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Шпаргалка по философии

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01.1. Nouiinoue ie?iaicc?aiey. Enoi?e/aneea oeiu ie?iaicc?aiey: ieo,
?aeeaey, oeeinioey.

Ie?iaicc?aiea – niaieoiiinoue acaeyaeia, ioeaiie, i?eioeeiia,
ii?aaeaeythueo naiia iauaa aeaeaiea, iiieiaiea ie?a, ianoa a iai
/aeiaaea e aianoa n oai aeeciaiiua iiceoeee, i?ia?aiiu iiaaaeaiey,
aeaenoaee ethaeae. A ie?iaicc?aiee a iaiauaiiii aeaea i?aaenoaaeaiu
iiciaaaoaeueiay, oeaiiinoiay e iiaaaeai/aneea iiaenenoaiu.

Ie?iaicc?aiea – neiaeiia acaeiiaeaenoaea eioaeeaeooaeueiuo e
yiioeeiiaeueiuo eiiiiiaioia, ie?iiuouaiey e ie?iiiieiaiey.

Ie?iaicc?aiea – niaieoiiinoue ?acoeueoaoia iaoaoece/aneiai iuoeaiey e
enneaaeiaaiee, i?e/ai iaoaoeceea iiieiaaony eae iaoea, eioi?ay
iauaaeeiyo a aaeeiia oeaeia oi?iu iiciaiey ie?a:

?acee/iua anoanoaaiiua aeaeu ie?iaicc?aiey;

oeeinioeth no?aiyuothny e ai?ei?iiio ciaieth (ciaieth ia caaenyuaio io
eie-aa eiaeoeoeaiuo enneaaeiaaiee);

?acoeueoaou eiie?aoiuo iaoe

Ieoieiaey – oi?ia iauanoaaiiiai niciaiey, niinia iiieiaiey ie?a,
oa?aeoa?iue aeey ?aiieo noaaeee iauanoaaiiiai ?acaeoey. Ieo iauaaeeiye a
naaa ca/aoee ciaiee, ?aeeaeiciuo aa?iaaiee, iieeoe/aneeo acaeyaeia,
?aciuo aeaeia eneonnoaa, oeeinioee.

?aeeaey – ie?iaicc?aiea, a eioi?ii inaiaiea ie?a inouanoaeyaony /a?ac
aai oaeaiaiea ia iinthnoi?iiiee – “caiiie”, anoanoaaiiue, aini?eieiaaiue
i?aaiaie /oanoa, e iinthnoi?iiiee – “iaaaniue”, naa?ouanoanoaaiiue,
naa?o/oanoaaiiue.

Aa?a – niinia nouanoaiaaiey ?aeeaeiciiai niciaiey, iniaia iano?iaiea,
ia?aaeeaaiea, oa?aeoa?ecothuea aai aioo?aiiaa ninoiyiea. Eoeueo –
nenoaia ooaa?aeeaoeony ?eooaeia, aeiaiaoia.

Aia – aunoaa nouanoai, aeinoieiia iieeiiaieth.

Oeeinioey – “ethaiaue e ioae?inoe” (Ieoaai?, 5 a aei i.y.) –
oai?aoe/anee noi?ioee?iaaiiia ie?iaicc?aiea, nenoaia naiuo iaueo
oai?aoe/aneeo acaeyaeia ia ie?, ianoi a iai /aeiaaea, o/aiea ?acee/iuo
oi?i ioiioaiey /aeiaaea e ie?o.

01.2. Iiiyoea auoey e aai ?acaeoea eae enoiaeiie eaoaai?ee oeeinioee.
Niaoeeoeea /aeiaa/aneiai auoey.

Eaoaai?ey auoey, aunooiay i?aaeaeueii iauae aano?aeoeeae, iauaaeeiyao ii
i?eciaeo nouanoaiaaiey naiua ?acee/iua yaeaiey, i?aaeiaou e i?ioeannu:
i?e?iaeiua iauaeou, eo naienoaa, nayce e ioiioaiey, /aeiaa/aneea
eieeaeoeau e ioaeaeueiuo ethaeae, nioeeaeueiua einoeooou, ninoiyiey
/aeiaa/aneiai niciaiey e o.ae.

Ia?iaieae iaeiei ec ia?auo a aa?iiaeneie iunee aaae e noae oiio?aaeyoue
oeeinioneia iiiyoea auoey a aai iauai, aano?aeoiii cia/aiee. Ii
ecia?aaeae aai a aeaea iaeiaai naiiai aieueoiai oa?iia?aciiai “oooey?a”,
aiauathuaai ana, /oi nouanoaoao a ie?a.

Aeaiie?eo ooaa?aeaeae, /oi auoea – yoi aoiiu.

Ieaoii io?uaae anaiauea nayce ie?a io naiiai ie?a e i?aa?auae auoea a
eaeath, aaaeouoth naiinoiyoaeueioth aeeciue aaea-oi “ia o?aaoa iaaa”.

Iniiaiua oi?iu auoey:

auoea aauae (oae), i?ioeannia (i?e?iaeiia auoea);

auoea /aeiaaea;

auoea aeooiaiiai (eaeaaeueiiai);

auoea nioeeaeueiiai.

Auoea /aeiaaea:

auoea /aeiaaea a ie?a aauae

niaoeeoe/aneia /aeiaa/aneia auoea

Auoea /aeiaaea- auoea oieeaeueiia, iaeiaei anoue noi?iiu nouanoaiaaiey
iauea aeey /aeiaaea e i?e?iaeu. *aeiaae nouanoaoao eae eiie?aoiue
eiaeeaeae; i?aaeiinueeie aai nouanoaiaaiey yaeyaony aeeciue aai oaea.
Oaei /aeiaaea anoue oaei aai i?e?iaeu . Iaee/ea oaea aeaeaao aai
eiia/iui, nia?oiui. A /aeiaa/aneii auoea ia?ae/ia i?aaeiinueea
nouanoaiaaiey oaea ec /aai neaaeoao aai iiaeaeanoiinoue caeiiai
ianeaaenoaaiiinoe e i?e?iaeu.

Iniaaiiinoue /aeiaa/aneiai nouanoaiaaiey ninoieo a aicieeiiaaiee
niaoeeoe/aneie, oieeaeueiie aeey aeeaie i?e?iaeu, “iaaeanoeie” e
iaoieaa?naeueiie aeaoa?ieiaoeee auoey /aeiaaea ni noi?iiu aai oaea.
Iaaeanoeinoue i?iyaeyaony a niiniaiinoe ?aaoee?iaaoue, eiio?iee?iaaoue
naie ooiaeaiaioaeueiua iio?aaiinoe, oaeiaeaoai?yy eo ia a i?inoii
niioaaonoaee n iiaaeaieyie i?e?iaeu, a a i?aaeaeao e oi?iao,
ii?aaeaeyaiuo iauanoaii, enoi?eae, nianoaaiiie aieae e niciaieai.
Iaoieaa?naeueiinoue aea ninoieo a oii, /oi iiiaea aeaenoaey /aeiaaea
?aaoee?othony aeooiaii-i?aanoaaiiuie, nioeeaeueiuie iioeaaie
(aea?oaaiiua iinooiee).

01.3. Iauanoai eae oeaeinoiay nenoaia acaeiiaeaenoaey ethaeae.
Nioeeaeueiia i?ino?ainoai e nioeeaeueiia a?aiy

// “Iniiau oeeinioneeo ciaiee” no?.69

// Eaeoeee

A aeecie iu ano?a/aainy ni iiiaeie oi?iaie nouanoaiaaiey ethaeae a
iauanoaa: naiuey, o/aaiay a?oiia, o?oaeiaie eieeaeoea, nii?oeaiia
iauanoai, iieeoe/aneay ia?oey, ?aeeaeiciay iaueia, iaoeey, ainoaea?noai
e o.ae. Iu ioee/aai yoe oi?iu iauanoaaiiie aeecie ethaeae ae?oa io
ae?oaa ii iiiaei iniiaaieyi, a oii /enea ii oneiaeyi e niiniaai
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey e ?acaeoey ii?aaeaeaiiiai oeia eo auoey a iauanoaa.

Nouanoaotho ?acee/iua eiioeaiooaeueiua iiaeoiaeu e eaoaai?ee “iauanoai”:

1. “aoiienoe/aneay oai?ey”, niaeanii eioi?ie iauanoai iiieiaaony eae
niaieoiiinoue ee/iinoae eee ioiioaiee iaaeaeo ieie.

2. oai?ey Aai?aa Ceiiaey: “iauanoai” i?aaenoaaeyao niaie acaeiiaeaenoaea
eiaeeaeaeia. Acaeiiaeaenoaea anaaaea neeaaeuaaaony aneaaenoaea
ii?aaeaeaiiuo aea/aiee eee ?aaee ii?aaeaeaiiuo oeaeae.

3. a oai?eyo “nioeeaeueiuo a?oii” iauanoai eioa?i?aoe?oaony eae
niaieoiiinoue ?acee/iuo ia?anaeathueony a?oii, eioi?ua yaeythony
?aciiaeaeiinoyie iaeiie aeiieie?othuae a?oiiu.

Nouanoaoao ianeieueei ii?aaeaeaiee eaoaai?ee iauanoai.

“Einoeoooeeiiaeueiia” ii?aaeaeaiea : iauanoai – yoi aieueoay
niaieoiiinoue ethaeae, inouanoaeythueo niaianoii nioeeaeueioth aeeciue a
i?aaeaeao oeaeiai ?yaea einoeoooia e i?aaiecaoeee. Nioeeaeueiua
einoeooou e i?aaiecaoeee aa?aioe?otho onoie/eainoue, iinoiyinoai
ioiioaiee iaaeaeo ethaeueie, onoaiaaeeaatho onoie/eaoth no?oeoo?o
anaaiciiaeiuo oi?i eieeaeoeaiie aeecie.

Ooieoeeiiaeueiay eiioeaioeey : iauanoai – a?oiia /aeiaa/aneeo nouanoa,
i?aaenoaaeythuay niaie naiiiaania/eaathuoth nenoaio aeayoaeueiinoe.

Oai?aoe/aneee iiaeoiae : iauanoai – ii?aaeaeeaoayny a i?ioeanna
enoi?e/aneiai ?acaeoey /aeiaa/anoaa ioiineoaeueii onoie/eaay nenoaia
nioeeaeueiuo naycae e ioiioaiee eae aieueoeo, oae e iaeuo a?oii ethaeae,
iiaeaea?aeeaaaiay neeie iau/ay, o?aaeeoeee, caeiia, nioeeaeueiuo
einoeoooia e o.ae., iniiauaathuayny ia ii?aaeaeaiiii niiniaa
i?iecaiaenoaa, ?ani?aaeaeaiey, iaiaia e iio?aaeaiey iaoa?eaeueiuo e
aeooiaiuo aeaa.

Oeeinioeth eioa?anotho aii?inu i oii, eiathony ee eaeea-eeai i?aaeaeu a
?acaeoee iauanoaa, eaeiau enoi/ieee e aeaeaeouea neeu iauanoaaiiuo
eciaiaiee, a /ai caeeth/aaony niune enoi?ee, eaeea oeiu iauanoaaiiiai
ono?ienoaa aieaa anaai ioaa/atho a?aiaie, iio?aaiinoyi e eioa?anai
/aeiaaea e iiiaia, iiiaia ae?oaia.

Iauanoai ia iiaeao auoue iaoaie/aneie noiiie ninoaaeythueo aai ethaeae.
Anyeia iauanoai eiie?aoii. A iai i?aaenoaaeaiu eiie?aoiua ethaee ni
naieie iio?aaiinoyie e eioa?anaie, i?aaieciaaiiua niaianoiie
aeayoaeueiinoueth, e neiaeeaoeieny ia aa iniiaa ioiioaieyie ae?oa e
ae?oao. Ethaia iauanoai – i?iaeoeo acaeiiaeaenoaey ethaeae. Nouiinoue
iauanoaa au?aaeatho eiie?aoiua i?ioeannu acaeiiaeaenoaee e
acaeiiioiioaiee ethaeae.

Auoea ethaeae a iauanoaa oa?aeoa?ecoaony ?acee/iuie eiie?aoiuie oi?iaie
aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe e iauaiey. Eaaeaeia iiaia iieieaiea ethaeae noaaeo
e ?aoaao naie caaea/e, enoiaey a naiae aeayoaeueiinoe ec ?aiaa oaea
aeinoeaiooiai, a ?acoeueoaoa /aai nicaeaaony naycue, i?aainoaaiiinoue
?aciuo iieieaiee ethaeae, eiaao ianoi enoi?ey eo iauanoaaiiie aeecie.

Iiaeii auaeaeeoue ii e?aeiae ia?a /aou?a ?aciua iiaeoiaea e
ii?aaeaeaieth iniiau auoey iauanoaa.

Iaoo?aeeci – /anoi aua iacuaatho aaia?aoe/aneei e aeieiae/aneei
iai?aaeaieai aiaeeca iauanoaaiiiai ?acaeoey. Niaeanii iaio ?acaeoea
iauanoaa ii?aaeaeyaony i?e?iaeiuie oneiaeyie ( eeeiaoii, eaiaeoaooii e
o.i. ). Noi?iiieee yoie oai?ee ( O.Iiioaneuea, E.E.Ia/ieeia ) n/eoaee,
/oi i?e?iaeiay n?aaea aeeeooao onoaiiaeaiea oiai eee eiiai iieeoe/aneiai
no?iy, iauyniyao oa?aeoa? ethaeae e eo i?eoycaiey, ii?aaeaeyao ?acee/ey
a o?iaia ?acaeoey oicyenoaaiiie e eiie iauanoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe
?aciuo no?ai e eiioeiaioia. E iaoo?aeenoe/aneiio iai?aaeaieth a
oeeinioee ioiinyony e ?acee/iiai ?iaea aaiiieeoe/aneea acaeyaeu, a
niioaaonoaee n eioi?ui iieeoeea ainoaea?noai anaoeaei noaaeony a
caaeneiinoue io aai “aeeciaiiiai i?ino?ainoaa” – oa??eoi?ee,
ianoiiieiaeaiey.

Ae?oaie iiaeoiae – iiaeoiae eaeaaeenoe/aneiai o/aiey – i?eciaiea
aaniethoiiai i?ei?eoaoa niciaiey ii ioiioaieth e ae?oaei noi?iiai
/aeiaa/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe. N/eoaaony, /oi a iniiaa ethauo aeaenoaee
ethaeae eaaeao eaeaaeueiua iiaoaeeoaeueiua oeaee, iioeau, onoaiiaee,
eioi?ua iinoiyiii i?aaeoanoaotho eo ?aaeueiui aeaenoaeyi. Iai?eia?,
Aaaaeue iieaaae, /oi enoi/iee ?acaeoey iauanoaa eaaeeo a iaeiai
aaniethoiii aeooa, eioi?ue oai?eo enoi?eth, e i?aaeii?aaeaeytho ana
aeaenoaey ethaeae.

I?ioeaiiieiaeiui iiaeoiaeii yaeyaony iaoa?eaeenoe/aneay oai?ey
iauanoaaiiie aeecie. Iniiaiia a iae oi, /oi enoi/iee ?acaeoey iauanoaa
oniao?eaaaony a naiii iauanoaa, a ?acaeoee aai iaoa?eaeueiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa. Aeieacuaaaony, /oi iauanoaaiiia ?acaeoea ii?aaeaeyaony
eeai yeiiiieeie ( ia?enenou ), eeai eciaiaieyie oaoieee oicyenoaaiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe ( ?.A?ii, Ae.Aaee, O.?inoio ). Iaoa?eaeenoe/aneay oai?ey
n/eoaao niciaiea ethaeae aoi?e/iui, i?iecaiaeiui io yeiiiie/aneie eee
oaoiieiae/aneie noa?u iauanoaaiiie aeecie.

A ianoiyuee iiiaio iaeaieaa iiioey?ia oai?ey, niaeanii eioi?ie enoi?ey
?anniao?eaaaony eae ia?aieaoaiea naiuo ?acee/iuo oaeoi?ia , iaeie ec
eioi?uo a eiie?aoiuo neooaoeeyo ieacuaathony neeueiaa ae?oaeo e
aunooiatho a ea/anoaa ?aoathuae noi?iiu iauanoaaiiiai ?acaeoey.

N?aaiaiea ?acee/iuo oai?aoe/aneeo iiaeoiaeia a ii?aaeaeaiee iniiau
?acaeoey auoey iauanoaa iieacuaaao, /oi ia neaaeoao ia?aioeaieaaoue
cia/aiea oie eee eiie noi?iiu iauanoaaiiie aeecie ethaeae, iaiaoiaeeii
aeaeaoue eo acaeiicaaeneiinoue e acaeiiiaoneiaeaiiinoue.

02.1. Iniiaiie aii?in oeeinioee e niaoeeoeea oeeinioneiai ciaiey

Iniiaiie aii?in oeeinioee – aii?in ia ioiioaiee iuoeaiey e auoeth,
?anniao?eaaaiue n aeaoo noi?ii: ai-ia?auo, /oi yaeyaony ia?ae/iui – aeoo
eee i?e?iaea, iaoa?ey eee niciaiea – e, ai-aoi?uo, eae ioiineony ciaiea
i ie?a e naiiio ie?o, eee eia/a, niioaaonoaoao ee niciaiea auoeth,
niiniaii ee iii aa?ii io?aaeaoue ie?.

Iiceoeey, niaeanii eioi?ie ie? iauyniyaony, enoiaey ec aeooa, niciaiey,
iieo/eea iacaaiea eaeaaeecia. Oeeiniou, a?aaoea ca iniiao ie?iiiieiaiey
i?e?iaeo, iaoa?eth, iauaeoeaioth ?aaeueiinoue, nouanoaothuoth iacaaeneii
io /aeiaa/aneiai niciaiey, i?eiueaee e ?acee/iui oeieai iaoa?eaeecia.

Ec iiiaiia?acey ioiioaiee “ie? — /aeiaae” iiaeii auaeaeeoue o?e
iniiaiuo oeia: iiciaaaoaeueiua, i?aeoe/aneea e oeaiiinoiua ioiioaiey.

Eaio noi?ioee?iaae o?e aii?ina, eiathuea, ii aai oaaaeaeaieth,
i?eioeeieaeueiia cia/aiea aeey oeeinioee: /oi y iiao ciaoue? *oi y
aeieaeai aeaeaoue? Ia /oi y iiao iaaeayoueny? Yoe o?e aii?ina e
io?aaeatho o?e oeacaiiuo oeia ioiioaiee /aeiaaea e ie?o.

A ioee/ea io ae?oaeo aeaeia oai?aoe/aneiai iiciaiey oeeinioey aunooiaao
eae oieaa?naeueiia ciaiea.

A?enoioaeue: niaoeeaeueiua iaoee caiyou eco/aieai eiie?aoiuo aeaeia
auoey, oeeinioey aea aa?ao ia naay iiciaaaiea naiuo iaueo i?eioeeiia,
ia/ae anaai nouaai.

Eaio: caaea/a oeeinioee a neioaca ?aciiia?aciuo /aeiaa/aneeo ciaiee.

02.2. Noaiiaeaiea e ?acaeoea oeeinioneie eaoaai?ee “iaoa?ey”.
Aeeaeaeoeei – iaoa?eaeenoe/aneia ii?aaeaeaiea iaoa?ee.

Noanoaioeey iaicia/aao aaeeinoai iiiaiia?acey eiie?aoiuo aauae, niauoee,
yaeaiee e i?ioeannia, iin?aaenoaii eioi?uo e /a?ac eioi?ua iia e
nouanoaoao. O/aiey, iauyniyaoea aaeeinoai ie?a enoiaey ec iaeiie
noanoaioeee, ioiinyony e oeeinioee iiiecia, eioi?ie i?ioeainoieo
aeoaeenoe/aneay o?aeoiaea ie?a. A aeiia?enenoneii iaoa?eaeecia iaoa?ey
/anoi iiieiaeanue eae ia/oi nouanoaothuaa ia?yaeo n aauaie, eae
iaeioi?ay oaeaniinoue, ia?aiaoa?ey, ec eioi?ie aicieeatho e a eioi?ie
en/acatho eiie?aoiua aaue. Aeiia?enenoneee iaoa?eaeeci ?anniao?eaaao aa
eae aaneiia/ii ?acaeaathuaany iiiaiia?acea aaeeiiai iaoa?eaeueiiai ie?a.

Iaoa?ey – iauaeoeaiay ?aaeueiinoue, nouanoaothuay ii naiei caeiiai,
iacaaeneii io niciaiey.

Iaoa?ey – (eao. materia – aauanoai) aauanoaaiiia cia/aiea oa?ieia
oaea?aeeaaeinue aei XX a., eiaaea i?iecioea ?aaiethoeey a oeceea
icia/aaoay e?ecen iaeiinoi?iiiaai iniiaaiiiai ia iaycaoaeueiii
/oanoaaiiii aini?eyoee, iiieiaiee iaoa?ee, ninoaaeythuaai nooue
eiioeaioeee iaoaoece/aneiai iaoa?eaeecia.

Eaiei: Iaoa?ey anoue oeeinioneay eaoaai?ey aeey iaicia/aiey iauaeoeaiie
?aaeueiinoe, eioi?ay aeaia /aeiaaeo a iuouaieyo aai, eioi?ay eiie?oaony,
oioia?aoe?oaony, ioia?aaeaaony iaoeie iuouaieyie, nouanoaoy iacaaeneii
io ieo.

1)iaoa?ey nouanoaoao iacaaeneii io niciaiey (ia?ae/iinoue iaoa?ee ii
ioiioaieth e niciaieth)

2)iia ioia?aaeaaony iuouaieyie (i?eciaiea i?eioeeieaeueiie iiciaaaaiinoe
ie?a).

Aeinoieinoai yoiai ii?aaeaeaiey – aaeeinoai iioieiae/aneiai e
aiinaieiae/aneiai iiaeoiaeia e yaeyaony enoiaeiui ioieoii anoanoaiciaiey
e oeeinioee.

Aeiia?enenoneia iiieiaiea iaoa?ee yaeyaony i?aaeiinueeie aeey
iineaaeiaaoaeueiie ?ac?aaioee iaoa?eaeenoe/aneiai iiieiaiey enoi?ee,
iicaieyao ?anniio?aoue iauanoaaiioth aeeciue eae ooieoeeiie?iaaiea e
?acaeoea neiaeiie iaoa?eaeueiie nenoaiu – /aeiaa/aneiai iauanoaa,
eioi?ay aeeth/aao a ea/anoaa naiaai iaiouaieaiiai aniaeoa aeooiaiua
i?ioeannu.

02.3. Enoi?e/aneay iaiaoiaeeiinoue e naiaiaea a iauanoa. ?acaeoee.
*aeiaae e noaiaiue naiaiaeu aeayoaeueiinoe.

Ana iauanoaaiiua ioiioaiey ?acaeaeythony ia ia?ae/iua (iaoa?eaeueiua) e
aoi?e/iua (aeooiaii-i?aeoe/aneea). A iauanoaaiiie aeecie iauaeoeaiia
e noauaeoeaiia, i?aeoe/aneia e aeooiaiia ia?acaeaeeiu.

Naiaiaeii-aieaaay aeayoaeueiinoue e caeiiiia?iinoe a iauanoaa :

1)I. Aaaa? (noauaeoeaiue eaeaaeeci): aaniethoece?iaae iaiiaoi?eiinoue
enoi?e/aneeo niauoee e ia yoie iniiaa ioaa?a iaee/ea eaeie-eeai
caeiiiia?iinoe a iauanoaa. Ii anee a iauanoaa iao iauaeoeaiie
oaiaeaioeee, oi iaaiciiaeii i?iaiice?iaaiea niauoee, a noaei auoue
oa?yao niune e oeaee nioeeaeueiia auoea.

2)Ia?eneci : a iauanoaa eiatho ianoi iauaeoeaiay iaiaoiaeeiinoue,
i?e/eiiay iaoneiaeaiiinoue e iiaoi?yaiinoue (o.a. iauanoaaiiay aeeciue
aeaoa?iaie?iaaia). ii nouanoaotho iniaaiiinoe iauanoaaiiuo caeiiia.

Caeiiu ?acaeoey iauanoaa – yoi iauaeoeaiua, nouanoaaiiua, iaiaoiaeeiua,
iiaoi?ythueany nayce yaeaiee iauanoaaiiie aeecie, oa?aeoa?ecothuea
iniiaioth iai?aaeaiiinoue nioe. ?acaeoey io iecoaai e aunoaio.

?acaeoea : n oaaee/aieai iaoa?eaeueiuo e aeooiaiuo aeaa aic?anoatho e
iio?aaiinoe /aeiaaea.

Niaoeeoeea iauanoaaiiuo caeiiia:

1)iie aicieeee aianoa n aicieeiiaaieai iauanoaa e iioiio ia aa/iu.

2)caeiiu i?e?iaeu i?ienoiaeyo, a caeiiu ?acaeoey iauanoaa aeaeathony e
i?iyaeythony a niaieoiiie niciaoaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe ethaeae.

3)iinyo aieaa neiaeiue oa?aeoa?

4)oae aea eae e a i?e?iaea a iauanoaa caeiiiia?iia (iauaa)
aeaenoaoao /a?ac aaeeie/iia, eiaeeaeaeoaeueiia, neo/aeiia, a
i?aaie/aneii aaeeinoaa n iei.

Ia eaaeaeii yoaia ?acaeoey aeaenoaotho e iauea caeiiu, oa?aeoa?ecothuea
onoie/eaia a enoi?ee, e niaoeeoe/aneea, i?iyaeythueany oieueei a
ia?aie/aiiii enoi?e/aneii a?aiaie eee i?ino?ainoaa.

*aeiaa/anoai anaaaea aeieaeii aoaeao ei??aeoe?iaaoue eeieth naiaai
iiaaaeaiey, n/eoaynue n caeiiaie aeeaie e iaaeeaie i?e?iaeu. Ia?en:
“ethaee ia naiaiaeiu a auai?a naieo i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee, eioi?ua
ia?acotho iniiao anae eo enoi?ee, iioiio /oi anyeay i?iecaiaeeoaeueiay
neea anoue i?eia?aoaiiay neea, i?iaeoeo i?aaeoanoaothuae
aeayoaeueiinoe”. Naiaiaea anoue aeayoaeueiinoue ia iniiaa iiciaiiie
iaiaoiaeeiinoe. Iaiaoiaeeiinoue io?aaeaao ia/oi onoie/eaia,
oii?yaei/aiiia, /oi e io?aaeaaony a caeiiao nio?aiaiey. Naiaiaea aea
io?aaeaao ?acaeoea, iiyaeaiea iiaiai, ?aciiia?aciiai, iiauo
aiciiaeiinoae. Iaiaoiaeeiinoue au?aaeaao iaee/iia, iieacuaaao, eaeia ie?
anoue, a naiaiaea io?aaeaao aoaeouaa – eaeei ie? aeieaeai auoue.
?acaeoea iauanoaa e anoue iinoiyiiue i?ioeann ia?aoiaea iaiaoiaeeiinoe a
naiaiaeo.

Aaaaeue : ie?iaay enoi?ey – i?ioeann aic?anoaiey naiaiaeu. Naiaiaea
iiiaieeea, ii nouiinoue aa iaeia – iaee/ea ?aciiia?aciuo aiciiaeiinoae,
neaaeiaaoaeueii iia – iaeaieueoay oeaiiinoue.

Ia?en: eeoue i?e oneiaee ia?aoaiee nioeeaeueiie naiaiaeu ia/eiaaony
?acaeoea /aeiaa/aneeo nee, eioi?ia yaeyaony naiioeaeueth.

03.1. Eaeay anaaaeeinoaa Nieiaueaaa e aa ?acaeoea a oeeinioee
Oei?aineiai, O?oaaoeeiai, Einneiai, Aoeaaeiaa.

Ii o/aieth Nieiaueaaa: iecoea e aunoea o?iaie auoey acaeiinaycaiu, oae
eae iecoaa iaia?oaeeaaao naia oyaioaiea e aunoaio, a eaaeaeia aunoaa
“aae?aao a naay” iecoaa. Iioieiae/aneie iniiaie anaaaeeinoaa aunooiaao
aiaeanoaaiiay O?ieoea a aa nayce ni anaie aiaeanoaaiiuie oai?aieyie e
aeaaiia n /aeiaaeii. Iniiaiie i?eioeei anaaaeeinoaa: “Ana aaeeii a
aiaa”. Anaaaeeinoai – aaeeinoai oai?oea e oai?aiey. Aia o Nieiaueaaa –
“einie/aneee ?acoi”, “nouanoai naa?oee/iia”, “iniaay i?aaiecothuay neea,
aeaenoaothuay a ie?a”. Aeey oiai, /oiau iainiiaaoue iai?a?uaioth
aeeiaieeo auoey ii aaiaeeo iiiyoea “ie?iaay aeooa”, eioi?ay yaeyaony
iaiin?aaenoaaiiui noauaeoii anao eciaiaiee a ie?a. Aia aeaao ie?iaie
aeooa eaeath anaaaeeinoaa eae ii?aaeaeythuoth oi?io anae aa
aeayoaeueiinoe.

Yoa aa/iay aiaeanoaaiiay eaeay a nenoaia Nieiaueaaa iieo/eea iacaaiea
Nioee – ioae?inoe.

Iaoaieci naeeaeaiey Aiaa, ie?a e /aeiaa/anoaa ?ane?uaaaony a oeeinioneii
o/aiee Nieiaueaaa /a?ac eiioeaioeeth aiai/aeiaa/anoaa. Aiieiuaieai
aiai/aeiaa/anoaa aunooiaao Eenon O?enoin. Aai ia?ac neoaeeo ia oieueei
eaeaaeii, ii e aunoae oeaeueth ?acaeoey anaai enoi?e/aneiai i?ioeanna –
niaaeeiaiea /aeiaaea n aiaii.

Aaconeiaiia “anaaaeeinoai” iinoeaaaony ii N., eeoue “oeaeueiui ”
ciaieai, eioi?ia i?aaenoaaeyao niaie niaaeeiaiea ienoe/aneiai
(?aeeaeiciiai), ?aoeeiiaeueiiai (oeeinioneiai) e yiie?e/aneiai
(iao/iiai) ciaiey. I?e/ai iniiao ninoaaeyao ciaiea ienoe/aneia: aa?a a
aaconeiaiia nouanoaiaaiea i?aaeiaoa iiciaiey.

Nieiaueaa au?aaeae a ?onneie ?aeeaeiciie oeeinioee eioaeeaeooaeueioth
oaiaeaioeeth. Ii no?aieeny iinoaaeoue ?acoi ia neoaeao aa?a.

Aoeaaeia (au?aaeae aioeeioaeeaeooaeueioth oaiaeaioeeth) au?aaeae eaeath
i ei?aiiie oua?aiinoe ?aoeeiiaeueiiai iiciaiey e nouanoaiaaiee iniaie,
aiaeiae/aneie niiniaiinoe iinoeaeaiey /aeiaa/aneiai auoey. Aoeaaeia
iuoaeny “neioace?iaaoue” iaoeo, oeeinioeth e ?aeeaeth, /oiau ana
iiae/eieoue aa?a.

Oei?aineee iuoaeny iainiiaaoue “oeeinioeth anaaaeeinoaa” Nieiaueaaa ia
oieueei ?aeeaeicii – oeeinioneeie iieiaeaieyie, ii e iao/iuie
ooaa?aeaeaieyie, acyouie ec iaeanoe oeceee, iaoaiaoeee, oeeieiaee.

O?oaaoeeie no?aieeny i?eie?eoue yiie?eci, ?aoeeiiaeeci e ienoeoeeci.
“Eiie?aoiue eaeaaeeci” oanii naycai n i?eciaieai aiaa eae “aaneiia/iie
ethaae” e n eaeaae niai?iinoe – iauaaeeiaiey ethaeae a “oea?eiaiii
aiai/aeiaa/aneii i?aaiecia”.

Einneee enoiaeee ec i?aaenoaaeaiey i ie?a eae i?aaie/aneii oeaeii:
nouiinoue aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe ninoaaeytho naa?oa?aiaiiua eaeaaeueiua
ee/iinoe, naycaiiua iaaeaeo niaie, a oaeaea ni naa?oie?iaui ia/aeii
(aiaii). Yoe “aeayoaee” e nicaeatho ana iiiaiia?acea iaoa?eaeueiuo e
ineoe/aneeo i?ioeannia.

03.2. Aeaeaeaiea, aai nouiinoue e iniiaiua oi?iu. Aeaeaeaiea e ?acaeoea.

Aeaeaeaiea – aaaeiaeoee ao?eaoo, niinia nouanoaiaaiey iaoa?ee. Ae.
Aeeth/aao a naay ana i?ienoiaeyuea a i?e?iaea e iauanoaa i?ioeannu. A
naiii iauai aeaea Ae. – yoi eciaiaiea aiiaua, anyeia acaeiiaeaenoaea
iaoa?eaeueiuo iauaeoia e niaia eo ninoiyiee. A ie?a iao iaoa?ee aac
aeaeaeaiey, oae aea eae ia iiaeao auoue e Ae. aac iaoa?ee. Ae. iaoa?ee
aaniethoii, oiaaea eae anyeee iieie ioiineoaeai, e i?aaenoaaeyao niaie
iaeei ec iiiaioia aeaeaeaiey. Iineieueeo ie? aaneiia/ai, oi anyeia oaei
o/anoaoao a aaneiia/iii iiiaeanoaa ia?aiauaiee. Ae. ii?aaeaeyao
naienoaa, no?oeoo?ioth i?aaiecaoeeth e oa?aeoa? nouanoaiaaiey iaoa?ee.
Ae. iaoa?ee iiiaiia?acii ii naiei i?iyaeaieyi e nouanoaoao a ?acee/iuo
oi?iao. Ethaie iauaeo nouanoaoao eeoue aeaaiaea?y oiio, /oi a iai
aini?iecaiaeyony ii?aaeaeaiiua oeiu aeaeaeaiee. Aeaeaeaiea aioo?aiia
i?enoua iaoa?ee.

2 iniiaiuo oeia aeaeaeaiey:

Ae. eiaaea nio?aiyaony ea/anoai i?aaeiaoa;

eciaiaiea ea/anoaaiiiai ninoiyiey i?aaeiaoa.

Iaeie oi?iu aeaeaeaiey i?aa?auathony a ae?oaea.

Iineaaeiea oa?aeoa?ecothony eae ?acaeoea. ?acaeoea i?aaenoaaeyao niaie
caeiiiia?iia, oeaeinoiia, iaia?aoeiia no?oeoo?iia eciaiaiea nenoai,
eiathuaa ii?aaeaeaiioth iai?aaeaiiinoue. Yoa iai?aaeaiiinoue yaeyaony
?aaiiaeaenoaothuae io neiaeaiey ?acee/iuo aioo?aiieo oaiaeaioeee
eciaiaiey, auoaeathueo ec caeiiia aeaeaeaiey nenoaiu e iaee/iuo aiaoieo
oneiaee. I?ioeann ?acaeoey – ia?aoiae iaeiiai ea/anoaa a ae?oaia,
iai?aaeaiiia oi?ie?iaaiea iiauo nenoai, eioi?ua ?iaeaeathony ec
i?aaeoanoaothueo nenoai.

2 ?aciiaeaeiinoe i?ioeannia ?acaeoey:

ea/anoaaiiua i?aa?auaiey, ia auoiaeyuea ca ?aiee niioaaonoaothuaai aeaea
iaoa?ee, ii?aaeaeaiiiai o?iaiy aa i?aaiecaoeee;

i?ioeannu ia?aoiaea io iaeiiai o?iaiy e ae?oaiio.

A iniiao eeanneoeeaoeee oi?i aeaeaeaiey Yiaaeuen iieiaeee neaaeothuea
i?eioeeiu:

oi?iu aeaeaeaiey niioiineiu n ii?aaeaeaiiui iaoa?eaeueiui o?iaiai
i?aaiecaoeee iaoa?ee, o.a. eaaeaeiio o?iaith oaeie i?aaiecaoeee aeieaeia
niioaaonoaiaaoue naiy oi?ia aeaeaeaiey;

iaaeaeo oi?iaie nouanoaoao aaiaoe/aneay naycue, o.a. oi?ia aeaeaeaiey
aicieeaao ia aaca iecoeo oi?i;

aunoea oi?iu aeaeaeaiey ea/anoaaiii niaoeeoe/iu e ianaiaeeiu e iecoei
oi?iai.

Yiaaeuen auaeaeee 5 oi?i aeaeaeaiey iaoa?ee: iaoaie/aneia, oece/aneia,
oeie/aneia, aeieiae/aneia e nioeeaeueiia.

3 aeiea aeaeaeaiee: iaaeeaie i?e?iaeu, aeeaie i?e?iaeu e iauanoaa.

Iiae aeaeaeaieai iaoa?ee neaaeoao iiieiaoue ia oieueei iaoaie/aneia
ia?aiauaiea oae a i?ino?ainoaa, ii e ethaua acaeiiaeaenoaey, a oaeaea
eciaiaiey ninoiyiee iauaeoia, eioi?ua aucuaathony yoeie aicaeaenoaeyie.

Iiiaiia?acea oi?i aeaeaeaiey iaoa?ee naycaii n ii?aaeaeaiiui o?iaiai
i?aaiecaoeee iaoa?ee, eaaeaeue ec eioi?uo oa?aeoa?ecoaony naiae nenoaiie
caeiiiinoe e iineoaeai.

03.3. Niaea?aeaiea iiiyoee “eiaeeaeae”, “eiaeeaeaeoaeueiinoue” e
“ee/iinoue” a oeeinioee. Ee/iinoue e aa nioeeaeueiua ?iee a iauanoaa.

Eiaeeaeae (individuum – iaaeaeeiue): 1). Aaeeie/iue, ioaeaeueiue iauaeo,
auaeaeaiiue ec ii?aaeaeaiiiai aeaea, ?iaea eee eeanna iauaeoia. 2).
Aaeeie/iue i?aaenoaaeoaeue /aeiaa/aneiai ?iaea, ioaeaeueii acyoue
/aeiaae aacioiineoaeueii e aai ?aaeueiui aio?iiieiae/aneei e
nioeeaeueiui iniaaiiinoyi. ?iaeeaoeeny ?aaaiie – eiaeeaeae, ii ii ia
anoue aua /aeiaa/aneay eiaeeaeaeoaeueiinoue.

Eiaeeaeaeoaeueiinoue – iaiiaoi?eiue, naiiauoiue niinia auoey eiie?aoiie
ee/iinoe a ea/anoaa noauaeoa naiinoiyoaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe,
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiay oi?ia iauanoaaiiie aeecie /aeiaaea.

Eiaeeaeae noaiiaeony eiaeeaeaeoaeueiinoueth ii ia?a oiai, eae ia?anoaao
auoue oieueei “aaeeieoeae” /aeiaa/aneiai ?iaea e i?eia?aoaao
ioiineoaeueioth naiinoiyoaeueiinoue naiaai auoey a iauanoaa, noaiiaeony
ee/iinoueth.

Ee/iinoue nioeeaeueia ii naiae nouiinoe e eiaeeaeaeoaeueia ii niiniao
naiaai nouanoaiaaiey. Eiaeeaeaeoaeueiinoue au?aaeaao nianoaaiiue ie?
eiaeeaeaea, aai iniaue aeeciaiiue iooue, eioi?ue ii naiaio niaea?aeaieth
ii?aaeaeyaony nioeeaeueiuie oneiaeyie, a ii i?ienoiaeaeaieth, no?oeoo?a
e oi?ia iineo eiaeeaeaeoaeueiue oa?aeoa?. Nouiinoue eiaeeaeaeoaeueiinoe
?ane?uaaaony a naiiauoiinoe eiie?aoiiai eiaeeaeaea, aai niiniaiinoe
auoue naiei niaie a ?aieao nioeeaeueiie nenoaiu. Aaaeiay ?ieue
i?e?iaeiuo caaeaoeia, a?iaeaeaiiuo iniaaiiinoae a ?acaeoee
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiinoe iiin?aaenoaiaaia nioeeaeueiuie oaeoi?aie.
Eiaeeaeaeoaeueiinoue – yoi aaeeinoai oieeaeueiuo e oieaa?naeueiuo
naienoa /aeiaaea, oeaeinoiay nenoaia, oi?ie?othuayny a i?ioeanna
aeeaeaeoe/aneiai acaeiiaeaenoaey aai ea/anoa – iaueo, oeie/aneeo,
iniaaiiuo e aaeeie/iuo.

Ee/iinoue – /aeiaa/aneee eiaeeaeae a aniaeoa aai nioeeaeueiuo ea/anoa,
oi?ie?othueony a i?ioeanna enoi?e/anee eiie?aoiuo aeaeia aeayoaeueiinoe
e iauanoaaiiuo ioiioaiee. Oioy i?e?iaeioth iniiao ee/iinoe ia?acotho aa
aeieiae/aneea iniaaiiinoe, ana aea ii?aaeaeythueie oaeoi?aie ?acaeoey
yaeythony ia aa i?e?iaeiua ea/anoaa, a ea/anoaa nioeeaeueii cia/eiua –
acaeyaeu, niiniaiinoe, iio?aaiinoe, eioa?anu, ii?aeue e o.ae.
Nioeeaeueiua ea/anoaa ee/iinoe i?iyaeythony a aa aeaenoaeyo, iinooieao,
a aa ioiioaiee e ae?oaei ethaeyi. Ii yoei i?iyaeythueiny aiaia iinooieai
iiaeii a ecaanoiie noaiaie noaeeoue i aioo?aiiai ie?a /aeiaaea, aai
aeooiaiuo e i?aanoaaiiuo ea/anoaao. Yoi nicaeaao aiciiaeiinoue ia
oieueei iauaeoeaiiai iiciaiey nioeeaeueiuo ea/anoa ee/iinoe, ii e
oi?ie?othuaai aicaeaenoaey ia ieo.

04.1. Ieeaoneay oeiea i “ia?aiiniiaao auoey”.

Niaoeeoeeie a?a/aneie oeeinioee yaeyaony no?aieaiea iiiyoue nouiinoue
i?e?iaeu, einiina, ie?a a oeaeii. Ia neo/aeii ia?auo a?a/aneeo oeeinioia
– Oaeana, Aiaeneiaiae?a, Aiaeneiaia, i?aaenoaaeoaeae o.i. ieeaoneie
oeieu (6 aae aei i.y.) iacuaaee oeceeaie (physis – i?e?iaea).
Iai?aaeaiiinoue eo eioa?ania ii?aaeaeyeanue a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue
oa?aeoa?ii a?a/aneie ieoieiaee, eioi?ay auea ?aeeaeae i?e?iaeu e iaeiei
ec aaaeiaeoeo aii?inia a eioi?ie aue aii?in i i?ienoiaeaeaiee ie?a. Ii
iaaeaeo ieoieiaeae e oeeinioeae auei nouanoaaiiia ?acee/ea. Ieo
iiaanoaiaae i oii, eoi ?iaeee ana nouaa, a oeeinioey ni?aoeaaea, ec /aai
iii i?iecioei.

O Oaeana yoi – aiaea, o Aiaeneiaia – aicaeoo, o Aiaeneiaiae?a – aiae?ii
(“aani?aaeaeueiia”). Naii aea ia?aiia/aei i?aaenoaaeyei ia i?inoi
aauanoai, eae aai iiieiaao nia?aiaiiay oeceea eee oeiey, a ia/oi oaeia,
ec /aai aicieeaao aeeaay i?e?iaea e ana ianaeythuea aa iaeooaaeaiiua
nouanoaa. Iiyoiio aiaea eee aicaeoo – yoi naiaai ?iaea iaoaoi?u, iie
eiatho e i?yiia, e ia?aiiniia, neiaiee/aneia cia/aiea.

O ia?auo “oeceeia” oeeinioey iuneeony eae iaoea i i?e/eiao e ia/aeao
anaai nouaai. Ia ianoi ieoieiae/aneiai ii?iaeaeaiey o oeeinioia
noaiiaeony i?e/eia.

4.2. Oeeinioneay aio?iiieiaey, oaiiiai /aeiaaea.

Ni aoi?ie iieiaeiu XIX aaea, eiaaea noaei iauai?eciaiiui, /oi /aeiaae –
i?iaeoeo aeieiae/aneie yaiethoeee, oeaio?aeueiui aeey anae
aio?iiieiae/aneie i?iaeaiaoeee naeaeaeny aii?in ia iniiaiii ioee/ee
ethaeae io aunieii?aaieciaaiiuo aeeaioiuo e i iao/iii iauyniaiee yoiai
ioee/ey. Anyeia aeeaioiia ?iaeaeaaony ia naao, oaea aoaeo/e iaaeaeaiiui
aiaaoui iaai?ii einoeieoia, eioi?ua ca?aiaa iaania/eaatho aai
i?eniiniaeaiiinoue e ecaanoiui oneiaeyi iaeoaiey, ii eiaiii iiyoiio
ia?aie/eaatho eiaeeaeaeoaeueiua aa?eaoeee iiaaaeaiey. Iiiaiia?aciua
?acee/ey, eioi?ua iu aeaeei n?aaee i?aaenoaaeoaeae ?iaea Homo sapiens,
naeaeaoaeuenoaotho ia eiaeeaeaeoaeueiie aa?eaoeaiinoe iiaaaeaiey,
iaecaanoiie aeeaioiiio ie?o. Ia icia/aao ee yoi, /oi e /aeiaa/aneei
iinooieai aiiaua iaeuecy i?eeaaaoue iiiyoea “caaeaiiie i?ia?aiiu”?
Ioithaeue iao, ?ieue naiaia?aciie i?ia?aiiu, ii?aaeaeythuae iiaaaeaiea
ethaeae, auiieiytho ycue, iieac e i?eia?. Ianoi “aaiaoe/aneeo
eino?oeoeee” caieiatho ii?iu, ianoi ianeaaenoaaiiinoe a no?iaii niunea
neiaa – i?aainoaaiiinoue. Iaee/ea eoeueoo?u ioee/aao /aeiaa/aneia
iauanoai io ethaiai iauaaeeiaiey aeeaioiuo iniaae. Iaeiaei iii aua ia
iauyniyao ie oiai, eae iauanoai aiciiaeii, ie oiai, eae iii ia aeaea
aicieeei. “Ethaeae, – ienaee iniiaiiieiaeieee ia?enecia, – iiaeii
ioee/aoue io aeeaioiuo ii niciaieth, ii ?aeeaee – aiiaua ii /aio
oaiaeii. Naie iie ia/eiatho ioee/aoue naay io aeeaioiuo, eae oieueei
ia/eiatho i?iecaiaeeoue iaiaoiaeeiua ei aeeciaiiua n?aaenoaa”.
I?iecaiaenoai – ia i?inoi ioee/eoaeueiue, ii iniiaiiieaaathuee i?eciae
Homo sapiens.

Aeaaii i?eciaii, /oi i?aa?auaiea aeeaioiuo a ethaeae ia iiaei auoue
iaeei iaiiaaiiui, iaeiiaeoiui niauoeai. N iaecaaaeiinoueth aeieaeai aue
nouanoaiaaoue aeeeoaeueiue ia?eiae noaiiaeaiey /aeiaaea (aio?iiiaaiaca)
e noaiiaeaiey iauanoaa (nioeeiaaiaca). Eae iieacuaatho nia?aiaiiua
enneaaeiaaiey, iie i?aaenoaaeytho niaie aeaa ia?ac?uaii naycaiiua
noi?iiu aaeeiiai ii naiae i?e?iaea i?ioeanna – aio?iiinioeeiaaiaca,
aeeeaoaainy a oa/aiee 3-3.5 iei eao. Aaaeiaeoay /a?oa
aio?iiinioeeiaaiaca – aai eiiieaeniue oa?aeoa?. Iiyoiio i?eioeeieaeueii
iaaa?ii auei au ooaa?aeaeaoue, /oi, neaaeai, “nia/aea” aiciee o?oae,
“iioii” – iauanoai, a “aua iicaeiaa” – ycue, iuoeaiea e niciaiea. Oacen
ia ii?aaeaeythuai cia/aiee o?oaea auaeaeyao iineaaeiee a ea/anoaa
oeaio?aeueiiai (e eiaiii a yoii niunea ia?ae/iiai) aio?iiiaaiaoe/aneiai
oaeoi?a, a nayce n eioi?ui oi?ie?othony e iauaaeeoea, e
/eaii?acaeaeueiay ?a/ue, e ia/aoee ?aoeeiiaeueiiai iuoeaiey. Ii o?oae e
nai eiaao aaiacen, i?aa?auaynue a iieiioeaiioth i?aaeiaoii-i?aeoe/aneoth
aeayoaeueiinoue eeoue ai acaeiiaeaenoaee n oaeeie oaeoi?aie
nioeeaeecaoeee, eae ycue, niciaiea, i?aanoaaiiinoue, ieoieiaey,
?eooaeueiay i?aeoeea e o. ae.

N iiiaioa “iaieeoe/aneie ?aaiethoeee” /aeiaae iaeaaeaao oaea anaie
iniiaiuie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie, eioi?ua oeene?iaae E. Ia?en, aiai?y i ”
“i?e?iaea ethaeae” eae iauanoaaiii-enoi?e/aneeo nouanoa. A eaeie au
?aeii caiiiai oa?a iu ia iiiaee au, iu ano?aoei oai /aeiaa/aneeo
nouanoa, i eioi?uo i?aaiia?ii ooaa?aeaeaoue ii e?aeiae ia?a neaaeothuaa:

* iie oiatho ecaioiaeyoue i?oaeey o?oaea i?e iiiiue i?oaeee e
eniieueciaaoue eo eae n?aaenoai i?iecaiaenoaa iaoa?eaeueiuo aeaa;

* -iie ciatho i?inoaeoea i?aanoaaiiua cai?aou e aaconeiaioth
i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue aeia?a e cea;

* iie iaeaaeatho iio?aaiinoyie, /oanoaaiiuie aini?eyoeyie e oinoaaiiuie
iaaueaie, ?acaeaoeieny enoi?e/anee;

* iie ia iiaoo ie noi?ie?iaaoueny, ie nouanoaiaaoue aia iauanoaa;

* i?eciaaaaiua eie eiaeeaeaeoaeueiua ea/anoaa e aeinoieinoaa nooue
iauanoaaiiua ii?aaeaeaiey, eioi?ua ioaa/atho oiio eee eiiio oeio
iauaeoeaiuo ioiioaiee;

* eo aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoue eiaao ia ecia/aeueii cai?ia?aiie?iaaiiue, a
nioeeaeueii-aieaaie oa?aeoa?, aneaaenoaea /aai iie yaeythony nouanoaaie,
o eioi?uo anoue niiniaiinoue naiii?eioaeaeaiey, niaanoue e niciaiea
ioaaonoaaiiinoe.

Iaeiaei n aii?inii iiyaeaiey /aeiaaea aua aeaeaei ia ana ynii. I?aaeaea
anaai iaiiiyoii ioeoaea acyeanue naia iio?aaiinoue a o?oaea. Ii/aio,
i?iaeea iaacueyiie ieeeeiiu eao, /aeiaae aae?oa iuooee iio?aaiinoue
o?oaeeoueny.

Oaiiiai /aeiaaea a oii, /oi ii aaeeinoaaiiia nouanoai iaeaaeathuaa
niciaieai. *aeiaae aaeeinoaaiiia ecaanoiia nouanoai niiniaiia iuneeoue
aano?aeoii a oi a?aiy eae aeaaea o aunoeo aeeaioiuo i?aaeiaoiia,
iaiin?aaenoaaiiia iuoeaiea.

Eniieuecoy ?acoi /aeiaae naiii?aaieciaaeny a iauanoai e aua neeueiaa
auaeaeeeny ec i?e?iaeu aeieiae/aneie, aeeaioiie.

4.3. Iiiaiia?iinoue /aeiaa/aneiai auoey. Aeeaeaeoeea eae eiioeaioeey
iauanoaaiiiai i?ioeanna.

Iaiin?aaenoaaiii nouanoaoy eae i?e?iaeiia oaei, /aeiaae iiae/eiyaony
caeiiai nouanoaiaaiey e ?acaeoey eiia/iuo, i?aoiaeyueo oae. Aianoa n oai
caeiiu ?acaeoey e iio?aaiinoe oaea ia iieiinoueth, ia iaeiicia/ii
aicaeaenoaotho ia auoea /aeiaaea. Iiaeii neacaoue, /oi iniaaiiinoue
/aeiaa/aneiai nouanoaiaaiey ninoieo a aicieeiiaaiee niaoeeoe/aneie,
oieeaeueiie aeey aeeaie i?e?iaeu, “iaaeanoeie” e iaoieaa?naeueiie
aeaoa?ieiaoeee auoey /aeiaaea ni noi?iiu aai oaea. Iaaeanoeinoue
i?iyaeyaony a oaeeo, iai?eia?, oaeoao, eae niiniaiinoue /aeiaaea
?aaoee?iaaoue, eiio?iee?iaaoue naie ooiaeaiaioaeueiua iio?aaiinoe,
oaeiaeaoai?yy eo ia a i?inoii niioaaonoaee n iiaaeaieyie i?e?iaeu, a a
i?aaeaeao e oi?iao, ii?aaeaeyaiuo iauanoaii, enoi?eae, nianoaaiiie aieae
eiaeeaeaea. Iaoieaa?naeueiinoue aea ninoieo a oii, /oi iiiaea aeaenoaey
/aeiaaea, eioi?ua iiaee au ii?aaeaeyony (e eiiaaea ii?aaeaeythony)
naiaai ?iaea yaieciii oaeaniuo iio?aaiinoae, i/aiue /anoi ?aaoee?othony
ae?oaeie iioeaaie – aeooiaii-i?aanoaaiiuie, nioeeaeueiuie. Iaeaieaa y?ei
yoi i?iyaeyaony a aea?oaaiiuo iinooieao, ii ia oieueei a ieo.
Nouanoaiaaiea /aeiaaea – ia aiai?e?iaeiia, ii e ia oieueei
i?e?iaeii-oaeaniia. Niaoeeoeea aai ninoieo a niaaeeiaiee – ia?ana/aiee,
acaeiiaeaenoaee – o?ao ioiineoaeueii ?aciuo auoeenoaaiiuo ecia?aiee.
?aaeueii nouanoaoao ioaeaeueiue /aeiaae, i?aaeaea anaai eae aeaiiay
iuneyuay e /oanoaothuay “aauue” (oaei). Yoi ia?aia ecia?aiea
/aeiaa/aneiai nouanoaiaaiey. Ii iaeiia?aiaiii /aeiaae nouanoaoao eae
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiay iniaue, i?eiaaeeaaeauay e aeaeo Homo sapiens e acyoay
ia aeaiiii aeoea aai ?acaeoey, yaiethoeee ie?a. Ooo – aoi?ia ecia?aiea
auoey /aeiaaea. *aeiaae nouanoaoao e eae nioeeaeueii-enoi?e/aneia
nouanoai (o?aouea ecia?aiea aai nouanoaiaaiey). Ana o?e ecia?aiey
/aeiaa/aneiai nouanoaiaaiey, acyoua a aaeeinoaa, – enoiaeiua
oa?aeoa?enoeee auoey /aeiaaea.

*aeiaa/aneia auoea – ?aaeueiinoue, iauaeoeaiay ii ioiioaieth e niciaieth
ioaeaeueiuo ethaeae e iieieaiee. Ethaee nouanoaotho aei, aia e
iacaaeneii io niciaiey eaaeaeiai ioaeaeueiiai /aeiaaea. Ii auoea ethaeae
ioithaeue ia aaniethoii iacaaeneii io niciaiey, io aeooa, eai yaeyaony
eiiieaeniui e oieeaeueiui aaeeinoaii i?e?iaeiiai, aauanoaaiiiai e
aeooiaiiai, eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai e ?iaeiaiai, ee/iinoiiai e iauanoaaiiiai.
Eaaeaeue ec ian – ?aaeueiinoue aeey naiiai naay. Iu nouanoaoai, a aianoa
n iaie ?aaeueii nouanoaoao iaoa niciaiea. Aeooiaiia – yoi aaeeinoai
iiiaiia?aciiai, eioi?ia ioaaouaaao i?ioeannu niciaiey e
aanniciaoaeueiiai (oiaea iiiai?acee/iua ii eiie?aoiui oi?iai naiaai
nouanoaiaaiey e i?iyaeaiey), aeeth/aao ciaiey, aiieiuathueany,
iaoa?eaeecothueany a oi?iao anoanoaaiiuo ycueia eneonnoaaiiuo
ciaeiai-neiaiee/aneeo nenoai. E aeooiaiui i?iaeoeoai e i?ioeannai
i?eiaaeeaaeao oaeaea ii?iu, i?eioeeiu /aeiaa/aneiai iauaiey, aeeth/ay
ii?iu e e?eoa?ee i?aanoaaiiinoe, i?aaa, ooaeiaeanoaaiiiai oai?/anoaa.
Eiay a aeaeo eiaiii ?acee/ey a oi?ia auoey, aeooiaiia iiaeii oneiaii
?acaeaeeoue ia aeaa aieueoeo iiaeaeaea – ia aeooiaiia, eioi?ia
iaioaeaeeii io eiie?aoiie aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe eiaeeaeaeia
(eiaeeaeaeoaeece?iaaiiia aeooiaiia), e ia oi, eioi?ia iiaeao
nouanoaiaaoue e /anoi nouanoaoao oaeaea e aia eiaeeaeaeia, eee, aiai?y
eia/a, iauaeoeae?oaony (aiaeiaeeaeaeoaeueiia, iauaeoeae?iaaiiia
aeooiaiia). Ia?aue aeae – eiaeeaeaeoaeece?iaaiiia auoea aeooiaiiai –
aeeth/aao i?aaeaea anaai niciaiea eiaeeaeaea. Ianiiiaiii, nouanoaiaaiea
niciaiey iaioaeaeeii io aeayoaeueiinoe iicaa e ia?aiie nenoaiu
eiaeeaeaea, io nouanoaiaaiey aai oaea. Ii neiaeiinoue e aeeaeaeoeea
auoey eiaeeaeaeoaeece?iaaiiuo oi?i aeooiaiiai a oii e ninoieo, /oi
niciaiea e ana aai i?iyaeaiey, iaioaeaeeiua io yoeo
i?e?iaeii-aeieiae/aneeo i?ioeannia, e iei i?eioeeieaeueii ia naiaeeiu.
Eiaeeaeaeoaeece?iaaiiia aeooiaiia a oe?ieii niunea neiaa aeeth/aao e
aanniciaoaeueiia. Auoea eiaeeaeaeoaeece?iaaiiiai aeooiaiiai – aaaeiaeoay
noi?iia auoey eiaeeaeaea. Aac iaa iaaiciiaeii /aeiaa/aneia auoea, aai
aeeaeaeoe/aneia ?acaeoea. E /oi iniaaiii aaaeii, eiaeeaeaeoaeece?iaaiiia
aeooiaiia “eieaeeciaaii” a iauanoaaiiii /aeiaaea e ii naiae nouiinoe
yaeyaony iniaie ?aciiaeaeiinoueth aeooiaiiai, iaoneiaeaiiiai oaeaea
auoeai iauanoaa e ?acaeoeai enoi?ee. Aio ii/aio eiaeeaeaeoaeece?iaaiiia
e aiaeiaeoaeece?iaaiiia aeooiaiia oae oanii ia?aieaoaiu, niiniaiu
“ia?aeeaaoueny” ae?oa a ae?oaa. ?acoeueoaou aeayoaeueiinoe niciaiey e
aiiaua aeooiaiie aeayoaeueiinoe eiie?aoiiai /aeiaaea iiaoo ioaeaeyoueny
io iaai naiiai, eae au auoiaeeoue “aiaia”. E oiaaea aicieeaao aeooiaiia
aoi?ia oeia – iauaeoeae?iaaiiia (aiaeiaeeaeaeoaeueiia) aeooiaiia.
Niaoeeoeea iauaeoeae?iaaiiiai auoey caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi aai yeaiaiou
e o?aaiaiou (eaeae, eaeaaeu, ii?iu, oeaiiinoe, ?acee/iua anoanoaaiiua e
eneonnoaaiiua ycuee) niiniaiu nio?aiyoueny, niaa?oainoaiaaoueny e
naiaiaeii ia?aiauaoueny a nioeeaeueiii i?ino?ainoaa e enoi?e/aneii
a?aiaie.

5.1.Iaoa?eaeenoe/aneee aoiieci Aeaiie?eoa e Yieeo?a.

Ciaiaieoue a?a/aneee oeeinio Aeaiie?eo i?eieiaao oacen i oii, /oi auoea
anoue ia/oi i?inoia, iiieiay iiae iei iaaeaeeiia – aoii. Ii aeaao
iaoa?eaeenoe/aneoth o?aeoiaeo yoiio iiiyoeth, iuney aoii eae
iaeiaiueooth, aeaeaa iaaeaeeioth oece/aneoth /anoeoeo. Oaeeo aoiiia
Aeaiie?eo aeiioneaao aan/eneaiiia iiiaeanoai, oai naiui ioaa?aay
ooaa?aeaeaiea, /oi auoea – iaeii. Aoiiu, ii Aeaiie?eoo, ?acaeaeaiu
ionoioie, ionoioa – yoi iaauoea e, eae oaeiaia, iaiiciaaaaia: ioaa?aay
ooaa?aeaeaiea Ia?iaieaea i oii, /oi auoea ia iiiaeanoaaiii, Aeaiie?eo,
iaeiaei, niaeanai n yeaaoaie, /oi oieueei auoea iiciaaaaii. Aeaiie?eo
?acee/aao ie? aoiiia – eae enoeiiue e iioiio iiciaaaaiue eeoue ?acoiii –
e ie? /oanoaaiiuo aauae, i?aaenoaaeythueo niaie eeoue aiaoithth
aeaeeiinoue, nouiinoue eioi?ie ninoaaeytho aoiiu, eo naienoaa e
aeaeaeaiey. Aoiiu iaeuecy aeaeaoue, eo iiaeii oieueei iuneeoue. Aoiiu
Aeaiie?eoa ?acee/athony ii oi?ia e aaee/eia; aeaeaaynue a ionoioa, iie
niaaeeiythony (“noeaieythony”) iaaeaeo niaie a neeo ?acee/ey ii oi?ia: o
Aeaiie?eoa anoue aoiiu e?oaeua, ie?aieaeaeueiua, e?eaua, caino?aiiua,
aeaaea “n e?th/eaie”. Oae ec ieo ia?acothony oaea, aeinooiiua iaoaio
aini?eyoeth.

Aeaiie?eo i?aaeeiaeee i?iaeoiaiiue aa?eaio iaoaie/aneiai iauyniaiey
ie?a: oeaeia o iaai i?aaenoaaeyao niaie noiio /anoae, a aanii?yaei/iia
aeaeaeaiea aoiiia, eo neo/aeiua noieeiiaaiey ieacuaathony i?e/eiie anaai
nouaai. A aoiiecia ioaa?aaaony iieiaeaiea yeaaoia i iaiiaeaeaeiinoe
auoey, iineieueeo yoi iieiaeaiea ia aeaao aiciiaeiinoe iauynieoue
aeaeaeaiea e eciaiaiea, i?ienoiaeyuaa a /oanoaaiiii ie?a. No?aiynue
iaeoe i?e/eio aeaeaeaiey, Aeaiie?eo “?acae?iaeyao” aaeeiia auoea
Ia?iaieaea ia iiiaeanoai ioaeaeueiuo “auoee” – aoiiia, eioi?ua o?aeooao
iaoa?eaeenoe/anee.

O/aiea Aeaiie?eoa auei aeiiieiaii e ?acaeoi Yieeo?ii. Yieeo? i?eienuaaao
aoiiai aua iaeii naienoai – oyaeanoue. Ii oaeaea aeiioneaao e i?eciaao
caeiiiia?iui e ii?aaeaeaiiia ioeeiiaiea io i?yiieeiaeiiai aeaeaeaiey,
yoi aeaao aiciiaeiinoue aieaa “aeeaeaeoe/aneiai” iiieiaiey i?iaeaiu
aeaeaeaiey. Niaeanii Yieeo?o, aeooa – yoi ia ia/oi aanoaeaniia, a
no?oeoo?a aoiiia, oii/aeoay iaoa?ey, ?annayiiay ii anaio i?aaiecio.
Ionthaea auoaeaao e io?eoeaiea aannia?oey aeooe. Naith oai?eth Yieeo?
?ani?ino?aiyao e ia iaeanoue yoeee e iauanoaaiiiai ono?ienoaa. A yoeea
ii enoiaeee ec eiaeeaeaeoaeenoe/aneeo, a nouiinoe nainoaeenoneeo
iiceoeee. *aeiaae, ii Yieeo?o, yaeyaony /oanoaothuei nouanoaii, e aai
/oanoaa nooue iniiaiie e?eoa?ee ii?aee. Aunoei aeaaii Yieeo? i?eciaaae
aeaaeainoai, ianeaaeaeaiea. Iii ninoieo a oaeiaeaoai?aiee anoanoaaiiuo
iio?aaiinoae e a aeinoeaeaiee ii?aaeaeaiiiai aeooaaiiai ?aaiiaaney –
niieienoaey aeooe, a oai naiui e n/anouey. Yoe ii?aeueiua o?aaiaaiey ii
n/eoae anoanoaaiiuie, auoaeathueie ec /aeiaa/aneie nouiinoe. I?eioeei
ianeaaeaeaiey io?aaeaeny e ia nioeeaeueiuo aicc?aieyo Yieeo?a. Iauanoai,
n/eoae ii yaeyaony niaieoiiinoueth eiaeeaeaeia, eioi?ua aeiaiai?eeenue
iaaeaeo niaie i oii, /oi ia aoaeoo a?aaeeoue ae?oa ae?oao. Yieeo? a
ii?aaeaeaiiie ia?a i?aaeainoeuaao iicaeiaeooth oai?eth iauanoaaiiiai
aeiaiai?a.

5.2. Iiiaiia?acea i?ino?ainoaaiii-a?aiaiiuo naienoa aeaeaeouaeny
iaoa?ee. Aeieiae/aneia e nioeeaeueiia i?ino?ainoai e a?aiy. I?ino?ainoai
e a?aiy a ineoeea /aeiaaea.

Eaeay ea/anoaaiiiai iiiaiia?acey i?ino?ainoaaiii-a?aiaiiuo no?oeoo? –
aaaeiaeoee eiiiiiaio aeeaeaeoeei-iaoa?eaeenoe/aneie eiioeaioeee
i?ino?ainoaa e a?aiaie. Ooaa?aeaeay ia?ac?uaioth naycue
i?ino?ainoaa-a?aiaie n aeaeaeouaeny iaoa?eae, yoa eiioeaioeey
i?aaeiieaaaao, /oi ?acaeoea iaoa?ee e iiyaeaiea iiauo oi?i aa aeaeaeaiey
aeieaeii nii?iaiaeaeaoueny noaiiaeaiea ea/anoaaiii niaoeeoe/aneeo oi?i
i?ino?ainoaa e a?aiaie. Nia?aiaiiay iaoea aeaao aieueoie iaoa?eae aeey
?ac?aaioee e eiie?aoecaoeee yoie eaeae. O?e iniiaiuo noa?u
iaoa?eaeueiiai ie?a – iaaeeaay i?e?iaea, aeeciue, iauanoai –
oa?aeoa?ecothony niaoeeoe/aneeie i?ino?ainoaaiii-a?aiaiiuie no?oeoo?aie.
A iaaeeaie i?e?iaea, i?aaenoaaeaiiie aicieeoeie a iaoae Iaoaaaeaeoeea
o?iaiyie i?aaiecaoeee iaoa?ee, nouanoaotho iniaaiiinoe
i?ino?ainoaa-a?aiaie a iaaa-, iae?i- e iee?iie?a. A eieaeueiuo iaeanoyo
iae?iie?a i?ino?ainoai-a?aiy oa?aeoa?ecoaony aaeeeaeiaie aaiiao?eae. A
ianooaaao aaeaeoee e Iaoaaaeaeoeee nouanoaaiioth ?ieue ia/eiaao ea?aoue
e?eaecia i?ino?ainoaa-a?aiaie, naycaiiay n acaeiiaeaenoaeai oyaioathueo
iann. Ia iee?iie? nia?aiaiiay oeceea ?ani?ino?aiyao eaaioiaua yooaeou e
i?ino?ainoai-a?aiy a iai noaiiaeony aeene?aoiui.

Iiyaeaiea aeeaie i?e?iaeu oaeaea auei naycaii n oi?ie?iaaieai
niaoeeoe/aneiai oeia aa i?ino?ainoaaiii-a?aiaiiie i?aaiecaoeee.
Aicieeaao iniaia, aeieiae/aneia i?ino?ainoai a?aiy, eae au aienaiiia ai
aiaoiaa ii ioiioaieth e iaio i?ino?ainoai-a?aiy iaaeeaie i?e?iaeu.
I?ino?ainoaaiioth i?aaiecaoeeth aeeauo iieaeoe oa?aeoa?ecoao aneiiao?ey
“eaaiai” e “i?aaiai” a a?oiie?iaeao aoiiia. Aieueoeinoai i?aaie/aneeo
iieaeoe iiaeao nouanoaiaaoue a aeaoo oi?iao, ioee/athueony
i?ino?ainoaaiiie i?eaioaoeeae iaeieo e oao aea a?oiie?iaie aoiiia, /oi
aea eanaaony aeeauo nenoai, oi a ninoaaeythueo eo iieaeoeao eiathony
oieueei “eaainoi?iiiea” oi?iu. Ia?aaainoai i?aaeciu e eaaeciu
i?iyaeyaony ia oieueei ia iieaeoey?iii o?iaia, ii e ia o?iaia
i?aaieciia. ?aceia i?iyaeaiea eaaeciu a i?aaiecaoeee aeeaiai A.E.
Aa?iaaeneee ioeaieaae eae naeaeaoaeuenoai iniaaiiinoae aeieiae/aneiai
i?ino?ainoaa. Ii auaeaeaae aeiioaco, niaeanii eioi?ie aeinoa?o neaaeoao
?anniao?eaaoue eae neiaeioth eiiiiceoeeth ?acee/iuo iaaaeeeaeiauo
i?ino?ainoa i?aaieciia e eieaeueiuo aaeeeaeiauo i?ino?ainoa
iai?aaie/aneeo iauaeoia, n eioi?uie acaeiiaeaenoaotho yoe i?aaieciu.
AEeaay iaoa?ey eiaao niaoeeoeeo ia oieueei i?ino?ainoaaiiie, ii e
a?aiaiiie i?aaiecaoeee. I?eniiniaeoaeueiay aeoeaiinoue i?aaieciia ai
iiiaii naycaia n oi?ie?iaaieai a i?ioeanna yaiethoeee aioo?e ieo
naiaia?aciuo iiaeaeae a?aiaiiie i?aaiecaoeee aiaoieo i?ioeannia. Oaeea
iiaeaee yaeythony oae iacuaaaiuie aeieiae/aneeie /anaie. AEeaie i?aaieci
iooai ea?a?oe/aneie i?aaiecaoeee nenoaiu aeieiae/aneeo /ania (io eeaoee
aei ?aaiou ioaeaeueiuo i?aaiia e nenoaiu i?aaiia) caioneaao oaeea
?aaeoeee, eioi?ua iaania/ao aai i?eniiniaeaiea e aoaeouei niauoeyi. Ii
eae au iaaiiyao a?aiy. Ni?anniauaay i?ioeia a naiae aioo?aiiae
i?ino?ainoaaiii-a?aiaiiie i?aaiecaoeee, ii aeeaao e ianoiyuei e aoaeouei
iaeiia?aiaiii.

Aicieeiiaaiea nioeeaeueii i?aaieciaaiiie iaoa?ee naycaii n oi?ie?iaaieai
iiauo, ea/anoaaiii niaoeeoe/aneeo i?ino?ainoaaiii-a?aiaiiuo no?oeoo?.
Caeanue aicieeaao e enoi?e/anee ?acaeaaaony iniaue oei i?ino?ainoaaiiuo
ioiioaiee, a eioi?ii aini?iecaiaeeony e ?acaeaaaony /aeiaae eae
iauanoaaiiia nouanoai. Nioeeaeueiia i?ino?ainoai, aienaiiia a
i?ino?ainoai aeinoa?u e einiina, iaeaaeaao iniaui /aeiaa/aneei niuneii.
Iii ooieoeeiiaeueii ?an/eaiaii ia ?yae iiaei?ino?ainoa, oa?aeoa? eioi?uo
e eo acaeiinaycue enoi?e/anee iaiythony ii ia?a ?acaeoey iauanoaa.
Inaiaiiia /aeiaaeii, “i/aeiaa/aiiia”, e iainaiaiiia i?ino?ainoai
i?e?iaeu n oi/ee c?aiey i?e?iaeiuo naienoa ia ?acee/athony. Ii a
nioeeaeueiii ieaia eo ?acee/ea nouanoaaiii. Iii ii?aaeaeaii ioiioaieai
/aeiaaea e ie?o, enoi?e/anee neeaaeuaathueieny iniaaiiinoyie
aini?iecaiaenoaa niiniaia /aeiaa/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe e iiaaaeaiey.
Niaoeeoe/aneea /a?ou e oa?aeoa?enoeee nioeeaeueiiai i?ino?ainoaa
io?aaeathony, oioy e ia anaaaea aaeaeaaoii, a ie?iaicc?aiee /aeiaaea
niioaaonoaothuae enoi?e/aneie yiioe. I?ino?ainoaaiiua oi?iu oaoie/aneeo
ono?ienoa, oii?yaei/aiiia i?ino?ainoai iieae, naaeia, i?ioaaiuo caiaeue,
eneonnoaaiii nicaeaiiuo aiaeiaiia, a?oeoaeoo?a ai?iaeia – ana yoi
nioeeaeueiua i?ino?ainoaaiiua no?oeoo?u. Enoi?e/aneia ?acaeoea iaiyao
i?ino?ainoaaiioth n?aaeo, e iiaua i?ino?ainoaaiiua oi?iu eae au
ianeaeaathony ia i?aaeiea, aeaeieciaiyy eo.

Niaoeeoeea nioeeaeueiiai i?ino?ainoaa oanii naycaia n ni niaoeeoeeie
nioeeaeueiiai a?aiaie, eioi?ia yaeyaony aioo?aiiei a?aiaiai iauanoaaiiie
aeecie e eae au aienaii ai aiaoiaa ii ioiioaieth e iaio a?aiy i?e?iaeiuo
i?ioeannia. Nioeeaeueiia a?aiy yaeyaony ia?ie eciai/eainoe iauanoaaiiuo
i?ioeannia, enoi?e/anee aicieeathueo i?aia?aciaaiee a aeecie ethaeae. Ia
?aiieo noaaeeyo iauanoaaiiiai ?acaeoey ?eoiu nioeeaeueiuo i?ioeannia
auee caiaaeeaiiuie. Nioeeaeueiia a?aiy a yoeo iauanoaao iineei
eaaceoeeeee/aneee oa?aeoa?. *aeiaae aeee, eae au iaeyaeuaaynue a
i?ioeia, eioi?ia i?aaenoaaeyeinue aio cieioui aaeii. Eaeay
iai?aaeaiiinoe a?aiaie e i?eaioaoeey ia aoaeouaa aicieeee a eoeueoo?a
cia/eoaeueii iicaeiaa. O.i. nioeeaeueii-enoi?e/aneia a?aiy oa/ao
ia?aaiiia?ii. Iii eae au oieioiyaony e onei?yaony ii ia?a iauanoaaiiiai
i?ia?anna. I?e/ai naii onei?aiea nioeeaeueii-enoi?e/aneiai a?aiaie
i?ienoiaeeo ia?aaiiia?ii. A yiioo ?aaiethoeeiiiuo i?aia?aciaaiee yoi
onei?aiea, naiaia?aciia ni?anniauaaiea enoi?e/aneiai a?aiaie, aai
ianuuaiea nioeeaeueii cia/eiuie enoi?e/aneeie niauoeyie, i?ienoiaeeo a
cia/eoaeueii aieueoae noaiaie, /ai a ia?eiaeu ioiineoaeueii niieieiiai
?acaeoey. Nioeeaeueiia a?aiy, eae e nioeeaeueiia i?ino?ainoai, eiaao
neiaeioth no?oeoo?o. Iii aicieeaao eae iaeiaeaiea ae?oa ia ae?oaa
?acee/iuo a?aiaiiuo no?oeoo?. A ?aieao enoi?e/aneiai a?aiaie, a eioi?ii
i?ienoiaeyo niauoey, oa?aeoa?ecothuea enoi?eth ia?iaea, iaoeee, ?acaeoea
e niaio iauanoaaiii-yeiiiie/aneeo oi?iaoeee, iiaeii auaeaeeoue a?aiy
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai auoey /aeiaaea, eioi?ia ii?aaeaeyaony i?ioaeaieai
?acee/iuo nioeeaeueii e eiaeeaeaeoaeueii cia/eiuo aeey iaai niauoee.

5.3. Noauaeou e aeaeaeouea neeu enoi?e/aneiai i?ioeanna. Ia?iaeiua
iannu, eeannu, iaoeee, ee/iinoe.

Oio oaeo, /oi enoi?eth oai?yo ethaee aeinoaoi/ii i/aaeaeai. Ii eae
?acia?aoueny a yoii aan/eneaiiii iiiaeanoaa oeaeae, eioa?ania,
ono?aieaiee, aieue, eioi?ua eieoeee?otho e nii?iaiaeaeatho aeaenoaey
eiaeeaeaeia? Yoi aiciiaeii oieueei i?e oneiaee ia?aoiaea io
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo aeaenoaee e ianniaui, naiaia?aciiai “naaaeaiey”
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai e nioeeaeueiiio. Iaoiae oaeiai “naaaeaiey” iniiaai ia
oii, /oi eiathony iauea, nouanoaaiiua, oeie/aneea /a?ou a aaneiia/iii
iiiaiia?acee /aeiaa/aneeo iinooieia, no?aieaiee, oeaeae. Yoe iauea /a?ou
iaia?oaeeaathony aeaaiaea?y auyaeaieth iaoa?eaeueiuo iauanoaaiiuo
ioiioaiee, ia iniiaa eioi?uo oi?ie?oaony nioeeaeueiay no?oeoo?a
iauanoaa, a aeaenoaey eiaeeaeaeia naycuaathony n aeaenoaeyie
ninoaaeythueo yoo no?oeoo?o aieueoeo nioeeaeueiuo a?oii. I?e oaeii
iiaeoiaea ie a eaeie ia?a ia ouaieyaony ie oieeaeueiinoue /aeiaa/aneie
ee/iinoe, ie aa ?ieue a iauanoaa. Iai?ioea, ia iao/ioth ii/ao noaaeony
iauyniaiea aiciiaeiinoae aa aicaeaenoaey ia oiae enoi?ee. Ii
i?aaeiinueeie e iaycaoaeueiui oneiaeai yoiai iauyniaiey yaeyaony,
naaaeaiea eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai e nioeeaeueiiio, o.a. auaeaeaiea aieueoeo
nioeeaeueiuo a?oii, ninoiyueo eiia/ii aea ec eiaeeaeaeia, ii aianoa n
oai ia oiaeaeanoaaiiuo eo i?inoie noiia, iaeaaeathueo naieie iniauie,
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuie /a?oaie e i?eciaeaie. Ana yoi ioe?uaaao oaeaea iooue
aeey oai?aoe/aneiai enneaaeiaaiey aeaeaeoueo nee e noauaeoia
enoi?e/aneiai i?ioeanna.

Aeaeaeouae neeie enoi?e/aneiai i?ioeanna yaeyaony aeayoaeueiinoue anao
aai “o/anoieeia”: yoi e nioeeaeueiua iauiinoe, e eo i?aaiecaoeee, e
eiaeeaeaeu, e auaeathueany ee/iinoe. *a?ac e ia iniiaa eo niaieoiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe inouanoaeyaony e ?acaa?ouaaaony enoi?ey. Iiiyoea “noauaeo
enoi?e/aneiai i?ioeanna” ia oiaeaeanoaaiii i?aaeuaeouaio. Aei o?iaiy
noauaeoa iiaeieiathony oieueei oa (eiaeeaeaeu e iauanoaa) e oieueei
oiaaea, eoi e eiaaea iniciaao naia ianoi a iauanoaa, ?oeiaiaenoaoaony
iauanoaaiii-cia/eiuie oeaeyie e o/anoaoao a ai?ueaa ca eo inouanoaeaiea.
Oi?ie?iaaiea oaeiai noauaeoa anoue ?acoeueoao enoi?ee. A i?yiii,
iaiin?aaenoaaiiii niunea neiaa noauaeoii yaeyaony ee/iinoue,
aeaenoaothuay niciaoaeueii e ioaaonoaaiiay ca naie aeaenoaey. A?oiia
iiaeao auoue noauaeoii (nioeeaeueiui noauaeoii), anee o iaa eiathony
iauea eioa?anu, oeaee aeaenoaey, o.a. anee iia i?aaenoaaeyao iaeoth
oeaeinoiinoue.

Iniiaiuie nioeeaeueiuie noauaeoaie enoi?e/aneiai i?ioeanna a
iineaia?aiauoiie enoi?ee /aeiaa/anoaa yaeythony iauanoaaiiua eeannu.
I?ioeann nioeeaeueiiai ?anneiaiey iauanoaa i?eaae e oiio, /oi ia ianoi
aioo?aiia neaai aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiie iauiinoe – ?iaea eee iaueiu –
i?eoee eeannu n ?acee/iuie eee i?yii i?ioeaiiieiaeiuie eioa?anaie, a
ai?ueaa eeannia noaea iniiaiui n?aaenoaii ?aoaiey nioeeaeueiuo i?iaeai,
aeaeaeouae neeie iauanoaaiiiai ?acaeoey ia ii?aaeaeaiiie aai noaaeee.
“Eeannaie, – ienae A.E. Eaiei, – iacuaathony aieueoea a?oiiu ethaeae,
?acee/athueany ii eo ianoo a nenoaia iauanoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa, ii eo
ioiioaieth…e n?aaenoaai i?iecaiaenoaa, ii eo ?iee a iauanoaaiiie
i?aaiecaoeee o?oaea, a neaaeiaaoaeueii, ii niiniaai iieo/aiey e ?acia?ai
oie aeiee iauanoaaiiiai aiaaonoaa, eioi?ie iie ?aniieaaatho”. ?ieue
nioeeaeueiiai iauaeoa iiaoo ea?aoue e oaeea iauiinoe, eae ia?iaeiinoe e
iaoeee, eiaaea iie niea/eaathony ai eiy ii?aaeaeaiiie oeaee. Ii iaoeee
anaaaea aicaeaaeythony eeannaie, eioi?ua e a yoii neo/aa inoathony
iniiaiuie aeaeaeoueie neeaie e noauaeoaie enoi?e/aneiai i?ioeanna. Ie
iaeei eeann ia iiaeao inouanoaeoue aeoaieeo i?aia?aciaaiee, ia
iauaaeeiyy e ia i?aaiecoy aie?oa naay aioiaua aai iiaeaea?aeeaaoue
ae?oaea eeannu e iauanoaaiiua neie. E /ai aeoaaea i?aia?aciaaiea, oai
oe?a iauai iannu, o/anoaothuae a iai. A nioeeaeueii-oeeinioneii niunea
ia?iae eae oai?aoe enoi?ee – yoi oe?ieay iauiinoue, niaaeeiythuay ana oa
neie e eeannu, eioi?ua ii naiaio iauaeoeaiiio iieiaeaieth caeioa?aniaaiu
a iinooiaoaeueiii aeaeaeaiee iauanoaa. A nia?aiaiiii, ai iiiaii
acaeiicaaeneiii ie?a i?iaeaia noauaeoa enoi?e/aneiai oai?/anoaa
i?eia?aoaao iiaua niuneiaua a?aie. A iaoa a?aiy i?aaiia?ii noaaeoue
aii?in i i?aa?auaiee anaai /aeiaa/anoaa, anaai ie?iaiai niiauanoaa a
noauaeoa enoi?e/aneiai i?ioeanna. ?anoouaa iniciaiea iauae noaeueau e
iauae oa?icu, iiieiaiea oiai, /oi ana ethaee iaoiaeyony a “iaeiie
eiaeea” , iiauoaao ?ieue /aeiaa/anoaa eae aaeeiiai e aunoaai noauaeoa
enoi?e/aneiai aeaenoaey.

Oioy eaaeaeue, eiaiii eaaeaeue /eai iauanoaa o/anoaoao a enoi?e/aneii
i?ioeanna, ana aea ia ana, a oieueei ioaeaeueiua ee/iinoe inoathony
iaaeieai, a oi e iaanaaaea a iaiyoe nia?aiaiieeia eo iioiieia. ?ieue
oaeeo ee/iinoae, eioi?uo i?eiyoi n/eoaoue auaeathueieny eee
enoi?e/aneeie, noieue aaeeea e i/aaeaeia, /oi aeieaia a?aiy oeeiniou
eeoue a ieo oniao?eaaee oai?/aneoth neeo e aeaeaaoaeue enoi?ee.
Nicaeaaay iaoa?eaeenoe/aneia iiieiaiea enoi?ee, iniiaiiieiaeieee
ia?enecia nin?aaeioi/eaaee aeaaiia aieiaiea ia oii, /oi aeayoaeueiinoue
enoi?e/aneie ee/iinoe caaeneo io iauaeoeaiuo oneiaee, I?aaaea iie
anaaaea i?e yoii ioia/aee e aa ia?iiioth ?ieue a iauanoaa. Ee/iinoue ia
iiaeao eciaieoue enoi?eth a ianooaaa anaie?ii-enoi?e/aneii, ia?ooeoue aa
iauoth iauaeoeaioth eiaeeo, ii a ?aaeueiie enoi?ee no?ai e ia?iaeia
ee/iinoue iiaeao naeaeaoue /?acau/aeii iiiai.

Noaiiaeaiea aeeaeaeoeee a aioe/iie oeeinioee(Aa?aeeeo e yeaaou).

