiinoyie e niuneaie, eieaeeciaaiiuie a
iiyoe/aneii ecia?aiee e ia eniuouaathueie aeaoa?ieie?othueo aicaeaenoaee
ni noi?iiu ?anniio?aiiuo auoa oaeoi?ia. *aeiaae yoi aieueoa, /ai
ineoeea; /aeiaae yoi aeoo. A yoii nai?i ea/anoaa /aeiaae
oa?aeoa?ecoaony aeaoiy ooiaeaiaioaeueiuie iioieiae/aneeie
oa?aeoa?enoeeaie: niiniaiinoue e naiio?ainoeaiaeaioeee e niiniaiinoueth
e naiiiono?aiaieth. Ia?aay au?aaeaaony a iinoiyiiii auoiaea /aeiaaea ca
i?aaeaeu naiiai naay, a iai?aaeaiiinoe aai ia /oi-oi, nouanoaothuaa aia
iaai. Aoi?ay au?aaeaaony a aiciiaeiinoe /aeiaaea iiaeiyoueny iaae niaie
e iaae neooaoeeae, iiniio?aoue ia naay ni noi?iiu. Yoe aeaa niiniaiinoe
iicaieytho /aeiaaeo auoue (ia aaniethoii, a a ii?aaeae?iiuo i?aaeaeao)
naiiaeaoa?ieie?othueiny nouanoaii.

Aaaeiui aii?inii o/aiey i naiaiaea aiee yaeyaony aii?in, aeey /aai
/aeiaae iaeaaeaao naiaiaeie, niune naiaeeony e oiio yoi naiaiaea acyoue
ia naay ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca naith noaeueao, naiaiaea neooaoue naith
niaanoue e i?eieiaoue ?aoaiey i naiae noaeueaa. Yoi naiaiaea
eciaiyoueny, naiaiaea io oiai, /oiau auoue eiaiii oaeei, e naiaiaea
noaoue ae?oaei.

O?aiee ii?aaeaeyao /aeiaaea eae nouanoai, eioi?ia iinoiyiii ?aoaao, /ai
ii aoaeao a neaaeothuee iiiaio. Naiaiaea yoi ia oi, /oi ii eiaao, a oi,
/oi ii anoue. *aeiaae ?aoaao ca naay; ethaia ?aoaiea anoue ?aoaiea ca
naay, a ?aoaiea ca naay anaaaea oi?ie?iaaiea naay.

I?eiyoea oaeiai ?aoaiey aeo ia oieueei naiaiaeu, ii e ioaaonoaaiiinoe.
Naiaiaea, eeo?iiay ioaaonoaaiiinoe, au?iaeaeaaony a i?iecaie. Yoa
ioaaonoaaiiinoue nii?yaeaia n a?aiaiai auai?a /aeiaaeii, eaeea oayueany
a ie?a e a i?i naiii aiciiaeiinoe caneoaeeaatho ?aaeecaoeee, a eaeea
iao. Yoi ioaaonoaaiiinoue /aeiaaea ca aooaioe/iinoue (iiaeeeiiinoue) aai
auoey, ca i?aaeeueiia iaoiaeaeaiea e ?aaeecaoeeth ei niunea naiae
aeecie. Ii nooe, yoi ioaaonoaaiiinoue /aeiaaea ca naith aeeciue.
I?iaeaia ioaaonoaaiiinoe yaeyaony oceiaie i?iaeaiie eiaioa?aiee.

Ianeieueei neia i nianoaaiii ineoioa?aiaaoe/aneii aniaeoa eiaioa?aiee.
Nouanoaotho niaoeeoe/aneay e ianiaoeeoe/aneay noa?u eiaioa?aiee.
Niaoeeoe/aneie noa?ie yaeythony iiiaaiiua iaa?icu, ii?iaeae?iiua oo?aoie
niunea aeecie. A yoeo neo/ayo eniieuecoaony iaoiaeeea nie?aoe/aneiai
aeeaeiaa, iicaieythuay iiaeoieeiooue iaoeeaioa e ioe?uoeth ei aeey naay
aaeaeaaoiiai niunea. Aieueooth ?ieue ea?aao i?e yoii ee/iinoue naiiai
ineoioa?aiaaoa, oioy iaaycuaaiea ei naieo niuneia iaaeiionoeii.
Ianiaoeeoe/aneay noa?a i?eiaiaiey eiaioa?aiee yoi ineoioa?aiey ?aciiai
?iaea caaieaaaiee n iiiiuueth iaoiaeia, iino?iaiiuo ia niioaaonoaothuai
iiaeoiaea e /aeiaaeo. Iaoaieci aeaenoaey yoeo oaoiee iniiauaaaony ia
aeaoo iacaaiiuo auoa ooiaeaiaioaeueiuo iioieiae/aneeo oa?aeoa?enoeeao
/aeiaaea: niiniaiinoe e niiiiono?aiaieth e naiio?ainoeaiaeaioeee.