Aeey ?aiieo iaoo?oeeinioia oa?aeoa?ia iniaiai ?iaea noeoeeiay
aeeaeaeoeea iuoeaiey. Iie ?anniao?eaatho einiin eae iai?a?uaii
eciaiythuaany oeaeia, a eioi?ii iaeciaiiia e naiioiaeaeanoaaiiia
ia?aiia/aei i?aaenoaao a ?acee/iuo oi?iao, eniuouaay anaaiciiaeiua
i?aa?auaiey. Iniaaiii y?ei aeeaeaeoeea i?aaenoaaeaia o Aa?aeeeoa,
niaeanii eioi?iio ana nouaa iaaei iuneeoue eae iiaeaeaeiia aaeeinoai e
ai?ueao i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoae; ia neo/aeii Aa?aeeeo n/eoae ia?aiia/aeii
iaiiue: iaiaiiay noeoey – naiay aeeiaie/iay e iiaeaeaeiay n?aaee
yeaiaioia einiina. Iaeiaei aeeaeaeoeea iaoo?oeeinioia, eae e ana eo
iuoeaiea, aua ia naiaiaeia io ia?acii – iaoaoi?e/aneie oi?iu, a iae
eiae/aneay ia?aaioea iiiyoee aua ia caiyea neieueei-ieaoaeue caiaoiiai
ianoa.

A eiooeoeaiii iiieiaiee ?acaeoey eae aaeeinoaa e ai?ueau
i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoae ec anao aeinie?aoianeeo iuneeoaeae Aa?aeeeo
i?iaeaeioeny iaeaieaa aeaeaei. Aai aeeaae a ?acaeoea aeeaeaeoeee
eneeth/eoaeai. Yoi ioia/aee e Aaaaeue e Eaiei. Aeeaeaeoeea o iaai ia
eceaaaaony a yniuo e oii?yaei/aiiuo iiiyoeyo. Yoi nei?aa ioaeaeueiua
aaieaeueiua iaaethaeaiey, eioi?ua a aieueoae eee iaiueoae ia?a yaeythony
oaaaeuaaieai iniiaiuo /a?o aeeaeaeoeee. E iei ioiineony , a /anoiinoe,
oieaa?naeueiinoue ?acaeoey (aai enoi/ieeii yaeyaony ai?ueaa
i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoae). Oeaio?aeueiui iioeaii anaai aai o/aiey aue
i?eioeei ana oa/ao. Iinoiyiiue oiae ?acaeoey ii n?aaieaaao n oa/aieai
?aee, a eioi?oth iaeuecy aieoe aeaaaeaeu. Aa?aeeeoiaa noeoeeiay
aeeaeaeoeea aanueia oanii naycaia n aai anoanoaaiiui iaoa?eaeeciii e
aeoaiei i?iiecuaaao aai. ?yaeii n iaeiicia/iui iiae/a?eeaaieai
iaoa?eaeueiie iniiau anyeiai auoey e n eiinoaoaoeeae aaneiia/iinoe yoiai
iaoa?eaeueiiai i?eioeeia iu iaoiaeei o Aa?aeeeoa e iuneue,
iiae/a?eeaathuoth aaneiia/iinoue iaoa?ee a enoi?e/aneii niunea e
i/aaeaeiia iauyniaiea aa ianioai?eiinoe e iaoie/oiaeeiinoe. ?aciiia?acea
i?iyaeaiee nouanoaothuaai ie?a iauyniyao Aa?aeeeo eciaiaieyie,
i?ienoiaeyueie a enoiaeiie “i?aiaoa?ee”. Iaeia iaoa?ey, niaeanii aio,
“aeeaao nia?oueth” ae?oaie. Oaeei ia?acii, Aa?aeeeo aanueia aeecei
iiaeoiaeeo e iiieiaieth “oai?/aneiai io?eoeaiey”. Aa?aeeeoiaa oeeinioey
yaeyaony aa?oeiie noeoeeii aeeaeaeoe/aneiai iiieiaiey ie?a ai anae
aioe/iie oeeinioee. Oioy iaeioi?ua iicaeiaeoea iuneeoaee aeoaaea, /ai
Aa?aeeeo, ?ac?aaioaee ioaeaeueiua noi?iiu ca?iaeeaoeony eiioeaioeee
aeeaeaeoeee, ii ie o eiai ec ieo ia auei oaeiai oieaa?naeueiiai
?acaeoey, eaeia auei o Aa?aeeeoa.

Oeeinioey yeaeneie oeieu (Enaiioai, Ia?iaieae, Caiii, Iaeenn) aeecea
o?aaeeoeeyi niiioaiiiai, noeoeeiiai iaoa?eaeecia, iaeiaei iia io?eoeaao
“noeoeeioth aeeaeaeoeeo” i?aaeoanoaothueo oeeinioneeo oeie. Iieaieea
yeaaoia n aeeaeaeoeeie Aa?aeeeoa, oioy yoi e eaaeaony ia?aaeienaeueiui,
i?eaiaeeo e iinoeaeaieth ?aaeueiuo, iauaeoeaii nouanoaothueo
i?ioeai?a/ee. Io?eoeaiea aeaeaeaiey, auaaaeaiea i?ioeai?a/ee ec
i?aaeiinueie aai nouanoaiaaiey – a /anoiinoe, a eceiaeaiee Caiiia –
noaiiaeony noeioeii aeaeueiaeoaai ?acaeoey aeeaeaeoe/aneiai iuoeaiey.
Aieueoei aeeaaeii yeaaoia yaeyaony no?aieaiea e iniuneaieth
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe i?e iiiiue iiiyoeeiiai aiia?aoa. N iiiiuueth iniiaiuo
iiiyoee oiaaeaoiea oeeiniou no?aieeenue io?aceoue, iiiyoue iauaeoeaii
nouanoaothuee ie?. A o/aiee yeaaoia iu ano?a/aainy ni n?aaieoaeueii
/aoeei o/aieai i auoee e ii?aaeaeaiiuie iiaeoiaeaie e aii?ino i
iiciaaaaiinoe ie?a.

Niaeanii yeaaoai, auoea – yoi oi, /oi anaaaea anoue: iii oae aea aaeeii
e iaaeaeeii, eae iuneue i iai, a i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue iiiaeanoaaiiinoe e
aeaeeiinoe anao aauae /oanoaaiiiai ie?a. Auoea – yoi oi, /oi iiaeii
iiciaoue oieueei ?acoiii. Iuoeaiea e auoea – yoi iaeii e oi aea.
Iuoeaiea – yoi niiniaiinoue iinoeaaoue aaeeinoai, a oi a?aiy eae
/oanoaaiiiio aini?eyoeth ioe?uaaaony iiiaeanoaaiiinoue, iiiaiia?acea a
aauao e yaeaieyo. Iniciaiea i?e?iaeu iuoeaiey eiaei aeaeaei eaeouea
iineaaenoaey aeey ?acaeoiee ae?aaiaa?a/aneeo oeeinioia. Ia neo/aeii o
Ia?iaieaea, aai o/aieea Caiiia, a iicaeiaa o Ieaoiia e a aai oeiea
iiiyoea aaeeiiai ieacuaaaony a oeaio?a aieiaiey, a ianoaeaeaiea
niioiioaiey aaeeiiai e iiiaiai, aaeeiiai e auoey noeioee?oao ?acaeoea
aioe/iie aeeaeaeoeee. Caiii auaeaeioe ?yae ia?aaeienaeueiuo iieiaeaiee,
eioi?ua iieo/eee iacaaiea aii?ee. N eo iiiiuueth ii oioae aeieacaoue,
/oi auoea aaeeii e iaiiaeaeaeii, a iiiaeanoaaiiinoue e aeaeaeaiea ia
iiaoo auoue iuneeiu aac i?ioeai?a/ey, e iioiio iie ia nooue auoea.
Aia?aua a enoi?ee /aeiaa/aneiai iuoeaiey caeanue ianoaeaeathony i?iaeaiu
iai?a?uaiinoe e aaneiia/iinoe. Aii?ee Caiiia nua?aee aaaeioth ?ieue eae
a ?acaeoee aioe/iie aeeaeaeoeee, oae e aioe/iie iaoee, iniaaiii eiaeee e
iaoaiaoeee.

6.2. Oeeinioey e anoanoaiciaiea i iaoa?eaeueiii aaeeinoaa ie?a.

Auaeaeyy aeaaiua noa?u auoey (i?e?iaeo, iauanoai, niciaiea) iu iayaii
iieaaaai, /oi iiiaiia?acea yaeaiee, niauoee, i?ioeannia, aeeth/aiiuo a
yoe noa?u, iauaaeeiaii iaeioi?ie iauae iniiaie. Eaeay oaeiai aaeeinoaa
i?eaiaeeo e i?aaenoaaeaieth ia iauae iniiaa anaai nouanoaothuaai, aeey
iaicia/aiey eioi?ie a oeeinioee auea au?aaioaia eaoaai?ey noanoaioeee.
Noanoaioeey iaicia/aao aioo?aiiaa aaeeinoai iiiaiia?acey eiie?aoiuo
aauae, niauoee, yaeaiee e i?ioeannia, iin?aaenoaii eioi?uo e /a?ac
eioi?ua iia nouanoaoao. O/aiey, iauyniythuea aaeeinoai ie?a enoiaey ec
iaeiie noanoaioeee, ioiinyony e oeeinioee iiiecia. Ii naii iiieiaiea
noanoaioeee iiaeao auoue ?acee/iui: a ea/anoaa noanoaioeee iiaeii
iuneeoue e iaoa?eth e aeoo. Niioaaonoaaiii yoiio neaaeoao ?acee/aoue
iaoa?eaeenoe/aneee iiieci (iai?eia?, o/aiea Oaeana, Aa?aeeeoa, Nieiicu)
e eaeaaeenoe/aneee iiieci (iai?eia?, oeeinioey Ieaoiia, Aaaaey). Iiiecio
i?ioeainoieo aeoaeenoe/aneay o?aeoiaea ie?a, niaeanii eioi?ie ii
ia?aciaai aeaoiy nouanoaothueie enoiaeiuie ia/aeaie – iaoa?eaeueiui e
eaeaaeueiui. Ia?enenoneay oeeinioey i?iaeieaeaao o?aaeeoeeth
iaoa?eaeenoe/aneiai iiiecia. Yoi cia/eo, /oi iiiaiia?acea auoey ai anao
aai i?iyaeaieyo iia ?anniao?eaaao iiae oaeii c?aiey eo iaoa?eaeueiiai
aaeeinoaa. Niciaiea aea iiieiaaony ia eae noanoaioeey, a eae iniaia
naienoai iaoa?ee, i?enouaa ia anai, a oieueei aunoei oi?iai aa
i?aaiecaoeee. No?oeoo?iinoue, aeaeaeaiea, i?ino?ainoai e a?aiy
i?aaenoatho eae ao?eaooeaiua oa?aeoa?enoeee iaoa?ee, o.a. oaeea aa
naienoaa, aac eioi?uo iaoa?ey ia nouanoaoao. Aianoa n oai naie yoe
naienoaa ia iiaoo auoue ioaeaeaiu io iaoa?ee.

Iineaaeiaaoaeueiia i?iaaaeaiea iaoa?eaeenoe/aneiai iiiecia aiciiaeii
eeoue i?e iiieiaiee iaoa?eaeueiiai aaeeinoaa ie?a eae aeeaeaeoe/aneiai,
i?ioeai?a/eaiai aaeeinoaa iiiaiia?acey. Yoi aeeaeaeoe/aneia aaeeinoai
i?iyaeyaony aeaiyei. Ai-ia?auo, eae naiaia?aciay aeene?aoiinoue a
no?iaiee iauaeoeaiie aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, oi anoue iaee/ey a iae
ea/anoaaiii ?acee/iuo, ioa?aie/aiiuo ae?oa io ae?oaa aauae, yaeaiee,
i?ioeannia, nenoai. Ai-aoi?uo, eae ea?a?oe/aneea ioiioaiey iaaeaeo
nenoaiaie ?acee/iie noaiaie neiaeiinoe, i?aaieciaaiiinoe, au?aaeathueany
ai “aeeth/aiee” iaiaa neiaeiuo nenoai a aieaa neiaeiua e aianoa n oai a
ianaiaeeiinoe niaoeeoe/aneeo caeiiiia?iinoae iineaaeieo e ia?aui.
Aeeaeaeoe/aneia iiieiaiea iaoa?eaeueiiai aaeeinoaa ie?a ana aeoaaea
i?iieeaao e a nia?aiaiiia anoanoaiciaiea, e a iaoee i /aeiaaea e
iauanoaa. Iaoa?eaeenoe/aneay aeeaeaeoeea, a aianoa n iae e ana
nia?aiaiiua iaoee i i?e?iaea e iauanoaa enoiaeyo ec oiai, /oi a iniiaa
anaai iiiaiia?acey nouanoaothueo yaeaiee e i?ioeannia eaaeeo aeaeaeaiea
aaeeiie iaoa?ee. I?eia?, o?iaie i?aaiecaoeee aeeaie i?e?iaeu: nenoaiu
aeieeaoi/iiai o?iaiy – ioeeaeiiaua eeneiou e aaeee; eeaoee;
iiiaieeaoi/iua i?aaieciu (?anoaiey, aeeaioiua); iaaei?aaieciaiiua
no?oeoo?u (iiioeyoeee, aeaeu e aeioeaiicu); iaeiiaoe, acaeiiaeaenoaey
aeioeaiicia ia?acoao aeiaaeueioth nenoaio aeecie – aeinoa?o.

Anoanoaiciaiea naycuaaaony a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue n oeceeie eae iaeaieaa
iauae iaoeie i caeiiao iaoa?eaeueiiai ie?a.

A iniiaa “oece/aneiai” aaeeinoaa ie?a aeieaeiu eaaeaoue i?aaeaea anaai
caeiiu nio?aiaiey. E?iia oiai iiaeii n/eoaoue onoaiiaeaiiui oaeo /oi ana
oaea iaoa?eaeueiiai ie?a oae eee eia/a aicaeaenoaotho ae?oa ia ae?oaa.
Neaaeiaaoaeueii, eieue nei?i iiiyoea acaeiiaeaenoaey ( nayce ) anaiauaa
oi ie? iaeuecy ?acaeaeeoue ia iacaaeniua /anoe o. a. ie? aaeei.

Oeeinioey aea aeeth/aao a aaeeiue ie? /aeiaaea ni anaie aai /oanoaaie e
?acoiii.

6.3. Aeaenoaothuea neeu enoi?ee. Ee/iinoue eae noauaeo enoi?e/aneiai
i?ioeanna.

Niio?e aeeao 5.3.

Oio oaeo, /oi enoi?eth oai?yo ethaee aeinoaoi/ii i/aaeaeai. Ii eae
?acia?aoueny a yoii aan/eneaiiii iiiaeanoaa oeaeae, eioa?ania,
ono?aieaiee, aieue, eioi?ua eieoeee?otho e nii?iaiaeaeatho aeaenoaey
eiaeeaeaeia? Yoi aiciiaeii oieueei i?e oneiaee ia?aoiaea io
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo aeaenoaee e ianniaui, naiaia?aciiai “naaaeaiey”
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai e nioeeaeueiiio. Iaoiae oaeiai “naaaeaiey” iniiaai ia
oii, /oi eiathony iauea, nouanoaaiiua, oeie/aneea /a?ou a aaneiia/iii
iiiaiia?acee /aeiaa/aneeo iinooieia, no?aieaiee, oeaeae. Yoe iauea /a?ou
iaia?oaeeaathony aeaaiaea?y auyaeaieth iaoa?eaeueiuo iauanoaaiiuo
ioiioaiee, ia iniiaa eioi?uo oi?ie?oaony nioeeaeueiay no?oeoo?a
iauanoaa, a aeaenoaey eiaeeaeaeia naycuaathony n aeaenoaeyie
ninoaaeythueo yoo no?oeoo?o aieueoeo nioeeaeueiuo a?oii. I?e oaeii
iiaeoiaea ie a eaeie ia?a ia ouaieyaony ie oieeaeueiinoue /aeiaa/aneie
ee/iinoe, ie aa ?ieue a iauanoaa. Iai?ioea, ia iao/ioth ii/ao noaaeony
iauyniaiea aiciiaeiinoae aa aicaeaenoaey ia oiae enoi?ee. Ii
i?aaeiinueeie e iaycaoaeueiui oneiaeai yoiai iauyniaiey yaeyaony,
naaaeaiea eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai e nioeeaeueiiio, o.a. auaeaeaiea aieueoeo
nioeeaeueiuo a?oii, ninoiyueo eiia/ii aea ec eiaeeaeaeia, ii aianoa n
oai ia oiaeaeanoaaiiuo eo i?inoie noiia, iaeaaeathueo naieie iniauie,
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuie /a?oaie e i?eciaeaie. Ana yoi ioe?uaaao oaeaea iooue
aeey oai?aoe/aneiai enneaaeiaaiey aeaeaeoueo nee e noauaeoia
enoi?e/aneiai i?ioeanna.

Aeaeaeouae neeie enoi?e/aneiai i?ioeanna yaeyaony aeayoaeueiinoue anao
aai “o/anoieeia”: yoi e nioeeaeueiua iauiinoe, e eo i?aaiecaoeee, e
eiaeeaeaeu, e auaeathueany ee/iinoe. *a?ac e ia iniiaa eo niaieoiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe inouanoaeyaony e ?acaa?ouaaaony enoi?ey. Iiiyoea “noauaeo
enoi?e/aneiai i?ioeanna” ia oiaeaeanoaaiii i?aaeuaeouaio. Aei o?iaiy
noauaeoa iiaeieiathony oieueei oa (eiaeeaeaeu e iauanoaa) e oieueei
oiaaea, eoi e eiaaea iniciaao naia ianoi a iauanoaa, ?oeiaiaenoaoaony
iauanoaaiii-cia/eiuie oeaeyie e o/anoaoao a ai?ueaa ca eo inouanoaeaiea.
Oi?ie?iaaiea oaeiai noauaeoa anoue ?acoeueoao enoi?ee. A i?yiii,
iaiin?aaenoaaiiii niunea neiaa noauaeoii yaeyaony ee/iinoue,
aeaenoaothuay niciaoaeueii e ioaaonoaaiiay ca naie aeaenoaey. A?oiia
iiaeao auoue noauaeoii (nioeeaeueiui noauaeoii), anee o iaa eiathony
iauea eioa?anu, oeaee aeaenoaey, o.a. anee iia i?aaenoaaeyao iaeoth
oeaeinoiinoue.

Iniiaiuie nioeeaeueiuie noauaeoaie enoi?e/aneiai i?ioeanna a
iineaia?aiauoiie enoi?ee /aeiaa/anoaa yaeythony iauanoaaiiua eeannu.
I?ioeann nioeeaeueiiai ?anneiaiey iauanoaa i?eaae e oiio, /oi ia ianoi
aioo?aiia neaai aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiie iauiinoe – ?iaea eee iaueiu –
i?eoee eeannu n ?acee/iuie eee i?yii i?ioeaiiieiaeiuie eioa?anaie, a
ai?ueaa eeannia noaea iniiaiui n?aaenoaii ?aoaiey nioeeaeueiuo i?iaeai,
aeaeaeouae neeie iauanoaaiiiai ?acaeoey ia ii?aaeaeaiiie aai noaaeee.
“Eeannaie, – ienae A.E. Eaiei, – iacuaathony aieueoea a?oiiu ethaeae,
?acee/athueany ii eo ianoo a nenoaia iauanoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa, ii eo
ioiioaieth…e n?aaenoaai i?iecaiaenoaa, ii eo ?iee a iauanoaaiiie
i?aaiecaoeee o?oaea, a neaaeiaaoaeueii, ii niiniaai iieo/aiey e ?acia?ai
oie aeiee iauanoaaiiiai aiaaonoaa, eioi?ie iie ?aniieaaatho”. ?ieue
nioeeaeueiiai iauaeoa iiaoo ea?aoue e oaeea iauiinoe, eae ia?iaeiinoe e
iaoeee, eiaaea iie niea/eaathony ai eiy ii?aaeaeaiiie oeaee. Ii iaoeee
anaaaea aicaeaaeythony eeannaie, eioi?ua e a yoii neo/aa inoathony
iniiaiuie aeaeaeoueie neeaie e noauaeoaie enoi?e/aneiai i?ioeanna. Ie
iaeei eeann ia iiaeao inouanoaeoue aeoaieeo i?aia?aciaaiee, ia
iauaaeeiyy e ia i?aaiecoy aie?oa naay aioiaua aai iiaeaea?aeeaaoue
ae?oaea eeannu e iauanoaaiiua neie. E /ai aeoaaea i?aia?aciaaiea, oai
oe?a iauai iannu, o/anoaothuae a iai. A nioeeaeueii-oeeinioneii niunea
ia?iae eae oai?aoe enoi?ee – yoi oe?ieay iauiinoue, niaaeeiythuay ana oa
neie e eeannu, eioi?ua ii naiaio iauaeoeaiiio iieiaeaieth caeioa?aniaaiu
a iinooiaoaeueiii aeaeaeaiee iauanoaa. A nia?aiaiiii, ai iiiaii
acaeiicaaeneiii ie?a i?iaeaia noauaeoa enoi?e/aneiai oai?/anoaa
i?eia?aoaao iiaua niuneiaua a?aie. A iaoa a?aiy i?aaiia?ii noaaeoue
aii?in i i?aa?auaiee anaai /aeiaa/anoaa, anaai ie?iaiai niiauanoaa a
noauaeoa enoi?e/aneiai i?ioeanna. ?anoouaa iniciaiea iauae noaeueau e
iauae oa?icu, iiieiaiea oiai, /oi ana ethaee iaoiaeyony a “iaeiie
eiaeea” , iiauoaao ?ieue /aeiaa/anoaa eae aaeeiiai e aunoaai noauaeoa
enoi?e/aneiai aeaenoaey.

Oioy eaaeaeue, eiaiii eaaeaeue /eai iauanoaa o/anoaoao a enoi?e/aneii
i?ioeanna, ana aea ia ana, a oieueei ioaeaeueiua ee/iinoe inoathony
iaaeieai, a oi e iaanaaaea a iaiyoe nia?aiaiieeia eo iioiieia. ?ieue
oaeeo ee/iinoae, eioi?uo i?eiyoi n/eoaoue auaeathueieny eee
enoi?e/aneeie, noieue aaeeea e i/aaeaeia, /oi aeieaia a?aiy oeeiniou
eeoue a ieo oniao?eaaee oai?/aneoth neeo e aeaeaaoaeue enoi?ee.
Nicaeaaay iaoa?eaeenoe/aneia iiieiaiea enoi?ee, iniiaiiieiaeieee
ia?enecia nin?aaeioi/eaaee aeaaiia aieiaiea ia oii, /oi aeayoaeueiinoue
enoi?e/aneie ee/iinoe caaeneo io iauaeoeaiuo oneiaee, I?aaaea iie
anaaaea i?e yoii ioia/aee e aa ia?iiioth ?ieue a iauanoaa. Ee/iinoue ia
iiaeao eciaieoue enoi?eth a ianooaaa anaie?ii-enoi?e/aneii, ia?ooeoue aa
iauoth iauaeoeaioth eiaeeo, ii a ?aaeueiie enoi?ee no?ai e ia?iaeia
ee/iinoue iiaeao naeaeaoue /?acau/aeii iiiai.

7.1. Iniiaiua /a?ou oeeinioee A?enoioaey.

Oai?/anoai A?enoioaey yaeyaony aa?oeiie ia oieueei aioe/iie oeeinioee,
ii e anaai ae?aaiaai iuoeaiey, iaeaieaa iaoe?iie e a eiae/aneii niunea
iaeaieaa ?ac?aaioaiiie nenoaiie iiciaiey. ?yae nia?aiaiiuo niaoeeaeueiuo
iaoe (yoeea, ynoaoeea, eiaeea e o.ae.) eiaao naia ia/aei a aai
i?iecaaaeaieyo. A?enoioaeue niia ia oieueei oii?yaei/eoue, ii e
nenoaiaoe/anee iaiaueoue aeinoeaeaiey iiciaiey naiaai a?aiaie. Ii aeae
ia/aei a oii eee eiii niunea aieueoeinoao iineaaeothueo oeeinioneeo
nenoai. Niaea?aeaoaeueiinoue e ?ac?aaioaiiinoue oeeinioneie nenoaiu
A?enoioaey auee oieaa?naeueiu.

Iniiaie anyeiai auoey A?enoioaeue n/eoae oae iacuaaaioth ia?aoth
iaoa?eth. Yoa ia?ae/iay iaoa?ey, iaeiaei, ia ii?aaeaeaia
(i?eioeeieaeueii iaii?aaeaeeia) ie iaeiie ec eaoaai?ee, eioi?uie iu
ii?aaeaeyai ?aaeueiua (eiie?aoiua) ninoiyiey nouaai. Iia ia?acoao,
nianoaaiii, “iioaioeeaeueioth” i?aaeiinueeo nouanoaiaaiey. E oioy iia
yaeyaony iniiaie anyeiai auoey, aa iaeuecy ioiaeaeanoaeyoue n auoeai e
aeaaea iaeuecy n/eoaoue i?inoie ninoaaiie /anoueth eiie?aoiiai auoey.
Iaei?inoaeoae ii?aaeaeaiiinoueth yoie ia?aie eaoaai?ee yaeythony, ii
A?enoioaeth, /aou?a yeaiaioa – iaiiue, aicaeoo, aiaea e caiey. Iie
i?aaenoaaeytho ii?aaeaeaiioth i?iiaaeooi/ioth nooiaiue iaaeaeo ia?aie
iaoa?eae, eioi?ay /oanoaaiii iaiinoeaeeia, e ?aaeueii nouanoaothuei
ie?ii, eioi?ue /oanoaaiii aini?eieiaai. Eiie?aoiua, nouanoaothuea
(/oanoaaiii aini?eieiaaiua) aaue yaeythony ?acoeueoaoii acaeiiaeaenoaey
anaaiciiaeiuo eiiaeiaoeee yoeo yeaiaioia. A ioee/ee io ia?aie iaoa?ee
iie (eae eiie?aoiia auoea) iinoeaeeiu e ii?aaeaeeiu iin?aaenoaii
iniiaiuo eaoaai?ee. Iie nooue niaaeeiaiey iaoa?ee e ia?aca, oi?iu.
Oi?ia, ii A?enoioaeth, ia?acoao ec iioaioeeaeueiiai auoey (ia?aie
iaoa?ee, /aou?ao iniiaiuo yeaiaioia) aeaenoaeoaeueiia, ?aaeueiia auoea.
Aeaenoaeoaeueiia auoea, oaeei ia?acii, i?aaenoaaeyao niaie aaeeinoai
iaoa?ee e oi?iu. I?e eco/aiee eiie?aoiuo aauae eae ?aaeueiiai auoey
A?enoioaeue aiai?eo i ia?auo e aoi?uo nouiinoyo. Ia?aoth nouiinoue ii
ioiaeaeanoaeyao n eiaeeaeaeoaeueiui auoeai, n noano?aoii, n eiie?aoiie
aauueth eae oaeiaie. Ia?ae/iay nouiinoue, niaeanii A?enoioaeth,
aunooiaao eiaeeaeaeoaeueiui, iaaeaeeiui e /oanoaaiii iiciaaaaiui auoeai.
Aoi?ua (aoi?e/iua) nouiinoe ii?aaeaeaiiui ia?acii i?iecaiaeiu io
ia?ae/iuo. Iie ia iinoeaatho eiie?aoiia eiaeeaeaeoaeueiia auoea, a
yaeythony a aieueoae eee iaiueoae noaiaie ?iaeiaui eeai aeaeiaui
ii?aaeaeaieai. Eaoaai?ee nouiinoe A?enoioaeue n/eoae iniiaiui n?aaenoaii
iiciaaaaiinoe ie?a. Ana ae?oaea eaoaai?ee neoaeao aeey eo ii?aaeaeaiey.

Ia iioieiae/aneeo aicc?aieyo A?enoioaey iiiaia aiai?eo e aai iiieiaiea
aeaeaeaiey. (auaeaeyao 6 aeaeia: “aicieeiiaaiea, aeaaeue, oaaee/aiea,
oiaiueoaiea, ia?aiaio e eciaiaiea ianoa”). Iiae/a?eeaaaony, /oi
“aeaeaeaiey iiieii aauae ia nouanoaoao”, aeaeaeaiea “anaaaea auei e ai
anyeia a?aiy aoaeao”. A?enoioaeue iieaaaao, /oi, n iaeiie noi?iiu,
aeaeaeaiea i?enoua naiei aauai e yaeyaony naiiaeaeaeaieai, a, n ae?oaie
noi?iiu, aiciiaeii iauyniaiea enoi/ieea aeaeaeaiey i?e iiiiue
iaiiaeaeaeiiai ia?aiai aeaeaaoaey (aiaa). Aeaeaeaiea A?enoioaeue aanueia
oanii naycuaae n eciaiaieai. Ii i?eaiaeeo /aou?a aeaaiuo aeaea
eciaiaiee: ioiinyueany e nouiinoe, eiee/anoao, ea/anoao e ianoo.
Nouanoaiaaiea aeaeaeaiey ii naycuaaao n iaee/eai i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoae.
Iaeaieaa iauoth oa?aeoa?enoeeo aeaeaeaieth A?enoioaeue aeaao neaaeothuei
ia?acii: ?aaeecaoeey, inouanoaeaiea nouaai. Yoi cia/eo, /oi aeaeaeaiea
aunooiaao, nianoaaiii, ia?aoiaeii aiciiaeiinoe a aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue.
Oai naiui aeaeaeaiea noaiiaeony i?aeoe/anee oieaa?naeueiui naienoaii
nouaai. I?ioeann inouanoaeaiey, o.a. ia?aoiae aiciiaeiinoe a
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue, oanii naycai ni acaeiiioiioaieai iaoa?ee e oi?iu.
Aeaeaeaiea yaeyaony ii?aaeaeaiiie oaiaeaioeeae iaoa?ee (eae
aiciiaeiinoe) e inouanoaeaieth, ?aaeecaoeee oi?iu (eae ?aaeueiinoe).

Oioy a iioieiae/aneeo aicc?aieyo A?enoioaey i?iyaeythony ii?aaeaeaiiua
yeaiaiou eaeaaeecia e iaoaoece/iinoe, aai oaaaeaeaiea a ?aaeueiinoe
aiaoiaai ie?a, iiae/a?eeaaiea cia/aiey ia?auo nouiinoae e i?iecaiaeiinoe
aoi?e/iuo, eae e aai ?annoaeaeaiey i aeaeaeaiee a nayce n nouanoaiaaieai
a iai i?ioeai?a/ee, ianoo a naaa ca?iaeuoe iaoa?eaeenoe/aneiai e
aeeaeaeoe/aneiai iiieiaiey aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe.

Iiciaiea i?aaenoaaeyeinue A?enoioaeth eae ?acaeaathueeny i?ioeann. Iii
?acaeaaaony io i?inoaeoeo (yeaiaioa?iuo /oanoaaiiuo) nooiaiae e
i?aaeaeueii aano?aeoiui. Aai a?aaeaoeey oaeiaa: iuouaiea,
i?aaenoaaeaiea, iiuo, oneeaiiue iaiyoueth, eneonnoai, iaoea, eioi?ay
i?aaenoaaeyao aa?oeio. Oaea iaeiei oai, /oi ii ioaiaeee aaaeioth ?ieue
/oanoaaiiiio iiciaieth ?aaeueiiai ie?a a i?ioeanna ia?aciaaiey iaueo
iiiyoee, A?enoioaeue iieaiece?oao n Ieaoiiii, eioi?ue a yoii aii?ina
caieiae i?ioeaiiieiaeioth iiceoeeth.

Aaaeiia ianoi a ianeaaeee A?enoioaey caieiatho o?oaeu, iinayuaiiua
i?iaeaiai eiaeee. Eiaeeo ii iiieiae eae i?oaeea iiciaiey, oi/iaa,
iao/iiai iiciaiey. Ii, nianoaaiii, caeiaeee oai?aoe/aneea iniiau eiaeee
eae iaoee. Aio i?eiaaeeaaeeo caneoaa oi?ioee?iaaiey caeiia i?ioeai?a/ey
e caeiia eneeth/aiiiai o?aoueaai.

Iniiaiui a aai nioeeaeueiuo acaeyaeao auea oa?aeoa?enoeea /aeiaaea eae
iauanoaaiiiai nouanoaa. AEeciue a ainoaea?noaa yaeyaony anoanoaaiiie
nouiinoueth /aeiaaea. Ainoaea?noai A?enoioaeue iiieiaao eae ?acaeoia
niiauanoai iauei, a iaueio – eae ?acaeooth naiueth. Iiyoiio ai iiiaeo
neo/ayo oi?iu i?aaiecaoeee naiuee ii ia?aiineo ia ainoaea?noai.
Nouiinoue ainoaea?noaa ii aeaeeo a iieeoe/aneii niiauanoaa ethaeae,
eioi?ua niaaeeieeenue aeey aeinoeaeaiey ii?aaeaeaiiiai aeaaa. Iniiaiuie
caaea/aie ainoaea?noaa ii n/eoaao i?aaeioa?auaiea /?acia?iiai iaeiieaiey
eiouanoaa a?aaeaeai, /?acia?iiai ?inoa iieeoe/aneie aeanoe ee/iinoe e
oaea?aeaiea ?aaia a iiae/eiaiee. ?aaiaeaaeaiea ii n/eoaao anoanoaaiiui
ninoiyieai i?aaiecaoeee iauanoaa. Eaeaaeueiui ii n/eoaao oaeia
ainoaea?noai, eioi?ia iaania/eaaao iaeneiaeueii aiciiaeioth ia?o
n/anoeeaie aeecie aeey iaeaieueoaai /enea ?aaiaeaaeaeueoeaa. Iniiao
o?aaiiaaoaiiie e aeaaiiieo/iie aeecie ii aeaeae a oia?aiiinoe.

*a?ac anth yoeeo A?enoioaey, ai?i/ai, eae e /a?ac anth iieeoeeo,
i?ioiaeeo i?eioeei aeoeaiie aeayoaeueiinoe /aeiaaea. Aeinoieiie
naiaiaeiiai a?aaeaeaieia ii n/eoaao aeeciue i?aeoe/aneoth (o.a.
iaiieiaiioth iieeoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoueth) eeai oai?aoe/aneoth
(iaiieiaiioth iiciaaaoaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoueth e ?aciuoeaieyie).
Iaaeinoaoi/ii ciaoue, /oi anoue aeia?iaeaoaeue, neaaeoao aeaenoaiaaoue e
aeeoue a niioaaonoaee n iath. Eeoue yoi iaania/eaaao
oaeiaeaoai?aiiinoue, aeaainoue.

I?eaeiaeueiu e aanueia ieiaeioai?iu ynoaoe/aneea iunee A?enoioaey. A
ioee/ea io Ieaoiia ii i?eaeaao eneonnoao aieueoia cia/aiea. Yoi aeaeii
oaea ec oiai, /oi eneonnoai aianoa n iaoeie ii ioiineo e aunoei nooiaiyi
/aeiaa/aneie iiciaaaoaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe. A naieo noaeaeaieyo ia
eneonnoaa A?enoioaeue oiio?aaeyao iiiyoea “iiae?aaeaiea”, iaeiaei a
niaa?oaiii eiii cia/aiee, /ai Ieaoii. Eneonnoai ia yaeyaony aiaoiei,
iiaa?oiinoiui oiiaeiaeaieai, ii io?aaeaao nouanoaaiiua acaeiinayce a
oi?ia iauyniaiey (eceiaeaiey) eiie?aoiiai. Iiyoiio ia?aaeei eneonnoai
auaaao aieaa i?aaaeeaui a ecia?aaeaiee aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, /ai,
iai?eia?, enoi?ey.

7.2. Aeeaeaeoeea eae iaoea i anaiauae nayce e ?acaeoee

Aeeaeaeoeea yaeyaony yae?ii O e auiieiyao iaoiaeieiae/aneoth ?ieue.
I?iyaeyaony yoi a i?eioeeiao, caeiiao e eaoaai?eyo. O.a. aeeaeaeoeee eae
nenoaiu: i?eioeeiu, caeiiu e eaoaai?ee. I?EIOeEIU: anaiauae nayce e
acaeiiaeaenoaey, ?acaeoey. CAEIIU: aaeeinoaa e ai?ueau
i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoe, eiee/anoaaiii ea/anoaaiiiai ia?aoiaea, io?eoeaiey
io?eoeaiee. EAOAAI?EE (ia?iua): ia aaeeie/iia – anaiauaa, i?e/eia –
neaaenoaea, oi?ia – niaea?aeaiea, iaiaoiaeeiinoue – neo/aeiinoue,
nouiinoue – yaeaiea, aiciiaeiinoue – aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue. Anee iieacaoue
iaoiaeieiae/aneoth ?ieue e cia/aiea eaaeaeiai i?eioeeia, caeiia e
eaoaai?ee, oiaaea iu e neaaeai, /oi O – iaoiaeieiaey, anaiauee iaoiae
iiciaiey. Iu i?iaiaeece?oai eiie?aoiua caeiiu i?eioeeiu e eaoaai?ee
I?EIOeEI – ie?iaicc?ai/aneee e iaoiaeieiae/aneee ?aaoeyoi? oai?ee.
I?eioeei anaaaea i?aaeoanoaoao oai?ee ec eioi?iai iia ?acaeaaaony.
ANAIAUAss NAssCUe yaeaiee – iaeaieaa iauay caeiiiia?iinoue
iaoa?eaeueiiai ie?a, iaeii ec oi?i auoey aeaeaeouaeny iaoa?ee.
Anaiauiinoue naycae icia/aao, /oi aicieeiiaaiea eciaiaiee, ?acaeoea,
ia?aoiae a eiia ea/anoai aiciiaeai ia eciee?iaaii, a ai acaeiiaeaenoaee.
I?eioeei anaiauae nayce e oieaa?naeueiiai acaeiiaeaenoaey iineo aaaeiia
cia/aiea, iineieueeo iicaieyao iiiyoue iaoa?eaeueiia aaeeinoai ie?a e
ane?uoue enoi/ieee aeaeaeaiey eae naiiaeaeaeaiea e ?acaeoea eae
naii?acaeoea. NAssCE: aioo?aiiea e aiaoiea, i?e/eiii neaaenoaaiiua,
no?oeoo?iua, ooieoeeiiaeueiua, iaiin?aaenoaaiiua, iiin?aaeiaaiiua,
aaiaoe/aneea, iaiaoiaeeiua, caeiiiia?iua, ia?aoiua, aiciiaeiua e
aeaenoaeoaeueiua. Noieue aea iiiaiia?aciu e OI?IU ACAEIIAeAENOAEss:
iaoaie/aneea, oece/aneea, oeie/aneea, aeieiae/aneea, nioeeaeueiua.
Aoi?ie iniiaiie i?eioeei aeeaeaeoeee – i?eioeei ?ACAEOEss – ie? aeieaeai
?anniao?eaaoueny ia eae caeii/aiiua i?aaeiaou, a eae i?ioeann, aaea ana
yoe i?aaeiaou e yaeaiey iaoiaeyony a iinoiyiiii eciaiaiee e ?acaeoee.
Iaeie i?aaeiaou en/acatho, ae?oaea aicieeatho. I?IOeANNU: ia?aiauaiea
oaea a i?ino?ainoaa, eciaiaiea aa?aaaoiiai ninoiyiea, ia?aoeiua
i?ioeannu (e?oaiai?io), iaia?aoeiua (eciaiaiea io i?inoiai e neiaeiiio –
i?ia?ann, e ?aa?ann). ?aa?ann oiaea aoiaeeo a i?eioeei ?acaeoey. Eaeiai
niioiioaiea iiiyoee aeaeaeaiey, eciaiaiey e ?acaeoey? Anyeia ee
aeaeaeaiea anoue ?acaeoea? Aea a eiaeei-aiineieiae/aneii iiaeoiaea. A
aioieiae/aneii ieaia ia anyeia aeaeaeaiea – ?acaeoea. Aeoaeiiay
nouiinoue aeaeaeaiey oeene?oaony iiiyoeai ?acaeoey. Aeaeaeaiea eae
niinia nouanoaiaaiey iaoa?ee – ?acaeoea. A aeaeaeaiea eae iiiaiia?acea
aai oi?i – eciaiaiea aiiaua. Iiiyoea ?acaeoey au?aaeaao nouiinoue yoeo
oi?i, o.e. oeene?oao eo aioo?aiithth naycue. ?acaeoea ioiineony e
aeaeaeaieth oae aea eae nouiinoue ioiineony e yaeaieyi. ?acaeoea –
nouiinoue, a aeaeaeaiea – oi, /oi i?iyaeyaony. ?acaeoea –
ie?iaicc?ai/aneee anaiauee i?eioeei auoey, aaeeinoai eciaiaiey e
nio?aiaiey. ?acaeoea ia o?iaia aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe – i?ioeann
ainoiaeaeaiey io noa?iai e iiaiio. ?acaeoea oa?aeoa?ecoaony:
iaia?aoeiinoue (iaaiciiaeiinoue iieiiai aica?aoa e naiaio i?aaeiaio
ninoiyieth), iaiiaeaiea (io?eoeaiea noa?uo ea/anoa, i?eiyoea iiauo),
i?aainoaaiiinoue (iiiaio nayce noa?iai e iiaiai, aaeeinoai i?ioeiai
ianoiyuaai e aoaeouaai a ?acaeoee iaoa?eaeueiuo nenoai), iai?aaeaiiinoue
(?acaeoea – ia aeaeaeaiea ii e?oao, a iinooiaoaeueiia aeaeaeaiea
i?ia?anneaiia eee ?aa?anneaiia). ?acaeoea anaaaea naycaii n
ea/anoaaiiuie i?aa?auaieyie i?aaeiaoia e ia?aoiia ia anaaaea aa?ii(ec
eueaea a aiaeo – eciaiaiea ninoiyiey, ii ia ?acaeoea). OeEEEE*IINOUe – a
i?ioeanna ?acaeoey i?ienoiaeeo ia iieiia iiaoi?aiea eaeeo-oi noaaeee ii
ia iiaii o?iaia. Ia anyeia eciaiaiea – ?acaeoea, o.e. iaeuecy
ioiaeaeanoaeoue nouiinoue aaue n oi?iie aa i?iyaeaiey. Eciaiaiea aoaeao
oi?iie i?iyaeaiey, a ?acaeoea – nouiinoueth. I?ioeann ?acaeoey iineo
anaiauee oa?aeoa?, a io?eoeaiea anaiauiinoe ?acaeoey aaaeao e iiae?uao
iniia ie?iaicc?aiey. A eaeie ia?a i?eioeei ?acaeoey yaeyaony ?aaoeyoi?ii
/aeiaa/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe? Yoo ooieoeeth ii auiieiyo a oai?/anoaa, /oi
yaeyaony nouiinoueth /aeiaa/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe. Eiaeea nouiinoe
/aeiaa/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe – eiaeea ?acaeoey. Eoae, iaoiaeieiae/aneia
cia/aiea i?eioeeia anaiauae naycaiiinoe ninoieo a oii, /oi yoio i?eioeei
i?eaioe?oao ,/oi e iiciaieth iaaei iiaeoiaeeoue eae e i?ioeanno, aaea
ana yaeaiey iaoiaeyony a oaniie nayce e acaeiiaeaenoaee, e ana aaue
iaoiaeyony ai acaeiicaaeneiinoe. Iaoiaeieiae/aneay aea ?ieue ninoieo a
oii, /oi ana yaeaiey iaoa?eaeueiiai ie?a iiaoo auoue i?aaeeueii iiciaiu,
anee iie ?anniao?eaathony enoi?e/anee. Oiaaea i?ioeann eiae/aneiai
iiciaiey aoaeao iaoiaeeoueny a oaniie nayce n enoi?e/aneei i?ioeannii, e
iiciaaay enoi?eth iu iiciaai naay, o.e. iu ?acaeaaainy. Ionthaea
aicieeaao i?eioeei ENOI?E*ANEIAI E EIAE*ANEIAI IICIAIEss. CAEIIU – 3
iniiaiuo. Caeii ACAEIIIAI IA?AOIAeA EIEE*ANOAAIII EA*ANOAAIIUO ECIAIAIEE
iaoeaeeaaao enneaaeiaaoaeae ia ?ane?uoea ea/anoaaiiie ii?aaeaeaiiinoe
enneaaeoaiiai iauaeoa ai anai aiaaonoaa aai niaea?aeaiey. Aiaeiae/iui
ia?acii iiyaeyaony caeii AAeEINOAA E AI?UeAU I?IOEAIIIEIAEIINOAE. Ii
i?aaeiieaaaao auyaeaiea aioo?aiieo i?ioeai?a/eainoae iauaeoa, /oi
iniaaiii aaaeii, eiaaea iu oioei iiiyoue iauaeo a aai ?acaeoee.
Iie?aynue ia caeii IO?EOeAIEss IO?EOeAIEss iiaeii noi?ioee?iaaoue
iaoiaeieiae/aneea auaiaeu, oa?aeoa?ecothuea i?ioeann ia?aoiaea io
iaeiiai ninoiyiey e ae?oaiio. ?ane?uoue nouiinoue caeiia aac eaoaai?ee
iaaiciiaeii. EAOAAI?EE: ea/anoai, naienoai, eiee/anoai, ia?a, nea/ae,
ia?aoiae. Ethaay iaoa?eaeueiay nenoaia iaeaaeaao eiiieaenii
iaoa?eaeueiuo naienoa, eioi?ua iiaoo oa?aeoa?eciaaoue iauai, ?acia?u,
aiaoithth onoie/eainoue. Iaeie naienoaa aieaa aaaeiua, ae?oaea iao. E
auaiae, /oi iaeaieaa nouanoaaiiui naienoaii i?aaeiaoa ninoaaeytho aai
ea/anoaa. Ii ia ana naienoaa /aeiaae iiaeao ?anniio?aoue n iiiiuueth
i?aaiia /oanoa. E aaea aa?aioey, /oi eae ?ac iaeaieaa nouanoaaiiui ia
aoaea oi, eioi?ia iu ia oeaaeeaaai. Ea/anoai aaue, a ioee/ee io
naienoaa, ia i?inoi iaeaieaa nouanoaaiiia naienoai, a yoi aioo?aiiaa
ii?aaeaeaiiinoue i?aaeiaoa. Aioo?aiiyy ii?aaeaeaiiinoue i?aaeiaoa
ii?aaeaeyao aai ea/anoai. Nouanoaoao ee ea/anoai aiiaua e, anee aea oi
iauaeoeaii eee noauaeoeaii? Naie ii naaa ea/anoai e eiee/anoai ia
nouanoaotho eae aano?aeoeey, ioaeaeueii io aauae. Ii yoiio caeii ia
iacuaaaony “Caeii ia?aoiaea eiee/anoaa a ea/anoai”, a CAEII
EIEE*ANOAAAII EA*ANOAAIIUO ECIAIAIEE. Eiee/anoai e ea/anoai nouanoaotho
a aauao e nouanoaotho iauaeoeaii ia caaeneii io iiaai niciaiey. Ea/anoai
noiea ia a oii, /oi ii eaaae?aoiue eee aea?aayiiue, a a oii, /ai ii
neoaeeo. Naienoa o i?aaeiaoa iiiai, a ea/anoai – iaeii. Nouanoaoao ia
ea/anoai, a aaue iaeaaeathuea naienoaii. EIEE*ANOAI – eaoaai?ey, eioi?ay
oeene?oao i?a?uaiinoue, aeene?aoiinoue, oeaeinoiinoue, ea/anoaaiiinoue,
noaiaiue ?acaeoey, noaiaiue c?aeinoe. Eiee/anoai e ea/anoai iaoiaeyony a
oaniii aaeeinoaa ae?oa n ae?oaii. Iie ia i?inoi ?acee/iu, iie
i?ioeaiiieiaeiu ii naiei naienoaai. Yoa i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue au?aaeaaony
a oii, /oi ea/anoaaiiua eciaiaiey cao?aaeaatho naith nenoaio – auoiae ca
?aiee naiaai auoey. Eiee/anoaaiiua eciaiaiey i?ienoiaeyo a ?aieao yoiai
iaoa?eaeueiiai iauaeoa. Ea/anoaaiiua eciaiaiey i?ienoiaeyo ?acei,
eiee/anoaaiiua – iinoaiaiii. Ea/anoai aieaa iinoiyiii. Eiee/anoai – oi
aea naiia ea/anoai, ii n oi/ee c?aiey oi?iu aai i?iyaeaiey. Eiee/anoai
yoi iiiaio ea/anoaa. Ea/anoaaiiua eciaiaiey a iaeiii ioiioaiee aoaeo
aunooiaoue eae ea/anoaaiiua, a ae?oaii – eae eiee/anoaaiiua. Acaeiiua
ia?aoiaeu eiee/anoaa e ea/anoaa i?iyaeythony a aeaiueaao, aaea eo/oaa
ea/anoai aeaiaa – eo eiee/anoai. Eiee/anoai aaue oae aea iauaeoeaii, eae
e ea/anoai. Acaeiinaycue eiee/anoaa e ea/anoaa i?iyaeyaony a iiiyoee
IA?U. Iinoiyiii i?ienoiaeyo eiee/anoaaiiua eciaiaiey, e a ii?aaeaeaiiii
eioa?aaea iie ia aeaeoo aiciiaeiuo ea/anoaaiiuo i?aia?aciaaiee. Iiiyoea
ia?u io?aaeaao a?aieoeu, aiieeooaeo eiee/anoaaiiuo eciaiaiee, aaea
ea/anoai nio?aiyaony. ?aiee, auoiae ca eioi?ua aucuaaao ea/anoaaiiua
eciaiaiey iacuaaaony a?aieoeaie ia?u. Anee eiee/anoaaiiua eciaiaiey
ia?aoiaeyo a ea/anoaaiiua ia/aeueii, a iioii aeaeaaony iaiai?io, oi eoi
caoeene?oao yoi “iioii”? A aeeaeaeoeea ana yoi i?ienoiaeeo
iaeiia?aiaiii. IA?AOIAe – acaeiiaeaenoaea eiee/anoaa e ea/anoaa. Aaea
anoue acaeiiaeaenoaea aanniuneaiii aiai?eoue i ia?ae/iinoe /aai-oi, /oi
ai /oi a ia/aea ia?aoiaeeo. O Aaaaey ia?aoiae aue eiee/anoai a ea/anoai,
a ea/anoai a ia?o. Ia?aoiaeeee naie iiiyoey e iiiyoey ?iaeaeaee ie?. A
Ia?en iieacae, /oi yoi caeiiu ia ie?iaiai aeooa, a caeiiu iauaeoeaiie
?aaeueiinoe + /aeiaa/aneiai iiciaiey. Ea/anoai eciaiyaony nea/eaie, i?e
anai ?aciiia?acee nea/eia eo iiaeii iiae?acaeaeeoue ia 2 oeia: eiaaea
ea/anoai eciaiyaony ?acei ac?uaii, a aoi?ie eiaaea ea/anoai iaiyaony
iinoaiaiii. NEA*AE – ia?a?ua iinoaiaiiinoe a ?acaeoee, aaeeinoai auoey e
ia auoey, neooaoeey, eiaaea nenoaia oaea ia oa, ii aua e ia yoa. Eoae
aeaiiue caeii iicaieyao ?ane?uoue iaoaieci ?acaeoey. Iaeiaei nouanoaoao
ii?aaeaeaiiay iai?aaeaiiinoue e enoi/ieee ?acaeoey. Ia aii?in, /oi
yaeyaony enoi/ieeii ?acaeoey ioaa/aao caeii AAeEINOAA E AI?UeAU
I?IOEAIIIEIAEIINOAE. Ii ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi enoi/ieeii ?acaeoey yaeyaony
?ac?aoaiea i?ioeai?a/ee. Enoi/ieee ?acaeoey, oaeei ia?acii, iaoiaeyony a
naieo iaoa?eaeueiuo nenoaiao, e yoe nenoaiu iacuaatho
naii?acaeaathueieny. Yoe i?ioeai?a/ey iinyo iauaeoeaiue oa?aeoa?, iie
nouanoaotho ia caaeneii io /aeiaaea. I?ioeai?a/ea aeaenoaoao ai anao
i?aaeiaoa iinoiyiii – anaiauiinoue caeiia. Anoue i?ioeai?a/ey iaaeaeo
i?eoyaeaieai e iooaeeeaaieai, + e -, anneieeyoeeae e aeenneieeyoeeae,
ianeaaenoaaiiinoueth e i?eniiniaeaieai, i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuie neeaie e
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuie ioiioaieyie. Yoio caeii oa?aeoa?ecoaony oaeeie
eaoaai?eyie: oiaeaeanoai, ?acee/ea, i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue, i?ioeai?a/ea,
aaeeinoai e ai?ueaa. OIAEAeANOAI – eaoaai?ey oa?aeoa?ecothuay ?aaainoai
iaeeiaeiainoue i?aaeiaoa n naiei niaie eee iaaeaeo i?aaeiaoaie. ?ACEE*EA
– iaeia ec oi?i i?iyaeaiey i?ioeai?a/ee. I?IOEAIIIEIAEIINOUe –
i?ioeainoiyuea ae?oa ae?oao neeu, noi?iiu, oaiaeaioeee ?acaeoey
(i?eia?u: naaa? – tha, “+” – “-“). I?IOEAI?A*EA – ioiioaiea iaaeaeo
aeaoiy i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoyie. Aeey acaeiiaeaenoaey yoiai caeiia
oa?aeoa?ii 2 iniiaiuo iiiaioa: aaeeinoai e ai?ueaa. I?ioeaiiieiaeiinoe,
a ioee/ee io ?acee/iuo aauae, anaaaea iaeiia?aiaiii acaeiii
i?aaeiieaaatho e acaeiii io?eoeatho. Ei oa?aeoa?ii iaeiia?aiaiiia
i?aaeiieiaeaiea e io?eoeaiea. I?ioeai?a/ea – niinia nouanoaiaaiey
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe. AI?UeAA – oi?ia nayce i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoae a
i?ioeai?a/ee. Ai?ueaa – aeoeaiue i?ioeann acaeiiaeaenoaea a ?aieao
aaeeinoaa. Aaeeinoai i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoae icia/aao iaithaeioth eo
i?eiaaeeaaeiinoue e iaeiie e oie aea nouiinoe. Yoi eo acaeiiia
iieaaaiea. eo acaeiiay ia ?acaeaeaiiinoue. ?acaeoea ii yoiio caeiio
i?ioiaeeo ?yae yoaiia: oiaeaeanoai, ?acee/ey, iie aeatho
i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue e i?ioeai?a/ea eioi?ia i?iyaeyaony a oi?ia
ianiioaaonoaey, iioii a oi?ia ianiaianoeiinoe. Anee aaue i?enoua
i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue, oi yoa aauue iaoiaeeony a i?ioeai?a/ee n naiie
niaie, e oi aea naiia i aaue a iunee. A i?ioeanna nouanoaiaaiey e
?acaeoey ethaiai yaeaiey i?ienoiaeeo ?acaeaiaiea aai ia i?ioeaiiieiaeiua
/anoe. Yoio iiaeoiae Ia?en i?eiaiee e eaieoaeenoe/aneiio niiniao
iaeiieaiey eae i?eaaai/iay noieiinoue. Ii acye ca iniiao oiaa? e
i?eiaiea aeeaeaeoeeo, iieacae, /oi oiaa? niaea?aeeo a naaa i?ioeai?a/ea,
o.e. ii niaea?aeeo iio?aaeoaeueioth e iaiiaoth noieiinoue. Ii iiaeao
iaiyoueny ia ae?oaie oiaa? e aunooiaao eae ii?aaeaeaiiue yeaeaaeaio e
aicieeatho aeaiueae. E oiaa? ?acaeaaeaaaony ia oiaa? e aeaiueae. Yoi
aeaiyeia ninoiyiea oiaa?a ?acaeaaaony a ?acee/ea, i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue e
i?ioeai?a/ea. Aaeeinoai e i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue aaue yoi aaeeinoai oiai,
/oi iia anoue e oiai, /oi iia ia anoue, a eaaeaeue iiiaio, eai
nouanoaiaaoue iiaeii oieueei /a?ac io?eoeaiea naieo oi?i. ?ac?aoaiea
i?ioeai?a/ee iineo iauaeoeaiue oa?aeoa?, iiaeii cae?uoue aeaca ia
?ac?aoaiea i?ioeai?a/ee, ii ono?aieoue i?ioeai?a/ea iaeuecy. ?ac?aoaiea
ii?aaeaeaiiiai i?ioeai?a/ey ieeiaaea ia iiaeao i?eaanoe e ninoiyieth
naiaiaeu io i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoe. I?ioeai?a/ey anoue anaaaea. Anyeia
aaeeinoai i?ioeai?a/ee ioiineoaeueii, a ai?ueaa aaniethoia. O.e. yoio
caeii iineo anaiauee oa?aeoa?, oi ii ?ani?ino?aiyaony ia ana:
iauaeoeaioth ?aaeueiinoue, i?e?iaeo, iauanoai, iuoeaiea /aeiaaea
(noauaeoeaioth ?aaeueiinoue), nai ia naay (o.e. yoi caeii
aeeaeaeoe/aneie eiaeee). Aeeaeaeoe/aneea i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoe
oa?aeoa?ecotho oae aea eiae/aneee i?eioeei iiciaiey. Iuneeoue
i?ioeai?a/eyie – yoi e anoue aunoay noaaeey ?acaeoey. ?acoi iuneeo
i?ioeai?a/eyie, a ?annoaeie ia o?iaia aeiiaoiaai iaeoiaea iuneeo
iiiyoeyie, eee ia?acaie. Io enoi/ieea ?acaeoey (aaeeinoai e ai?ueaa
i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoae) eiaeea /aeiaa/aneiai iiciaiey ia?aoiaeeo e
IAI?AAEAIIINOE ?ACAEOEss, /oi oa?aeoa?ecoaony caeiiii io?eoeaiey
io?eoeaiee. Caeii io?eoeaiey io?eoeaiee aeeth/aao a naay ?yae
io?eoeaiee. E aeeaeaeoe/aneia io?eoeaiea ioee/aaony io iauaeaiiiai
io?eoeaiey.

7.3 Aeeaeaeoeea acaeiiaeaenoaey e i?ioeaiaeaenoaey, ?acaeoea iauanoaa.
?aaiethoeeiia?eci e ?aoi?ieci eae oeiu iieeoe/aneiai iaioaeeoaoa.

Iineaaeiaaoaeueii iieuecoynue iniiaiuie caeiiaie aeeaeaeoe/aneiai
iaoa?eaeecia, iauanoai iaecaaaeii iaoiaeeo eiioeuenu naiaai ?acaeoey e
aeaeaeaiey a naaa naiii, a ii?iaeaeaaiuo ei i?ioeai?a/eyo, /oi iaoiaeeo
iauyniaiea a caeiia aaeeinoaa e ai?ueau i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoae, eioi?ue
aeaneo: ?acaeoea iauaeoeaiie ?aaeueiinoe e i?ioeann aa iiciaiey, ana
oi?iu /aeiaa/aneie aeoeaiinoe inouanoaeythony iooai ?acaeaiaiey aaeeiiai
ia ?acee/iia e i?ioeaiiieiaeiia, a acaeiiaeaenoaea i?ioeaiiieiaeiuo
nee, n iaeiie noi?iiu, oa?aeoa?ecoao ii?aaeaeaiioth nenoaio eae aaeeiia
oeaeia, a n ae?oaie – ninoaaeyao aioo?aiiee eiioeuen aa ?acaeoey.
AEeciaiiue iooue anao eiie?aoiuo nenoai i?ioiaeeo /a?ac ae?aiaoe/aneia
eniuoaiea i?ioeai?a/eyie.

I?ioeai?a/ea – yoi ii?aaeaeaiiue oei acaeiiaeaenoaey ?acee/iuo e
i?ioeaiiieiaeiuo noi?ii, naienoa, oaiaeaioeee a ninoaaa oie eee eiie
nenoaiu eee iaaeaeo nenoaiaie, i?ioeann noieeiiaaiey i?ioeaiiieiaeiuo
no?aieaiee e nee. I?aaeaeueiui neo/aai i?ioeai?a/ey yaeyaony eiioeeeo.
Naie ii naaa i?ioeai?a/ey aac eo ?ac?aoaiey ia i?eaiaeyo e ?acaeoeth,
iie yaeythony aai iaiaoiaeeiui, ii ia aeinoaoi/iui oneiaeai.
I?ioeai?a/ea eae enoi/iee ?acaeoey aeaenoaaiii oieueei aianoa n aai
?ac?aoaieai.

Nouanoaoao aeaa aeaaiuo oeia ?acaeoey iauaeoia ia iniiaa caeiaeaiiuo a
ieo i?ioeai?a/ee, a oaeaea iaoneiaeaiiua eie aeaa aeaaiuo niiniaa
?ac?aoaiey iineaaeieo: aioaaiienoe/aneee e aa?iiie/aneee. Iiiyoea
aa?iiiee i?aaeiieaaaao no?aieaiea e ?acoiiiio eiii?iienno e iieiia
neeyiea ia iniiaa iaeioi?iai iauaai ia/aea, aeioiaeyuaa aei iieiiai
neeyiey. Aioaaiienoe/aneea i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoe, ia?acoy aaeeinoai,
iaeaaeatho aianoa n oai ioiineoaeueiie naiinoiyoaeueiinoueth: iie
ea/anoaaiii e eiee/anoaaiii ia?aaiicia/iu, ea?atho ?acioth ?ieue a
ninoaaa oeaeiai, i?e yoii iaeia ec noi?ii ia?aaeei caaeaao oii a
i?ioeanna ?acaeoey, aoaeo/e aaaeouae neeie. Yoi io/aoeeai aeaeii ia
i?eia?a ?acaeoey iauanoaa e oi?iu aai nouanoaiaaiey – ainoaea?noaa.

Ainoaea?noai – yoi i?aaiecaoeey iieeoe/aneie aeanoe yeiiiie/anee
ainiiaenoaothuaai eeanna. Iineieueeo yoio eeann aunooiaao io eiaie anaai
iauanoaa, iinoieueeo aai iieeoe/aneay i?aaiecaoeey anoue e oi?ia
i?aaiecaoeee iauanoaa a oeaeii e iinoieueeo aai aeayoaeueiinoue
aeeth/aao aeaa iiiaioa: auiieiaiea iaueo aeae e niaoeeoe/aneea ooieoeee,
auoaeathuea ec i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoe eioa?anai ia?iaea.

?aaiethoeeiia?eci – iieeoe/aneia oa/aiea, au?aaeathuaa niaieoiiinoue
iauaeoeaiuo oneiaee, io?aaeathueo yeiiiie/aneee e iieeoe/aneee e?ecen
aeaiiiai iauanoaaiiiai no?iy e ii?aaeaeythuaa aiciiaeiinoue nioeeaeueiie
?aaiethoeee. ?aoi?ieci – io?eoeaiea iieeoe/aneie ai?ueau, niiniaiie
i?eaanoe e iaaaeo nenoaiu, i?iiiaaaeoao nio?oaeie/anoai eeannia.

Iaa iiaeoiaea eiatho i?aeiouanoaa e iaaeinoaoee.

?aaiethoeeiia?eci ?ac?aoaao i?ioeai?a/ey auno?i ii ca/anooth yoio iooue
nii?iaiaeaeaaony aieueoeie /aeiaa/aneeie aea?oaaie.

?aoi?ieci aeaenoaoao aeeo?aoii e inoi?iaeii ii /anoi neeoeii aeieai.

Ii?iaeueiue niinia nouanoaiaaiey ainoaea?noaa yoi, i/aaeaeii, ?aoi?ieci
o.a. a?aaeaeaia ainoaea?noaa ?acaeaathony ia aioaaiienoe/anee. Ii anee
nei?inoue ?ac?aoaiey i?ioeai?a/ee oae i/aiue iecea aiciiaeai ia?aoiae e
?aaiethoeeiiiiio ?acaeoeth.

Oaeei ia?acii ?aoi?ieci niaea?aeeo a naaa ?aaiethoeeiiaeeci e iaiai?io.
Ianeieueei neia i iaioaeeoaoa. Eae neaaeoao ec i?aaeuaeoueo
?annoaeaeaiee iieeoe/aneee iaioaeeoao yoi iniciaiea iannaie oiai eae
iaaei aanoe aeeciue a iauanoaa. A?oai aiai?y yoi iainiiaaiiia iiieiaiea
iooe ?acaeoey iauanoaa.

8.1 Eaeaaeenoe/aneay oeeinioey Ieaoiia: oai?ey eaeae, oai?ey iiciaiey e
aeeaeaeoeea. O/aiea i ainoaea?noaa.

Ieaoii (428/427-348/347 aei i.y.) – o/aiee Nie?aoa, iniiaaoaeue
iauaeoeaiiai eaeaaeecia, aaoi? nauoa 30 oeeinioneeo aeeaeiaia (“Nioeno”,
“Ia?iaieae”, “Aineaea?noai” e o.ae.). Oe?iei eniieueciaae o/aiey
ieoaai?aeoeaa, Ia?iaieaea, Aa?aeeeoa e, eiia/ii aea, Nie?aoa. ?acaee
oai?eth i nouanoaiaaiee aanoaeaniuo oi?i aauae, eioi?ua iacuaae
“oi?iaie” eee “eaeayie” e ioiaeaeanoaeye n auoeai. “Eaeayi” Ieaoii
i?ioeaiiinoaaeye iaauoea, ioiaeaeanoaeyaiia n iaoa?eae e i?ino?ainoaii.
*oanoaaiiue ie?, ii Ieaoiio, eae ii?iaeaeaiea auoey e iaauoey caieiaao
n?aaeeiiia iieiaeaiea iaaeaeo ieie. “Eaeae” aa/iu, caiaaaniu, ia
aicieeatho e ia iiaeaatho, aacioiineoaeueiu, ia caaenyo io i?ino?ainoaa
e a?aiaie. *oanoaaiiua aaue i?aoiaeyue, ioiineoaeueiu, caaenyo io
i?ino?ainoaa e a?aiaie. A oeaio?a einiieiaee Ieaoiia o/aiea i “ie?iaie
aeooa” – aeooa caeeth/aia a oaiieoeo iaoaai oaea, ii niiniaia e
ia?aaiieiuaieyi. Ieaoii ?acee/ae aeaeu iiciaiey a caaeneiinoe io
?acee/ee iiciaaaaiuo i?aaeiaoia. Aeinoiaa?iia iiciaiea aiciiaeii oieueei
ia enoeiii noueo “aeaeao”. Enoi/ieeii oaeiai iiciaiey neoaeao
ainiiieiaiey aannia?oiie aeooe /aeiaaea i ie?a eaeae, nica?oeaaiii ath
aei anaeaiey a nia?oiia oaei. I /oanoaaiiuo aauao e yaeaieyo aiciiaeii
ia ciaiea, ii oieueei aa?iyoiia iiaiea. Iaaeaeo eaeayie e /oanoaaiiuie
aauaie Ieaoii iiianoee iaoaiaoe/aneea iauaeou, aeinooiiua ?annoaei/iiio
iiciaieth. Iaoiae iiciaiey-aeeaeaeoeea, iiae eioi?ie Ieaoii iiieiae
aeaieiie iooue: ainoiaeaeaiea ii nooiaiyi iaiauaiey iiiyoee aieioue aei
aunoeo ?iaeia e ia?aoiia ienoiaeaeaiea io naiuo iaueo iiiyoee e iiiyoeyi
ana iaiueoae iauiinoe. I?e yoii i?ioeann ienoiaeaeaiey eanaaony oieueei
“aeaeia”, ii ia naieo /oanoaaiiuo aaeeie/iuo aauae. Ii naiei
iieeoe/aneei acaeyaeai Ieaoii aue i?aaenoaaeoaeai aoeineie a?enoie?aoee.
A o/aiee ia iauanoaa ecia?acee eaeaaeueiia a?enoie?aoe/aneia
ainoaea?noai, nouanoaiaaiea eioi?iai iniiaaii ia ?aaneii o?oaea
(“Caeiiu”): ainoaea?noaii i?aayo “oeeiniou”, io?aiytho “no?aaee”, ieaea
iaieo yoeo a?oii a?aaeaeai -”?aianeaiieee”. Ii neiaai Ia?ena, ooiiey
Ieaoiia auea eaeaaeecaoeeae eanoiaiai no?iy Aaeioa, ii i?e yoii Ieaoii
aaieaeueii iiiye ?ieue ?acaeaeaiey o?oaea a ia?aciaaiee a?a/aneiai
“iieena”. O/aiea Ieaoiia ea?aei aeaeioth ?ieue a yaiethoeee
eaeaaeenoe/aneie oeeinioee e nio?aiyao naith aeooaeueiinoue aei iaoeo
aeiae.

Iauaeoeaiay e noauaeoeaiay aeeaeaeoeea. Aaeeinoai aeeaeaeoeee, eiaeee e
oai?ee iiciaiey.

Ae. – iaoea i iaeaieaa iaueo caeiiao ?acaeoey i?e?iaeu, iauanoaa e
iuoeaiey. Oaea aioe/iay oeeinioey iiae/a?eioea eciai/eainoue anaai
nouanoaothuaai, iiiyea aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue eae i?ioeann, inaaoeea ?ieue,
eaeoth a yoii i?ioeanna ea?aao ia?aoiae anyeiai naienoaa a
i?ioeaiiieiaeiia (Aa?aeeeo). Ia?aiia/aeueii yoei oa?ieiii iaicia/aeenue:
1) niiniaiinoue aanoe nii? iin?aaenoaii aii?inia e ioaaoia; 2) eneonnoai
eeanneoeeaoeee iiiyoee, ?acaeaeaiey aauae ia ?iaeu e aeaeu. A?enoioaeue
n/eoae ecia?aoaoaeai Ae. Caiiia Yeaeneiai, eioi?ue iiaeaa?a aiaeeco
i?ioeai?a/ey, aicieeathuea i?e iiiuoea iuneeoue iiiyoey aeaeaeaiey e
iiiaeanoaa. Nai A?enoioaeue ioee/aao “Ae. “ io “aiaeeoeee “ eae iaoeo
i aa?iyoiuo iiaieyo io iaoee i aeieacaoaeuenoaao. Ieaoii n/eoae
i?ioeai?a/ea iaiaoiaeeiui oneiaeai aeey iiaoaeaeaiey aeooe e
?aciuoeaieth, iineieueeo naii auoea aaeeii e iiiaeanoaaiii, aa/ii e
i?aoiaeyua, iieieony e aeaeaeaony. ?acaeoea Ae. i?iaeieaeeee
iaiieaoiieee (Ieioei, I?iee). A noieanoeea Ae. noaee iacuaaoue
oi?iaeueioth eiaeeo, i?ioeaiiinoaaeaiioth ?eoi?eea. A yiioo
Aic?iaeaeaiey aeeaeaeoe/aneea eaeae i “niaiaaeaiee i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoae
“ auaeaeaatho Ieeieae Eocaineee e A?oii. A iiaia a?aiy, ianiio?y ia
ainiiaenoai iaoaoeceee, Aeaea?o e Nieiica (ia?aue – a naiae einiiaiiee,
aoi?ie – a o/aiee i noanoaioeee eae i naiii?e/eia) aeatho ia?acoeu
aeeaeaeoe/aneiai iuoeaiey. A 18 a. ai O?aioeee ?onni enneaaeoao
i?ioeai?a/ey eae oneiaea enoi?e/aneiai ?acaeoey, Aeeae?i, e?iia oiai, –
a nia?aiaiiii iauanoaaiiii niciaiee. Ia?auie i?iaeee a?aoue a iaoaoeceea
Eaeaieoe a naiai o/aiee i naii?acaeoee iiiaae e i i?ioeai?a/eaii
aaeeinoaa i?eioeeiia iiciaiey e Eaio, eioi?ue oeacae ia cia/aiea
i?ioeaiiieiaeiuo nee a oece/aneii e einiiaiie/aneii i?ioeannao, aaae –
aia?aua iinea Aeaea?oa – eaeath ?acaeoey a iiciaiea i?e?iaeu. A oai?ee
iiciaiey Eaio ?acaeaaao aeeaeaeoe/aneea eaeae a o/aiee ia “aioeiiieyo
“. Iicaea a oai?ee iiciaiey ( “Iaoeio/aiea ) Oeooa ?acaee
“aioeoaoe/aneee “ iaoiae auaaaeaiey eaoaai?ee. A ioee/ea io aano?aeoiuo
ii?aaeaeaiee ?annoaeea Ae., ii Aaaaeth, anoue oaeie ia?aoiae iaeiiai
ii?aaeaeaiey a ae?oaia, i?e eioi?ii iaia?oaeeaaaony iaeiinoi?iiiinoue e
ia?aie/aiiinoue yoeo ii?aaeaeaiee, o.a. iie niaea?aeao io?eoeaiea naieo
naay. Iiyoiio Ae., niaeanii Aaaaeth, anoue “aeaeaeouay neea anyeiai
iao/iiai ?acaa?ouaaiey iunee e i?aaenoaaeyao niaie aaeeinoaaiiue
i?eioeei, eioi?ue aiineo a niaea?aeaiea iaoee eiiaiaioioth naycue e
iaiaoiaeeiinoue… “. Ia?en n Yiaaeuenii iino?ieee Ae. ia iniiaa
iaoa?eaeenoe/aneiai iiieiaiey enoi?e/aneiai i?ioeanna e ?acaeoey
iiciaiey, iaiauaiey ?aaeueiuo i?ioeannia, i?ienoiaeyueo a i?e?iaea,
iauanoaa e iuoeaiee. A iao/iie Ae. i?aaie/anee ni/aoathony caeiiu
?acaeoey eae auoey, oae e iiciaiey, eai iie ii naiaio niaea?aeaieth
oiaeaeanoaaiiu, ioee/aynue oieueei ii oi?ia. Iiyoiio iaoa?eaeenoe/aneay
Ae. anoue ia oieueei “iioieiae/aneia “, ii e aiinaieiae/aneia o/aiea, e
eiaeea, ?anniao?eaathuea iuoeaiea e iiciaiea a noaiiaeaiee e ?acaeoee. A
yoii niunea e oai?ey iiciaiey ?anniao?eaaaony eae iaiauaiiay enoi?ey
iiciaiey e eaaeaeia iiiyoea, eaaeaeay eaoaai?ey, ianiio?y ia naie
i?aaeaeueii iauee oa?aeoa?, ioia/aiu ia/aoueth enoi?e/iinoe. Iauaeoeaiay
aeeaeaeoeea iienuaaao nayce e thoiioaiey eioi?ua eiatho ianoi a
iaoa?eaeueiii ie?a. I.ae. yoi aeeaeaeoeea aauae. ( Ia?ae/ia )
Noaueaeoeaiay aeeaeaeoeea nai aeeaeaeoe/aneee i?ioeann iuoeaiey. N.ae.
yoi aeeaeaeoeea eaeae. ( Aoi?e/ia ) Eiaeea yoi niinia nouanoaiaaiey
/aeiaa/aneiai iuoeaiey. Aeeaeaeoeea yoi iaoiae n iiiiuueth eioi?iai
/aeiaae iieo/aao iiaiea ( ciaiea ) ii eaeiio eeai aii?ino eee i?aaeiaoo.
Oai?ey iiciaiey yoi oai?ey ithuyniythuay eae i?ienoiaeeo aeaeaeaiea
/aeiaaea io iaciaiey e ciaieth. aenoaeoaeueiin

Iauanoai eae naii?acaeaathuayny nenoaia. Iiiyoea iauanoaaiiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa.

I. – niaieoiiinoue enoi?e/anee neiaeeaoeony oi?i niaianoiie
aeayoaeueiinoe ethaeae. A aieaa oceii niunea neiaa I. iiaeao
?anniao?eaaoueny eae eiie?aoiia I. a aaeeinoaa aai iaueo, iniaaiiuo e
aaeeie/iuo i?eciaeia. Noaiiaeaiea iauanoaa – neiaeiue e aeeeoaeueiue
i?ioeann. ?aoathuei oaeoi?ii aicieeiiaaiey iauanoaa noae o?oae. I. – ia
i?inoi niaieoiiinoue ethaeae, a iaeii oeaeia eo iauaaeeiyao /aeiaa/aneay
aeayoaeueiinoue a ?acee/iuo aa aeaeao, e i?aaeaea anaai
iaoa?eaeueii-i?iecaiaenoaaiiay. Ia oaeie iniiaa aicieeatho iauanoaaiiua
ioiioaiey, a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue i?iecaiaenoaaiiua, neoaeauea oi?iie
inouanoaeaiey yoie aeayoaeueiinoe e cae?aieyaiua a ?acee/iuo
nioeeaeueiuo einoeoooao. Io?aaeaieai anaai yoiai neoaeeo iauanoaaiiia
niciaiea, ea?athuaa aeoeaioth ?ieue a nioeeaeueiuo i?ioeannao.
I?iecaiaenoai-iiiyoea, oa?aeoa?ecothuaa niaoeeoe/anee /aeiaa/aneee oei
iaiaia aauanoa n i?e?iaeie – i?ioeann aeoeaiiai i?aia?aciaaiey n
oeaeueth nicaeaiey iaiaoiaeeiuo iaoa?eaeueiuo oneiaee aeey naiaai
iee/aiiiai nouanoaiaaiey. A ioee/ea io iaeaiuo caa?thoae, iiaaeathueo
o?aaeo e ae?oa ae?oaa, /aeiaae ana yoi nia/aea i?iecaiaeeo. Aeey yoiai
iaiaoiaeeiu o?e yeaiaioa: i?aaeiao i?e?iaeu, n?aaenoaa o?oaea e
nianoaaiii o?oae. I. anaaaea iineo iauanoaaiiue oa?aeoa?, e iioiio, /oi
ethaeyi iaioioa aaii??ieoueny a iaeeii/eo, e iioiio, /oi i?iecaiaey
iaiaoiaeeiia aeey aeecie, ethaee einaaiiui ia?acii i?iecaiaeyo e
iauanoaaiiua ioiioaiey, e naieo naay, eae nioeeaeueiuo yeaiaioia n
ieca?iuie niiniaiinoyie e iaiiia?iuie iio?aaiinoyie. Iaoa?eaeueiia
i?iecaiaenoai, eiathuaa, ii Ia?eno, aeaaeathuaa, a ioee/ea io
aeooiaiiai, yaeythuaainy ae?oaie noi?iiie aaeeiiai iauanoaaiiiai I.,
cia/aiea, aeeth/aao a naay aeaa ?iaea ioiioaiee: ioiioaiea ethaeae e
i?e?iaea (i?iecaiaeeoaeueiua neeu) e ioiioaiea ethaeae ae?oa e ae?oao
(i?iecaiaenoaaiiua ioiioaiey). Acaeiiaeaenoaea yoeo aeaoo noi?ii
ii?aaeaeyaony caeiiii niioaaonoaey i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo ioiioaiee oa?aeoa?o
e o?iaith i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee. I. anaaaea nouanoaoao eae enoi?e/anee
ii?aaeaeaiiue niinia i?iecaiaenoaa. I. e iio?aaeaiea yoi aeaa ?acee/iuo
iiethna iauanoaaiiie aeecie, ii?aaeaeythuei a yoii acaeiiaeaenoaee
yaeyaony I., eioi?ia ia oieueei nicaeaao i?aaeiao iio?aaeaiey e
ii?aaeaeyao niinia iio?aaeaiey, ii e neoaeeo iniiaie iiyaeaiey e
?acaeoey /aeiaa/aneeo iio?aaiinoae. I?iecaiaenoai naycaii n iio?aaeaieai
/a?ac ?ani?aaeaeaiea, eioi?ia caaeneo io oa?aeoa?a nouanoaothueo
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo ioiioaiee. A eeanniai aioaaiienoe/aneeo iauanoaao
aeaaeaeueoeu n?aaenoa i?iecaiaenoaa i?enaaeaatho naaa i?eaaai/iue
i?iaeoeo, a o?oaeyueany iannu (aio – oae eaene/aneay iaoiaeea!)
aeiaieuenoaothony iaeui. Ai?i/ai eiiaaea e ia aeiaieuenoaothony, e
oiaaea aea?aeenue. Iauanoai eae niinia nouanoaiaaiey /aeiaa/anoaa
i?eioeeieaeueii ianaiaeeii e a?eoiaoe/aneie noiia naieo a?aaeaeai. O.a.
iauanoai ia iaoaie/aneia iauaaeeiaiea ethaeae. Neaaeiaaoaeueii e
?acaeoea iauanoaa ianaiaeeii e ?acaeoeth eae eiie?aoiiai /aeiaaea oae e
/aeiaaea aiiaua. ?acaeoea iauanoaa i?aaenoaaeyao niaie i?aaeaea anaai
i?ioeann ?acaeoey iauanoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa. Iauanoaaiiia
i?iecaiaenoai iniiaa ethaiai iauanoaa. Naii iauanoai e aicieeei oieueei
eae iauaaeeiaiea ethaeae aeey niaianoiiai i?aiaeieaiey ii?aaeaeaiiuo
o?oaeiinoae, aeey niaianoiiai aeiauaaiey ieue, iai?eia?. Naii?acaeoea
iauanoaa a oaeii neo/aa i?aaenoaaeyao niaie i?ioeann ?acaeoey
iauanoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa eioi?ue a nia?aiaiiia a?aiy iiaeii iacaaoue
i?ia?annii.

9.1 “Oeeinioey aeecie”. O.Ieoeoa. A.Aa?anii. I.Oiaiaea?

O. ae. – noauaeoeaii-eaeaaeenoe/aneia iai?aaeaiea oeeinioee,
neiaeeaoaany a Aa?iaiee (Ieoeoa, Aeeeueoae, Ceiiaeue) e O?aioeee
(Aa?anii) ia ?oaaaea 19 e 20 aa. Aicieeiiaaiea O. ae. auei naycaii n
auno?ui ?acaeoeai aeieiaee, ineoieiaee e ae?. iaoe, iaia?oaeeaoeo
ianinoiyoaeueiinoue iaoaienoe/aneie ea?oeiu ie?a e auea iiiuoeie
ia?aie/aiiinoue iaoaienoe/aneiai iaoa?eaeecia eaeaaeenoe/aneeie
iaoiaeaie. Iiyaeaiea O. ae. a iaeioi?ii niunea ciaiaiiaaei ia?aoiae e
e??aoeeiiaeecio e ieaeeecio. A oeaio?a aa eaaeeo iiiyoea aeecie eae
aaniethoiiai, aaneiia/iiai ia/aea ie?a, eioi?ia a ioee/ea io iaoa?ee e
niciaiey aeoeaii, iiiaiia?acii, aa/ii aeaeaeaony. AEeciue iaeuecy
iiiyoue n iiiiuueth /oanoaa eee ?acoia, iia iinoeaaaony oieueei
eiooeoeaii, aeinooiia ia?aaeeaaieth. A 20-30 aa. eaeae O. ae. iaoiaeyo
i?iaeieaeaiea a oai?/anoaa Oiaiaea?a e Y.Oi?aiaa?a, a oaeaea a ?aaioao
E.Eeaaana e A.Aieiea?a, iineoaeeaoeo iii?ie eaeaieiaee oaoecia.
Iaeioi?ua eaeae O. ae. iineoaeeee enoieaie yecenoaioeeaeecia. O?eae?eo
Ieoeoa (1844-1900) – i?aaenoaaeoaeue aiethioa?ecia (eao. Voluntas –
aiey; iai?aaeaiea eaeaaeenoe/aneie oeeinioee, i?eciathuaa aieth eae
iniiao anaai nouaai. Neaaeoao ?acee/aoue aeaa aeaea A. – eae oi?io
iauaeoeaiiai e noauaeoeaiiai eaeaaeecia, oeie/iui i?aaenoaaeoaeyi ia?aie
– A.Oiiaiaaoy?o e Y.Aa?oiaio – naienoaaiai oaoaeenoe/aneee oioaeueiue
ianneieci, aoi?ie – Ooe?ia?o e Ieoeoa – aa?anneaiia aieaiea) e iaeei ec
iniiaiiieiaeieeia nia?aiaiiiai e??aoeeiiaeecia (oeeinioneia o/aiea,
ianoaeaathuaa ia ia?aie/aiiinoe iiciaaaoaeueiuo aiciiaeiinoae ?acoia e
i?eciathuaa iniiaiui ?iaeii iiciaiey eiooeoeeth, /oanoai, einoeieo e
o.i.). Aianoi eeanne/aneeo iiiyoee “iaoa?ey” e “aeoo” noaaeo “aeeciue”
eae “aieth e aeanoe”. N yoie iiceoeee iiciaiea aunooiaao eae “i?oaeea
aeanoe”. A caeiiao iaoee ii aeaeeo oieueei “iieaciua oeeoeee”, a enoeia
– iieaciia caaeoaeaeaiea (i?aaiaoeci-i?eeiaeaiea aiethioa?ecia e eiaeea
e aiinaieiaee). Yoio aiinaieiae/aneee ?aeyoeaeci nii?iaiaeaeaaony a
yoeea i?ioeaiiinoaaeaieai ?anoiaeae “ii?aee ?aaia” “ii?aee ainiiae”,
naycaiiie n eaeaae “naa?o/aeiaaea”. Ai?e Aa?anii (1859-1941) –
i?aaenoaaeoaeue aa?nee eiooeoeaecia. A o/aiee eniieueciaaiu iioeau
Ieaoiia, iicaeiaai Oaeeeiaa, Oiiaiaaoy?a. Oeaio?aeueiia iiiyoea
eaeaaeecia A.- “/enoay”, iaiaoa?eaeueiay “aeeeoaeueiinoue”, ioee/aaiay
io “a?aiaie” eae eneaaeaiiii eioaeeaeoii i?aaenoaaeaiee i
“aeeeoaeueiinoe” – ia?aiiniiaa anaai nouaai. Iaoa?ey, a?aiy, aeaeaeaiea
– eeoue /anoiua oi?iu i?iyaeaiey aeeeoaeueiinoe a ?annoaei/iuo noaiao
iaoee. Iiciaiea aeeeoaeueiinoe aeinooiii eeoue eiooeoeee, iiieiaaiie eae
iaiiiyoeeiia, iaiin?aaenoaaiiia “iinoeaeaiea”, aaea “aeo iiciaiey
niaiaaeaao n aeoii, ii?iaeaeathuei aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue”. Ai acaeyaeao ia
iauanoai ii?aaaeuaae eeanniaia ainiiaenoai, n/eoay aai “anoanoaaiiui”
ninoiyieai, a aieio – caeiiii i?e?iaeu. ?aaeenea. Inaaeueae Oiaiaea?
(1880-1936) – oai?aoee eoeueoo?u, enoi?ee, ioaeeoeeno. Iniiaiia
ni/eiaiea O., eceaaathuaa aai oeeinioeth enoi?ee,-”Caeao Aa?iiu”.
Aiai?eo, /oi Aenia?e yoi “i-ai- ai”, a aieia -”aa/iay oi?ia aunoaai
/aeiaa/aneiai auoey”. Io?eoeaao iiiyoea i?ia?anna, i?ioeaiiinoaaeyy aio
enoi?e/aneee oaoaeeci, ioaa?aaao, iaaiaeye, caeiiiia?iia aaeeinoai
anaie?ii-enoi?e/aneiai ?acaeoey. Enoi?ey ?aniaaeaaony ia ?yae
iacaaeneiuo, oieeaeueiuo, oeeeee/aneeo “eoeueoo? “ – iniauo
naa?oi?aaieciia, ia?aaeeaathueo ia?eiaeu aicieeiiaaiey, ?anoeaaoa e
oie?aiey. Caaea/a oeeinioee – iinoeaeaiea “ii?oieiae/aneie no?oeoo?u”
eaaeaeie oaeie “ioeueoo?u”, a iniiaa eioi?ie “aeooa eoeueoo?u”.
Oeeinioey aeecie ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi iiciaiea iniiaaiiia ia eiaeea
/aeiaa/aneiai ?acoia niaeoeyoeaii, iineieueeo iia?e?oao n eiae/aneeie
eaeaaeueiuie eiino?oeoeeyie ia nouanoaothueie a ?aaeueiii ie?a. Yoio
acaeyae, ii aeaeeiiio, iniiauaaeny ia oii oaeoa, /oi oaoie/aneee ?uaie
eiioea i?ioeiai aaea ia aeae /aeiaa/anoao iaeeaeaaiiai io iaai n/anouey
e aeinoaoea. Ionthaea iaaa?ea a neeo ?acoia e iiene iiauo oi?i.
Oeeinioey aeecie aeieaeia ooaa?aeaeaoue naiioeaiiinoue aeecie ii
iineieueeo iia oeeinioey iia euao iauea iniiau yoie aeecie a /anoiinoe
aieth e o.ae. Iaoaeeaeoaeueii iiyoiio, /oi caeiiu aeieiae/aneie
i?e?iaeu, a /anoiinoe ioiioaiey oeuiee-aea?oaa, auee ia?aianaiu ia
aeeciue /aeiaa/aneiai iauanoaa.

9.2 Eaoaai?ey aeeaeaeoeee eae io?aaeaiea anaiaueo naycae auoey e nooiaie
?acaeoey iiciaiey.

Any aeinooiiay iai ?aaeueiinoue anoue niaieoiiinoue i?aaeiaoia e
yaeaiee, iaoiaeyueony a naiuo ?aciiia?aciuo naycyo ae?oa n ae?oaii.
Ethaua i?aaeiaou e niauoey nooue caaiuey aaneiia/iie oeaie, iauaiethuae
ana nouanoaothuaa a ie?a a aaeeiia oeaeia. Iiiyoea nayce anoue iauaa
au?aaeaiea caaeneiinoe iaaeaeo yaeaieyie, io?aaeaiea
acaeiiiaoneiaeaiiinoe eo nouanoaiaaiey e ?acaeoey. Oeiu naycae
ii?aaeaeythony n oi/ee c?aiey i?aaieciaaiiinoe iaoa?ee. ?acoeueoaoii
i?eiaiaiey i?eioeeia anaiauae nayce e acaeiiaeaenoaey yaeyaony
niaoeeoe/aneay e oieaa?naeueiay eaoaai?ey aeeaeaeoeee – eaoaai?ey
?acaeoey. ?acaeoea anoue iaia?aoeiia, ii?aaeaeaiii iai?aaeaiiia e
caeiiiia?iia eciaiaiea iaoa?eaeueiuo e eaeaaeueiuo iauaeoia, i?eaiaeyuaa
e aicieeiiaaieth iiaiai ea/anoaa. Iaia?aoeiinoue aeaeaeaiey icia/aao,
/oi a i?ioeanna ?acaeoey a ioee/ea io neo/aaa oeeeee/aneiai
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey nenoaiu iaaiciiaeai aica?ao e oaea i?ieaeaiiui
ninoiyieyi, a ii?aaeaeaiiay iai?aaeaiiinoue, – /oi a i?ioeanna ?acaeoey
iinoaiaiii iaeaieeaathony iaeiiea/anoaaiiua eciaiaiey, ii?aaeaeyaiua
oeiii acaeiiaeaenoaey aeaiiiai iauaeoa n ie?oaeathuei ie?ii e aai
aioo?aiieie i?ioeai?a/eyie. Caeiiiia?iia eciaiaiea icia/aao, /oi a
iniiaa ?acaeoey eaaeao ia neo/aeiua niauoey, eioi?ua a aaneiia/iii
eiee/anoaa aiciouatho iai?aaeaiiia eciaiaiea iauaeoa, ii oa
i?ienoaeathuea ec nooe aai niauoey, eioi?ua iinyo iaiaoiaeeiue oa?aeoa?.
Ana o?e ioia/aiiua i?eciaea ?acaeoey iaiaoiaeeii eiioeaio?e?otho
aieiaiea ia /aoaa?oii iiiaioa – ia iiyaeaiee iiaiai ea/anoaa. I?eioeei
oeaeinoiinoe ie?a ii?aaeaeyao acaeiinaycaiiinoue ie?a o.a. iaee/ea
naycae iaaeaeo aaneiia/iui eiee/anoaii /anoae e /anoe/ae ninoaaeythueo
yoio ie?. Acaeiiaeaenoaea /anoae /a?ac nayce iaoneaaeeaaao ?acaeoea
ie?a. Aeeaeaeoeea i?aoaiaeoao ia iienaiea caeiiia ii eioi?ui i?ienoiaeeo
acaeiiaeaenoaea ii naycyi e oaeei ia?acii iia i?aoaiaeoao ia ciaiea
caeiiia ?acaeoey.

9.3 Niinia i?iecaiaenoaa eae iaoa?eaeueiay iniiaa oeaeinoiinoe iauanoaa,
aai eiie?aoii-enoi?e/aneie ii?aaeaeaiiinoe.

N. i. – iiiyoea, oa?aeoa?ecothuaa eiie?aoiue aeae i?iecaiaenoaa
iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey aeecie n?aaenoa, inouanoaeyaiiai a oi?iao enoi?e/anee
ii?aaeaeai- iuo iauanoaaiiuo ioiioaiee. Enoi?ey iauanoaaiiiai ?acaeoey –
yoi i?aaeaea anaai enoi?ey ?acaeoey e niaiu N. i., /ai e ii?aaeaeyaony
eciaiaiea anao ae?oaeo no?oeoo?iuo yeaiaioia iauanoaa. N. i. yaeyaony
aaeeinoaii aeaoo ia?ac?uaii naycaiiuo noi?ii: i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee e
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo ioiioaiee. ?acaeoea i?iecaiaenoaa ia/eiaaony n
?acaeoey aai ii?aaeaeythuae noi?iiu – i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee, eioi?ua ia
ii?aaeaeaiiii o?iaia anooiatho a i?ioeai?a/ea n i?iecaiaenoaaiiuie
ioiioaieyie, a ?aieao eioi?uo iie aei neo ii? ?acaeaaeenue.
Iaino?eaoaany aei ninoiyiey eiioeeeoa, yoi i?ioeai?a/ea noaiiaeony
yeiiiie/aneie iniiaie nioeeaeueiie ?aaiethoeee, eioi?ay i?eaiaeeo e
caeiiiia?iiio eciaiaieth i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo ioiioaiee. Caiaia aea
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo ioiioaiee, oi anoue noa?iai yeiiiie/aneiai aacena
iiaui, i?eaiaeeo aieaa eee iaiaa auno?i e niaia aicauoaaoaeny iaae iei
iaaeno?ieee, e eciaiaieth anaai iauanoaa. Oaeei ia?acii niaia N. i.
i?ienoiaeeo ia ii i?iecaieo ethaeae, a a neeo aeaenoaey caeiia
niioaaonoaey i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo ioiioaiee oa?aeoa?o e o?iaith
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee. Yoa niaia i?eaeaao ?acaeoeth anaai iauanoaa
oa?aeoa? anoanoaaiii – enoi?e/aneiai i?ioeanna niaiu
iauanoaaiii-enoi?e/aneeo oi?iaoeee. Niinia i?iecaiaenoaa oeaeeeii
ii?aaeaeyao aeae iauanoaa. Niiniau i?iecaiaenoaa auee iaiaeeiaeiau ia
i?ioyaeaiee enoi?ee ?acaeoey /aeiaa/anoaa. Eaaeaeie yiioa niioaaonoaoao
naie N.i. Niinia i?iecaiaenoaa onoaiaaeeaaao yeiiiie/aneea,
i?iecaiaenoaaiiua ioiioaiey a iauanoaa a /a?ac ieo ii?aaeaeyao e ana
ae?oaea: th?eaee/aneea, ii?aeueiua, eoeueoo?iua. Iiyoiio N.i. neoaeeo
iaoa?eaeueiie iniiaie oeaeinoiinoe iauanoaa. Aeooiaiie iniiaie
oeaeinoiinoe iauanoaa neoaeeo eoeueoo?a. Eae aiai?ee Ia?en, /oiau
oeeinionoaiaaoue /aei- aae aeieaeai auoue iaoo, iaeao eiaoue e?uoo iaae
aieiaie. Anee N.i. oa?ieo e?ecen oi oa?ieo e?ecen e iauanoai. I?eia?:
?aaiethoeee a ?innee, O?aioeee, Aiaeee.

10.2 No?oeoo?iua nayce. Yeaiaio, no?oeoo?a, ooieoeey, nenoaia. I?eioeei
no?oeoo?iinoe.

Yeaiaio (eao. Elementum – noeoey, ia?aiia/aeueiia aauanoai) – iiiyoea
iauaeoa, aoiaeyuaai a ninoaa ii?aaeaeaiiie nenoaiu e ?anniao?eaaaiiai a
aa i?aaeaeao eae iaaeaeeiue. Iaaeaeeiia a iaeiie nenoaia iiaeao auoue
aeaeeiui a ae?oaie. Iiiyoea Y. n iaiaoiaeeiinoueth aicieeaao a i?ioeanna
enoi?e/aneiai iienaiey i?e?iaeu. Ia?aua ae?aaiaa?a/aneea iaoa?eaeenou
i?eciaaaee aaeeiui Y. ie?a eeai aiaeo (Oaean), eeai aicaeoo (Aiaeneiai),
eeai iaiiue (Aa?aeeeo). Aeaiie?eo, a iicaeiaa Yieeo?, auaeaeioee o/aiea
ia aoiiao eae iaaeaeeiuo /anoeoeao iaoa?ee. A ?acaeoee o/aiey i iaoa?ee
anaaaea nouanoaiaaei i?ioeai?a/ea iaaeaeo no?aieaieai iouneaoue
i?inoaeoea Y. iaoa?ee e ionoonoaeai oaeiauo aneaaenoaea iaen/a?iaaiinoe
iaoa?ee.

No?oeoo?a (eao. Structura – no?iaiea) – no?iaiea e aioo?aiiyy oi?ia
i?aaiecaoeee nenoaiu, aunooiathuay eae aaeeinoai onoie/eauo acaeiinaycae
iaaeaeo aa yeaiaioaie, a oaeaea caeiiia aeaiiuo acaeiinaycae. N. –
iaiouaieaiue ao?eaoo anao ?aaeueii nouanoaothueo iauaeoia e nenoai.
Eaaeaeue iaoa?eaeueiue iauaeo iaeaaeaao iaen/a?iaaiui iiiaiia?aceai
aioo?aiieo e aiaoieo naycae, niiniaiinoueth e ia?aoiaeai ec iaeieo
ninoiyiee a ae?oaea.

A caaeneiinoe io aeinoeaiooiai o?iaiy iiciaiey eee oeaeae enneaaeiaaiey
a oai?ee iiaeao ?ane?uaaoueny oi iaeei, oi ae?oaie eiiiiiaio N. N.
Nenoaiu aieaa onoie/eaa, /ai ioaeaeueiua aa naienoaa, iaeiaei N. ia
yaeyaony iaeciaiiie. Eiaaea eiee/anoaaiiua eciaiaiey nenoaiu auoiaeyo ca
a?aieoeu ia?u e aucuaatho aa ea/anoaaiiua eciaiaiey, iie anaaaea
i?iyaeythony eae eciaiaiey N. nenoaiu. Naycue yeaiaioia a N.
iiae/eiyaony aeeaeaeoeea acaeiiioiioaiee /anoe e oeaeiai. I?e
iauaaeeiaiee yeaiaioia a oeaeinoioth nenoaio aa naienoaa ieacuaathony
ioee/iuie io aeaaa?ae/aneie noiiu aa yeaiaioia (aaeaeeoeaiinoue e
iaaaeaeeoeaiinoue). Aianoa n oai no?oeoo?iua eciaiaiey a nenoaia
aucuaatho eciaiaiey naienoa naieo yeaiaioia.

Ooieoeey (eao. Functio – eniieiaiea, niaa?oaiea) – aiaoiaa i?iyaeaiea
naienoa eaeiai-eeai iauaeoa a aeaiiie nenoaia ioiioaiee, iai?. Ooieoeee
i?aaiia /oanoa a i?aaiecia, ooieoeee aeaiaa, ooieoeee ainoaea?noaa a
iauanoaa e o.ae. ?yae eaeaaeenoe/aneeo iai?aaeaiee iuoaaony naanoe iaoeo
e iienaieth O. iauaeoia, io?eoeay ia oieueei aiciiaeiinoue iiciaiey
nouiinoe, caeiiia aauae, ii e eo nouanoaiaaiea (iaoeci, aeoaaei?eci).

Nenoaia (a?a/. Systema – ninoaaeaiiia ec /anoae, niaaeeiaiiia) –
niaieoiiinoue yeaiaioia, iaoiaeyueony a niioiioaieyo e naycyo iaaeaeo
niaie e ia?acothueo ii?aaeaeaiioth oeaeinoiinoue, aaeeinoai. Oaea a
ae?aaiinoe aue noi?ioee?iaai oacen i oii, /oi oeaeia aieueoa noiiu aai
/anoae. Aeey N. oa?aeoa?ii ia oieueei iaee/ea naycae e ioiioaiee iaaeaeo
ia?acothueie aa yeaiaioaie, ii e ia?ac?uaiia aaeeinoai ni n?aaeie, ai
acaeiiioiioaieyo n eioi?ie N. i?iyaeyao naith oeaeinoiinoue.
Ea?a?oe/iinoue oa?aeoa?ecoao no?iaiea, ii?oieiaeth e iiaaaeaiea N.
Ioaeaeueiua o?iaie N. iaoneiaeeaatho ii?aaeaeaiiua aniaeou aa
iiaaaeaiey, a oeaeinoiia ooieoeeiie?iaaiea ieacuaaaony ?acoeueoaoii
acaeiiaeaenoaey anao aa o?iaiae.

I?eioeei nenoaiiinoe – i?eioeei niaeanii eioi?iio ethaie iauaeo ie?a
iaaei ?anniao?eaaoue eae /anoue iaeioi?ie nenoaiu a eioi?oth iauaeo
aeeth/ai n iaeneiaeueii aiciiaeiui ( a eaeaaea ) eee iaiaoiaeeiui ( aeey
eaeeo-oi i?aeoe/aneeo oeaeae ) eiee/anoaii naycae n ae?oaeie iauaeoaie
aeaiiie nenoaiu. Oaeei ia?acii eco/aiea iauaeoa ia iiaeao i?iaiaeeoueny
aac oiai /oi iaeaeaiu ana ae?oaea iauaeou ia eioi?ua ii iiaeao iiaeeyoue
eee eioi?ua iiaoo iiaeeyoue ia iaai. I?eia?: Yeieiaey Caiee.

10.3 Iauanoaaiiua ioiioaiey e eo eeanneoeeaoeey.

I. i. – ioiioaiey iaaeaeo ethaeueie, onoaiaaeeaathueany a i?ioeanna eo
niaianoiie i?aeoe/aneie e aeooiaiie aeayoaeueiinoe, aeaeyony ia
iaoa?eaeueiua e eaeaieiae/aneea. I?iecaiaenoai iaoa?eaeueiuo aeaa
ninoaaeyao iniiao nouanoaiaaiey e ?acaeoey /aeiaa/aneiai iauanoaa.
Iiyoiio ec anao I. i. aaaeiaeoeie yaeythony i?iecaiaenoaaiiua, eioi?ua
ii?aaeaeytho oa?aeoa? anao inoaeueiuo – iieeoe/aneeo, i?aaiauo,
i?aanoaaiiuo, ?aeeaeiciuo e o.ae.

Nayce ethaeae, neeaaeuaathueany iaaeaeo ieie a i?ioeanna i?iecaiaenoaa,
ia?acotho neiaeioth no?oeoo?ii – ooieoeeiiaeueioth e ea?a?oe/anee –
niiiae/eiaiioth nenoaio; yoa nenoaia e ia?acoao niaith oi, /oi iacuaatho
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuie ioiioaieyie. Iia ioaaouaaao e ioiioaiey e n?aaenoaai
i?iecaiaenoaa, oi anoue oi?io nianoaaiiinoe, e nayce iaaeaeo ethaeueie a
i?ioeanna iaiaia, ?ani?aaeaeaiey e iio?aaeaiey nicaeaaaaiuo aeaa, e
ioiioaiey ethaeae, iaoneiaeaiiua eo i?iecaiaenoaaiiie niaoeeaeecaoeeae,
e ioiioaiey nio?oaeie/anoaa e niiiae/eiaiey – oi?aaeai/aneea ioiioaiey.
Ioa?aeoa?eciaaa a oeaeii nenoaio i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo ioiioaiee, auaeaeei
iniiaiua aa yeaiaiou. Aeaaiui ec ieo yaeythony yeiiiie/aneea ioiioaiey,
iniiao eioi?uo ninoaaeytho ioiioaiey e n?aaenoaai i?iecaiaenoaa.

Ai anyeii iauanoaa ia ii?aaeaeaiiii yoaia aai ?acaeoey iaecaaaeii
aicieeatho iieeoe/aneea ioiioaiey, neeaaeuaathony e ooieoeeiie?otho
iieeoe/aneea i?aaiecaoeee, oi?ie?othony iieeoe/aneea eaeae e oai?ee.
Iieeoeea anoue iniaiai ?iaea aeayoaeueiinoue, ?aaoee?othuay ioiioaiey
/eaiia iauanoaa, iauaaeeiaiiuo a ?acee/iua nioeeaeueiua a?oiiu e eeannu,
n oeaeueth nio?aiaiey ii?aaeaeaiiie iauanoaaiiie no?oeoo?u e
i?aaiecaoeee, a oaeaea n oeaeueth aa aeaeueiaeoaai ?acaeoey e
niaa?oainoaiaaiey a eioa?anao eae i?aayuaai eeanna, oae e iauanoaa a
oeaeii. A iieeoeea iaoiaeyo naia iaeaieaa iieiia au?aaeaiea ei?aiiua
yeiiiie/aneea eioa?anu ainiiaenoaothuaai eeanna, eioi?ua niciaoaeueii
caueuathony anae nenoaiie iieeoe/aneie i?aaiecaoeee iauanoaa. A yoii
niunea iieeoeea anoue, ii au?aaeaieth Eaieia, eiioeaio?e?iaaiiia
au?aaeaiea yeiiiieee. A nenoaia iieeoe/aneie i?aaiecaoeee iauanoaa iniai
aaaeiia ianoi i?eiaaeeaaeeo ainoaea?noao, a eioi?ii eiioeaio?e?othony
ana eioa?anu anao iauanoaaiiuo nee. Ainoaea?noai – yoi i?aaiecaoeey
iieeoe/aneie aeanoe yeiiiie/anee ainiiaenoaothuaai eeanna. Nouanoaaiiue
i?eciae ainoaea?noaa – aai ia?ac?uaiay naycue n i?aaii. I?aai – yoi
oi?ia ?aaoee?iaaiey iiaaaeaiey ethaeae, niaieoiiinoue ii?i iiaaaeaiey,
eioi?ua onoaiaaeeaathony e naieoeeiie?othony ainoaea?noaii n oeaeueth
nio?aiaiey nouanoaothueo a aeaiiii iauanoaa yeiiiie/aneeo, nioeeaeueiuo,
iieeoe/aneeo e eiuo ii?yaeeia, yoi aiey ainiiaenoaothuaai eeanna,
aicaaaeaiiay a caeii.

11.1 Oeeinioey O.Aeaeineiai.

Iaeiei ec iaeaieaa auaeathueony i?aaenoaaeoaeae c?aeie noieanoeee aue
iiiao aeiieieeaiceiai i?aeaia Oiia Aeaeineee (1225/26 – 1274), o/aiee
ciaiaieoiai n?aaeiaaaeiaiai oaieiaa, oeeinioa e anoanoaieniuoaoaey
Aeueaa?oa Aaeeeiai (1193-1280). Eae e aai o/eoaeue, Oiia iuoaeny
iainiiaaoue iniiaiua i?eioeeiu o?enoeaineie oaieiaee, iie?aynue ia
o/aiea A?enoioaey. I?e yoii iineaaeiaa auei i?aia?aciaaii ei oaeei
ia?acii, /oiau iii ia anooiaei a i?ioeai?a/ea n aeiaiaoaie oai?aiey ie?a
ec ie/aai e n o/aieai i aiai/aeiaa/anoaa Eenona O?enoa. Iiae auoeai Oiia
?acoiaao o?enoeaineiai aiaa, nioai?eaoaai ie?, eae i oii iiaanoaoaony a
Aaooii caaaoa. ?acee/ay auoea e nouiinoue (nouanoaiaaiea e noaoiinoue),
Oiia oai ia iaiaa ia i?ioeaiiinoaaeyao eo, a aneaae ca A?enoioaeai
iiae/a?eeaaao eo iauee ei?aiue. Nouiinoe, eee noanoaioeee, iaeaaeatho,
niaeanii Oiia, naiinoiyoaeueiui auoeai, a ioee/ea io aeoeeaeaioeee
(naienoa, ea/anoa), eioi?ua nouanoaotho oieueei aeaaiaea?y noanoaioeeyi.
A caaeneiinoe io ?aaeecaoeee oi?iu Oiia auaeaeyao /aou?a neiy auoey. Ia
iecoae nooiaie auoey oi?ia, niaeanii Oiia, ninoaaeyao eeoue aiaoithth
ii?aaeaeaiiinoue aaue (iai?aaie/aneea noeoee e ieia?aeu). Ia neaaeothuae
nooiaie oi?ia – eiia/iay i?e/eia aaue, eioi?ie iiyoiio aioo?aiia i?e-
noua oeaeaniia?aciinoue,- oaeiau ?anoaiey. O?aoee o?iaaiue – aeeaioiua,
caeanue oi?ia – aeaenoaothuay i?e/eia, iiyoiio nouaa eiaao a naaa ia
oieue- ei oeaeue, ii e ia/aei aeayoaeueiinoe, aeaeaeaiey. Ia anao o?ao
nooiaiyo oi?ia ii-?aciiio i?eaoiaeeo a iaoa?eth, i?aaiecoy e iaeooaaeyy
aa. Iaeiiaoe, ia /aoaa?oie nooiaie oi?ia i?aaenoaao oaea ia eae
i?aaiecothuee i?eioeei iaoa?ee, a naia ii naaa, iacaaeneii io iaoa?ee.
Yoi aeoo, eee oi, ?acoiiay aeooa, aunoaa ec nioai?aiiuo noueo. Ia
aoaeo/e naycaia n iaoa?eae, /aeiaa/aneay ?acoiiay aeooa ia iiaeaaao ni
nia?oueth oaea. Iiyoiio ?acoiiay aeooa iineo o Oiiu eiy “naiinouaai”. A
ioee/ea io iaa, /oanoaaiiua aeooe aeeaioiuo ia yaeythony naiinoueie, a
iioiio iie e ia eiatho niaoeeoe/aneeo aeey ?acoiiie aeooe aeaenoaee,
inouanoaeyaiuo oieueei naiie aeooie, ioaeaeueii io oaea – iuoeaiey e
aieaiey. Iiyoiio aeooe aeeaioiuo iiaeaatho aianoa n oaeii, oiaaea eae
/aeiaa/aneay aeooa – aannia?oia. Neaaeoy A?enoioaeth, Oiia ?anniao?eaaao
?acoi eae aunooth n?aaee /aeiaa/aneeo niiniaiinoae, aeaey e a naiie aiea
i?aaeaea anaai aa ?acoiiia ii?aaeaeaiea, eaeiaui ii n/eoaao niiniaiinoue
?acee/aoue aeia?i e cei. Eae e A?enoioaeue, Oiia aeaeeo a aiea
i?aeoe/aneee ?acoi, oi anoue ?acoi, iai?aaeaiiue ia aeaenoaea, a ia ia
iiciaiea, ?oeiaiaeyuee iaoeie iinooieaie, iaoei aeeciaiiui iiaaaeaieai,
a ia oai?aoe/aneie onoaiiaeie, ia nica?oeaieai. O/aiea Oiiu
iieueciaaeinue aieueoei aeeyieai a n?aaeiea aaea, ?eineay oea?eiaue
ioeoeeaeueii i?eciaea aai. Oiia auaeaeaaao 5 aeieacaoaeuenoa auoey Aiaa:

Ana /oi aeaeaeaony eiaao ia/aei aeaeaeaiey. Aia eae ia?aiaeaeaaoaeue.

Naycue Aiaa n i?e/eiie. Aia – ia?aii?e/eia.

Ana a ie?a iaiaoiaeeii. Aia – ia?aay iaiaoiaeeiinoue.

Aia – aa?o, i?aaeae niaa?oainoaa (niaa?oainoai ioieiaaony io i?e?iaeu).

I?iaeaia oeaee. Aia caaeaao oeaee e yaeyaony oeaeueth.

A ie?a Oiiu iiaeeeiii noueie ieacuaathony a eiia/iii n/aoa
eiaeeaeaeooiu. Yoio naiaia?aciue ia?niiaeeci ninoaaeyao niaoeeoeeo eae
oiienoneie iioieiaee, oae e n?aaeiaaaeiaiai anoanoaiciaiey, i?aaeiao
eioi?iai – aeaenoaea eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo “ne?uouo nouiinoae” –
“aeayoaeae”, aeoo, aeooia, nee. Ia/eiay n aiaa, eioi?ue anoue /enoue aeo
auoey, e eii/ay iaeaeoae ec nioai?aiiuo nouiinoae, eaaeaeia nouaa
iaeaaeaao ioiineoaeueiie naiinoiyoaeueiinoueth, eioi?ay oiaiueoaaony ii
ia?a aeaeaeaiey aiec, oi anoue ii ia?a oauaaiey aeooaeueiinoe auoey
nouanoa, ?aniieaaathueony ia ea?a?oe/aneie eanoieoea.

Aaeeie/iia, iniaaiiia e iauaa.

ssaeaiea e Nouiinoue, eae eaoaai?ee aeeaeaeoeee. Aaeeie/iia, iniaaiiia,
iauaa -aeeaeaeoe/anee acaeiinaycaiiua oa?aeoa?enoeee i?aaeiaoa,
au?aaeathuea ?acee/iua oi?iu aai ioiioaiey e ae?oaei i?aaeiaoai.
Aaeeie/iia oeene?oao ea/anoaaiioth ii?aaeaeaiiinoue i?aaeiaoa, aai
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiinoue, naiaia?acea, i?ino?ainoaaiioth e a?aiaiioth
ii?aaeaeaiiinoue, e o. ae. Eeoue n?aaieaay aeaa i?aaeiaoa, yaeaiey
iaaeaeo niaie, iiaeii auyaeoue naiaia?acea eaaeaeiai ec ieo, iinoeaiooue
aaeeie/iia. Anaiauaa au?aaeaao, ai-ia?auo, iaeioi?ia naienoai,
iiaoi?ythuaany ai anao yaeaieyo, i?eciae, i?enouee i?aaeiaoai aeaiiiai
eeanna (aano?aeoii-anaiauaa); ai-aoi?uo, caeii nouanoaiaaiey e ?acaeoey
anao aaeeie/iuo yaeaiee (eiie?aoii-anaiauaa). Aano?aeoii-anaiauaa ia
io?aaeaao nouiinoe i?aaeiaoa. Eeoue eiie?aoii-anaiauaa aiieiuaao a naaa
aiaaonoai iniaaiiiai, eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai, ioaeaeueiiai; iii nouanoaoao a
aeaea caeiia, naycuaathuaai iiiaiia?acea yaeaiee a iaeioi?ia aaeeinoai,
e iiaeao auoue auyaeaii a ?acaa?iooie nenoaia acaeiiioiioaiey
i?aaeiaoia. Ioiioaiea aeaoo i?aaeiaoia, a eioi?ii iaia?oaeeaaaony
aaeeie/iia, yaeyaony iiiaioii yoie ?acaeoie nenoaiu ioiioaiee. Oai naiui
aaeeie/iia i?aaenoaao eae iaiaoiaeeiay oi?ia nouanoaiaaiey anaiauaai a
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe. Aeeaeaeoeea aaeeie/iiai e iauaai i?iyaeyaony a eo
ia?ac?uaiie nayce. Iauaa ia nouanoaoao naii ii naaa, a “/enoii aeaea”.
Iii ia?ac?uaii naycaii n aaeeie/iui, io aeaeueiui, nouanoaoao a iai e
/a?ac iaai. Aaeeie/iia aea aoiaeeo a oio eee eiie eeann i?aaeiaoia,
caeeth/aao a naaa oa eee eiua iauea /a?ou. Iniaaiiia aunooiaao a
aeeaeaeoeea eae n?aaeiaa, i?iiaaeooi/iia caaii iaaeaeo aaeeie/iui e
iauei: neaaeai, eeia a niioiioaiee n eeannii aea?aaueaa aiiaua.
Aeeaeaeoeea aaeeie/iiai e iauaai io?aaeaaony a ycuea, iaeaaeathuai
iiuiie niiniaiinoueth iaiauaiey. ?a/aaia au?aaeaiea eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo,
iaiiaoi?eiuo neooaoeee, /aeiaa/aneiai iiuoa noe?aao /a?ou
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiinoe, ia?aaiaeeo eo a noaoon iauaai. Aianoa n oai ycue
iaeaaeaao iaoaieciaie eiaeeaeaeoaeecaoeee i?aaeiaoia, niauoee, oeacaiey
ia eiie?aoiua, aaeeie/iua yaeaiey (eiaia, aeaou e ae?.). Ae?oaie
iiaeoiae e iniuneaieth anaiaueo naycae auoey naycai n niioianaieai
iiaa?oiinoiuo e aeoaeiiuo o?iaiae aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe. Naiui iauei aai
au?aaeaieai neoaeeo iiuo aeeaeaeoe/aneiai i?eiaiaiey eaoaai?ee
“Nouiinoue” e “ssaeaiea”. Nouiinoue au?aaeaao anaiauea, iaiaoiaeeiua,
ioiineoaeueii onoie/eaua, caeiiiia?iua aioo?aiiea nayce, i?enouea
aeaiiiio i?aaeiaoo, iauaaeeiythuea aiaaeeii aai ?acee/iua noi?iiu e
i?iiecuaathuea oio eee eiie i?aaeiao eee i?ioeann. Iia ?ane?uaaao, oaeei
ia?acii, aaeeinoai e iiiaiia?acea naienoa i?aaeiaoa. ssaeaiea – yoi
aiaoiea naienoaa e i?eciaee i?aaeiaoa, iinoeaaaiua a yiie?e/aneii,
/oanoaaiiii iiciaiee. A yaeaiee iaia?oaeeaathony caeiiu, ninoaaeythuea
nouiinoue i?aaeiaoa. A enoi?ee oeeinioee nouanoaiaaee naiua ?acee/iua
oi/ee c?aiey ia Nouiinoue e ssaeaiea. Eaio, iai?eia?, ?anniao?eaae
nouiinoue eae iaiiciaaaaioth “aauue a naaa”, a yaeaiea – eae /oanoaaiii-
aini?eieiaaiia, aicaoaeaeaaiia “aauueth a naaa”. Iauaeoeaiua eaeaaeenou
(Ieaoii, Aaaaeue e ae?.), i?eciaaay iiciaaaaiinoue nouiinoe, n/eoaee aa
eaeaaeueiie. Oaeea noauaeoeaiua eaeaaeenou, eae Aa?eee, Iao, io?eoeatho
aiiaua nouanoaiaaiea nouiinoe, iineieueeo aeey ieo yaeaiea – yoi
niaieoiiinoue iuouaiee, a e?iia ieo ie/aai eiaeeaeaeo ia aeaii.
Aeeaeaeoe/aneee iaoa?eaeeci i?eciaao iauaeoeaiia nouanoaiaaiea e
nouiinoe, e yaeaiey, ?anniao?eaaao eo a oaniie nayce ae?oa n ae?oaii:
nouiinoue ?ane?uaaaony a yaeaiee, a yaeaiea iaia?oaeeaaao nouiinoue.
(*aeiaa/aneia iiciaiea aeaeaeaony io yaeaiee e nouiinoe, oaeoaeyynue
aeaeaa io nouiinoe ia?aiai ii?yaeea e nouiinoe aoi?iai ii?yaeea e o.
ae.).

11.3 Oi?iaoeee e oeeaeeecaoeee – aaeeinoai e iiiaiia?acea.

Iauanoaaiiua oi?iaoeee – oi?iu nayce ethaeae, au?aaioaiiua a i?ioeanna
nioeeaeueiie yaiethoeee. Ia nouanoaoao eiae/aneeo i?aiyonoaee aeey oiai,
/oiau iacuaaoue iauanoaaiiuie oi?iaoeeyie ethaua nioeeaeueiua
ia?aciaaiey io aini?iecaiaeyuae nioeeaeueiie nenoaiu e aei
naii?acaeaathuaeny /aeiaa/aneie ee/iinoe. Iaeiaei a oeeinioneii iaeoiaea
e a iauaeaiiii niciaiee iiiyoea oi?iaoeee naycaii n auaeaeaieai iniiaiuo
nooiaiae iauanoaaiiiai ?acaeoey. Iai?eia?, aeiaiaoe/aneee ia?eneci
“ia?aie/ee” nioeeaeueioth yaiethoeeth iyoueth – ia?aiauoiay,
?aaiaeaaeaeue/aneay, oaiaeaeueiay, eaieoaeenoe/aneay, eiiioienoe/aneay –
oi?iaoeeyie, no?aiynue iiaeiaiaoue eiie?aoiia ?acaeoea no?ai iiae yoo
noaio. Auee a ia?enecia e ae?oaea iiaeoiaeu; iiaeii ioiaoeoue o naiiai
E.Ia?ena noaio o?ao enoi?e/aneeo nooiaiae: iauanoai, iniiaaiiia ia
ee/iie caaeneiinoe ethaeae (o.a. aeieaieoaeenoe/aneia); iauanoai,
iniiaaiiia ia aauiie caaeneiinoe ethaeae; e iauanoai, nouanoaothuaa
/a?ac caaeneiinoe, ia?acothueany eiaeeaeaeoaeueiui ?acaeoeai ethaeae. A
caiaaeiie oeeinioee e nioeeieiaee aeaenoaoao aeeceay ii niuneo noaia:
o?aaeeoeeiiiia iauanoai, caoai eiaeono?eaeueiia e iinoeiaeono?eaeueiia.
Aianoa n oai nouanoaoao na?ueaciue iaoiaeieiae/aneee niune aeey
nio?aiaiey ca eaaeaeui iauanoaaiiui ia?aciaaieai eiae/aneie aiciiaeiinoe
auoue iiiyoui eae oi?iaoeey. Yoa aiciiaeiinoue yaeyaony i?ioeaiyaeeai
iae?iaiaeeco iauanoaa, no?aiyuaiony ca/anooth ?anoai?eoue yaeaiey e
niauoey iee?io?iaiy a oa?aeoa?enoeeao aieueoeo oi?iaoeee, naanoe,
iai?eia?, auoea ee/iinoe eee aeayoaeueiinoue iaoee e oa?aeoa?enoeeai
niiniaa i?iecaiaenoaa e o. i.

A nioeeaeueiie oeeinioee 20-ai noieaoey nic?aei i?aaenoaaeaiea i oii,
/oi nioeeaeueiay oai?ey, iienuaathuay aieueoea nenoaiu, iiaeao
n/eoaoueny iieiie oieueei oiaaea, eiaaea iia a ninoiyiee iienaoue
ooieoeeiie?iaaiea e ?acaeoea aieueoeo nenoai ia o?iaia auoey e niciaiey
/aeiaa/aneeo eiaeeaeaeia.

Iiiyoea oeeaeeecaoeey iiyaeeinue a 18 a. a oaniie nayce n iiiyoeai
“eoeueoo?a”. O?aioeocneea oeeiniou – i?inaaoeoaee iacuaaee
oeeaeeeciaaiiui iauanoai, iniiaaiiia ia ia/aeao ?aaainoaa e
ni?aaaaeeeainoe. A 19 a. iiiyoea “Oeeaeeecaoeey” oiio?aaeyeanue eae
oa?aeoa?enoeea eaieoaeecia a oeaeii, iaeiaei oaeia i?aaenoaaeaiea i
oeeaeeecaoeee ia auei ainiiaenoaothuei. Oae, Aeaieeaaneee noi?ioee?iaae
oai?eth iauae oeiieiaee eoeueoo?, eee oeeaeeecaoeee, niaeanii eioi?ie ia
nouanoaoao anaie?iie enoi?ee, a anoue eeoue enoi?ey aeaiiuo
oeeaeeecaoeee, eiathueo eiaeeaeaeoaeueiue caieiooue oa?aeoa?. A
eiioeaioeee Oiaiaea?a oeeaeeecaoeey – yoi ii?aaeaeaiiay caeeth/eoaeueiay
noaaeey ethaie eoeueoo?u; aa iniiaiua i?eciaee: ?acaeoea eiaeono?ee e
oaoieee, aeaa?aaeaoeey eneonnoaa e eeoa?aoo?u, aicieeiiaaiea ia?iiiiai
neiieaiey ethaeae a aieueoeo ai?iaeao, i?aa?auaiea ia?iaeia a aaceeeea
“iannu”.

Oiaiaea? iieaaae, /oi eaaeaeay eoeueoo?a aeeaao, iiae/eiyynue iniaui,
oieueei ae i?enouei i?eioeeiai e oeaiiinoyi, e i?ioiaeeo ia?eiaeu
?anoeaaoa, noa?aiey e aeaaee, a enoi?ey a oeaeii i?aaenoaaeyao niaie
ninouanoaiaaiea e niaio ?acee/iuo eoeueoo?.

Naii ii naaa i?eciaiea e iiae/a?eeaaiea ?aciiia?acey eoeueoo?, eo
i?eaeiaeueiinoe, niaoeeoeee e a yoii niunea – ioiineoaeueiie
?aaiioeaiiinoe, e?eoeea iiceoeaenoneiai iiieiaiey i?ia?anna eae
iiiioiiiiai e iaeiieeiaeiiai aeaeaeaiey enoi?ee, ioeac io
aa?iiioeaio?ecia, yaeyaony neeueiie e aeaaea i?eaeaeaoaeueiie noi?iiie
eiioeaioeee eieaeueiuo eoeueoo? e oeeaeeecaoeee. E ana-oaee a yoeo
eiioeaioeeyo iniaaiiia aaniethoece?iaaii e aeiaaaeaii aei io?eoeaiey
iauaai, oi anoue aaeeiuo e iaueo ia/ae ?acaeoey anaie?iie enoi?ee.

Aiinaieiae/aneea ei?ie eiioeaioeee eieaeueiuo eoeueoo? e oeeaeeecaoeee
caeeth/athony a iaeiinoi?iiiae eioa?i?aoaoeee, iaoaoece/aneie
aaniethoecaoeee iiiaiia?acey /aeiaa/aneie enoi?ee. Ia naiii aeaea
iaaeaeo eoeueoo?aie e oeeaeeecaoeeyie eiathony ia oieueei ?acee/ey, ii
e nouanoaaiiua iauea iiiaiou, /a?ou, noi?iiu – oi, /oi ia oieueei eo
?acuaaeeiyao, ii e iauaaeeiyao.

Eioa?anii oi, /oi oi /oi iauaaeeiyao iaeie no?aiu e oeeaeeecaoeee
?acaeaeyao ae?oaea. Iai?eia?: Aa?a, Yeiiiieea, Eoeueoo?a, Yeieiaey.

I?iaeaia ee/iinoe e iauanoaa a oeeinioee Aic?iaeaeaiey. (Iaeeaaaeee I.,
Ii? O., Eaiiaiaeea O.)

Ia/eiay n 15 aaea i?ienoiaeeo oeaeue ?yae eciaiaiee a
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneie e aeooiaiie aeecie Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu,
ciaiaiothueo ia/aei iiaie yiioe , eioi?ay aioea a enoi?eth iiae eiaiai
Aic?iaeaeaiey eee ?aiannaina. Yoe eciaiaiey nii?iaiaeaeaeenue
nouanoaaiiuie ia?a iaiaie a oiiiano?iaieyo, eioi?ua i?aaeaea anaai auee
naycaiu n i?ioeannii inaiaiaeaeaiey io ?aeeaee e oea?eiaiuo einoeoooia.
Naiinoiyoaeueiinoue ii ioiioaieth e oea?eae i?eia?aoaao ia oieueei
yeiiiie/aneay e iieeoe/aneay aeeciue, ii e iaoea, eneonnoai, oeeinioey.
Aaaeiaeoae ioee/eoaeueiie /a?oie ie?iaicc?aiey yiioe Aic?iaeaeaiey
ieacuaaaony aai i?eaioaoeey ia eneonnoai: anee n?aaeiaaaeiauea iiaeii
iacaaoue yiioie ?aeeaeiciie, oi Aic ?iaeaeaiuea – yiioie
ooaeiaeanoaaiii-ynoaoe/aneie. A oeaio?a aieiaiey aioe/iie oeeinioee auea
i?e?iaeii-einie/aneay aeeciue, a n?aaeiea aaea – aia e naycaiiay n iei
eaeay nianaiey, oi a yiioo Aic?iaeaeaiey a oeaio?a aieiaiey ieacuaaaony
/aeiaae, iiyoiio oeeinioneia iuoeaiea yoiai ia?eiaea iiaeii
ioa?aeoa?eciaaoue eae aio?iiioeaio?e/aneia. A yiioo Aic?iaeaeaiey
eiaeeaeae i?eia?aoaao ai?acaei aieueooth naiinoiyoaeueiinoue e, a
ioee/ea io n?aaeiaaaeiaiai iauanoaa, i?aaenoaaeyao ia oio eee eiie
nithc, a naiiai naay e ana caneoae ii i?eienuaaao ia nithco, a naiiio
naaa. ?aciinoi?iiiinoue – eaeaae /aeiaaea yiioe ?aiannaina. A ioee/ea io
n?aaeiaaaeiaiai ianoa?a, eioi?ue i?eiaaeeaaeae e oeaoo e aeinoeaae
ianoa?noaa eiaiii a naiae noa?a, ?aiannainiue ianoa? auioaeaeai nai
ionoaeaaoue naith /anoue e eioa?anu e aunooth caneoao aeaeeo eiaiii ai
ananoi?iiiinoe naieo ciaiee e oiaiee. A yiioo Aic?iaeaeaiey /aeiaae
noaiiaeony oai?oeii naiae noaeueau. Aia aeae /aeiaaeo naiaiaeioth aieth
e ii aeieaeai nai ?aoaoue naith noaeueao, ii?aaeaeeoue naia ianoi a
ie?a. *aeiaae – ia i?inoi i?e?iaeiia nouanoai, ii oai?aoe naiiai naay e
yoei ioee/aaony io ae?oaeo i?e?iaeiuo nouanoa. Ii ainiiaeei iaae anae
i?e?iaeie, oi anoue ii ia?a oiai eae /aeiaae noaiiaeony oai?oeii
nianoaaiiie aeecie e noaeueau, ii ieacuaaaony e iaia?aie/aiiui
ainiiaeeiii iaae i?e?iaeie. A yiioo Aic?iaeaeaiey aic?inea oeaiiinoue
ioaeaeueiiai /aeiaaea. Auoa anaai a yoo yiioo noaiiaeony naiaia?acea e
oieeaeueiinoue eaaeaeiai eiaeeaeaeooia. Iaiioiaeanoue ia ae?oaeo
noaiiaeony aaaeiaeoei i?eciaeii aaeeeie ee/iinoe. Ia?aaeei iiaeii
ano?aoeoue ooaa?aeaeaiea, /oi a yoi a?aiy aia?aua oi?ie?oaony iiiyoea
ee/iinoe eae oaeiaie. Yoi a naiii aeaea aa?ii, anee iu ioiaeaeanoaeyai
iiiyoea ee/iinoe n iiiyoeai eiaeeaeaeoaeueiinoe, oioy ia naiii aeaea eo
neaaeoao ?acee/aoue. Eiaeeaeaeoaeueiinoue – eaoaai?ey ynoaoe/aneay, a oi
a?aiy eae ee/iinoue eaoaai?ey – i?aanoaaiii-yoe/aneay. Anee iu
?anniao?eaaai /aeiaaea n oi/ee c?aiey oiai, eae e /ai ii ioee/aaony i
ae?oaeo, oi iu niio?ei eae au ecaia, aeacii ooaeiaeieea; e iinooieai
/aeiaaea iu i?eeeaaeuaaai oieue ei iaeei e?eoa?ee – aai
i?eaeiaeueiinoue. *oi aea eanaaony ee/iinoe, oi a iae aeaaiia ae?oaia:
niiniaiinoue ?acee/aoue aeia?i e cei e iinooiaoue a niioaaonoaee n yoei
?acaeaeaieai. Aianoa n yoei iiyaeyaony e aoi?ia aaaeiaeoaa ii?aaeaeaiea
ee/iinoe – niiniaiinoue ianoe ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca naie iinooiee. e
aeaeaei ia anaaaea iaiaauaiea eiaeeaeaeoaeueiinoe niaiaaeaao n ?acaeoeai
e oaeoaeaieai /aeiaa/aneie ee/iinoe: ynoaoe/aneee e
i?aanoaaiii-yoe/aneee aniaeou ?acaeoey iiaoo nouanoaaiii iaaeaeo niaie
?anoiaeeony. Iiyoiio aiaaoia ?acaeoea eiaeeaeaeoaeueiinoe a yoo yiioo
ia?aaeei nii?iaiaeaeaeinue e?aeiinoyie eiaeeaeaeoaeecia; naiioeaiiinoue
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiinoe icia/aao aaniethoecaoeeth ynoaoe/aneiai iiaeoiaea e
/aeiaaeo. Iaeeaaaeee Ieeieei aee Aa?ia?aei (1469-1527) – eoae.
iuneeoaeue e eaeaieia ca?iaeaeathuaeny ao?aeoacee. Iauanoai, ii I.,
?acaeaaaony ia ii aiea aiaa, a a neeo anoanoaaiiuo i?e/ei. A iniiaa
?acaeoey enoi?ee eaaeao “iaoa?eaeueiue eioa?an” e neea. I. ioia/ae
i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue eioa?ania ia?iaeiuo iann e i?aayueo eeannia,
aunooiae ca nicaeaiea neeueiiai iaoeeiiaeueiiai ainoaea?noaa,
naiaiaeiiai io oaiaeaeueiuo iaaeaeioniaeoe, niiniaiiai iiaeaaeyoue
ia?iaeiua aieiaiey. A iieeoe/aneie ai?ueaa n/eoae aeiionoeiui ai eiy
aaeeeeo oeaeae i?aiaa?aaaoue caeiiaie ii?aee e i?eiaiyoue ethaua
n?aaenoaa, ii?aaaeuaae aeanoieinoue e aa?ieiinoai i?aaeoaeae a eo
ai?ueaa ca aeanoue. Aai caneoaa a oii, /oi noae iaeiei ec ia?auo
?anniao?eaaoue ainoaea?noai /aeiaa/aneeie aeacaie e auaiaeeoue aai
caeiiu ec ?acoia e iiuoa, a ia ec oaieiaee. Ii? Oiian (1478-1535) –
iaeei ec iniiaiiieiaeieeia ooiie/aneiai nioeeaeecia,
aoiaieno-?aoeeiiaeeno yiioe Aic?iaeaeaiey. Auoiaeaoe ec ao?aeoaciie
N?aaeu, ii caieiae aunoee ainoaea?no. iino a Aiaeee (1529-32). Aue
eaciai ii i?eeaco ei?iey. Aai aeaaiia i?iecaaaeaiea – “Cieioay eieaa,
noieue aea iieaciay, eae caaaaiay, i iaeeo/oai ono?ienoaa ainoaea?noaa e
i iiaii ino?iaa Ooiiee”(1516). I. aeae ?acaa?io ooth e?eoeeo no?iy,
iniiaaiiiai ia /anoiie nianoaaiiinoe, nioeeaeueii- iieeoe/aneeo
ioiioaiee a Aiaeee aai a?aiaie e ecia?aaeaiea no?iy, i?e ei oi?ii
ainiiaenoaoao iauanoaaiiay nianoaaiiinoue; ii aia?aua iineaaeiaaoaeueii
eceiaeee eaeath iaiauanoaeaiey i?iecaiaenoaa, naycaa n iae eaeae
eiiioienoe/aneie i?aaiecaoeee o?oaea e ?ani?aaeaeaiey. Aieueoia cia/aiea
ii i?eaeaaae ?aciinoi?iiiaio ?acaeoeth /aeiaaea, niaaeeiaieth
oai?aoe/aneiai ia?aciaaiey n o?oaeii; iineaaeiaa – ca?iaeuo
nioeeaeenoe/aneeo acaeyaeia a iaeanoe ainieoaiey. Ia?aoiae e iiaiio
no?ith ia/oae inouanoaeoue ie?iui iooai. Eaiiaiaeea Oiiiaci eee aei
iino?eaa – Aeaeiaaiie Aeiiaieei (1568-1639) – eoaeueyineee oeeinio,
iaeei ec i?aaenoaaeoaeae ?aiiaai ooiie/aneiai eiiioiecia. E. aunooiae
i?ioea noieanoeee e ?acaeaae ia?aaei aua aeey oiai a?aiaie eaeae
nainoaeecia e aeaecia, eioi?ua ni/aoaeenue o iaai n oaea/aieai iaaeae e
ano?ieiaeae. I?aneaaeiaaeny eieaeceoeeae. E. ia/oae i aaeeinoaa e
aeaaiaeainoaee /aeiaa/anoaa. A 1602 aiaeo iaienae ooiieth “Ai?iae
Nieioea” – ia eaeaaeueiii iauanoaa, a eioi?ii ionoonoaoao /anoiay
nianoaaiiinoue, anaiauee o?oae aa?aioe?oao eciaeeea, ii nouanoaoao
no?iaay ?aaeaiaioaoeey auoa, a aeanoue ae?aoeia iineo oaie?aoe/aneee
oa?aeoa?. Naie eiiioienoe/aneee eaeaae ii iainiiauaae aaeaieai ?acoia e
caeiiaie i?e?iaeu. Iaeeaaaeee Ieeiei Iaeeaaaeee ioaa?aaao eaeath
aiaeanoaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey naaoneeie ainoaea?noaaie. Ii n/eoaao, /oi
iniiaiie aeaeaeouee eiiiiiaio iauanoaa yaienoe/aneay i?e?iaea /aeiaaea.
*aeiaae aeaenoaoao aeoeaii aeaaiaea?y naiei iio?aaiinoyi. *aeiaae eiaao
i?aai ia nianoaaiiinoue e oieueei n iae ii eiaao cia/aiea a iauanoaa.
Ethaay eaeay ionoa anee iia ia io?aaeaao iio?aaiinoae ethaeae.
Iaeeaaaeee – nicaeaoaeue nioeeaeueiie oeeinioee. Oeeinioee eioi?oth ii
i?e iaiyao e iino?iaieth e aeecie ainoaea?noaa. Acaeiiioiioaiey iaaeaeo
ethaeueie a ainoaea?noaa e iaaeaeo ainoaea?noaaie no?iyony ei ia iniiaa
iaiauaiiuo yeiiiie/aneeo, ee/iinoiuo eioa?ania /eaiia iauanoaa io
e?anoueyieia aei ei?iey aac anyeiai o/anoey aiaeanoaaiiie aiee.

12.2 Oeaeia e /anoue. I?eioeeiu oeaeinoiinoe. Oi?ia e niaea?aeaiea.

Oeaeia e /anoue – oeeinioneea eaoaai?ee, au?aaeathuea ioiioaiea iaaeaeo
niaieoiiinoueth i?aaeiaoia e naycueth, eioi?ay iauaaeeiyao yoe i?aaeiaou
e i?eaiaeeo e iiyaeaieth o niaieoiiinoe iiauo naienoa e caeiiiia?iinoae,
ia i?enoueo i?aaeiaoai a eo ?aciauaiiinoe. *a?ac yoo naycue caaeaaony
Oe., ii ioiioaieth e eioi?iio ioaeaeueiua i?aaeiaou aunooiatho a
ea/anoaa /anoae. Yoe eaoaai?ee oa?aeoa?ecotho oaeaea iauaa aeaeaeaiea
iiciaiey, eioi?ia iau/ii ia/eiaaony n oeaeiai iauaeoa, caoai ia?aoiaeeo
e aiaeeco, aai ?an/eaiaieth ia /anoe e caaa?oaaony aini?iecaaaeaieai
iauaeoa a iuoeaiee a oi?ia eiie?aoiiai Oe. Yoa i?iaeaia auea auaeaeiooa
Ieaoiiii e iicaeiaa A?enoioaeai. Iaoa?eaeenoe/aneea iai?aaeaiey,
i?eaioe?iaaiiua ia iaoeo, auee naycaiu n iaoaienoe/aneei iiieiaieai Oe.,
caeinoaiaaiiui ec iaoaieee (iicaeiaa ec eeanne/. oeceee).
Eaeaaeenoe/aneea eiioeaioeee aeaeaee oii? ia ianaiaeeiinoue oeaeiai e
noiia /anoae; iiaeeeiii oeaeinoiuie n/eoaeenue i?iaeoeou aeooiaiie
aeayoaeueiinoe, a iaoa?eaeueiua ia?aciaaiey o?aeoiaaeenue eae
iaoaie/aneea, ia?oaua aa?aaaou. A iai. eeann. oeeinioee (Oaeeeia,
Aaaaeue) i?iaiaeeony ?acee/ea iai?aaie/iiai (iaoaie/aneiai) e
i?aaie/iiai (naii?acaeaathuaainy) Oe., /oi naycaii n ?acaeoeai aeooa, a
ia iaoa?ee. Ia?en noi?ioee?iaae i?eioeeiu eco/aiey i?aaie/iiai Oe. –
iaoiae ainoiaeaeaiey io aano?aeoiiai e eiie?aoiiio, aeeaeaeoe/aneia
iiieiaiea aiaeeca e neioaca e o.i. Ii – iniiaiiieiaeiee iaoiaeieiaee
iao/iiai enneaaeiaaiey iauanoaa eae Oe. Aeeaeaeo. iaoa?eaeeci iaiauaao
aeaiiua oai?aoe/aneeo eiioeaioeee e aeenoeeieei, iniiaaiiuo ia
oeaeinoiii iiaeoiaea e iauaeoai. Iiaue iiaeoiae iicaieee ?aoeeiiaeueii
iauynieoue aeeaeaeoeeo Oe. e *. Oai?aoe/anee e yenia?eiaioaeueii auei
iieacaii, /oi aeey neiaeiii?aaieciaaiiuo iauaeoia Oe. ia naiaeeii e
noiia /anoae. Oe. oa?aeoa?ecoaony iiauie ea/anoaaie e naienoaaie, ia
i?enouei ioaeaeueiui /anoyi, ii aicieeathueie a ?acoeueoaoa eo
acaeiiaeaenoaey a ii?aaeaeaiiie nenoaia naycae. Yoi naienoai
eioaa?aoeaiinoe yaeyaony aaaeiaeoei i?eciaeii anao oaeeo ia?aciaaiee,
iicaieythuei iiiyoue e ana inoaeueiua niaoeeoe/aneea /a?ou Oe. Yoi
aicieeiiaaiea iiaiai a i?ioeanna ?acaeoey; iiyaeaiea iiauo oeiia
oeaeinoiinoe; aicieeiiaaiea iiauo no?oeoo?iuo o?iaiae e eo ea?a?oey;
?acaeaeaiea oeaeinoiuo nenoai ia i?aaie/iua (aeieiae/aneea e
nioeeaeueiua iauaeou – naienoaa /anoae ii?aaeaeythony naienoaaie Oe.) e
iai?aaie/iua (aoii, iieaeoea e o. i., aaea naienoaa /anoae ii?aaeaeytho
naienoaa Oe.). Nia?aiaiiia iiciaiea /anoae e oeaeiai i?ienoiaeeo
iaeiia?aiaiii: auaeaeyy /anoe, iu aiaeece?oai eo eae yeaiaiou Oe., a a
?acoeueoaoa neioaca Oe. aunooiaao eae aeeaeaeoe/anee ?an/eaiaiiia,
ninoiyuaa ec /anoae. Oeaeinoiinoue – aioo?aiiaa aaeeinoai iauaeoa, aai
ioaeae?iiinoue io ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu, a oaeaea nai iauaeo, iaeaaeathuee
oaeeie naienoaaie. Iaeiaei, nai iauaeo iiaeao iaeaaeaoue iiiaeanoaii
naycae ni n?aaeie, nouanoaoao eeoue a aaeeinoaa n iae. A enoi?ee
oeeinioee iiaeii auaeaeeoue aeaa oaiaeaioeee a o?aeoiaea yoiai iiiyoey:
oeaeinoiinoue eae iieiioa, eae ioaao anao naienoa, noi?ii e naycae
iauaeoa (iiaeiaii eiie?aoiinoe) e oeaeinoiinoue eae aioo?aiiyy
iaoneiaeaiiinoue iauaeoa, aai oieeaeueiinoue e niaoeeoeea (iiaeiaii
nouiinoe). Yoi iiiyoea aaaeii, eiaaea caaea/a enneaaeiaaiey caeeth/aaony
a iieo/aiee neioaoe/aneiai ciaiey ia iauaeoa, a nai iauaeo neiaeai.
Oeaeinoiinoue iiiiaaao auyaeoue aioo?aiithth aeaoa?ieiaoeeth naienoa
iauaeoa e iaaeinoaoi/iinoue iauyniaiey e niaoeeoeee iauaeoa ecaia.
Nae/an yoi iiiyoea i?eiaiyaony ia oieueei e iauaeoai, ii e i?ioeannai a
neiaeiuo nenoaiao. Oi?ia e niaea?aeaiea – oeeinioneea eaoaai?ee,
io?aaeathuea acaeiinaycue aeaoo noi?ii i?e?iaeiie e nioeeaeueiie
?aaeueiinoe: ii?aaeaeaiiui ia?acii oii?yaei/aiiie niaieoiiinoe yeaiaioia
e i?ioeannia, ia?acothueo i?aaeiao eee yaeaiea, o.a. N., e niiniaa
nouanoaiaaiey e au?aaeaiey yoiai N., aai ?acee/iuo iiaeeoeeaoeee , o.a.
O. O. oiio?aaeyaony e a cia/aiee aioo?aiiae i?aaiecaoeee N. A
eaeaaeenoe/aneie oeeinioee O. naiaeeeanue e no?oeoo?a, a N. – e
iaoii?yaei/aiiie niaieoiiinoe yeaiaioia e naienoa (iaoa?eae). Yoi
niinianoaiaaei i i?eiaoa O. iaae N. A iaoa?eaeenoe/aneie aeeaeaeoa
i?iaiaeeony aeaeaiea iaaeaeo N. e iaoa?eae. Yoi aaaeii aeey aiaeeca
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaiee, aaea ana i?e?iaeiua ii?aaeaeaiey
aaue eiatho cia/aiea O. nouanoaiaaiey e i?iyaeaiey eiiai, nioeeaeueiiai
N. Iaiaoiaeeiinoue ?acee/aiey iaoa?ee e N. nio?aiyaony e aeey i?e
?iaeiuo yaeaiee: N. caeanue ninoaaeyao ii?aaeaeaiiue noano?ao,
oa?aeoa?iua yoiio yaeaieth. No?oeoo?a – iaiaoiaeeiue eiiiiiaio N. N
eciaiaieai no?oeoo?u nouanoaaiii iaiyaony N. iauaeoa, aai oec. e oei.
naienoaa. O., oeene?oy iiiaiia?aciua iiaeeoeeaoeee N., niiniau aai
nouanoaiaaiey e i?iyaeaiey, oaeaea iaeaaeaao ii?aaeaeaiiie no?oeoo?ie.
Acaeiiaeaenoaea N. e O. a i?ioeanna ?acaeoey iaycaoaeueii aeeth/aao eae
aicaeaenoaey ?acee/iuo eiiiiiaioia N. ia O., oae e ?acee/iuo eiiiiiaioia
O. ia N. n o/aoii eo noai?aeeiaoeee. N. i?aaenoaaeyao aaaeouoth noi?iio
iauaeoa, a O. oo noi?iio, eioi?ay iiaeeoeoee?oaony, eciaiyaony a
caaeneiinoe io eciaiaiey N. e eiie?aoiuo oneiaee aai nouanoaiaaiey. A
naith i/a?aaeue O. ,iaeaaeay ioiineoaeueiie naiinoiyoaeueiinoue,
ieacuaaao ia?aoiia aeoeaiia aicaeaenoaea ia N. O. iiaeao oi?iiceoue eee
onei?youe ?acaeoea N. Acaeiiioiioaiea N. e O. – neo/ae ioiioaiey
i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoae, oa?aeoa?ecothueony eae aaeeinoaii N. e O., oae e
i?ioeai?a/eyie e eiioeeeoaie iaaeaeo ieie. Aaeeinoai N. e O.
ioiineoaeueii, i?aoiaeyua, a oiaea ?acaeoey iaecaaaeii aicieeatho
eiioeeeou e i?ioeai?a/ey iaaeaeo ieie. A ?acoeueoaoa ii yaeyaony
ianiioaaonoaea iaaeaeo N. e O., eioi?ia a eiia/iii n/aoa ?ac?aoaaony
na?anuaaieai noa?ie e aicieeiiaaieai iiaie O., aaeaeaaoiie N.
Aicieeiiaaiea, ?acaeoea e i?aiaeieaiea i?ioeai?a/ee iaaeaeo N. e O., eo
ai?ueaa, iaiieiaiea noa?ie O. iiaui niaea?aeaieai e iaiai?io – aaaeiue
eiiiiiaio aeeaeaeoe/aneie oai?ee ?acaeoey. Yoi iniaaiii neiaeii e
aeeaeaeoe/anee i?ioeai?a/eai ai acaeiiioiioaiee N. e O. a ?acaeoee
iauanoaa. I?ioeai?a/ey N. e O. a niiniaa i?iecaiaenoaa, aacena e
iaaeno?ieea, yeiiiieea, iieeoeea e ae?. – iaeia ec aaaeiaeoeo aeaeaeoueo
nee iauanoaaiiiai ?acaeoey.

12.2 Oeaeia e /anoue. I?eioeeiu oeaeinoiinoe. Oi?ia e niaea?aeaiea.

Oeaeia e /anoue – oeeinioneea eaoaai?ee, au?aaeathuea ioiioaiea iaaeaeo
niaieoiiinoueth i?aaeiaoia e naycueth, eioi?ay iauaaeeiyao yoe i?aaeiaou
e i?eaiaeeo e iiyaeaieth o niaieoiiinoe iiauo naienoa e caeiiiia?iinoae,
ia i?enoueo i?aaeiaoai a eo ?aciauaiiinoe. *a?ac yoo naycue caaeaaony
Oe., ii ioiioaieth e eioi?iio ioaeaeueiua i?aaeiaou aunooiatho a
ea/anoaa /anoae. Yoe eaoaai?ee oa?aeoa?ecotho oaeaea iauaa aeaeaeaiea
iiciaiey, eioi?ia iau/ii ia/eiaaony n oeaeiai iauaeoa, caoai ia?aoiaeeo
e aiaeeco, aai ?an/eaiaieth ia /anoe e caaa?oaaony aini?iecaaaeaieai
iauaeoa a iuoeaiee a oi?ia eiie?aoiiai Oe. Yoa i?iaeaia auea auaeaeiooa
Ieaoiiii e iicaeiaa A?enoioaeai. Iaoa?eaeenoe/aneea iai?aaeaiey,
i?eaioe?iaaiiua ia iaoeo, auee naycaiu n iaoaienoe/aneei iiieiaieai Oe.,
caeinoaiaaiiui ec iaoaieee (iicaeiaa ec eeanne/. oeceee).
Eaeaaeenoe/aneea eiioeaioeee aeaeaee oii? ia ianaiaeeiinoue oeaeiai e
noiia /anoae; iiaeeeiii oeaeinoiuie n/eoaeenue i?iaeoeou aeooiaiie
aeayoaeueiinoe, a iaoa?eaeueiua ia?aciaaiey o?aeoiaaeenue eae
iaoaie/aneea, ia?oaua aa?aaaou. A iai. eeann. oeeinioee (Oaeeeia,
Aaaaeue) i?iaiaeeony ?acee/ea iai?aaie/iiai (iaoaie/aneiai) e
i?aaie/iiai (naii?acaeaathuaainy) Oe., /oi naycaii n ?acaeoeai aeooa, a
ia iaoa?ee. Ia?en noi?ioee?iaae i?eioeeiu eco/aiey i?aaie/iiai Oe. –
iaoiae ainoiaeaeaiey io aano?aeoiiai e eiie?aoiiio, aeeaeaeoe/aneia
iiieiaiea aiaeeca e neioaca e o.i. Ii – iniiaiiieiaeiee iaoiaeieiaee
iao/iiai enneaaeiaaiey iauanoaa eae Oe. Aeeaeaeo. iaoa?eaeeci iaiauaao
aeaiiua oai?aoe/aneeo eiioeaioeee e aeenoeeieei, iniiaaiiuo ia
oeaeinoiii iiaeoiaea e iauaeoai. Iiaue iiaeoiae iicaieee ?aoeeiiaeueii
iauynieoue aeeaeaeoeeo Oe. e *. Oai?aoe/anee e yenia?eiaioaeueii auei
iieacaii, /oi aeey neiaeiii?aaieciaaiiuo iauaeoia Oe. ia naiaeeii e
noiia /anoae. Oe. oa?aeoa?ecoaony iiauie ea/anoaaie e naienoaaie, ia
i?enouei ioaeaeueiui /anoyi, ii aicieeathueie a ?acoeueoaoa eo
acaeiiaeaenoaey a ii?aaeaeaiiie nenoaia naycae. Yoi naienoai
eioaa?aoeaiinoe yaeyaony aaaeiaeoei i?eciaeii anao oaeeo ia?aciaaiee,
iicaieythuei iiiyoue e ana inoaeueiua niaoeeoe/aneea /a?ou Oe. Yoi
aicieeiiaaiea iiaiai a i?ioeanna ?acaeoey; iiyaeaiea iiauo oeiia
oeaeinoiinoe; aicieeiiaaiea iiauo no?oeoo?iuo o?iaiae e eo ea?a?oey;
?acaeaeaiea oeaeinoiuo nenoai ia i?aaie/iua (aeieiae/aneea e
nioeeaeueiua iauaeou – naienoaa /anoae ii?aaeaeythony naienoaaie Oe.) e
iai?aaie/iua (aoii, iieaeoea e o. i., aaea naienoaa /anoae ii?aaeaeytho
naienoaa Oe.). Nia?aiaiiia iiciaiea /anoae e oeaeiai i?ienoiaeeo
iaeiia?aiaiii: auaeaeyy /anoe, iu aiaeece?oai eo eae yeaiaiou Oe., a a
?acoeueoaoa neioaca Oe. aunooiaao eae aeeaeaeoe/anee ?an/eaiaiiia,
ninoiyuaa ec /anoae. Oeaeinoiinoue – aioo?aiiaa aaeeinoai iauaeoa, aai
ioaeae?iiinoue io ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu, a oaeaea nai iauaeo, iaeaaeathuee
oaeeie naienoaaie. Iaeiaei, nai iauaeo iiaeao iaeaaeaoue iiiaeanoaii
naycae ni n?aaeie, nouanoaoao eeoue a aaeeinoaa n iae. A enoi?ee
oeeinioee iiaeii auaeaeeoue aeaa oaiaeaioeee a o?aeoiaea yoiai iiiyoey:
oeaeinoiinoue eae iieiioa, eae ioaao anao naienoa, noi?ii e naycae
iauaeoa (iiaeiaii eiie?aoiinoe) e oeaeinoiinoue eae aioo?aiiyy
iaoneiaeaiiinoue iauaeoa, aai oieeaeueiinoue e niaoeeoeea (iiaeiaii
nouiinoe). Yoi iiiyoea aaaeii, eiaaea caaea/a enneaaeiaaiey caeeth/aaony
a iieo/aiee neioaoe/aneiai ciaiey ia iauaeoa, a nai iauaeo neiaeai.
Oeaeinoiinoue iiiiaaao auyaeoue aioo?aiithth aeaoa?ieiaoeeth naienoa
iauaeoa e iaaeinoaoi/iinoue iauyniaiey e niaoeeoeee iauaeoa ecaia.
Nae/an yoi iiiyoea i?eiaiyaony ia oieueei e iauaeoai, ii e i?ioeannai a
neiaeiuo nenoaiao. Oi?ia e niaea?aeaiea – oeeinioneea eaoaai?ee,
io?aaeathuea acaeiinaycue aeaoo noi?ii i?e?iaeiie e nioeeaeueiie
?aaeueiinoe: ii?aaeaeaiiui ia?acii oii?yaei/aiiie niaieoiiinoe yeaiaioia
e i?ioeannia, ia?acothueo i?aaeiao eee yaeaiea, o.a. N., e niiniaa
nouanoaiaaiey e au?aaeaiey yoiai N., aai ?acee/iuo iiaeeoeeaoeee , o.a.
O. O. oiio?aaeyaony e a cia/aiee aioo?aiiae i?aaiecaoeee N. A
eaeaaeenoe/aneie oeeinioee O. naiaeeeanue e no?oeoo?a, a N. – e
iaoii?yaei/aiiie niaieoiiinoe yeaiaioia e naienoa (iaoa?eae). Yoi
niinianoaiaaei i i?eiaoa O. iaae N. A iaoa?eaeenoe/aneie aeeaeaeoa
i?iaiaeeony aeaeaiea iaaeaeo N. e iaoa?eae. Yoi aaaeii aeey aiaeeca
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaiee, aaea ana i?e?iaeiua ii?aaeaeaiey
aaue eiatho cia/aiea O. nouanoaiaaiey e i?iyaeaiey eiiai, nioeeaeueiiai
N. Iaiaoiaeeiinoue ?acee/aiey iaoa?ee e N. nio?aiyaony e aeey i?e
?iaeiuo yaeaiee: N. caeanue ninoaaeyao ii?aaeaeaiiue noano?ao,
oa?aeoa?iua yoiio yaeaieth. No?oeoo?a – iaiaoiaeeiue eiiiiiaio N. N
eciaiaieai no?oeoo?u nouanoaaiii iaiyaony N. iauaeoa, aai oec. e oei.
naienoaa. O., oeene?oy iiiaiia?aciua iiaeeoeeaoeee N., niinau aai
nouanoaiaaiey e i?iyaeaiey, oaeaea iaeaaeaao ii?aaeaeaiiie no?oeoo?ie.
Acaeiiaeaenoaea N. e O. a i?ioeanna ?acaeoey iaycaoaeueii aeeth/aao eae
aicaeaenoaey ?acee/iuo eiiiiiaioia N. ia O., oae e ?acee/iuo eiiiiiaioia
O. ia N. n o/a oii eo noai?aeeiaoeee. N. i?aaenoaaeyao aaaeouoth noi?iio
iauaeoa, a O. oo noi?iio, eioi?ay iiaeeoeoee?oaony, eciaiyaony a
caaeneiinoe io eciaiaiey N. e eiie?aoiuo oneiaee aai nouanoaiaaiey. A
naith i/a?aaeue O. ,iaeaaeay ioiineoaeueiie naiinoiyoaeueiinoue,
ieacuaaao ia?aoiia aeoeaiia aicaeaenoaea ia N. O. iiaeao oi?iiceoue eee
onei?youe ?acaeoea N. Acaeiiioiioaiea N. e O. – neo/ae ioiioaiey
i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoae, oa?aeoa?ecothueony eae aaeeinoaii N. e O., oae e
i?ioeai?a/eyie e eiioeeeoaie iaaeaeo ieie. Aaeeinoai N. e O.
ioiineoaeueii, i?aoiaeyua, a oiaea ?acaeoey iaecaaaeii aicieeatho
eiioeeeou e i?ioeai?a/ey iaaeaeo ieie. A ?acoeueoaoa ii yaeyaony
ianiioaaonoaea iaaeaeo N. e O., eioi?ia a eiia/iii n/aoa ?ac?aoaaony
na?anuaaieai noa?ie e aicieeiiaaieai iiaie O., aaeaeaaoiie N.
Aicieeiiaaiea, ?acaeoea e i?aiaeieaiea i?ioeai?a/ee iaaeaeo N. e O., eo
ai?ueaa, iaiieiaiea noa?ie O. iiaui niaea?aeaieai e iaiai?io – aaaeiue
eiiiiiaio aeeaeaeoe/aneie oai?ee ?acaeoey. Yoi iniaaiii neiaeii e
aeeaeaeoe/anee i?ioeai?a/eai ai acaeiiioiioaiee N. e O. a ?acaeoee
iauanoaa. I?ioeai?a/ey N. e O. a niiniaa i?iecaiaenoaa, aacena e
iaaeno?ieea, yeiiiieea, iieeoeea e ae?. – iaeia ec aaaeiaeoeo aeaeaeoueo
nee iauanoaaiiiai ?acaeoey.

13.1 Iaoo?oeeinioey yiioe aic?iaeaeaiey.

Oeeinioey yiioe aic?iaeaeaiey – oeeinioey iiaiai eeanna – eaieoaeecia,
eeanna aieaa i?ia?anneaiiai /ai eeann oaiaeaeia. Iiaue eeann ioaeaeaaony
a iiaie oeeinioee. E aai cai?inai ioaa/aei i?aaeaea anaai
iaoa?eaeenoe/aneia ie?iaicc?aiea. Any eaeay oeeinioee Aic?iaeaeaiey
i?ioeainoieo noieanoeea n?aaeiaaaeiauey. Iiaeaea?aeeie oiio neoaeao
iiiai/eneaiiua iao/iua ioe?uoey oiai a?aiaie: ioe?uoea e?iaiia?auaiey e
ia?aiie nenoaiu, ioe?uoea Aia?eee e ae?. oeeaeeecaoeee e ii. ae?. A
yiioo aic?iaeaeaiey oeeinioey aiiaue ia?auaaony e eco/aieth i?e?iaeu.
Iaeiaei a iiieiaiee i?e?iaeu, oaeaea eae e a o?aeoiaea /aeiaaea,
oeeinioey Aic?iaeaeaiey eiaao naith niaoeeoeeo. Yoa niaoeeoeea i?aaeaea
anaai neacuaaaony a oii , /oi i?e?iaea o?aeooaony iaioaenoe/anee.

Ieeieae Eocaineee (1401-1464) – iaeei ec oa?aeoa?iuo i?aaenoaaeoaeae
?aiannainiie oeeinioee, “iineaaeiee oeeinio n?aaeiaaaeiauey e ia?aue
oeeinio yiioe Aic?iaeaeaiey”. Eae e aieueoeinoai oeeinioia naiaai
a?aiaie, i?eaioe?iaaeny ia o?aaeeoeeth iaiieaoiiecia. Iaeiaei i?e yoii
ii ia?aiuneee o/aiea iaiieaoiieeia, ia/eiay n oeaio?aeueiiai aeey ieo
iiiyoey aaeeiiai. O Ieaoiia e iaiieaoiieeia aaeeiia oa?aeoa?ecoaony
/a?ac i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue “eiiio”, ia-aaeeiiio. Eocaineee, ?acaeaeythuee
i?eioeeiu o?enoeaineiai iiiecia, ioaa?aaao aioe/iue aeoaeeci e cayaeyao,
/oi “aaeeiiio ie/oi ia i?ioeaiiieiaeii”. A ionthaea ii aeaeaao
oa?aeoa?iue auaiae: “aaeeiia anoue ana” – oi?ioea, cao/auay
iaioaenoe/anee e i?yii i?aaeaa?ythuay iaioaeci Aeaei?aeaii A?oii.

Yoa oi?ioea iai?eiaieia aeey o?enoeaineiai oaecia, i?eioeeieaeueii
ioee/athuaai oai?aiea (“ana”) io oai?oea (“aaeeiiai”); ii, /oi ia iaiaa
aaaeii, iia ioee/aaony io eiioeaioeee iaiieaoiieeia, eioi?ua ieeiaaea ia
ioiaeaeanoaeyee aaeeiia ni “anai”. O.i. iiyaeyaony iiaue,
aic?iaeaeai/aneee iiaeoiae e i?iaeaiai iioieiaee. Ec ooaa?aeaeaiey, /oi
aaeeiia ia eiaao i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoe, Eocaineee aeaeaao auaiae, /oi
aaeeiia oiaeaeanoaaiii aani?aaeaeueiiio, aaneiia/iiio. Aaneiia/iia – yoi
oi, aieueoa /aai ie/aai ia iiaeao auoue. Eocaineee iacuaaao aai
“iaeneioiii”; aaeeiia aea – yoi “ieieioi”. Eocaineee, oaeei ia?acii,
ioe?ue i?eioeei niaiaaeaiey i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoae – iaeneioia e ieieioia.
Yoio iaoiaeieiae/aneee i?eioeei aeaeaao Eocaineiai ?iaeiia/aeueieeii
iiaiaa?iiaeneie aeeaeaeoeee.

Ii ioiioaieth e no?iaieth ie?a Eocaineee aiai?eo, /oi oeaio? e
ie?oaeiinoue einiina – yoi Aia, a iioiio, oioy ie? ia aaneiia/ai,
iaeiaei aai iaeuecy iiiuneeoue e eiia/iui, iineieueeo o iaai iao
i?aaeaeia, iaaeaeo eioi?uie ii aue au caieioo. ?ac?ooay eiia/iue einiin
aioe/iie e n?aaeiaaaeiaie iaoee, a oeaio?a eioi?iai iaoiaeeony
iaiiaeaeaeiay caiey, Eocaineee, oai naiui, iiaeaioaaeeaaao
eiia?ieeaineoth ?aaiethoeeth a ano?iiiiee. Aneaae ca Eocaineei Eiia?iee
(1473-1543) iieuecoaony i?eioeeiii ioiineoaeueiinoe e ia iai iniiauaaao
iiaoth ano?iiiie/aneoth nenoaio. Niaeanii aai o/aieth, Caiey, ai-ia?auo
a?auaaony aie?oa naiae ine, /ai iauyniyaony niaia aeiy e ii/e.
Ai-aoi?uo, Caiey a?auaaony aie?oa Nieioea, iiiauaiiiai Eiia?ieeii a
oeaio? ie?a. Aneaae ca Eocaineei Eiia?iee n/eoaao, /oi Anaeaiiay
iaecia?eia e aaca?aie/ia.

Oa?aeoa?iay aeey Eocaineiai oaiaeaioeey iuneeoue aunoaa ia/aei auoey eae
oiaeaeanoai i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoae (aaeeiiai e aaneiia/iiai) auea
?acoeueoaoii iaioaenoe/anee ie?aoaiiiai naeeaeaiey Aiaa n ie?ii, oai?oea
n oai?aieai. Yoo oaiaeaioeeth aua aieaa oaeoaee Aeaei?aeaii A?oii
(1548-1600), nicaeaa iineaaeiaaoaeueii iaioaenoe/aneia o/aiea,
a?aaeaeaaiia n?aaeiaaaeiaiio oaecio. Aeaei?aeaii A?oii oaeaea iie?aeny
ia aaeeioeaio?e/aneoth ano?iiiieth Eiia?ieea. Ioiaeaeanoaeyy einiin n
aaneiia/iui aiaeanoaii, A?oii iieo/aao e aaneiia/iue einiin.

Nieiay, aeaeaa, a?aieoeo iaaeaeo oai?oeii e oai?aieai, A?oii ?ac?ooaao e
o?aaeeoeeiiioth i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue oi?iu eae ia/aea iaaeaeeiiai, a
iioiio aeoeaiiai e oai?/aneiai, n iaeiie noi?iiu, e iaoa?ee eae ia/aea
aani?aaeaeueiiai, a iioiio ianneaiiai, n ae?oaie. A?oii, oaeei ia?acii,
ia oieueei ia?aaeaao naiie i?e?iaea oi, /oi a n?aaeiea aaea
i?eienuaaeinue Aiao, a eiaiii aeoeaiue, oai?/aneee eiioeuen. Ii eaeao
cia/eoaeueii aeaeueoa, ioieiay o oi?iu e ia?aaeaaay iaoa?ee oi ia/aei
aeecie e aeaeaeaiey, eioi?ia ni a?aiai Ieaoiia e A?enoioaey n/eoaeinue
i?enouai eiaiii oi?ia. I?e?iaea, niaeanii A?oii, anoue “Aia a aauao”.

?acaeoea oeeinioee Aic?iaeaeaiey iiaeaioiaeei ii/ao aeey iiyaeaiey
auaeathueony o/aiuo, aianoeo aieueoie aeeaae a ?acaeoea iaoee.
Oa?aeoa?iui i?aaenoaaeoaeai yaeyaony Aaeeeai Aaeeeae (1564-1642),
yaeythueeny iaeiei ec iniiaaoaeae nia?aiaiiiai
yenia?eiaioaeueii-oai?aoe/aneiai anoanoaiciaiey, caeiaeeaoee iniiau
eeanne/aneie iaoaieee. A aiinaieiaee ii ?acaeaae eaeath aaca?aie/iinoe
“yenoaineaiiai” iiciaiey i?e?iaeu, ioia/ay a oi aea a?aiy aiciiaeiinoue
aeinoeaeaiey aan. enoeiu, o.a. “eioaineaiiai” iiciaiey. Enoiaeiui
ioieoii iiciaiey, ii Aaeeeath, yaeyaony /oanoaaiiue iiuo, eioi?ue,
iaeiaei, nai ii naaa ia aeaao aeinoiaa?iiai ciaiey. Iii aeinoeaaaony
ieaiiia?iui ?aaeueiui eee iuneaiiui yenia?eiaioe?iaaieai, iie?athueiny
ia no?iaia eiee/anoaaiii-iaoaiaoe/aneia iienaiea. Aaeeeae auaeaeye aeaa
iniiaiuo iaoiaea yenia?eiaioaeueiiai enneaaeiaaiey i?e?iaeu.
Aiaeeoe/aneei iaoiaeii “?aciethoeee” n eniieueciaaieai n?aaenoa
iaoaiaoeee, aano?aeoeee eaeaaeecaoeee e i?aaeaeueiiai ia?aoiaea
auaeaeythony yeaiaiou ?aaeueiinoe ia aeinooiiua iaiin?aaenoaaiiiio
aini?eyoeth (iai?., iaiiaaiiay nei?inoue, aeaeaeaiea ii ei?oeee). Aeaeaa
ia iniiaa neioaoe/anee-aeaaeoeoeaiiai iaoiaea “eiiiiceoeee” no?ieony
oai?aoe/aneay noaia, iauyniythuay yaeaiea e iiaeoaa?aeaeathuay ?aiaa
auaeaeiooua i?aaeiieiaeaiey. Aeinoiaa?iia ciaiea a eoiaa ?aaeecoaony a
iauyniythuae oai?aoe/aneie noaia eae aaeeinoai neioaoe/aneiai e
aiaeeoe/aneiai, /oanoaaiiiai e aano?aeoiiai.

Auaiaeu ii Aai?iao:

1. Iiaue oei iuoeaiey – iaoa?eaeenoe/aneee.

2. Oeeinioneay iuneue noaiiaeony naaoneie.

3. I?aaeiaoii oeeinioee noaiiaeony ?aaeueiay aeeciue ethaeae.

4. Aia?aua a ?anniio?aiea iiiaaeaao aiey /aeiaaea.

Iaiyaony noaoon naiiai /aeiaae. *aeiaae aic?iaeaeaiey yoi /aeiaae
niceaeathuee, aeoeaiue, oai?/aneee naiaiaeiue a naieo iinooieao,
naiaiaeiue io aeiaiaoia oea?eae.

13.1 Iaoo?oeeinioey yiioe aic?iaeaeaiey.

Oeeinioey yiioe aic?iaeaeaiey – oeeinioey iiaiai eeanna – eaieoaeecia,
eeanna aieaa i?ia?anneaiiai /ai eeann oaiaeaeia. Iiaue eeann ioaeaeaaony
a iiaie oeeinioee. E aai cai?inai ioaa/aei i?aaeaea anaai
iaoa?eaeenoe/aneia ie?iaicc?aiea. Any eaeay oeeinioee Aic?iaeaeaiey
i?ioeainoieo noieanoeea n?aaeiaaaeiauey. Iiaeaea?aeeie oiio neoaeao
iiiai/eneaiiua iao/iua ioe?uoey oiai a?aiaie: ioe?uoea e?iaiia?auaiey e
ia?aiie nenoaiu, ioe?uoea Aia?eee e ae?. oeeaeeecaoeee e ii. ae?. A
yiioo aic?iaeaeaiey oeeinioey aiiaue ia?auaaony e eco/aieth i?e?iaeu.
Iaeiaei a iiieiaiee i?e?iaeu, oaeaea eae e a o?aeoiaea /aeiaaea,
oeeinioey Aic?iaeaeaiey eiaao naith niaoeeoeeo. Yoa niaoeeoeea i?aaeaea
anaai neacuaaaony a oii , /oi i?e?iaea o?aeooaony iaioaenoe/anee.