Yecenoaioeeaeenoneay i?eaioaoeey O?aieea ianiiiaiia. Iniiaiie oacen
yecenoaioeeaeenoneie oeeinioee nouanoaiaaiea i?aaeoanoaoao nouiinoe
iaoiaeeo a ?aaioao O?aieea iineaaeiaaoaeueiia, i?iaeoiaiiia e
i?eaeiaeueiia aiieiuaiea. Aianoa n oai e ?yaeo iieiaeaiee
yecenoaioeeaeecia O?aiee ioiineony aieaa /ai e?eoe/anee. O?aiee
a?aoiaioe?iaaii ionoaeaaao iiceoeeth, /oi ie? ia naiaeeony e iaoei
noauaeoeaiui i?iaeoai, a nouanoaoao iauaeoeaii e iacaaeneii io ian.
Yecenoaioeeaeueiue aiaeec O?aieea aia?ae a naay, iiieii
yecenoaioeeaeenoneeo eaeae, iiiaia ec aeiaieueii ?aciuo oeeinioneeo
oa/aiee iaoaai noieaoey, aeeth/ay e Ieoeoa, e Aa?oiaia, e Eaieia, e
iiiaia ae?oaia.

A naieo ineoiaiaeeoe/aneeo eaeayo, iaoiaeieiae/aneii iiaeoiaea e
ee/iinoe, O?aiee noaiiaeony aaeeiiiuoeaiieeii ?onneeo ineoieiaia
Auaioneiai, N.E. ?oaeiooaeia, A.I. Eaiioueaaa. A nai?i e?aoeii
i?aaeeneiaee io aaoi?a O?aiee oeacuaaao, /oi ia iaai ia?iiiia aeeyiea
ieacaee ni/eiaiey oaeeo ?onneeo ienaoaeae, eae O. I. Aeinoiaaneiai
e E. I. Oienoiai (eioi?uo ii iinoiyiii oeeoe?oao a naieo o?oaeao).

Eeoa?aoo?a:

A. O?aiee, *aeiaae a iieneao niunea, Iineaa, Ecae. I?ia?ann, 1990a.

Caeeth/aiea

Aeiionoei, /oi niune aeecie /aeiaaea ninoieo a ?acaeoee /aeiaaea eae
naiioeaee, aai ananoi?iiiai niaa?oainoaiaaiee. Eae ienae Eaio,
nouanoaiaaiea /aeiaaea eiaao a naaa naiii aunooth oeaeue, eioi?ie
ianeieueei yoi a aai neeao, ii iiaeao iiae/eieoue anth i?e?iaeo.
(Eaio E. Ni/. A 6 o. I, 1966: O.5 n. 469) E yoie oi/ea c?aiey
aieioioth i?eaeeceeny A. Eaith, n/eoaaoee, /oi ie? aano?aeai e ia eiaao
niunea. ss i?iaeieaeath aeoiaoue, ienae ii, /oi a yoii ie?a iao
aunoaai niunea. Ii y ciath, /oi eia-/oi a i?i an?-oaee eiaao niune, e
yoi /aeiaae, iineieueeo ii iaeei niunea acuneoao. (Eaith A. Ec
oeeinioneie yoeee; Aii?inu eeoa?aoo?u, 1980, ? 2, n. 179) E yoiio
aii?ino, iaeiaei, neaaeoao aeiaaaeoue, /oi iineieueeo /aeiaae ii naiae
nooe nouanoai iauanoaaiiia, iiyoiio e niune aai aeecie iiaeao auoue
iaeaeai oieueei ia iooe nii?yaeaiey eioa?ania e oeaeae iauanoaa e
ee/iinoe. Iauiinoue eiaeeaeaea e ?iaea, ee/iinoe e nioeeoia aea?o
iniiaaiea iioeienoe/anee niio?aoue ia auoea /aeiaaea a ie?a e niune aai
aeecie.

Anee eiaoue a aeaeo eiaeeaeaeoaeueiue iiaeoiae e ii?aaeaeaieth niunea
/aeiaa/aneie aeecie, oi ii yoiio iiaeoiaeo oioaeinue au neacaoue
neaaeothuaa. Ii?aaeaeeoue ee/iinoiue niune aeecie yoi cia/eo iniuneeoue
aeeciue ai anae a? nooe e aieueoii ieaia; yoi cia/eo iauynieoue, /oi a
iae iiaeeeiiia, a /oi iieiia; yoi cia/eo, iaeiiaoe ii?aaeaeeoue ia
oieueei iniiaiua caaea/e e oeaee aeecie, ii e ?aaeueiua n?aaenoaa eo
inouanoaeaiey. Ii iiaieth N.E. ?oaeiooaeia, an? yoi aaneiia/ii
i?aainoiaeeo anyeoth o/?iinoue e naycaii n ae?aaioeaiiui e ?aaeeei
naienoaii ioae?inoueth.