Ieeieae Eocaineee (1401-1464) – iaeei ec oa?aeoa?iuo i?aaenoaaeoaeae
?aiannainiie oeeinioee, “iineaaeiee oeeinio n?aaeiaaaeiauey e ia?aue
oeeinio yiioe Aic?iaeaeaiey”. Eae e aieueoeinoai oeeinioia naiaai
a?aiaie, i?eaioe?iaaeny ia o?aaeeoeeth iaiieaoiiecia. Iaeiaei i?e yoii
ii ia?aiuneee o/aiea iaiieaoiieeia, ia/eiay n oeaio?aeueiiai aeey ieo
iiiyoey aaeeiiai. O Ieaoiia e iaiieaoiieeia aaeeiia oa?aeoa?ecoaony
/a?ac i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue “eiiio”, ia-aaeeiiio. Eocaineee, ?acaeaeythuee
i?eioeeiu o?enoeaineiai iiiecia, ioaa?aaao aioe/iue aeoaeeci e cayaeyao,
/oi “aaeeiiio ie/oi ia i?ioeaiiieiaeii”. A ionthaea ii aeaeaao
oa?aeoa?iue auaiae: “aaeeiia anoue ana” – oi?ioea, cao/auay
iaioaenoe/anee e i?yii i?aaeaa?ythuay iaioaeci Aeaei?aeaii A?oii.

Yoa oi?ioea iai?eiaieia aeey o?enoeaineiai oaecia, i?eioeeieaeueii
ioee/athuaai oai?aiea (“ana”) io oai?oea (“aaeeiiai”); ii, /oi ia iaiaa
aaaeii, iia ioee/aaony io eiioeaioeee iaiieaoiieeia, eioi?ua ieeiaaea ia
ioiaeaeanoaeyee aaeeiia ni “anai”. O.i. iiyaeyaony iiaue,
aic?iaeaeai/aneee iiaeoiae e i?iaeaiai iioieiaee. Ec ooaa?aeaeaiey, /oi
aaeeiia ia eiaao i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoe, Eocaineee aeaeaao auaiae, /oi
aaeeiia oiaeaeanoaaiii aani?aaeaeueiiio, aaneiia/iiio. Aaneiia/iia – yoi
oi, aieueoa /aai ie/aai ia iiaeao auoue. Eocaineee iacuaaao aai
“iaeneioiii”; aaeeiia aea – yoi “ieieioi”. Eocaineee, oaeei ia?acii,
ioe?ue i?eioeei niaiaaeaiey i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoae – iaeneioia e ieieioia.
Yoio iaoiaeieiae/aneee i?eioeei aeaeaao Eocaineiai ?iaeiia/aeueieeii
iiaiaa?iiaeneie aeeaeaeoeee.

Ii ioiioaieth e no?iaieth ie?a Eocaineee aiai?eo, /oi oeaio? e
ie?oaeiinoue einiina – yoi Aia, a iioiio, oioy ie? ia aaneiia/ai,
iaeiaei aai iaeuecy iiiuneeoue e eiia/iui, iineieueeo o iaai iao
i?aaeaeia, iaaeaeo eioi?uie ii aue au caieioo. ?ac?ooay eiia/iue einiin
aioe/iie e n?aaeiaaaeiaie iaoee, a oeaio?a eioi?iai iaoiaeeony
iaiiaeaeaeiay caiey, Eocaineee, oai naiui, iiaeaioaaeeaaao
eiia?ieeaineoth ?aaiethoeeth a ano?iiiiee. Aneaae ca Eocaineei Eiia?iee
(1473-1543) iieuecoaony i?eioeeiii ioiineoaeueiinoe e ia iai iniiauaaao
iiaoth ano?iiiie/aneoth nenoaio. Niaeanii aai o/aieth, Caiey, ai-ia?auo
a?auaaony aie?oa naiae ine, /ai iauyniyaony niaia aeiy e ii/e.
Ai-aoi?uo, Caiey a?auaaony aie?oa Nieioea, iiiauaiiiai Eiia?ieeii a
oeaio? ie?a. Aneaae ca Eocaineei Eiia?iee n/eoaao, /oi Anaeaiiay
iaecia?eia e aaca?aie/ia.

Oa?aeoa?iay aeey Eocaineiai oaiaeaioeey iuneeoue aunoaa ia/aei auoey eae
oiaeaeanoai i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoae (aaeeiiai e aaneiia/iiai) auea
?acoeueoaoii iaioaenoe/anee ie?aoaiiiai naeeaeaiey Aiaa n ie?ii, oai?oea
n oai?aieai. Yoo oaiaeaioeeth aua aieaa oaeoaee Aeaei?aeaii A?oii
(1548-1600), nicaeaa iineaaeiaaoaeueii iaioaenoe/aneia o/aiea,
a?aaeaeaaiia n?aaeiaaaeiaiio oaecio. Aeaei?aeaii A?oii oaeaea iie?aeny
ia aaeeioeaio?e/aneoth ano?iiiieth Eiia?ieea. Ioiaeaeanoaeyy einiin n
aaneiia/iui aiaeanoaii, A?oii iieo/aao e aaneiia/iue einiin.

Nieiay, aeaeaa, a?aieoeo iaaeaeo oai?oeii e oai?aieai, A?oii ?ac?ooaao e
o?aaeeoeeiiioth i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue oi?iu eae ia/aea iaaeaeeiiai, a
iioiio aeoeaiiai e oai?/aneiai, n iaeiie noi?iiu, e iaoa?ee eae ia/aea
aani?aaeaeueiiai, a iioiio ianneaiiai, n ae?oaie. A?oii, oaeei ia?acii,
ia oieueei ia?aaeaao naiie i?e?iaea oi, /oi a n?aaeiea aaea
i?eienuaaeinue Aiao, a eiaiii aeoeaiue, oai?/aneee eiioeuen. Ii eaeao
cia/eoaeueii aeaeueoa, ioieiay o oi?iu e ia?aaeaaay iaoa?ee oi ia/aei
aeecie e aeaeaeaiey, eioi?ia ni a?aiai Ieaoiia e A?enoioaey n/eoaeinue
i?enouai eiaiii oi?ia. I?e?iaea, niaeanii A?oii, anoue “Aia a aauao”.

?acaeoea oeeinioee Aic?iaeaeaiey iiaeaioiaeei ii/ao aeey iiyaeaiey
auaeathueony o/aiuo, aianoeo aieueoie aeeaae a ?acaeoea iaoee.
Oa?aeoa?iui i?aaenoaaeoaeai yaeyaony Aaeeeai Aaeeeae (1564-1642),
yaeythueeny iaeiei ec iniiaaoaeae nia?aiaiiiai
yenia?eiaioaeueii-oai?aoe/aneiai anoanoaiciaiey, caeiaeeaoee iniiau
eeanne/aneie iaoaieee. A aiinaieiaee ii ?acaeaae eaeath aaca?aie/iinoe
“yenoaineaiiai” iiciaiey i?e?iaeu, ioia/ay a oi aea a?aiy aiciiaeiinoue
aeinoeaeaiey aan. enoeiu, o.a. “eioaineaiiai” iiciaiey. Enoiaeiui
ioieoii iiciaiey, ii Aaeeeath, yaeyaony /oanoaaiiue iiuo, eioi?ue,
iaeiaei, nai ii naaa ia aeaao aeinoiaa?iiai ciaiey. Iii aeinoeaaaony
ieaiiia?iui ?aaeueiui eee iuneaiiui yenia?eiaioe?iaaieai, iie?athueiny
ia no?iaia eiee/anoaaiii-iaoaiaoe/aneia iienaiea. Aaeeeae auaeaeye aeaa
iniiaiuo iaoiaea yenia?eiaioaeueiiai enneaaeiaaiey i?e?iaeu.
Aiaeeoe/aneei iaoiaeii “?aciethoeee” n eniieueciaaieai n?aaenoa
iaoaiaoeee, aano?aeoeee eaeaaeecaoeee e i?aaeaeueiiai ia?aoiaea
auaeaeythony yeaiaiou ?aaeueiinoe ia aeinooiiua iaiin?aaenoaaiiiio
aini?eyoeth (iai?., iaiiaaiiay nei?inoue, aeaeaeaiea ii eia?oeee).
Aeaeaa ia iniiaa neioaoe/anee-aeaaeoeoeaiiai iaoiaea “eiiiiceoeee”
no?ieony oai?aoe/aneay noaia, iauyniythuay yaeaiea e iiaeoaa?aeaeathuay
?aiaa auaeaeiooua i?aaeiieiaeaiey. Aeinoiaa?iia ciaiea a eoiaa
?aaeecoaony a iauyniythuae oai?aoe/aneie noaia eae aaeeinoai
neioaoe/aneiai e aiaeeoe/aneiai, /oanoaaiiiai e aano?aeoiiai.

Auaiaeu ii Aai?iao:

1. Iiaue oei iuoeaiey – iaoa?eaeenoe/aneee.

2. Oeeinioneay iuneue noaiiaeony naaoneie.

3. I?aaeiaoii oeeinioee noaiiaeony ?aaeueiay aeeciue ethaeae.

4. Aia?aua a ?anniio?aiea iiiaaeaao aiey /aeiaaea.

Iaiyaony noaoon naiiai /aeiaae. *aeiaae aic?iaeaeaiey yoi /aeiaae
niceaeathuee, aeoeaiue, oai?/aneee naiaiaeiue a naieo iinooieao,
naiaiaeiue io aeiaiaoia oea?eae.

13.3 Eaoaai?ee “iauanoaaiiia auoea” e “iauanoaaiiia niciaiea” e eo
iaoiaeieiae/aneay ?ieue.

I.A. e I.N. – aeaa noi?iiu, iaoa?eaeueiie e aeooiaiie aeecie iauanoaa,
iaoiaeyueany iaaeaeo niaie a ii?aaeaeaiiie acaeiinayce e
acaeiiaeaenoaee. Iiae I.A. ia?eneci iiieiaao iaoa?eaeueiia ioiioaiea
ethaeae e i?e?iaea a i?ioeanna aini?iecaiaenoaa iaoa?eaeueiuo aeaa e oa
ioiioaiey, a eioi?ua ethaee anooiatho a i?ioeanna yoiai
aini?iecaiaenoaa. Aii?in i acaeiiioiioaiee I.A. e I.N. yaeyaony
eiie?aoecaoeeae iniiaiiai aii?ina oeeinioee a i?eiaiaiee e iauanoao. Aei
ia?enecia ainiiaenoaothuei a oeeinioee aicc?aieai auei i?aaenoaaeaiea ia
ii?aaeaeythuae ?iee niciaiey a aeecie iauanoaa. A aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe aea
I.N. anoue ia /oi eiia, eae “iniciaiiia auoea”, o.a. io?aaeaiea a
aeooiaiie aeecie ethaeae eo I.A. Ia?aoth oi?ioee?iaeo yoiai iieiaeaiey
aeaee Ia?en e Yiaaeuen a “iaiaoeeie eaeaieiaee”: “…ethaee,
?acaeaathuea naia iaoa?eaeueiia i?iecaiaenoai e naia iaoa?eaeueiia
iauaiea, eciaiytho aianoa n yoie aeayoaeueiinoueth oaeaea naia iuoeaiea
e i?iaeoeou naiaai iuoeaiey. Ia niciaiea ii?aaeaeyao aeeciue, a aeeciue
ii?aaeaeyao niciaiea”. Ia?eneci iieacae, /oi acaeiiioiioaiey I.A. e I.N.
neiaeiu, iiaeaeaeiu e ?acaeaathony aianoa n ?acaeoeai e oneiaeiaieai
iauanoaaiiie aeecie. Anee ia ia?auo nooiaiyo enoi?ee I.N. oi?ie?oaony
eae iaiin?aaenoaaiiia ii?iaeaeaiea iaoa?eaeueiuo ioiioaiee ethaeae e eae
au “aieaoaii” a iaoa?eaeueioth aeayoaeueiinoue, oi a aeaeueiaeoai, n
?an/eaiaieai iauanoaa ia eeannu, aicieeiiaaieai iieeoeee, i?aaa,
iieeoe/aneie ai?ueau, I.A. aicaeaenoaoao ii?aaeaeythuei ia?acii ia
niciaiea ethaeae /a?ac iiiaeanoai i?iiaaeooi/iuo caaiueaa, eaeiauie
yaeythony ainoaea?noai e ain. no?ie, i?aaiaua e iieeoe/aneea ioiioaiey e
o.i. I.N. iaeaaeaao neiaeiie aioo?aiiae no?oeoo?ie, eco/aiea eioi?ie
eiaao iaoiaeieiae/aneia cia/aiea aeey aiaeeca aai ?acee/iuo ia?aciaaiee
n o/aoii eo niaoeeoeee, nioeeaeueiuo ooieoeee e o.i. A naiii iauai aeaea
a no?oeoo?a I.N. auaeaeytho aai o?iaie e oi?iu. O?iaiyie I.N. yaeythony
iauaeaiiia, yiie?e/aneia niciaiea, iaiin?aaenoaaiii au?anoathuaa ec
iianaaeiaaiuo oneiaee aeecie iann, ioaeaeueiuo nioeeaeueiuo a?oii, e
iao/ii-oai?aoe/aneia niciaiea, aeeth/athuaa eaeaieiaeth eae aeooiaiia
au?aaeaiea ei?aiiuo eioa?ania iauanoaaiiuo eeannia. Oi?iu I.N.
i?aaenoaaeytho niaie ?acee/iua niiniau aeooiaiiai inaiaiey
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe e aeeth/atho iieeoe/aneia e i?aaiaia niciaiea,
ii?aeue, ?aeeaeth, eneonnoai, iaoeo, oeeinioeth. I.N. e aai oi?iai
i?enoua ioiineoaeueiay naiinoiyoaeueiinoue, oioy anoue e caaeneiinoue io
I.A. Naiinoiyoaeueiinoue au?aaeaaony a oii, /oi eciaiaiey a
iaoa?eaeueiie aeecie iauanoaa ieeiaaea ia nicaeatho caiiai i?iaeoeou
I.N., eai iao/iua, oeeinioneea. ooaeiaeanoaaiiua e i?i/ea eaeae caaenyo
io iaeiieaiiiai ?aiaa iuneeoaeueiiai iaoa?eaea e iiae/eiythony
ii?aaeaeaiiie aioo?aiiae eiaeea naiaai ?acaeoey. E?iia oiai, eciaiaiey a
iaoa?eaeueiuo ioiioaieyo ia iiaoo aucaaoue iaiiaaiiiai, aaoiiaoe/aneiai
eciaiaiey I.N., o.e. aeooiaiui i?aaenoaaeaiey ethaeae naienoaaiia
cia/eoaeueiay neea eia?oeee, oieueei ai?ueaa iaaeaeo iiauie e noa?uie
eaeayie i?eaiaeeo caeiiiia?ii e iiaaaea oao, eioi?ua aucuaathony
?aoathueie iio?aaiinoyie eciaieaoaeny iaoa?eaeueiie aeecie, iiaiai
auoey. A oi aea a?aiy iaiaoiaeeii aeaeaoue e o/eouaaoue aieueooth ?ieue
I.N. e aai aicaeaenoaey ia ?acaeoea naiiai I.A. Aaniethoiia
i?ioeaiiinoaaeaiea yoeo 2-o noi?ii aeecie ethaeae aeaenoaeoaeueii eeoue
a ?aieao iniiaiiai aii?ina i oii, /oi ia?ae/ii e /oi aoi?e/ii. Ca
i?aaeaeaie yoiai aii?ina oaeia aaniethoiia i?ioeaiiinoaaeaiea oa?yao
niune, a a oa eee eiua ia?eiaeu c?aeinoe iaoa?eaeueiuo i?aaeiinueie
iauanoaaiiuo i?aia?aciaaiee e i?e nicaeaiee niioaaonoaothueo
nioeeaeueiuo oi?i aeey iiaeaioiaee yoeo i?aaeiinueie ?ieue I.N. iiaeao
noaoue e noaiiaeony ?aoathuae, oioy e oiaaea iii a eiia/iii n/aoa
ii?aaeaeyaony e iaoneiaeaii I.A. Aeeaeaeoeei-iaoa?eaeenoe/aneia ?aoaiea
aii?ina a ioiioaiee I.A. e I.N. e eo i?e?iaeu eiaao aieueoia
iaoiaeieiae/aneia cia/aiea, iiiiaaao iao/ii noaaeoue e i?aeoe/anee
?aoaoue i?iaeaiu iauanoaaiiie aeecie.

( Iaoiaeieiae/aneay ?ieue I.A. a oii /oiau iao/eoue /aeiaaea aeeoue
caeanue e nae/an.

Iaoiaeieiae/aneay ?ieue I.N. a oii /oiau ?anneacaoue /aeiaaeo i oii
eae aeeoue caao?a.

Iiyoiio I.A. aacen aeey I.N. Iie oae aea acaeiinaycaiu eae i?ioeia e
aoaeouaa.

O/aiea Ayeiia i iaoiaea e iniiaiua /a?ou eiaeoeoeaiiai iaoiaea.

Eae e aieueoeinoai iuneeoaeae naiae yiioe, ?iaeiia/aeueiee yiie?ecia
O?yinen Ayeii (1561-1626), n/eoay caaea/ae oeeinioee nicaeaiea iiaiai
iaoiaea iao/iiai iiciaiey, ia?ainiuneeaaao i?aaeiao e caaea/e iaoee, eae
aa iiieiaee a n?aaeiea aaea. Oeaeue iao/iiai ciaiey – a i?eianaiee
iieuecu /aeiaa/aneiio ?iaeo. Ayeii iiae/a?eeaaao, /oi iaoea neoaeeo
aeecie e i?aeoeea e oieueei a yoii iaoiaeeo naia ii?aaaeaiea. Ayeii
io?eoeaao iiieiaiea iaoee eae naiioeaee e eae iooe e aieaa oaeoaeaiiiio
e i?inaaoeaiiiio ?acoiii nica?oeaieth i?e?iaeu. Iaoea – n?aaenoai; aa
ienney a oii, /oiau iiciaoue i?e/eiioth naycue i?e?iaeiuo yaeaiee ?aaee
eniieueciaaiey yoeo yaeaiee aeey aeaaa ethaeae. ?ac?aaaouaay naie
iaoiae, Ayeii i?aaeaea anaai inoaiaaeeaaaony ia iniiaiuo ioeaeao e
i?aiyonoaeyo, noiyueo ia iooe /aeiaaea, iaoiaeyuaainy a iao/iii iienea.
Ii iacuaaao yoe i?aiyonoaey eaeieaie e auaeaeyao /aou?a aeaea eaeieia:

Eaeie ?iaea – aeaaiia i?aiyonoaea ia iooe e iiciaieth. Aicieeaao ec-ca
ianiaa?oainoaa /aeiaa/aneiai ?acoia. Aieiaa – eae e?eaia ca?eaei.
*aeiaae noaeeo ii naiae i?e?iaea, /oi e i?eaiaeeo e ioeaeai. *aeiaaeo
naienoaaiii eneaoue oaeou, niaiaaeathuea n aai iiaieai, e ioa?anuaaoue
io?eoeaoaeueiua einoaioeee. Aeey ono?aiaiey 1-ai eaeiea Ayeii
?aeiiaiaeoao naa?youe iieacaiey /oanoa n ?aaeueiuie iauaeoaie.

Eaeie iaua?u. Aicieeaao ca n/ao noauaeoeaiie ioeaiee eaeae. Eaaeaeue
/aeiaae eiaao naith ieoo (iaua?o) eioaeeaeooaeueiiai ?acaeoey. *aeiaae
i?iaoee?oao naie aeooiaiue o?iaaiue ia ae?oaeo. ?aoaiea: naiie?eoe/iay
ioeaiea naieo niiniaiinoae.

Eaeie ieiuaaee. Naycai n iai?aaeeueiui oiio?aaeaieai oa?ieiia, neia,
ycuea iaoee, /oi aaaeao e eiaeiui eaeayi e ?acoeueoaoai. ?aoaiea:
e?eoe/aneay ioeaiea niioaaonoaey oa?ieiia ii?aaeaeyaiuo eie aauae.

Eaeie oaao?a – nnueea ia eiaeiua aaoi?eoaou. ?aoaiea: iai?eyoea ieeaeeo
auaiaeia aac aeieacaoaeuenoaa eai au iie ia auee noi?ioee?iaaiu. A
n?aaeiea aaea e a aioe/iinoe eniieuecoaony aeaaiui ia?acii aeaaeoeoeaiue
iaoiae (iuneue aeaeaeaony io aeneii e /anoiui auaiaeai). Ii Ayeiio aea
anyeia iiciaiea e ecia?aoaiea aeieaeii iie?aoueny ia iiuo, o. a.
aeieaeiu aeaeaaoueny io eco/aiey aaeeie/iuo oaeoia e iauei iieiaeaieyi
(eiaeoeoeaiue iaoiae). Iiaeii auaeaeeoue aeaa neo/ay eiaeoeoeee: iieiay
(eiaaea ia?a/eneythony ana i?aaeiaou aeaiiiai eeanna e iaia?oaeeaaaony
i?enouaa ei naienoai) e iaiieiay eiaeoeoeey (eiaaea ia iniiaa
iaaethaeaiey eiia/iiai /enea oaeoia aeaeaaony iauee auaiae ioiineoaeueii
anaai eeanna yaeaiee). A iaoea aeaaiui ia?acii i?eoiaeeony i?eaaaaoue e
iaiieiie eiaeoeoeee. Caeeth/aiea, naeaeaiiia ia aa iniiaa, iineo eeoue
aa?iyoiinoiue oa?aeoa? e ia iaeaaeaao no?iaie iaiaoiaeeiinoueth.
Iuoaynue naeaeaoue iaoiae iaiieiie eiaeoeoeee ii aiciiaeiinoe aieaa
no?iaei, Ayeii n/eoaao iaiaoiaeeiui eneaoue ia oieueei oaeou,
iiaeoaa?aeaeathuea ii?aaeaeaiiue auaiae, ii e oaeou ii?iaa?aathuea aai.
Oaeei ia?acii eiaeoeoeaiue iaoiae Ayeiia – yoi iaiauaiea yiie?e/aneeo
oaeoia e auaiaeia. I?e/ai, Ayeii n/eoaao, /oi aacen iao/iiai ciaiey
ninoaaeytho oa iieiaeaiey, eioi?ua aicieeee ia iniiaaiee iaiauaiey
iiuoiuo oaeoia e aeieacaiu yenia?eiaioaeueii. Yoi aiana ia icia/aao, /oi
ii io?eoeaao oai?eth e aeaaeoeoeaiue iaoiae. Ii ?anniao?eaaao aeaa oeia
iiuoia:

1. Iiuou “ieiaeiiiniua”. Iie i?eiinyo nethieiooioth iieueco.

2. Iiuou “naaoiiiniua”. Eo enoeiiinoue iauyniyaony ia iniiaa oai?ee.

E aac aa i?eiaiaiey iie ia iiaoo aeaoue enoeiu. Auaeaeaiea
io?eoeaoaeueiuo noanoaioeee (o.a. iiene oaeoia ii?iaa?aathueo
ii?aaeaeaiiue auaiae) o?aaoao oneiaeiaiea iiuoa. Noaaeony iiaue iiuo n
iiauie oneiaeyie, /oi iaaiciiaeii aac iaee/ey oai?ee. Oaeei ia?acii
iniiaiui i?eioeeiii iaoiaea Ayeiia yaeyaony aaeeinoai oai?ee e i?aeoeee.
Iiaeii auaeaeeoue iniiaiia ioee/ea oeeinioee Ayeiia io aioe/iie
oeeinioee. A aioe/iie oeeinioee i?ienoiaeeo eaeaaeece?iaaiea iauaai (ie?
eaeae Ieaoiia). A?enoioaeue e?eoeeoao Ieaoiia, ii i?eaea?aeeaaaony
acaeyaea, /oi enoeia – io iauaai e /anoiiio, e /oi i aaeeie/iii ia
iiaeao auoue ciaiey. Ayeii aea aiai?eo, /oi i?ioeann iiciaiey iiaeao
i?ienoiaeeoue iooai iaiauaiey iiuoiuo aeaiiuo e oaeei ia?acii iiaeao
auoue iieo/aii ciaiea ia iauai.

Oiaeaeanoai, ?acee/ea, i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue, i?ioeai?a/ea. Aaeeinoai e
ai?ueaa i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoae eae au?aaeaiea aioo?aiiaai iaoaiecia
?acaeoey.

Oiaeaeanoai – iieiia niaiaaeaiea i?aaeiaoa. ?acee/ea – eiee/anoaaiiay
ia?a ianiaiaaeaiey. Anee ?acee/ea no?aieony e iaeneioio oi i?aaeiao
no?aieony e i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoe, anee e ieieioio oi e oiaeaeanoao.
I?ioeai?a/ea – aaeeinoai e ?acee/ea i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoae. Niaea?aeaiea
iniiaiuo caeiiia aeeaeaeoeee ?ane?uaaaony iin?aaenoaii eaoaai?ee (oi?iu
iuoeaiey). Naie eaoaai?ee iiaeii oa?aeoa?eciaaoue n o. c.
oi?iaeueii-eiae/aneie ( A?enoioaeue ) e n o.c. aeeaeaeoeee ( Aaaaeue ).
I?aaeiaou ?acee/athony, anee iie ia oiaeaeanoaaiiu. Aeey ?acee/ey
oa?aeoa?ia eiee/anoaaiiay ia?a. *ai ?acee/ea, oai oiaeaeanoai.
I?ioeai?a/ea – ioiioaiea i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoae. Iii aeeth/aao eae iiiaio
aaeeinoaa, ?aaainoaa a i?ioeaiiieiaeiii, oae e eo acaeiieneeth/aiea (
oaeia ioiioaiea eae ai?ueaa ). Aaeeinoai – oiaeaeanoai, oeaeinoiinoue.
Ai?ueaa – ?acee/ea, ia?ooaiey oeaeinoiinoe, ia?aoiaeu io iaeiiai oeia
oeaeinoiinoe e ae?oaiio. Nenoaiu n aeeaeaeoe/aneeie i?ioeai?a/eyie
i?eioeeieaeueii iaonoie/eau – neaaeiaaoaeueii i?ienoiaeeo i?ioeann
anaiauaai iai?a?uaiiai eciaiaiey. Aaneiia/iue ie? ninoieo ec eiia/iuo
aauae, neaaeiaaoaeueii oa?aeoa?enoeea i?eiaieia e ethaie eiie?aoiie
aaue. I?ioeann eciaiaiey ?anniao?eaaaony ii ioiioaieth e yeaiaioai. Anee
i?ioeann au?aaoue ec ?acaeoey, oi iieo/eony noaoeea, eioi?oth iiaeii
?anniao?eaaoue aac aeeaeaeoeee. Aeeaeaeoeea ia/eiaaony oai, aaea a
iaeiie i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoe iiaeii au/eaieoue ae?oaoth ( iai?eia?
/oanoaaiiia e ?aoeeiiaeueiia iiciaiea). I?ioeai?a/ea ia aa?oony a
canouaoai aeaea. Iie naie ?acaeaathony. Ca?iaeaeaiea, ?acaeoea
i?ioeai?a/ee – no?aieaiea iaeiie i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoe eneeth/eoue
ae?oaoth. Oi?ie?othony ioiioaiey eiioeeeoa. ?ac?aoaiea i?ioeai?a/ee –
?ac?ooaiea nenoaiu ( iiyaeyaony iiaay nenoaia ). O Aaaaey ?acaeoea
i?ienoiaeeo ca n/ao i?eie?aiey i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoae. Eaeay eiii?iienna
ieacuaaaony aeiieie?othuae a iineaaeiaa a?aiy.. Iaeiaei
i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoe ia i?eie?ythony. Eiioeeeo ?ac?aoaaony iin?aaenoaii
ai?ueau. Oa?aeoa? e oi?iu, niiniau ?ac?aoaiey i?ioeai?a/ee ?acee/iu.
Aeiaaeueiua i?ioeai?a/ey ?ac?aoathony ca n/ao ?aaiethoeee. Iaoiaeu e
niiniau ?ac?aoaiey i?ioeai?a/ee iaycaoaeueii aeieaeiu aeeth/aoue a naay
ianeeea. Aeeaeaeoeea aiai?eo, /oi i?ioeai?a/ey iai?eie?eiu. Eo
oiaeaeanoai iiaeao eiaoue ianoi, ii oieueei ia ia/aeueiii yoaia.
I?eioeei niioaaonoaey. Aioaaiienoe/aneea i?ioeai?a/ey – nioeeaeueiua.
Ioiioaiea nioeeaeueiuo a?oii, eioi?ua ia iiaoo niaianoue. A eo iniiaa
eaaeeo ioiioaiea nianoaaiiinoe. Oi?iaeueii-eiae/aneea e aeeaeaeoe/aneea
i?ioeai?a/ey. A?enoioaeue – iaeuecy ia iaeiii e oii aea a iaeii e oi aea
a?aiy, a iaeiii e oii aea ioiioaiee ooaa?aeaeaoue i?ioeaiiieiaeiia. A
anoue A. Eiaaea enneaaeotho aauue eae aeaiioth, no?iai oeene?otho
no?oeoo?ii-ooieoeeiiaeueiua ioiioaiey. Aauue yaeyaony oieueei naia
niaie. Aaaaeue – aeey aeeaeaeoeee – A anoue ia A. I?e ia?ooaiee caeiiia
oi?iaeueiie eiaeee ia iiaeai eniieueciaaoue e aeeaeaeoe/aneoth.
Iaiaoiaeeiia oneiaea – eiae/aneia iuoeaiea.

14.3 Iao/ii – oaoie/aneay ?aaiethoeey, aa nouiinoue e nia?aiaiiue yoai
?acaeoey.

Aieueoea aiciiaeiinoe aeey i?ia?anna oeeaeeecaoeee nicaeathony
?acaa?ioaoaeny a iineaaiaiiii ie?a aaeeeie ?aaiethoeeae a iaoea e
oaoieea (IO?). Anee ia?aay aaeeeay ?aaiethoeey a i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo
neeao auea naycaia n aicieeiiaaieai i?iecaiaeyuae yeiiiieee, aoi?ay – n
ia?aoiaeii io ?o/iiai o?oaea e iaoeiiiio, oi iao/ii-oaoie/aneay
?aaiethoeey ciaiaioao niaie ia?aoiae io iaoeiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa e
aaoiiaoece?iaaiiiio e. neaaeiaaoaeueii, i?eaiaeeo e ei?aiiiio eciaiaieth
ianoa /aeiaaea a i?iecaiaenoaa. A ioee/ea io i?iecaiaenoaa iaoeiiiai,
nicaeaaaaiia IO? aaoiiaoece?iaaiiia i?iecaiaenoai yaeyaony
/aou?aocaaiiui, eiaaea e i?aaeiei o?ai caaiueyi aeiaaaeyaony
oi?aaeythuaa ono?ienoai. ?acaeoea aaoiiaoece?iaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa
naycaii n niaa?oainoaiaaieai yeaeo?iiii-au/eneeoaeueiuo iaoei, n
iiyaeaieai ?iaioioaoieee, aeaeeo aaoiiaoece?iaaiiuo nenoai.
Aaoiiaoecaoeey auoaniyao /aeiaaea ec iaiin?aaenoaaiiiai i?ioeanna
iaoa?eaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa e iaiyao aai i?iecaiaenoaaiiua ooieoeee.
*aeiaae noaiiaeony n i?iecaiaenoaii eae aai eiio?iea? e
?aaoee?iauee. Eniieueciaaiea iiauo oaoiieiaee e iaoa?eaeia a ?acee/iuo
io?aneyo iauanoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa, aaoiiaoecaoeey i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo
i?ioeannia e eioaeeaeooaeecaoeey o?oaea, auno?ia niaa?oainoaiaaiea e
ieieaoth?ecaoeey eioi?iaoeeiiiie oaoieee, eioi?iaoecaoeey i?iecaiaenoaa
nicaeatho ea/anoaaiii iiaua i?iecaiaeeoaeueiua neeu, niiniaiua
i?eioeeieaeueii eciaieoue, aanue ia?ac aeecie ethaeae ia iniiaa
ia?iiiiai ?inoa i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe iauanoaaiiiai o?oaea, yeiiiiee
a?aiaie e. neaaeiaaoaeueii, oaaee/aiey naiaiaeiiai a?aiaie a iauanoaa,
?acaeoey oai?/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe ethaeae. Ana yoi iicaieyao n iieiui
iniiaaieai neacaoue, /oi iao/ii-oaoie/aneay ?aaiethoeey i?ioeann
nioeeaeueiue, cao?aaeaathuee ana noi?iiu iauanoaaiiie aeecie, a ia
oieueei iaeanoue iaoee e oaoieee. Ii, eiia/ii, iao/ii-oaoie/aneea
aeinoeaeaiey yaeythony enoiaeiuie, eai eiaiii iie ii?aaeaeytho iiaua
aiciiaeiinoe aeey /aeiaa/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe, iiuue eniieuecoaiuo
n?aaenoa. Nioeeaeueiay i?e?iaea IO? au?aaeaaony e a ii?iaeaeaaiuo ath
i?ioeai?a/eyo – a iaiaeiicia/iinoe aa aeeyiey ia i?e?iaeo e
iauanoaaiioth aeeciue, eioi?ia iiaeao auoue e iieiaeeoaeueiui e
io?eoeaoaeueiui. Caeanue iiiaia caaeneo io nioeeaeueiuo oneiaee aa
?acaeoey. eiio?iey iauanoaa iaae eniieueciaaieai aa aeinoeaeaiee.
Nia?aiaiiia iauanoai caeioa?aniaaii a niaaeeiaiee aeinoeaeaiee IO? n
aoiaienoe/aneeie oeaeyie, eai “iiao/eaaiea” i?iecaiaenoaa e aucuaaaiay
ei ?aaiethoeey a n?aaenoaao o?oaea nicaeaao iaoa?eaeueii-oaoie/aneea
i?aaeiinueee aeey ?aaeecaoeee ianooaaiuo nioeeaeueiuo i?ia?aii,
aiieiuaiey eaeaaeia ananoi?iiiaai e aa?iiie/iiai ?acaeoey /aeiaaea, a
?aaeueiia inouanoaeaiea yoiai caaeneo io nioeeaeueiie i?eaioaoeee IO?.

15.1 Iniiaiua /a?ou oeeinioee ?. Aeaea?oa. I?iaeaia iaoiaea iiciaiey a
oeeinioee ?. Aeaea?oa.

Aeaea?oianeia niiiaiea i?ecaaii nianoe caeaiea i?aaeiae o?aaeeoeeiiiie
eoeueoo?u e ioiaieoue i?aaeiee oei niciaiey, /oiau oai naiui ?an/enoeoue
ii/ao aeey iino?ieee iiaiai caeaiey – eoeueoo?u ?aoeeiiaeueiie a naiii
naiai nouanoaa. Aioeo?aaeeoeeiiaeeci – aio aeueoa e iiaaa oeeinioee
Aeaea?oa. Eiaaea iu aiai?ei i iao/iie ?aaiethoeee XVII aaea, oi eiaiii
Aeaea?o yaeyao niaie oei ?aaiethoeeiia?ia, oneeeyie eioi?uo e auea
nicaeaia iaoea iiaiai a?aiaie, ii e ia oieueei iia: ?a/ue oea i
nicaeaiee iiaiai oeia iauanoaa e iiaiai oeia /aeiaaea, /oi anei?a e
iaia?oaeeeinue a noa?a nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneie, n iaeiie noi?iiu, e a
eaeaieiaee I?inaauaiey, n ae?oaie. Aio i?eioeei iiaie eoeueoo?u, eae aai
n i?aaeaeueiie /aoeinoueth au?acee nai Aeaea?o: “…ieeiaaea ia
i?eieiaoue ca enoeiiia ie/aai, /oi y ia iiciae au oaeiaui n
i/aaeaeiinoueth… aeeth/aoue a naie noaeaeaiey oieueei oi, /oi
i?aaenoaaeyaony iiaio oio noieue ynii e noieue io/aoeeai, /oi ia aeaao
iia ieeaeiai iiaiaea iiaeaa?aaoue eo niiiaieth”.

I?eioeei i/aaeaeiinoe oanii naycai n aioeo?aaeeoeeiiaeeciii Aeaea?oa.
Enoeiiia ciaiea iu aeieaeiu iieo/eoue aeey oiai, /oiau
?oeiaiaenoaiaaoueny ei oaeaea e a i?aeoe/aneie aeecie, a naiai
aeeciano?ieoaeuenoaa. Oi, /oi i?aaeaea i?ienoiaeeei noeoeeii, aeieaeii
ioiuia noaoue i?aaeiaoii niciaoaeueiie e oeaeaiai?aaeaiiie aiee,
?oeiaiaenoaothuaeny i?eioeeiaie ?acoia. *aeiaae aeieaeai eiio?iee?iaaoue
enoi?eth ai anao aa oi?iao, ia/eiay io no?ieoaeuenoaa ai?iaeia,
ainoaea?noaaiiuo o/?aaeaeaiee e i?aaiauo ii?i e eii/ay iaoeie. I?aaeiyy
iaoea auaeyaeeo, ii Aeaea?oo, oae, eae ae?aaiee ai?iae n aai
aiaieaiiauie iino?ieeaie, n?aaee eioi?uo, ai?i/ai, ano?a/athony e
caeaiey oaeeaeoaeueiie e?aniou, ii a eioi?ii iaeciaiii e?eaua e oceea
oei/ee; iiaay iaoea aeieaeia nicaeaaaoueny ii aaeeiiio ieaio e n
iiiiuueth aaeeiiai iaoiaea. Aio yoio iaoiae e nicaeaao Aeaea?o,
oaaaeaeaiiue a oii, /oi i?eiaiaiea iineaaeiaai noeeo /aeiaa/anoao
iaaaaeiiua i?aaeaea aiciiaeiinoe, /oi ii naeaeaao ethaeae “oicyaaaie e
ainiiaeaie i?e?iaeu”.

Iaeiaei iaaa?ii aeoiaoue, /oi, e?eoeeoy o?aaeeoeeth, nai Aeaea?o
ia/eiaao n ioey. Aai nianoaaiiia iuoeaiea oiaea oei?aiaii a o?aaeeoeee:
ioa?anuaay iaeie aniaeou iineaaeiae, Aeaea?o iie?aaony ia ae?oaea.
Oeeinioneia oai?/anoai ieeiaaea ia ia/eiaaony ia ionoii ianoa.

Aeaea?oiaa naycue n i?aaeoanoaothuae oeeinioeae iaia?oaeeaaaony oaea a
naiii aai enoiaeiii ioieoa. Aeaea?o oaaaeaeai, /oi nicaeaiea iiaiai
iaoiaea iuoeaiey o?aaoao i?i/iiai e iacuaeaiiai iniiaaiey. Oaeia
iniiaaiea aeieaeii auoue iaeaeaii a naiii ?acoia, oi/iaa, a aai
aioo?aiiai ia?aienoi/ieea – a naiiniciaiee. “Iuneth, neaaeiaaoaeueii,
nouanoaoth” – aio naiia aeinoiaa?iia ec anao noaeaeaiee. Ii, auaeaeaay
yoi noaeaeaiea eae naiia i/aaeaeiia, Aeaea?o, a nouiinoe, eaeao ca
Aaaonoeiii, a iieaieea n aioe/iui neaioeoeeciii oeacaaoei ia
iaaiciiaeiinoue oniiieoueny ii e?aeiae ia?a a nouanoaiaaiee naiiai
niiiaaathuaainy. E yoi ia i?inoi neo/aeiia niaiaaeaiea: ooo neacuaaaony
iauiinoue a iiieiaiee iioieiae/aneie cia/eiinoe “aioo?aiiaai /aeiaaea”.
eioi?ia iieo/aao naia au?aaeaiea a naiiniciaiee. Ia neo/aeii eaoaai?ey
naiiniciaiey, ea?athuay oeaio?aeueioth ?ieue, a iiaie oeeinioee, a
nouiinoe, auea iaciaeiia aioe/iinoe: cia/eiinoue niciaiey – i?iaeoeo
o?enoeaineie oeeaeeecaoeee. E aeaenoaeoaeueii. /oiau noaeaeaiea “iuneth,
neaaeiaaoaeueii, nouanoaoth” i?eia?aei cia/aiea enoiaeiiai iieiaeaiey
oeeinioee, iaiaoiaeeiu. ii e?aeiae ia?a, aeaa aeiiouaiey. Ai-ia?auo.
ainoiaeyuaa e aioe/iinoe (i?aaeaea anaai e ieaoiiecio) oaaaeaeaiea a
iioieiae/aneii i?aainoiaenoaa oiiiinoeaaaiiai ie?a iaae /oanoaaiiui, eai
niiiaieth o Aeaea?oa iiaeaa?aaaony i?aaeaea anaai ie? /oanoaaiiue.
aeeth/ay iaai, caieth e aeaaea nianoaaiiia oaei. Ai-aoi?uo, /oaeaeia a
oaeie ia?a aioe/iinoe e ?iaeaeaiiia o?enoeainoaii niciaiea aunieie
oeaiiinoe “aioo?aiiaai /aeiaaea”, /aeiaa/aneie ee/iinoe, ioeeaoaany
iicaeiaa a eaoaai?eth “ss”. A iniiao oeeinioee iiaiai a?aiaie, oaeei
ia?acii, Aeaea?o iieiaeee ia i?inoi i?eioeei iuoeaiey eae iauaeoeaiiai
i?ioeanna, eaeei aue aioe/iue Eiain, a eiaiii noauaeoeaii ia?aaeeaaaiue
e niciaaaaiue i?ioeann iuoeaiey, oaeie, io eioi?iai iaaiciiaeii
ioaeaeeoue, iuneyuaai. “…Iaeaii,- ieoao Aeaea?o, iieaaaoue
ianouanoaothuei oi, /oi iuneeo, a oi a?aiy, iiea iii iuneeo…”

Iaeiaei anoue e na?ueaciia ?acee/ea iaaeaeo ea?oaceaineie e
aaaonoeieaineie o?aeoiaeaie naiiniciaiey. Aeaea?o enoiaeeo ec
naiiniciaiey eae iaeioi?ie /enoi noauaeoeaiie aeinoiaa?iinoe,
?anniao?eaay i?e yoii noauaeo aiinaieiae/anee, oi anoue eae oi, /oi
i?ioeainoieo iauaeoo. ?anuaieaiea anae aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe ia noauaeo e
iauaeo – aio oi i?eioeeieaeueii iiaia, /aai a oaeii aniaeoa ia ciaea ie
aioe/iay, ie n?aaeiaaaeiaay oeeinioey. I?ioeaiiinoaaeaiea noauaeoa
iauaeoo oa?aeoa?ii ia oieueei aeey ?aoeeiiaeecia, ii e aeey yiie?ecia
XVII aaea. Aeaaiaea?y yoiio i?ioeaiiinoaaeaieth aiinaieiaey, oi anoue
o/aiea i ciaiee, auaeaeaaaony ia ia?aue ieai a XVII aaea, oioy, eae iu
ioia/aee, naycue ni noa?ie iioieiaeae ia auea iieiinoueth oo?a/aia.

N i?ioeaiiinoaaeaieai noauaeoa iauaeoo naycaiu o Aeaea?oa iienee
aeinoiaa?iinoe ciaiey a naiii noauaeoa, a aai naiiniciaiee. E ooo iu
aeaeei aua iaeei ioieo, ioee/athuee Aeaea?oa io Aaaonoeia. O?aioeocneee
iuneeoaeue n/eoaao naiiniciaiea (“iuneth, neaaeiaaoaeueii, nouanoaoth”)
oie oi/eie, ioi?aaeyynue io eioi?ie e iniiauaaynue ia eioi?ie iiaeii
aicaeaeaiooue ana inoaeueiia ciaiea. “ss iuneth”, oaeei ia?acii, anoue
eae au oa aaniethoii aeinoiaa?iay aeneiia, ec eioi?ie aeieaeii au?anoe
ana caeaiea iaoee. iiaeiaii oiio eae ec iaaieueoiai /enea aeneii e
iinooeaoia auaiaeyony ana iieiaeaiey aaeeeaeiaie aaiiao?ee.

Aiaeiaey n aaiiao?eae caeanue aiana ia neo/aeia. Aeey ?aoeeiiaeecia XVII
aaea, aeeth/ay Aeaea?oa, Iaeuea?aoia, Nieiico, Eaeaieoea, iaoaiaoeea
yaeyaony ia?acoeii no?iaiai e oi/iiai ciaiey, eioi?iio aeieaeia
iiae?aaeaoue e oeeinioey, anee iia oi/ao auoue iaoeie. A /oi oeeinioey
aeieaeia auoue iaoeie, e i?eoii naiie aeinoiaa?iie ec iaoe, a yoii o
aieueoeinoaa oeeinioia oie yiioe ia auei niiiaiey. *oi eanaaony
Aeaea?oa, oi ii nai aue auaeathueiny iaoaiaoeeii, nicaeaoaeai
aiaeeoe/aneie aaiiao?ee. E ia neo/aeii eiaiii Aeaea?oo i?eiaaeeaaeeo
eaeay nicaeaiey aaeeiiai iao/iiai iaoiaea, eioi?ue o iaai iineo iacaaiea
“oieaa?naeueiie iaoaiaoeee” e n iiiiuueth eioi?iai Aeaea?o n/eoaao
aiciiaeiui iino?ieoue nenoaio iaoee, iiaouae iaania/eoue /aeiaaeo
ainiiaenoai iaae i?e?iaeie. A /oi eiaiii ainiiaenoai iaae i?e?iaeie
yaeyaony eiia/iie oeaeueth iao/iiai iiciaiey, a yoii Aeaea?o aiieia
niaeanai n Ayeiiii.

Iaoiae, eae aai iiieiaao Aeaea?o, aeieaeai i?aa?aoeoue iiciaiea a
i?aaieciaaiioth aeayoaeueiinoue, inaiaiaeea aai io neo/aeiinoe, io oaeeo
noauaeoeaiuo oaeoi?ia, eae iaaethaeaoaeueiinoue eee ino?ue oi, n iaeiie
noi?iiu, oaea/a e n/anoeeaia noa/aiea ianoiyoaeuenoa, n ae?oaie. Ia?acii
aiai?y, iaoiae i?aa?auaao iao/iia iiciaiea ec eonoa?iiai i?iiunea a
i?iiuoeaiiinoue, ec nii?aaee/aneiai e neo/aeiiai iaia?oaeaiey enoei – a
nenoaiaoe/aneia e ieaiiia?iia eo i?iecaiaenoai. Iaoiae iicaieyao iaoea
i?eaioe?iaaoueny ia ia ioaeaeueiua ioe?uoey, a eaeoe, oae neacaoue.
“nieioiui o?iioii”, ia inoaaeyy eaeoi eee i?iiouaiiuo caaiueaa. Iao/iia
ciaiea, eae aai i?aaeaeaeeo Aeaea?o, yoi ia ioaeaeueiua ioe?uoey,
niaaeeiyaiua iinoaiaiii a iaeioi?oth iauoth ea?oeio i?e?iaeu, a
nicaeaiea anaiauae iiiyoeeiie naoee, a eioi?ie oaea ia i?aaenoaaeyao
ieeaeiai o?oaea caiieieoue ioaeaeueiua y/aeee. oi anoue iaia?oaeeoue
ioaeaeueiua enoeiu. I?ioeann iiciaiey i?aa?auaaony a naiaai ?iaea
iioi/ioth eeieth, a a iineaaeiae, eae ecaanoii, aeaaiia –
iai?a?uaiinoue. Aio ii/aio iai?a?uaiinoue – iaeei ec aaaeiaeoeo
i?eioeeiia iaoiaea Aeaea?oa.

Niaeanii Aeaea?oo, iaoaiaoeea aeieaeia noaoue aeaaiui n?aaenoaii
iiciaiey i?e?iaeu, eai naii iiiyoea i?e?iaeu Aeaea?o nouanoaaiii
i?aia?aciaae, inoaaea a iai oieueei oa naienoaa, eioi?ua ninoaaeytho
i?aaeiao iaoaiaoeee: i?ioyaeaiea (aaee/eio), oeao?o e aeaeaeaiea. *oiau
iiiyoue, eaeei ia?acii Aeaea?o aeae iiaoth o?aeoiaeo i?e?iaeu-
?anniio?ei iniaaiiinoe ea?oaceaineie iaoaoeceee.

Oeaio?aeueiui iiiyoeai ?aoeeiiaeenoe/aneie iaoaoeceee yaeyaony iiiyoea
noanoaioeee, ei?ie eioi?iai eaaeao a aioe/iie iioieiaee.

Aeaea?o ii?aaeaeyao noanoaioeeth eae aauue (iiae “aauueth” a yoio
ia?eiae iiieiaee ia yiie?e/anee aeaiiue i?aaeiao, ia oece/aneoth aauue,
a anyeia nouaa aiiaua) , eioi?ay ia ioaeaeaaony aeey naiaai
nouanoaiaaiey ie a /ai, e?iia naiie naay. Anee no?iai enoiaeeoue ec
yoiai ii?aaeaeaiey, oi noanoaioeeae, ii Aeaea?oo, yaeyaony oieueei Aia,
a e nioai?aiiiio ie?o yoi iiiyoea iiaeii i?eiaieoue eeoue oneiaii, n
oeaeueth ioee/eoue n?aaee nioai?aiiuo aauae oa, eioi?ua aeey naiaai
nouanoaiaaiey ioaeaeathony “eeoue a iau/iii niaeaenoaee Aiaa”, io oao,
eioi?ua aeey yoiai ioaeaeathony a niaeaenoaee ae?oaeo oai?aiee, a iioiio
iinyo iacaaiea ea/anoa e ao?eaooia, a ia noanoaioeee.

Nioai?aiiue ie? Aeaea?o aeaeeo ia aeaa ?iaea noanoaioeee – aeooiaiua e
iaoa?eaeueiua. Aeaaiia ii?aaeaeaiea aeooiaiie noanoaioeee – aa
iaaeaeeiinoue, aaaeiaeoee i?eciae iaoa?eaeueiie – aeaeeiinoue aei
aaneiia/iinoe. Caeanue Aeaea?o, eae iao?oaeii oaeaeaoue, aini?iecaiaeeo
aioe/iia iiieiaiea aeooiaiiai e iaoa?eaeueiiai ia/ae, iiieiaiea, eioi?ia
a iniiaiii oianeaaeiaaei e n?aaeiaaaeiauea. Oaeei ia?acii, iniiaiua
ao?eaoou noanoaioeee – yoi iuoeaiea e i?ioyaeaiea, inoaeueiua eo
ao?eaoou i?iecaiaeiu io yoeo ia?auo: aiia?aaeaiea, /oanoai, aeaeaiea –
iiaeonu iuoeaiey: oeao?a, iieiaeaiea, aeaeaeaiea – iiaeonu i?ioyaeaiey.

Iaiaoa?eaeueiay noanoaioeey eiaao a naaa, niaeanii Aeaea?oo, eaeae,
eioi?ua i?enoue ae ecia/aeueii, a ia i?eia?aoaiu a iiuoa, a iioiio a
XVII aaea eo iacuaaee a?iaeaeaiiuie. A o/aiee i a?iaeaeaiiuo eaeayo
ii-iiaiio auei ?acaeoi ieaoiiianeia iieiaeaiea ia enoeiiii ciaiee eae
i?eiiieiaiee oiai, /oi caia/aoeaeinue a aeooa, eiaaea iia i?aauaaea a
ie?a eaeae. E a?iaeaeaiiui Aeaea?o ioiinee eaeath Aiaa eae nouanoaa
ananiaa?oaiiiai, caoai – eaeae /enae e oeao?, a oaeaea iaeioi?ua iauea
iiiyoey, eae, iai?eia?, ecaanoioth aeneiio: “anee e ?aaiui aaee/eiai
i?eaaaeoue ?aaiua, oi iieo/aaiua i?e yoii eoiae aoaeoo ?aaiu iaaeaeo
niaie”, eee iieiaeaiea “ec ie/aai ie/aai ia i?ienoiaeeo”. Yoe eaeae e
enoeiu ?anniao?eaathony Aeaea?oii eae aiieiuaiea anoanoaaiiiai naaoa
?acoia.

N XVII aaea ia/eiaaony aeeeoaeueiay iieaieea aie?oa aii?ina i niiniaa
nouanoaiaaiey, i oa?aeoa?a e enoi/ieeao yoeo naiuo a?iaeaeaiiuo eaeae.
A?iaeaeaiiua eaeae ?anniao?eaaeenue ?aoeeiiaeenoaie XVII aaea a ea/anoaa
oneiaey aiciiaeiinoe anaiauaai e iaiaoiaeeiiai ciaiey, oi anoue iaoee e
iao/iie oeeinioee.

*oi aea eanaaony iaoa?eaeueiie noanoaioeee, aeaaiui ao?eaooii eioi?ie
yaeyaony i?ioyaeaiea, oi aa Aeaea?o ioiaeaeanoaeyao n i?e?iaeie, a
iioiio n iieiui iniiaaieai cayaeyao, /oi ana a i?e?iaea iiae/eiyaony
/enoi iaoaie/aneei caeiiai, eioi?ua iiaoo auoue ioe?uou n iiiiuueth
iaoaiaoe/aneie iaoee – iaoaieee. Ec i?e?iaeu Aeaea?o, oae aea eae e
Aaeeeae, iieiinoueth ecaiiyao iiiyoea oeaee, ia eioi?ii iniiauaaeanue
a?enoioaeaaneay oeceea, a oaeaea einiieiaey e niioaaonoaaiii iiiyoey
aeooe e aeecie. oeaio?aeueiua a iaoo?oeeinioee yiioe Aic?iaeaeaiey.
Eiaiii a XVII aaea oi?ie?oaony oa iaoaienoe/aneay ea?oeia ie?a. eioi?ay
ninoaaeyea iniiao anoanoaiciaiey e oeeinioee aieioue aei ia/aea XIX
aaea.

Aeoaeeci noanoaioeee iicaieyao, oaeei ia?acii. Aeaea?oo nicaeaoue
iaoa?eaeenoe/aneoth oeceeo eae o/aiea i i?ioyaeaiiie noanoaioeee e
ia?aaeenoe/aneoth ineoieiaeth eae o/aiea i noanoaioeee iuneyuae.
Naycothuei caaiii iaaeaeo ieie ieacuaaaony o Aeaea?oa Aia, eioi?ue
aiineo a i?e?iaeo aeaeaeaiea e iaania/eaaao eiaa?eaioiinoue anao aa
caeiiia.

Aeaea?o ieacaeny iaeiei ec oai?oeia eeanne/aneie iaoaieee. Ioiaeaeanoaea
i?e?iaeo n i?ioyaeaieai, ii nicaeae oai?aoe/aneee ooiaeaiaio aeey oao
eaeaaeecaoeee, eioi?uie iieueciaaeny Aaeeeae, ia noiaaoee aua
iauynieoue, ia eaeii iniiaaiee iu iiaeai i?eiaiyoue iaoaiaoeeo aeey
eco/aiey i?e?iaeiuo yaeaiee. Aei Aeaea?oa ieeoi ia ioaaaeeeny
ioiaeaeanoaeoue i?e?iaeo n i?ioyaeaieai, oi anoue n /enoui eiee/anoaii.
Ia neo/aeii eiaiii Aeaea?oii a iaeaieaa /enoii aeaea auei nicaeaii
i?aaenoaaeaiea i i?e?iaea eae i aeaaioneie iaoaie/aneie nenoaia,
i?eaiaeeiie a aeaeaeaiea aiaeanoaaiiui “oie/eii”. Oaeei ia?acii, iaoiae
Aeaea?oa ieacaeny i?aaie/anee naycaiiui n aai iaoaoeceeie.

15.2 Ea/anoai, eiee/anoai, ia?a, nea/ie. Aeeaeaeoeea eiee/anoaaiiuo e
ea/anoaaiiuo eciaiaiee a i?ioeanna ?acaeoey.

A caeiia acaeiiia?aoiaea eiee/anoaa e ea/anoaa au?aaeai caeii
io?eoeaiey. Aeey ethaiai i?aaeiaoa aaeeinoai anao oeiia ii?aaeaeyaony
eae ea/anoai (aioo?aiiyy oa?aeoa?enoeea) e eiee/anoai (aiaoiyy).
Ea/anoai niaieoiiinoue oaeeo naienoa, ioeac io eioi?uo i?eaaaeao e
eiioeo nouanoaiaaiey aaue (yoe naienoaa yaeythony iaiaoiaeeiinoueth
nouanoaiaaiey aaue). Ea/anoai naycaii n oeaeinoiinoueth aaue. Nouanoaoao
ia ea/anoai, a aauue, iaeaaeathuay ea/anoaii (Aaaaeue). Aauue iaeaaeaao
iiiaeie ea/anoaaie (Yiaaeuen). Eiee/anoai – noaiaiue ?acaeoinoe aeaiiiai
ea/anoaa. Oa?aeoa?ecoao oaiiu, nei?inoue i?ioaeaiey i?ioeannia. Ethaoth
eiee/anoaaiioth ii?aaeaeaiiinoue iiaeii au?aceoue /eneii. Iao aaue,
eioi?ay au eiaea ea/anoaaiioth ii?aaeaeaiiinoue e ia eiaea
eiee/anoaaiiie e iaiai?io. Ia?a acaeiinaycue ea/anoaa e eiee/anoaa.
Aiaea nio?aiyao ea/anoaaiioth ii?aaeaeaiiinoue (aeeaeeinoue) io 0 aei
100. Auoiae ca a?aieoeu ia?u (ii?aaeaeaiiua ia?aie/aiey, a i?aaeaeao
eioi?ie nouanoaoao aeaiiay ii?aaeaeaiiinoue aaue) i?eaiaeeo e eiioeo
nouanoaiaaiey aaue. Eae i?ienoiaeyo eiee/anoaaiiua eciaiaiey ? Iie
iai?a?uaiu, yaiethoeeiiiu e ana i?ienoiaeyo a i?aaeaeao aeaiiiai
ea/anoaa. Ea/anoai ia?ooaaony auoiaeii ca i?aaeaeu ia?u. Yoi i?eaiaeeo e
iiiyoeth nea/ea.

Nea/ie -i?ioeann ?acaeeaeaiey i?ioeai?a/ee eee oi?ia ia?aoiaea ec
iaeiiai ea/anoaaiiiai ninoiyiey a ae?oaia.

Ea/anoaaiiua eciaiaiey iiaoo i?ienoiaeeoue oieueei iin?aaenoaii nea/ea
(eioi?ue iiaeao i?ienoiaeeoue aeinoaoi/ii aeeeoaeueiia a?aiy) Aaaaeue :
ea/anoaaiiua eciaiaiey eiatho 2 aeaea

1) i?aaeiaoa ia auei e ii iiyaeeny;

2) i?aaeiao aue e ii en/acaao;

Oeiu nea/eia :

1) A?aieoea ia?u /aoei ii?aaeaeaia e ia?aoiae i?ienoiaeeo aeinoaoi/ii
auno?i ac?uau.

A?aieoeu ?aciacaiu, ii oai ia iaiaa yoi nea/ie. Aeey iienaiey i?ioeannia
a i?e?iaea aeinoaoi/ii iiiyoey yaiethoeeiiiuo nea/eia.

?aaiethoeey – oa?iei, aaaaeaiiue aeey iauyniaiey eciaiaiee a iauanoaa.

Yaiethoeey ?yae nea/eia a i?aaeaeao noa?iai ea/anoaa

Ia yaiethoeee aiai?eony a 2 niuneao: Yaiethoeey aauanoaa ai anai –
i?ioeann ?acaeoey. Iaaeeaiiua, eiee/anoaaiiua eciaiaiey.

No?oeoo?a ee/iinoe. Iooe e niiniau oi?ie?iaaiey oai?/aneie ee/iinoe

Anee iiiyoea eiaeeaeaeoaeueiinoe iiaeaiaeeo aeayoaeueiinoue /aeiaaea
iiae ia?o naiaia?acey e iaiiaoi?eiinoe, iiiainoi?iiiinoe e
aa?iiie/iinoe, anoanoaaiiinoe e iai?eioaeaeaiiinoe, oi iiiyoea ee/iinoe
iiae/a?eeaaao a iae niciaoaeueii-aieaaia ia/aei. Eiaeeaeae oai aieueoa
caneoaeeaaao i?aaa iacuaaoueny ee/iinoueth, /ai yniaa iniciaao iioeau
naiaai iiaaaeaiey e /ai no?iaea aai eiio?iee?oao, iiae/eiyy aaeeiie
aeeciaiiie no?aoaaee. Neiai “ee/iinoue” “persona” ia?aiia/aeueii
iaicia/aei ianeo, eioi?oth iaaeaaae aeoa? e aioe/iii oaao?a (n?aaie:
?onneia “ee/eia”). Caoai iii noaei icia/aoue naiiai aeoa?a e aai ?ieue
(ia?niiaae). O ?eieyi neiai “persona”oiio?aaeyeinue ia eia/a, eae n
oeacaieai ii?aaeaeaiiie nioeeaeueiie ooieoeee, ?iee, aiieoa (ee/iinoue
iooea, ee/iinoue oea?y, noaeuee, iaaeieoaey e o. ae.). I?aa?aoeaoenue a
oa?iei, a iauaa au?aaeaiea, neiai “ee/iinoue” nouanoaaiii eciaieei naie
niune e aeaaea noaei au?aaeaoue ia/oi ia?aoiia oiio, /oi ?acoiaee iiae
iei a ae?aaiinoe. Ee/iinoue – yoi /aeiaae, eioi?ue ia ea?aao aua?aiioth
ei ?ieue, ia yaeyaony ie a eaeii niunea “eeoeaaeaai”. Nioeeaeueiay ?ieue
(neaaeai, ?ieue ?aaiethoeeiia?a, enneaaeiaaoaey, ooaeiaeieea, o/eoaey,
iooea) i?eieiaaony ei aaniethoii ana?ueac, ii aiceaaaaoa ia naay eae
ienneth, eae e?ano -naiaiaeii, ii n aioiaiinoueth ianoe anth iieiioo
naycaiiie n yoie ?ieueth ioaaonoaaiiinoe. Iiiyoea ee/iinoe eiaao niune
eeoue a nenoaia iauanoaaiiuo ioiioaiee, eeoue oai, aaea iiaeii aiai?eoue
i nioeeaeueiie ?iee e niaieoiiinoe ?ieae. I?e yoii, iaeiaei, iii
i?aaeiieaaaao ia naiaia?acea e iiiaiia?acea iineaaeieo, a i?aaeaea anaai
niaoeeoe/aneia iiieiaiea eiaeeaeaeii naiae ?iee, aioo?aiiaa ioiioaiea
eiae, naiaiaeiia e caeioa?aniaaiiia (eee iaiai?io – auioaeaeaiiia e
oi?iaeueiia) aa eniieiaiea. *aeiaae eae eiaeeaeaeoaeueiinoue au?aaeaao
naay a i?iaeoeoeaiuo aeaenoaeyo, e iinooiee aai eioa?anotho ian eeoue a
oie ia?a, a eaeie iie iieo/atho i?aaie/iia i?aaeiaoiia aiieiuaiea. I
ee/iinoe iiaeii neacaoue ia?aoiia: a iae eioa?aniu eiaiii iinooiee. Naie
naa?oaiey ee/iinoe (iai?eia?, o?oaeiaua aeinoeaeaiey, ioe?uoey,
oai?/aneea oniaoe)enoieeiauaathony iaie i?aaeaea anaai a ea/anoaa
iinooieia, oi anoue i?aaeiaia?aiiuo, i?iecaieueiuo iiaaaeai/aneeo aeoia.
Ee/iinoue – yoi eieoeeaoi? iineaaeiaaoaeueiiai ?yaea aeeciaiiuo niauoee,
eee, eae oi/ii ii?aaeaeee I.I. Aaooei, “noauaeo iinooiaiey”.
Aeinoieinoai ee/iinoe ii?aaeaeyaony ia noieueei oai, iiiai ee /aeiaaeo
oaeaeinue, ninoiyeny ii eee ia ninoiyeny ,neieueei oai, /oi ii acye iiae
naith ioaaonoaaiiinoue, /oi ii nai naaa aiaiyao. Aiaiyaiinoue iau/ii
aini?eieiaaony eae ia neeoeii i?eyoiia neiai. (Eiaaea ian aeaeao
iaeacaiea ca i?inooiie, iai anaaaea oi/aony auaeyaeaoue “oioue iaiiiai
iaaiaiyaiuie”, iaeoe aiciiaeiinoue nineaoueny ia noa/aiea
ianoiyoaeuenoa, ia ?annayiiinoue eee iaa?aaeiinoue, ia “ninoiyiea
aooaeoa”.) Ii iao neiaa no?aoiaa iaaiaiyaiinoe. Eiaaea a?a/-ineoeao?
i?ieciineo yoio i?eaiai?, ii aiiaua io?eoeaao ee/iinoue ianeaaeoaiiai e
aianoa n aiciiaeiinoueth aiaieoue a aeio ioieiaao e aiciiaeiinoue
caneoae, cia/eiinoe e aeinoieinoaa. Oaeae iaaiaiyaiuo oaeaniaa anao
iaeacaiee, iaeaaaaiuo ii noaeo, e anao aeeoaeneeo aaaenoaee, eioi?ua
iiaoo auianoue ia aeieth ioaa/athuaai ca naay /aeiaaea, (aniiiiei
ioae?ua neiaa A. N. Iooeeia: Ia aeae iia aia nieoe n oia, Iao, eaa/a
iinio e noia; Iao, eaa/a o?oae e aeaae. Auoue ee/iinoueth o?oaeii. E yoi
ioiineony ia oieueei e aaeeeei, auaeathueiny ee/iinoyi, aiceiaeeaoei ia
naay a?aiy ioaaonoaaiiinoe ca no?aio, ca ia?iae, ca iieeoe/aneia eee
eioaeeaeooaeueiia aeaeaeaiea, yoi ioiineony ei anyeie ee/iinoe, e
ee/iinoe aiiaua. Aaaeue aeaaea naiay ne?iiiay ?ieue, anee iia aua?aia
ana?ueac, i?aaeuyaeyao /aeiaaeo oeaeue eiiieaen iaycaiiinoae. Ee/iinoiia
auoea – yoi iai?ae?auathuaany oneeea. Aai iao oai, aaea eiaeeaeae
ioeacuaaaony eaeoe ia ?ene auai?a, iuoaaony oeeiieoueny io iauaeoeaiie
ioeaiee naieo iinooieia e io aaniiuaaeiiai aiaeeca eo aioo?aiieo
iioeaia. Ii e ia auoue ee/iinoueth iaeaaei, eee, anee au?aceoueny
oi/iaa, ianeaaeei. A ?aaeueiie nenoaia iauanoaaiiuo ioiioaiee oeeiiaiea
io naiinoiyoaeueiiai ?aoaiey e ioaaonoaaiiinoe ?aaiineeueii i?eciaieth
naiae ee/iinoiie ia?acaeoinoe e niaeaneth ia iiaeiia/iia nouanoaiaaiea,
ia iaei/iue ia/aeuenoaaiii-ath?ie?aoe/aneee iaaeci?. Ca aeaoeoeeo
niciaoaeueii-aieaaiai ia/aea a iiaaaeaiee ethaeyi i?eoiaeeony
?aniea/eaaoueny anaie aaaenoaeyie eiiaiaeii-aaeieieno?aoeaiiai
oi?aaeaiey. E yoi oaea ia aiai?y i oii, /oi nai eiaeeaeae, no?aaeathuee
oaeei aeaoeoeeoii, iau/ii aeioiaeeo aei aeaeeiai ninoiyiey: aiaaeaao a
eaiue, eiioiiae?eth, ia/oaoaeueiinoue e caaenoeeainoue.

16.1 Aiaeeeneee iaoa?eaeeci 17 a. Iaoa?eaeenoe/aneee nainoaeeci A.
Aiaana, Aeae. Eieea.

Iaoa?eaeeci – iaeii ec aeaaiuo oeeinioneeo iai?aaeaiee; i?eciaao
iauaeoeaiinoue, ia?ae/iinoue, ianioai?eiinoue e iaoie/oiaeeiinoue
iaoa?ee, nouanoaothuee aia e iacaaeneii io niciaiey e aunooiathuae
ia?aiiniiaie aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe. Eae eaeaeiia oa/aiea iaoa?eaeeci
iiiaia?aiai:

– iaeaiue iaoa?eaeeci (Aeaiie?ao, Yieeo?);

– aoeueaa?iue (Oiao, Athoia?), aio?iiieia (Oaea?aao, *a?iuoaaneee);

– iaoaoece/aneea (Ayeii, Aiaan, Eiee).

Eae aeaeii aeey iaoaoece/aneiai iaoa?eaeecia oa?aeoa?iu 2 onoaiiaee:

?anniio?aiea i?e?iaeu eae iaiin?aaenoaaiiiai aeaiiiai, anaaaea ?iaiiai
naaa, ia?acaeaathuaainy oeaeiai, a?auathuaany a iaeieo e oao aea aa/iuo
e?oaao;

nicaeaiea anaiauaiethuae nenoaiu ciaiey, oeene?othuae enoeio eae au a
ieii/aoaeueiii e caaa?oaiiii aeaea.

Nainoaeeci – iai?aaeaiea a oai?ee iiciaiey, niaeanii eioi?iio
/oanoaaiiinoue yaeyaony aeaaiie oi?iie aeinoiaa?iiai iiciaiey.
Nainoaeeci no?aieony auaanoe ana niaea?aeaiea iiciaiey ec aeayoaeueiinoe
i?aaiia /oanoa. Iaoa?eaeenoe/aneee nainoaeeci oniao?eaaao a /oanoaaiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe /aeiaaea naycue aai niciaiey n aiaoiei ie?ii, a a
iieacaieyo aai i?aaiia /oanoa – io?aaeaiea yoiai ie?a.

Aeaeiuie i?aaenoaaeoaeyie iaoa?eaeenoe/aneiai nainoaeecia a 17 a
yaeyeenue Aiaan e Eiee.

Iniiaiua iieiaeaiey Aiaana (Aiaan nenoaiaoece?iaae Ayeiiianeee
iaoa?eaeeci):

Aiaan eiie?aoece?iaae iiiyoea iaoa?ee. Ii aieueoa iia?e?iaae n iiiyoeai
oi?iu, /ai n iiiyoeai iaoa?ee. Aeaeaeaiea – ao?eaoo nouanoaiaaiey
iaoa?ee.

Ii ia?aui aeae e?eoeeo n?aaeiaaaeiaiio i?iaeaeaioeeaeeci (ana enoiaeeo
io aiaa). Inoaeueiua oeeiniou ia iiaee aeaoue oaeoth e?eoeeo. Yoio
i?iaeaeaioeeaeeci anoue i?iaeoeo oaioanoe/aneiai io?aaeaiey oao
?aaeueiinoae, eioi?ua anoue a ie?a. Aia anoue auiunae. Ii anoue i?iaeoeo
oaioanoe/aneiai i?aaenoaaeaiey a?aiaie. I?e?iaea aeaeaeaony e
?acaeaaaony naii. (Eaeay naiioaaaeaiey).

AEeciue aicieeea a ?acoeueoaoa iauanoaaiiiai aeiaiai?a. Anoanoaaiii
ninoiyiea – yiioa aieiu ni anaie, iiyoiio ethaee aeieaeiu auee aeeoue ia
iniiaa aeiaiai?a.

Iiia?oey – aunoay oi?ia ainoaea?noaaiiinoe.

O/aiea i ainoaea?noaa:

a) ainoaea?noai iaiaoiaeeii /aeiaaeo aeey ?aaeecaoeee naieo
iio?aaiinoae. Ioaeaea iao/eea ethaeae ?acee/iui ?aianeai e iaoeai;

a) ?acaeoea iauanoaa inouanoaeyaony aac aiaoaoaeuenoaa aiaa e iineo
anoanoaaiiue oa?aeoa?.

Aiaan i?eciaao ia?aiaiu, eaoaeeeciu, aucaaiiua iai?aaeeueiui oi?aaeaieai
iauanoaii. Eciaiaiey aicieeatho iiae aeeyieai /aeiaa/aneeo iio?aaiinoae.

Eiee: Eiee, enoiaey ec iniiaiuo iieiaeaiee nainoaeecia i?aaei?eiya
iiiuoeo auaanoe ec /oanoaaiiiai iiuoa ana niaea?aeaiea /aeiaa/aneiai
niciaiey, oioy e aeiioneae, /oi oio i?enoua niiioaiiay neea, ia
caaenyuay io iiuoa. Ii Eieeo, ia?ae/iua oaeoi?u – yoi oaei, iaoa?ey e o.
ae., a aoi?e/iua oaeoi?u – oeaao, aeon, caiao, oa?aeoa?enoeee
aini?eieiathuaainy noauaeoa.

Naiaiaea – iaiouaieaiay oa?aeoa?enoeea iauanoaa.

I?aai ia aeeciue;

i?aai ia nianoaaiiinoue;

i?aai ia naiaiaeo.

Niaeanii Eieeo, ia nouanoaoao a?iaeaeaiiuo eaeae e i?eioeeiia – ie
oai?aoe/aneeo, ie i?aeoe/aneeo (i?aanoaaiiuo), aeeth/ay eaeath Aiaa, a
ana /aeiaa/aneea ciaiey i?ienoaeaao ec iiuoa – aiaoiaai (iuouaiea) e
aioo?aiiaai (?aoeaena). A iniiaa ciaiey eaaeao i?inoua eaeae ,
iai?aaeyaiua aicaoaeaeaaiua a oia ?acee/iuie ea/anoaaie oae –
ia?ae/iuie, n eioi?ie yoe eaeae noiaeiu (oeao?a, ieioiinoue), eee
aoi?e/iuie, n eioi?uie eaeae yniua e niooiua, ?aaeueiua e
oaioanoe/aneea.

Eaeae Eieea iieiaeeee ia/aei annioeeaoeaiie ineoieiaee – iai?aaeaiea a
ineoieiaee, a eioi?uo iiiyoea annioeeaoeee ( nayce, ia?acothuaeny i?e
ii?aaeaeaiiuo oneiaeyo iaaeaeo aeaoiy eee aieaa ineoe/aneeie
ia?aciaaieyie – iuouaieyie, aeaeaathueie aeoaie, aini?eyoeyie e o. ae.)
aunooiaei eae aeaaiue iauynieoaeueiue i?eioeei anae ineoe/aneie aeecie.
Eiee i?aaeiieiaeee caeanue, /oi iineieueeo acaeiiaeaenoaea i?aaiecia n
oece/aneei ie?ii niaa?oaaony ii caeiiai iaoaieee, oi e nayce eaeae
aicieeatho ii yoei aea caeiiai.

16.2 Iiiyoea io?eoeaiey. Io?eoeaiea io?eoeaiey eae oa?aeoa?enoeea
iai?aaeaiiinoe e iniiaiuo oac ?acaeoey.

1. Iiiyoea io?eoeaiey – a eiaeea ioeeiiaiey, iai?eciaiey eaeiai –
ieaoaeue iieiaeaiey aauae, nayce. A oai?aoe/aneii ioeeiiaiee io?eoeaiea
yaeyaony ooaa?aeaeaieai ianouanoaiaaiey. A io?eoeaoaeueiii inoaeaeaiee
io?eoeaiea iiaeao auoue iai?aaeaii eee ia ana aai niaea?aeaiea, eee ia
naycue noauaeoa “i?aaeeeaoa; a ycuea io?eoeaiea au?aaeaaony /a?ac neiai
(ia(. Iu iiaeai eaeia-ieaoaeue iieiaeaiea i?eciaoue i?aaeeueiui eee
iai?aaeeueiui, ii auei au ia?acoiiui no?aieoueny aeaeaoue yoi
iaeiia?aiaiii ( caeii i?ioeai?a/ey e caeii eneeth/aiiiai o?aoueaai). N
io?eoeaieai ia naycaii ie iaeii iieiaeeoaeueiia ooaa?aeaeaiea.
Auneacuaaiea “yoio oeaaoie ia aeaaiooaao” eiaao cia/aiea aeaaea oiaaea,
eiaaea oeaaoie aiiaua ia eiaao caiaoa.

2.Io?eoeaiea io?eoeaiey (i.i.) – iaeei ec iniiaiuo caeiiia aeeaeaeoeee.
Aia?aua aue noi?ioee?iaai ia eaeaaeenoe/aneie iniiaa Aaaaeai. Yoio caeii
ii i?eiaiee eeoue e ?acaeoeth iuoeaiey (ciaiey) e e oiio aea i?aa?aoee a
niinia iino?iaiey anae naiae nenoaiu “eneonnoaaiii iiae/eiea aio
i?ioeann iauaeoeaiiai ?acaeoey. A ia?enenoneie oeeinioee niaea?aeaiea
caeiia i.i. ?ane?uaaaony i?aaeaea anaai /a?ac iiiyoea aeeaeaeoe/aneiai
io?eoeaiey, i?enouaai ?acaeoeth i?e?iaeu, iauanoaa e /aeiaa/aneiai
iuoeaiey. Aeeaeaeoe/aneia io?eoeaiea – oaeia i?aia?aciaaiea yaeaiey,
eioi?ia oioy e eeeaeaee?oao aai eae oaeiaia iaeiia?aiaiii ioe?uaaao
i?inoi? aeey aeaeueiaeoaai ?acaeoey. A oiaea ?acaeoey eaaeaeay nooiaiue
ethaiai yaeaiey, aoaeo/e io?eoeaieai i?aaeuaeouae, naia io?eoeaaony
iineaaeothuae. Oaeei ia?acii e aicieeaao aeaieiia io?eoeaiea – i.i.
Iineieueeo ?acaeoea iaoneiaeaii aioo?aiiae i?ioeai?a/eainoueth yaeaiee
(aaeeinoaii e ai?ueaie i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoae ), oi io?eoeaiea aunooiaao
eae i?aa?auaiea eo a naith i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue. I.i., aeeth/athuaa aeaa
ia?aoiaea yaeaiey a naith i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue, iaeaaeaao iniaui
naienoaii, iii ?aaiineeueii ooaa?aeaeaieth. A ?acoeueoaoa i.i.
i?ienoiaeeo eae au aica?auaiea e enoiaeiiio ioieoo, eai ia iiaie nooiaie
iiaoi?yaony iaeioi?ua noi?iiu e iiiaiou enoiaeiiai ninoiyiey. Yoa
noi?iia caeiia i.i. ?ane?uaaaony a ecaanoiuo i?eia?ao Yiaaeuena: ca?ii,
oae oaeiaia, i?ae?auaao naia nouanoaiaaiea, io?eoeaaony, eiaaea
i?i?anoaao; niaieaoaa aai ?anoaiea, nic?aa oiaea io?eoeaaony, aeaaay
aeeciue iiyoue ca?io, ii oaea ae?oaiio, oioy e iiaoi?ythuaio ai iiiaii
enoiaeiia; enoi?ey iauanoaa ia/eiaaony a oneiaeyo iauanoaaiiie
nianoaaiiinoe, eioi?ay caoai io?eoeaaony n aicieeiiaaieai /anoiie
nianoaaiiinoe, eioi?ay caoai a oiaea nioeeaeueiie ?aaiethoeee – iiyoue
iu eiaai enoiaeiue ioieo ?acaeoey, ii, eiia/ii, a nouanoaaiii eciaiaiiii
aeaea.

?acaeoea iao/iie oai?ee, naycaiiia n io?eoeaieai nouanoaothueo
iieiaeaiee e caiaiie eo iiauie, i?aaeeaaaao nio?aiaiea iieiaeeoaeueiiai
niaea?aeaiey ioaa?aaaiiai ciaiey, aeeth/aiiiai aai a oie eee eiie oi?ia
ninoaa iiaie oai?ee. Oae, oai?ey ioiineoaeueiinoe Yeiooaeia, ?ane?uaoay
caeiiu aeaeaeaiey oae ni nei?inoyie, aeeceeie e nei?inoe naaoa,
io?eoeaao eeanne/aneoth iaoaieeo e aianoa n oai aeeth/aao aa a naie
ninoaa eae i?aaeaeueiue neo/ae ( ec o?aaiaiey oai?ee ioiineoaeueiinoe,
iieuecoynue ii?aaeaeaiiuie i?aaeeaie, iiaeii iieo/eoue o?aaiaiey
eeanne/aneie iaoaieee).

*oi eanaaony aeaieiiai io?eoeaiey, oi a iaoea ?acaeoea /anoi i?ienoiaeeo
oaeei ia?acii, /oi i?ioeaiiieiaeiua iieiaeaiey a eiioea eiioeia
neioace?othony. Oae auei, iai?eia?, n i?aaenoaaeaieai i i?e?iaea naaoa:
ei?ioneoey?iay eiioeaioeey naaoa (niaeanii eioi?ie naao i?aaenoaaeyao
niaie iioie /anoeoe) niaiyeanue aieiiaie, iiea iie ia neeeenue a oai?eth
ei?ioneoey?ii-aieiiaie i?e?iaeu iee?i/anoeoe.

Oa?aeoa?ecoao iai?aaeaiea ?acaeoey i?ioeann i?aiaeieaiey.

16.3 Aoaeouaa /aeiaa/anoaa: i?iaiicu e ia?niaeoeau.

*aeiaa/anoai – 1) niaieoiiinoue ethaeae, aeeaoueo ia Caiea;

2) enoi?e/aneay iauiinoue ethaeae, neeaaeuaathuayny a oiaea oi?ie?iaaiey
iauiinoe yeiiiie/aneeo e ae?. naycae iaaeaeo ?acee/iuie no?aiaie,
ia?iaeaie ie?a. A yoii niunea oa?iei “*.” oiio?aaeyaony a iineaaeiaa
a?aiy a nayce n aiaeecii e iieneaie ?aoaiey aeiaaeueiuo i?iaeai
nia?aiaiiinoe, i?aaeaea anaai – i?iaeaiu ie?a e ?aci?oaeaiey, auaeeaaiey
*. ia?aae eeoeii oa?icu oa?iiyaea?iiai oie/oiaeaiey. Aaeeinoaaiii
?acoiiue auoiae – ie?iia ninouanoaiaaiea ainoaea?noa n ?acee/iui
iauanoaaiiui no?iai, aeia?ininaaenoai e nio?oaeie/anoai, oe?ieee iaiai
aeinoeaeaieyie iaoee e oaoieee, oeaiiinoyie eoeueoo?u ia iieueco anao
ia?iaeia.

I?e?iaeiua eaoaeeeciu.

I?iaeaia aieiu e ie?a. Cei niaa?oainoaoaony e i?e ii?aaeaeaiiuo oneiaeyo
ieacuaaaony, ii au?aaeaieth A.Oieiae, Iieioii, iiaee?athuei ana
aieueooth e aieueooth aeieth oaaee/eaathueony i?iaeoeoia /aeiaa/aneie
eiaeono?ee e eioaeeaeoa a i?ioeanna nai?a ana aieueoae iioeeiu n aeecie
e n/anouey.

I?iaeaia caa?yciaiey e enoiuaiey caiania ieaiaou.

I?iaeaia oece/aneiai e i?aanoaaiiiai caei?iauey /aeiaaea.

17.1 Eaeaaeenoe/aneee nainoaeeci Aeae. Aa?eee.

Aa?eee – aiaeeeneee oeeinio, i?aaenoaaeoaeue noauaeoeaiiai ?aaeecia.
Oeeinioneia o/aiea Aa?eee i?iieeiooi no?aieaieai ii?iaa?aiooue
iaoa?eaeeci e aeaoue iainiiaaiea ?aeeaee. Aunooiay n e?eoeeie iiiyoey
iaoa?ee eae aauanoaaiiie iniiau (noanoaioeee) oae, a oaeaea o/aiey
Iuethoiia i i?ino?ainoaa eae aianoeeeua anao i?e?iaeiuo oae e o/aiea
Eieea i i?ienoiaeaeaiee iiiyoee iaoa?ee e i?ino?ainoaa.

Niaeanii Aa?eee, a iniiaa iiiyoey iaoa?ee eaaeeo aeiiouaiea, aoaeoi iu
iiaeai, ioaeaeaynue io /anoiuo naienoa aauae, ia?aciaaoue ioaea/aiioth
eaeath iauaai aeey ieo aauanoaaiiiai noano?aoa. Iaeiaei yoi, ii Aa?eee
iaaiciiaeii: o ian iao e ia iiaeao auoue /oanoaaiiiai aini?eyoey iaoa?ee
eae oaeiaie; iaoa aini?eyoea eaaeaeie aaue ?aceaaaaony aac inoaoea ia
aini?eyoea ecaanoiie noiiu ioaeaeueiuo iuouaiee eee, ii Aa?eee “eaeae”.
A i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue Eieeo Aa?eee ooaa?aeaeae, /oi iao oi iiaeao
ia?aciaaoue iauoth eaeath aauae, ii ia iauoth eaeath iaoa?ee, a eaeiaie
aiiaua ia ioaeaeaaony ie iaoea, ie oeeinioey, eai eaeay iaoa?ee ie/aai
ia i?eaaaeyao e naienoaai aauae naa?o oiai, /oi iiaeao aeaoue
/oanoaaiiia aini?eyoea.

Nainoaeeci – iai?aaeaiea a oai?ee iiciaiey, niaeanii eioi?iio
/oanoaaiiinoue yaeyaony aeaaiie oi?iie aeinoiaa?iiai ciaiey.

Aa?eee aunooiee i?ioea ?acee/aiey ia?ae/iuo e aoi?e/iuo ea/anoa Eieea:
ana ea/anoaa – aoi?e/iua, iineieueeo auoea eo oeaeeeii naiaeeony e
niiniaiinoe auoue aini?eieiaaiui. I?eciaa ioeai/iie eaeath ?acaeaeaiey
ia?ae/iuo e aoi?e/iuo ea/anoa, Aa?eee io?eoeae e iniiaaiioth ia iae
eaeath iaoa?ee “eae noano?aoa, anao iauaeoeaiuo ea/anoa oae. Ioaa?aioa
auoea iaoa?ee, Aa?eee i?eciaaae nouanoaiaaiea oieueei aeooiaiiai auoey,
eioi?ia ii aeaeee ia “eaeae” e “aeooe”. “ Eaeae ” – aini?eieiaaiua iaie
noauaeo. Ea/anoaa – ianneaiu, iai?iecaieueiu; niaea?aeaiea iaoeo
iuouaiee e aini?eyoee niaa?oaiii ia caaeneo io ian. Iai?ioea, “aeooe”
aeayoaeueiu, aeoeaiu, iiaoo auoue i?e/eiie .. Ana “eaeae” nouanoaotho,
ii Aa?eee oieueei a aeooa . “Eaeae” ia iiaoo auoue eiieyie eee
iiaeiaeyie aiaoieo aauae: “eaeay” iiaeao auoue noiaeia oieueei n
“eaeaae”.

Aa?eee ooaa?aeaeae, /oi aini?eieiathuee noauaeo – ia iaeei, e aauue,
eioi?oth ia?anoae aini?eieiaoue iaeei noauaeo, iiaeao aini?eieiaoueny
ae?oaeie noauaeoaie. Ii aeaaea anee au ana noauaeou en/acee, aaue
i?iaeieaeaee au nouanoaiaaoue eae noiia “eaeae” a oia aiaa – noauaeoa,
eioi?ue aa/ii nouanoaoao e “aeeaaeuaaao” a niciaiea ioaeaeueiuo
noauaeoia niaea?aeaiea eo iuouaiee. Oeeinioey Aa?eee, eae iieacae Eaiei
a “Iaoa?eaeecia e yiie?eie?eoeoeecia”, yaeeanue i?iia?acii e iaeiei ec
enoi/ieeia noauaeoeaii- eaeaaeenoe/aneeo oa/aiee a ao?aeoaciie oeeinioee
eiioea 19 – ia/aea 20 a.

17.2 Aeeaeaeoeea eae iaoiae iuoeaiey. Iniiaiua o?aaiaaiey
aeeaeaeoe/aneiai iaoiaea.

Aeeaeaeoeea – oaeia iiieiaiea ie?a e oaeie niinia iuoeaiey, i?e eioi?ii
?acee/iua yaeaiey ?anniao?eaathony a iiiaiia?acee eo naycae,
acaeiiaeaenoaee i?ioeaiiieiaeiuo nee, oaiaeaioeee, a i?ioeannao
eciaiaiey, ?acaeoey.

Caeiiu aeeaeaeoeee:

aaeeinoaa e ai?ueau i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoae

Oiaeaeanoai – yoi oaeie aeae ioiioaiee aaue e naiie naaa naiie e e
ae?oaei aauai, eioi?ue oa?aeoa?ecoaony niaiaaeaieai ae?oa n ae?oaii anao
noi?ii yoiai ioiioaiey.

?acee/ea – yoi oaeie aeae ioiioaiey aaue e naaa naiie e e ae?oaei aauai,
eioi?ue oa?aeoa?ecoaony ianiaiaaeaieai ae?oa n ae?oaii noi?ii yoiai
ioiioaiey.

I?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue – nouanoaaiiay oi?ia ?acee/ey, i?e eioi?ie
eaeea-eeai i?eciaee, naienoaa, oaiaeaioeee, i?enouea iauaeoo eae
nenoaia, a iaeii e oiaea a?aiy e i?aaeiieaaatho, e eneeth/atho
nouanoaiaaiea ae?oa ae?oaa.

I?ioeai?a/ea – yoi nouanoaiaaiea e acaeiiaeaenoaea i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoae,
acyouo a iaeii e oiaea a?aiy, a iaeiii e oii aea ioiioaiee.

acaeiiiai ia?aoiaea eiee/anoaa a ea/anoai

io?eoeaiey io?eoeaiey

Ioiineoaeueii iuoeaiey – aeeaeaeoe/aneee iaoiae ?anniio?aoue ia
eiie?aoiii i?eia?a.

Iuoeaiea – yoi aeoeaiue i?ioeann oeaeaiai?aaeaiiiai, iiin?aaenoaothuaai,
aano?aae?othuaai e iaiauathuaai io?aaeaiey nouanoaaiiuo naienoa e
ioiioaiee aauae e yaeaiee, inouanoaeyaiue a iiiyoeyo, noaeaeaieyo,
oai?eyo e o.ae., a oaeaea i?ioeann oai?/aneiai niceaeaiey iiauo eaeae.

Oi?iu iuoeaiey: iiiyoea, noaeaeaiea, oiicaeeth/aiea.

Ia?en, Yiaaeuen: “…Enoi?ey i?e?iaeu e /aeiaa/aneiai iauanoaa – aio
ioeoaea aano?aae?othony caeiiu aeeaeaeoeee. Iie eae ?ac ia /oi eiia, eae
iaeaieaa iauea caeiiu iaaeo yoeo oac enoi?e/aneiai ?acaeoey, a oaeaea
naiiai iuoeaiey”.

17.3 Oeeinioneia iiiyoea eoeueoo?u

*oi aea oaeia eoeueoo?a a aa oeeinioneii iiieiaiee, oi anoue acyoay a aa
nouanoaaiiuo naycyo, caaeneiinoyo? Ia/iai n oiai, /oi nai oa?iei
“eoeueoo?a” eaoeineiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey e ia?aiia/aeueii icia/ae
aicaeaeuaaiea ii/au, aa “eoeueoeae?iaaiea”, oi anoue eciaiaiea a
i?e?iaeiii iauaeoa iiae aicaeaenoaeai /aeiaaea, aai aeayoaeueiinoe a
ioee/ea io oao eciaiaiee eioi?ua aucaaiu anoanoaaiiuie i?e/eiaie. Oaea a
yoii ia?aiia/aeueiii niaea?aeaiee oa?ieia ycue au?acee i/aiue aaaeioth
iniaaiiinoue eoeueoo?u—caeiaeaiiia a iae /aeiaa/aneia ia/aei,
aeoeaioe?iaaa aieiaiea ia aaeeinoaa eoeueoo?u, /aeiaaea e aai
aeayoaeueiinoe. A aeaeueiaeoai neiai “eoeueoo?a” iieo/eei aieaa
iaiauaiiia cia/aiea e ei noaee iacuaaoue ana nicaeaiiia /aeiaaeii. A
oaeii iiieiaiee eoeueoo?u aeaenoaeoaeueii io?aaeathony aa nouanoaaiiua
/a?ou. Eoeueoo?a i?aaenoaao eae nioai?aiiay /aeiaaeii “aoi?ay i?e?iaea”,
iaaeno?iaiiay iaae i?e?iaeie anoanoaaiiie, eae ie?, nicaeaiiue
/aeiaaeii, a ioee/ea io aeaanoaaiiie i?e?iaeu. Yoei ii?aaeaeaieai
ooaa?aeaeaaony oaeaea i?eioeei, /oi ia neaaeoao eneaoue iniaie “noa?u
eoeueoo?u”. Oai, aaea anoue /aeiaae, aai aeayoaeueiinoue ioiioaiey
iaaeaeo ethaeueie, oai eiaaony e eoeueoo?a. Ioaeii eeoue ?acee/aoue
iaoa?eaeueioth e aeooiaioth eoeueoo?o, i?e yoii ia i?ioeaiiinoaaeyy eo
ae?oa ae?oao. ?acaeaeaiea eoeueoo?u ia iaoa?eaeueioth e aeooiaioth,
iaeia ec eioi?uo yaeyaony i?iaeoeoii iaoa?eaeueiiai, a ae?oaay
aeooiaiiai i?iecaiaenoaa, eaaeaony naiii/aaeaeiui. ssnii e oi, /oi
i?aaeiaou iaoa?eaeueiie e aeooiaiie eoeueoo?u iiaeii eniieueciaaoue ii
?aciiio. I?oaeey o?oaea e i?iecaaaeaiey aeeaiiene neoaeao ?aciui
oeaeyi. Oae /oi ooieoeeiiaeueiia ?acee/ea iaaeaeo iaoa?eaeueiie e
aeooiaiie eoeueoo?ie aeaenoaeoaeueii nouanoaoao. Ii aianoa n oai e oi e
ae?oaia yaeyaony eoeueoo?ie, ianouae a naaa iaoa?eaeueiia e aeooiaiia a
eo aaeeinoaa. A iaoa?eaeueiie eoeueoo?a caeeth/aii oi?ie?othuaa aa
aeooiaiia ia/aei, iineieueeo iia anaaaea anoue aiieiuaiea eaeae, ciaiee,
oeaeae /aeiaaea, /oi oieueei e aeaeaao aa eoeueoo?ie; i?iaeoeou aea
aeooiaiie eoeueoo?u anaaaea iaea/aiu a iaoa?eaeueioth oi?io, eai oieueei
oaeei ia?acii iie iiaoo auoue iauaeoeae?iaaiu e noaoue oaeoii
iauanoaaiiie aeecie. Ana yoi aeaao iniiaaiea aiai?eoue i eoeueoo?a eae
oaeiaie, iacaaeneii io aa aeaeaiey ia iaoa?eaeueioth e aeooiaioth.
Iaoa?eaeenoe/aneee iiaeoiae e eoeueoo?a caeeth/aaony ia a ?acee/aiee
iaoa?eaeueiie e aeooiaiie eoeueoo?u, a a i?eciaiee aa i?aaie/iie nayce n
?acaeoeai anaai iauanoaa. Iaaeinoaoie aea ii?aaeaeaiey eoeueoo?u eae
anaai nicaeaiiiai /aeiaaeii a oii, /oi, ai-ia?auo, eoeueoo?a i?e yoii
iiaeao aini?eieiaoueny iaeiinoi?iiia, eeoue eae ia/oi aiaoiaa /aeiaaeo,
ai-aoi?uo, ia i?iyniyaony i?e?iaea naiie eoeueoo?u, niioiioaiea iauanoaa
e eoeueoo?u. ?acee/ea iauanoaa e eoeueoo?u auyaeyao aa ii?aaeaeaiea eae
niaieoiiinoue nicaeaiiuo /aeiaaeii oeaiiinoae. Ie? eoeueoo?u— yoi aea?
iaoa?eaeueiuo e eaeaaeueiuo, aeooiaiuo oeaiiinoae, oi anoue ie? iauaeoia
iaoa?eaeueiuo e eaeaaeueiuo, acyouo a aai ioiioaiee e /aeiaaeo, ie?,
iaiieiaiiue /aeiaa/aneeie niuneaie. O?aeoiaea eoeueoo?u eae nenoaiu
oeaiiinoae ioa?aie/eaaao eoeueoo?o io i?e?iaeu e iaeiia?aiaiii ia
iicaieyao ioiaeaeanoaeyoue aa n iauanoaii. I?e oaeii iiaeoiaea eoeueoo?a
aunooiaao eae ii?aaeaeaiiue aniaeo iauanoaa, oai naiui i?iyniyaony aa
nioeeaeueiay i?e?iaea, ii aianoa n oai ia nieiaaony e aaaeiay i?iaeaia
niioiioaiey eoeueoo?u e iauanoaa. Iaeiaei i?e o?aeoiaea eoeueoo?u eae
nenoaiu oeaiiinoae iineaaeiyy i?aaenoaao eae niaieoiiinoue aioiauo
?acoeueoaoia /aeiaa/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe, a i?ioeann niceaeaiey
eoeueoo?u, aa aeeiaieee inoaaony aia ?anniio?aiey. E?iia oiai, iiaeiaiia
iiieiaiea eoeueoo?u aua neeoeii iauaa e aeiioneaao ?acee/iua
eioa?i?aoaoeee a caaeneiinoe io oiai, eae iiieiaaony naia oeaiiinoue.
Oae, iaieaioeaioeu, oe?iei eniieueciaaaoea iiiyoea oeaiiinoe, o?aeoiaaee
aa eae ia/oi iaae enoi?e/aneia e ia iiaeeaaeauaa iao/iiio aiaeeco e
iauyniaieth . Aeeaeaeoeei-iaoa?eaeenoe/aneia iiieiaiea oeaiiinoae,
iai?ioea, ia i?ioeaiiinoaaeyao iao/iue e oeaiiinoiue iiaeoiaeu e
iauanoao e eoeueoo?a, naycuaay iineaaeithth ni anae /aeiaa/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoueth, n o?oaeii eae enoi/ieeii eoeueoo?u e aai
?acoeueoaoaie. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, ii?aaeaeyy nouanoai eoeueoo?u, ioaeii
enoiaeeoue ec oiai, /oi ethaia aiaoiaa au?aaeaiea eoeueoo?u anoue
i?iyaeaiea noaiaie ?acaeoey naiiai /aeiaaea. Acyoia iainiaeaiii io
/aeiaaea, iaoa?eaeeciaaiiia “oaei eoeueoo?u” eeoaaony aeeiaieee,
aeaeaeaiey, aeeciaiiinoe. A ?aaeueiay, aeeaay eoeueoo?a iaioaeaeeia io
iauanoaaiiiai /aeiaaea—noauaeoa eoeueoo?u, niioianaiiiai n nicaeaiiui ei
iauaeoiui ie?ii. Nai /aeiaae oi?ie?oao naay a i?ioeanna naiae
aeayoaeueiinoe eae eoeueoo?ii-enoi?e/aneia nouanoai. Aai /aeiaa/aneea
ea/anoaa anoue ?acoeueoao onaiaiey ei ycuea, i?eiauaiey e nouanoaothuei
a iauanoaa oeaiiinoyi, o?aaeeoeeyi, iaeaaeaiey i?enoueie aeaiiie
eoeueoo?a i?eaiaie e iaaueaie aeayoaeueiinoe e o. ae. Aeieiae/anee aea
/aeiaaeo aeaaony eeoue i?aaieci, iaeaaeathuee ii?aaeaeaiiui no?iaieai,
caaeaoeaie, ooieoeeyie. Iiyoiio ia aoaeao i?aoaaee/aieai neacaoue, /oi
eoeueoo?a i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ia?o /aeiaa/aneiai a /aeiaaea,
oa?aeoa?enoeeo ?acaeoey /aeiaaea eae iauanoaaiiiai nouanoaa.
Neaaeiaaoaeueii, eoeueoo?a nouanoaoao a iinoiyiiii acaeiiaeaenoaee
naiaai aiaoiaai iaoa?eaeeciaaiiiai au?aaeaiey n naiei /aeiaaeii. Yoi
acaeiiaeaenoaea ninoieo a oii, /oi /aeiaae onaaeaaao nicaeaiioth ?aiaa
eoeueoo?o, ?ani?aaeia/eaaao aa, aeaeay oai naiui i?aaeiinueeie naiae
aeayoaeueiinoe, e oai?eo eoeueoo?o nicaeaaay iiaia, ii?aaeia/eaay naie
ciaiey e oeaiiinoe, oiaiey e niiniaiinoe, naith ?iaeiaoth /aeiaa/aneoth
nouiinoue. *aeiaae, eiia/ii, aini?eieiaao eoeueoo?o ecae?aoaeueii iiae
aeeyieai i?aaeii/oaiee, ii?aaeaeyaiuo iiiaeie ianoiyoaeuenoaaie. E eeoue
ia iniiaa yoie onaiaiiie ei eoeueoo?u ii ieacuaaaony niiniaiui
?acaeaaoueny aeaeueoa.

18.1 Iniiaiua eaeae oeeinioee Ae.THia. Aaiinoeoeeci Ae.THia.

Aeaaeae THi ?iaeeeny a 1711 a. a Yaeeiao?aa. iieo/ee n?aaieoaeueii
oe?ieia oeeinioneia ia?aciaaiea. Aue aeaeeioaea?ai, iaeioi?ia a?aiy
ninoiye ia ainoaea?noaaiiie aeeieiiaoe/aneie neoaeaa e, iaeiiaoe,
?aaioae a ea/anoaa i?ioanni?a oieaa?neoaoa. Ii?aaeaeaiiia aeeyiea
ieacaee ia iaai aicc?aiey o?aioeocneiai oeeinioa AE.?onni, n eioi?ui ii
ee/ii iiciaeiieeny ai a?aiy iaeiie ec iiacaeie a Ia?eae.

Aai oeeinioey yaeyaony i?aaie/aneei i?iaeieaeaieai eeiee, enoiaeyuae ec
nainoaeecia Eieea. Ai a?aiy naiaai i?aauaaiey ia eiioeiaioa ii
iiciaeiieeny ia oieueei n ea?oaceainoaii, ii e n oeeinioeae Aannaiaee,
Nieiicu e Eaeaieoea, i?iyaee eioa?an e y?ei au?aaeaiiiio noauaeoeaiiio
eaeaaeecio Aa?eee. Oia? a Yaeeiao?aa a 1776 a.

A 1738 a. THi ecaeaao naith ia?aoth oeeinioneoth ?aaioo “O?aeoao i
/aeiaa/aneie i?e?iaea”. Iia eiaao o?e iniiaiua /anoe: “I ?acoia”, “I
no?anoyo” e “I i?aanoaaiiinoe”. E oioy a yoie ?aaioa niaea?aeaony
iniiaiua oeeinioneea i?eioeeiu THia, iia ia iieo/eea a Aiaeee (eae yoi
aiai?eo e nai THi a aaoiaeia?aoee) ieeaeiai ioeeeea. Ii caia/aieth
Aaaaey, THi a oi a?aiy aue aieaa ecaanoai naieie enoi?e/aneeie o?oaeaie,
/ai naieie oeeinioneeie o?aeoaoaie. N?aaee aai enoi?e/aneeo ?aaio
neaaeoao oiiiyiooue “Enoi?eth Aiaeee” (1754), eioi?oth ii ienae a oi
a?aiy, eiaaea ?aaioae aeaeeioaea?ai a Yaeeiao?aa. Aai ioeaiea
?aaiethoeeiiiuo niauoee a Aiaeee a XVII a. aucaaea a oiaaeaoiai
aiaeeeneii iauanoaa aieueoie e?eoe/aneee ?aciiain.

Ec oeeinioneeo o?aeoaoia THia iaeaieaa ecaanoia ?aaioa “Enneaaeiaaiea
/aeiaa/aneiai ?acoia”, eioi?ay auoiaeeo a 1751 a. Iaeiaei oaea ?aiueoa
ii iaienae “?annoaeaeaiea i aii?inao ii?aee e iieeoeee” (1748). Aieueoia
aieiaiea THi oaeaeee e aii?inai ?aeeaee: ii ieoao “Anoanoaaiioth
enoi?eth ?aeeaee” e “?annoaeaeaiey i anoanoaaiiie ?aeeaee”. Aaaeiaeoee
oeeinioneee o?oae THia “Enneaaeiaaiea i /aeiaa/aneii ?acoia”, eae e
aieueoeinoai ?aaio aiaeeeneie oeeinioee Iiaiai a?aiaie, i eioi?uo oaea
oiiieiaeinue, iinayuai i?iaeaiaoeea iiciaiey. A nouiinoe ii i?iaeieaeaao
i?eioeeiu nainoaeecia, ii a ioaaoa ia aii?in i oii, /oi yaeyaony
iiaiaeii eee enoi/ieeii iaoeo iuouaiee, ioee/aaony eae io Eieea, oae e
io Aa?eee. Anee Eiee aeaeeo enoi/iee iaoeo iuouaiee a ?aaeueiinoe, ai
aiaoiai ie?a, a Aa?eee a aeooa, eee aiaa, oi THi ii nooe ioaa?aaao iaa
yoe ?aoaiey. Ii ia i?eieiaao aeiioaco Eieea i nouanoaiaaiee aiaoiaai
ie?a eae enoi/ieea iaoeo iuouaiee, ii ia niaeaoaaony e n iiiuoeie Aa?eee
aeieacaoue, /oi iaoa?ey, o. a. aiaoiee ie?, ia nouanoaoao. Iiceoeey THia
au?aaeaaony i?eia?ii oae: nouanoaoao ee aiaoiee ie?, iaoa?eaeueiay
i?e?iaea eae enoi/iee iaoeo iuouaiee, yoiai aeieacaoue iu ia iiaeai. Iao
?acoi iia?e?oao eeoue n niaea?aeaieai iaoeo iuouaiee,a ia n oai, /oi eo
aucuaaao. Oi, /oi aiaoiee ie? ia nouanoaoao iauaeoeaii (eae ooaa?aeaeaao
Aa?eee), iu oiaea ia iiaeai aeieacaoue”’. Iaoe aini?eyoey oae aea iaei
aiai?yo eae i aai nouanoaiaaiee, oae e i aai ia nouanoaiaaiee. Ec yoiai
THi auaiaeeo, /oi aii?in, iinoaaeaiiue oaeei ia?acii, iaeuecy ?aoeoue
aiiaua, a iioiio aai e ia neaaeoao noaaeoue iiaeiaiui ia?acii. A yoii
ioiioaiee iiceoeeth THia iiaeii oa?aeoa?eciaaoue eae aaiinoeoeeci.

Ana “aeooaaiua aini?eyoey” THi ?acaeaeyao ia aeaa aeaea ii noaiaie neeu
e aeeainoe . Ia?aua aieaa neeueiua ii ii?aaeaeyao oa?ieiii
“aia/aoeaiea”. Yoi aini?eyoey, eioi?ua inouanoaeythony iaiin?aaenoaaiii,
eiaaea iu neuoei, /oanoaoai, aeaeei e o. ae. Aoi?ie aeae ii iacuaaao
“eaeayie” (i?aaenoaaeaieyie). Eo ii n/eoaao iaiaa neeueiuie, iaiaa
aeeauie e oi/iuie. Ioiioaiey iaaeaeo aeaoiy yoeie aeaeaie ?aoathony
aiieia iaeiicia/ii: “Ana iaoe eaeae eee iaiaa neeueiua aini?eyoey
yaeythony eiieyie iaoeo aia/aoeaiee eee aieaa aeeauo aini?eyoee”.

Naie ?annoaeaeaiey ii caeeth/aao: “Iniaethnue ooaa?aeaeaoue eae
anaiauaa caeeth/aiea, eioi?ia ia aeiioneaao eneeth/aiee, /oi iiciaiea
yoiai ioiioaiey ie a eiai neo/aa iaeuecy iieo/eoue noaeaeaieai ?acoia
ai?ei?ee, ii /oi aicieeaao iii ec iiuoa” .

Ia iniiaa yoie i?aaeiinueee ii aiaeece?oao i?ioeann iiuoiiai iiciaiey
ioiioaiee iaaeaeo aauaie. Ii ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi aieueoeinoai iaoeo
noaeaeaiee, iie?athueony ia iiciaiea oaeoia, eae eo iiieiaao Aa?eee,
yaeythony neeueii ia?aie/aiiuie, oioy a ae?oaii ianoa ii ioeaieaaao
Aa?eee eae “aanueia i?iieoeaoaeueiiai iuneeoaey”. Iaaiciiaeiinoue i?e
niiniaa iuoeaiey yoiai oeia i?eeoe e iiciaieth i?e/eiiuo ioiioaiee e
caeiiiia?iinoae aaaeao aai e y?ei au?aaeaiiui neaioe/aneei auaiaeai:
“I?eciaaony, /oi /aeiaa/aneee ?acoi i?eeaaaao e?aeiea oneeey, /oiau i?e
iiiiue aiaeiaee, iaaethaeaiey e iiuoa oi?inoeoue i?eioeeiu, niaeanii
eioi?ui inouanoaeythony yaeaiey i?e?iaeu, e ?aceiaeeoue aieueoaa /enei
ioaeaeueiuo aicaeaenoaee ia ianeieueei iaueo i?e/ei. Iai?anii, iaeiaei,
iu au iuoaeenue yoe iauea i?e/eiu iaeoe, ia oaeanony iai eo aeaaea
oaeiaeaoai?eoaeueii iauynieoue. Yoe iineaaeiea enoi/ieee e i?eioeeiu io
/aeiaa/aneiai ethaiiuonoaa e /aeiaa/aneiai enneaaeiaaiey iaaeaaeii
ne?uou”.

Ana i?e/eiu eee oi, /oi n/eoaaony i?e/eiaie, THi iauyniyao eae
ioiioaiey i?ino?ainoaaiiiai ninouanoaiaaiey e a?aiaiiie
iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe. Ec oiai, /oi aeaa yaeaiey neaaeotho ae?oa ca
ae?oaii, iaeuecy aua auaanoe caeeth/aiea, /oi ia?aia yaeaiea iiaeao
auoue i?e/eiie aoi?iai, a aoi?ia neaaenoaeai ia?aiai. (“?i51 1thn” ia
icia/aao aua “?ai?1aa Uein”. “Iinea” aua ia icia/aao “iioiio”.)

Anee Aa?eee, eae iu oaea aeaeaee, i?e/eiii-neaaenoaaiiua ioiioaiey
eioa?i?aoe?oao a oaieiae/aneii aeooa, oi THi a iieiii niioaaonoaee n
i?eioeeiaie naiaai aaiinoeoeecia i?e/eiiinoue eae oaeiaoth a oeaeii
io?eoeaao. Enoiaey ec naieo noaeaeaiee, ii i?eoiaeeo e neaioe/aneei
aicc?aieyi ia aiciiaeiinoe e niiniaiinoe /aeiaa/aneiai ?acoia aiiaua:
“?acoeueoaoii ana e oeeinioee, n eioi?ui iu ano?a/aainy ia eaaeaeii oaao
ianiio?y ia ana iaoe oneeey ecaaaeaoue aai,

i “?aaeueiuo aauao”, ii ia i?eciaao nouanoaiaaiey i?aaeiaoia aia iaoaai
iiuoa; ii eeoue oi/ao yoei iiae/a?eiooue, /oi i?aaeiaoai, n eioi?uie iu
ano?a/aainy a iiuoa, iu i?eienuaaai aiaoiaa nouanoaiaaiea. “?aaeueiua
aaue” ia?acothony ec iaoeo aia/aoeaiee e aia iiuoa ia nouanoaotho,
iaeiaei iu oaaaeaeaiu a eo nouanoaiaaiee eae a /ai-oi ?aaeueiii,
iacaaeneiii io niciaiey.

THi, a ioee/ea io Aa?eee ia io?eoeaao, nei?aa ooaa?aeaeaao aa?iyoiinoue
oiai, /oi aia iaoaai niciaiey nouanoaoao ?aaeueiinoue, eioi?oth iu
iaeiaei ia ciaai. I?e enneaaeiaaiee ioiioaiee iaaeaeo “eaeayie” iu
i?eoiaeei e ooaa?aeaeaieyi, eioi?ua iieo/aai eeai i?e iiiiue eiooeoeee,
eeai iin?aaenoaii aeieacaoaeuenoaa. Oai?aia eaaae?ao aeiioaiocu ?aaai
eaaae?aoai eaoaoia” au?aaeaao ioiioaiey iaaeaeo noi?iiaie. Oai?aia
“o?eaeaeu iyoue ?aaii iieiaeia o?eaeoeaoe” au?aaeaao ioiioaiey iaaeaeo
yoeie /eneaie. E caeeth/aieyi oaeiai ?iaea iu i?eoiaeei i?e iiiiue eeoue
iaeiiai iuoeaiey iacaaeneii io nouanoaothueo aauae. Enoeiu, aeieacaiiua
Aaeeeaeii, auee au ni?aaaaeeeau e oiaaea, eiaaea a i?e?iaea ia
nouanoaiaaei au ie e?oaa, ie o?aoaieueieea”. Ii nouanoao ?a/ue eaeao i
oaeeo ooaa?aeaeaieyo, eioi?ua a oa?ieiao nia?aiaiiie eiaeee iiaeii
ii?aaeaeeoue eae aiaeeoe/anee eee eiae/anee enoeiiua.

Nouanoaoao e ae?oaie o?iaaiue iiciaiey, naycaiiue “?aaeueiuie aauaie”:
“?aaeueiua aaue ae?oaie i?aaeiao /aeiaa/aneiai ?acoia iiciathony eia/a;
iaoa oaa?aiiinoue a eo enoeia aaeeea, ii ia noieue, eae a ia?aii neo/aa.
Anaaaea aiciiaeia i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue yoie ?aaeueiie aaue, iia aea naia
ia iiaeao niaea?aeaoue i?ioeai?a/ea, e iiaeii eaaei e c?eii
i?aaenoaaeoue aa oae, eae au iia niioaaonoaiaaea aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe.
Oacen, /oi nieioea caao?a ia acieaeao, i?aaenoaaeyaony ia iaiaa iiiyoiui
e niaea?aeeo ia aieaa i?ioeai?a/ey, /ai ooaa?aeaeaiea, /oi iii acieaeao.
Iai?anii au iu iuoaeenue aeieacuaaoue aai iaenoeiiinoue. Yoa eaeay
ioaaouaaao ii?aaeaeaiioth /anoue iauaeoeaiiai iiciaiey. THi iniciaao
ia?aie/aiiinoue noaeaeaiee, iieo/aiiuo i?e iiiiue yiie?e/aneie
iie?athuaeny ia /oanoaaiiua aeaiiua iaiieiie eiaeoeoeee. Iaeiaei yoio
oaeo ii eioa?i?aoe?oao aaiinoe/anee.

Ianiio?y ia naie neaioe/aneea e aaiinoe/aneea acaeyaeu, THi ia ioaa?aae
?aaeueiinoue ii?aaeaeaiiiai /aeiaa/aneiai i?ia?anneaiiai iiciaiey.
Iiyoiio a aeaeao “oaeouae aeecie” (ii ia a iaeanoe oeeinioee, aaea ?a/ue
eaeao i iiciaiee iaeaieaa aeoaieeo i?eioeeiia) ii neeiiyeny e
ii?aaeaeaiiiio i?aiaeieaieth i?ioeai?a/ey iaaeaeo i?eioeeiaie naiae
oeeinioee e cae?aaui niuneii. Eiee iu iaeeaeaai, /oi i?aaeiao, eeoaiiue
iii?u aoaeao iaaeaoue ia caieth, iu ia aeaenoaoai a niioaaonoaee n
aeoaieei e iineaaeiaaoaeueiui oeeinioneei iiciaieai, ii iaoa iaeeaeaiea
iniiaaii ia oii, /oi iu n yoei oaeoii oaea ia ?ac ano?a/aeenue, o a. ii
i?eau/ea. Anee iu aoaeai iiaeoiaeeoue e aeaeo n iiceoeee oeeinioee, oi
“?acoi ia niiaeao aeaaea i?e iiiiue naiiai ouaoaeueiiai iienea e
enneaaeiaaiey iaeoe neaaenoaea iieiie i?e/eiu” . Eae “anoanoaaiii” oi,
/oi eaiaiue, iiaeiyoue e inoaaeaiiue aac iii?u, iaaeaao aiec, oi/ii oae
aea auei au “anoanoaaiiui” e oi, /oi ii aeaeaaeny au ii iai?aaeaieth
aaa?o.

Io?eoeaiea THiii nouanoaiaaiey ioiioaiee i?e/eiiinoe, eae e aai
eioa?i?aoaoeey iiiyoey iiuoa, ec eioi?iai ii eneeth/aao aiaoiee ie?,
eiaao au?aceoaeueiue eaeaaeenoe/aneee oa?aeoa?. Yoi io?eoeaiea, iaeiaei,
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ii?aaeaeaiioth ?aaeoeeth ia oaiaeaioeeth oiaaeaoiaai
iaoaienoe/aneiai anoanoaiciaiey ?aaeooee?iaaoue ana i?eau/iua ioiioaiey
e i?e/eiiinoe oeia iaoaie/aneie. A yoii ioiioaiey o/aiea THia yaeyaony
ii?aaeaeaiiui iauaeoeaii iaiaoiaeeiui yoaiii ?acaeoey /aeiaa/aneiai
iuoeaiey.

I?ioea iiiyoey noanoaioeee Ae. THi auaeaeaaao oa aea a?aoiaiou, /oi e
Ae. Aa?eee. Iaeiaei, anee Ae. Aa?eee i?eciaao aaeeioth noanoaioeeth
“aeoo” (eioi?ie ii a naiae iineaaeiae ?aaioa “Nae?en” i?eaeaao
iauaeoeaii eaeaaeenoe/aneee oa?aeoa? a aeaea aiaa), THi ioaa?aaao
nouanoaiaaiea e yoie aeooiaiie noanoaioeee. A niciaiee, eae ii iieaaaao,
ia nouanoaoao ie /aai eiiai, e?iia niaea?aeaiey aia/aoeaiey eaeae
(i?aaenoaaeaiee), eioi?ua ia eiatho ieeaeiai iauaeoeaiiai, o. a. aeaaea
aeooiaiiai, iineoaey. Caeanue THi, eae noauaeoeaiue eaeaaeeno, aanueia
iineaaeiaaoaeai. Aai neaioeoeeci eiaao, iaeiaei, e iiceoeaiia cia/aiea.
Ii iaoneiaeai ia oieueei ?acaeoeai anoanoaaiiiiao/iiai iiciaiey a
nianoaaiiii niunea neiaa, ii e oiaaeaoieie iiciaieyie a iaeanoe
/aeiaa/aneie ineoeee.. THi cia/eoaeueii i?eaeeaeaaony e iiieiaieth
aeoeaiinoe (iiciathuaai) noauaeoa.

Io?eoeaiea nouanoaiaaiey aeooiaiie (iauaeoeaiie) noanoaioeee nicaeaao
oeeinioneoth i?aaeiinueeo neaioe/aneiai ioiioaiey e ethaie ?aeeaee e e
aoaenoe/aneei acaeyaeai THi e?eoeeoao aeieacaoaeuenoaa nouanoaiaaiey
aiaa, auaiaeeiua eeai ec ianiaa?oainoaa /aeiaaea, eeai ec
oeaeaniia?aciiai ono?ienoaa ie?a. E?eoeeoao ii e ?yae ?ani?ino?aiaiiuo
oiaaea ?aeeaeiciuo ooaa?aeaeaiee e i?eioeeiia. Ii aiai?eo, /oi “iaoe
aeieacaoaeuenoaa enoeiiinoe o?enoeaineie ?aeeaee yaeythony aieaa…
neaauie, /ai aeieacaoaeuenoaa enoeiiinoe iaoeo /oanoa” . E?eoe/aneea
caia/aiey a aae?an ?aeeaee iiaeii ano?aoeoue e a aai “Enneaaeiaaiee
/aeiaa/aneiai ?acoia”, e a “Anoanoaaiiie enoi?ee ?aeeaee” A yoeo ?aaioao
ii aeaeaao iiiuoeo anoanoaaiiui ia?acii iauynieoue aicieeiiaaiea e
nioeeaeueiua ooieoeee ?aeeaee.

E oioy THi oeacuaaao ia oio oaeo, /oi ?aeeaey a ?acaeoee /aeiaa/aneiai
iauanoaa i/aiue /anoi auea i?e/eiie nii?ia e aiei, ii i?eciaao aa
cia/aiea a oiaaeaoiai iauanoaa, eioi?ia ii aeaeeo, a /anoiinoe, a
ooaa?aeaeaiee e aa?aioee aeaenoaaiiinoe ii?aeueiuo ii?i.

Ae. THi aue i?aaenoaaeoaeai aiaeeeneie ao?aeoacee a yiioo, eiaaea iia
oaea ioeacuaaeanue io naieo aaeeeeo eaeaaeia 40o aiaeia. Aai aicc?aiey
iai?aaeaiu ia caueoo aa nioeeaeueiie iiceoeee. Oae aea eae Eiee eee
o?aioeocneea iaoa?eaeenou e i?inaaoeoaee, THi ?acei e?eoeeoao
oaiaeaeueiia nineiaiia iauanoai, ii aianoa n oai aeenoaioee?oaony io
anao aa?nee iauanoaaiiiai aeiaiai?a, eioi?ua auee ecaanoiu aiaeeeneei e
eiioeiaioaeueiui oeeinioai. Iauanoai, niaeanii aai acaeyaeai, aicieeei
ia a ?acoeueoaoa aeoa aeiaiai?a, ii anoanoaaiii ?acaeaaeinue ec naiaeiuo
e ?iaeiauo ioiioaiee ethaeae ia iniiaa eo a?iaeaeaiiiai /oanoaa neiiaoee
e iniciaiey ii?aaeaeaiiuo iaueo eioa?ania. Iniiaiie aeaeaeouae neeie
?acaeoey iauanoaa THi n/eoaao oaeiaeaoai?aiea iio?aaiinoae e
aeinoeaeaiea i?eauee. Yoi ?acaeoea aaaeao e ii?aaeaeaiiiio
oii?yaei/aieth iauanoaa e aicieeiiaaieth aeanoe. N aicieeiiaaieai aeanoe
iauanoai, niaeanii aai acaeyaeai, noaiiaeony ainoaea?noaii. Nioeeaeueii
iieeoe/aneea acaeyaeu THia auee oanii naycaiu n aai yeiiiie/aneeie
aicc?aieyie. A i/a?ea i eaieoaeenoe/aneii niiniaa i?iecaiaenoaa ii
i?aaeeueii iinoeaaao oaiaeaioeeth e iieo/aieth i?eauee eae iaeio ec
?aoathueo aeaeaeoueo nee aiaeeeneiai iauanoaa oiai a?aiaie. Ai iiiaeo
ioiioaieyo Ae. THi yaeyaony iaiin?aaenoaaiiui i?aaeoanoaaiieeii
aiaeeeneie eeanne/aneie iieeoe/aneie yeiiiiee. Aai oeeinioneea e
yeiiiie/aneea acaeyaeu caiaoii iiaeeyee ia oi?ie?iaaiea eaeae ia?aiai e
iaeaieaa auaeathuaainy i?aaenoaaeoaey aiaeeeneie iieeoe/aneie yeiiiiee
Aaeaia Nieoa.

Enoiaey ec ii?aaeaeythueo i?eioeeiia ?acaeoey /aeiaa/aneiai iauanoaa,
?aoaao Ae. THi e aii?inu yoeee. Eeth/aaui iiiaioii aai eioa?ania
yaeyaony aii?in i naiaiaea /aeiaa/aneiai iiaaaeaiey. Iaeiaei ?aoaiea
yoiai aii?ina o THia ia aeinoeaaao oiai o?iaiy, eae, iai?eia?, o
Nieiicu. “Naiaiaeo iu iiaeai ?acoiaoue eeoue aiciiaeiinoueth
aeaenoaiaaoue eeai ia aeaenoaiaaoue niaeanii ?aoaieth aiee”, oae THi
oi?ioee?oao naia iiieiaiea naiaiaeu, iie?athuaany ia aaniethoecaoeeth
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiie aiee /aeiaaea. Ii naiaio niaea?aeaieth e iainiiaaieth
iii yaeyaony oeie/iui au?aaeaieai iiiyoey naiaiaeu /aeiaaea,
niioaaonoaothuaai eioa?anai no?aieoaeueii ?acaeaaaoaainy oiaaea eeanna
ao?aeoacee.

A oeeinioee e a nioeeaeueiiiieeoe/aneeo aicc?aieyo THi au?aaeaao
eaeaieiae/aneee eiii?iienn ao?aeoacee eioi?ay a nouiinoe aeinoeaea naieo
iniiaiuo oeaeae) e aiaeeeneiai oaiaeaeueiiai nineiaey (eioi?ia n ia/aea
XVIII a. ia oieueei caiaoii iao?aeoaceeinue, ii e a ii?aaeaeaiiie
noaiaie i?aaie/anee aaeaioe?iaaeinue e ?acaeaathueiny eaieoaeenoe/aneei
ioiioaieyi a Aiaeee).

Aaiinoeoeeci THia ia io?eoeaao neeu /aeiaa/aneiai ?acoia. Aai iniiaie
yaeyaony e?eoeea ?acaeaaaoaainy oiaaea anoanoaaiiiiao/iiai e
oeeinioneiai iuoeaiey, eioi?ua ai iiiaeo ioiioaieyo iineee
iaoaienoe/aneee oa?aeoa?. E oioy aeaeueiaeoaa ?acaeoea oeeinioneiai
iuoeaiey ane?uei ei?ie neaioeoeecia THia e aanueia nei?i i?eaaei (oaea o
iaeaieaa oeie/iuo i?aaenoaaeoaeae iaiaoeeie eeanne/aneie oeeinioee) e
aai i?aiaeieaieth, ii nua?ae, a /anoiinoe a aiaeeeneie oeeinioneie
iunee, cia/eoaeueioth ?ieue.

THi ooaa?aeaeaao iaiiciaaaaiinoue ie?a.

Neaaeiaaoaeueii i ie?a ia iiaeao auoue iieo/aii enoeiiia ciaiea.

THi ioaa?aaao aiciiaeiinoue oai?aoe/aneiai ciaiey i ie?a.(I?eia? n
Ieoaai?ii)

Oioy yoi ooaa?aeaeaiea i?ioeai?a/eo cae?aaiio niuneo:

iineieueeo aac oai?ee iao iaoee.

THi io?eoeaao i?e/eiii-neaaenoaaiioth naycue yaeaiee.

THi i?ioeaiee iaoaieoeecia e ?aaeoeoeeiiecia.

THi i?aaeeueii oeacuaaao ia ia?aie/aiiue oa?aeoa? yiie?e/aneiai,
/oanoaaiiiai aini?eyoey ie?a. Oioy oieueei ca iei inoaaeyao i?aai ia
oioy au i/aiue ia?aie/aiiia, /anoe/iia ii ana-aea a eaeie-oi noaiaie
aeinoiaa?iia ciaiea i ie?a.

THi ooaa?aeaeaao /oi eaeae a iaoae aieiaa ia eiatho ieeaeiai ie
iaoa?eaeueiiai,

ie aeooiaiiai iineoaey.

18.2 Aeaeaeaiea, i?ino?ainoai e a?aiy a oeeinioee

Nouanoaiaaiea ethaiai iaoa?eaeueiiai iauaeoa aiciiaeii oieueei
aeaaiaea?y acaeiiaeaenoaeth ia?acothueo aai yeaiaioia, aoii nouanoaoao
eeoue iinoieueeo, iineieueeo inouanoaeyaony ii?aaeaeaiiia
acaeiiaeaenoaea iaaeaeo yae?ii e yeaeo?iiaie, ia?acothueie iaiei/eo
aoiia; aeeaua i?aaieciu nouanoaotho oieueei aeaaiaea?y ii?aaeaeaiiiio
acaeiiaeaenoaeth ninoaaeythueo eo iieaeoe, eeaoie e i?aaiia; iauanoai
nouanoaoao aeaaiaea?y iaiaio aeayoaeueiinoueth iaaeaeo ethaeueie,
acaeiiaeaenoaeth ?acee/iuo iiaenenoai nioeeaeueiiai i?aaiecia.

E?iia aioo?aiiaai acaeiiaeaenoaey iaaeaeo yeaiaioaie e /anoyie iauanoa
i?ienoiaeeo e acaeiiaeaenoaea iauaeoia n aiaoiei ie?oaeaieai. Iie iiaoo
aeeth/aoueny a aieaa neiaeiua nenoaiu, noaiiaeoueny eo yeaiaioaie.
Iai?eia?, yae?a e yeaeo?iiu, aoiaeyuea a aoii, iiaoo noaoue ninoaaiuie
/anoyie iieaeoe, ec iieaeoe iiaoo no?ieoueny iae?ioaea e o. ae.

Eoae, no?oeoo?iinoue iaoa?ee, nouanoaiaaiea a iae ii?aaeaeaiiiai oeia
iaoa?eaeueiuo nenoai i?aaeiieaaaao acaeiiaeaenoaea eae aioo?aiiaa, oae e
aiaoiaa ii ioiioaieth e eaaeaeiio auaeaeaiiiio iauaeoo. Acaeiiaeaenoaea
i?eaiaeeo e eciaiaieth aai naienoa, ioiioaiee, ninoiyiee. Ana yoe
eciaiaiey, ?anniio?aiiua a naiii iauai ieaia, i?aaenoaaeytho niaie
iaiouaieaioth oa?aeoa?enoeeo auoey iaoa?eaeueiiai ie?a. Eciaiaiea a
oeeinioee iaicia/aaony iiiyoeai aeaeaeaiey. Iiae aeaeaeaieai iaoa?ee
ioaeii iiieiaoue ia oieueei iaoaie/aneia ia?aiauaiea oae a i?ino?ainoaa,
ii e ethaua acaeiiaeaenoaey, a oaeaea eciaiaiey ninoiyiee iauaeoia,
eioi?ua aucuaathony yoeie acaeiiaeaenoaeyie. Aeaeaeaiea-yoi e acaeiiia
i?aa?auaiea yeaiaioa?iuo /anoeoe, ?anoe?aiea Iaoaaaeaeoeee, e iaiai
aauanoa a eeaoeao i?aaiecia, e iaiai aeayoaeueiinoueth iaaeaeo ethaeueie
a i?ioeanna eo nioeeaeueiie aeecie.

Iaoa?ey ia iiaeao nouanoaiaaoue aia aeaeaeaiey. Ethaie iauaeo nouanoaoao
eeoue aeaaiaea?y oiio, /oi a iai aini?iecaiaeyony ii?aaeaeaiiua oeiu
aeaeaeaiey. I?e eo oie/oiaeaiee iauaeo i?ae?auaao naia nouanoaiaaiea,
ia?aoiaeeo a ae?oaea iauaeou, eioi?ua, a naith i/a?aaeue.
oa?aeoa?ecothony ii?aaeaeaiiui iaai?ii oeiia e oi?i aeaeaeaiey. Eia/a
aiai?y, aeaeaeaiea aioo?aiia i?enoua iaoa?ee. Iii oae aea aaniethoii,
eae aaniethoia naia iaoa?ey.

A iauaeaiiie aeecie aeaeaeaiea /anoi ioiaeaeanoaeyaony n ia?aiauaieai
oae a i?ino?ainoaa. A oae eae iaeie oaea iiaoo ia?aiauaoueny
ioiineoaeueii iiaa?oiinoe 3aiee, a ae?oaea iieieoueny, oi iauaeaiiia
niciaiea i?ioeaiiinoaaeyao yoe aeaa ninoiyiey- iieie e aeaeaeaiea,
n/eoay eo eae au ?aaiii?aaiuie. Iaeiaei anai, eoi ciaeii oioy au n
iaueie i?eioeeiaie iaoaieee, ynii. /oi aiai?eoue i iieia iiaeii oieueei
ii ioiioaieth e iaeioi?ie nenoaia ion/aoa. Aao aeii iieieony
ioiineoaeueii iiaa?oiinoe 3aiee, ii ii a?auaaony aianoa n 3aieae aie?oa
aa ine, ia?aiauaaony aianoa n 3aieae a i?ino?ainoaa ioiineoaeueia
nieioea. Aianoa n 3aieae e Nieioeai ii a?auaaony aie?oa Oeaio?a iaoae
aaeaeoeee, niaa?oay aeaeaeaiea ioiineoaeueii aa yae?a ni nei?inoueth
i?eia?ii 250 ei. Iaeiiaoe, aneaaenoaea ?anoe?aiey Anaeaiiie aianoa n
iaoae aaeaeoeeie ii iiaeao oaeaeyoueny io ae?oaeo aaeaeoee. Oaeei
ia?acii, oa i?aaeiaou, eioi?ua iu iacuaaai iieiyueieny, ia naiii aeaea
iaoiaeyony a ninoiyiee aeaeaeaiey.

Oaeei ia?acii, iiiyoea iieiy i?aaenoaaeyao niaie iaicia/aiea oao
ninoiyiee aeaeaeaiey, eioi?ua iaania/eaatho noaaeeueiinoue i?aaeiaoa,
nio?aiaiea aai ea/anoaa. Iiyoiio iieie ioiineoaeai, a aeaeaeaiea
aaniethoii, iii anoue iaiouaieaiia naienoai, ao?eaoo iaoa?ee.

Iniiaiua oeiu aeaeaeaiey

I?aaiia?ii aiai?eoue i aeaoo iniiaiuo oeiao aeaeaeaiey: ia?aue oei
aeaeaeaiey- yoi aeaeaeaiea, eiaaea nio?aiyaony ea/anoai i?aaeiaoa. Ii
e?iia iaai nouanoaoao aua iaeei oei aeaeaeaiey, naycaiiue n ia?aoiaeii
io iaeiiai ea/anoaa e ae?oaiio, n eciaiaieai ea/anoaaiiiai ninoiyiey
i?aaeiaoa. Yoi iiaeao auoue ?ac?ooaiea i?aaeiaoa, ?aniaae aai ia
ninoaaeythuea yeaiaiou, eioi?ua i?aaenoaaeytho niaie iniaua ea/anoaa,
aicieeathuea a ?acoeueoaoa i?aia?aciaaiey enoiaeiiai i?aaeiaoa. Ii
iiaeao auoue e aieaa neiaeiue i?ioeann, eiaaea aeaaiaea?y
acaeiiaeaenoaeth iauaeou ia?acotho aieaa neiaeioth nenoaio, iiaue
iauaeo.

I?ioeannu, naycaiiua n i?aia?aciaaieai ea/anoaa i?aaeiaoia, n iiyaeaieai
iiauo ea/anoaaiiuo ninoiyiee, eioi?ua eae ?acaa?ouaatho iioaioeeaeueiua
aiciiaeiinoe, ne?uoua e ia?acaa?iooua a i?aaeoanoaothueo ea/anoaaiiuo
ninoiyieyo, oa?aeoa?ecothony eae ?acaeoea. I?ioeann ?acaeoey- yoi
anaaaea ia?aoiae ec iaeiiai ea/anoaa a ae?oaia, iai?aaeaiiia
oi?ie?iaaiea iiauo nenoai, iiauo oeiia i?aaiecaoeee, eioi?ua
?iaeaeathony ec i?aaeoanoaothueo ei nenoai.

Auaeaeei aeaa ?aciiaeaeiinoe i?ioeannia ?acaeoey. Ia?aay
?aciiaeaeiinoue-yoi i?ioeannu ea/anoaaiiuo i?aa?auaiee, ia auoiaeyuea ca
?aiee niioaaonoaothuaai aeaea iaoa?ee, ii?aaeaeaiiiai o?iaiy aa
i?aaiecaoeee. Aoi?ay- i?ioeannu ia?aoiaea io iaeiiai o?iaiy e ae?oaiio.

Oi?iu aeaeaeaiey iaoa?ee

Niioaaonoaaiii ea?a?oee oi?i iaoa?ee nouanoaotho ea/anoaaiii
?aciiia?aciua oi?iu aa aeaeaeaiey. Eaeay i oi?iao aeaeaeaiey iaoa?ee e
eo acaeiinayce auaeaeiooa O. Yiaaeuenii. A iniiao eeanneoeeaoeee oi?i
aeaeaeaiey ii iieiaeee neaaeothuea i?eioeeiu:

1)oi?iu aeaeaeaiey niioiineiu n ii?aaeaeaiiui iaoa?eaeueiui o?iaiai
i?aaiecaoeee iaoa?ee, oi anoue eaaeaeiio o?iaith oaeie i?aaiecaoeee
aeieaeia niioaaonoaiaaoue naiy oi?ia aeaeaeaiey; 2) iaaeaeo oi?iaie
aeaeaeaiey nouanoaoao aaiaoe/aneay naycue, oi anoue oi?ia aeaeaeaiey
aicieeaao ia aaca iecoeo oi?i; 3) aunoea oi?iu aeaeaeaiey ea/anoaaiii
niaoeeoe/iu e ianaiaeeiu e iecoei oi?iai.

Enoiaey ec yoeo i?eioeeiia e iie?aynue ia aeinoeaeaiey iaoee naiaai
a?aiaie, O. Yiaaeuen auaeaeee iyoue oi?i aeaeaeaiey iaoa?ee e
i?aaeeiaeee eo neaaeothuoth eeanneoeeaoeeth: iaoaie/aneia, oece/aneia,
oeie/aneia, aeieiae/aneia e nioeeaeueiia aeaeaeaiey iaoa?ee.

Oi?iu aeaeaeaiey, ia?a/eneaiiua a oeacaiiie eeanneoeeaoeee iiaeii
?acaeoue ia o?e aeiea Niioaaonoaaiii o?ai aaaeiaeoei yoaiai ?acaeoey
iaoa?ee e o?ai aicieeoei a yoii ?acaeoee noa?ai iaoa?eaeueiiai ie?a:
iaaeeaie i?e?iaea, aeeaie i?e?iaea e iauanoao. Iaaeeaoth i?e?iaeo
oa?aeoa?ecoao acaeiinaycue oece/aneeo e oeie/aneie oi?i aeaeaeaiey,.
aeeaoth- aeieiae/aneay a iauanoai- nioeeaeueiay oi?ia aeaeaeaiey.

Iiiyoea i?ino?ainoaa e a?aiaie

3aaeaaeeiny aii?inii, eaeia niune eaoaai?ee “i?ino?ainoai “e “a?aiy”. A
naiae aeayoaeueiinoe iu iaia?oaeeaaai oaeea iniaaiiinoe no?oeoo?iie
i?aaiecaoeee ie?a, /oi /anoe e yeaiaiou, ec eioi?uo iino?iaiu
iaoa?eaeueiua iauaeou, ii?aaeaeaiiui ia?acii ?aniieiaeaiu ae?oa
ioiineoaeueii ae?oaa, ia?acotho iaeioi?ua onoie/eaua eiioeao?aoeee, /oi
caaeaao a?aieoeu iauaeoa ii ioiioaieth e ie?oaeathuae n?aaea. Iiaeii
neacaoue, /oi eaaeaeue iauaeo oa?aeoa?ecoaony naiaia?aciie “oiaeiaeie”
aoiaeyueo a iaai yeaiaioia, eo ?aniieiaeaiiinoueth ioiineoaeueii ae?oa
ae?oaa, e yoi aeaeaao ethaua iauaeou i?ioyaeaiiuie. E?iia oiai, eaaeaeue
iauaeo caieiaao eaeia-oi ianoi n?aaee ae?oaeo iauaeoia, a?aie/eo n ieie.
Ana yoe i?aaeaeueii iauea naienoaa, au?aaeathuea no?oeoo?ioth
i?aaiecaoeeth iaoa?eaeueiiai ie?a,– naienoaa iauaeoia auoue
i?ioyaeaiiuie, caieiaoue ianoi n?aaee ae?oaeo, a?aie/eoue n ae?oaeie
iauaeoaie- aunooiatho eae ia?aua, iaeaieaa iauea oa?aeoa?enoeee
i?ino?ainoaa. Anee eo aano?aae?iaaoue ec aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe e ioaeaeeoue
io naieo iaoa?eaeueiuo iauaeoia, oi iu iieo/ei i?aaenoaaeaiea i
i?ino?ainoaa eae oaeiaii. Eiaiii oae e neeaaeuaathony i?aaenoaaeaiey i
i?ino?ainoaa e iiiyoea i?ino?ainoaa. Iiiyoea i?ino?ainoaa eiaao niune
eeoue iinoieueeo, iineieueeo naia iaoa?ey aeeooa?aioee?iaaia,
no?oeoo?e?iaaia. Anee au ie? ia eiae neiaeiie no?oeoo?u, anee au ii ia
?an/eaiyeny ia i?aaeiaou, a yoe i?aaeiaou a naith i/a?aaeue ia
/eaieeenue ia yeaiaiou, naycaiiua iaaeaeo niaie, oi iiiyoea i?ino?ainoaa
ia eiaei au niunea. Iiiuoaainy auyaeoue oaeei aea ia?acii niaea?aeaiea
iiiyoey a?aiaie. Iaoa?eaeueiue ie? ninoieo ia oieueei ec no?oeoo?ii
?an/eaiaiiuo iauaeoia. Yoe iauaeou iaoiaeyony a aeaeaeaiee e ?acaeoee,
iie i?aaenoaaeytho niaie i?ioeannu, eioi?ua ?acaa?ouaathony ii
ii?aaeaeaiiui yoaiai. A ieo iiaeii auyaeoue iaeioi?ua ea/anoaaiiua
ninoiyiey, iaeioi?ua noaaeee, niaiythuea iaeia ae?oaoth. Niaia yoeo
noaaeee iiaeao oa?aeoa?eciaaoueny ii?aaeaeaiiie iiaoi?yaiinoueth. Iaeia
noaaeey ii n?aaiaieth n ae?oaie noaaeeae iiaeao ianooiaoue auno?aa eee
iicaea. Oaeea iniaaiiinoe i?ioeannia oa?aeoa?ecothony iiiyoeai
aeeeoaeueiinoe. N?aaiaiea ?acee/iuo aeeeoaeueiinoae iiaeao noaoue
iniiaie aeey eiee/anoaaiiuo ia?, au?aaeathueo nei?inoue ?acaa?ouaaiey
i?ioeannia, eo ?eoi e oaii. Anee yoe oa?aeoa?enoeee aano?aae?iaaoue io
naieo i?ioeannia e ?anniio?aoue ioiioaiey aeeeoaeueiinoae eae iaeioi?ua
naiinoiyoaeueiua i?eciaee i?ioeannia, oi iu iieo/aai i?aaenoaaeaiea i
a?aiaie eae oaeiaii. I?aaenoaaeaiea i a?aiaie e iiiyoea a?aiaie eiaao
niune eeoue iinoieueeo, iineieueeo ie? iaoiaeeony a ninoiyiee aeaeaeaiey
e ?acaeoey; anee au iaoa?ey auea aia aeaeaeaiey, iiiyoea a?aiaie ia
eiaei au niunea.

?aeyoeeiiiay e noanoaioeeaeueiay

eiioeaioeee i?ino?ainoaa e a?aiaie

Eaoaai?ee i?ino?ainoaa e a?aiaie aunooiatho eae i?aaeaeueii iauea
aano?aeoeee, a eioi?uo noaaouaaaony no?oeoo?iay i?aaieciaaiiinoue e
eciai/eainoue auoey. I?ino?ainoai e a?aiy-yoi oi?iu auoey iaoa?ee. Oi?ia
yaeyaony aioo?aiiae i?aaiecaoeeae niaea?aeaiey, e anee a ea/anoaa
niaea?aeaiey aunooiaao iaoa?eaeueiue noano?ao, oi i?ino?ainoai e a?aiy
aoaeoo oi?iaie, eioi?ua aai i?aaiecotho. Aia yoeo oi?i iaoa?ey ia
nouanoaoao. Ii naie i?ino?ainoai e a?aiy oaeaea ia nouanoaotho a io?uaa
io iaoa?ee. Oieueei a aano?aeoeee iu iiaeai ioaeaeeoue eo io
iaoa?eaeueiiai ie?a. A enoi?ee oeeinioee nouanoaiaaee ?acee/iua
eiioeaioeee i?ino?ainoaa e a?aiaie. Eo iiaeii ?acaeoue ia aeaa aieueoeo
eeanna eiioeaioeee noanoaioeeaeueiua e ?aeyoeeiiiua. Noanoaioeeaeueiay
eiioeaioeey ?anniao?eaaao i?ino?ainoai e a?aiy eae iniaua nouiinoe,
eioi?ua nouanoaotho naie ii naaa, iacaaeneii io iaoa?eaeueiuo iauaeoia.
Iie eae au a?aia, ia eioi?ie iaoiaeyony iauaeou e a eioi?ie
?acaa?ouaathony i?ioeannu. Iiaeiaii oiio eae a?aia iiaeao nouanoaiaaoue
e aac oiai, /oi ia iae ?aciauaiu ii?aaeaeaiiua i?aaeiaou, aeaeaeoony
aeoa?u, ?acua?uaaaony eaeia-oi i?aaenoaaeaiea, oae e i?ino?ainoai e
a?aiy iiaoo nouanoaiaaoue iacaaeneii io iaoa?eaeueiuo iauaeoia e
i?ioeannia.

A i?ioeaiaan noanoaioeeaeueiiio iiaeoiaeo a enoi?ee oeeinioee
?acaeaaeanue ?aeyoeeiiiay eiioeaioeey i?ino?ainoaa e a?aiaie. Iaeiei ec
iaeaieaa y?eeo i?aaenoaaeoaeae aa aue A. A. Eaeaieoe, iieaiece?iaaaoee n
Iuethoiiii ii aii?inai i nouiinoe i?ino?ainoaa e a?aiaie. Eaeaieoe
ianoaeaae ia oii, /oi i?ino?ainoai e a?aiy-yoi iniaua ioiioaiey iaaeaeo
iauaeoaie e i?ioeannaie e aia eo ia nouanoaotho. ?aeyoeeiiiay
eiioeaioeey oiaea iiaeao auoue eae iaoa?eaeenoe/aneie, oae e
eaeaaeenoe/aneie. Eaeaieoe yoo eiioeaioeeth ?acaeaae n iiceoeee
eaeaaeecia. N iiceoeee iaoa?eaeenoe/aneie ?aeyoeeiiiie eiioeaioeee
iiaeoiaeeo e ?anniio?aieth i?ino?ainoaa e a?aiaie aeeaeaeoe/aneee
iaoa?eaeeci. Ii n/eoaao eo iauaeoeaiuie, iacaaenyueie io /aeiaaea e
/aeiaa/anoaa oi?iaie auoey iaoa?ee, ii i?e yoii iiae/a?eeaaao eo
ia?ac?uaioth naycue n naiie iaoa?eae e aa aeaeaeaieai.

Acaeiinaycue i?ino?ainoaa-a?aiaie e aeaeaeouaeny iaoa?ee

Aeinoeaeaiey nia?aiaiiie iaoee naeaeaoaeuenoaotho i i?aaeii/oeoaeueiinoe
?aeyoeeiiiiai iaoa?eaeenoe/aneiai iiaeoiaea e iiieiaieth i?ino?ainoaa e
a?aiaie. A yoii ieaia a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue iaaei auaeaeeoue aeinoeaeaiey
oeceee OO aaea. Nicaeaiea oai?ee ioiineoaeueiinoe auei oai cia/eoaeueiui
oaaii a iiieiaiee i?e?iaeu i?ino?ainoaa e a?aiaie, eioi?ue iicaieyao
oaeoaeoue, ooi/ieoue, eiie?aoece?iaaoue oeeinioneea i?aaenoaaeaiey i
i?ino?ainoaa e a?aiaie.

A /ai aea ninoiyo iniiaiua auaiaeu oai?ee ioiineoaeueiinoe ii aeaiiiio
aii?ino? Niaoeeaeueiay oai?ey ioiineoaeueiinoe, iino?iaiea eioi?ie auei
caaa?oaii A. Yeiooaeiii a 1905 aiaeo, aeieacaea, /oi a ?aaeueiii
oece/aneii ie?a i?ino?ainoaaiiua e a?aiaiiua eioa?aaeu iaiythony i?e
ia?aoiaea io iaeiie nenoaiu ion/aoa e ae?oaie. Nenoaia ion/aoa a oeceea-
yoi ia?ac ?aaeueiie oece/aneie eaai?aoi?ee, niaaaeaiiie /anaie e
eeiaeeaie, oi anoue eino?oiaioa?eai, n iiiiuueth eioi?iai iiaeii
ecia?youe i?ino?ainoaaiiua e a?aiaiiua oa?aeoa?enoeee oae. Noa?ay oeceea
n/eoaea, /oi anee nenoaiu ion/aoa aeaeaeoony ?aaiiia?ii e i?yiieeiaeii
ioiineoaeueii ae?oa ae?oaa (oaeia aeaeaeaiea iacuaaaony eia?oeeaeueiui),
oi i?ino?ainoaaiiua eioa?aaeu (?annoiyiea iaaeaeo aeaoiy aeeceaaeaueie
oi/eaie), e a?aiaiiua eioa?aaeu ( aeeeoaeueiinoue iaaeaeo aeaoiy
niauoeyie) ia iaiythony.

Oai?ey ioiineoaeueiinoe yoe i?aaenoaaeaiey ii?iaa?aea, aa?iaa, iieacaea
eo ia?aie/aiioth i?eiaieiinoue. Ieacaeinue, /oi oieueei oiaaea, eiaaea
nei?inoe aeaeaeaiey iaeu ii ioiioaieth e nei?inoe naaoa, iiaeii
i?eaeeceoaeueii n/eoaoue, /oi ?acia?u oae e oiae a?aiaie inoathony
iaeieie e oaie aea, ii eiaaea ?a/ue eaeao i aeaeaeaieyo ni nei?inoyie,
aeeceeie e nei?inoe naaoa, oi eciaiaiea i?ino?ainoaaiiuo e a?aiaiiuo
eioa?aaeia noaiiaeony caiaoiui. I?e oaaee/aiee ioiineoaeueiie nei?inoe
aeaeaeaiey nenoaiu ion/aoa i?ino?ainoaaiiua eioa?aaeu nie?auathony, a
a?aiaiiua ?anoyaeaathony.

Yoi niaa?oaiii iaiaeeaeaiiue aeey cae?aaiai niunea auaiae. Iieo/aaony,
/oi ?aeaoa, eioi?ay eiaea ia noa?oa iaeioi?oth oeene?iaaiioth aeeeio,
i?e aeaeaeaiee ni nei?inoueth, aeeceie e nei?inoe naaoa, aeieaeia noaoue
ei?i/a. Aianoa n oai a yoie aea ?aeaoa caiaaeeeeenue au e oiae /ania, e
ioeuen einiiiaaoa, e aai iicaiaua ?eoiu, iaiai aauanoa a eeaoeao aai
oaea, oi anoue a?aiy a oaeie ?aeaoa oa/ao iaaeeaiiaa, /ai a?aiy o
iaaethaeaoaey, inoaaoaainy ia ianoa noa?oa. Yoi, eiia/ii, i?ioeai?a/eo
iaoei iauaeaiiui i?aaenoaaeaieyi, eioi?ua oi?ie?iaaeenue a iiuoa
ioiineoaeueii iaeuo nei?inoae e iiyoiio iaaeinoaoi/iu aeey iiieiaiey
i?ioeannia, eioi?ua ?acaa?ouaathony n ieiei naaoiauie nei?inoyie.

Oai?ey ioiineoaeueiinoe iaia?oaeeea aua iaeio nouanoaaiioth noi?iio
i?ino?ainoaaiii-a?aiaiiuo ioiioaiee iaoa?eaeueiiai ie?a. Iia auyaeea
aeoaieoth naycue iaaeaeo i?ino?ainoaii e a?aiaiai, iieacaa, /oi a
i?e?iaea nouanoaoao aaeeiia i?ino?ainoai-a?aiy, a ioaeaeueii
i?ino?ainoai e ioaeaeueii a?aiy aunooiatho eae aai naiaia?aciua
i?iaeoeee, ia eioi?ua iii ii-?aciiio ?anuaieyaony a caaeneiinoe io
oa?aeoa?a aeaeaeaiey oae. Aano?aae?othuay niiniaiinoue /aeiaa/aneiai
iuoeaiey ?acaeaeyao i?ino?ainoai e a?aiy, iieaaay eo ioaeaeueii ae?oa io
ae?oaa. Ii aeey iienaiey e iiieiaiey ie?a iaiaoiaeeia eo niaianoiinoue,
/oi eaaei onoaiiaeoue, aiaeece?oy aeaaea neooaoeee iianaaeiaaiie aeecie.
A naiii aeaea, /oiau iienaoue eaeia-eeai niauoea, iaaeinoaoi/ii
ii?aaeaeeoue oieueei ianoi, aaea iii i?ienoiaeeei, aaaeii aua oeacaoue
a?aiy, eiaaea iii i?ienoiaeeei. Aei nicaeaiey oai?ee ioiineoaeueiinoe
n/eoaeinue, /oi iauaeoeaiinoue i?ino?ainoaaiii-a?aiaiiiai iienaiey
aa?aioe?oaony oieueei oiaaea, eiaaea i?e ia?aoiaea io iaeiie. nenoaiu
ion/aoa e ae?oaie nio?aiythony ioaeaeueii i?ino?ainoaaiiua e ioaeaeueii
a?aiaiiua eioa?aaeu. Oai?ey ioiineoaeueiinoe iaiaueea yoi iieiaeaiea. A
caaeneiinoe io oa?aeoa?a aeaeaeaiey nenoai ion/aoa ae?oa ioiineoaeueii
ae?oaa i?ienoiaeyo ?acee/iua ?anuaieaiey aaeeiiai i?ino?ainoaa-a?aiaie
ia ioaeaeueii i?ino?ainoaaiiue e ioaeaeueii a?aiaiiie eioa?aaeu, ii
i?ienoiaeyo oaeei ia?acii, /oi eciaiaiea iaeiiai eae au eiiiaine?oao
eciaiaiea ae?oaiai.

18.3Eoeueoo?a e oeeaeeecaoeey

Ia ?aiieo nooiaiyo iauanoaaiiiai ?acaeoey /aeiaae aue neeo n oie
iauiinoueth (?iaeii, iaueiie), /anoe/eie eioi?ie yaeyeny. ?acaeoea yoie
iauiinoe auei iaeiia?aiaiii e ?acaeoeai naiiai /aeiaaea ‘. A oaeeo
oneiaeyo nioeeaeueiua e eoeueoo?iua aniaeou iauanoaa i?aeoe/anee ia
?acaeaeyeenue: nioeeaeueiay aeeciue aue iaeiia?aiaiii e aeeciueth
aeaiiie eoeueoo?u, a aeinoeaeaiey iauanoaa auee aeinoeaeaieyie aai
eoeueoo?u. Oae aea eae niciaiea ia?aiauoiiai iauanoaa auei aieaoaii a
iaoa?eaeueioth aeayoaeueiinoue ethaeae, oae e eoeueoo?iue aniaeo
iauanoaa aue neeo n nioeeaeueiui, ia io/eaiai io iaai. Ae?oaie
iniaaiiinoueth ia?aiauoiie nioeeaeueiinoe aue aa “anoanoaaiiue”
oa?aeoa?. ?iaeiieaiaiiua, a oaeaea aioo?e- e iaae iaueiiua ioiioaiey
“anoanoaaiii” aicieeaee a i?ioeanna niaianoiie aeecie e aeayoaeueiinoe
ethaeae, a no?iaie ai?ueaa ca iiaeaea?aeaiea naiaai nouanoaiaaiey.
?aceiaeaiea e ?aniaae yoeo ioiioaiee a i?ioeanna ia?aoiaea e eeanniaiio
iauanoao aue iaeiia?aiaiii aeoaeiiui ia?aai?ioii a iaoaieciao
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey e ?acaeoey iauanoaa, icia/aaoei noaiiaeaiea
oeeaeeecaoeee. Aiaeece?oy ia?aoiae io ia?aiauoiinoe e oeeaeeecaoeee,
iiaeii auaeaeeoue aa iniiaiua oa?aeoa?enoeee: iauanoaaiiia ?acaeaeaiea
o?oaea e a iniaaiiinoe ioaeaeaiea ai?iaea io aea?aaie, oinoaaiiiai
o?oaea io oece/aneiai, aicieeiiaaiea oiaa?ii-aeaiaaeiuo ioiioaiee e
oiaa?iiai i?iecaiaenoaa, ?aneie iauanoaa ia yenieoaoaoi?ia e
yenieoaoe?oaiuo e eae neaaenoaea yoiai—iiyaeaiea ainoaea?noaa, i?aaa
ianeaaeiaaiey eiouanoaa, aeoaieee ia?aai?io a oi?iao naiuee, nicaeaiea
ienueiaiiinoe e ?acaeoea ?acee/iuo oi?i aeooiaiiai i?iecaiaenoaa. e.
Iiiyoea oeeaeeecaoeee ianoi?aaeeaaao naiae iaii?aaeaeaiiinoueth e
iiiaicia/iinoueth’, a iaai /anoi aeeaaeuaaaony naiia ?acee/iia
niaea?aeaiea. Aeaenoaeoaeueii, yoi iiiyoea oiio?aaeytho e eae neiiiei
eoeueoo?u (/aeiaae eoeueoo?iue e oeeaeeeciaaiiue— oa?aeoa?enoeee
iaeiiii?yaeeiaua), e eae ia/oi ae i?ioeainoiyuaa, iai?eia? eae
aacaeooiia, aauiia “oaei” iauanoaa a i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue eoeueoo?a eae
ia/aeo aeooiaiiio. Iieo/eea ?ani?ino?aiaiea eioa?i?aoaoeey yoiai iiiyoey
a iaaaoeaiii niunea eae iauanoaaiiiai ninoiyiey, a?aaeaeaaiiai aoiaiiui,
/aeiaa/aneei aniaeoai nioeeaeueiie aeecie. Ii I. Oiaiaea?o,
oeeaeeecaoeey— yoi yoai oiaaeea eoeueoo?u, aa noa?aiey.

A oi aea a?aiy aeinoaoi/ii /anoi a iauanoaaiiuo iaoeao e nioeeaeueiie
oeeinioee (a oii /enea o A. Oieiae) iiiyoea oeeaeeecaoeee eniieuecoaony
aeey oa?aeoa?enoeee eiie?aoiiai iauanoaa eae nioeeieoeueoo?iiai
ia?aciaaiey, eieaeeciaaiiiai a i?ino?ainoaa e ai a?aiaie (oeeaeeecaoeey
Ae?aaiaai Aaeioa eee Aaaeeiia, a?aaneay oeeaeeecaoeey e o. ae.), eee eae
oeenaoeey ii?aaeaeaiiiai o?iaiy oaoiieiae/aneiai ?acaeoey.

Eiia/ii, ana yoe oa?aeoa?enoeee oeeaeeecaoeee ia neo/aeiu, iie
io?aaeatho iaeioi?ua ?aaeueiua noi?iiu e iniaaiiinoe enoi?e/aneiai
i?ioeanna, ii, eae i?aaeei, eo ioeaieaatho e eioa?i?aoe?otho
iaeiinoi?iiia, /oi aeaao iniiaaiea aeey e?eoe/aneiai ioiioaiey e
i?aaeeaaaaiui iiiai/eneaiiui oieeiaaieyi e eiioeaioeeyi oeeaeeecaoeee.
Aianoa n oai naia aeeciue iieacaea iaiaoiaeeiinoue eniieueciaaiey
iiiyoey oeeaeeecaoeee, auyaeaiey aai ?aaeueiiai iao/ii-oeeinioneiai
niaea?aeaiey. Iaeioi?ua eoiae iiaeii auei au e?aoei au?aceoue
neaaeothuei ia?acii. Oeeaeeecaoeey aeeth/aao a naay i?aia?aciaaiioth
/aeiaaeii, ieoeueoo?aiioth, enoi?e/aneoth i?e?iaeo (a aeaanoaaiiie
i?e?iaea nouanoaiaaiea oeeaeeecaoeee iaaiciiaeii) e n?aaenoaa yoiai
i?aia?aciaaiey, /aeiaaea, onaieaoaai eoeueoo?o e niiniaiiai aeeoue e
aeaenoaiaaoue a ieoeueoo?aiiie n?aaea naiaai iaeoaiey, a oaeaea
niaieoiiinoue iauanoaaiiuo ioiioaiee eae oi?i nioeeaeueiie i?aaiecaoeee
eoeueoo?u, iaania/eaathueo aa nouanoaiaaiea e i?iaeieaeaiea.
Oi?iaoeeiiiia /eaiaiea iauanoaa i?eaeaao oeeaeeecaoeee nioeeaeueioth
ii?aaeaeaiiinoue, enoi?e/aneoth eiie?aoiinoue. Ii oeeaeeecaoeey—iiiyoea
aieaa aeiaaeueiia, /ai iauanoaaiiay oi?iaoeey. Oi?iaoeeiiiua ?acee/ey a
iauanoaa, auoaaeoai ec ia?aiauoiiai ninoiyiey,– yoi ?acee/ey aioo?e
oeeaeeecaoeee. Iiyoiio, iiiyoea “Ao?aeoaciay oeeaeeecaoeey” icia/aao
oeeaeeecaoeeth, ?acaeaathuothny a ao?aeoaciuo oi?iao nioeeaeueiie
i?aaiecaoeee, caeeth/athuoth a naaa e i?ioeai?a/ey ao?aeoaciiai iauanoaa
e aai aeinoeaeaiey, aai aeeaae a ?acaeoea oeeaeeecaoeee, oi anoue /a?ou,
ia?aoathuea iauaoeeaeeecaoeeiiiia ecia?aiea e iaua/aeiaa/aneia cia/aiea.
I?ioeai?a/ey aioaaiienoe/aneiai iauanoaa n aai e?ecenaie, eiioeeeoaie,
ai?ueaie eeannia a oaeaea i?ioeai?a/ey aeaoo nioeeaeueiuo nenoai eiatho
naie i?aaeae—iie ia aeieaeiu ?ac?ooaoue oeeaeeecaoeeth, iaoaieciia aa
aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe. Oaeie iiaeoiae iicaieyao aieaa ii?aaeaeaiii
oynieoue e i?e?iaeo iiiaeo aeiaaeueiuo i?iaeai eae i?ioeai?a/ee
nia?aiaiiie oeeaeeecaoeee a oeaeii. 3aa?yciaiea ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu
iooiaeaie i?iecaiaenoaa e iio?aaeaiey, oeuie/aneia ioiioaiea e
i?e?iaeiui ?ano?nai, ia?aoeeiiaeueiia i?e?iaeiiieueciaaiea ii?iaeeee
aeoaieoth i?ioeai?a/eaoth yeieiae/aneoth neooaoeeth, noaaooth iaeiie ec
ino?aeoeo aeiaaeueiuo i?iaeai oeeaeeecaoeee, aeey ?aoaiey (eee oioy au
niya/aiey) eioi?ie o?aaoaony iauaaeeiaiea oneeee anao /eaiia ie?iaiai
niiauanoaa. Aeaeaei auoiaeyo ca ?aiee ioaeaeueiuo nioeeaeueiuo nenoai e
i?eia?aoatho aeiaaeueiue iauaoeeaeeecaoeeiiiue oa?aeoa? aeaiia?aoe/aneea
e yia?aaoe/aneea i?iaeaiu, caaea/e iaania/aiey i?iaeiaieuenoaeai
?anoouaai ianaeaiey Caiee. Ia?aae anai /aeiaa/anoaii noieo iauay
oeaeue—nio?aieoue oeeaeeecaoeeth, iaania/eoue nianoaaiiia auaeeaaiea.
Ionthaea oaeaea neaaeoao, /oi i?eioeeieaeueiua ?acee/ey aeaoo ie?iauo
nioeeaeueiuo nenoai ia iaiytho iiiyoee /aeiaa/aneie oeeaeeecaoeee,
nia?aiaiiie oeeaeeecaoeee, caiiie oeeaeeecaoeee, eioi?oth iaiaoiaeeii
iaueie oneeeyie anao ia?iaeia oaa?a/ue io yaea?iiai oie/oiaeaiey. Oaeei
ia?acii, oeeaeeecaoeey i?aaenoaaeyao niaie nioeeieoeueoo?iia
ia?aciaaiea. Anee iiiyoea “eoeueoo?a” oa?aeoa?ecoao /aeiaaea,
ii?aaeaeyao ia?o aai ?acaeoey, niiniau naiiau?aaeaiey a aeayoaeueiinoe,
oai?/anoaa, oi iiiyoea (“oeeaeeecaoeey” oa?aeoa?ecoao nioeeaeueiia auoea
naiie eoeueoo?u.

19.1 I?iaeaia /aeiaaea e iauanoaa a oeeinioee I?inaauaiey

XVIII aae a enoi?ee iunee ia neo/aeii iacuaatho yiioie I?inaauaiey:
iao/iia ciaiea, ?aiaa auaoaa aeinoiyieai oceiai e?oaa o/aiuo, oaia?ue
?ani?ino?aiyaony aoe?ue, auoiaey ca i?aaeaeu oieaa?neoaoia a naaoneea
naeiiu, noaiiaynue i?aaeiaoii ianoaeaeaiey. Oaa?aiiinoue a iiue
/aeiaa/aneiai ?acoia, a aai aaca?aie/iuo aiciiaeiinoyo, a i?ia?anna
iaoe, nicaeathuai oneiaey aeey yeiiiie/aneiai e nioeeaeueiiai
aeaaiaeainoaey – aio iaoin yiioe I?inaauaiey.

Ia ciaiaie i?inaaoeoaeae iaienaiu aeaa eicoiaa – iaoea e i?ia?ann. I?e
yoii i?inaaoeoaee aiaeee?otho ia i?inoi e ?acoio, a e ?acoio iao/iiio,
eioi?ue iie?aaony ia iiuo e naiaiaeai io ?aeeaeiciuo i?aae?annoaeeia.

Iioeieci i?inaauaiey aue enoi?e/anee iaoneiaeai oai, /oi iii au?aaeaei
oiiiano?iaiea iiaeieiathuaeny e e?aiiouae ao?aeoacee. Ia neo/aeii
?iaeeiie I?inaauaiey noaea Aiaeey – ?aiueoa ae?oaeo anoaaoay ia iooue
eaieoaeenoe/aneiai ?acaeoey. A Aiaeee oeeinioey i?inaauaiey iaoea naia
au?aaeaiea a oai?/anoaa Aeae. Eieea, Aeae. Oieaiaea, A. Eieeeica.

A naieo ?aaioao Eiee ?ac?aaioae i?eioeeiu anoanoaaiiiai i?aaa,
i?aaeeiaeee oio anoanoaaiii-i?aaiaie eaeaae, a eioi?ii au?aceeenue
iio?aaiinoe iaae?athuaai neeo ao?aeoaciiai eeanna.

E iaio/oaeaeaaiui i?aaai /aeiaaea, niaeanii Eieeo, i?eiaaeeaaeao o?e
iniiaiuo i?aaa: ia aeeciue, naiaiaeo e nianoaaiiinoue. I?aai ia
nianoaaiiinoue o Eieea oanii naycaii n aunieie ioeaieie /aeiaa/aneiai
o?oaea. Eiee eae e i?aaenoaaeoaee eeanne/aneie ao?aeoaciie
iieeoyeiiiiee, oaaaeaeai a oii, /oi nianoaaiiinoue eaaeaeiai /aeiaaea
anoue ?acoeueoao aai o?oaea. I?aaiaia ?aaainoai eiaeeaeaeia yaeyaony
iaiaoiaeeiui neaaenoaeai i?eiyoey iaio/oaeaeaaiuo i?aa, a i?aaiii?yaeie
aeieaeai iaania/eoue aiciiaeiinoue iieo/aiey auaiaeu eaaeaeui, n oai
/oiau i?e yoii niaethaeaeenue oaeaea naiaiaea e /anoiue eioa?an anao
inoaeueiuo.

Ec Aiaeee eaeae Eieea auee ia?aianaiu ai O?aioeeth, aaea ano?aoeee
ainoi?aeaiiue i?eai, aeaaiaea?y i?aaeaea anaai Aieueoa?o: /aeiaae a
oeeinioee XVIII aaea i?aaenoaao eae eciee?iaaiiue eiaeeaeae,
aeaenoaothuee a niioaaonoaee ni naieie eioa?anaie, ii n ae?oaie noi?iiu
oeeiniou, ioiaiyy i?aaeiea, aeiao?aeoaciua oi?iu iauiinoe i?aaeeaaatho
iiaoth – th?eaee/aneoth anaiauiinoue, ia?aae eioi?ie ana eiaeeaeaeu
?aaiu. Ai eiy yoie iiaie anaiauiinoe i?inaaoeoaee o?aaotho
inaiaiaeaeaiey io iaoeeiiaeueiuo e nineiaiuo a?aieoe.

A oai?/anoaa i?inaaoeoaeae iiyaeeny iiaue aa?ie – “a?aaeaeaiei ie?a” :
aio /oaeaea neaiay i?eaa?aeaiiinoue naiaio oceiio ie?eo, ii iaoiaeeo
“oi?ioeo ethaeae” a ethaii ia?iaea, nineiaee, aa?ieniiaaaeaiee. Aeaaiue
aii?in, eioi?ue iuoaaony ?ac?aoeoue oeeinioey XVIII aaea, ninoieo a
ianiaianoeiinoe “/anoiiai /aeiaaea”, oi anoue eiaeeaeaea, eioi?ue
?oeiaiaenoaoaony oieueei nianoaaiiuie eioa?anaie, e “/aeiaaea aiiaua” –
iineoaey ?acoia e ni?aaaaeeeainoe.

I?aeoeea eae iniiaa anao oi?i iauanoaaiiie aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe
/aeiaaea. Aeaeu i?aeoeee.

O?eaeaeueiua ooaa?aeaeaiey – aa/iua enoeiu (oaeooaeueiua ciaiey).

Enoeia naycaia n noauaeoii, noauaeoeaia ii oi?ia, ii iauaeoeaia ii
niaea?aeaieth. Enoeia anaaaea nii?iaiaeaeaaony caaeoaeaeaieai. I?iaeaia
e?eoa?ey enoeiu aeooaeueia a oai?ee iiciaiey. E?eoa?ee enoeiu iaoiaeyony
aia naiie enoeiu- a i?aeoeea. Oieueei a i?aeoeea caaeoaeaeaiea en/acaao
e inoaaony enoeia.

I. Aaea?e: “*aeiaae aacoiai, iioiio /oi euao enoeio e ioae?, iioiio /oi
iaoiaeeo aa”.

I?aeoeea- enoiaeiue ioieo e iniiaa i?ioeanna iiciaiey. I?aeoeea- yoi
aeoeaiay aeayoaeueiinoue ethaeae ii i?aia?aciaaieth i?e?iaeu e iauanoaa.
Iniiao a? ninoaaeyao o?oae, iaoa?eaeueiia i?iecaiaenoai. E?iia oiai, e
i?aeoeea ioiineony iieeoe/aneay, eeanniaay ai?ueaa.

I?aeoeea yaeyaony enoiaeiui ioieoii e iniiaie iiciaiey, o.e. naii
iiciaiea aicieeei ia iniiaa i?aeoeee e aeaaiui ia?acii iiae aeeyieai
iaoa?eaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa.

I?aeoeea noaaeo ia?aae iiciaieai ii?aaeaeaiiua caaea/e, niinianoaoao
?aoaieth yoeo caaea/. Oai naiui iia aeaeaaao iiciaiea aia?aae.

I?aeoeea aii?oaeaao iao/iia iiciaiea i?eai?aie, eino?oiaioaie,
iai?oaeiaaieai e oai naiui niaeaenoaoao oniaoai iiciaiey.