I?eaieaii e aeiionoeii iaeii naiia aeaaiia yoi iinoiyiiue ?ino
ee/iinoe, naiiniceaeaiea, no?aieaiea e oece/aneiio eioaeeaeooaeueiiio,
yiioeeiiaeueii-/oanoaaiiiio e aeooiaiiio niaa?oainoaiaaieth. Eoi iiaeao
?aaeeciaaoue naay a aeeciue, eoi iiaeao i?eaeaoue naie niune aeecie?
Oieueei ee/iinoue. Neea ee/iinoe ia eiaao ie/aai iauaai n ainiiaenoaii.
Ainiiaenoai ee/iinoe neiioii a? neaainoe, nioeeaeueiia ii?iaeaeaiea
iaaaaeanoaa, no?aoa e yaiecia. Neea ee/iinoe, iai?ioea, iniiaaia ia
ciaiee, niaeinoe e nio?oaeie/anoaa. Neea ee/iinoe neiiiei ioae?inoe,
iiuo, aeiauoue na?aeoeai e oaai/aiiue eioaeeaeoii. Neea ee/iinoe
aeeoioee?oaony a oa/aiea anae aeecie, iia niae?aaony ii ee?ie/eeai ec
eaaeaeiaeiaaiiai iiuoa e noieo ia iniiaiuo eeoao: aeaeaiee i?aiaeieaoue
o?oaeiinoe, naiieiio?iea, aa?iiiee. Eai eaaeaeia eniuoaiea, iinoeaoaa
neeueioth ee/iinoue, iaeiia?aiaiii e iiaeno?aeaaao e i?aaeinoa?aaaao. A
/oi oaeia naiieiio?ieue? Naiieiio?ieue yoi niciaoaeueiia, oai?/aneia
eniieueciaaiea aeeciaiiie yia?aee ia aieaa aunieii o?iaia. Eniuoaiey
nicaeatho ia?iiiia iiea aeayoaeueiinoe aeey o?aie?iaee a naiieiio?iea
eiaaea, iai?eia?, ?acae?aaeaiea e aiaa niaiythony niieienoaeai e
oa?iaieai, caaenoue aeia?iaeaoaeueth, eiaa?noai aaeeeiaeooeai,
aeanoieinoue ieeina?aeeai, iaoa?ieiinoue nino?aaeaieai, neainen
iaaeaaeaeie, aacaeaeuea eieoeeaoeaiinoueth. Ioae?aa i?aiaeieaoue naiue
nia?oiuo a?aoia: ai?aeuith, eciaia-eiaeue, aeaaeiinoue, iioioue, aiaa,
/?aaioaiaeea, caaenoue, eaiue e i?eaeeceoueny e /aou??i aeaaiui
aeia?iaeaoaeyi: aeaai?acoiea, o?aa?inoue, oia?aiiinoe ai an?i,
ni?aaaaeeeainoe. Iaeaii ii?iaa?aaoue noa?oth, aa?aeneoth iineiaeoeo, oi
?aeaaaao io ceinoe. Aeieoi? Aain Naeuea iaia?oaeee, /oi naiui iiuiui
enoi/ieeii oeceieiae/aneeo neiioiiia no?anna yaeythony iaaaoeaiua iunee
e /oanoaa. Iniiaioth caueoo io yoeo neiioiiia Naeuea aeaeeo a iiceoeaiuo
yiioeeyo. Ethaiaue, aa?a, ioaaaa, aeaaiaea?iinoue e aeiaa?ea
aeoeaece?otho aeayoaeueiinoue ueoiaeaeiie aeaeacu e iiauoaao aeeciaiioth
yia?aeth. Aunoaa n/anouea aeaaaoue ethaiaue: oio, eoi ethaeo n/anoeeaaa
oiai, eoi ethaei, eo/oa aeaaaoue, /ai a?aoue. Yaienoe/iue, ianiiniaiue e
ethaae /aeiaae, ia?aeaao naay ia aac?aaeinoiia iaeeii/anoai e
ecieyoeeth.

Iiieiaao enoeiiue niune aeecie eeoue oio /aeiaae, eioi?ue aeiaeaaaony
iinoaaeaiiie oeaee, eai ii iiaeao aea?ciiaaiii iuneeoue e aeaenoaiaaoue
aac iaeaeoeo eieaaaiee, a ia aeaeeia nouanoai, n iio?aaiinoyie,
ia?aie/aiiuie ieioneeie aiaeaeaeaieyie. Ia iaaei ooiaeeoue io
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, iaaei o/eoueny aeeoue a iae. Ieeoi au? ia iao?e
niune aeecie a ia?eioeeao, aacoaea?aeiii iueyinoaa, ?aca?aoa, naena,
aeaaeiinoe, ei?unoe, iioioe aeanoaiaaiey, caaenoe, ceiaiinoe, neeiiiinoe
e ianeeeth, /oi a oeaeii i?eaiaeeo e ?ac?ooaieth ee/iinoe, i?aanoaaiiiio
e oece/aneiio no?aaeaieth. Oeeinioey aea aeecie oaiaeeo /aeiaaea ec aai
iooieythuae eieae iauaeaiiinoe, iaeaiinoe ee/iiai auoey, io
iaiaoiaeeiinoe caaiou i oeaaa ianouiii, io aa/iiai oieaeathuaai
inoi?iaeie/aiey a aeecie, /oi ia?auaao aeeciaiioth yia?aeth a i?ao, io
iauai?eiyouo aeeoaeneeo i?aaae, iiiyoee; iunee oeeinioia iiaeaeaatho
/aeiaaea e naiaiaea; naiaiaeiui aea /aeiaaeii iacuaaaony ia o/anoiee
ai?ueau ca naiaiaeo, ii oio, eoi oiaao oioaoue, aeaenoaiaaoue, aea?caoue
nai. N ae?oaie noi?iiu, naiaiaea iaeaaaao ia /aeiaaea ae?noeoth
ioaaonoaaiiinoue ia?aae caeiiii, iauanoaii, eaaeaeiio neaaeoao iiiieoue,
/oi aeey ?acoiiuo e naiaiaeiuo ethaeae caeii yoi Aia, aeey ia?acoiiuo
oaeiaieuenoaea.

Oianoii aniiiieoue Nieiiiia:

Ecaaaae ianeaaeaeaiee, iie ii?iaeaeatho oineo

*oi i?ae?aniaa anaai aa?iiiey

*oi neeueiaa anaai iuneue

*oi eo/oa anaai aeaaeainoai.

Aeaeeia?aoe/aneee nienie eeoa?aoo?u

Aeaeey. A 2-o o. – E., 1990.

Aii?inu oeeinioee.-1992.- ? 3.

Aii?inu oeeinioee.- 1990.- ? 7.

Aaeaeoeiiia A.A., Ieeaiae?ia I.O. ?onneay oeeinioey 9-19 aa. – E.,
1989.

Aaeaae Ae. AEeciue O?eae?eoa Ieoeoa.- Iiaineae?ne, 1992.

Aa?ei E. Aine?aoaiea aeooa – I., 1992.

Aeinoiaaneee O.I. Iiei. nia?. ni/. A 30 o. – E., 1981.

AEeciue caiiay e iineaaeothuay. – I.: Iieeo. eeo., 1991.

Caiueeianeee A.A. Enoi?ey ?onneie oeeinioee. A 4-o /. – E., 1991.

Ia?neee E.N. Caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneay oeeinioey 19 a. – I., 1976.

Iiaai?iaeoeaa I.E. Ia iauanoaaiiii eaeaaea. – I., 1991.

Eaiioueaa E.I. Iiiaieeeay ?onue. – Ni-I.: Ecae. *a?iuoaaa, 1993.

Einneee I.I. Enoi?ey ?onneie oeeinioee. – I.: Aunoay oeiea, 1991.

?iaeaea?n Ea?e ?. Acaeyae ia ineoioa?aieth. Noaiiaeaiea /aeiaaea. – I.:
I?ia?ann, 1994.

?icaiia A.A. Oaaeeiaiiia. – I., 1991.

Niune aeecie a ?onneie oeeinioee. Eii. 19 – ia/. 20 aaea / Ioa. ?aae.
Caiaeaaa A.O.; Ni-I.: Iaoea, 1995.

Nioeeaeueiay oeeinioey / Iiae ?aae. A.I. Eaa?eiaiei. – I., 1995.

Oienoie E.I. Ni/. A 22-o o. – I., 1985.

O?aie N.E. Aeooiaiua iniiau iauanoaa. – I.: Ecae. “?anioaeeea”, 1992.

O?aiee A. *aeiaae a iieneao niunea. – I.: I?ia?ann, 1990.

O?iii Y. Aaanoai io naiaiaeu. – I.: I?ia?ann, 1990.

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