I?aeoeea ia oieueei iniiaa, ii e oeaeue iiciaiey. *aeiaae aeey oiai e
iiciaao ie?oaeathuee ie?, ?ane?uaaao caeiiu aai ?acaeoey, /oiau
eniieueciaaoue ?acoeueoaou iiciaiey a naiae i?aeoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe.

*oanoaaiiia iiciaiea

Iiciaiea anaaaea ia/eiaaony ni ciaeiinoaa n i?aaeiaoii aiaoiaai ie?a i?e
iiiiue i?aaiia /oanoa. Iniiaiie oi?iie /oanoaaiiiai iiciaiey yaeyaony
iuouaiea.

Eiae/aneia iuoeaiea- ea/anoaaiii iiaue, aunoee yoai a ?acaeoee iiciaiey.
Aai ?ieue ninoieo a oii, /oiau ane?uoue aeaaiua naienoaa e i?eciaee
i?aaeiaoa.

I?aeoeea eae niaoeeoe/anee /aeiaa/aneee niinia auoey a ie?a
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie aeayoaeueiinoue, eioi?ay iaeaaeaao neiaeiie
nenoaiiie i?aaiecaoeeae.

?aaeueiia i?aia?aciaaiea aiaoiae n?aaeu

iauaiea ethaeae a i?ioeanna yoiai i?aia?aciaaiey

niaieoiiinoue ii?i e oeaiiinoae iaania/eaathueo oeaeaiai?aaeaiiue
oa?aeoa? i?aeoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe.

19.3 Iioieiaey: o/aiea i auoea. Aia, nouaa, auoea, iaauoea.

Oeeinioneay eaoaai?ey auoey aeeth/aao a naay eiiieaen ?acee/iuo i?iaeai.

Aeey oeeinioee aeecie (Ieoeoa, Aa?anii) e oeeinioey Yecenoaioeeaeecia,
auoea anoue iaoa nianoaaiiia nouanoaiaaiea, iai?a?uaiay niaia iaoeo
iuouaiee, aeaeaiee, yiioeee.

Oaeaeaaaa?: “ Iiiyoea auoey- iaii?aaeaeeii”. Iaeei aeae auoey- iaoa
nianoaaiiia nouanoaiaaiea. Auoea- naiiniciathuaa auoea /aeiaaea.

Aonna?aeue: “ Eaoaai?ey auoey- oi, i /ai aiai?ei e ieoai”. Ii caiaiyao
iiiyoea auoey iiiyoeai aeeciaiiiai ie?a, ia iniiaa eioi?iai
neeaaeuaaaony iaoea.

AEeciaiiia ie?iiiieiaiea anoue ia/oi iauaeoeaiia, a ei??aeeao niciaiey-
i?iaeoeo oai?/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe.

Iiiyoea auoey i?aa?auaaony a ineoeeo, eaeaaeueiia ia?aaeeaaiea.

?acaeoea iaoee e oaoieee ii?iaeeei iaoa?eaeueioth eiioeaioeeth auoey.

Iaoa?eaeenoe/aneay oeeinioey auaeaeyao neaaeothuea oi?iu auoey.

I?e?iaeiia- auoea aauae, i?ioeannia, ninoiyiee i?e?iaeu, auoea i?e?iaeu
eae oeaeia auoea aauae e i?ioeannia, i?iecaiaeeiuo /aeiaaeii.

Auoea /aeiaaea-auoea /aeiaaea a ie?a aauae; niaoeeoe/aneia /aeiaa/aneia
auoea.

Auoea nioeeaeueiia- eiaeeaeaeoaeueiia auoea; auoea iauanoaa.

I?e?iaeiia- auoea yaeyaony ?aaeueiinoueth iniaiai oeia. Iia- iauaeoeaiay
e ia?ae/iay ?aaeueiinoue a oii niunea, /oi /aeiaae e aai aeoo
?iaeaeathony aeaaiaea?y iai?aoiaeyuae oi?ia. Aaaeiu ?acee/ey iaaeaeo
i?e?iaeie a oeaeii e ioaeaeueiuie nouiinoyie.

I?e?iaea a oeaeii aaneiia/ia a i?ino?ainoaa e a?aiaie, ii yoa
iniaaiiinoue ia i?enoua ioaeaeueiui aauai, i?ioeannai, ninoiyieyi
i?e?iaeu. Iie aaea-oi nouanoaotho, aicieeatho; auoea niaiyaony iaauoeai.

Iai?aoiaeyuaa auoea i?e?iaeu i?aaenoaaeyao niaie aeeaeaeoeeo
i?eoiaeyuaai, iai?aoiaeyuaai, ioaeaeueiuo aauae.

Aoi?ay i?e?iaea – niaieoiiinoue i?aaeiaoii-aauanoaaiiuo oeaiiinoae,
i?iecaiaeeiuo ethaeueie.

Iaoa?eae i?aaeiaoia aoi?ie i?e?iaeu – iaoa?eae ia?aie (iacaaenei io
/aeiaaea). N ae?oaie noi?iiu- a i?aaeiaoao aoi?ie i?e?iaeu aiieiuaiu
ciaiey e o?oae /aeiaaea. Auoea i?aaeiaoia e i?ioeannia aoi?ie i?e?iaeu
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ia?anoai?eiia aaeeinoai i?e?iaeiiai iaoa?eaea e
/aeiaa/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe.

Aoaeo/e nicaeaiiuie a ea/anoaa iniaie ?aaeueiinoe, iie yaeythony
?acoeueoaoii oai?/anoaa.

Ae?oaay niaoeeoeea auoey aoi?ie i?e?iaeu- iiaay ?aaeueiinoue-
nioeeaeueii- enoi?e/aneia oeeaeeeciaaiiia auoea.

Ia?aay i?e?iaea aeaia eaaeaeiio /aeiaaeo iieieaieai ?aaeueiuo ethaeae,
aaue e i?ioeannu i?aia?aciaaiu, i?iecaaaeaiu ethaeueie e auoea yoeo
aauae eae au noieo ia a?aie auoey ia?aie i?e?iaeu e /aeiaa/aneiai ie?a.

Aianoa n oai aoi?ay i?e?iaea – ioiineoaeueiia naiinoiyoaeueiia auoea,
iniaay ?aaeueiinoue.

Auoea /aeiaaea- auoea oieeaeueiia, iaeiaei anoue noi?iiu nouanoaiaaiey
iauea aeey /aeiaaea e i?e?iaeu. *aeiaae nouanoaoao eae eiie?aoiue
eiaeeaeae; i?aaeiinueeie aai nouanoaiaaiey yaeyaony aeeciue aai oaea.
Oaei /aeiaaea- oaei aai i?e?iaeu. Iaee/ea oaea aeaeaao aai eiia/iui,
nia?oiui. A /ae. Auoea ia?ae/ia i?aaeiinueea nouanoaiaaiey oaea> aai
iiaeaeanoiinoue caeiiai ianeaaenoaaiiinoe e i?e?iaeu.,3

*oi eanaaony iauaeoeaiiai auoey(iauanoaa), oi aai eaeaaeu, ii?iu, ycuee
niiniaiu nio?aiyoueny, niaa?oainoaiaaoueny, naiaiaeii ia?aiauaoueny a
nioeeaeueiii i?ino?ainoaa e enoi?e/aneii a?aiaie. Auaeaeyy aeaaiua noa?u
auoey: i?e?iaeo, iauanoai, niciaiea, aicieeaao aii?in iiaeii ee
aiai?eoue i aaeeinoaa iiiaiia?aciiai ie?a.

20.1 O?aioeocneee iaoa?eaeeci 18 aaea. O/aiea i i?e?iaea, oai?ey
iiciaiey (Aeeae?i, Aieueaao)

Ai aoi?ie iieiaeia 18 aaea naieo aa?oei aeinoeaaao iaoa?eaeenoe/aneea
oaiaeaioeee a ?acaeoee i?aae?aaiethoeeiiiie ao?aeoaciie oeeinioee
aiiaua. Eo oeeinioneee iaoa?eaeeci oanii naycai n ?aaeeeaeueiuie
nioeeaeueii-iieeoe/aneeie aicc?aieyie.

Nouanoaotho aeaa iai?aaeaiey o?aioeocneiai iaoa?eaeecia: iaeii aaaeao
i?ienoiaeaeaiea io Aeaea?oa, ae?oaia io Eieea. Ia?aue iaoaienoe/aneee
iaoa?eaeeci, aeeaaaony ai o?aioeocneia anoanoaiciaiea a nianoaaiiii
niunea neiaa. Iineaaeiea iai?aaeaiea – o?aioeocneee ia?aciaaoaeueiue
yeaiaio e aaaeao i?yii e nioeeaeecio.

Oeeinioneea aicc?aiey Aeeae?i ia?aeeeeathony n aicc?aieyie
iaoaienoe/aneeo iaoa?eaeenoia naiaai a?aiaie. Ii n/eoaao ie? iauaeoeaiui
e iaoa?eaeueiui. Iaoa?ey e aeaeaeaiea, niaeanii aio, yaeythony
aaeeinoaaiiie nouanoaothuae ?aaeueiinoueth. I?enoonoaoao eaeay i
iaoa?eaeueiii aaeeinoaa e aaneiia/iinoe ie?a. Aaaeiaeoee yeaiaio –
eiioeaioeey iinoiyiiiai ?acaeoey. Eae e ae?oaea iaoa?eaeenou ii
ioaa?aaao ethaua aiaoaoaeuenoaa “ecaia” a ?acaeoea iaoa?eaeueiiai ie?a.
A aaeeiue i?ioeann ?acaeoey ie?a ii iiiauaao e /aeiaaea.

Aeeae?i /aoei ?acee/aao /oanoaaiiia aini?eyoea e iuoeaiea. Iuoeaiea
niaeanii aai acaeyaeai, ia yaeyaony naienoaii anae iaoa?ee. Aia?aua any
iaoa?ey iaaeaeaia eeoue iauei naienoaii “/oanoaiaaoue” niiniaiinoueth e
iuouaieyi.

Aeeae?i caieiaeny e iaoiaeieiae/aneeie aii?inaie e i?iaeaiaoeeie
nenoaiaoecaoeee iaoe. E oioy ii enoiaeiui enoi/ieeii iiciaiey n/eoaao
/oanoaa, ii i?eciaao cia/aiea ?aaiou oia, o.a. iuoeaiey, e iiae/a?eeaaao
eo acaeiinaycue. Iuoeaiea, eioi?ia io?uaaaony io oaeoia, eaaei aiaaeaao
a ionoua niaeoeyoeee, oaeaea eae e iaeiieaiea oaeoia aac eo
?aoeeiiaeueiie ia?aaioee aaaeao nei?aa e oaino, /ai e oaeoaeaieth
iiciaiey. Aeeae?i aunooiaao n e?eoeeie oaieiaee e oaoaeecia. Aia?aua
auaeaeioe eaeath iaoa?eaeueiiai o?ainoi?iecia. Eae oeeinio ii aeinoeaaao
aeoaeiu a oi a?aiy eae Aieueaao nenoaiaoe/iinoe.

Ae’Aeaiaa? iiae/a?eeaaao aeaaioth ?ieue /oanoaaiiiai iiciaiey. Eae
iaiin?aaenoaaiiua ciaiey, oae e ciaiey, i?eia?aoaiiua ?aciuoeaieai,
eioi?ie?otho ian i aeaoo aauao: i nouanoaiaaiee ian naieo e i
nouanoaiaaiee aauae aiaoiaai iauaeoeaiiai ie?a.

Eaiao?e enoiaeeo ec nainoaeecia Eieea e iaeiicia/ii i?eciaao
iauaeoeaioth iniiao iaoeo iuouaiee- aiaoiee ie?. Iaeiia?aiaiii ii
iiae/a?eeaaao /oi, iaoa?ey iaoiaeeony a iinoiyiiii aeaeaeaiee,
aeaeaeaiea io iaa iaioaeaeeii. Enoi/iee aeaeaeaiey iaoiaeeony a naiie
iaoa?ee. Auneacuaae eaeae i iaaiciiaeiinoe iiciaiey nouiinoe aeaeaeaiey
e iaoa?ee. Aia?aua oai?ey i?ienoiaeaeaiey aeecie ia caiea (eaeay
iaoa?eaeueiiai o?aioi?iecia). Aeeaeaeoe/aneee oa?aeoa? i?ienoiaeaeaiey
/aeiaaea. Nicaeaiea oeeinioee ainieoaiey. *aeiaae naiiaini?iecaiaeyuayny
iaoeia.

N iiiyoeai oieaa?naeueiinoe aeaeaeaiey naycaii e Aieueaaoiai iiieiaiea
aeaoa?ieiecia. A ioee/ea io THia Aieueaao aeieacuaaao, /oi iaiaoiaeeiuie
iiaoo auoue eeoue i?e/eiu e neaaenoaey. Iin?aaenoaii eo iiaeii
iauynieoue ethaie i?ioeann e /aeiaa/aneia iiaaaeaiea. ?acee/ea iaaeaeo
ioaeaeueiuie yaeaieyie caeiiiia?ii, e anyeia aeaeaeaiea, eioi?ia
aicieeaao, iiae/eiyaony e oi?aaeyaony oaeaea eiinoaioiuie caeiiaie.
Aeaeaeaiea i?ioaeaao caeiiiia?ii e yaeyaony oieaa?naeueiui, i?e?iaea eee
ie? eae oeaeia iiae/eiaiu oieaa?naeueiui caeiiiia?iinoyi, eioi?ua
i?iyaeythony /a?ac i?e/eiiua ioeeiiaiey n iaeiicia/iie
iaiaoiaeeiinoueth.

Oaoieea e oaoie/aneay aeayoaeueiinoue, eae iaeia ec oi?i i?aeoeee.

Oaoieea a ia?aii niunea – yoi niaieoiiinoue ?acee/iuo ono?ienoa,
nicaeaiiuo /aeiaaeii i?aaeiacia/aiiuo aeey nicaeaiey ?acee/iuo aauanoa,
yia?aee e eioi?iaoeee, eo i?aia?aciaaiey, o?aiaiey e eniieueciaaiey,
o?aiaiey e eniieueciaaiey e oaeiaeaoai?aiey ?acee/iuo
iai?iecaiaenoaaiiuo iio?aaiinoae. Iia iiaeao aunooiaoue eae n?aaenoai
i?iecaiaenoaa e eae eiia/iue i?iaeoeo. Oaoieea a aoi?ii niunea – yoi
niaieoiiinoue ?acee/iuo iaaueia, onoie/eauo ia?acoeia aeayoaeueiinoe,
iniaiai ?iaea oiaiee.

Oaoie/aneay aeayoaeueiinoue iineo neiaeiue i?ioeai?a/eaue oa?aeoa?, a
cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie iaoneiaeaiiue i?ioeai?a/eainoueth, aioo?aiiae
aeeaeaeoe/iinoueth naieo a?oaoaeoia.

?acaeoea oaoieee e oaoie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe, niaa?oaaony iiae neeueiui
aicaeaenoaeai oai?/aneie, eiino?oeoeaiie e i?iaeoeaiie aeayoaeueiinoe
/aeiaaea, a n ae?oaie noi?iiu, neoaeeo a? iauaeoeaiie iniiaie. Oaoieea e
oaoie/aneay aeayoaeueiinoue /a?ac nenoaio iauanoaaiiuo ioiioaiee,
aeeytho ia aanue ia?ac aeecie e ie?iaicc?aiea /aeiaaea, i?e/ai yoi
aeeyiea iiiaiia?acii.

Eiioeaioeey “oaoiieiae/aneiai aeaoa?ieiecia”, n/eoaao oaoieeo e
oaoiieiaeth ?aoathueie oaeoi?aie ?acaeoey /aeiaa/anoaa.

Iaoa?eaeenoe/aneia iiieiaiea iauanoaa enoiaeeo ec i?eciaiey enoi?e/anee
iaiythuaainy, neiaeiiai i?ioeai?a/eaiai acaeiiaeaenoaey oaoieee n
nioeeaeueiuie no?oeoo?aie e eoeueoo?ie. Io/oaeaeaiea /aeiaaea io oaoieee
e i?ioeainoiyiea ae anoue i?iaeoeo ii?aaeaeaiiuo i?aoiaeyueo
enoi?e/aneeo oneiaee, e yoi io?aaeaaony ai aioo?aiiae i?ioeai?a/eainoe e
iaiaeii?iaeiinoe eoeueoo?u.

20.3 Iiiyoea iauaenoi?e/aneiai i?ioeanna. Iniiaiua o/aiey i
iai?aaeaiiinoe iauanoaaiiiai ?acaeoey.

Enoi?ey- caeiiiia?iue i?ioeann, a a? ooiaeaiaioa eaaeao ioaeaeueiua
caeiiu.

Iaoa?eaeeci eeaaeao a iniiao iaoa?eaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa- ?acaeoea.
Iauanoaaiiia niciaiea aeoeaii. Enoi?ey- ?acoeueoao noieeiiaaiey eoeueoo?
eiaeeaeaeia, aieue, nioe. A?oii, eeannia e o. ae.

Eiaaea iu i?ioeaiiinoaaeyao i?e?iaeo /aio-eeai eneonnoaaiiiio.

Iauanoai- aoi?ay i?e?iaea. Iauanoai -iainiaeaoayny /anoue i?e?iaeu. Iu
eiaai i?aai aiai?eoue ia ii?aaeaeaiiii oeia iauanoaaiii-yeiiiie/aneie
oi?iaoeee.

A iniiaa oi?iaoeee eaaeao:

niinia i?iecaiaenoaa:

aacen e iano?ieea

Oi?iaoeey -nooiaiue enoi?e/aneiai i?ioeanna-i?ia?anna.

I?ia?ann iauanoaa- i?ia?ann naiaiaeu.

Iauanoaaiiue i?ia?ann- iinooiaoaeueiia ?acaeoea /ae-aa io iecoeo oi?i e
aunoei. I?ioeann naycai e n ?acaeoeai naiaiaeu e eoeueoo?u
i?aanoaaiiinoe- ana yoi aoi?e/ii.

*oi yaeyaony ia?ae/iui?

Ioiioaiea e eaeae iau. i?ia?anna:

io?eoeaiea

?aeyoeaecaoeey, aio?iiiii?oeci

i?eciaiea iauaeoeaiiai oa?aeoa?a

Eaeay i?ia?anna- io?eoeaiea iu a? i?eiaiyai e i?e?iaea e i?e?iaea, oai
iao yoiai ia/aea eii?aeeiao. A ia?ae/iia naycaii n iaoa?eaeeciii.

Aunoee e anaiauee e?eoa?ee iauanoaaiiiai i?ioeanna- ?acaeoea i?. Nee
iauanoaa, aeeth/ay ?acaeoea naiiai /aeiaaea.

I?iecaiaenoaaiiua neeu ii?aaeaeytho ?acaeoea iauanoaa

a eiia/iii n/aoa

ai anaie?ii-enoi?e/aneii ianooaaa

a naiii iauai aeaea

a aeaea iniiaiie eeiee i?ia?anna

?aaiethoeey a i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo neeao:

aicieeiiaaiea i?iec. yeiiiieee

ia?aoiae io ?o/iiai o?oaea iaoeiiiio

IO?- ia?aoiae io iaoeiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa e aaoiiaoece?iaaiiiio

?o/iia i?oaeea>iaoaieci>aaoiiao

Naaiaeiy eaeay aaoiiaoecaoeey i?eia?aoaao ae?oaia cia/aiea
eioi?iaoeeiiiay

Oeiu i?ia?anna

iaaioaaiienoe/aneee

aioaaiienoe/aneee

Caeiiiia?iinoe enoi?e/aneiai -?acaeoey

iaia?aoeiinoue enoi?e/aneiai i?ioeanna

aic?anoaiea oaiiia i?ia?anna.

Aioaaiieci- ai?ueaa eeannia, nioeeaeueiue e iaoeeiiaeueiue aiao,
ianeeea, aieiu. Ionoonoaea nioeeaeueiuo aioaaiieci iaicia/aao eeoue oi,
/oi i?ioeai?a/ey aeaiiiai iauanoaa, eaeoth au noaiaiue ino?iou iie ia
i?eieiaee, iiaoo auoue ?ac?aoaiu a eioa?anao anaai iauanoaa, anao
nioeeaeueiuo a?oii. Iniiaie aioaaiiecia yaeyaony /anoiay nianoaaiiinoue
ia n?aaenoaa i?iecaiaenoaa a ?acee/iuo aa oi?iao.

21.1 Nioeeaeueiay oeeinioey o?aioeocneeo iaoa?eaeenoia 18 aaea. Eaiao?e,
Aaeueaaoeee, Aieueaao.

Eaiao?e, Aaeueaaoeee, Aieueaao ioiinyo /aeiaaea e iauae nenoaia
i?e?iaeu. *aeiaae iaioaeaeei io i?e?iaeu. E iiae/eiai oai aea
caeiiiia?iinoyi, /oi e inoaeueiay i?e?iaea. Aaeueaaoeee ia niia iiiyoue
niaoeeoe/iinoe /aeiaaea e /aeiaa/aneiai iauanoaa. Aaeueaaoeee iniiauaaao
aeaaiua i?eioeeiu naiae yoeee. Ii ioaa?aaao ?aeeaeicioth ii?aeue e
iiae/a?eeaaao, /oi iniiaiui e?eoa?eai i?aanoaaiiinoe yaeyaony “iieueca”.
Iaeiaei ii o?aeooao “iieueco” ia eiaeeaeaeoaeenoe/anee, a niunea
aeinoeaeaiey iaaeeau eiaeeaeaeii , ii ii ioiioaieth ei anaio iauanoao.
Iniiao aeia?iaeaoaeueiiai iiaaaeaiey ii aeaeeo a aeinoeaeaiee niaeaney
iaaeaeo eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuie e nianoaaiiuie eioa?anaie. Iauanoai, ii
Aaeueaaoeeth ,- niaieoiiinoue eiaeeaeaeia. Iauanoaaiiue eioa?an yaeyaony
o iaai niaieoiiui eioa?anii ?aoathuaai aieueoeinoaa /eaiia iauanoaa.

Aicc?aiey Aaeueaaoeey ia iauanoaaiiia ono?ienoai, eae e acaeyaeu ae?oaeo
iaoa?eaeenoia iaoiaeyony iiae aeeyieai eaeaieiaee iniciathuae naay
iieeoe/anee ao?aeoacee. Iauanoai aicieeaao ec “oicyeneeo naiae”.
A?aaeaeaieiii aeey iaai aunooiaao “nianoaaiiee” a i?yiii niunea neiaa.
Aaeueaaoeee aa?eo a “?acoiiiai i?aaeoaey”, “oeeinioa ia o?iia”. Iaeiaei
eaeaaeueiie oi?iie ainoaea?noaa ii n/eoaao ?anioaeeeo. Ia?aae
ainoaea?noaii noieo caaea/a aa?aioe?iaaoue a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue “iniiaiua
iaioaeaeeiua /aeiaa/aneea i?aaa”, eioi?ua yaeythony ia /ai eiui, eae
eaeaaeecaoeeae iniiaiuo eioa?ania ao?aeoacee. Ii ia o?aaoao eeeaeaeaoeee
/anoiie nianoaaiiinoe, a eeoue “?aaiiia?iiai ?acaeaeaiey”.

Aaeueaaoeee A niaeanee n Aieueaaoii aa?eo ai anaiiaouanoai ainieoaiey.
Iii eiaao aeey iauanoaa iniiaiiieaaathuaa cia/aiea. I?aaeiinueeie
oi?ioaai e i?aaeeueii i?eaioe?iaaiiiai ainieoaiey yaeythony “oi?ioea
caeiiu”. Eaeay a oii, /oi anaiauaa ian/anouea ethaeae e ia?iaeia aucaaii
ianiaa?oainoaii eo caeiiia e neeoeii ia?aaiui ?acaeaeaieai aiaaonoaa
oa?aeoa?ecoao eaeaaeenoe/aneee iiaeoiae aieueoeinoaa o?aioeocneeo
iaoa?eaeenoia e ?aoaieth nioeeaeueiie i?iaeaiaoeee. Caeiiu niaeanii aio
ii?aaeaeytho ?aaeueiia auoea.

Eaiao?e aeeaeaeoe/anee oa?aeoa?ecoao i?ienoiaeaeaiea /aeiaaea. Nicaeaao
oeeinioeth ainieoaiey. *aeiaae – naiiaini?iecaiaeyuayny nenoaia.

21.2 I?iaeaia niciaiey a oeeinioee e anoanoaiciaiee. Nouiinoue niciaiey.
I?iaeaia eaeaaeueiiai

Aii?inu niciaiey ioiinyo e iniiaiie i?iaeaia oeeinioee. Oaea a
Aioe/iinoe auaeaeeeenue aeaa eeiee enneaaeiaaiey niciaiey. Iaeia ec ieo
ainoiaeeo e Nie?aoo, ae?oaay – e Ieaoiio.

Ii Nie?aoo niciaiea /aeiaaea ia oiaeaeanoaaiii iaoa?eaeueiiio auoeth
aauae, aieaa oiai, niciaiea iiaeao ia iniiaa i?enouae aio aeeaeaeoeee
aeaoue i?ioeai?a/eaia i?aaenoaaeaiea ia eco/aaiuo aauao (“ss ciath, /oi
y ie/aai ia ciath”).

Ieaoii n/eoae, /oi iiieii ie?a aauae nouanoaoao iniaue ie? eaeae,
eioi?ui aeaeaeao aanoaeaniue ?acoi, a a aeooa eaaeaeiai /aeiaaea oi
nica?oeaao naiiai naay e yoei aeoeaii aicaeaenoaoao ia aeeciue /aeiaaea.
Aeooa aannia?oia e eiaao niiniaiinoue (ii aic?auaiee ia caieth a
/aeiaa/aneii oaea) aini?eieiaoue oi, /oi iia aeaeaea “oai”.

Oaeei ia?acii, oaea Aioe/iinoue iinoaaeea aii?in i oii, ioeoaea acyeinue
niciaiea, – i?eiaaeeaaeeo ee iii eiie?aoiiio /aeiaaeo, yaeyynue eiaiii
aai aeinoiyieai, eee aea niciaiea /aeiaaea anoue /anoue ie?iaiai ?acoia.

Ia i?ioyaeaiee anaai n?aaeiaaaeiauey a Aa?iia auea ?ani?ino?aiaia aoi?ay
oi/ea c?aiey, iineieueeo iia niaiaaeaea n iniiaiuie aeiaiaoaie
o?enoeainoaa. N oi/ee c?aiey Aaaonoeia Aeaaeaiiiai ana ciaiey i ie?a
caeiaeaiu a aeooa, a ?acoi – iiaea?ie aeueyaiea, eioi?ue a naiae
ai?aeuia iuoaaony i?ioeainoiyoue aannia?oiie aeooa, ianouae aeuoaiea
naiiai Aiaa.

Yiioa Aic?iaeaeaiey aiciaiiaeea eioa?an e /aeiaaeo e aai niciaieth, a
oeeinioey Iiaiai A?aiaie a eeoea Aeaea?oa, Aaeiia, Eieea iinoaaeea ?yae
ooiaeaiaioaeueiuo aii?inia, naycaiiuo n iaueie i?iaeaiaie niciaiey e
iiciaiey.

Aeaea?o – y?eee i?aaenoaaeoaeue ?aoeeiiaeecia. Ii iiae/a?eeaaao, /oi
aeaaiui a niciaiee yaeyaony aioo?aiiee aiaeec nianoaaiiiai “ss”. Ii
iiaieth Aeaea?oa aeooa /aeiaaea oieueei iuneeo, e yoi ninoaaeyao iniiao
anae aeecie (“Iuneth – cia/eo nouanoaoth”).

Eiee – i?aaenoaaeoaeue nainoaeecia. Iiae/a?eeaaao ia?ainoaiaiiia
cia/aiea /oanoa a oi?ie?iaaiee niciaiey /aeiaaea e aai iiciaaaoaeueiuo
aiciiaeiinoae (“A eioaeeaeoa iao ie/aai, /aai ia auei au a /oanoaao”).

Ienoe/aneay eiioeaioeey niciaiey naycaia n aa?ie a naa?ouanoanoaaiiua
neeu e eiaao iiiaeanoai ?acee/ee a ainoi/iie e caiaaeiie oeeinioneeo
o?aaeeoeeyo. Eo iauaaeeiyao oaaaeaeaiiinoue a oii, /oi iiciaiea ie?a
/aeiaaeii anaaaea anoue ica?aiea, yenoac, ioe?iaaiea, e iii anaaaea
i?aaeiieaaaao iauaiea /aeiaaea n Aiaii.

E??aoeeiiaeenoe/aneay eiioeaioeey (ioi?ieeanue e eiioeo XIX aaea)
i?aaeiieaaaao, /oi ?acoi e /oanoaa /aeiaaea ia?aie/aiu, a oi a?aiy eae
aai eiooeoeey, einoeieo e ae?oaea, eiae/anee iaii?aaeaeaiiua noi?iiu
niciaiey iiiiaatho /aeiaaeo iiiyoue iioie aeecie, oaioe/iue e neo/aeiue
a naiae iniiaa. A aeaeueiaeoai iieo/eea ?acaeoea a yecenoaioeeiiaeecia.

Aaaeiui aeey iiieiaiey i?iaeai niciaiey auee ?aaiou Eaioa, a eioi?uo
enneaaeiaaeenue iniaaiiinoe iiciaiey ie?a /aeiaaeii, aeaaaeanue e?eoeea
iiciaaaoaeueiuo niiniaiinoae /aeiaaea, eae noauaeoa iiciaiey. Oeeinioey
Eaioa aeaao oeaeinoiia i?aaenoaaeaiea aaiinoeoeecia – oeeinioneiai
o/aiey, niaeanii eioi?iio iaaiciiaeii ?aoeoue aii?in ia enoeiiinoe
iiciaiey ie?a /aeiaaeii, ?aaii eae e aii?in i oiaeaeanoaa iuoeaiey e
auoey.

A ?acaeoea eaeae Eaioa Aaaaeue iainiiaae enoi?eci niciaiey, aai
caaeneiinoue io enoi?e/anee eciaiythueony oi?i iauanoaaiiie aeecie, a
oaeaea ananoi?iiia ?anniio?ae aeeaeaeoeeo eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai e
iauanoaaiiiai niciaiey.

Nia?aiaiiia anoanoaiciaiea n/eoaao, /oi ana aeou niciaiey aicieeatho a
?acoeueoaoa niaianoiuo aeaenoaee iiiaeanoaa eeaoie aieiaiiai iicaa,
eioi?ue yaeyaony i?aaiii niciaiey. Iica /aeiaaea eiaao o?e
ooieoeeiiaeueiuo aeiea. Ia?aue iiaeaea?aeeaaao oiion ei?u, aoi?ie
yaeyaony aeaaiui aiia?aoii iiciaaaoaeueiuo i?ioeannia, o?aoee
inouanoaeyao i?ia?aiie?iaaiea iiaaaeaiey /aeiaaea, ?aaoeyoeeth e
eiio?ieue ca anaie aeaenoaeyie.

Niciaiea i?aaeiieaaaao iao/aiea e iaiyoue, eioi?ua naycaiu n ?aaeoeeae
caia/aoeaiey (eii?eoeiaa) e iaeiia?aiaiii oi?ie?oao eae aieiaiea, oae e
aieth /aeiaaea, ieacuaatho aicaeaenoaea ia aai eioa?anu e iio?aaiinoe.
Ana ineoe/aneea i?ioeannu anoue i?iaeoeo oiai, /oi aeaeaao iica. Yoi –
i?ioeannu iuouaiey, aeaeaeaiey, aaeaioaoeee, iao/aiey, yiioeee, iuoeaiey
ia?acaie; yoi – aieiaiea, iaiyoue e aeoeaiia niciaiea, o.a. iniciaiea
iaoae nianoaaiiie oinoaaiiie eee oece/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe.

N oi/ee c?aiey nia?aiaiiie iaoee iuneyo ia oieueei ethaee, ii e
aeeaioiua, iaeiaei niciaoaeueiay iuneeoaeueiay aeayoaeueiinoue (
aano?aeoiia iuoeaiea) aiciiaeia eeoue ia iniiaa ycuea. Eiaiii ycue
yaeyaony iniiaiui i?oaeeai, n iiiiuueth eioi?iai /aeiaa/aneea nouanoaa
no?oeoo?e?otho naith oinoaaiioth aeayoaeueiinoue, naie iiuo. Iiyoiio
niciaiea ( a ae?oaie oa?ieiieiaee aano?aeoiia iuoeaiea) iaiin?aaenoaaiii
caaeneo io ycuea.

21.3 I?e?iaea e iauanoai. Iauanoai eae i?e?iaeiue ie?.

I?e?iaea a oe?ieii niunea neiaa icia/aao aanue ie? a iiiaiia?aciuo aai
i?iyaeaieyo. Iauanoai naycaii n i?e?iaeie naiei i?ienoiaeaeaieai ,
nouanoaiaaieai e naiei aoaeouei. Iaeiaei iii nouanoaaiii ioee/aaony io
iai?aaie/aneie e i?aaie/aneie i?e?iaeu, i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ea/anoaaiii
iniaoth nenoaio ni niaoeeoe/aneie no?oeoo?ie e iniauie caeiiaie
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey e ?acaeoey e aunooiaao ii ioiioaieth e iauanoao ia
oieueei n?aaeie, a eioi?ie iii aicieeei, aeeaao e ?acaeaaaony, ii e
iauaeoii aai aicaeaenoaey. Eiaiii oo /anoue i?e?iaeu. a eioi?ie aeeaao
e n eioi?ie acaeiiaeaenoaoao iauanoai, iacuaatho “i?e?iaeie” eee
i?e?iaeiie n?aaeie .

I?e?iaeiay n?aaea i?ino?ainoaaiii ?anoe?yaony ii ia?a ?acaeoey
/aeiaa/anoaa. Naaiaeiy iauaeoii aai i?yiiai eee einaaiiiai aicaeaenoaey
ia ieaiaoa Caiey noaiiaeony aeinoa?a.

Aeinoa?a (o/aiea i iae nicaeaii Aa?iaaeneei ) aeeth/aao ana aeeaua
i?aaieciu , eo n?aaeo iaeoaiey e i?iaeoeou aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe .

Iauanoai a oe?ieii niunea – yoi ana /aeiaa/anoai, nioeeaeueiua i?aaieciu
iineaaeiaaoaeueii niaiythuea ae?oa ae?oaa, enoi?e/anee naycaiiua e
ea/anoaaiii ?acee/iua.

*oiau nouanoaiaaoue ethaee aeieaeiu i?iecaiaeeoue, Aeey yoiai iie
anooiatho a ii?aaeaeaiiua nayce e ioiioaiey ,e eeoue /a?ac iin?aaenoai
yoeo naycae e ioiioaiee nouanoaoao eo ioiioaiea e i?e?iaea, eiaao ianoi
i?iecaiaenoai. O?iaiai ?acaeoey i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee ii?aaeaeythony
ianooaaiinoue e neea aicaeaenoaey ia i?e?iaeo. Io oa?aeoa?a
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo ioiioaiee caaeneo oeaeue aicaeaenoaey ia i?e?iaeo –
inouanoaeyaony ee iii a eioa?anao iieo/aoaey i?eauee eee a eioa?anao
ia?iaea, /aeiaaea, neoaeeo oaeiaeaoai?aieth aai ?acee/iuo iio?aaiinoae.
Oa?aeoa?ii i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo ioiioaiee aeaoa?ieie?othony ia oieueei
oaoieei-yeiiiie/aneea, ii e ineoieiae/aneea iieeoeei-i?aaiaua,
yoe/aneea, ynoaoe/aneea, oeeinioneea e o.ae. ioiioaiey ethaeae e
i?e?iaea.

Iaeiiaoe nouanoaoao e o?aoee aeae ioiioaiee . “O?aouea ioiioaiea, n
naiiai ia/aea aeeth/athuaany a oiae enoi?e/aneiai ?acaeoey,- ienae E
.Ia?en e Yiaaeuen – caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi ethaee, aaeaaeiaaii caiiai
i?iecaiaeyuea naith nianoaaiioth aeeciue, ia/eiatho i?iecaiaeeoue
ae?oaeo ethaeae, ?aciiiaeaoueny …“

Iauanoai ?acaeaaaony ia iniiaa aioo?aiia i?enoueo aio caeiiia.
Aaaeiaeoeie n?aaee ieo yaeythony neaaeothuea: 1)iauanioeeieiae/aneee
caeii ia ii?aaeaeythuae ?iee niiniaa i?iecaiaenoaa a aeecie e ?acaeoee
iauanoaa, i eioi?ii Ia?en ienae, /oi niinia i?iecaiaenoaa iaoa?eaeueiie
aeecie iaoneiaeeaaao nioeeaeueii-iieeoe/aneee e aeooiaiue i?ioeannu
aeecie aiiaua; 2) iauanioeeieiae/aneee caeii niioaaonoaey
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo ioiioaiee oa?aeoa?o e o?iaith i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee;
3) caeii eeanniaie ai?ueau e nioeeaeueiie ?aaiethoeee, aeaenoaothuee a
eeanniai aioaaiienoe/aneii iauanoaa; 4)iauanioeeieiae/aneee caeii
aic?anoaiey ?iee iann noauaeoeaiiai oaeoi?a a enoi?e/aneii i?ioeanna
?acaeoey /aeiaa/anoaa.

*aeiaae yaeyaony i?iaeoeoii i?e?iaeu, nioeeaeueiuo ioiioaiee e noauaeoii
enoi?e/aneiai i?ioeanna,

Acaeiiaeaenoaea i?e?iaeu e iauanoaa. Ia?en e Yiaaeuen iieacaee, /oi
iauanoai, ea/anoaaiii ioee/aynue io i?e?iaeu, naycaii n iae i?ioeui,
ianoiyuei e naiei aoaeouei. Aaeeeia cia/aiea i?e?iaeu a nouanoaiaaiee e
?acaeoee /aeiaa/anoaa ninoieo a oii /oi Nieia/iay nenoaia – iao ie?,
Caiey – “aeii” /aeiaa/anoaa .

A i?ioeanna ?acaeoey i?e?iaeu noi?ie?iaaeenue eeeiaoe/aneea e
aeieiae/aneea i?aaeiinueee aicieeiiaaiey /aeiaaea e iauanoaa. I?e?iaea
ieacuaaao aeeyiea ia ?acaeoea iauanoaa, /oi ii?aaeaeyaony i?e?iaeiuie
oneiaeyie e o?iaiai ?acaeoey i?iecaiaenoaa. Ia /aeiaaea e iauanoai
ieacuaatho aeeyiea e eeeiaoe/aneea oneiaey.

AEeciue iauanoaa iaoneaaeeaaaony caianaie i?e?iaeiuo ?ano?nia,
iineieueeo iie ?ani?aaeaeaiu ia?aaiiia?ii.

Ia aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoue iauanoaa aeeytho noeoeeiua neeu i?e?iaeu :
canooe e iaaiaeiaiey, naeaaua iioiee e caieao?ynaiey, aoeeaie/aneea
ecaa?aeaiey, oeoiaie, oaeooiu.

Iauanoai a naith i/a?aaeue anae naiae aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoueth ieacuaaao
aeeyiea ia i?e?iaeo. *a?ac iaoa?eaeueiia i?iecaiaenoai iauanoai
inouanoaeyao naia cia/eoaeueiia aicaeaenoaea ia i?e?iaeo: eniieuecoy
i?e?iaeiua ?ano?nu, eoeueoeae?oy e i?aia?acoy, caa?yciyy e io?aiyy aa.

Caeiiiia?iinoueth acaeiiaeaenoaey iauanoaa e i?e?iaeu aunooiaao iaiai
aicaeaenoaee iaaeaeo ieie : /aeiaae iio?aaeyao aauanoaa i?e?iaeu e
auaeaeyao a iaa i?iaeoeou naiae aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe. Yoio iaiai
inouanoaeyaony /a?ac i?iecaiaenoai . iniaaiiinoue naaiaeiyoiaai aeiy
ninoieo a oii, /oi yoe iooiaeu caa?yciytho ie?oaeathuoth n?aaeo e yoi
io?eoeaoaeueii neacuaaaony ia caei?iauea ethaeae e i?e?iaeu . ?anoao
iianiinoue ia?ooaiey aeeaeaeoe/aneiai ?aaiiaaney i?ioeannia aeinoa?u.
Cia/eoaeueioth ?ieue a iao/ii- oaoie/aneii ?aoaiee yoie i?iaeaiu iiaeao
ea?aoue ?acaeoea iiaie oaoiieiaee (aaciooiaeiie e iaeiiooiaeiie).

22.1 Anoanoaaiiiiao/iua e oeeinioneea acaeyaeu Eaioa.

E. Eaio(1724-1824) ?iaeiia/aeueiee iaiaoeeie eeanne/aneie oeeinioee. A
aeie?eoe/aneee ia?eiae aunooiae, i?aaeaea anaai, eae e?oiiue o/aiue –
ano?iiii, oecee, aaia?ao. Aio i?eiaaeeaaeeo ia?aainoai a iainiiaaiee
caaeneiinoe i?eeeaia e ioeeaia io iieiaeaiey eoiu, a oaeaea iainiiaaiea
iao/iie aeiioacu i i?ienoiaeaeaiee nieia/iie nenoaiu ec aeaaioneie
aaciaie ooiaiiinoe. Yoa aeiioaca e nae/an i?iaeieaeaao ?anniao?eaaoueny
ano?iiiiaie eae iaeei ec aiciiaeiuo aa?eaioia i?ienoiaeaeaiey Anaeaiiie.

Aoi?ie ia?eiae oai?/anoaa Eaioa iacaai “e?eoe/aneei”. “E?eoeeaie”
iacaaiu iniiaiua i?iecaaaeaiey yoiai ia?eiaea: “E?eoeea /enoiai ?acoia”,
“E?eoeea i?aeoe/aneiai ?acoia”, “E?eoeea niiniaiinoe noaeaeaiey”. ana
yoe ?aaiou naycaiu aaeeiui caiuneii e i?aaenoaaeytho niaie
iineaaeiaaoaeueiua nooiaie iainiiaaiey nenoaiu o?ainoeaiaeaioaeueiiai
eaeaaeecia(oae Eaio iacuaae naith oeeinioneoth nenoaio.

Eaio inouanoaee ei?aiiie ia?aai?io a iinoaiiaea e ?aoaiee oeeinioneeo
i?iaeai. Aei Eaioa noauaeoeaiia ia/aei ?anniao?eaaeinue eae iiiaoa ia
iooe e enoeiiiio iiciaieth, eae oi, /oi caoaiiyao e eneaaeaao enoeiiia
iieiaeaiea aauae. O Eaioa aea aicieeaao caaea/a: onoaiiaeoue ?acee/ea
iaaeaeo noauaeoeaiuie e iauaeoeaiuie yeaiaioaie ciaiey a naiii noauaeoa,
a aai ?acee/iuo o?iaiyo e no?oeoo?ao. Eaio ia?ainiuneeaaao iiiyoea
noauaeoa e aia?aua a oeeinioee noaaeo aii?in i anaiauiinoe noauaeoa.

Oai?eth iiciaiey Eaioa iiaeii i?aaenoaaeoue neaaeothuei ia?acii:
nouanoaotho aaue naie ii naaa. Yoe aaue aeaenoaotho ia i?aaiu /oanoa
/aeiaaea, ii?iaeaeatho iiiaiia?aciua iuouaiey. Oaeea iuouaiey
oii?yaei/eaathony aeiiiuoiuie oi?iaie /oanoaaiiinoe – i?ino?ainoaii e
a?aiaiai, o. a. ?aniieaaathony a o?aaeeoeeiiiii ecia?aiee e oeene?othony
eae aeeeoaeueiinoue. Ia iniiaa yoeo i?aia?aciaaiee oi?ie?othony
aini?eyoey, eioi?ua iinyo noauaeoeaiue e eiaeeaeaeoaeueiue oa?aeoa?.
Aeayoaeueiinoue ?annoaeea ia iniiaa oi?i iuoeaiey – iiiyoee e eaoaai?ee
– i?eaeaao yoei aini?eyoeyi anaiauee e iaiaoiaeeiue oa?aeoa?. Oaeei
ia?acii, aauue naia ii naaa /a?ac eaiaeu i?aaiia /oanoa, oi?io
/oanoaaiiinoe e ?annoaeea noaea aeinoiyieai niciaiey noauaeoa, “yaeeanue
aio”, e ii iiaeao aeaeaoue i iae ii?aaeaeaiiua oiicaeeth/aiey. Aaue, eae
iie nouanoaotho a niciaiee noauaeoa, Eaio iacuaae yaeaieyie. *aeiaae, ii
iiaieth Eaioa, iiaeao ciaoue oieueei yaeaiey. Eaeiau aaue naie ii naaa,
o. a. eaeiau eo ea/anoai e naienoaa eo acaeiiioiioaiey aia niciaiey
noauaeoa, /aeiaae ia ciaao e ciaoue ia iiaeao. Ii ciaao i aauao oieueei
a oie oi?ia, eae iie aeaiu aai niciaieth. Iiyoiio aaue naie ii naaa aeey
/aeiaaea noaiiayony “aauaie a – naaa”, iaiiciaiiuie, ia?ane?uouie.

Eaio n/eoae, /oi o /aeiaaea iao n?aaenoaa onoaiiaeoue naycue,
niiinoaaeoue “aaue naie ii naaa” e yaeaiey . Ionthaea auoaeae auaiae ia
ia?aie/aiiinoe aiciiaeiinoae a iiciaiee oi?i /oanoaaiiinoe e ?annoaeea.
Oi?iai /oanoaaiiinoe e ?annoaeea aeinooiai oieueei ie? iiuoa. Ana, /oi
iaoiaeeony ca i?aaeaeaie iiuoa, – oiiiinoeaaaiue ie? – iiaeao auoue
aeinooiai oieueei ?acoio. ?acoi – yoi aunoay niiniaiinoue noauaeoa,
eioi?ay ?oeiaiaeeo aeayoaeueiinoueth ?annoaeea, noaaeo ia?aae iei oeaee.
?acoi iia?e?oao eaeayie. Eaeae o Eaioa – yoi ia naa?o/oanoaaiiua
nouiinoe, iaeaaeathuea ?aaeueiui auoeai e iinoeaaaiua n iiiiuueth
?acoia(Ieaoii). Eaeae – yoi i?aaenoaaeaiey i oeaee, e eioi?ie no?aieony
iaoa iiciaiea, i caaea/ao eioi?ua iii ia?aae niaie noaaeo. Eaeae ?acoia
auiieiytho ?aaoee?othuoth ooieoeeth a iiciaiee, iiaoaeaeay ?annoaeie e
aeayoaeueiinoe. Iiaoaeaeaaiue ?acoiii, ?annoaeie no?aieony e
aaniethoiiio ciaieth e auoiaeeo ca i?aaeaeu iiuoa. Ii aai n?aaenoaa –
iiiyoey e eaoaai?ee – aeaenoaotho oieueei a yoeo i?aaeaeao. Iiyoiio
?annoaeie aiaaeaao a eeethcee, caioouaaaony a i?ioeai?a/eyo.
Aeieacaoaeuenoao iieiaeaiey i oii, /oi eaeayi ?acoia ia iiaeao
niioaaonoaiaaoue ?aaeueiue iauaeo, /oi ?acoi iie?aaony ia iieiua eaeae,
neoaeeo o/aiea Eaioa ia aioeiiieyo ?acoia. Aioeiiiee – yoi
i?ioeai?a/eaua acaeiieneeth/athuea iieiaeaiey. Iai?eia?, anee iu
aicueiai eaeath ie?a a oeaeii, oi, ieacuaaaony iiaeii aeieacaoue
ni?aaaaeeeainoue aeaoo i?ioeai?a/aueo ae?oa ae?oao ooaa?aeaeaiee: ie?
eiia/ai e ie? aaneiia/ai a i?ino?ainoaa e a?aiaie. Aioeiiiee eiatho
ianoi oai, aaea n iiiiuueth eiia/iiai /aeiaa/aneiai ?acoia iuoathony
aeaeaoue caeeth/aiey ia i ie?a iiuoa, a i ie?a “aauae naieo ii naaa”.

22.2 Niciaiea e io?aaeaiea. Aaiacen niciaiey. Io?aaeaiea. Eioi?iaoeey.
Oi?aaeaiea.

A i?eioeeieaeueiii nii?a iaaeaeo iniiaiuie eaaa?yie oeeinioee aie?oa
nouiinoe niciaiey, aai ioiioaiey e auoeth, iaoa?ee iaeaieaa ino?ui e
o?oaeiui aeey iaoa?eaeenoe/aneie oeeinioee aue aii?in i i?ienoiaeaeaiee
niciaiey ec iaoa?ee. Aeey eaeaaeecia, ionoaeaaaoaio noanoaioeeiiiue
oa?aeoa? aeooa, niciaiey, e aeey aeoaeecia, aeiioneaaoaio ia?aeeaeueiia
nouanoaiaaiea iaoa?ee e aeooiaiie noanoaioeee, yoiai aii?ina,
anoanoaaiii ia aicieeaei.

Yiaaeuen, ?acaeaeyy iiceoeeth Nieiicu a yoii aii?ina, aiai?eo, /oi
iaoa?ey au?aaaouaaao a i?ioeanna ainoiaeyuaai ?acaeoey naieo oi?i
oaeea naienoaa e niiniaiinoe , aa?oeiie eioi?uo yaeyaony “iuneyuee
aeoo”. Eaeiau aea oa iniiaaiey a caeaiee iaoa?ee, ia iaeaaeathuae
ecia/aeueii niciaieai , eioi?ua aeaeatho aiciiaeiui yoi ?acaeoea, ia
yoio aii?in aeaee ioaao iieiaeaiey Eaieia ia io?aaeaiee eae anaiauai
naienoaa iaoa?ee ,eioi?ia aunooiaao naiaai ?iaea naycothuei caaiii
iaaeaeo iaoa?eae iuouathuae e iaoa?eae iaiuouathuae,

Oa?aeoa?ecoy io?aaeaiea eae naienoai, eaaeauaa a ooiaeaiaioa naiie
iaoa?ee e naycaiiia n yooaeoaie ethauo iaoa?eaeueiuo acaeiiaeaenoaee,
aeeaeaeoeei-iaoa?eaeenoe/aneay oeeinioey oi?ioee?oao enoiaeiua
i?aaeiinueee aeey iiieiaiey aaiacena iuouaiee, ineoeee, /aeiaa/aneiai
niciaiey . Aaaeiaeoae ec yoeo i?aaeiinueie yaeyaony iieiaeaiea i oii ,
/oi ethaua oi?iu aeaeu io?aaeaiey, ineoeee, niciaiey aicieeatho e
nouanoaotho a ?aieao acaeiiaeaenoaey iaoa?eaeueiuo ia?aciaaiee e nenoai
, iaoiaeyueony ia ?aciuo o?iaiyo ?acaeoey .

Eaieineia iiiyoea io?aaeaiey e iniiaaiiay ia iai oai?ey io?aaeaiey
aeatho oai?aoe/aneoth e iaoiaeieiae/aneoth iniiao aeey aiaeeca aaiacena
niciaiey eae io?aaeaiey a aiinaieiae/aneii niunea.

Ana yaeaiey, iauaeou ,i?ioeannu aani?anoaiii acaeiiaeaenoaotho iaaeaeo
niaie e a oiaea yoiai acaeiiaeaenoaey i?aoa?iaaatho ii?aaeaeaiiua
eciaiaiey. Eaaeaeue ec iaoa?eaeueiuo iauaeoia, aicaeaenoaoy ia ae?oaea e
aucuaay a ieo niioaaonoaothuea eciaiaiey, inoaaeyao oai naiui
ii?aaeaeaiiue neaae a oii iauaeoa ia eioi?ue ii aicaeaenoaoao. Iai?eia?,
eaiaiue eaaeauee ia nieioea iaa?aaaaony.

Aaaeiaeoei oaaii a yaiethoeee iaoa?ee io iaiuouathuae e iuouathuae e
aeaeaa e iaoa?ee eioi?ay iaeaaeaao ineoeeie e niciaieai , yaeyaony
aicieeiiaaiea eioi?iaoeeiiiiai io?aaeaiey , ia?aoiae io io?aaeaiey eae
anaiauaai naienoaa iaoa?ee (eioi?ia i?enoua ethaui aeaeai
iaoa?eaeueiiai acaeiiaeaenoaey ) e eniieueciaaieth neaaeia, ioia/aoeia
aicaeaenoaey iaeieo iaoa?eaeueiuo nenoai ia ae?oaea aeey aeoeaiie
i?eaioaoeee a aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe.

I?e i?inoaeoeo oi?iao io?aaeaiey, eioi?ua iu iiaeai iaaethaeaoue a
iaaeeaie i?e?iaea ioia/aoie iaeiiai iauaeoa ia ae?oaie ia noaiiaeony
aeey iineaaeiaai eaeei-eeai i?eaioe?ii a aai nianoaaiiie aeoeaiinoe.
Iiaeii iiyoiio iacaaoue io?aaeaiea , naycaiiia n aeoeaiui
eniieueciaaieai ?acoeueoaoia aiaoieo aicaeaenoaee A eioi?iaoeeiiiui.
Eioi?iaoeeth a aeaiiii eiioaenoa neaaeoao iiieiaoue aeinoaoi/ii oe?iei ;
eae naienoai yaeaiee auoue iiaoaeeoaeai ecaanoiuo aeaenoaee
,niinianoaiaaoue aeoeaiie i?eaioaoeee a ie?oaeathuai ie?a .

I?e eioi?iaoeeiiiii io?aaeaiee aiaoiaa aicaeaenoaea aeeyao ia eciaiaiea
ninoiyiey nenoaiu ia i?yii , a einaaiii. Yoi aicaeaenoaea iiin?aaeoaony
i?eaaaeaieai a aeoeaiia ninoiyiea caeiaeaiiie a iaoa?eaeueiie nenoaia
aioo?aiiae i?ia?aiiu iino?iaiey aeaeaeaiey. Eioi?iaoeeiiii-neaiaeueiue
oa?aeoa? aiaoiaai aicaeaenoaey ii?aaeaeyaony ia naienoaaie yoiai
aicaeaenoaey eae oaeiaiai – neaaeai, aai yia?aaoe/aneeie naienoaaie ,- a
niiniaiinoyie io?aaeathuae nenoaiu ii?aaeaeaiiui ia?acii eniieueciaaoue
yoi aicaeaenoaea a ea/anoaa n?aaenoaa aeey i?eaioaoeee nenoaiu.

Aaiaoe/anee enoiaeiie oi?iie io?aaeaiey , niaoeeoe/aneie aeey aeeaie
i?e?iaeu, yaeyaony ?acae?aaeeiinoue. Iiae ?acae?aaeeiinoueth iiieiaaony
niiniaiinoue i?aaiecia e i?inoaeoei niaoeeoe/aneei ?aaeoeeyi a ioaao ia
aeaenoaea ii?aaeaeaiiuo ?acae?aaeeoaeae. Iai?eia?, ?anoaiea cae?uaaao
eee ioe?uaaao naie eaianoee iiae aicaeaenoaeai naaoa e oaie.

Neaaeothuee yoai a ?acaeoee oi?i io?aaeaiey a aeeaie i?e?iaea
caeeth/aaony a iiyaeaiee /oanoaaiiinoe (niiniaiinoe e iuouaieth). Anee
?acae?aaeeiinoue i?enoua e ?anoaieyi, oi iuouaiey – oi?ia io?aaeaiey,
niaoeeoe/iay aeey aeeaioiiai ie?a .

Io?aaeaiea ia iniiaa ia?aiie nenoaiu, eee iae?ioeceieiae/aneia
io?aaeaiea, yaeyaony aeaeueiaeoei yoaiii ?acaeoey oi?i io?aaeaiey

Ia noaaeee ineoe/aneiai io?aaeaiey iieo/aao naia ?acaa?iooia au?aaeaiea
i?enouay anyeiio io?aaeaieth a aeeaie i?e?iaea aeeaeaeoeea aioo?aiiae
aeoeaiinoe e aiaoiaai aicaeaenoaey. Eiuie neiaaie, io?aaeaiea
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie neiaeiia aeeaeaeoe/aneia aaeeinoai
i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoae – aicaeaenoaey aiaoiae n?aaeu e ?aaeecaoeee
aioo?aiieo oeaeae onoaiiaie i?ia?aii aeeaiai nouanoaa i?e iino?iaiee ei
aaeaeaaoiie noaiu iiaaaeaiey, ioaa/athuae eae ?aaeueiie neooaoeee, oae e
aioo?aiiei oeaeyi e iio?aaiinoyi.

22.3 Eoeueoo?a eae ao?eaoo iauanoaaiiiai /aeiaaea, aai
aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe.

Oa?iei “eoeueoo?a” eaoeineiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey e ia?aiia/aeueii icia/ae
aicaeaeuaaiea ii/au, aa “eoeueoeae?iaaiea”, oi anoue eciaiaiea a
i?e?iaeiii iauaeoa iiae aicaeaenoaeai /aeiaaea, aai aeayoaeueiinoe a
ioee/ea io oao eciaiaiee, eioi?ua aucaaiu anoanoaaiiuie i?e/eiaie.

A aeaeueiaeoai neiai “eoeueoo?a” iieo/eei aieaa iaiauaiiia cia/aiea e ei
noaee iacuaaoue ana nicaeaiiia /aeiaaeii. A oaeii iiieiaiee eoeueoo?u
aeaenoaeoaeueii io?aaeathony ana aa nouanoaaiiua /a?ou. Eoeueoo?a
i?aaenoaao eae nioai?aiiay /aeiaaeii “aoi?ay i?e?iaea”, iaaeno?iaiiay
iaae i?e?iaeie anoanoaaiiie, eae ie?, nicaeaiiue /aeiaaeii, a ioee/ea io
aeaanoaaiiie i?e?iaeu.

?acee/atho iaoa?eaeueioth e aeooiaioth eoeueoo?o. Ia neaaeoao, iaeiaei,
i?ioeaiiinoaaeyoue eo ae?oa ae?oao. ssnii, /oi i?aaeiaou iaoa?eaeueiie e
aeooiaiie eoeueoo?u iiaeii eniieueciaaoue ii-?aciiio. I?oaeey o?oaea e
i?iecaaaeaiey noaieiaie aeeaiiene neoaeao ?aciui oeaeyi. Oae /oi
ooieoeeiiaeueiia ?acee/ea iaaeaeo iaoa?eaeueiie e aeooiaiie eoeueoo?ie
aeaenoaeoaeueii nouanoaoao. Ii aianoa n oai e oi e ae?oaia yaeyaony
eoeueoo?ie, ianouae a naaa iaoa?eaeueiia e aeooiaiia a eo aaeeinoaa. A
iaoa?eaeueiie eoeueoo?a caeeth/aii oi?ie?othuaa aa aeooiaiia ia/aei,
iineieueeo iia anaaaea anoue aiieiuaiea ciaiee, eaeae, oeaeae /aeiaaea,
/oi oieueei e aeaeaao aa eoeueoo?ie; i?iaeoeou aea aeooiaiie eoeueoo?u
anaaaea iaea/aiu a iaoa?eaeueioth oi?io, eai oaeei ia?acii iie iiaoo
auoue iauaeoeae?iaaiu e noaoue oaeoii iauanoaaiiie aeecie. Ana yoi aeaao
iniiaaiea aiai?eoue i eoeueoo?a eae oaeiaie, iacaaeneii io aeaeaiey aa
ia iaoa?eaeueioth e aeooiaioth.

Nouanoaoao ii?aaeaeaiea eoeueoo?u eae niaieoiiinoe nicaeaiiuo /aeiaaeii
oeaiiinoae. O. a. ie? eoeueoo?u – yoi ie? iaoa?eaeueiuo e eaeaaeueiuo,
aeooiaiuo oeaiiinoae, o. a. ie? iauaeoia iaoa?eaeueiuo e eaeaaeueiuo,
acyouo a aai ioiioaiee e /aeiaaeo, ie?, iaiieiaiiue /aeiaa/aneeie
niuneaie. O?aeoiaea eoeueoo?u eae nenoaiu oeaiiinoae ia?aie/eaaao
eoeueoo?o io i?e?iaeu e iaeiia?aiaiii ia iicaieyao ioiaeaeanoaeyoue aa
n iauanoaii. I?e oaeii ii?aaeaeaiee eoeueoo?a aunooiaao eae
ii?aaeaeaiiue aniaeo iauanoaa e oai naiui i?iyniyaony aa nioeeaeueiay
i?e?iaea.

Ec ii?aaeaeaiee eoeueoo?u neaaeoao /oi ethaia aiaoiaa au?aaeaiea
eoeueoo?u anoue i?iyaeaiea noaiaie ?acaeoey naiiai /aeiaaea. Acyoia
iainiaeaiii io /aeiaaea, iaoa?eaeueiia “oaei eoeueoo?u” eeoaaony
aeeiaieee, aeaeaeaiey, aeecie. A ?aaeueiay, aeeaay eoeueoo?a iaioaeaeeia
io iauanoaaiiiai /aeiaaea – noauaeoa eoeueoo?u, niioianaiiiai n
nicaeaiiui ei iauaeoiui ie?ii. Nai /aeiaae oi?ie?oao naay a i?ioeanna
naiae aeayoaeueiinoe eae eoeueoo?ii-enoi?e/aneia nouanoai. Aai
/aeiaa/aneea ea/anoaa anoue ?acoeueoao onaiaiey ei ycuea, i?eiauaiey e
nouanoaothuei a iauanoaa oeaiiinoyi, o?aaeeoeeyi, iaeaaeaiey i?enoueie
aeaiiie eoeueoo?a i?eaiaie e iaaueaie aeayoaeueiinoe e o. ae.
Aeieiae/anee aea /aeiaaeo aeaaony oieueei i?aaieci, iaeaaeathuee
ii?aaeaeaiiui no?iaieai, caaeaoeaie, ooieoeeyie. Iiyoiio aoaeao ia
i?aoaaee/aieai neacaoue, /oi eoeueoo?a i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ia?o
/aeiaa/aneiai a /aeiaaea, oa?aeoa?enoeeo ?acaeoey /aeiaaea eae
iauanoaaiiiai nouanoaa.

Eoeueoo?a nouanoaoao a iinoiyiiii acaeiiaeaenoaee naiaai aiaoiaai
iaoa?eaeeciaaiiiai au?aaeaiey n naiei /aeiaaeii. Yoi acaeiiaeaenoaea
ninoieo a oii, /oi /aeiaae onaaeaaao nicaeaiioth ?aiaa eoeueoo?o,
?ani?aaeia/eaaao aa. aeaeay oai naiui i?aaeiinueeie naiae
aeayoaeueiinoe, e oai?eo eoeueoo?o, nicaeaaae iiaia, ii?aaeia/eaay naie
ciaiey e oeaiiinoe, oiaiey e niiniaiinoe, naith ?iaeiaoth /aeiaa/aneoth
nouiinoue.

23.1 Nioeeaeueii-iieeoe/aneay oai?ey e yoeea Eaioa.

Ianoiyoaeueioth ?ac?aaioeo eaioianeay eiioeaioeey ii?aee iieo/eea a
“Iniiaao iaoaoeceee i?aanoaaiiinoe”(1785), “E?eoeea i?aeoe/aneiai
?acoia”(1788), “Iaoaoeceea i?aaia”(1797).

Iiieiaiea iniiaaiee e nooe i?aanoaaiiuo i?aaee, ?aaoee?othueo ioiioaiey
iaaeaeo ethaeueie, Eaio n/eoae iaeiie ec aaaeiaeoeo caaea/ oeeinioee.
“Aeaa aaue, – cayaeye ii, – iaiieiytho aeooo iiaui e ana aieaa neeueiui
aeaaiaiaaieai, – /ai /aua e i?iaeieaeeoaeueiaa iu ?aciuoeyai i ieo, –
yoi caacaeiia iaai iaaei iiie e ii?aeueiue caeii ai iia”. Ioaa?aay
?aeeaeicii-oaieiae/aneee oacen i aiaionoaiiaeaiiinoe i?aanoaaiiuo
i?aaee, Eaio aianoa n oai ia aeiioneae aiciiaeiinoe eo
nioeeaeueii-enoi?e/aneiai oi?ie?iaaiey ia iniiaa aeeciaiiiai iiuoa
ethaeae. Eaio o?aeoiaae “ii?aeueiue caeii” eae iaee/iue a niciaiee anao
ethaeae a aeaea iaeciaiiie aeaiiinoe, eiathuae aaniethoioth oeaiiinoue
e neeiiai aue oniao?eaaoue a iai aua iaeio ai?ei?ioth oi?io niciaiey.

Iiiyoea “aeia?ay aiey” eiaei ooiaeaiaioaeueiia cia/aiea a iino?iaiee
eaioianeie “iaoaoeceee i?aanoaaiiinoe” eae o/aiee ia ai?ei?iuo
iniiaaieyo iineaaeiae. Nooue aeia?ie aiee ii aeaeae a oii, /oi iia
anaoeaei e eneeth/eoaeueii ii?aaeaeyaony “ii?aeueiui caeiiii”, n eioi?ui
iia oaeoe/anee neeaaaony. Eaioianeay “iaoaoeceea i?aanoaaiiinoe”
aeaeathuay aeoeaio ia aeia?ie aiea, aiana ia i?ioeaiiinoaaeyao aieth
?acoio e iioiio ia i?eia?aea e??aoeeiiaeenoe/aneiai oa?aeoa?a.
Iaiai?io, iia eioaeaeooaeece?oao aieth aieioue aei ioiaeaeanoaeaiey aa n
“i?aeoe/aneei ?acoiii”, o. e. “aeey auaaaeaiey iinooieia ec caeiiia
o?aaoaony ?acoi”. Iaiaoiaeeiui eiiiiiaioii eaioianeiai o/aiey i aeia?ie
aiea aue oacen i aa aaoiiiiee, iiieiaaiie eae iieiay iacaaeneiinoue yoie
aiee io eaeiai-eeai aiaoiaai ii ioiioaieth e iae iaoneaaeeaaiey.

I?aeoe/aneea iniiaiiieiaeaiey, niaea?aeauea a naaa iauaa ii?aaeaeaiey
i?aanoaaiiie aiee, Eaio iiae?acaeaeye ia iaeneiu e eiia?aoeau. Iaeneia –
yoi “noauaeoeaiue i?eioeei aieaiey” , cia/eiue aeey iaeiiai eeoea, a
eiia?aoea – “iauaeoeaiue” – niunea iauacia/eiinoe “i?eioeei aieaiey”,
eiathuee neeo aeey aiee eaaeaeiai ?acoiiiai nouanoaa. Eiia?aoeau
aeaeyony Eaioii ia “aeiioaoe/aneea”, eniieiaiea eioi?uo naycuaaaony n
iaee/eai ii?aaeaeaiiuo oneiaee e “eaoaai?e/aneea”, eioi?ua iaycaoaeueiu
i?e anao oneiaeyo, e cia/eo, iacaaeneiu ie io eaeeo oneiaee. Ii Eaioo
nouanoaoao oieueei iaeei eaoaai?e/aneee eiia?aoea eae aunoee caeii
i?aanoaaiiinoe. A eoiaiaii aeaea ii cao/eo oae: “Iinooiae oae, /oiau
iaeneia oaiae aiee iiaea a oi aea a?aiy eiaoue neeo i?eioeeia anaiauaai
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa”.

Ioaa?aay oaieiae/aneia iiieiaiea enoi?ee, Eaio aue nieeaea?ai n
i?inaaoeoaeueneie oeeinioeae enoi?ee a onoaiiaea ia iauyniaiee aa
eneeth/eoaeueii anoanoaaiiuie i?e/eiaie. A i?iaaaeaiee yoie onoaiiaee
Eaio aue ianoieueei iineaaeiaaoaeai, /oi ec naiae oeeinioee enoi?ee ii
eneeth/ee iauyniaiea /aeiaa/aneeo iinooieia naiaiaeiie aieae ethaeae.
Eaeia au iiiyoea, – ienae Eaio, – iu ie ninoaaei naaa n iaoaoece/aneie
oi/ee c?aiey i naiaiaea aiee, /aeiaa/aneea iinooiee, iiaeiaii anyeiio
ae?oaiio yaeaieth i?e?iaeu, ii?aaeaeythony iaueie caeiiaie i?e?iaeu”.

Eaio cayaeyao, /oi enoi?ey niaa?oaaony “niaeanii ii?aaeaeaiiiio ieaio
i?e?iaeu” e niaa?oaaony iioiio, /oi ana i?e?iaeiua caaeaoee aeeaiai
nouanoaa i?aaeiacia/aiu aeey niaa?oaiiiai e oeaeaniia?aciiai ?acaeoey”;
nioeeaeueiue oa?aeoa? enoi?ey eiaao aneaaenoaea oiai, /oi i?e?iaeiua
caaeaoee /aeiaaea… ?acaeaathony iieiinoueth ia a eiaeeaeaea, a a
?iaea”.

Ii naiaio niaea?aeaieth aai oeeinioey enoi?ee yaeyaony
eoeueoo?ii-nioeeaeueiie. Noaiiaeaiea e ?acaeoea /aeiaa/anoaa, aai
i?ia?ann Eaio iiieiaao eae ?acoeueoao aeayoaeueiinoe naieo ethaeae,
nicaeathueo oi. /aai ia nouanoaoao a i?e?iaea, e aeaaiaea?y yoiio
inaiaiaeaeathueony io oie iiae/eiaiiinoe, a eaeie iaoiaeyony ii
ioiioaieth e iae aeeaioiua.

A noeioee?iaaiee niceaeaoaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe Eaio i?eaeaaae aaaeiia
cia/aiea eiioeeeoiui ioiioaieyi iaaeaeo ethaeueie, aicieeathueo ec-ca
i?enoueo ei, n iaeiie noi?iiu, yaienoe/aneeo iiaoaeaeaiee, a n ae?oaie
noi?iiu, aeanoiethaey, /anoiethaea, ei?unoiethaea. Ii Eaioo, aac
iaaaoeaiuo n ii?aeueiie oi/ee c?aiey no?anoae “ana i?aainoiaeiua
i?e?iaeiua caaeaoee /aeiaa/anoaa inoaeenue au iaanaaaea ia?acaeouie”.
I?e oa?aeoa?enoeea yoeo no?anoae Eaio noaaee aeeaeaeoe/aneoth i?iaeaio
?iee i?ioeai?a/ee e aioaaiieciia a enoi?e/aneii i?ia?anna, ioeaieaay aa
iiceoeaii e aanueia auniei.

?ane?uaay naie nioeeaeueiue eaeaae, Eaio oeacuaae, /oi “a?aaeaeaineia
ono?ienoai a eaaeaeii ainoaea?noaa aeieaeii auoue ?anioaeeeaineei”,
iiieiay iiae yoei “ono?ienoai, niaeanii n i?eioeeiaie naiaiaeu /eaiia
iauanoaa(eae ethaeae), ai-aoi?uo, a niioaaonoaee n iniiaiiieiaeaieyie i
caaeneiinoe anao (eae iiaeaiiuo ) io aaeeiiai e iauaai
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa, e, a-o?aoueeo, ii caeiio ?aaainoaa anao (eae
a?aaeaeai ainoaea?noaa).Iaeiaei Eaio i?iaiaeee iuneue i oii, /oi
iaeeo/oei ia?acii i?eioeeiu ?anioaeeeaineiai i?aaeaiey iiaoo auoue
inouanoaeaiu a ainoaea?noaa, aicaeaaeyaiii iiia?oii, eioi?ue
?oeiaiaenoaoaony oie iauae aieae a?aaeaeai, eaeoth aaeaeaaoii au?aaeatho
oeeiniou.

Aaaeiaeoaa ianoi a nioeeaeueii-enoi?e/aneie oeeinioee Eaioa caieiaee
i?iaeaiu aieiu e ie?a. Ii Eaioo, aa/iue ie? – yoi noieue aea
ea?aeeiaeueiay oeaeue e caaea/a anaie?ii-enoi?e/aneiai i?ia?anna, eae e
onoaiiaeaiea anaiauaai i?aaiaiai a?aaeaeaineiai ninoiyiey: oi e ae?oaia
iaoiaeeony a ia?ac?uaiie nayce iaaeaeo niaie. Iaania/aiea yoie oeaee
Eaio aeaeeo a caeeth/aiee aeiaiai?a i aa/iii ie?a iaaeaeo
ainoaea?noaaie.

Caaa?oathuaa caaii a oeaie iieiaeaiee nioeeaeueii-enoi?e/aneie
oeeinioee Eaioa – yoi ooaa?aeaeaiea i?eiaoa ii?aee iaae iieeoeeie. A
yoii ooaa?aeaeaiee ii au?aaeaao oi/eo c?aiey ia i?aeoe/aneee ?acoi eae
nouanoaaiii yoe/aneee, ninoiyuee a niiniaiinoe ai?ei?e ii?aaeaeyoue
i?aanoaaiiinoue. Inoaeaeay i?aaiaoe/iiai iieeoeea ,”aeey eioi?iai
ii?aeue anoue oieueei oai?ey”, Eaio cayaeyao: Ii?aeue oaea naia ii naaa
i?aeoeea a iauaeoeaiii niunea eae niaieoiiinoue aaconeiaii iiaaeaaathueo
caeiiia, a niioaaonoaee n eioi?uie iu aeieaeiu aanoe naay”. E?eoa?ee
ioeaiee iieeoe/aneeo aeaenoaee n oi/ee c?aiey i?aanoaaiiinoe – yoi
“i?eioeei ioaee/iinoe”. Ii aai iiaieth “iani?aaaaeeeau ana ioiinyueany e
i?aao ae?oaeo ethaeae iinooiee, iaeneiu eioi?uo ianiaianoeiu n
ioaee/iinoueth”.

23.2 Aicieeiiaaiea e ?acaeoea /aeiaa/aneiai niciaiey, aai nioeeaeueiay
i?e?iaea. Niciaiea e ycue.

O?aaeeoeeiiii niciaiea ii?aaeaeytho eae aunooth, naienoaaiioth oieueei
/aeiaaeo ooieoeeth aieiaiiai iicaa, nouiinoue eioi?ie caeeth/aaony a
oeaeaiai?aaeaiiii io?aaeaiee iauaeoeaiuo naienoa i?aaeiaoia aiaoiaai
ie?a, a i?aaeaa?eoaeueiii iniuneaiiii iino?iaiee aeaenoaee e
i?aaeaeaeaiee eo ?acoeueoaoia, a i?aaeaa?eoaeueiii ?aaoee?iaaiee e
naii?aaoee?iaaiee acaeiiioiioaiee /aeiaaea n iauanoaaiiie e i?e?iaeiie
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoueth.

Noaiaoe/anee yaiethoeey iaoa?ee e oi?ie?iaaieth niciaiey i?aaeiieaaaao
nouanoaiaaiea aeinoaoi/ii ?acaeoie e iiiaiia?aciie aeinoa?u, eioi?ay ia
ii?aaeaeaiiii yoaia yaiethoeee ia/eiaao iaeaaeaoue ineoeeie, eiaoue
ia?aioth nenoaio. *aeiaaeiia?aciua iaacueyiu, iiyaeaoeany a eiioea
ieeioeaia(ieiei 5 iei. eao iacaae ) ia/eiatho ia?aaaouaaoue eaiie,
nicaeaaaoue i?oaeey o?oaea, iiyoiio niaianoiay aeayoaeueiinoue, a aianoa
n iae e /eaii?acaeaeueiay ?a/ue yaeeenue naiuie aeaaiuie noeioeaie. iiae
aeeyieai eioi?uo iica iaacueyiu a oa/aiee iiiaeo nioai ouny/ eao
iinoiyiii i?aa?auaaony a /aeiaa/aneee iica.

Ioee/ea iuneeoaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe /aeiaaea e aeeaioiiai caeeth/aaony
a oii, /oi /aeiaae iaeaaeaao au?aaioaiiie a i?ioeanna iuoeaiey ?a/ueth,
noi?ie?iaaaoae o iaai ia?yaeo n ia?aciui aano?aeoiia iuoeaiea, sscueiaia
iuoeaiea yaeyaony iaeiie ec oi?i aeaenoaeoaeueiiai iuoeaiey /aeiaaea,
i?e/ai oaeie aai oi?iie, eioi?ay ?acei ioee/aaony io ae?oaeo. Iii
i?aaeiieaaaao eaeaaeueiia io?aaeaiea aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe e aa iniuneaiea
ia a aeaea aia/aoeaiee e ia?acia, a eae “eaeaaeece?iaaiiuo i?aaeiaoia”,
o.a., /a?ac cia/aiea neia, ciaeia e neiaieia, Aano?aeoiia iuoeaiea
aianei ea/anoaaiiua eciaiaiey a ?acaeoea /aeiaaea e anaai /aeiaa/anoaa,

Oie nenoaiie, aioo?e eioi?ie aicieeaao e ?acaeaaaony niciaiea aunooiaao
niaoeeoe/anee /aeiaa/aneee niinia auoey a ie?a, acaeiiaeaenoaey n ie?ii.
Oaeei niiniaii /aeiaae yaeyaony i?aeoeea. Inouanoaeyy
i?aeoe/anei-i?aia?aciaaoaeueioth aeayoaeueiinoue, /aeiaae nicaeaao naia
“iai?aaie/aneia oaei”, “aoi?oth i?e?iaeo”, i?oaeey e n?aaenoaa
i?iecaiaenoa, niaoeeoe/anee-/aeiaa/aneoth n?aaeo iaeoaiey, no?ieo oi?iu
iauaiey e nioeeaeueiie i?aaiecaoeee, ei?i/a aiai?y, niceaeaao eoeueoo?o
.Iiuo yoiai niceaeaiey e ninoaaeyao niaea?aeaiea oao oa?aeoa?iuo aeey
iauanoaaiii ?acaeoiai /aeiaaea e ioee/athueony io ineoeee aeeaioiiai
oi?i io?aaeaiey, eioi?ua ia?acotho /aeiaa/aneia niciaiea.

Aicieeiiaaiea niciaiey naycaii, oaeei ia?acii , i?aaeaea anaai n
oi?ie?iaaieai eoeueoo?u ia iniiaa i?aeoe/anee-i?aia?aciaaoaeueiie
iauanoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoueth ethaeae, n iaiaoiaeeiinoueth cae?aieaiey,
oeenaoeee iaaueia, niiniaia, ii?i yoie aeayoaeueiinoe a iniauo oi?iao
io?aaeaiey.

A yoie aeeth/aiiinoe eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo aeaenoaee a niaianoioth
eieeaeoeaioth aeayoaeueiinoue ii oi?ie?iaaieth e aini?iecaiaenoao anao
oi?i eoeueoo?u e caeeth/aaony i?eioeeieaeueiua iniiaaiey iauanoaaiiie
i?e?iaeu /aeiaa/aneiai niciaiey.

Niciaiea yaeyaony aeinoiyieai /aeiaa/anoaa. Iaeiaei, iineoaeai niciaiey
yaeyaony eiie?aoiue eiaeeaeae, ee/iinoue, eioi?ue i?e ?iaeaeaiee
iaeaaeaao eeoue ineoeeie e a?iaeaeaiiuie caaeaoeaie e iuoeaieth. N
iiiaioa ?iaeaeaiey ?aaaiie aeeth/ai a nioeeaeueioth n?aaeo e iiae/eiai
o?aaeeoeeyi e ii?iai. Ia iniiaa iauaiey ni ac?ineuie ?aaaiie inaaeaaao e
i?enaaeaaao, aeaeaao naiei aioo?aiiei aeinoiyieai i?oaeeeiua e ciaeiaua
nenoaiu aeayoaeueiinoe, iieo/aao ii?aaeaeaiioth iai?aaeaiiinoue naiae
aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe e ?acaeaaao naie niiniaiinoe e ?aoeaenee,
naiieiio?ieth e naiiiao/aieth.

Aianoa n oai auei au iai?aaeeueii n/eoaoue, /oi eiaeeaeaeoaeueiia
niciaiea oi?ie?oaony oieueei iiae aeeyieai iauanoaa. *aeiaae anaaaea
yaeyaony noauaeoii e iineoaeai naiaiaeiie aiee, ii ioaaonoaaiai ca auai?
iai?aaeaiiinoe naiae aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe e nenoaiu oeaiiinoiie
i?eaioaoeee. Ianoiyoaeuenoaa aeaeatho /aeiaaea, ii e /aeiaae
ianoiyoaeuenoaa.

Aunoay ia?aiay (ineoe/aneay ) aeayoaeueiinoue /aeiaaea aeeth/aao o?e
o?iaiy: niciaiea, iiaeniciaiea e naa?oniciaiea (oai?/aneoth eiooeoeeth).
Niciaiea a yoii neo/aa ioiaeaeanoaeyaony ni ciaieai, eioi?ia iiaeao
auoue ia?aaeaii ae?oaei ethaeyi, e a yoii niunea iii iaycaoaeueii
aeieaeii auoue iaea/aii a ycueiaoth oi?io,

sscue neoaeeo eae oi?iie au?aaeaiey iunee, oae e n?aaenoaii iauaiey
ethaeae, Iiyoiio ycue anaaaea anoue yaeaiea nioeeaeueiia, ii ianao a
/aoeee eiie?aoii- enoi?e/aneee ioia/aoie e ii?iaeaeai
i?aaeiaoii-i?aeoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoueth ethaeae, eo iauanoaaiiuie
ioiioaieyie, eoeueoo?iuie o?aaeeoeeyie e iau/ayie, sscue oeene?oao,
cae?aieyao e nio?aiyao iaeiieaiiua ethaeueie ciaiey, ii?iu e oeaiiinoe
iauanoaa e ia?aaeaao eo ec iieieaiey a iieieaiea,

N iiiiuueth ycuea inouanoaeyaony ieaie?iaaiea aoaeoueo aeaenoaee, o.a.,
?aaeecoaony i?iaiinoe/aneay ooieoeey iuoeaiey, /oi ioee/aao /aeiaaea io
aeeaioiuo, Iuneue /aeiaa/aneay anaaaea ioi?ieaia ycueii, aia ycuea iiaoo
auoue ia?aaeaiu oieueei iin?aaenoaii ieieee eee aeanoia iayniua
iiaoaeaeaiey, aieaaua eiioeuenu, eioi?ua oioy e aaaeiu, iaeiaei
ian?aaieiu n ?a/ueth, ?ane?uaathuae caiuneu, /oanoaa e ia?aaeeaaiey
/aeiaaea,

23.3 Nioeeaeueiay no?oeoo?a. Nioeeaeueiua neie e iauiinoe.

Nioeeaeueiay no?oeoo?a – yoi onoie/eaay naycue yeaiaioia a nioeeaeueiie
nenoaia. Iniiaiuie yeaiaioaie nioeeaeueiie no?oeoo?u iauanoaa yaeythony
eiaeeaeaeu, caieiathuea ii?aaeaeaiiua iiceoeee (noaoon) e auiieiythuea
ii?aaeaeaiiua nioeeaeueiua ooieoeee (?iee), iauaaeeiaiea yoeo
eiaeeaeaeia ia iniiaa eo noaooniuo i?eciaeia a a?oiiu,
nioeeaeueii-oa??eoi?eaeueiua, yoie/aneea e eiua iauiinoe e o. ae.

Iiiyoea nioeeaeueiie no?oeoo?u a iauanoaa iau/ii oiio?aaeytho a
neaaeothueo iniiaiuo niuneao. A oe?ieii niunea nioeeaeueiay no?oeoo?a –
yoi no?iaiea iauanoaa a oeaeii, nenoaia naycae iaaeaeo anaie aai
iniiaiuie yeaiaioaie. I?e oaeii iiaeoiaea nioeeaeueiay no?oeoo?a
oa?aeoa?ecoao ana iiiai/eneaiiua aeaeu nioeeaeueiuo iauiinoae e
ioiioaiey iaaeaeo ieie. A oceii niunea oa?iei “nioeeaeueiay no?oeoo?a
iauanoaa“ /aua anaai i?eiaiyaony e nioeeaeueii-eeanniaui e
nioeeaeueii-a?oiiiaui iauiinoyi. Nioeeaeueiay no?oeoo?a a yoii niunea –
yoi niaieoiiinoue acaeiinaycaiiuo e acaeiiaeaenoaothueo ae?oa n ae?oaii
eeannia, nioeeaeueiuo neiaa e a?oii.

A nioeeieiaee nouanoaoao aieueoia iiiaeanoai eiioeaioeee nioeeaeueiie
no?oeoo?u iauanoaa, enoi?e/anee iaeiie ec ia?auo yaeyaony ia?enenoneia
o/aiea. A ia?enenoneie nioeeieiaee aaaeouaa ianoi ioaiaeeony
nioeeaeueii-eeanniaie no?oeoo?a iauanoaa. Nioeeaeueii-eeanniaay
no?oeoo?a iauanoaa, niaeanii yoiio iai?aaeaieth, i?aaenoaaeyao niaie
acaeiiaeaenoaea o?ao iniiaiuo yeaiaioia: eeannia, iauanoaaiiuo i?ineiae
e nioeeaeueiuo a?oii. ssae?ii nioeeaeueiie no?oeoo?u yaeythony eeannu.
Ia?eneci aeaeeo eeannu ia iniiaiua e ia iniiaiua. Iniiaiuie eeannaie
yaeythony oaeea, /uea nouanoaiaaiea iaiin?aaenoaaiii auoaeaao ec
ainiiaenoaothueo a aeaiiie iauanoaaiiie oi?iaoeee yeiiiie/aneeo
ioiioaiee, i?aaeaea anaai, ioiioaiee nianoaaiiinoe: ?aau e
?aaiaeaaeaeueoeu, e?anoueyia e oaiaeaeu, i?ieaoa?ee e ao?aeoacey. Ia
iniiaiua – yoi inoaoee i?aaeieo eeannia a iiaie
iauanoaaiii-yeiiiie/aneie oi?iaoeee eee ca?iaeaeathueany eeannu, eioi?ua
i?eaeoo ia niaio iniiaiui e ninoaayo iniiao eeanniaiai aeaeaiey a iiaie
oi?iaoeee. Iiieii iniiaiuo e ia iniiaiuo eeannia no?oeoo?iui yeaiaioii
iauanoaa yaeythony iauanoaaiiua neie (eee i?ineieee). Nioeeaeueiua neie
– yoi i?iiaaeooi/iua eee ia?aoiaeiua iauanoaaiiua a?oiiu, ia eiathuea
y?ei au?aaeaiiiai niaoeeoe/aneiai ioiioaiey e n?aaenoaai i?iecaiaenoaa
e, neaaeiaaoaeueii, ia iaeaaeathuea anaie i?eciaeaie eeanna.
Nioeeaeueiua neie iiaoo auoue aioo?eeeanniauie (/anoue eeanna) e
iaaeeeanniauie. E ia?aui iiaeii ioianoe e?oiioth, n?aaeithth, iaeeoth,
ai?iaeneoth e naeueneoth iiiiiieenoe/aneoth e iaiiiiiieenoe/aneoth
ao?aeoaceth, i?iiuoeaiiue e naeueneee i?ieaoa?eao, ?aai/oth
a?enoie?aoeth e o. ae. Enoi?e/aneei i?eia?ii iaaeeeanniauo neiaa
yaeyaony “o?aouea nineiaea”, a ia?eiae auc?aaaiey ia?auo ao?aeoaciuo
?aaiethoeee a Aa?iia – ai?iaeneia iauainoai, ?aianeaiie/anoai, A
nia?aiaiiii iauanoaa – eioaeeeaaioeey.

Ia?enenoneiio o/aieth i eeannao eae iniiaa nioeeaeueiie no?oeoo?u
iauanoaa a iaia?enenoneie caiaaeiie nioeeieiaee i?ioeainoieo oai?ey
nioeeaeueiie no?aoeoeeaoeee. I?aaenoaaeoaee yoie oai?ee ooaa?aeaeatho,
/oi iiiyoea eeanna, aa?iyoii, aiaeeony aeey aiaeeca nioeeaeueiie
no?oeoo?u i?ioeuo iauanoa, a oii /enea e eiaeono?eaeueiiai
eaieoaeenoe/aneiai iauanoaa, ii a nia?aiaiiii iinoeiaeono?eaeueiii
iauanoaa iii ia ?aaioaao, iioiio, /oi a yoii iauanoaa ia iniiaa oe?ieiai
aeoeeiie?iaaiey, a oaeaea aueeth/aiey iniiaiuo aea?aeaoaeae aeoeee ec
noa?u oi?aaeaiey i?iecaiaenoaii e caiaiie eo iaaiiuie iaiaaeaea?aie,
ioiioaiey nianoaaiiinoe ieacaeenue ?aciuou, iioa?yee naith
ii?aaeaeaiiinoue.

Iiyoiio iiiyoea “eeann” aeieaeii auoue caiaiaii iiiyoeai “no?aoa”-neie
(io eaoeineiai sratum – neie) eee iiiyoeai nioeeaeueiay a?oiia, a ia
niaio oai?ee nioeeaeueii-eeanniaiai no?iaiey iauanoaa aeieaeiu i?eeoe
oai?ee no?aoeoeeaoeee.

Oai?ee nioeeaeueiie no?aoeoeeaoeee aace?othony ia i?aaenoaaeaiee, /oi
no?aoa, nioeeaeueiay a?oiia. i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ?aaeueioth, yiie?e/anee
oeene?oaioth iauiinoue, iauaaeeiythuoth ethaeae ia eaeeo-oi iaueo
iiceoeeyo eee eiathueo iauaa aeaei, eioi?ia i?eaiaeeo e
eiinoeoooeee?iaaieth aeaiiie iauiinoe a nioeeaeueiie no?oeoo?a iauanoaa
e i?ioeaiiinoaaeaieth ae?oaei nioeeaeueiui iauiinoyi. A iniiaa oai?ee
no?aoeoeeaoeee eaaeao iauaaeeiaiey ethaeae a a?oiiu e i?ioeaiiinoaaeaiea
eo ae?oaei a?oiiai ii noaooniui i?eciaeai: aeanoiui, eiouanoaaiiui,
i?ioanneiiaeueiui, ia?aciaaoaeueiui e o. ae. i?e yoii i?aaeeaaathony
?acee/iua e?eoa?ee no?aoeoeeaoeee. Iai?eia?. caiaaeiiaa?iaineee
nioeeieia ?.Aea?aiaei?o i?aaeeiaeee a iniiao nioeeaeueiie no?aoeoeeaoeee
iieiaeeoue iieeoe/aneia iiiyoea “aaoi?eoao”, eioi?ia, ii aai iiaieth,
iaeaieaa oi/ii oa?aeoa?ecoao ioiioaiey aeanoe e ai?ueao iaaeaeo
nioeeaeueiuie a?oiiaie ca aeanoue.

Iauaeoeaiue eaeaaeeci e aeeaeaeoeea Aaaaey.

Aunoei aeinoeaeaieai iaiaoeeie eeanne/aneie oeeinioee yaeyeanue
aeeaeaeoeea Aaaaey. Aaaaeue ?ac?aaaouaae aeeaeaeoeeo eae
oeeinioneoth iaoeo, iaiauathuoth anth enoi?eth iiciaiey e
enneaaeothuoth iaeaieaa iauea caeiiiia?iinoe ?acaeoey iauaeoeaiie
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe. Iiaeaa?aioa aeoaieie e iniiaaoaeueiie e?eoeea
iaoaoece/aneee iaoiae iuoeaiey, Aaaaeue noi?ioee?iaae, i?aaaea a
eaeaaeenoe/aneie oi?ia, caeiiu e eaoaai?ee aeeaeaeoeee.

Ia?aiia/aeueiia oiaeaeanoai, ia?acothuaa noanoaioeeaeueioth iniiao ie?a,
anoue, ii Aaaaeth, oiaeaeanoai iuoeaiey e auoey. No?aiynue
iineaaeiaaoaeueii i?iaanoe i?eioeei oiaeaeanoaa iuoeaiey e auoey,
Aaaaeue ?anniao?eaaao iuoeaiea (aaniethoioth eaeath) eae iai?a?uaii
?acaeaathueeny i?ioeann iiciaiey, ainoiaeyuee io iaeiie nooiaie e
ae?oaie, aieaa aunieie. A neeo yoiai aaniethoiay eaeay anoue ia/aei e
?acaeaathuaany niaea?aeaiea anaai ie?iaiai i?ioeanna. Iniiaiie
oi?iie iuoeaiey yaeyaony iiiyoea. Iineieueeo Aaaaeue aaniethoece?oao
iuoeaiea, ii iaecaaaeii iaiaeanoaeyao e iiiyoea.

Iniiaiua /anoe oeeinioneie nenoaiu Aaaaey – eiaeea, oeeinioey
i?e?iaeu e oeeinioey aeooa. Eiaeea, eae yoi auoaeaao ec enoiaeiiai
iieiaeaiey aaaaeaaneie oeeinioee ninoaaeyao aaaeiaeooth /anoue aai
nenoaiu, iineieueeo oiaeaeanoai iuoeaiey e auoey icia/aao, /oi caeiiu
iuoeaiey, eioi?uie e caieiaaony eiaeea, nooue iiaeeeiiua caeiiu auoey:
e i?e?iaeu, e /aeiaa/aneie enoi?ee e iiciaiey. Aaaaeue iauyaeyao
eiaeeo o/aieai i nouiinoe anao aauae. Iiyoiio a aaaaeaaneie “Iaoea
eiaeee” e?iia iau/iuo aeey eiaeee aii?inia e iiiyoee, noaeaeaiee,
oiicaeeth/aiee ?anniao?eaathony oaeea aii?inu, eioi?uie oi?iaeueiay
eiaeea ieeiaaea ia caieiaeanue: aii?inu i caeiiiia?iinoyo naiie
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, i i?aa?auaiee eiee/anoaaiiuo eciaiaiee a
ea/anoaaiiua, i niioiioaiee oeeinioneeo eaoaai?ee e o. ae.

Iiiyoey, ii Aaaaeth, iaoiaeyony a iai?a?uaiii aeaeaeaiee,
ia?aoiaeyo, “ia?aeeaathony” ae?oa a ae?oaa, eciaiythony. ?acaeaathony,
i?aa?auathony a naith i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue, iaia?oaeeaay aioo?aiia
i?enouea ei i?ioeai?a/ey, eioi?ua e ninoaaeytho aeaeaeouoth neeo eo
?acaeoey. ?acaeoea iiiyoee, eaeao io aano?aeoiiai e eiie?aoiiio, io
iaeiinoi?iiiaai, aaaeiiai niaea?aeaieai iiiyoey e iiiyoeth, ana aieaa
aiaaoiio niaea?aeaieai, ioaaouaathuaio a aaeeinoaa ?acee/iua, aeaaea
i?ioeaiiieiaeiua, noi?iiu. Aaaaeue iieacuaaao, /oi eiee/anoaaiiua
eciaiaiey i?eaiaeyo e eciaiaieyi ea/anoaaiiui, niaa?oathony iooai
nea/ea, i?a?uaa iai?a?uaiinoe. Eiae/aneee i?ioeann ?acaeoey caaa?oaaony
o Aaaaey iiiyoeai “aaniethoiie eaeae”, eioi?ay aia/aea “io/oaeaeaao”
naia auoea, niiauaao aio aeaeaeaiea, a ?acoeueoaoa eioi?iai auoea
noaiiaeony niaea?aeaoaeueiui.

Anee eiaeea, ii Aaaaeth, anoue “iaoea ia eaeaa a naaa e aeey naay”, oi
oeeinioey i?e?iaeu oa?aeoa?ecoaony ei eae “iaoea ia eaeaa a aa
eiiauoee”. Aaaaeue ia iauyniyao, eae i?ienoiaeeo ia?aoiae io “/enoie”
eiae/aneie eaeae e i?e?iaea, ii i?inoi aeaeea?e?oao, /oi “aaniethoiay
eaeay”, iiciaa aia nianoaaiiia niaea?aeaiea, “?aoaaony ec naiie naay
naiaiaeii ioionoeoue naay a ea/anoaa i?e?iaeu”. Cia/eo ee yoi, /oi auei
a?aiy, eiaaea aua ia nouanoaiaaei i?e?iaeu e “aaniethoiay eaeay”
nouanoaiaaea naia ii naaa, oae neacaoue, a /enoii, iaiaaeaiiii aeaea ?
Ia yoio aii?in o Aaaaey iao neieueei-ieaoaeue oaaaeeoaeueiiai ioaaoa.
“Aaniethoiay eaeay”, ii Aaaaeth, nouanoaoao aia a?aiaie, i?e?iaea oaeaea
ia eiaao ia/aea ai a?aiaie.

Aeaaiuie oi?iaie i?e?iaeiiai auoey “aaniethoiie eaeae” yaeythony
iaoaieea, oeceea, i?aaieea. Oa?aeoa?ecoy iaoaieeo, Aaaaeue
?anniao?eaaao i?ino?ainoai, a?aiy, iaoa?eth, aeaeaeaiea, anaie?iia
oyaioaiea. A oeceea Aaaaeue ?anniao?eaaao iaaaniua oaea, naao, oaieioo,
oeieth, e o.i., iuoaynue ane?uoue naycue iaaeaeo yoeie i?ioeannaie e
iieacaoue, /oi ana iie ia?acotho iineaaeiaaoaeueiue ea?a?oe/aneee ?yae
iaia?oaeaiee ii?iaeaeathuae eo aeooiaioth nouiinoue.

O?aouey /anoue oeeinioee i?e?iaeu – i?aaieea – iinayuaia aii?inai
aaieiaee, aioaieee e ciieiaee. Caeanue Aaaaeue no?aieony iieacaoue, /oi
ia?aoiae io iaaeeaiai e aeeaiio anoue caaa?oaiea i?e?iaeiiai i?ioeanna:
“Aeoo auoiaeeo oaeei ia?acii ec i?e?iaeu”. Yoi cia/eo, /oi i?e?iaea
anoue eeoue iecoay nooiaiue iaia?oaeaiey e naiiiiciaiey “aaniethoiie
eaeae”; naia aunoaa aaeaeaaoiia aiieiuaiea “aaniethoiay eaeay”
iieo/aao eeoue a /aeiaaea, a ?acaeoee iauanoaa.

O?aouey /anoue oeeinioneie nenoaiu Aaaaey – oeeinioey aeooa –
iinayuaia ?anniio?aieth “aaniethoiie eaeae” ia caeeth/eoaeueiii yoaia aa
?acaeoey, eiaaea iia, iieeaeay i?e?iaeo, “aica?auaaony” e naiie naaa a
ea/anoaa “aaniethoiiai aeooa”, o.a. “aaniethoiie eaeae”, i?aiaeieaaoae
naia “io/oaeaeaiea”, niyaoae naia io?eoeaiea (i?e?iaeo) e
?acaeaathuaeny eae naiiniciaiea /aeiaa/anoaa ia anai i?ioyaeaiee
anaie?iie enoi?ee. Oeeinioey aeooa ninoieo ec o/aiey i noauaeoeaiii
aeooa (aio?iiieiaey, oaiiiaiieiaey, ineoieiaey), o/aiey ia iauaeoeaiii
aeooa (i?aai, i?aanoaaiiinoue, ainoaea?noai) e o/aiey ia aaniethoiii
aeooa eae aunoae nooiaie naiiiiciaiey “aaniethoiie eaeae” (eneonnoai,
?aeeaey, oeeinioey).

Aio?iiieiaey ?ane?uaaao aeooo eae /oanoaothuoth noanoaioeeth,
oaiiiaiieiaey enneaaeoao i?aa?auaiea aeooe a niciaiea ii nooiaiyi:
niciaiea – naiiniciaiea – ?acoi, ineoieiaey iieacuaaao oai?aoe/aneea e
i?aeoe/aneea niiniaiinoe aeooa,

Aoi?ie noaaeeae ?acaeoey /aeiaa/aneiai aeooa yaeyaony “iauaeoeaiue
aeoo”. Yoi iiiyoea ioaaouaaao, ii Aaaaeth, i?aaiaua e i?aanoaaiiua
ioiioaiey, e eioi?ui iaiaoeeee eaeaaeeno ioiineo oaeaea naiueth,
a?aaeaeaineia iauanoai e ainoaea?noai. Ainoaea?noai ii oa?aeoa?ecoao
eae aunoaa ?acaeoea iauaeoeaiiai i?aanoaaiiiai aeooa e iiaeeeiioth
iniiao yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaiee.

Eneonnoai, ?aeeaey e oeeinioey, ii o/aieth Aaaaey. – aunoea oi?iu
naiiniciaiey “aaniethoiiai aeooa”: a ieo caaa?oaaony anaie?iay enoi?ey
e ie?iaie ?acoi iieiinoueth iniciaao naay e naiioaeiaeaoai?yaony.
Oeeinioeth Aaaaeue ?anniao?eaae eae iaeaieaa aeoaieia au?aaeaiea
enoeiu, i?ioeaiiinoaaeyy aa a yoii ioiioaiee ?aeeaee. Iaeiaei e ?aeeaey,
ii iiaieth Aaaaey, niaea?aeeo aaniethoioth enoeio, ii eeoue a oi?ia
/oanoaaiiiai, oae neacaoue iaeaiiai, ia?aciiai i?aaenoaaeaiey. Iiyoiio,
oioy oeeinioey. ii Aaaaeth. auoa ?aeeaee, niaea?aeaiea oeeinioee a
eiia/iii n/aoa niaiaaeaao n niaea?aeaieai ?aeeaeiciiai o/aiey,
iineieueeo e oai e ooo i?aaeiaoii iiciaiey ieacuaaaony “aaniethoiay
eaeay”, au?aaeathuay a nenoaia Aaaaey e Aiaa e ie? a oeaeii.

Aaaaeue oa?aeoa?eciaae aeeaeaeoeeo eae aeaeaeouoth aeooo enoeiiiai
iiciaiey, aeae iaiauaiiue aeeaeaeoe/aneee aiaeec anao aaaeiaeoeo
eaoaai?ee oeeinioee e noi?ioee?iaae o?e iniiaiuo caeiia aeeaeaeoeee:
caeii ia?aoiaea eiee/anoaaiiuo eciaiaiee a ea/anoaaiiua, caeii aaeeinoaa
e ai?ueau i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoae e caeii io?eoeaiey io?eoeaiey. NI A 14_2,
15_2,16_2

24.2 Aiinaieiaey: ciaiea e iiciaiea. Noauaeou e iauaeou iiciaiey.

Oai?aoe/aneea iiciaiey eee aiinaieiaey – ?acaeae oeeinioee, eco/athuee
acaeiiioiioaiea noauaeoa e iauaeoa a i?ioeanna iiciaaaoaeueiie
aeayoaeueiinoe, ioiioaiea ciaiey e aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, aiciiaeiinoe
iiciaiey ie?a /aeiaaea. Oai?aoe/aneia iiciaiea eae oeeinioneay
aeenoeeieeia aiaeece?oao anaiauaa iniiaaiey, aeathuea aiciiaeiinoue
?anniao?eaaoue iiciaaaoaeueiue ?acoeueoao eae ciaiea, au?aaeathuaa
?aaeueii, enoeiiia iieiaeaiea aauae.

A aioe/iinoe oeaio?aeueiie a oai?aoe/aneii iiciaiee aunooiaea i?iaeaia
ioiioaiey iiaiey e ciaiey, enoeiu e caaeoaeaeaiey. Ciaiea iiieiaeinue a
aaeeinoaa n aai i?aaeiaoii. Enoiaey ec oiai, /oi ciaiea anoue
naiaia?aciay eiiey i?aaeiaoa, aioe/iay oeeinioey i?aeiouanoaaiii eco/aea
i?ioeann, iin?aaenoaii eioi?iai i?aaeiao ia?aaiaeeony a ninoiyiea
ciaiey.

Oacen i aaeeinoaa ciaiey e i?aaeiaoa niaoeeoe/anee ni/aoaeny n
iaiiieiaieai aeoeaiinoe noauaeoa a i?ioeanna iiciaiey:

– enoeiiue iauaeo iiaeao auoue oieueei “aeai” iiciathuaio;

– ana i?iaeoeou aai noauaeoeaiie iiciaaaoaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe – eeoue
iaenoeiiia iiaiea.

E?oiiue oaa a ?acaeoee oai?aoe/aneiai iiciaiey aue naeaeai aa?iiaeneie
oeeinioeae 17-18 a., aeaaiuie aeey eioi?ie noaee i?iaeaiu nayce “ss” e
aiaoiaai ie?a. A yoio ia?eiae i?iaeaiaoeea oai?aoe/aneiai iiciaiey
caieiaea oeaio?aeueiia ianoi a oeeinioee.

Noaaeeanue caaea/a iouneaiey aaniethoii aeinoiaa?iiai ciaiey, eioi?ia
auei au enoiaeiui ioieoii e aianoa n oai i?aaeaeueiui iniiaaieai anae
inoaeueiie niaieoiiinoe ciaiee, iicaieythuei aeaoue ioeaieo yoeo ciaiee
ii noaiaie eo oeaiiinoe.

A iaiaoeeie eeanne/aneie oeeinioee i?iaeaiu oai?aoe/aneiai iiciaiey
naycuaaeenue n enneaaeiaaieai enoi?e/aneiai ?acaeoey oi?i i?aeoe/aneie e
iiciaaaoaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe. A oeeinioneie nenoaia Eaioa aia?aua
i?aaei?eieiaeanue iiiuoea iino?ieoue oaeia oai?aoe/aneia iiciaiea,
eioi?ay auea au niaa?oaiii iacaaeneia io anyeeo aeiiouaiee i ?aaeueiinoe
– eae iioieiae/aneeo ( ?acaeae oeeinioee, eco/athuee ooiaeaiaioaeueiua
i?e/eiu auoey, iaeaieaa iauea nouiinoe e eaoaai?ee nouaai), oae e
ineoieiae/aneeo. Eaio iinooee?iaae caaeneiinoue ?aaeueiinoe io naiiai
iiciaiey: iauaeo, ii Eaioo, nouanoaoao eae oaeiaie eeoue a oi?iao
aeayoaeueiinoe noauaeoa.

Iinea Eaioa iaiaoeeay eeanne/aneay oeeinioey no?aieeanue i?aiaeieaoue
?ac?ua aiinaieiae/aneie e iioieiae/aneie i?iaeaiaoeee. Iaeaieaa iieii a
aeiia?enenoneie oeeinioee yoa caaea/a ?aoaeanue Aaaaeai. Ooaa?aeaeay
aeeaeaeoe/aneoth acaeiicaaeneiinoue noauaeoa e iauaeoa, Aaaaeue iieacae
ianinoiyoaeueiinoue eo iaoaoece/aneiai i?ioeaiiinoaaeaiey. Ii Aaaaeth
noauaeo e iauaeo ii nouanoao oiaeaeanoaaiiu ae?oa ae?oao, o. e. a iniiaa
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe eaaeeo naii?acaeoea aaniethoiiai aeooa, eioi?ue
yaeyaony aaniethoiui noauaeoii, eiathuei a ea/anoaa iauaeoa naiiai naay.
Ioaa?aay ana oi?iu aiinaieiae/aneiai eaeaaeecia, ia?enenonei-eaieineay
oeeinioey oai?aoe/aneiai iiciaiey enoiaeeo ec iineaaeiaaoaeueii
iaoa?eaeenoe/aneiai ?aoaiey iniiaiiai aii?ina oeeinioee, o.a.
?anniao?eaaao iiciaaaaiue iaoa?eaeueiue ie?, iauaeo ?aaeueiinoue eae
nouanoaothuoth aia e iacaaeneii io niciaiey. Iiaeaeoe/aneee iaoa?eaeeci
enoiaeeo ec iieiaeaiey i oii, /oi ie? iiciaaaai, e ?aoeoaeueii ioaa?aaao
ooaa?aeaeaiea i aai iaiiciaaaaiinoe, o.a. aaiinoeoeeci. Aoaeo/e
iineaaeiaaoaeueii iaoa?eaeenoe/aneie, ia?enenonei-eaieineie
oai?aoe/aneia iiciaiea ia anoue, iaeiaei, i?inoia i?iaeieaeaiea
neiaeeaoaeny a aeiia?enenoneie oeeinioee iaoa?eaeenoe/aneie eeiee a
?aoaiee i?iaeai aiinaieiaee. Iniiaiay iniaaiiinoue
aeeaeaeoeei-iaoa?eaeenoe/aneiai oai?aoe/aneiai iiciaiey ii?aaeaeyaony
oai, /oi aa ?acaeoea inouanoaeyaony ia iniiaa iaoa?eaeenoe/anee
enoieeiauaaaiiai oacena i aaeeinoaa aeeaeaeoeee, eiaeee e oai?aoe/aneiai
iiciaiey. “Aeeaeaeoeea e anoue oai?ey iiciaiey (Aaaaey) ia?enecia…”
(Eaiei.).

Aeeaeaeoe/aneee iaoa?eaeeci ia oieueei nieiaao i?ioeaiiinoaaeaiea
oai?aoe/aneiai iiciaiey e iioieiaee, ii e eeaaeao eiiaoe oa?aeoa?iiio
aeey iaia?enenoneie oeeinioee io?uao i?iaeai oai?aoe/aneiai iiciaiey io
i?iaeai nioeeaeueiiai auoey. Nouiinoue e i?e?iaea iiciaiey iinyo
nioeeaeueiue oa?aeoa?, e, neaaeiaaoaeueii, ia iiaoo auoue iiiyou a
ecieyoeee io i?aaeiaoii-i?aeoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe. Iiyoiio noauaeo
iiciaiey i?iecaiaeeo io noauaeoa i?aeoeee: iiciathuee noauaeo – yoi ia
eciee?iaaiiue io ae?oaeo ethaeae eiaeeaeae, a /aeiaae, aeeth/aiiue a
nioeeaeueioth aeeciue, eniieuecothuee iauanoaaiii au?aaioaiiua oi?iu
iiciaaaoaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe eae iaoa?eaeueiua ( i?oaeey o?oaea,
eino?oiaiou, i?eai?u e o.ae.), oae e eaeaaeueiua (ycue e o.ae.).
Enoiaeiua ciaiey i ie?a aeaiu /aeiaaeo a /oanoaaiiii iiciaiee –
iuouaieyo, aini?eyoeyo, i?aaenoaaeaieyo. A ea/anoaa enoiaeiie iniiau
iiciaaaoaeueiiai i?ioeanna aunooiaao /oanoaaiiue iiuo. Iauay noaia
i?ioeanna iiciaiey au?aaeaia a iieiaeaiee Eaieia: “Io aeeaiai
nica?oeaiey e aano?aeoiiio iuoeaieth e io iaai e i?aeoeea – oaeia
aeeaeaeoe/aneee iooue iiciaiey enoeiu, iiciaiey iauaeoiie ?aaeueiinoe”.

Iiciaaaoaeueiue i?ioeann ?anniao?eaaaony a ia?enenonei-eaieineii
oai?aoe/aneii iiciaiee ia oieueei a oi?ia, a eaeie ii inouanoaeyaony a
aieiaa eiaeeaeaea, ii e aeaaiui ia?acii a oi?ia nioe. – enoi?e/aneiai
i?ioeanna ?acaeoey ciaiey. I.E.O.I. i?eciaao eiie?aoii-enoi?e/aneee
oa?aeoa? iniiaaiee ciaiey, ?anniao?eaaao eciaiaiea eiae/aneie no?oeoo?u
nenoai ciaiey a i?ioeanna ?acaeoey /aeiaa/aneiai iiciaiey.

Nouanoaotho 2 iiaeaee iiciaiey:

I) O?aaeeoeeiiiay aeey iaoaoece/aneiai iaoa?eaeecia:

– o Oaea?aaoa (ianneaiay
iiaeaeue)

Noauaeo iiciaiey – iauanoaaiiue, nioeeaeueii ?acaeoue yeaiaio.

Iauaeo iiciaiey oi?ie?oaony noauaeoii. Ioiioaiey iaaeaeo noauaeoii e
iauaeoii yaeyaony iiciaaaoaeueneei e iauaeoii iiciaiey yaeyaony
i?aeoeea.

II) Iuia nouanoaothuay iiaeaeue:

– o Ia?ena (aeoeaiay
iiaeaeue).

Coauaeoii iiciaiey aunooiaao ia noauaeo ioaeaeueiue, a iauanoai.

Noauaeo iiciaiey – yoi /aeiaae a iauanoaa e iauanoai a /aeiaaea.
Iiciaoue – cia/eo nioai?eoue iiaue ie?.

Eae ienae A.E. Eaiei “*aeiaae ia oieueei io?aaeaao ie?, ii e oai?eo
aai”. *aeiaae naieie aeaenoaeyie eciaiyao ie?.

?anniio?ei oa?aeoa? ia?aca:

iauaeo: noauaeo:

Enoi/iee (i?aaeiao aiao- 1) Oi?ia (auoey, nou-y ia?aca)

iaai ie?a)

2) Niaea?aeaiea.

*oi oaeia i?aeoeea e eaeiaa aa ?ieue a iiciaiee?

Iiciaaaoaeueiay aeayoaeueiinoue aeooiaiay, ii iia aicieeaao ia aaca
ii?aaeaeaiiie i?aaeiaoiie aeayoaeueiinoe. I?aeoeea iineo iauanoaaiiue
oa?aeoa?. Iaaei ?acee/aoue iiciaaaoaeueiia e i?aeoe/aneia, oioy
iiciaaaoaeueiia aic?anoaao ia iniiaa i?aeoeee.

“Anee o iauanoaa aicieeaao oaoie/aneay iio?aaiinoue, oi iia i?iaeaeaaao
ciaiea cia/eoaeueii aeaeueoa, /ai aeanyoee oieaa?naeia ” (Ia?en).

I?aeoeea nthaea ia aoiaeeo, iia yaeyaony ia?ae/iui yeaiaioii e iaaei
ninoaaeythuei.

Iuouaiea – yoi iaiin?aaenoaaiiia ?aaae?iaaiea;

Aini?eyoea – oeaeinoiue ia?ac i?aaeiaoa (aicieeaao ia aaca
iuouaiee);

I?aaenoaaeaiea – ia?ac i?aaeiaoa, eioi?ue ia aeaenoaoao ia ian, a
iiaeaenoaiaae

ia ian eiaaea-oi, e iu iiaeai
i?aaenoaaeoue yoio ia?ac.

Iiiyoea – ia?ac io?aaeathuee nouiinoue i?aaeiaoa.

Oiicaeeth/aiea- ia?ac io?aaeathuee eae nouiinoue oae e ioaeaeueiua
yaeaiey.

Noaeaeaiea – iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue oiicaeeth/aiee ?acoeueoaoii
eioi?ie yaeyaony

auaeaeaiea noaueaeoii naay ii ioiioaieth
e iaueaeoo .

24.3. Iniiaiua ynoaoe/aneea eaoaai?ee: i?ae?aniia e aacia?aciia,
aicauoaiiia e ieciaiiia. O?aae/aneia e eiie/aneia.

Ynoaoeea – iaoea, eco/athuay anth iaeanoue ynoaoe/aneiai ioiioaiey
/aeiaaea e ie?o, ana noi?iiu inaiaiey /aeiaaeii ie?a ii caeiiai e?aniou.
Ynoaoeea ca?iaeeeanue ieiei 2.5 o. eao iacaae, a yiioo
?aaiaeaaeaeue/aneiai iauanoaa – a Aaeioa, Eiaeee, Eeoaa. Aieueoia
?acaeoea iieo/eea a aioe/iie A?aoeee e a Ae?aaiai ?eia.

Enoi?ey ynoaoeee a nianoaaiiii niunea ia/aeanue n oi?ie?iaaieai
iao/ii-oai?aoe/aneie iunee. Ia ia?aii yoaia naiaai ?acaeoey, eioi?ue
i?iaeeeeny a Aa?iia aei na?aaeeiu 18 a., ynoaoeea ia auea aua
naiinoiyoaeueiie iao/iie aeenoeeieeiie e ia eiaea nianoaaiiiai iacaaiey.
A aioe/iinoe, iai?eia?, ynoaoe/aneay i?iaeaiaoeea ?ac?aaaouaaeanue, n
iaeiie noi?iiu, a oeeinioneeo ni/eiaieyo (Nie?aoii, Ieaoiiii,
A?enoioaeai), a n ae?oaie – a o?aeoiaeao, iinayuaiiuo oai?ee ?aciuo
aeaeia eneonnoaa (a o?aeoaoao Aai?aey, Ai?aoeey). Iiiaea eaeae aioe/iuo
iuneeoaeae iieo/eee iniiaiiieaaathuaa cia/aiea aeey anaai iineaaeothuaai
?acaeoey aa?iiaeneie ynoaoe/aneie iunee.

O?enoeaineay ynoaoeea n?aaeiaaaeiauey iainiiauaaea nie?eooaeenoe/aneea
(?anniao?eaaao aeoo a ea/anoaa ia?aiiniiau aeayoaeueiinoe,
nouanoaothuaai aia iaoa?ee e iacaaeneii io iaa) iiieiaiea ynoaoe/aneeo
yaeaiee e o?aeoiaaea no?oeoo?o eneonnoaa a neiaiee/aneii aeooa
(Aaaonoei, Aeaeineee). Oieueei a yiioo aic?iaeaeaiey ynoaoe/aneay iuneue
inaiaiaeeeanue ec oaieiae/aneiai ieaia e noaea naaoneie,
aoiaienoe/aneie.

A na?aaeeia 18 a. Aaoiaa?oai, iineaaeiaaoaeue Eaeaieoea, oeacae ia
iaiaoiaeeiinoue auaeaeaiey naiinoiyoaeueiiai ?acaeaea oeeinioee, iacaaa
aai “ynoaoeea”, o.a. “oai?eae /oanoaaiiiai iiciaiey “. Ii iooe,
iaia/aiiiai Aaoiaa?oaiii, iioee Eaio, Aaoa, Aaaaeue e o.ae.

Aaaaeue ii?aaeaeyao eneonnoai eae ia?aoth e ianiaa?oaiioth oi?io
aaniethoiiai aeooa. Oaea?aao iuoaeny auaanoe e?anioo iaiin?aaenoaaiii ec
oece/aneeo naienoa i?aaeiaoia e yaeaiee, a ynoaoe/aneea /oanoaa e aeonu
– ec aeieiae/aneeo caeiiiia?iinoae, ec “i?e?iaeu” /aeiaaea. Naia aunoaa
?acaeoea aeiia?enenoneay ynoaoeea iieo/eea a o?oaeao ?onneeo
?aaiethoeeiiiuo aeaiie?aoia Aaeeineiai, *a?iuoaaneiai, Aeia?iethaiaa.
I?iaeaiaoeea e caaea/e ia?enenonei-eaieineie ynoaoeee ii?aaeaeyaony
aeaaiui ia?acii oai, /oi aa niaoeeoe/aneee i?aaeiao – ynoaoe/aneia
inaiaiea /aeiaaeii ie?a – ninoieo ec 3 -o ia?ac?uaii naycaiiuo iaaeaeo
niaie noi?ii:

1) ynoaoe/aneiai a iauaeoeaiie aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe;

2) noauaeoeaii-ynoaoe/aneiai (ynoaoe/aneia niciaiea);

3) eneonnoaa.

Ynoaoeea eco/aao nouiinoue, caeiiiia?iinoe e eiie?aoiua i?iyaeaiey anao
yoeo noi?ii a eo aeeaeaeoe/aneii aaeeinoaa.

Iniiaiuie ynoaoe/aneeie eaoaai?eyie yaeyaony i?ae?aniia e aacia?aciia,
aicauoaiiia e ieciaiiia, o?aae/aneia e eiie/aneia.

I?ae?aniia – oa?aeoa?ecoao oaeea naienoaa yaeaiee i?e?iaeu, iauanoaaiiie
aeecie, /aeiaa/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe, eioi?ua niiniaiu aucuaaoue a
/aeiaaea aanei?unoioth ethaiaue, /oanoai ?aaeinoe, naiaiaeu.

Aacia?aciia – iiiyoea ynoaoeee, io?aaeathuaa oaeea naienoaa yaeaiee,
eioi?ia a?aaeaeaaii i?ioeainoiyo i?ae?aniiio e iaia?oaeeaatho anth naith
ianinoiyoaeueiinoue, iaiaoiaeeiinoue oie/oiaeaiey a i?ioeanna
enoi?e/aneiai ?acaeoey.

Aeey eaeaaeenoe/aneie ynoaoeee enoi/ieeii i?ae?aniiai neoaeeo niciaiea,
/aeiaa/aneia eee naa?o/aeiaa/aneia (aia, aaniethoiay eaeay).
Iaoa?eaeenou aeaeyo enoi/iee i?ae?aniiai a naiie aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe,
aicaeaenoaothuae ia niciaiea /aeiaaea. Ia?enenoneay ynoaoeea oaeaea
noieo ia iiceoeeyo iaoa?eaeecia, ii iaoa?eaeecia aeeaeaeoe/aneiai.
N/eoay i?ae?aniia nouanoaothuei a aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, iia, iaeiaei, ia
naiaeeo naio aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue eeoue e /enoi i?e?iaeiui ea/anoaai
i?aaeiaoia. A i?aeoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe e auyaeeenue oa naienoaa
yaeaiee, eioi?ua ethaee aini?eieiatho eae i?ae?aniia. Ii/aio, iai?eia?,
oaeea a aeieiae/aneeo ioiioaieyo noiaeiua ianaeiiua, eae i/aea e ina,
ynoaoe/anee aini?eieiathony ii ?aciiio, oioy aeaeyo iie iaeeiaeiai
iai?eyoii? I/aaeaeii, /oi ynoaoe/aneay ioeaiea i/ae iaoneiaeaia oai
cia/aieai, eioi?ia iie eiatho a /aeiaa/aneie aeecie. I?ae?aniia
au?aaeaao ia ee/ii-iio?aaeoaeueneoth, a iauanoaaiii-i?aeoe/aneoth
oeaiiinoue yaeaiee, eo aeooiaiia cia/aiea aeey /aeiaaea. Naienoaii
i?ae?aniiai iaeaaeaao i?aaeaea anaai O?OAe, eae naiaiaeiay, oai?/aneay,
iauanoaaiii-cia/eiay aeayoaeueiinoue. I?ae?aniu oaeaea ?acoeueoaou
oaeiai o?oaea. Aeinoieinoaii i?ae?aniiai iaeaaeatho aunieea ii?aeueiua
ea/anoaa ethaeae, i?iyaeythueany a eiie?aoiuo iinooieao e aeaenoaeyo.
Ynoaoe/aneia aini?eyoea aacia?aciiai ia iiaeao auoue aac ynoaoe/aneiai
eaeaaea, noaayuaa “ ia naia ianoi” aacia?aciia a aeecie e a eneonnoaa.
Aacia?aciia, iaia?oaeeaay iaeaiinoue naiaai nouanoaiaaiey, yaeyaony
eiie/aneei e aicaoaeaeaao niao. Ii iii noaiiaeony oaea ia eiie/aneei, a
ioa?aoeoaeueiui, anee i?aaenoaaeyao niaie i?yioth oa?ico i?ae?aniiio.

Aicauoaiiia – oa?aeoa?ecoao i?ae?aniua yaeaiey, eioi?ua ioee/athony
iaiau/aeiie cia/eoaeueiinoueth e iiaouanoaii, aicaoaeaeatho iiyoiio
/oanoai ?aaeinoiiai ecoieaiey, ainoeuaiey e aiiaeooaaeaiey, i?e/ai oi?ia
aicauoaiiuo yaeaiee iiaeao ia auoue aiaoia e?aneaie. Aicauoaiiia a
i?e?iaea ana oi, /oi i?aauoaao ianooaa iau/iuo, ni?acia?iuo n /aeiaaeii
yaeaiee e i?aaeiaoia, ii a oi aea a?aiy ia iiaeaaeyao, a aicauoaao.
Aicauoaiiia a iauanoaa – yaeaiea, ethaee, niauoey, eo naa?oaiey e
aa?ie/aneea aeeyiey.

I?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue – ieciaiiia.

O?aae/aneia – iiiyoea, io?aaeathuaa ynoaoe/aneia cia/aiea aieueoiai
no?aaeaiey eee aeaaee. I?e o?aae/aneii iu eniuouaaai /oanoai
nino?aaeaiey, nei?ae. I?ae?aniua aiciiaeiinoe a ethaii /aeiaaea,
caaeooaiiua oneiaeyie aeecie, aeaeatho aai o?aae/aneei eeoeii. A
o?aae/aneie neooaoeee e?anioa ethaeae, yaeaiee i?iyaeyaony n iaiau/iie
neeie e iniaaiii y?ei e ino?i caia/aoeyaony a iaiyoe. Iiyoiio /a?ac
o?aae/aneia ?ane?uaaaony i?ae?aniia.

Eiie/aneia – iiiyoea, io?aaeathuaa ynoaoe/aneia cia/aiea yaeaiee,
nouiinoue eioi?uo i?ioeai?a/eo eiaeea ?acaeoey aeecie. Eiie/aneia anoue
niaoiia, ii niaoiia eeoue oiaaea iiaeieiaaony aei o?iaiy eiie/aneiai,
eiaaea iii ia ii?aaeaeyaony oi?iaeueiuie iaeaiinoyie, iinyueie aiaoiee
oa?aeoa? (neo/aeiia iaaeaiea /aeiaaea a aiaeo), a au?aaeaao iauanoaaiiia
niaea?aeaiea.

Iiiyoea ynoaoe/iinoe iaiaeeiaeiai o ?aciuo ia?iaeia e caaeneo io yiioe.

Ynoaoeea iiaeaa?aeaia i?ioeanno ?acaeoey, neaaeiaaoaeueii iia iaiyaony
ai a?aiaie.

Aia /aeiaaea ynoaoeee ia nouanoaoao.

Ynoaoe/aneay ioeaiea iauaeoa caaeneo io ynoaoe/aneeo eaeaaeia eioi?ua
noi?ie?iaaiu o noauaeoa.

Ynoaoe/aneea eaeaaeu iaiythony ia i?ioyaeaiee aeecie /aeiaaea.

Ynoaoe/aneee eaeaae – eaeaae aeieaeiiai ia o?iaia iau/iiai niciaiey
aicieeathuee ec iauaeoeaiie

iaoaeiaeaoai?aiiinoe /aeiaaeii aai aeeciueth.

*aeiaae aeaao ynoaoe/aneea ioeaiee n?aaieaay ?anniao?eaaaiue iauaeo ni
naiei noauaeoeaiui

ynoaoe/aneei eaeaaeii yoiai iauaeoa.

Ii, i/aaeaeii, nouanoaotho e iauanoaaiiua ynoaoe/aneea eaeaaeu, eioi?ua
i?eieiathony aieueoeinoaii ethaeae.

25.1 Aio?iiieiae/aneee iaoa?eaeeci Oaea?aaoa. Nioeeaeueiay oeeinioey.

A na?aaeeia 19 a. n ino?ie e?eoeeie eaeaaeecia aunooiee iaiaoeeee
oeeinio Ethaeaea Oaea?aao. Ia?aiia/aeueii Oaea?aao oaeaeaeny oeeinioeae
Aaaaey, iaeiaei oaea a 1839aiaeo iiaeaa?a aa ?aceie e?eoeea. N oi/ee
c?aiey Oaea?aaoa, eaeaaeeci anoue ia /oi eiia, eae ?aoeeiiaeece?iaaiiay
?aeeaey, a oeeinioey e ?aeeaey ii naiiio eo nouanoao, n/eoaao Oaea?aao,
i?ioeaiiieiaeiu ae?oa ae?oao. A iniiaa ?aeeaee eaaeeo aa?a a aeiaiaou,
oiaaea eae a iniiaa oeeinioee – ciaiea no?aieaiea ?ane?uoue
aeaenoaeoaeueioth i?e?iaeo aauae. Iiyoiio ia?aaeooth caaea/o oeeinioee
Oaea?aao aeaeeo a e?eoeea ?aeeaee, a ?aciaea/aiee oao eeethcee, eioi?ua
ninoaaeytho nouiinoue ?aeeaeiciiai niciaiey. ?aeeaey e eaeaaeenoe/aneay
oeeinioey aicieeatho, ii iiaieth Oaea?aaoa, ec io/oaeaeaiey /aeiaa/aneie
nouiinoe, iin?aaenoaii i?eienuaaiey aiao oao ao?eaooia, eioi?ua a
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe i?eiaaeeaaeao naiiio /aeiaaeo. Oae aicieeaao
o?oaeiienei?aieiay eeethcey: iiaeeeiiue oai?aoe aiaa – /aeiaae –
?anniao?eaaaony eae oai?aiea aiaa, noaaeony a caaeneiinoue io
iineaaeiaai e, oaeei ia?acii, eeoaaony naiaiaeu e naiinoiyoaeueiinoe.
Oaea?aao aiai?eo, /oi iaiaoiaeeii iiiyoue, /oi /aeiaae – ia oai?aiea
aiaa, a /anoue – e i?e oii iaeaieaa niaa?oaiiay – aa/iie i?e?iaeu.
Iaoa?eaeeci Oaea?aaoa ianeo/aeii oa?aeoa?ecoaony eae aio?iiieiae/aneee.
Ii nouanoaaiii ioee/aaony io iaoa?eaeecia 18 a. A oeaio?a aieiaiey
Oaea?aaoa – ia ioaea/aiiia iiiyoea iaoa?ee, eae o aieueoeinoaa
o?aioeocneeo iaoa?eaeenoia, a /aeiaae eae ineoioece/aneia aaeeinoai,
aaeeinoai aeooe e oaea. Enoiaey ec oaeiai iiieiaiey /aeiaaea, Oaea?aao
ioaa?aaao aai eaeaaeenoe/aneoth o?aeoiaeo, i?e eioi?ie /aeiaae
?anniao?eaaaony i?aaeaea anaai, eae aeooiaiia nouanoai. Niaeanii
Oaea?aaoo, oaei a aai oeaeinoiinoe eae ?ac e ninoaaeyao nouiinoue
/aeiaa/aneiai “ss”; aeooiaiia ia/aei a /aeiaaea ia iiaeao auoue
ioaeaeaii io oaeaniiai. *aeiaa/aneay i?e?iaea oieeoaony Oaea?aaoii
i?aeiouanoaaiii aeieiae/anee, e ioaeaeueiue eiaeeaeae aeey iaai – ia
enoi?e/anee- aeooiaiia ia?aciaaiea, eae o Aaaaey, a caaii a ?acaeoee
/aeiaa/aneiai ?iaea. Ia?en, i?eciaaay aaaeiia enoi?e/aneia cia/aiea
iaoa?eaeecia Oaea?aaoa, iniaaiii aai e?eoeeo ?aeeaee, a oi aea a?aiy
ioia/ae, /oi o Oaea?aaoa “/aeiaa/aneay nouiinoue iiaeao ?anniao?eaaoueny
oieueei eae “?iae”, eae aioo?aiiyy, iaiay anaiauiinoue, naycothuay
iiiaeanoai eiaeeaeaeia i?e?iaeiuie ocaie”. Niaeanii Ia?eno, /aeiaae
yaeyaony enoi?e/aneei e nioeeaeueiui nouanoaii, a iioiio aai nouiinoue “
ia anoue aano?aeo, i?enouee ioaeaeueiiio eiaeeaeaeo. A naiae
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe iia anoue niaieoiiinoue anao iauanoaaiiuo ioiioaiee”.
A iineieueeo iauanoaaiiay aeeciue ethaeae yaeyaony ii nouanoao
i?aeoe/iie, iineieueeo Oaea?aao, ioaeaeathueeny eae ?ac io
nioeeaeueii-enoi?e/aneiai ii?aaeaeaiey /aeiaaea, oioneaao ec aeaeo
eiaiii ?ieue i?aeoeee eae e a oiaea enoi?e/aneie aeecie /aeiaaea, oae e
a i?ioeanna iiciaiey. E?eoeeoy eaeaaeenoe/aneoth o?aeoiaeo iiciaiey e
aoaeo/e ia aeiaieai aano?aeoiui iuoeaieai, Oaea?aao aiaeee?oao e
/oanoaaiiiio nica?oeaieth. Oieueei oi, /oi aeaii iai /a?ac i?aaiu /oanoa
– c?aiea, neoo, inycaiea, iaiiyiey – iaeaaeaao ii Oaea?aaoo iiaeeeiiie
?aaeueiinoueth. Aio?iiieiae/aneee i?eioeei Oaea?aaoa a oai?ee iiciaiey
au?aaeaaony a oii, oi ii ii-iiaiio eioa?i?aoe?oao naii iiiyoea “iauaeo”.
Ii Oaea?aaoo iiiyoea iauaeoa ia?aiia/aeueii oi?ie?oaony a iiuoa
/aeiaa/aneiai iauaiey, e iiyoiio ia?aue iauaeo aeey anyeiai /aeiaaea –
anoue ae?oaie /aeiaae. Ethaiaue e aiao, niaeanii iaiaoeeiio oeeinioo,
anoue eeoue io/oaeaeaiiay, eiaeiay oi?ia iiaeeeiiie ethaae – ethaae – e
ae?oaei ethaeyi. “*aeiaae e i?e?iaea iaiouaieaiu ii Oaea?aaoo. *aeiaae o
Oaea?aaoa – yoi eeoue i?aaenoaaeoaeue ?iaea /aeiaa/anoaa, yoi ia
aioe/iue /aeiaae, a iaiay anaiauiinoue”. *aeiaae – yoi aiinaieiae/aneee
?iaeicii. Ii iieo/aao eioi?iaoeeth ec i?e?iaeu, ia?a?aaaouaaao e aeaeaao
auaiaeu. *aeiaae o Oaea?aaoa aano?aeoai. Nioeeaeueioth nouiinoue
/aeiaaea ii ia ii?aaeaeyao. Auaiaeu: 1) O Oaea?aaoa oeeinioey ia oieueei
aio?iiieiae/aneay, ii e iaoaoece/aneay. Ii io?eoeaao iaiaoeeee
eeanne/aneee eaeaaeeci. 2) Iiaia ioiioaiea e ?aeeaee: – ieiae aanneeey
/aeiaaea. – io/oaeaeaiiay nouiinoue /aeiaaea. 3) Ioiioaiea e ethaae,
aianoi ?aeeaee o iaai noaea ethaiaue. *aeiaae ia iiaeao auoue iiiieiaii
ii aeieaeai noaoue ia iiceoeee aeeaeiaa.

No?oeoo?a ciaiey. *oanoaaiiia e ?aoeeiiaeueiia iiciaiea.

Ciaiea – io?aaeaiea iauaeoeaiuo oa?aeoa?enoee aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe a
niciaiee /aeiaaea. Iiiyoea “ciaiea” e “eioi?iaoeey” /anoi
ioiaeaeanoaeythony. Ciaiea – yoi anaaaea eioi?iaoeey, ii ia anyeay
eioi?iaoeey – ciaiea. A i?aa?auaiee eioi?iaoeee a ciaiea o/anoaotho
oeaeue ?yae caeiiiia?iinoae, ?aaoee?oaiuo aeayoaeueiinoue iicaa.
Aeaaiaea?y yoiio ciaiea noaiiaeony aeinoiyieai iauanoaa, a ia oieueei
ioaeaeueiuo eiaeeaeaeia. Aieueoeinoai oeeinioneeo nenoai auaeaeyee 2
iniiaiuo yoaia iiciaiey: – /oanoaaiiia iiciaiea ( yiie?e/aneia ciaiea);
– ?aoeeiiaeueiia iiciaiea ( oai?aoe/aneia ciaiea). Noi?iiieeaie
?aoeeiiaeueiiai iiciaiey yaeythony Aeaea?o, Nieiica, Eiio, Aaaaeue.
Noi?iiieee yiie?ecia i?eciaee, iai?ioea, /oanoaaiiia aini?eyoea aeaaiui
e aeaaea aaeeinoaaiiui enoi/ieeii iaoeo ciaiee. (Aiaan, Eiee). Anee aia
ciaiey, ?aciuoeyee ?aoeeiiaeenou, oi?ie?oaony eeoue ia iniiaa
/oanoaaiiiai aini?eyoey n iiiiuueth iniauo i?aaee eee i?eioeeiia, oi
ioeoaea aa?oony naie yoe i?aaeea eee i?eioeeiu, aaaeue eo iaeuecy
aini?eiyoue n iiiiuueth i?aaiia /oanoa. Nii? yoio e aei neo ii? ia
oo?aoee naiae ino?iou. Ii i?eia?ae iniaia cia/aiea n ?acaeoeai
enneaaeiaaiee ii nicaeaieth “eneonnoaaiiiai eioaeeaeoa”. No?oeoo?o
ciaiey (aeeae. iaoa?eae. oeeinioee) iiaeii i?aaenoaaeoue oae: 1) Noauaeo
iiciaiey – iuneyuee /aeiaae. 2) sscue – nenoaia neiaieia (neiaa?ue) e
i?aaee eo eiiaeie?oy a oi?ia i?aaeeiaeaiee (a?aiiaoeea, neioaenen). 3)
Nenoaia i?aaee aeayoaeueiinoe n ii?aaeaeaiiuie iauaeoaie. 4) I?aaeea
niioianaiey ycueiauo au?aaeaiee (iiiyoee e i?aaeeiaeaiee) n ?acee/iuie
iauaeoaie eee aeaeaie aeaenoaee. 5) Aeaenoaey (iia?aoeey e i?ioeaaeo?u),
niioaaonoaothuea i?aaeeai ioieoa 3. 6) Nenoaia niioaaonoaothueo
iauaeoia, iaicia/aaiuo ii?aaeaeaiiuie ycueiauie neiaieaie. Eiaiii
nioeeaeueii-enoi?e/aneay ia?aie/aiiinoue, ?acee/iua i?aae?annoaeee e
i?aaeoaaaeaeaiey iaoaee iuneeoaeyi i?ioeiai iniciaoue ?aoathuoth ?ieue
i?aeoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe /aeiaaea a ia?aciaaiee e ?acaeoee ciaiey.
Iiaeaeoe/aneee iaoa?eaeeci iiieiaao iiae i?aeoeeie niaieoiiinoue anao
aeaeia nioeeaeueii-cia/eiie i?aia?acothuae aeayoaeueiinoe ethaeae,
iniiaie eioi?ie yaeyaony i?aaeiaoii-i?oae. i?iecaiaenoaaiiay
aeayoaeueiinoue. Iineieueeo aeayoaeueiinoue a yoii niunea enoi?e/anee
iaiyaony e caaeneo io oi?i iauanoaaiiie i?aaiecaoeee, ?acaeoey i?oaeee
o?oaea, i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo ioiioaiee e eoeueoo?u a oeaeii, iineieueeo e
oa?aeoa? e niaea?aeaiea niioaaonoaothueo ciaiee oaeaea eciaiyaony e
?acaeaaaony, iiae/eiyynue anai caeiiai aeeaeaeoeee e i?eioeeiai
?acaeoey. Ec yoiai neaaeoao, /oi iauanoaaiii- i?iecaiaenoaaiiay i?aeoeea
– enoi/iee e iniiaa anao iaoeo ciaiee. Aaaeiaeoee oacen
ia?enenonei-eaieineie aiinaieiaee, eioi?ue, iaeiaei, ia aeieaeai auoue
aaniethoece?iaai, ninoieo a ooaa?aeaeaiee neaaeothuaai oaeoa: aeey
iiciaiey iauaeoia aeaiiiai oeia iaiaoiaeeii ooieoeeiie?iaaiea i?aaiia
/oanoa, ia?aiie nenoaiu, iicaa, aeaaiaea?y /aio aicieeaao iuouaiea,
aini?eyoey iaoa?eaeueiuo iauaeoia. Oaeay oi?ia aeayoaeueiinoe iacuaaaony
/oanoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoueth eee /oanoaaiiui iiciaieai. Eaiei
?anniao?eaae iuouaiea eae i?inoaeoee enoiaeiue yeaiaio /oanoaaiiiai
iiciaiey e /aeiaa/aneiai niciaiey aiiaua. Aiiaua /oanoaaiiia iiciaiea
aeaeeony ia: – iuouaiea, – aini?eyoea, – i?aaenoaaeaiea. Iuouaiea – yoi
iaiin?aaenoaaiiia ?aaae?iaaiea. Eaiei aiai?ee, /oi iuouaiea aeaao
noauaeoeaiue ia?ac iauaeoeaiiai ie?a. Aini?eyoea – ia?ac io?aaeathuee
oeaeinoiue iaeee i?aaeiaoa. I?aaenoaaeaiea – oeaeinoiue ia?ac i?aaeiaoa,
eioi?ue ia aeaenoaoao nae/an ia ian, a iiaeaenoaiaae ia ian eiaaea-oi, e
iu iiaeai i?aaenoaaeoue yoio ia?ac. I?ioeann aini?eyoey – i?ioeann
aeoeaiue e ii-naiaio oai?/aneee. Iai?eia?, oioy iu iiaeai
iaiin?aaenoaaiii iuouaoue /anoe, eioi?ua a aeaiiue iiiaio
iaiin?aaenoaaiii ia iuouathony. Aeaaiaea?y iiiaie?aoiie ?aaioa iaoaiecia
aini?eyoey iu a iaoai niciaiee iiaeai oaea?aeeaaoue oeaeinoiue ia?ac
i?aaeiaoa e oiaaea eiaaea i?aaeiao iaiin?aaenoaaiii ia aeai iai. A yoii
neo/aa ooieoeeiie?oao aieaa neiaeiay oi?ia /oanoaaiiiai iiciaiey –
i?aaenoaaeaiea. E /oanoaaiiiio iiciaieth iiaeii ioianoe e yiioeee (aiaa,
no?ao, ethaiaue, iaiaaenoue, neiiaoey). *oanoaaiiia iiciaiea ai iiiaii
oi?ie?oao e i?aaiecoao ycue: /a?ac ycue inouanoaeyaony iiaeeeth/aiea
ioaeaeueiuo oaeoia /oanoaaiii- yiie?e/aneiai iiuoa eaaeaeiai eiie?aoiiai
/aeiaaea e ciaieyi i nouanoaaiiuo naycyo e ioiioaieyo oiai ?aaeueiiai
ie?a, a eioi?ii aeeaao e aeaenoaoao /aeiaae. *oanoaaiiia aini?eyoea
/aeiaaeii eiie?aoiuo, ioaeaeueiuo yaeaiee, niauoee caaeneo io
niaea?aeaiey iiiyoee, a oaeaea io oiai, a eaeie ia?a niaea?aeaiea
iiiyoee inaiaii aeaiiui /aeiaaeii. Naii iiiyoea yaeyaony ?acoeueoaoii
enoi?e/aneiai iiuoa /aeiaa/anoaa a oeaeii eee enoi?e/aneiai iiuoa oao
eee eiuo iauiinoae ethaeae, nioeeaeueiuo a?oii. ?aaeueii cia/eiuie
iiiyoey yaeythony oiaaea, eiaaea iie niaaeeiythony n iniciaieai
aiciiaeiinoae eo i?aeoe/aneiai eniieueciaaiey aeey ?aaeueiuo
iio?aaiinoae, aeey eciaiaiey, i?aia?aciaaiey i?aaeiaoia e o.ae. I?e yoii
iiiyoey, i?eia?aoaiiua ethaeueie a i?ioeanna iao/aiey, iinoiyiii
niiinoaaeyaony n ?aaeueiie i?aeoeeie, i?iaa?yaony, ooi/iyaony.
?aoeeiiaeueiia iiciaiea (aano?aeoii) – iiiyoea, noaeaeaiea,
oiicaeeth/aiea. Noaeaeaiea – anyeia auneacuaaiea, iiaiea ia
ii?aaeaeaiiii i?aaeiaoa, yaeaiee. Ii naiae oi?ia noaeaeaiea iau/ii
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie naycue 2-o iiiyoee. Eiaiii a oi?ia noaeaeaiee
noaayony iao/iua i?iaeaiu. Niaaeeiyy iaeii noaeaeaiea n ae?oaei, o.a.
?annoaeaeay, /aeiaae i?eoiaeeo e oai eee eiui auaiaeai, iieo/aao iiaia
ciaiea. Oiicaeeth/aiea i?aaenoaaeyao niaie oaeie eiae/aneee i?ioeann, a
oiaea eioi?iai ec 1-ai eee ianeieueeeo noaeaeaiee, iacuaaaiuo iinueeaie,
auaiaeeony ia iniiaaiee ii?aaeaeaiiuo i?aaee eiaeee iiaia noaeaeaiea,
iacuaaaiia caeeth/aieai eee neaaenoaeai. Oiicaeeth/aiea anoue iniiaiie
iaoiae iieo/aiey iiaiai ciaiey. *oanoaaiiia iiciaiea yoi iiciaiea
eioi?ia aeaao ciaiea i ie?a n iiiiuueth iaaethaeaiey, iiuoa, iao/iiai
yenia?eiaioa. ?aoeeiiaeueiia iiciaiea aeaao ciaiea i ie?a n iiiiuueth
aano?aeoiiai iun- eaiiiai yenia?eiaioa eioi?ue iniiauaaaony ia
yiie?e/aneeo oaeoao e ii- ?iaeaeaao aeiioaco eioi?ay iauyniyao yoe
oaeou. I?aaeeueiinoue aeiioacu i?iaa?yaony yenia?eiaioii, i?aeoeeie.

25.3 Yeieiae/aneay i?iaeaia, aa iao/iua nioeeaeueii-oeeinioneea e
yoeei-aoiaienoe/aneea aniaeou.

Iaeiei ec aeiaaeueiuo i?iaeai /aeiaa/anoaa noaea i?iaeaia yeieiaee. Oaea
a 19 a. aia?eeaineee o/aiue Ia?o, i?iaiaeece?iaaa iiiaiia?aciua oi?iu
?ac?ooaiey /aeiaaeii i?e?iaeiiai ?aaiiaaney, noi?ioee?iaae i?ia?aiio
io?aiu i?e?iaeu. O?aioeocneea aaia?aou ?ac?aaioaee eiioeaioeeth
aaia?aoeth /aeiaaea, i?aaeiao eioi?ie – eco/aiea a?oiiu yaeaiee,
i?ienoiaeyueo ia ieaiaoa e i?e/anoiuo e aeayoaeueiinoe /aeiaaea.
?acaeoea aaioeiee e aeiaaioeiee auyaeei i?aa?auaiea i?iecaiaenoaaiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe /aeiaa/anoaa a iiao/ee aaioeie/aneee oaeoi?, /oi
iineoaeeei iniiaaieai aeey auaeaeaiey iiaie aaieiae/aneie y?u –
aio?iiiaaiiie ( ?onneee aaieia Iaaeia ) eee ineoicieneie (aia?eeaiaoe
Oooa?o). O/aiea Aa?iaaeneiai i aeinoa?a e iiinoa?a naycaii n iiaui
acaeyaeii ia aaieiae/aneea iineaaenoaey nioeeaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe
/aeiaa/anoaa. Yeieiae/aneia iuoeaiea iaoiaeeo naia au?aaeaiea a
?acee/iuo auaeaeaaaiuo aa?eaioao ia?ai?eaioaoeee oaoiieiaee e
i?iecaiaenoaa. Iaeie ec ieo naycaiu n iano?iaieyie yeieiae/aneiai
ianneiecia, n oiee c?aiey eioi?uo ia?aii?e/eiie yeieiae/aneiai e?ecena
yaeyaony nai ii naaa IOI, n/eoathueo iaiaoiaeeiui ?acei ia?aie/eoue eeai
aiiaua i?einoaiiaeoue oaoieei- yeiiiie/aneia ?acaeoea. A ae?oaeo
aa?eaioao a i?ioeaiaan yoie ianneienoe/aneie ioeaiea aoaeouaai
/aeiaa/anoaa e ia?niaeoea i?e?iaeiiieueciaaiey auaeaeaathony i?iaeou
?aaeeeaeueiie ia?ano?ieee oaoiieiaee, ecaaaeaiey aa io i?in/aoia,
i?eaaaeoeo e caa?yciaieth ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu, nicaeaiey iiauo
oaoie/anee n?aaenoa e oaoie/aneeo i?ioeannia (o?ainii?oe?iaea,
yia?aaoeea), i?eaieaiuo n yeieiae/aneie oi/ee c?aiey. I?eioeeiu nioe.
yeieiaee iaoiaeyo naia au?aaeaiea e a yeieiae/aneie yeiiiieea, eioi?ay
i?eieiaao a ?an/ao ?anoiaeu ia oieueei ia inaiaiea, ii e ia io?aio e
ainnoaiiaeaiea yeinoa?u, iiae/a?eeaaao aaaeiinoue ia oieueei e?eoa?eaa e
i?eaueueiinoe e i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe, ii e yeieiae/anee iainiiaaiiinoe
oaoie/aneeo iiaiaaaaeaiee, yeieiae/aneiai eiio?iey iaae ieaie?iaaieai
i?iiuoeaiiinoe e i?e?iaeiiieueciaaiey. ?acaeoea nioe. yeieiaee
iineoaeeei iiuiui eiioeuenii auaeaeaeaiey ia?aae /aeiaaeii iiauo
oeaiiinoae – nio?aiaiey yeinenoai, ioiioaiey e Caiea eae e oieeaeueiie
yeinenoaia, iniio?eoaeueiiai e aa?aaeiiai ioiioaiey e aeeaiio e o.ae.
Oaiaeaioeee e yeieiae/aneie ia?ai?eaioaoeee yoeee iaia?oaeeaaaony a
?acee/iuo yoe/aneeo eiioeaioeeyo: – o/aiea A. Oaaeoea?a i aeaaiaiaaeiii
ioiioaiee e aeecie, – yoeea i?e?iaeu aia?eeaineiai yeieiaa Eaiiieueaea,
– einie/aneay yoeea Oeeieeianeiai, – yoeea ethaae e aeecie,
?ac?aaioaiiay niaaoneei aeieiaii Oeeaoiaui e ae?. I?iaeaiu nioe.
yeieiaee i?eiyoi ioiineoue e iaeaieaa ino?ui e iaioeiaeiui a /enea
aeiaaeueiuo i?iaeai nia?aiaiiinoe, io ?aoaiey eioi?uo caaenyo
aiciiaeiinoe auaeeaaiey eae naiiai /aeiaaea, oae e anaai aeeaiai ia
caiea. Iaiaoiaeeiui oneiaeai eo ?aoaiey yaeyaony i?eciaiea i?ei?eoaoa
iaua/aeiaa/aneeo oeaiiinoae, ooaa?aeaeaaiia iiaui iuoeaieai, eae iniiau
oe?ieiai iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai nio?oaeie/anoaa ?acee/iuo nioe.,
iieeoe/aneeo, iaoeeiiaeueiuo, eeanniauo e ae?. Nee a i?aiaeieaiee
oaoie/aneeo, yeieiae/aneeo iianiinoae, eioi?uie /?aaaoa aiiea
aii?oaeaiee, iaeiio?iee?oaiue IOI, aio?iiiaaiiua aicaeaenoaey ia n?aaeo
iaeoaiey /aeiaaea. A oeaeii enoi?e/anee ?acaeaathuayny aeayoaeueiinoue
/aeiaaea a nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo ia?aoaao iiaoth ?acia?iinoue – iia ia
iiaeao n/eoaoueny aeaenoaeoaeueii ?acoiiie, iniuneaiiie e
oeaeaniia?aciie, anee eaii?e?oao o?aaiaaiey e eiia?aoeau, aeeeooaiua
yeieiaeae. Iao/iue aniaeo – eae i?aia?aciauaaoue e eniieueciaaoue
i?e?iaeo n iaeneiaeueiie yooaeoeaiinoueth ia ?ac?ooay aa i?e yoii?
Nioeeaeueii-oeeinioneee aniaeo – eae i?aia?aciauaaoue i?e?iaeo ia
?ac?ooay /aeiaaea? Yoeei-aoiaienoe/aneee – aniaeo eae i?aia?aciauaaoue
i?e?iaeo ia oie/oiaeay ae?oaea oi?iu aeecie. Eae aianoi /aeiaaea
iio?aaeythuaai iieo/eoue /aeiaaea niceaeathuaai.

O?enoeaineee yecenoaioeeaeeci I. Aa?aeyaaa.

Aa?aeyaa Ieeieae Aeaenaiae?iae/ (1874 – 1948) – ?onneee oeeinio –
eaeaaeeno. Oeeinioey Aa?aeyaaa aieoaea a naay iiiaeanoai ?aciiia?aciuo
enoi/ieeia. A ?acee/iua ia?eiaeu aai aaeioiiaeyee Eaio, Ia?en,
Oiiaiaaoy?, Ieoeoa. Ec ?onneeo iuneeoaeae caiaoiia aeeyiea ieacaee
Ieoaeeianeee, Aeinoiaaneee, Nieiaueaa e ae?oaea. N ia/aea OO a. aue
iaeiei ec aeaaiuo eaeaieiaia aiaieneaoaeuenoaa. ?aiiee Aa?aeyaa iuoaeny
ni/aoaoue aoiaieci Ia?ena n aio?iiieiae/aneei nioeeaeeciii Ieoaeeianeiai
e iaoaoeceeie iaieaioeainoaa. C?aeua oeeinioneea aicc?aiey Aa?aeyaaa
i?aaenoaaeytho niaie iaeio ec ia?auo a Aa?iia ?aciiaeaeiinoae
o?enoeaineiai yecenoaioeeaeecia. Niaeanii yecenoaioeeaeecio, caaea/a
oeeinioee – caieiaoueny ia i?iaeaiaie iaoee, a aii?inaie noaoai
/aeiaa/aneiai auoey (nouanoaiaaiey). *aeiaae iiieii naiae aiee caa?ioai
a yoio ie?, a naith noaeueao, e ii aeeaao a /oaeaeii aio ie?a: aai auoea
ni anao noi?ii ie?oaeaii oaeinoaaiiuie ciaeaie, neiaieaie. No?ao
aaaeiaeoaa iiiyoea oeeinioee yecenoaioeeaeecia. Ie? oai aieaa no?aoai,
/oi ii aanniuneai e iaiinoeaeei. *aeiaaea ia eaaeaeii oaao
iiaenoa?aaatho iai?eyoiinoe. E ii ia a neeao eo i?aaeaeaeaoue. Aieueoia
ianoi a yecenoaioeeaeecia caieiaao i?iaeaia naiaiaeu, ii?aaeaeyaiay eae
auai? /aeiaaeii naiiai naay: /aeiaae oaeia, eaeei ii naay naiaiaeii
auae?aao. “*oanoai aeiu ca ana niaa?oathuaany aie?oa iaai – /oanoai
naiaiaeiiai /aeiaaea” (Aa?aeyaa). Ociee eee ?aa oiaea iiaeao auoue
“naiaiaeai “, aiai?eo Aa?aeyaa, niioaaonoaothuei ia?acii naiiii?aaeaeyy
naia ioiioaiea e naiaio iieiaeaieth. Ionthaea auaiae: caaea/a /aeiaaea
caeeth/aaony ia a oii, /oiau eciaieoue ie?, a oii /oiau eciaieoue naia
ioiioaiea e iaio. Yecenoaioeeaeeci ?acee/atho ?aeeaeiciue e
aoaenoe/aneee. Eiaiii e ?aeeaeiciiio – e ioiineony Aa?aeyaa. Oeeinioey
Aa?aeyaaa aio?iiioeaio?e/ia – i?iaeaia aeooiaiinoe, naiaiaeu e
oai?/anoaa, noaeueau, niunea aeecie e nia?oe anaaaea auee a oeaio?a aai
oeeinioneeo ?aciuoeaiee. Ii Aa?aeyaao “ee/iinoue aiiaua ia?ae/iaa
auoey”, auoea – aiieiuaiea i?e/eiiinoe, iaiaoiaeeiinoe, ianneaiinoe,
aeooiaiia ia/aei naiaiaeiia, aeoeaiia, oai?/aneia. Iiiyoea iauaeoeaiiai
ie?a Aa?aeyaa caiaiyao oa?ieiii “iauaeoeae?iaaiiue ie?”, eioa?i?aoe?oy
aai eae “iauaeoeaaoeeth ?aaeueiinoe”, ii?iaeaeaiioth noauaeoeaiui
aeooii. *anoe/ii i?eciaaay nioeeaeueioth iainiaeaiiinoue auoey ee/iinoe,
ii aianoa n oai n/eoaao aeaaiui a /aeiaaea oi, /oi ii?aaeaeyaony aai
aioo?aiiei ie?ii, a ia aiaoiei ie?oaeaieai. Ee/iinoue, ii Aa?aeyaao
i?aaeaea anaai eaoaai?ey ?aeeaeiciiai niciaiey, e iiyoiio i?iyaeaiea
/aeiaa/aneie nouiinoe, aa oieeaeueiinoe e iaiiaoi?eiinoe iiaeao auoue
iiiyoi eeoue a aa ioiioaiee e aiao. Eioa?aniui yaeyaony oi, /oi oioy ii
a naia a?aiy aue auneai ec NNN? (1922a.), ii aianoa n oai ca ?oaaaeii
aunooiae n iiceoeee caueou ?onneie eoeueoo?u, i?ioea ?acee/iuo aeaeia
?onioiaee. Aa?aeyaa ?anniao?eaay o?e oeia a?aiaie (einie/aneia,
enoi?e/aneia e yecenoaioeeaeueiia eee iaoa enoi?e/aneia), ii aeaaiui
ia?acii icaai/ai i?aaeneacaieai oiai, eae “iaoa enoi?ey aoiaeeo a
enoi?eth”, iainiiaaieai i?eaeeaeaiey eiioea enoi?ee. Yoe iioeau iniaaiii
neeueii i?iyaeeenue a aai iineaaeieo ?aaioao. Aa?aeyaa n/eoae, /oi
oeeinioey oi/ao ia oieueei iiciaiey ie?a ii e oeo/oaiey aai. Ii?aeue e
i?aanoaaiiinoue Aa?aeyaa no?ieo ia o?enoeaineeo caiiaaaeyo. I?eia?:
Aeaaea anee au aaaaoa?eaiaoe au a ioaaoa ca anao oao eoi oiio?aaeyao
iyni. Anee au a?aaeaeaiei aiththuaai ainoaea?noaa au a ioaaoa ca oao
eiai oaeee nieaeaou aaoaai ainoaea?noaa.

26.2 I?iaeaia enoeiu a oeeinioee e iaoea.

1. Enoeia. Enoeia – aaeaeaaoiia io?aaeaiea aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe noauaeoii,
aini?iecaaaeaiea aa oaeie, eaeiaa iia anoue aia e iacaaeneii io
niciaiey. Eaoaai?ey enoeiu oa?aeoa?ecoao ?acoeueoaou iiciaaaoaeueiie
aeayoaeueiinoe n oi/ee c?aiey eo iauaeoeaiiai niaea?aeaiey, eioi?ia
auaeaeyaony i?aeoeeie. Iniiao aeeaeaeoeei-iaoa?eaeenoe/aneie eiioeaioeee
enoeiu ia?acoao o/aiea ia aaniethoiinoe, ioiineoaeueiinoe, eiie?aoiinoe,
i?ioeannoaeueiinoe enoeiu. I?iaeaiu, naycaiiua n oneiaeyie iinoeaeaiey e
oaeinoiaa?aiey enoeiu ?ac?aaaouaathony a oai?ee iiciaiey. ?acee/atho
aaniethoioth e ioiineoaeueioth enoeio. Aaniethoiay enoeia – oaeia
niaea?aeaiea iaoeo ciaiee eioi?ia iieiinoueth iienuaaao ie?oaeathuee
ie?. Ioiineoaeueiay enoeia iaiieiia nia- iaaeaiea iauaeoa e ciaiee i
iai. 2. Iauaeoeaiay enoeia – iacaaeneiia io /aeiaaea e /aeiaa/anoaa
niaea?aeaiea ciaiey. Ii oi?ia enoeia noauaeoeaia – iii naienoai
/aeiaa/aneiai ciaiey. Ii niaea?aeaieth enoeia iauaeoeaia, o.e. ia
caaeneo io niciaiey, a iaoneiaeaia ioia?aaeathueiny a iai iaoa?eaeueiui
ie?ii. 3. Aaniethoiay e ioiineoaeueiay enoeia – e?eoa?ee
aeeaeaeoe/aneiai iaoa?eaeecia, oa?aeoa?ecothuea i?ioeann ?acaeoey
iiciaiey e ?ane?uaathuea niioiioaiea iaaeaeo: 1) oai, /oi oaea iiciaii e
oai, /oi aoaeao iiciaii a aeaeueiaeoai i?ioeanna ?acaeoey iaoee; 2) oai,
/oi a ninoaaa iaoaai ciaiey iiaeao auoue eciaiaii, ooi/iaii,
ii?iaa?aiooi a oiaea aeaeueiaeoaai ?acaeoey iaoee e oai, /oi inoaiaony
iaii?iaa?aeeiui. Ii ia?a aeaeueiaeoaai ?acaeoey iiciaiey e i?aeoeee
/aeiaa/aneea i?aaenoaaeaiey i i?e?iaea oaeoaeythony, ooi/iythony,
niaa?oainoaothony. Iiyoiio iao/iua enoeiu yaeythony ioiineoaeueiuie a
oii niunea, /oi iie ia aeatho iieiiai, en/a?iuaathuaai ciaiey ia
eco/aaiie iaeanoe i?aaeiaoia e niaea?aeao oaeea yeaiaiou, eioi?ua a
i?ioeanna ?acaeoey iiciaiey aoaeoo eciaiyoueny, ooi/iyoueny, caiaiyoueny
iiauie. Aianoa n oai eaaeaeay iauaeoeaiay enoeia icia/aao oaa aia?aae a
iiciaiee aaniethoiie enoeiu, niaea?aeeo, anee iia iao/ia, yeaiaiou,
e?oieoeu aaniethoiie enoeiu. Ia ia?aoiaeeiie a?aie iaaeaeo aaniethoiie e
ioiineoaeueiie enoeiie iao. Ec noiiu ioiineoaeueiuo – e neeaaeuaaaony
aaniethoiay enoeia. 4. Eiie?aoiinoue enoeiu – naienoai enoeiu,
iniiaaiiia ia o/aoa e iaiauaiee eiie?aoiuo oneiaee nouanoaiaaiey oiai
eee eiiai yaeaiey, caaeneiinoue enoeiu io ii?aaeaeaiiuo oneiaee ianoa e
a?aiaie e o. ae. Oae, enoeiiinoue eee eiaeiinoue oao eee eiuo
i?aaeeiaeaiee ia niiaoo auoue onoaiiaeaiu, anee ia iaiai?aiu oneiaey, n
o/aoii eioi?uo iie noi?ioee?iaaiu. I?aaeeiaeaiea “Noiia aioo?aiieo oaeia
o?aoaieueieea ?aaia 2d” enoeiii eeoue aeey aaeeeaeiaie aaiiao?ee e
eiaeii, iai?eia? a aaiiao?ee Eiaa/aaneiai. Iiyoiio iao aano?aeoiie
enoeiu, enoeia anaaaea eiie?aoia. 5. E?eoa?ee enoeiu – n?aaenoai
i?iaa?ee oiai eee eiiai ooaa?aeaeaiey, aeiioacu, oai?aoe/aneiai
iino?iaiey e o. i. E?eoa?ee enoeiu yaeyaony iauanoaaiiay i?aeoeea.
Iiuoiua iao/iua oai?ee iieo/atho naith ooiaeaiaioaeueioth i?iaa?eo n
iiiiuueth i?aeoeee: a iaoa?eaeueiii i?iecaiaenoaa, a ?aaiethoeeiiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe iann ii ia?aono?ienoao iauanoaa e o. i. Anee oai?ey
oniaoii i?eiaiyaony ia i?aeoeea, yoi icia/aao, /oi iia yaeyaony
ioiineoaeueiie enoeiie. Niiniau i?iaa?ee oie eee eiie oai?ee ia i?aeoeea
iiaoo auoue ?acee/iuie. Iai?eia?, oa eee eiua iieiaeaiey a anoanoaaiiuo
iaoeao iieo/atho naia iiaeoaa?aeaeaiea a yenia?eiaioa, naycaiiii n
iaaethaeaieai, ecia?aieai, n iaoaiaoe/aneie ia?aaioeie iieo/aaiuo
?acoeueoaoia. *anoi i?aeoe/aneay i?iaa?ea inouanoaeyaony
iiin?aaenoaaiiui iooai. Oae, onoaiiaeaiea enoeiiinoe ooaa?aeaeaiey iooai
eiae/aneiai aeieacaoaeuenoaa a eiia/iii n/aoa iie?aaony ia i?aeoe/aneoth
i?iaa?eo iaeioi?uo enoiaeiuo iieiaeaiee oie eee eiie oai?ee, eioi?ua a
aa ?aieao niaoeeaeueii ia aeieacuaathony.

Nioeeaeueiay oi?ia aeaeaeaiey iaoa?ee e aa niaoeeoeea.

Ii?aaeaeaiea. Iiae aeaeaeaieai iaoa?ee ioaeii iiieiaoue ia oieueei
iaoaie/aneia ia?aiauaiea oae a i?ino?ainoaa, ii e ethaua
acaeiiaeaenoaey, a oaeaea eciaiaiey ninoiyiee iauaeoia, eioi?ua
aucuaathony yoeie acaeiiaeaenoaeyie. Iie?aynue ia aeinoeaeaiey
anoanoaaiiuo iaoe e ia oeeinioneia iiieiaiea aeaeaeaiey eae niiniaa
nouanoaiaaiey iaoa?ee, aeeaeaeoe/aneee iaoa?eaeeci eeanneoeoee?oao aeaeu
aeaeaeaiey iaoa?ee, auaeaeyy ec eo iaen/eneeiiai iiiaiia?acey ?yae
iniiaiuo oi?i. Ia?aay iao/iay eeanneoeeaoeey oi?i aeaeaeaiey iaoa?ee
i?eiaaeeaaeeo O. Yiaaeueno. Ii auaeaeee oaeea oi?iu: iaoaie/aneoth,
oeie/aneoth, aeieiae/aneoth, nioeeaeueioth. Yoa eeanneoeeaoeey nio?aiyao
naia cia/aiea e iiiuia, oioy, ?acoiaaony, a nayce n aeinoeaeaieyie
nia?aiaiiie iaoee iia nouanoaaiii iaiaaoeeinue. Iaeiie ec aaaeiaeoeo
noi?ii o/aiey i oi?iao aeaeaeaiey iaoa?ee yaeyaony o?aeoiaea
iauanoaaiiuo i?ioeannia eae nioeeaeueiie oi?iu aeaeaeaiey iaoa?ee.
Auaeaeyy a iauanoaaiiie aeecie iaoa?eaeueiua e aeooiaiua i?ioeannu,
aeeaeaeoe/aneee iaoa?eaeeci iiae/a?eeaaao ia?ae/iinoue iaoa?eaeueiuo
i?ioeannia, ii ia io?uaaao eo io aeooiaiie aeecie iauanoaa. Eeoue a
aano?aeoeee iiaeii ioaeaeeoue ae?oa io ae?oaa yoe noi?iiu iauanoaaiiie
aeecie. A ?aaeueiie aea aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe iie acaeiiaeaenoaotho,
aeaaiaea?y /aio oieueei e nouanoaoao iauanoai eae iniaue o?iaaiue
i?aaiecaoeee iaoa?ee. Iauanoai – ia i?inoi iaoa?eae, a iaeooioai?aiiay
iaoa?ey. Iineoaeai nioeeaeueiie oi?iu aeaeaeaiey yaeyaony /aeiaae eae
noauaeo enoi?ee. Iineieueeo ii anoue ?acoiiia iauanoaaiiia nouanoai,
eioi?iio i?enoua aioo?aiiyy aeooiaiay aeeciue, e iineieueeo aai
aeaenoaey iinyo oeaeaiai?aaeaiiue oa?aeoa?, iineieueeo nioeeaeueiay
oi?ia aeaeaeaiey a noauaeoii-iauaeoiuo ioiioaieyo, oi anoue a ioiioaieyo
e ie?oaeathuaio ie?o, iauaeoeaiie ?aaeueiinoe. A yoii e caeeth/aaony
niaoeeoeea nioeeaeueiie oi?iu aeaeaeaiey iaoa?ee, aa ei?aiiia ioee/ea io
anao eiuo oi?i aeaeaeaiey. *aeiaa/aneia niciaiea, iaania/eaay io?aaeaiea
/aeiaa/aneiai auoey e i?iaeoe?iaaiey aai aiciiaeiuo aoaeoueo ninoiyiee,
aeoeaii aeeyao ia i?ioeannu iaoa?eaeueiie aeecie ethaeae. Eaeae,
iaeaaeaaay iannaie ethaeae, iai?aaeytho eo aeayoaeueiinoue, a a
i?ioeanna yoie aeayoaeueiinoe ia?ano?aeaaaony naii iauanoai. Ia neo/aeii
Ia?en iiae/a?eeaae, /oi eaeae, iaeaaeaaay iannaie, noaiiayony
iaoa?eaeueiie neeie. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, eiaaea ?a/ue eaeao i nioeeaeueiii
aeaeaeaiee iaoa?ee, eiaaony a aeaeo ia i?inoi acaeiiaeaenoaea
iaoa?eaeueiuo yeaiaioia, a oaeia acaeiiaeaenoaea, eioi?ia i?aaeiieaaaao
nouanoaiaaiea e ?acaeoea eaeaaeueiie ?aaeueiinoe /aeiaa/aneiai niciaiey
e a eioi?ii niciaiea i?eieiaao aeoeaiia o/anoea. Niciaiea, eae
eaeaaeueiay ?aaeueiinoue, ia nouanoaoao aia e iacaaeneii io oeaie
iauanoaaiiie aeecie. Iii eae au ano?iaii, aieaaeaii a yoo aeeciue,
aunooiaao a ea/anoaa aa aniaeoa iaania/eaay ooieoeeiie?iaaiea e ?acaeoea
iauanoaa eae oeaeiai. O/eouaay yoo iniaaiiinoue nioeeaeueiiai
aeaeaeaiey, O. Yiaaeuen eiiaaea ii?aaeaeye /aeiaa/aneia iuoeaiea eae
niaoeeoe/aneoth oi?io aeaeaeaiey iaoa?ee. Oai naiui ii eae au
iiae/a?eeaae, /oi nioeeaeueiia aeaeaeaiea ia iiaeao inouanoaeyoueny aac
?acaeoey eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai e iauanoaaiiiai niciaiey. Nae/an aieaa
i?eiyoi auaeaeyoue o?e oi?iu 1 Oece/aneoth ( iaoaie/aneay + oeie/aneay
o.a. oi?ia aeaeaeaiey iaaeeaie iaoa?ee) 2 Aeieiae/aneay ( ?anoaiey +
aeeaioiua ) 3 Nioeeaeueiay (/aeiaae )

Aeeaeaeoeei-iaoa?eaeenoe/aneay oeeinioey Ia?ena, Yiaaeuena.

Oai?aoe/aneeie enoi/ieeaie aeeaeaeoeei-iaoa?eaeenoe/aneie oeeinioee
Ia?ena- Yiaaeuena yaeyaony iaiaoeeay eeanne/aneay oeeinioey, aiaeeeneay
eeanne/aneay iieeoe/aneay yeiiiiey e o?aioeocneee ooiie/aneee
nioeeaeeci. Iaiin?aaenoaaiiuie i?aaeoanoaaiieeaie, ieacaaoeie iaeaieaa
neeueiia aeeyiea ia eo oeeinioneea acaeyaeu, auee Aaaaeue e Oaea?aao.
Aeeaeaeoe/aneea eaeae Aaaaey a ia?a?aaioaiiii aeaea iineoaeeee
oeeinioneei enoi/ieeai oi?ie?iaaiey iaoa?eaeenoe/aneie aeeaeaeoeee. A
naiae e?eoeea eaeaaeenoe/aneeo aicc?aiee Aaaaey iniiaiiieiaeieee
ia?enecia iie?aeenue ia anth iaoa?eaeenoe/aneoth o?aaeeoeeth, e i?aaeaea
anaai ia iaoa?eaeeci Oaea?aaoa. Aeeaeaeoe/aneee iaoa?eaeeci e anoue
?acoeueoao ei?aiiie oai?/aneie ia?a?aaioee oiai e ae?oaiai ia iniiaa
iiaiai iniuneaiey nioeeaeueiie e i?e?iaeiie ?aaeueiinoe. Aeeaeaeoe/aneee
iaoa?eaeeci – oeeinioneia iai?aaeaiea, eco/athuaa iaeaieaa iauea
caeiiiia?iinoe e nouiinoue auoey, ioiioaiea /aeiaaea e ie?o e
enoi?e/aneea eciaiaiey yoiai ioiioaiey a i?ioeanna i?aaeiaoii-
i?aeoe/aneie e aeooiaii-oai?aoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe. Iniiaiuie
nenoaiiia?acothueie i?eioeeiaie aeeaeaeoe/aneiai iaoa?eaeecia yaeythony:
1) i?eioeei aaeeinoaa e oeaeinoiinoe auoey eae ?acaeaathuaeny
oieaa?naeueiie nenoaiu, aeeth/athuae a naay ana i?iyaeaiey, ana oi?iu
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe io iauaeoeaiie aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe (iaoa?ey) e aei
noauaeoeaiie aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe (iuoeaiea); 2) i?eioeei iaoa?eaeueiinoe
ie?a, ooaa?aeaeathuee /oi iaoa?ey ia?ae/ia ii ioiioaieth e niciaieth,
io?aaeaaony a iai e ii?aaeaeyao aai niaea?aeaiea ; 3) i?eioeei
iiciaaaaiinoe ie?a, enoiaeyuee ec oiai, /oi ie?oaeathuee ie? iiciaaaai e
ia?ie aai iiciaiiinoe, ii?aaeaeythuae noaiaiue niioaaonoaey iaoeo ciaiee
iauaeoeaiie ?aaeueiinoe, yaeyaony iauanoaaiii- i?iecaiaenoaaiiay
i?aeoeea; 4) i?eioeei ?acaeoey, iaiauathuee enoi?e/aneee iiuo
/aeiaa/anoaa, aeinoeaeaiey anoanoaaiiuo, iauanoaaiiuo e oaoie/aneeo iaoe
e ia yoie iniiaa ooaa?aeaeathuee, oi ana yaeaiey a ie?a e ie? a oeaeii
iaoiaeyony a iai?a?uaiii, iinoiyiiii, aeeaeaeoe/aneii ?acaeoee, enoi/iee
eioi?iai – aicieeiiaaiea e ?ac?aoaiea aioo?aiieo i?ioeai?a/ee, aaaeouea
e io?eoeaieth iaeieo ninoiyiee e ia?aciaaieth i?eioeeieaeueii ae?oaeo
iiauo ea/anoaaiiuo yaeaiee e i?eioeeiia; 5) i?eioeei i?aia?aciaaiey
ie?a, niaeanii eioi?iio enoi?e/aneay oeaeue ?acaeoea iauanoaa ninoieo a
aeinoeaeaiee naiaiae, iaania/eaathuae ananoi?iiiaa aa?iiie/aneia
?acaeoea eaaeaeie ee/iinoe, a ?ane?uoee anao aa oai?/aneeo niiniaiinoae
ia iniiaa ei?aiiiai i?aia?aciaaiey iauanoaa e aeinoeaeaiey nioeeaeueiie
ni?aaaaeeeainoe e ?aaiii?aaey /eaiia iauanoaa; 6) i?eioeei ia?oeeiinoe
oeeinioee, onoaiaaeeaathuee iaee/ea neiaeiie iauaeoeaiie nayce iaaeaeo
oeeinioneeie eiioeaioeeyie e ie?iaicc?aieai /aeiaa/anoaa n iaeiie
noi?iiu e nioeeaeueiie no?oeoo?ie iauanoaa – n ae?oaie noi?iiu. Eoae
Ia?en e Yiaaeuen ia iniiaa iaiauaiey iiuoa ?aaiethoeeiiiie ai?ueau
i?ieaoa?eaoa aeaiiuo iaoe ane?uee aeeaeaeoeei-iaoa?eaeenoe/aneee
oa?aeoa? ?acaeoey ia oieueei i?e?iaeu, ii e /aeiaa/aneiai iauanoaa. Iie
aeino?ieee iaoa?eaeeci , i?eiaieee aai e iauyniaieth enoi?ee
iauanoaa e oai naiui nicaeaee e enoi?e/aneee iaoa?eaeeci. Yoi eiaei
ia?iiiia ?aaiethoeeiiiia cia/aiea eae aeey iaoee ia iauanoaa oae e aeey
anae iauanoaaiiie i?aeoeee. Auei nicaeaii oeaeinoiia o/aiea i caeiiao
?acaeoey i?e?iaeu, iauanoaa e iuoeaiey – oeeinioey aeeaeaeoe/aneiai e
enoi?e/aneiai iaoa?eaeecia. Eaeae Ia?ena a ?anniio?aiee O?iia ( iiiiiaio
Ia?ena ) 1. Ie/oi /aeiaa/aneia iia ia /oaeaei 2. Iiaeaa?aae ana
niiiaieth 3. Enoeia i?eaiaeeo e inaiaiaeaeaieth Iiaia a oeeinioee io
Ia?ena ( ii Aai?iao ) 1. Eciaiaiea iiieiaiey i?aaeiaoa oeeinioee ( O.
yoi iaoea ni naiei i?aaeiaoii e iaoiaeii ) 2. Eciaiaiea nioeeaeueiie
ooieoeee O. ( O. aeieaeia auoue aeinoiyieai anao ethaeae. Iia aeieaeia
ea?aoue aeoeaioth ?ieue ia oieueei a aeooiaiie ii e a iaoa?eaeueiie
aeecie iauanoaa ) 3. Eciaiaiea niaea?aeaiea naiie O. a. Aaaaeaiea
i?aeoeee a oai?eth iiciaiey a. Iauaaeeiaiea iaoa?eaeecia e eaeaaeecia (
onoaiiaeaiea aeey iaoa?eaeecia aeeaeaeoe/aneiai iaoiaea aeey eaeaaeecia
iaoaoece/aneiai ) a. Iaoa?eaeenoe/aneia iiieiaiea enoi?ee 4. Ioe?uoea
iaoiaeieiae/aneie ?iee O. ( O. aeieaeia eciaieoue ie? )

Iao/iia iiciaiea, aa niaoeeoe/aneea i?eciaee. Iao/iia e iauaeaiiia
iiciaiea. E?eoa?ee iao/iinoe.

Ii?aaeaeaiea. Iiciaiea – iauanoaaiii – enoi?e/aneee i?ioeann oai?/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoe ethaeae, oi?ie?othuee eo ciaiey, ia iniiaa eioi?uo
aicieeatho oeaee e iioeau /aeiaa/aneeo aeaenoaee. I?eaioaoeey iaoee ia
eco/aiea iauaeoia, eioi?ua iiaoo auoue aeeth/aiu a aeayoaeueiinoue (eeai
aeooaeueii, eeai iioaioeeaeueii, eae aiciiaeiua iauaeou aa aoaeouaai
inaiaiey), e eo enneaaeiaaiea, eae iiae/eiythueony iauaeoeaiui caeiiai
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey e ?acaeoey ninoaaeytho iaeio ec aaaeiaeoeo
iniaaiiinoae iao/iiai iiciaiey. Iaoea i?eaioe?iaaia ia i?aaeiaoiia e
iauaeoeaiia enneaaeiaaiea aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe. Iaoeaeaiiinoue iaoee ia
eco/aiea ia oieueei iauaeoia, i?aia?acoaiuo a naaiaeiyoiae i?aeoeea, oi
oao, eioi?ua iiaoo noaoue i?aaeiaoii ianniaiai i?aeoe/aneiai inaiaiey a
aoaeouai, yaeyaony, aoi?ie ioee/eoaeueiie /a?oie iao/iiai iiciaiey. Yoa
/a?oa iicaieyao ?aca?aie/eoue iao/iia e iauaeaiiia noeoeeii-yiie?e/aneia
iiciaiea e auaanoe ?yae eiie?aoiuo ii?aaeaeaiee, oa?aeoa?ecothueo
i?e?iaeo iao/iiai enneaaeiaaiey. Ca?iaeuoaaua oi?iu iao/iiai iiciaiey
aicieeee a iaae?ao e ia iniiaa iauaeaiiiai iiciaiey, a caoai
ioii/eiaaeenue io iaai. Ii ia?a ?acaeoey iaoee e i?aa?auaiey aa a iaeio
ec aaaeiaeoeo oeaiiinoae oeeaeeecaoeee aa niinia iuoeaiey ieacuaaao aia
aieaa aeoeaiia aicaeaenoaea ia iauaeaiiia niciaiea. Yoi aicaeaenoaea
?acaeaaao niaea?aeaueany a iauaeaiiii noeoeeii- yiie?e/aneii iiciaiee
yeaiaiou iauaeoeaiiai io?aaeaiey ie?a. Iaeiaei iaaeaeo niiniaiinoueth
noeoeeii-yiie?e/aneiai iiciaiey ii?iaeaeaoue i?aaeiaoiia e iauaeoeaiia
ciaiea i ie?a e iauaeoeaiinoueth e i?aaeiaoiinoueth iao/iiai ciaiey
eiathony nouanoaaiiua ?acee/ey. I?aaeaea anaai, iaoea eiaao aeaei n
iniaui iaai?ii iauaeoia ?aaeueiinoe, ianaiaeeiuo e iauaeoai iauaeaiiiai
ie?a. Au?aaioea iaoeie niaoeeaeueiiai ycuea, i?eaiaeiiai aeey iienaiey
aa iauaeoia, iaiau/iuo n oi/ee c?aiey cae?aaiai niunea, yaeyaony
iaiaoiaeeiui oneiaeai iao/iiai enneaaeiaaiey. sscue iaoee iinoiyiii
?acaeaaaony ii ia?a aa i?iieeiiaaiey ai ana iiaua iaeanoe iauaeoeaiiai
ie?a. I?e/ai ii ieacuaaao ia?aoiia aicaeaenoaea ia iianaaeiaaiue,
anoanoaaiiue ycue. Iai?eia?, neiaa ,
eiaaea-oi auee niaoeeoe/aneeie iao/iuie oa?ieiaie, a caoai i?i/ii aioee
a iianaaeiaaiue ycue. Ia?yaeo n eneonnoaaiiui, niaoeeaeece?iaaiiui
ycueii iao/iia enneaaeiaaiea ioaeaeaaony a iniaie nenoaia niaoeeaeueiuo
i?oaeee. Nenoaiiinoue e iainiiaaiiinoue iao/iiai ciaiey – aua iaeei
nouanoaaiiue i?eciae, ioee/athuee aai io i?iaeoeoia iauaeaiiie
iiciaaaoaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe ethaeae. Aua iaeii nouanoaaiiia ioee/ea –
yoi ?acee/ea a iaoiaeao iiciaaaoaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe. Iauaeou, ia
eioi?ua iai?aaeaii iauaeaiiia iiciaiea, oi?ie?oaony a iianaaeiaaiie
i?aeoeea. I?eaiu, iin?aaenoaii eioi?uo eaaeaeue oaeie iauaeo auaeaeyaony
e oeene?oaony a ea/anoaa i?aaeiaoa iiciaiey, eae i?aaeei, ia iniciathony
noauaeoii a ea/anoaa niaoeeoe/aneiai iaoiaea iiciaiey. Eia/a ianoieo
aeaei a iao/iii enneaaeiaaiee. Caeanue oaea naii iaia?oaeaiea iauaeoa,
naienoaa eioi?iai iiaeeaaeao aeaeueiaeoaio eco/aieth, ninoaaeyao aanueia
o?oaeiaieoth caaea/o. Iaeiiaoe, caiyoey iaoeie o?aaoao iniaie
iiaeaioiaee iiciathuaai iauaeoa, a oiaea eioi?ie ii inaaeaaao
enoi?e/anee neiaeeaoeany n?aaenoaa iao/iiai enneaaeiaaiey, iao/aaony
i?eaiai e iaoiaeai iia?e?iaaiey n yoeie n?aaenoaaie. ?acee/ey
yiie?e/aneiai e oai?aoe/aneiai o?iaiae neaaeoao inouanoaeyoue n o/aoii
niaoeeoeee iiciaaaoaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe ia eaaeaeii ec yoeo o?iaiae.
Iniiaiua e?eoa?ee, ii eioi?ui ?acee/athony yoe o?iaie, neaaeothuea: 1)
oa?aeoa? i?aaeiaoa enneaaeiaaiey; 2) oei i?eiaiyaiuo n?aaenoa
enneaaeiaaiey; 3) iniaaiiinoe iaoiaea. Niaoeeoe/aneea i?eciaee iao/iiai
iiciaiey 1. I. eiaao aeaei n eaeaaeece?iaaiiuie iauaeoaie 2. I.
iia?e?oao ii?aaeaeaiiuie n?aaenoaaie aicaeaenoaey ia iaoa?eaeueiue ie?
3. I. anaaaea iie?aaony ia ii?aaeaeaiiua iaoiaeu 4. Aaaeiaeoea iaoiaeu
iaoee – aeiioacu e oai?ee 5. I. i?eaioe?oaony ia aoaeouaa 6. I. ciaiea
i?aaeiaoii e iauaeoeaii E?eoa?ee iao/iinoe 1. Aini?iecaiaeeiinoue 2.
I?iaa?yaiinoue 3. I?iaeaiiinoue 4. Iiaeeueiinoue 5. E?eoe/iinoue 6.
I?aeoe/iinoue 7. Eiia?niiaeueiinoue 8. Nenoaiiinoue

27.3. *aeiaae eae i?ioeai?a/eaia aaeeinoai i?e?iaeiiai e iauanoaaiiiai.
*aeiaae e anoanoaaiiay n?aaea iaeoaiey.

Any enoi?ey, eae oeeinioneeo o/aiee, oae e niaoeeaeueiuo anoanoaaiiuo e
aoiaieoa?iuo iaoe naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i iai?anoaiiuo iiiuoeao iiiyoue
i?e?iaeo /aeiaaea, niune aai auoey e ia?niaeoeau ?acaeoey.
O?aaeeoeeiiiua eaeaaeenoe/aneea e ?aeeaeiciua i?aaenoaaeaiey
oa?aeoa?ecothony i?aaenoaaeaieai i /aeiaaea ioi?aaiiii io i?e?iaeu.
*aeiaae ecia?aaeaeny eae iaeii ec oai?aiee aiaa, eae iiiaio “ie?iaiai
?acoia”, “ie?iaie eaeae” (iauaeoeaii- eaeaaeenoe/aneea iai?aaeaiey) eee
aea eae “/enoay noauaeoeaiinoue” e “/enoia naiiniciaiea”
(noauaeoeaii-eaeaaeenoe/aneea iai?aaeaiey). A i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue
eaeaaeenoe/aneei eioa?i?aoaoeeyi, ia?enenoneay eiioeaioeey /aeiaaea
enoiaeeo ec i?eciaiey aaeeinoaa /aeiaaea e i?e?iaeu iniiauaaaony ia
iaoa?eaeenoe/aneii iiieiaiee /aeiaaea, eae i?e?iaeiiai nouanoaa.
*aeiaae, eae oieeaeueiue aeieiae/aneee aeae Homo sapiens aiciee ieiei 40
oun. eao oiio iacaae a ?acoeueoaoa aeeeoaeueiiai i?ioeanna noaiiaeaiey
iauanoaa, eioi?ue iaeiia?aiaiii yaeyaony e ia?eiaeii oi?ie?iaaiey
/aeiaaea. Oaeei ia?acii, /aeiaae aiciee a ?acoeueoaoa aeeeoaeueiiai
i?ioeanna aio?iiinioeeiaaiaca. N oi?ie?iaaieai iuoeaiey e ycuea
ia/aeinue iaeiia?aiaiiia noaiiaeaiea i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo e
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaiee, eae iniaiai aeaea iaoa?ee –
nioeeaeueiie iaoa?ee. Aa naiaia?acea caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi aoaeo/e
iauaeoeaiie e ia?ae/iie ii ioiioaieth e iauanoaaiiiio niciaieth iia, a
ioee/ee io i?e?iaeiie iaoa?ee ia iiaeao nouanoaiaaoue aac niciaiey.
*aeiaae – yoi aunoee o?iaaiue i?aaiecaoeee iaoa?ee, iniciathuae naio
naay. Niiniaiinoue i?iecaiaeeoue i?oaeey o?oaea yaeyaony aeaeiaui
ioee/eai /aeiaaea io aeeaioiiai. Aeieiae/anee eaaeaeue ec eiaaea-eeai
aeeaoeo eee aeeaoueo nae/an /aeiaa/aneeo eiaeeaeaeooiia yaeyaony
oieeaeueiui, aaeeinoaaiiui, iineieueeo iaiiaoi?ei iaai? aaiia,
iieo/aaiuo ei io ?iaeeoaeae. Yoa eiaeeaeaeoaeueiinoue oneeeaaaony a
?acoeueoaoa acaeiiaeaenoaey nioeeaeueiuo e aeieiae/aneeo oaeoi?ia a
i?ioeanna eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai ?acaeoey /aeiaaea. ?aoathuaa aeeyiea
nioeeaeueiiai oaeoi?a ia ?acaeoea /aeiaaea ia aaaeao e en/aciiaaieth a
iai i?e?iaeiiai. Iie iaoiaeyony a aeeaeaeoe/aneii aaeeinoaa e
acaeiiaeaenoaee. Iiae aicaeaenoaeai /aeiaa/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe,
aeieiae/aneia, a cia/eoaeueiie ia?a (ii ia iieiinoueth) i?aoa?iaei
iiaeeoeeaoeeth e aeinoeaei a ?yaea ioiioaiee aieaa aunieiai o?iaiy
?acaeoey iaaeaee o ae?oaeo i?aaenoaaeoaeae aeeaioiiai ie?a, oi anoue
“i/aeiaa/eeinue”. Oioy aeieiae/aneea no?oeoo?u e ooieoeee /aeiaa/aneiai
i?aaiecia iaia?oaeeaatho iauaa n aunoeie aeeaioiuie, a ieo niaea?aeeony
e nouanoaaiii iiaia, noi?ie?iaaaoaany a ?acoeueoaoa o?oaeiaie
aeayoaeueiinoe /aeiaaea. I?aeiouanoai /aeiaaea ia?aae aeeaioiuie a oii,
/oi iao/eeny i?iecaiaeeoue ia oieueei aeey oaeiaeaoai?aiey nianoaaiiuo
ioaeae (oeceieiae/aneeo iio?aaiinoae), ii e aeey ae?oaeo ethaeae. Eiaiii
iiyoiio i?iecaaaeaiiue /aeiaaeii i?iaeoeo i?eia?aoaao iauanoaaiii
cia/eiua naienoaa, a iio?aaiinoe e /oanoaaiiinoue ana aieaa
?acaeaathony. Iiyoiio aeieiae/aneia a /aeiaaea – yoi ia oieueei oi, /oi
aaiaoe/anee naeeaeaao e ?iaeieo /aeiaaea n aeeaioiui i?aaeeii, ii e oi
iiaia (iaoneiaeaiiia ii?oioeceieiae/aneeie iniaaiiinoyie i?aaiecia), /ai
ii ioee/aaony io aeeaioiiai. Oieeaeueiinoue /aeiaaea iaoneiaeaia oai,
/oi a ioee/ea io aeeaioiuo, ii ia?yaeo n aaiaoe/aneie i?ia?aiiie eiaao
aiciiaeiinoue aeaaiaea?y iaee/eth niciaiey iooai ainieoaiey ia?aaeaaaoue
iiuo i?aaeuaeoueo iieieaiee eaaeaeiio neaaeothuaio iieieaieth. *aeiaae,
oaeei ia?acii, aeeth/ai n?aco a aeaa ie?a – a ie? iauanoaa e a ie?
i?aaie/aneie i?e?iaeu ii?iaeaeaao iaiaei i?iaeai, eae eanathueony
aeooaeueiiai nouanoaiaaiey ethaeae, oae e naycaiiuo n iauyniaieai naiie
i?e?iaeu /aeiaaea. Ec iineaaeieo ?anniio?ei aeaa, eioi?ua iiaeii
n/eoaoue eeth/aauie. A?enoioaeue iacuaae /aeiaaea “iieeoe/aneei
aeeaioiui”, iiae/a?eeaay oai naiui iaee/ea a /aeiaaea aeaoo ia/ae:
aeeaioiiai (aeieiae/aneiai) e iieeoe/aneiai (nioeeaeueiiai). I?iaeaia
aea caeeth/aaony a oii, eaeia ec yoeo ia/ae yaeyaony aeiieie?othuei,
ii?aaeaeythuei oi?ie?iaaiea niiniaiinoae, /oanoa, iiaaaeaiey, aeaenoaee
/aeiaaea e eiei ia?acii inouanoaeyaony acaeiinaycue aeieiae/aneiai e
nioeeaeueiiai a /aeiaaea. Nooue ae?oaie i?iaeaiu caeeth/aaony a
neaaeothuai: i?eciaaay, /oi eaaeaeue /aeiaae oieeaeai, a i?aeoe/aneie
aeecie iu, iaeiaei a?oiie?oai ethaeae ii ?acee/iui i?eciaeai ec eioi?uo
iaeie ii?aaeaeythony aeieiae/anee, ae?oaea nioeeaeueii, a iaeioi?ua –
acaeiiaeaenoaeai aeieiae/aneiai e nioeeaeueiiai. Aicieeaao aii?in, eaeia
aea cia/aiea a aeecie iauanoaa eiatho aeieiae/anee iaoneiaeaiiua
?acee/ey iaaeaeo ethaeueie e a?oiiaie ethaeae. A oiaea aeeneonnee i
niioiioaiee aeieiae/aneiai e nioeeaeueiiai a /aeiaaea auneacuaaaony
oe?ieee niaeo? iiaiee, caeeth/aiiuo iaaeaeo aeaoiy e?aeieie oi/eaie
c?aiey: eiioeaioeeyie /aeiaaea, eioi?ua i?eiyoi iacuaaoue
aeieiaecaoi?neeie, eee iaoo?aeenoe/aneeie, noi?iiieee eioi?uo
aaniethoece?otho ?ieue aeieiae/aneeo ia/ae a /aeiaaea; e
nioeeieiaecaoi?neeie eiioeaioeeyie a eioi?uo /aeiaae i?aaenoaaeai eae
anaai eeoue neaiie n ie?oaeathueo aai nioeeaeueiuo ioiioaiee, eo
ianneaiia ii?iaeaeaiea. E aeieiaecaoi?neei eiioeaioeeyi ioiinyony
?aneci, a oaeaea aeiaieueii aeeyoaeueiue a eiioea i?ioeiai e ia/aea
iuiaoiaai noieaoey nioeeae-aea?aeieci. Aai noi?iiieee iuoaeenue
iauynieoue yaeaiey iauanoaaiiie aeecie iie?aynue ia o/aiea Aea?aeia i
anoanoaaiiii ioai?a e yaiethoeee. Nioeeieiaecaoi?neea eiioeaioeee
?anniao?eaatho aeieiae/aneia eae ia/oi aoi?inoaiaiiia, io /aai aiciiaeii
aano?aae?iaaoueny i?e eco/aiee /aeiaaea, e aieaa oiai, eae nu?ie
iaoa?eae, eioi?ui iiaeii aaneiia/ii iaieioee?iaaoue ai eiy aeinoeaeaiey
oiai eee eiiai nioeeaeueiiai eaeaaea. Oa?aeoa?iia aeey
nioeeieiaecaoi?neeo o?aeoiaie i?aiaa?aaeaiea e aeieiae/aneiio a /aeiaaea
io/anoe ei?aieony a o?enoeaineie o?aaeeoeee, a eioi?ie aeooiaiia ?acei
i?ioeaiiinoaaeyaony oaeaniiio, ieioneiio, eae aicauoaiiia – ieciaiiiio.
Iiceoeey ia?enecia a aii?ina i niioiioaiee nioeeaeueiiai e
aeieiae/aneiai neaaeothuay: Ia?en iiae/a?eeaae, /oi ii?aaeaeythuei a
/aeiaaea yaeyaony nioeeaeueiia. *aeiaae e iauanoai ia?ac?uaiu: oieueei a
iauanoaa ii ?aaeecoaony eae /aeiaae. Niciaiea e iuoeaiea /aeiaaea
aicieeatho eae iauanoaaiiue i?iaeoeo e neaaeiaaoaeueii ieacuaathony
aoi?e/iui ii ioiioaieth e iauanoaaiiiio auoeth. *aeiaae e anoanoaaiiay
n?aaea iaeoaiey. Anoanoaaiiay ie?oaeathuay n?aaea ioaaouaaao aainoa?o e
aeinoa?o, o.a. oa iaoa?eaeueiua nenoaiu, eioi?ua aicieeee e nouanoaotho
iacaaeneii io /aeiaaea, ii aianoa n oai iiaoo ni a?aiaiai noaoue
iauaeoaie aai aeayoaeueiinoe. A nayce n ?acaeoeai einie/aneie oaoiieiaee
a /enei oaeeo iauaeoia neaaeoao ioianoe oaeaea e ii?aaeaeaiioth /anoue
nieia/iie nenoaiu. Ia?en auaeaeye a anoanoaaiiie n?aaea iaeoaiey
/aeiaaea aeaa a?oiiu yaeaiee: n anoanoaaiiua enoi/ieee n?aaenoa aeecie;
n anoanoaaiiua aiaaonoaa, yaeythueany i?aaeiaoaie o?oaea. Oa?aeoa?
acaeiiaeaenoaey /aeiaaea n anoanoaaiiie n?aaeie iaeoaiey ii?aaeaeyaony
o?iaiai ?acaeoey i?iecaiaenoaa. Aaaeiaeoei ?acoeueoaoii yoiai
i?iecaiaenoaa yaeyaony nicaeaiea eneonnoaaiiie n?aaeu iaeoaiey –
iaiaeooaaeaiiua i?aaeiaou, nicaeaiiua /aeiaaeii e ia nouanoaothuea a
i?e?iaea e aeeaua i?aaieciu. Ii ia?a ?acaeoey iauanoaa ?ieue
eneonnoaaiiie n?aaeu au?anoaao, iia iinoaiaiii ianooiaao ia
anoanoaaiioth e iiaeiuaao aa. “Ia oa?aeoa? anoanoaaiiie n?aaeu
ii?aaeaeyao oa?aeoa? nioeeaeueiie n?aaeu, eae ioeai/iiai yaeaiey,” –
n/eoatho noi?iiieee “aaia?aoe/aneiai aeaoa?ieiecia”, a iaiai?io –
“oa?aeoa? nioeeaeueiie n?aaeu ii?aaeaeyao oa?aeoa? anoanoaaiiie n?aaeu,
aiaeaeaaiie a noa?o o?oaeiaie aeayoaeueiinoe /aeiaaea”. Ai
acaeiiaeaenoaee /aeiaaea n i?e?iaeie, aeoeaiie noi?iiie anaaaea
aunooiaao /aeiaae.

28.1 E?eoe/aneay oeeinioey E. Eaioa. E?eoeea /enoiai ?acoia. Aaeeinoai
/oanoaaiiinoe e ?annoaeea.

Eaio inouanoaee ia?aai?io a oeeinioee, ?anniao?eaay iiciaiea eae
aeayoaeueiinoue, i?ioaeathuoth ii naiei nianoaaiiui caeiiai. Aia?aua ia
oa?aeoa?, a no?oeoo?a iiciaaaaiie noanoaioeee, a niaoeeoeea iiciathuaai
noauaeoa ?anniao?eaaaony eae aeaaiue oaeoi?, ii?aaeaeythuee niinia
iiciaiey e eiino?oe?othuee i?aaeiao ciaiey. Eaio aiaeece?oao no?oeoo?o
noauaeoa aeey oiai, /oiau ?aoeoue aii?in, /oi aea oaeia enoeiiia ciaiea.
I?aaeiaoii oai?aoe/aneie oeeinioee ii Eaoo, aeieaeii auo ia eco/aiea
aauae naieo ii naaa – i?e?iaeu, ie?a, /aeiaaea, a enneaaeiaaiey caeiiia
/aeiaa/aneiai ?acoia e aai iiciaaaoaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe. A yoii niunea
Eaio iacaae naith oeeinioeth o?ainoeaiaeaioaeueiie. Ii iacaae naie
iaoiae oaeaea e?eoe/aneei, a ioee/ea io aeiaiaoe/aneiai iaoiaea
?aoeeiiaeecia XVII aaea i?aaei?eiyoue e?eoe/aneee aiaeec iaoeo
iiciaaaoaeueiuo niiniaiinoae aeey oiai, /oiau auynieoue eo i?e?iaeo e
aiciiaeiinoe. Oaeei ia?acii, aiinaieiaeth Eaio noaaeo ia ianoi
iioieiaee, oai naiui inouanoaeyy ia?aoiae io iaoaoeceee noanoaioeee e
oai?ee noauaeoa. Nicaeaiea o?ainoeaiaeaioaeueiie oeeinioee auei ioaaoii
ia oeaeue ?yae o?oaeiinoae, aicieeoeo a iaoea e oeeinioee a XVII e
ia?aie iieiaeia XVIII aaea, n eioi?uie ia noiaee ni?aaeoueny e
i?aaenoaaeoaee aei eaioianeiai ?aoeeiiaeecia e yiie?ecia. Iaeiie ec ieo
auea i?iaeaia iainiiaaiey iauaeoeaiiai iao/iiai ciaiey, i?aaeaea anaai
iaoaieee, iniiaaiiie ia iaoaiaoeea e yenia?eiaioa, i?aaeiieaaaaoai
eiino?oe?iaaiea eaeaaeueiiai iauaeoa. Aeey iainiiaaiey caeiiiinoe
i?eiaiaiey iaoaiaoe/aneeo eiino?oeoi?ia e i?e?iaeiui i?ioeannai,
iaiaoiaeeii auei aeieacaoue, /oi i?ioeann eiino?oe?iaaiey eiaao iaeee
aiaeia a naiie i?e?iaea; aeey ?aoaiey yoiai aii?ina Eaio iaiyao naio aai
iinoaiiaeo. Ii ni?aoeaaao: “Eaeeie aeieaeiu auoue oa?aeoa? e niiniaiinoe
iiciathuaai noauaeoa aeey oiai, /oiau i?aaeiao iiciaiey niaeaniaaeny n
iaoei ciaieai i iai.” Oeeinioneia ioe?uoea Eaioa ninoieo eiaiii a oii,
/oi iniiao iao/iiai iiciaiey ii oniio?ae ia a nica?oeaiee oiiiinoeaaaiie
nouiinoe i?aaeiaoa, a a aeayoaeueiinoe ii aai eiino?oe?iaaieth,
ii?iaeaeathuae eaeaaeece?iaaiiua iauaeou. Eaio oi/ao i?eaeoe e
ii?aaeaeaieth oneiaee, i?e eioi?uo aiciiaeii aeaenoaeoaeueiia iiciaiea,
a oai naiui – e ii?aaeaeaieth a?aieoe aeaenoaeoaeueiiai iiciaiey.
Au?aaeaiea “e?eoeea /enoiai ?acoia” icia/aao e?eoeeo anaai iiciaiey e
eioi?iio iiaeii i?eaeoe ai?ei?e, o.a. niiniaii aeieacaoaeuenoa. E?eoeea
/enoiai ?acoia yaeyaony e?eoeeie “neeu ?acoia aiiaua ioiineoaeueii ei
anai iiciaieyi, e eioi?ui ?acoi iiaeao iai?aaeyoueny iacaaeneii io iiuoa
e oai naiui ii yaeyaony ?aoaieai ioiineoaeueii aiciiaeiinoe iaoaoeceee
aiiaua”. A ea/anoaa ia?acoea “iao/iiai” iiciaiey Eaio i?eieiaao
Iuethoiiianeia anoanoaiciaiea e iaoaiaoeeo, e a?aieoeu iiciaiey
onoaiaaeeaathony oneiaeyie iao/ii aeinoiaa?iiai iiciaiey. Eaio a
“E?eoeea /enoiai ?acoia” aeaao iiae?iaioth e?eoeeo caiuneia
i?aaeoanoaothuae iaoaoeceee. Ii ?aoaao neaaeothuea aii?inu: 1. Eae
aicieeea “/enoay iaoaiaoeea”; 2. Eae aicieeei “/enoia anoanoaiciaiea”;
3. Eae aiiaua aiciiaeia iaoaiaoeea; 4. Eae aiiaua aiciiaeia iaoaoeceea,
eae iaoea Yoio niinia iinoaiiaee aii?ina (iinoaiiaea aii?ina i
aiciiaeiii) Eaio iacuaaao o?ainoeaiaeaioaeueiui, a naie ioaaou –
o?ainoeaiaeaioaeueiie oai?eae. Eaio aiai?eo, /oi ie /oanoaa, ie iiuo ia
iiaoo aeaoue aeinoiaa?iiai ciaiey i ie?a. *oanoaa aaiaeyo ?acoi a
caaeoaeaeaiea. Nouanoaoao ai?ei?iia (aei-iiuoiia) ciaiea e nouanoaoao
iiuoiia (yiie?e/aneia) ciaiea. Aiai?y ia ai?ei?iii ciaiee, ii caia/aao,
/oi iii ia oiaeaeanoaaiii eaeayi Aeaea?oa: ai?ei?iu oieueei oi?iu
ciaiey, a niaea?aeaiea iu iieo/aai ec iiuoa. Ai?ei?iua ciaiey eiatho
naith enoi?eth: eaaeaeue /aeiaae a naieo aeaenoaeyo iie?aaony ia iaeia
ai?ei?iia ciaiea, iaeiieaiiia aei iaai. Ai?ei?iia ciaiea eiaao anaiauee
oa?aeoa?, yiie?e/aneia ciaiea aaeeie/ii. Ciaiea aunooiaao eae
noaeaeaiea. Noaeaeaiea aiaeeoe/ii, anee a iai iao ie/aai iiaiai ia
iauaeoa. Ooaa?aeaeaiea: “Ana oaea i?ioyaeaiiu,” – ia iiaia ciaiea, o.e.
ana oaea i?ioyaeaiiu. Eiie i?eia?: “A/a?a aue aeiaeaeue,” – yoi
noaeaeaiea iiai, oi anoue iii neioaoe/aneia. Eaio noaaeo aii?in i oii,
aiciiaeiu ee ai?ei?iua neioaoe/aneea noaeaeaiey e aeaeaao auaiae, /oi
iie nouanoaotho. I?eia?ii iiaeiaiuo ai?ei?iuo noaeaeaiee yaeythony
iaoaiaoe/aneea aeneiiu: “A eaaeaeie iaoea noieueei iaoee, neieueei a iae
iaoaiaoeee”. Aeaeaa ?annoaeaeaiey Eaioa eanathony iao/iiai ciaiey,
eioi?ia eco/aaony o?ainoeaiaeaioaeueiie ynoaoeeie, aiaeeoeeie e
aeeaeaeoeeie, eioi?ua iauaaeeiythony a aiaeeoe/aneoth eiaeeo.
?annoaeaeaiey Eaioa eaeoo i /oanoaaiiii ciaiee e i eiaeea. Aiai?y i
/oanoaaiiii ciaiee Eaio auaeaeaaao oacen i nouanoaiaaiee ai?ei?iuo oi?i
/oanoaaiiinoe. Iiaeiaiuie ai?ei?iuie oi?iaie yaeythony i?ino?ainoai e
a?aiy. Ii ia i?ioeai?a/eo ?aaeueiinoe i?ino?ainoaa e a?aiaie, ii noaaeo
aii?in i aicieeiiaaiee yoeo iiiyoee e i?eoiaeeo e auaiaeo, /oi iie
aicieeee ai?ei?ii, eae i?iaeoeo aiia?aaeaiey. I?ino?ainoai yaeyaony
aiaoiae oi?iie i?aaiecaoeee /oanoaaiiinoe, a oi a?aiy eae a?aiy –
aioo?aiiae. I?ino?ainoai e a?aiy nouanoaotho a noauaeoa e yaeythony
?acoeueoaoii aiia?aaeaiey. Iaeiaei iiciaiea ia iiaeao ia?aie/eaaoueny
noaeaeaieai. ?acoeueoaoii iiciaiey yaeyaony oi?ie?iaaiea eaoaai?ee. Eaio
e?eoeeoao eae nainoaeenoia, ?anniao?eaathueo ?aoeeiiaeueiia, eae
?acoeueoao oniaa?oainoaiaaiey /oanoaaiiiai iiciaiey, oae e
?aoeeiiaeenoia, iaaeiioeaieaathueo ?ieue /oanoa. Eaio caaeaao aii?in i
oii, /oi oaeia iao/iia ciaiea e aeaeaao auaiae, /oi yoi neioac ?acoia e
/oanoa, ia o?iaia ?annoaeea, aunooiathuaai i?aaiecaoi?ii /oanoaa e
iunee. Eaio auaeaeyao o?e nooiaie neioaca: 1. yaaacey – i?ioeann
oi?ie?iaaiey aini?eyoey e i?aaenoaaeaiee 2. ……… – i?ioeann,
naycaiiue n annioeeaoeeyie 3. aiia?oeaioeey – ia?acu, aicieeoea a
/aeiaa/aneii niciaiee n?aaieaathony n ?aaeueiie aeaenoaeoaeueiinoueth.
Eaio aeaeaao auaiae i oii, /oi iuneue ia oiaeaeanoaaiia
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe. Eaoaai?ee aicieeee ia a ?acoeueoaoa aeaeaeaiey io
/oanoaaiiiai e aano?aeoiiio, a a ?acoeueoaoa neioaca. Eaoaai?ee – yoi
ai?ei?iua oi?iu ?annoaeea. Iiciaaaoaeueiay aeayoaeueiinoue /aeiaaea
i/aiue neiaeia. Aia i?eciaaony Eaioii eae eiae/aneay eaoaai?ey. A ie?a
aauae ia iiaeao auoue naiaiaeu. Naiaiaea nouanoaoao oieueei a ?acoia.
*aeiaae iiciaao oieueei oaiiiai. Iiciaiea iineo oaiiiaiaeueiue oa?aeoa?.
Nouiinoue aauae /aeiaae iiiyoue ia iiaeao. Ii yoiio iiaiaeo Eaioa
e?eoeeiaaee: ca i?eciaiea “aaue a naaa” aia iaoaai niciaiey –
eaeaaeenou; ca aaiinoeoeeci, eioi?ue ii nai, ai?i/ai, ioaa?aaao –
iaoa?eaeenou. ?annoaeie anaaaea aiaaeaao a i?ioeai?a/ey (aioeiiiee).
I?eia? “Aeaeeia eee iaaeaeeia iaoa?ey?”, “Eiia/ia eee aaneiia/ia
noanoaioeey?” – ioaaou ia yoe aeaoeieoeee ia?ac?aoeiu ia iniiaa
yiie?e/aneiai ciaiey. Eaio caeeth/aao, /oi /aeiaa/aneee ?annoaeie nai
aeeeooao i?e?iaea naie i?eioeeiu. Eiaiii a eaoaai?eyo io?aaeaaony
ooieoeey ?annoaeea, o.e. eaoaai?ee – ia iaiauaiea yiie?e/aneeo ciaiee, a
ai?ei?iua oi?iu ?annoaeea. ?aaioa “E?eoeea /enoiai ?acoia” – ia?aay
ooiaeaiaioaeueiay ?aaioa Eaioa. Ae?oaea ?aaiou: “E?eoeea i?aeoe/aneiai
?acoia” e “E?eoeea niiniaiinoe noaeaeaiey”. O?e iniiaiua niiniaiinoe
/aeiaaea 1. *oanoaaiiinoue ( iuouaiey ) 2. ?annoaeie ( niiniaiinoue
/aeiaaea ia?aciauaaoue eaoaai?ee) 3. ?acoi ( niiniaiinoue oi?ie?iaaoue
eaeae ) Aeinoiaa?iia ciaiea iieo/aaony ec neioaca iuouaiee e iiiyoee.
Oneiaea yoiai neioaca aaeeinoai naiiai naiiniciaiey /aeiaaea. A yoie
no?oeoo?a iao iiuoa e iao i?aeoeee eae e?eoa?ey i?iaa?ee enoeiiinoe
ciaiey.

28.2 Iniiaaiea iaoee. Aeeaeaeoeea iiuoa e oai?ee.

Iao/iia iiciaiea – yoi c?aeay oi?ia iiciaaaoaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe
ethaeae. ?acaeaaynue a ?aieao: “aeeaia nica?oeaiea – aano?aeoiia
iuoeaiea – i?aeoeea”, iao/iia iiciaiea ioe?uaaao iiaua naienoaa e nayce
enneaaeoaiie aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, oeene?oao eo a aeaea iao/iuo oaeoia.
Iaoea i?eaioe?iaaia ia i?aaeiaoiia e iauaeoeaiia enneaaeiaaiea
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe. Iao/iia iiciaiea io?aaeaao iauaeou i?e?iaeu ia a
oi?ia nica?oeaiey, a a oi?ia i?aeoeee. I?ioeann aea yoiai ioia?aaeaiey
iaoneiaeai ia oieueei iniaaiiinoyie eco/aaiiai iauaeoa, ii e
iiiai/eneaiiuie oaeoi?aie nioeeieoeueoo?iiai oa?aeoa?a. N?aaee iniiaiuo
ioee/ee iaoee io iauaeaiiiai iiciaiey iiaeii auaeaeeoue: 1. Iaoea eiaao
aeaei n iniaui iaai?ii iauaeoia ?aaeueiinoe ia naiaeeiuo e iauaeoai
iauaeaiiiai iiuoa. 2. Iao/iia enneaaeiaaiea ioaeaeaaony a iniaie nenoaia
niaoeeaeueiuo i?oaeee, eioi?ua iaiin?aaenoaaiii aicaeaenoaoy ia
eco/aaiue iauaeo, iicaieytho auyaeoue aiciiaeiua aai ninoiyiey a
oneiaeyo, eiio?iee?oaiuo noauaeoii 3. Iaoea oi?ie?oao niaoeeoe/aneea
niiniau iainiiaaiey enoeiiinoe ciaiey – yenia?eiaioaeueiue eiio?ieue ca
iieo/aaiui ciaieai, auaiaeeiinoue iaeieo ciaiee ec ae?oaeo, enoeiiinoue
eioi?uo oaea aeieacaia. 4. Nenoaiiinoue e iainiiaaiiinoue iao/iiai
ciaiey 5. ?acee/ey a iaoiaeao iiciaaaoaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe iaaeaeo
iao/iui e iauaeaiiui iiciaieai. 6. Ii?aaeaeaiiay nenoaia oeaeinoiie
i?eaioaoeee e oneiaiuo onoaiiaie, niaoeeoe/aneeo aeey iaoee. Aunoay
oeaiiinoue iaoee – iauaeoeaiay enoeia. Iniiaaiea iao/iiai ciaiey
iaania/eaatho oeaeinoiinoue i?aaeiaoiie iaeanoe. Iia ii?aaeaeyao
no?aoaaeth iao/iiai iienea e ai iiiaii iaania/eaatho aeeth/aiea aai
?acoeueoaoia a eoeueoo?o niioaaonoaothuae enoi?e/aneie yiioe. Iniiaaiea
eaaeaeie eiie?aoiie iaoee eiatho aeinoaoi/ii neiaeioth no?oeoo?o. Iiaeii
auaeaeeoue o?e aeaaiuo ninoaaeythueo aeiea iniiaaiee iaoee: eaeaaeu e
ii?iu enneaaeiaaiey iao/ioth ea?oeio ie?a oeeinioneea iniiaaiey Eaeaaeu
e ii?iu au?aaeatho oeaiiinoiua e oeaeaaua onoaiiaee iaoee, ioaa/ay ia
aii?inu: aeey /aai ioaeiu oa eee eiua iiciaaaoaeueiua aeaenoaey eaeie
oei i?iaeoeoa aeieaeai auoue iieo/ai a ?acoeueoaoa eo inouanoaeaiey e
eaeei niiniaii iieo/eoue yoio i?iaeoeo Iao/iay ea?oeia ie?a
neeaaeuaaaony a ?acoeueoaoa neioaca ciaiee iieo/aaiuo a ?acee/iuo
iaeanoyo iaoee e niaea?aeeo iauea i?aaenoaaeaiey i ie?a au?aaaouaaaiua
ia niioaaonoaothueo noaaeeyo enoi?e/aneiai ?acaeoey iaoee. Oeeinioneea
iniiaaiey iaoee – yoi oeeinioneea eaeae e i?eioeeiu, eioi?ua
iainiiauaatho eae eaeaaeu e ii?iu iaoee, oae e niaea?aeaoaeueiua
i?aaenoaaeaiey iao/iie ea?oeiu ie?a, a oaeaea iaania/eaatho aeeth/aiea
iao/iiai ciaiey a eoeueoo?o. A no?oeoo?a iao/iiai ciaiey auaeaeytho
i?aaeaea anaai aeaa o?iaiy ciaiee – yiie?e/aneee e oai?aoe/aneee. Ei
niioaaonoaotho aeaa acaeiinaycaiiuo, ii a oi aea a?aiy niaoeeoe/aneeo
aeaea iiciaaaoaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe: yiie?e/aneia e oai?aoe/aneia
enneaaeiaaiea. Iniiaiua e?eoa?ee, ii eioi?ui ?acee/athony yiie?e/aneee e
oai?aoe/aneee o?iaie, neaaeothuea: 1. Oa?aeoa? i?aaeiaoa enneaaeiaaiey
2. Oei i?eiaiyaiuo n?aaenoa enneaaeiaaiey 3. Iniaaiiinoe iaoiaea
Yiie?e/aneia e oai?aoe/aneia enneaaeiaaiey iiaoo iiciaoue iaeio e oo aea
iauaeoeaioth ?aaeueiinoue, ii aa i?aaenoaaeaiea a ciaieyo ?acee/ii.
Yiie?e/aneia enneaaeiaaiea a iniiaa naiae i?eaioe?iaaii ia eco/aiea
yaeaiee e caaeneiinoae iaaeaeo ieie. Ia o?iaia yiie?e/aneiai iiciaiey
nouiinoiua nayce ia auaeaeythony a /enoii aeaea. Ia o?iaia
oai?aoe/aneiai iiciaiey i?ienoiaeeo auaeaeaiea nouiinoiuo naycae a
/enoii aeaea. Oai?ey e yiie?e/aneia enneaaeiaaiea eiatho aeaei n
?acee/iuie n?acaie iaeiie e oie aea aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe. Yiie?e/aneia
enneaaeiaaiea eco/aao yaeaiey e eo ei??aeyoeee; a ioiioaieyo iaaeaeo
yaeaieyie iii no?aieony onoaiiaeoue i?iyaeaiea caeiiiia?iinoae. Ii a
/enoii aeaea iii aeaaony oieueei a ?acoeueoaoa oai?aoe/aneiai
enneaaeiaaiey. Iiuo e oai?ey ?acee/athony oaeaea e ii n?aaenoaai.
Yiie?e/aneia enneaaeiaaiea aace?oaony ia iaiin?aaenoaaiiii i?aeoe/aneii
acaeiiaeaenoaee n eco/aaiui iauaeoii. Iii i?aaeiieaaaao inouanoaeaiea
iaaethaeaiee e yenia?eiaioaeueioth aeayoaeueiinoue. A oai?aoe/aneii
enneaaeiaaiee ionoonoaoao iaiin?aaenoaaiiia i?aeoe/aneia acaeiiaeaenoaea
n iauaeoaie. Ia yoii o?iaia iauaeo iiaeao eco/aoueny oieueei
iiin?aaeiaaiii, a iuneaiiii yenia?eiaioa, ii ia a ?aaeueiii.
Yiie?e/aneee e oai?aoe/aneee oeiu iiciaiey ?acee/athony ii iaoiaeai
enneaaeiaaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe. Iniiaiuie iaoiaeaie yiie?e/aneiai
enneaaeiaaiey yaeythony ?aaeueiue yenia?eiaio e ?aaeueiia iaaethaeaiea.
A oai?aoe/aneii enneaaeiaaiee i?eiaiythony iniaua iaoiaeu:
eaeaaeecaoeey, iuneaiiue yenia?eiaio n eaeaaeece?iaaiiuie iauaeoaie,
iaoiaeu iino?iaiey oai?ee, iaoiaeu eiae/aneiai e enoi?e/aneiai
enneaaeiaaiey e o.ae. Yiie?e/aneee e oai?aoe/aneee o?iaie ciaiey
ioee/athony ii i?aaeiaoo, n?aaenoaai e iaoiaeai enneaaeiaaiey. Iaeiaei
auaeaeaiea eaaeaeiai ec ieo i?aaenoaaeyao niaie aano?aeoeeth. A
?aaeueiie aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe iie anaaaea acaeiiaeaenoaotho. Iao/iia
ciaiea a ethaie iaeanoe iaoee i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ianno
acaeiiaeaenoaothueo iaaeaeo niaie oeiia ciaiee. Oai?ey i?eieiaao o/anoea
a oi?ie?iaaiee oaeoia; oaeou, a naith i/a?aaeue, o?aaotho iino?iaiey
iiauo oai?aoe/aneeo iiaeaeae, eioi?ua nia/aea no?iyony eae aeiioacu, a
caoai iainiiauaathony e i?aa?auathony a oai?ee. Auaaao e oae, /oi n?aco
no?ieony iiaay oai?ey, eioi?ay aeaao iauyniaiea ecaanoiui ?aiaa ii ia
iaoaaeoei aei yoiai iiiaioa iauyniaiey oaeoai, eeai canoaaeyao ii iiaiio
eioa?i?aoe?iaaoue ecaanoiua oaou.

28.3 I?iaeaia aeecie e nia?oe a aeooiaiii iiuoa /aeiaaea. AEeciue eae
oeaiiinoue.

*aeiaae – aaeeinoaaiiia nouanoai, eioi?ia iniciaao naith nia?oiinoue e
iiaeao aeaeaoue aa i?aaeiaoii ?aciuoeaiey. A nayce n yoei anoaao aii?in
i niunea e oeaee aeecie. ?aciuoeaiey iaae yoei aii?inii aeey iiiaeo
ethaeae ieacuaathony enoiaeiui ioieoii a au?aaioea oiai, /oi i?eiyoi
iacuaaoue “iniiaiie” eeieae aeecie, iiae/eiythuae naaa iiaaaeaiea e
iinooiee /aeiaaea ia ?aciuo o?iaiyo – aoaeue oi iauanoai a oeaeii eee
o?oaeiaie eieeaeoea, eee naiuey, eee aeeceea ae?ocuey. Iniciaaay, /oi ia
aa/ai, /aeiaae ia/eiaao au?aaaouaaoue nianoaaiiia ioiioaiea e aeecie e
nia?oe. E aiieia iiiyoii, /oi yoa oaia aaaeiaeoay aeey eaaeaeiai
/aeiaaea caieiaao a aaaeiaeoaa ianoi ai anae eoeueoo?a /aeiaa/anoaa.
Iieneaie ioaaoa ia yoio aii?in caieiaeanue e caieiaaony ieoieiaey e
?acee/iua, e ?aeeaeiciua o/aiey, e eneonnoai, e ?acee/iua iai?aaeaiey
oeeinioee. Oeeinioneee iaoa?eaeeci io?eoeaao aiciiaeiinoue ee/iiai
oece/aneiai aannia?oey. Yoi aua aieaa ae?aiaoece?oao aii?in i niunea
/aeiaa/aneie aeecie, iineieueeo /aeiaaeo ia inoaaony ieeaeie iaaeaaeaeu
ia iioonoi?iiithth aeeciue, ia aicaeayiea ca aai iinooiee. Ia?eneci
enoiaeeo i?aaeaea anaai ec nianoaaiiie oeaiiinoe e naiioeaeueiinoe
/aeiaa/aneie aeecie, eioi?ay i?aaenoaao a iae ia neo/aeiie e ia
aanniuneaiiie, iineieueeo eiaeeaeae, ee/iinoue ?anniao?eaaaony ia
oieueei nai ii naaa, ii e eae /anoue oeaeiai – /aeiaa/aneiai iauanoaa.
Ia?en ioia/ae, /oi “eiaeeaeae anoue iauanoaaiiia nouanoai”. Iiyoiio
anyeia i?iyaeaiea aai aeecie yaeyaony i?iyaeaiea e ooaa?aeaeaiea
iauanoaaiiie aeecie. *aeiaae ia oaeiaeaoai?yaony neooaoeeae, eiaaea, eae
aiai?ee Ia?en, “naiay aeeciue ieacuaaaony eeoue n?aaenoaii e aeecie”.
Oaeay iaoaeiaeaoai?aiiinoue, ia?aaeeciaaiiinoue niaea?aeeo a naaa
iiaoaeeoaeueiua i?e/eiu oai?/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe. Eiaiii iiyoiio,
i?eciaiea, iacia/aiea, caaea/a anyeiai /aeiaaea – ananoi?iiia ?acaeaaoue
naie niiniaiinoe, aianoe naie ee/iue aeeaae a enoi?eth, a i?ia?ann
iauanoaa, aai eoeueoo?u. A yoii, niaeanii ia?enecio, e caeeth/aaony
niune aeecie ioaeaeueiie ee/iinoe. Iniciaiea /aeiaaeii iaecaaaeiinoe
naiae nia?oe, nei?aue ii oie?athuaio niaea?aeeo a naaa o?aae/aneea
iioeau. Ii yoio o?aaeci a eaeie-oi noaiaie niya/aaony (ii ia nieiaaony)
oai, /oi ioaeaeueiue /aeiaae, aoaeo/e i?aaenoaaeoaeai /aeiaa/aneiai
?iaea, inoaaony aeeoue a ?iaea iin?aaenoaii i?iaeoeoia naiaai
oai?/anoaa. Anee /aeiaae niciaao, /oi aai aeeciue auea i?iaeeoa ia
aanoeaeueii, /oi ii inoaaee iinea naay aeia?ua aeaea ioaeiua e iieaciua,
oi ii ia /oanoaoao naay a iaeeii/anoaa, iieeiooui, caauoui e i?iaeaia
ee/iie nia?oe ia auaeaeaaaony ia ia?aaeiee ieai. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy
iiiaea o/aiua noaayo aii?in i oii, /oiau aeieiaey, iaoea i aeecie, auea
au aeiiieiaia iiauie i?aaenoaaeaieyie i aeieiaee nia?oe. Caeanue
aicieeaao iiiaeanoai i?aanoaaiii-aoiaienoe/aneeo aeeeaii, aicc?aiee. N
iniaie ino?ioie ianoaeaeaaony, iai?eia?, “i?aai ia nia?oue” a
aeeneonneyo, aaea noaeeeaathony aeaa i?ioeaiiieiaeiua iiceoeee,
i?eciathuea, n iaeiie noi?iiu, iaia?aie/aiiinoue naiaiaeu ee/iinoe a
?aoaiee yoeo aii?inia, a n ae?oaie – aa iieioth iiae/eiaiiinoue
iauanoaaiiui e ainoaea?noaaiiui eioa?anai. A nia?aiaiiuo aeeneonneyo i
i?aaa ia nia?oue eiatho a aeaeo ia naiioaeenoai, eae aeaenoaea aeoeaiiai
noauaeoa, a oie?athuaai /aeiaaea, aunooiathuaai a ea/anoaa ianneaiiai
iauaeoa, eioi?iio eneonnoaaiii caiaaeeytho ianooieaiea nia?oe. E ia
neo/aeii i?iaeaiu yaoaiacee e i?iaeeaiey aeecie eneonnoaaiiuie
n?aaenoaaie noaiiayony oeaio?aeueiuie a aeeneonneyo. Nia?aiaiiua
oeeiniou, th?enou, a?a/e, oaieiae no?aiyony ?ac?aoeoue aeaa
ooiaeaiaioaeueiuo aii?ina: iiaeao ee yaoaiacey aiiaua eiaoue ii?aeueiia
iainiiaaiea e anee aea, oi i?e eaeeo oneiaeyo iia aeieaeia auoue
ocaeiiaia? A yoii neo/aa aicieeaao iiiaeanoai i?iaeai naycaiiuo n
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiie naiaiaeie ee/iinoe n iaeiie noi?iiu, e aiciiaeiinoyie
ceioiio?aaeaiee, n ae?oaie. Oaeei ia?acii, naaiaeiy oeeinioneea
?aciuoeaiey i aeecie ieacuaathony iaiaoiaeeiuie aeey ?aoaiey eiie?aoiuo
i?iaeai, aicieeathueo a nayce n ?acaeoeai aeieiaee, iaaeeoeeiu e
cae?aaiio?aiaiey. Iao/iue aoiaieci oaeaea eiaao aeey /aeiaaea
ii?aeueii-i?aanoaaiioth iii?o ia?aae eeoeii nia?oe, aeeth/ay e oi, /oi
ioiineony e eoeueoo?a oie?aiey. ?aaeueiue oeeinioneee aoiaieci aeaao
eaeaae, ii?aaeaeythuee niune /aeiaa/aneie aeecie a aa eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo
e iaua/aeiaa/aneeo ia?aiao?ao. Eeoue a aannia?oee ?acoia e aoiaiiinoe
/aeiaaea – aannia?oea /aeiaaea. Aii?in i niunea /aeiaa/aneie aeecie
eiaao e ae?oaoth noi?iio, ioiinyuothny e ?aaeueiie
i?e?iaeii-aeieiae/aneie aaneiia/iinoe /aeiaa/anoaa e aannia?oeth aai
?acoia, a oaeaea e aiciiaeiinoe ae?oaeo oi?i aeecie ?acoia ae?oaeo
aiacaiiuo oeeaeeecaoeee a aaneiia/iie anaeaiiie.

29.1 I?iaeaia iao/iie ?aoeeiiaeueiinoe a oeeinioee iaiiiceoeaecia.

Iaiiiceoeaeci i?aaenoaaeyao niaie oeeinioneia iai?aaeaiea, ?acaeaathuaa
aeaeueoa noauaeoeaii- eaeaaeenoe/aneea e aaiinoe/aneea eaeae
iiceoeaenoia XIX e ia/aea XX aaea. Ia neo/aeii aai iacuaatho o?aoueei
iiceoeaeciii. A ea/anoaa ia?aiai iiceoeaecia i?eciatho aicc?aiey I.
Eiioa e A. Niaina?a, eioi?ua iauyaeee oeeinioeth iaioaeiie iaoeie,
iaoathuae ?acaeoeth iao/iiai iiciaiey, aeaci?eaioe?othuae aai,
iineieueeo iia noaaeo ia?aaeueiua oeaee aeinoeaeaiey ciaiey, nouiinoe
aauae, eiia/iuo i?e/ei, ne?uouo ca iaaethaeaaiuie yaeaieyie. Ii iiaieth
Eiioa, /aeiaa/aneia iiciaiea aeieaeii nin?aaeioi/eoue naia aieiaiea ia
eco/aiee yaeaiee, iienaiee eo aiaoieo noi?ii, eeanneoeeaoeee.
Iineaaeiaaoaeueiia ?acaeoea eaeae Eiioa i?eaaei e aicieeiiaaieth a
eiioea XIX- ia/aea XX aaea yiie?eie?eoeoeecia, i?aaenoaaeythuaai niaie
ia?aoth noaaeeth ?acaeoey iiceoeaecia, oae iacuaaaiue, aoi?ie
iiceoeaeci. I?aaenoaaeoaee yiie?eie?eoeoeecia Y.Iao e ?.Aaaia?eon,
naiaey yaeaiey e iuouaieyi iuoaeenue eeeaeaee?iaaoue aii?in i
niioiioaiee ineoe/aneiai e oece/aneiai, iaoa?ee e niciaiey. Iauyaea
ia?ac?uaioth naycue ineoe/aneiai e oece/aneiai ?yaeia yaeaiee, noauaeoa
e iauaeoa e iaoneiaeaiiinoue aoi?iai ia?aui, iie ieacaeenue ia iiceoeee
noauaeoeaiiai eaeaaeecia. O?aoee iiceoeaeci (iaiiiceoeaeci), niaieaoee
yiie?eie?eoeoeeci, noi?ie?iaaeny a 20-30 aiaeao iaoaai aaea a
?acoeueoaoa i?eiaiaiey iaoaiaoe/aneie eiaeee e oeeinioneiio
enneaaeiaaieth. Iniiaiua aai i?aaenoaaeoaee – I.Oeee, ?.Ea?iai,
E.Aeoaaiooaei, A.Aeae.Aea?. Iaiiiceoeaeci – iaeii ec iaeaieaa
?ani?ino?aiaiiuo (iiioey?iuo) iai?aaeaiee a nia?aiaiiie iaia?enenoneie
oeeinioee. Aai iiioey?iinoue iaoneiaeaia oai, /oi ii aunooiaao i?ioea
anyeie “iaoaoeceee”, oi anoue iaueo oeeinioneeo i?iaeai, n/eoaao yoe
i?iaeaiu iaaeoiaiiuie, eneonnoaaiiuie inaaaeii?iaeaiaie e cayaeyao i
oii, /oi oeeinioey aeieaeia ianeoaeeaaoue iaoee, ieacuaaoue o/aiui
iiiiuue a oi?ie?iaaiee iao/iuo iieiaeaiee e iia?e?iaaiee eie; iia
aeieaeia caieiaoueny eeoue ?ac?aaioeie i?aaee eiae/aneiai aiaeeca,
?aoaoue ycueiaua i?iaeaiu. Oeeinioey, niaeanii o/aieth iaiiiceoeaenoia
aeieaeia caieiaoueny eneeth/eoaeueii aiaeecii ycueiauo oi?i e
?ac?aaioeie i?aaee iino?iaiey ycueiauo au?aaeaiee. Iaaeyaeiui i?eia?ii
iaiiiceoeaenoneiai ?aoaiey iniiaiiai aii?ina oeeinioee iiaeao neoaeeoue
o/aiea ?.Ea?iaea. Ii ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi i?iaeaia iauaeoeaiiai
nouanoaiaaiey /oanoaaiiuo aauae, iaoa?eaeueiiai ie?a eiaao aeaa aniaeoa
– aioo?aiiee e aiaoiee. Aioo?aiiee aniaeo eanaaony “nouanoaiaaiey”
aioo?e oie eee eiie ycueiaie no?oeoo?u, aiaoiee – naycai n
nouanoaiaaieai naiie yoie no?oeoo?u eee nenoaiu. *oi eanaaony aii?ina
aiaoiaai aniaeoa nouanoaiaaiey, oi anoue nouanoaiaaiey naiie ycueiaie
no?oeoo?u, oi ii eeoai niunea, a iioiio ia?ac?aoei, eai /aeiaae ia
iiaeao au/a?eiooue ec ycueiaie no?oeoo?u e ?aoaoue aii?in i iae naiie. A
caaeneiinoe io oiai, eaeoth no?oeoo?o, eeiaaenoe/aneoth oi?io eee ycue
iu i?eieiaai, iu iiaeai ii?aaeaeaiiui ia?acii ?aoaoue aii?in i
nouanoaiaaiee iauaeoeaiie ?aaeueiinoe. “Auoue ?aaeueiui, n iao/iie oi/ee
c?aiey”, – ieoao Ea?iai, “cia/eo auoue yeaiaioii eaeiai – eeai ycuea”.
Iieo/aaony, /oi ?aaeueiia nouanoaiaaiey iaoa?eaeueiiai ie?a oeaeeeii e
iieiinoueth caaeneo io /aeiaaea, io aai iauaeoeaiuo aeaeaiee. Caoi/ao ii
aua?aoue i?aaeiaoioth ycueiaoth no?oeoo?o, ie? aoaeao nouanoaiaaoue, ia
caoi/ao – ie? ia eiaao i?aai ia ?aaeueiia nouanoaiaaiea. Iiaaaeaiea
/aeiaaea anoue ia /oi eiia, eae i?iyaeaiea au?aaeaiea ycueiauo i?eaiia.
Ethaee /anoi nii?yo e aeaaea oie/oiaeatho ae?oa ae?oaa oieueei iioiio,
/oi iooatho iauea iiiyoey, aano?aeoeee n aeaenoaeoaeueiuie aauaie,
i?eieiay ia?aua ca ?aaeueiua aaue. A ea/anoaa niiniaa ioaeaeaiey iaueo
iiiyoee e i?aaeeiaeaiee, eeoaiiuo, ii iiaieth iaiiiceoeaenoia, niunea io
iiiyoee, eiathueo ii?aaeaeaiiue niune, iie auaeaeioee i?eioeei
aa?eoeeaoeee, i?aaeiieaaathuee iiuoioth i?iaa?eo auneacuaaiee,
niiinoaaeaiea eo n /oanoaaiiuie aeaiiuie eee n i?aaeeiaeaieyie, eo
oeene?othueie. Anee ?oeiaiaenoaiaaoueny i?eioeeiii aa?eoeeaoeee, oi
iaiaoiaeeii ioa?ineoue ana iiiyoey, noaeaeaiey eioi?ua io?aaeatho
aioo?aiiea iaiaoiaeeiua naienoaa e nayce iauaeoia, eo nouiinoue.
Inoaioony eeoue noaeaeaiey, io?aaeathuea aiaoiea, neo/aeiua,
ianouanoaaiiua nayce e naienoaa, iienuaathuea yaeaiey. Oiaaea iu
auioaeaeaiu aoaeai ioa?ineoue ana iao/iua oai?ee, eioi?ua a nenoaia
acaeiinaycaiiuo iaueo eaeaaeueiuo ia?acia, oae eee eia/a au?aaeatho
nouiinoue oie eee eiie iaeanoe aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe e aeiaieuenoaiaaoueny
yiie?e/aneeie iaaethaeaieyie, /oanoaaiiuie aeaiiuie, eneaaeathueie
aeaenoaeoaeueiia iieiaeaiea aauae. Ia neo/aeii iiyoiio i?eioeei
aa?eoeeaoeee ia iieo/ee neieueei-ieaoaeue na?ueaciie iiaeaea?aeee a
iaoea e iioa?ye naith cia/eiinoue aeaaea o naieo iaiiiceoeaenoia.
Iiiuoea “oeiaeeoue” i?iaeaio iao/iie enoeiu a i?ie?onoiai eiaea /enoi
yiie?e/aneie i?iaa?ee e oi?iaeueiiai aiaeeca iao/iuo i?aaeeiaeaiee ia
iiaea ia ieii/eoueny ionooieaieyie io i?eioeeia aa?eoeeaoeee a aai
“aeanoeii” aa?eaioa. Iaei iiiiaay iiceoeaenoai nianai “ineaaeaiiay”
aa?ney E.Iiia?a – eiaaea i?eioeei aa?eoeeaoeee aue i?aia?aciaai a
i?eioeei oaeueneoeoee?oaiinoe. E.Iiiia? ooaa?aeaeae, /oi nooue aeaea
nei?aa a ia a iiaeoaa?aeaeaiee a a aiciiaeiinoe ii?iaa?aeaiey eaeeo-eeai
iaueo i?aaeeiaeaiee iaoee. Anee iaeaeaiu oneiaey, i?e eioi?uo oioy au
iaeioi?ua aaceniua (i?ioieieueiua) i?aaeeiaeaiey, oai?ee, aeiioacu
eiaeiu, oi oai?ey, aeiioaca ii?iaa?aeeia. Eiaaea iiuoiia ii?iaa?aeaiea
aeiioacu ionoonoaoao, iia iiaeao n/eoaoueny anee ia enoeiiie, oi, ai
anyeii neo/aa, “ii?aaaeaiiie”. Niaaeeiaiea i?iaeai iiaeoaa?aeaeaiey
iao/iie oai?ee, aea e anyeeo iaueo iieiaeaiee, n i?iaeaiie
ii?iaa?aeaiey, eiia/ii, eiaei naie niune – e ooo oiaea aicieeee oeaiiua
eiaeei-eeiaaenoe/aneea ?ac?aaioee. A i?ioeanna naiaai ?acaeoey
iaiiiceoeaeci iaoieeioeny ia aioo?aiiea ia?aie/aiey naiaai iiaeoiaea,
niaeanii eioi?iio, ai?ueaa ca no?iainoue, iao/iinoue oeeinioee naiaeeony
e eiaeei-eeiaaenoe/aneiio aiaeeco.

29.2 Yiie?e/aneee e oai?aoe/aneee o?iaie ciaiey.

Yiie?e/aneee e oai?aoe/aneee o?iaie ciaiey eiatho neiaeioth
i?aaiecaoeeth. A ieo iiaeii auaeaeeoue iniaua iiaeo?iaie, eaaeaeue ec
eioi?uo oa?aeoa?ecoaony niaoeeoe/aneeie iiciaaaoaeueiuie i?ioeaaeo?aie e
iniauie oeiaie iieo/aaiiai ciaiey.

Yiie?e/aneea o?iaie ciaiey: iaaethaeaiey e yiie?e/aneea oaeou.

Aeaiiua iaaethaeaiey niaea?aeao ia?ae/ioth eioi?iaoeeth, eioi?oth iu
iieo/aai iaiin?aaenoaaiii a i?ioeanna iaaethaeaiey ca iauaeoii. Yoa
eioi?iaoeey aeaia a iniaie oi?ia – a oi?ia iaiin?aaenoaaiiuo /oanoaaiiuo
aeaiiuo noauaeoa iaaethaeaiey, eioi?ua caoai oeene?othony a oi?ia
i?ioieieia iaaethaeaiey. I?ioieieu iaaethaeaiey au?aaeatho eioi?iaoeeth,
iieo/aaioth iaaethaeaoaeai, a ycueiaie oi?ia. A ieo anaaaea niaea?aeaony
oeacaiey ia oi, eoi inouanoaeyao iaaethaeaiea, a anee iaaethaeaiea
no?ieony a i?ioeanna yenia?eiaioa n iiiiuueth eaeeo-eeai i?eai?ia, oi
iaycaoaeueii aeathony iniiaiua oa?aeoa?enoeee i?eai?a. Oa?aeoa?ii, /oi a
yoeo i?ioieieao ia?yaeo n iauaeoeaiie eioi?iaoeeae i yaeaieyo
niaea?aeeony iaeioi?ue ieano noauaeoeaiie eioi?iaoeee, caaenyuae io
ninoiyiey iaaethaeaoaey, iieacaiee aai i?aaiia /oanoa. Iiyoiio aeaiiua
iaaethaeaiey aua ia yaeythony aeinoiaa?iui ciaieai, e ia ieo ia iiaeao
iie?aoueny oai?ey; aacen oai?ee – yiie?e/aneea oaeou. A ioee/ea io
aeaiiuo iaaethaeaiey oaeou – yoi anaaaea aeinoiaa?iay, iauaeoeaiay
eioi?iaoeey; yoi oaeia iienaiea yaeaiee e naycae iaaeaeo ieie, aaea
niyou noauaeoeaiua ianeiaiey.

Ia?aoiae io aeaiiuo iaaethaeaiey e yiie?e/aneiio oaeoo i?aaeiieaaaao
neaaeothuea iiciaaaoaeueiua iia?aoeee:

1. ?aoeeiiaeueiay ia?aaioea aeaiiuo iaaethaeaiey e iiene a ieo
onoie/eaiai, eiaa?eaioiiai niaea?aeaiey. Aeey oi?ie?iaaiey oaeoa
iaiaoiaeeii n?aaieoue iaaeaeo niaie iiiaeanoai iaaethaeaiee, auaeaeeoue
a ieo iiaoi?ythuaany e ono?aieoue neo/aeiua aiciouaiey e iia?aoiinoe,
naycaiiua n ioeaeaie iaaethaeaoaey.

2. aeey onoaiiaeaiey oaeoa iaiaoiaeeii enoieeiaaiea auyaeyaiiai a
iaaethaeaieyo eiaa?eaioiiai niaea?aeaiey. A i?ioeanna oaeiai
enoieeiaaiey oe?iei eniieuecothony ?aiaa iieo/aiiua oai?aoe/aneea
ciaiey.

Oai?aoe/aneea o?iaie ciaiey:

1. /anoiua oai?aoe/aneea iiaeaee e caeiiu. Iie aunooiatho eae oai?ee,
ioiinyueany e aeinoaoi/ii ia?aie/aiiie iaeanoe yaeaiee. A yoii neia
oai?aoe/aneiai ciaiey iaia?oaeeaathony oaeea acaeiinaycaiiua
ia?aciaaiey, eae oai?aoe/aneay iiaeaeue, eioi?ay iauyniyao yaeaiey, e
caeii, eioi?ue oi?ioee?oaony ioiineoaeueii iiaeaee. Iiaeaeue aeeth/aao a
naay eaeaaeece?iaaiiua iiaeaee e nayce iaaeaeo ieie.

2. ?acaeoay oai?ey. A iae ana /anoiua oai?aoe/aneea iiaeaee e caeiiu
iaiauathony oaeei ia?acii, /oi iie aunooiatho eae neaaenoaey
ooiaeaiaioaeueiuo i?eioeeiia e caeiiia oai?ee. Eia/a aiai?y, no?ieony
iaeioi?ay iaiauathuay oai?aoe/aneay iiaeaeue, eioi?ay ioaaouaaao ana
/anoiua neo/ae, e i?eiaieoaeueii e iae oi?ioee?oaony iaeioi?ue iaai?
caeiiia, eioi?ua aunooiatho eae iaiauathuea ii ioiioaieth ei anai
/anoiui oai?aoe/aneei caeiiai.

Eoae, iao/iia ciaiea i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ia?iiioth ianno
acaeiiaeaenoaothueo iaaeaeo niaie ioaeaeueiuo oeiia ciaiee. Oai?ey
i?eieiaao o/anoea a oi?ie?iaaiee oaeoia; a naith i/a?aaeue, oaeou
o?aaotho iino?iaiey iiauo oai?aoe/aneeo iiaeaeae, eioi?ua nia/aea
no?iyony eae aeiioacu, a iioii iainiiauaathony e i?aa?auathony a oai?ee.
Auaaao e oae, /oi n?aco no?ieony ?acaeoay oai?ey, eioi?ay aeaao
iauyniaiea ecaanoiui, ii ia iaoaaeoei ?aiaa iauyniaiey oaeoai, eeai
canoaaeyao ii-iiaiio eioa?i?aoe?iaaoue ecaanoiua oaeou. A iauai,
nouanoaotho ?aciiia?aciua e neiaeiua i?ioeaaeo?u acaeiiaeaenoaey
?acee/iuo neiaa iao/iiai ciaiey.

Ciaiea yoi anaaaea niiniaiinoue i?aaeaeaeaiey aiciiaeiuo neaaenoaee io
i?e/eiu.

Yiie?e/aneia ciaiea a oaeii neo/aa ?anniao?eaaao aicieeiiaaiea
neaaenoaey io i?e/eiu ia caaeaaaynue aii?inii

i oii eaeei ia?acii i?ienoiaeeo ia?aaea/a aicaeaenoaey io i?e/eiu e
neaaenoaeth.

Iai?eia?:

Anee oa?aoue iii?o oi oaei oiaaeao – yiie?e/aneee oaeo.

Anee oa?aoue ethaoth iii?o oi ethaia oaei ia Caiea oiaaeao –
yiie?e/aneia ciaiea

iniiaaiiia ia iaiauaiiuo yiie?e/aneeo oaeoao.

Anee oa?aoue ethaoth iii?o oi ethaia oaei ia Caiea aeaenoaeai neeu
oyaeanoe aneaaenoaea

a?aaeoaoeeiiiiai acaeiiaeaenoaey – oai?aoe/aneia ciaiea o.e. iiiyoea
iiey aaaaeaii

/aeiaaeii ia iniiaaiee oiai /oi ethaia acaeiiaeaenoaea aeieaeii eiaoue
iaoa?eaeueiue iineoaeue.

Yoa oai?ey iiaeoaa?aeaeaaony yiie?e/aneeie oaeoaie e iiuoii iiyoiio
iiaeii aiai?eoue i aa enoeiiinoe.

29.3 *aeiaae e /aeiaa/anoai. Nia?aiaiiua aio?iiieiae/aneea eiioeaioeee.

30.1 I?iaeaia /aeiaaea a oeeinioee yecenoaioeeaeecia.

Iiyaeaoayny a XIX aaea “aio?iiieiae/aneay” oeeinioey i?iiiaaaeiaaea
ioeac io “aeeeoaoa” aano?aeoiiai anaiauaai e aeecinoue e ie?o
eiie?aoiiai eiaeeaeaea. Oeaio?aeueiay i?iaeaia “aio?iiieiae/aneie”
oeeinioee – i?iaeaia /aeiaaea e aai ianoa a ie?a. Iniiaiua iai?aaeaiey
yoie oeeinioee: ia?niiaeeci, oeeinioneay aio?iiieiaey, yecenoaioeeaeeci.

Io/oaeaeaiea /aeiaaea io iauanoaa yaeyaony iauae oa?aeoa?enoeeie aeecie
/aeiaaea a iauanoaa, a iniaaiiinoe ia iuiaoiai yoaia enoi?ee, eiaaea
/oanoai no?aoa ii?iaeaeaaony iianiinoueth oie/oiaeaiey /aeiaa/anoaa.
Oeeiniou aeaeaee niune oeeinioee ia oieueei e ia noieueei a eiinoaoaoeee
io/oaeaeaiey, a oai aieaa ia a “ii?aaaeaiee” e oaaeiaa/eaaiee iano?iaiee
no?aoa e iieeiooinoe. Ei i?aaenoaaeyeinue, /oi oeeinioey iaycaia iiii/ue
/aeiaaeo, ioaa/aiiiio o?aae/aneeie oiiiano?iaieyie, anee ia i?aiaeieaoue
eo – /oi ia anaaaea aiciiaeii, – oi, ai anyeii neo/aa, eneaoue e
iaoiaeeoue naia “ss”, niune naiae aeecie a naiuo o?aae/aneeo,
“aano?aeiuo” neooaoeeyo.

*aeiaae aeaeaao naiiai naay, ia?aoaao naith nouiinoue, oaea nouanoaoy, –
a yoii e ninoieo ia?aue i?eioeei yecenoaioeeaeecia, ec eioi?iai
auoaeatho iiiaea i?eioeeieaeueii aaaeiua neaaenoaey: iao caaeaiiie
/aeiaa/aneie i?e?iaeu; ieeaeay aiaoiyy neea, ieeoi e?iia aeaiiiai
eiaeeaeaea ia iiaeao ca iaai inouanoaeoue aai i?aa?auaiea a /aeiaaea. E
eiaiii ii ianao ioaaonoaaiiinoue, anee aai i?aa?auaiea a /aeiaaea a
iiaeeeiiii niunea oae e ia ninoieony. Eoae, yecenoaioeeaeueiua oeeiniou
aiooatho cae?aaoth e i/aiue aaaeioth eaeath eiaeeaeaeoaeueiie
ioaaonoaaiiinoe /aeiaaea ca ana, /oi i?ienoiaeeo n iei naiei e n
ae?oaeie ethaeueie. *aeiaae – yoi naiaai ?iaea “i?iaeo”, eioi?ue aeeaao,
?acaa?ouaaaony, ?aaeecoaony eee ia ?aaeecoaony, e i?ioeann ia?aoaiey
/aeiaa/aneie nouiinoe eiaeeaeaeii aeeeony anth aai aeeciue, ia oa?yy
ino?iou, iai?yaeaiiinoe, ae?aiaoecia.

Ie? yecenoaioeeaeenonee i?eaioe?iaaiiiai eiaeeaeaea – yoi naiaiaea, ia
eioi?oth /aeiaae ia?a/ai. I?e/ai ia neieueei-ieaoaeue aa?aioe?iaaiioth
iii?o eiaeeaeaeo ?ann/eouaaoue ia i?eoiaeeony. “*aeiaae naiaiaeai, ii e
anoue naiaiaea” (AE.I. Na?o?). Naiaiaeiue auai? eiaeeaeaea – aai oaeae,
ioaaonoaaiiinoue e aai o?aaaaeey. Neooaoeey ee/iinoiiai auai?a –
ecethaeaiiay oaia yecenoaioeeaeueiie oeeinioee. Iia aiaeece?oaony e ia
?aaeueiuo aeeciaiiuo i?eia?ao, e /a?ac ia?acu e eieeecee
ooaeiaeanoaaiiuo i?iecaaaeaiee, e a aano?aeoiii eiioaenoa oeeinioneeo
ni/eiaiee. A eeanne/aneie oeeinioee, eiia/ii, oiaea oea ?a/ue i auai?a,
a eiiaaea – i iiaoaeaeaieyo e iioeaao aeayoaeueiinoe eiaeeaeaeia. Ii ii
aieueoae /anoe eioa?an oeeinioia-eeanneeia aue nin?aaeioi/ai ia
iiciaaaoaeueiuo aniaeoao aeayoaeueiinoe. A XX aaea oeaio? aieiaiey
oeeinioia yaii ia?aianoeeny. I?aaaea, iie oiaea ia?auathony e
iiciaaaoaeueiui noi?iiai aeayoaeueiinoe /aeiaaea, ii aio aai nouiinoue,
i?iyaeythuothny a ?aaeueiii nouanoaiaaiee, oniao?eaatho, aeaaiui
ia?acii, ia a ?aoeeiiaeueiuo iiciaaaoaeueiuo eee iiciaaaaiuo iiiaioao.

Auoea /aeiaaea, a oeaio? eioi?iai iiiauaii aeaaiia a iai –
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiay nouiinoue, oi anoue yecenoaioeey, a naith i/a?aaeue
noaiiaeony ia?aiiniiaie ea?oeiu ie?a, nicaeaaaaiie i?aaenoaaeoaeyie
“aio?iiieiae/aneeo” iai?aaeaiee. Aiai?y oeeinioneei ycueii, aeoeaio
ia?aiineony ia iioieiaeth, a a iioieiaee – ia auoea /aeiaaea.

Ia?aiiniiaa yecenoaioeeaeenoneie iioieiaee – Dasein, oieeoaiia eae
iniaia /aeiaa/aneia auoea. Aai iniaaiiinoe e i?aeiouanoaa ninoiyo a oii,
/oi iii – aaeeinoaaiiia auoea, eioi?ia niiniaii “aii?ioaoue” i naiii
naaa e auoee aiiaua, eae-oi “onoaiaaeeaaoue naay” (“onoaiaaeeaaoueny”)
ii ioiioaieth e auoeth. Aio ii/aio oaeia auoea – yecenoaioeey e anoue
oio ooiaeaiaio, ia eioi?ii aeieaeia no?ieoueny anyeay iioieiaey. Oaeia
iiieiaiea niaoeeoeee /aeiaa/aneiai auoey ia eeoaii iniiaaiee. Ie iaeii
ec ecaanoiuo iai aeeauo nouanoa, e?iia /aeiaaea, ia niiniaii iuneeoue,
caaeaoueny aii?inii i auoee, eae oaeiaii, – ia oieaa?noia e aai
oeaeinoiinoe, i naiai ianoa a ie?a.

Eoae, ia?aue oaa yecenoaioeeaeenoneie iioieiaee – eiinoaoaoeey
“ecia/aeueiinoe” /aeiaa/aneiai auoey eae auoey – aii?ioaiey,
auoey-onoaiiaeaiey, eae auoey, eioi?ia “anoue y nai”. Neaaeothuee
iioieiae/aneee oaa, eioi?ue aeaeatho yecenoaioeeaeenou, ninoieo a oii,
/oi aaiaeeony iiiyoea e oaia auoey – a – ie?a. Aaaeue nooue
/aeiaa/aneiai auoey aeaenoaeoaeueii ninoieo a oii, /oi yoi auoey – a –
ie?a, naycaiiia n auoeai ie?a.

Auoea – a – ie?a, n iaeiie noi?iiu, ?ane?uaaaony /a?ac iaiouaieaiia io
/aeiaaea “aeaeaiea” – e yoi iaiiieiaao iaiaoeeoth eeanne/aneoth
oeeinioeth. Auoea – a – ie?a “naaoeony” /a?ac “aeaeaiea”, a yoi
“aeaeaiea” ?ane?uaaaony /a?ac “caaioo”. Eoae, Dasein niiniaii ia oieueei
aii?ioaoue i auoee, ii e caaioeoueny i naaa eae auoee, caaioeoueny i
auoee eae oaeiaii. E yoe iiiaiou aeaenoaeoaeueii oa?aeoa?ecotho auoea
/aeiaaea a ie?a e i/aiue aaaeiu, iniaaiii naaiaeiy, eiaaea eiaiii caaioa
/aeiaaea e /aeiaa/anoaa i auoee, i nio?aiaiee auoey ieaiaou,
oeeaeeecaoeee, i nio?aiaiee i?e?iaeiie n?aaeu aeieaeia i?ioeainoiyoue
au?aaaoeiny ec-iiae eiio?iey aeano?oeoeaiui oaiaeaioeeyi /aeiaa/aneie
aeecie.

“Aio?iiieiae/aneea” oeeiniou i?eciatho, /oi ie? nouanoaoao aia e
iacaaeneii io /aeiaaea. Iaeiaei oeeinioey oieueei oiaaea anoaao e ia
iooue aeeciaiiiai ?aaeecia, e ia iooue aoiaiecia, eiaaea iia noaaeo a
oeaio? aiaeeca /aeiaaea, ia/eiaao n aai auoey. Ie?, eae oaeiaie, aeey
/aeiaaea nouanoaoao iinoieueeo, iineieueeo ii, eaey io naiaai auoey,
i?eaeaao ie?o cia/aiea e niune, acaeiiaeaenoaoao n ie?ii. Ana eaoaai?ee
auoey, eioi?ua i?aaeiae oeeinioeae auee “iaan/aeiaa/aiu”, nia?aiaiiay
oeeinioey aeieaeia “i/aeiaa/eoue”. A eo iioieiaee, oaeei ia?acii,
ia?aieaoathony oa?aeoa?enoeee auoey, aeaenoaey, niciaiey, yiioeee,
nioeeaeueii-enoi?e/aneea oa?aeoa?enoeee.

Eiaeeaeaeoaeueiia auoea /aeiaaea i?ioeai?a/eai: /aeiaae, a naiii aeaea,
ia iiaeao niio?aoue ia ie? eia/a, /ai “neaicue i?ecio” naiaai auoey,
niciaiey, ciaiey, e a oi aea a?aiy niiniaai “aii?ioaoue” i auoee eae
oaeiaii. Ia aac iniiaaiee oniao?eaay a oaeii i?ioeai?a/ee enoi/iee
ae?aiaoecia /aeiaa/aneie aeecie, “aio?iiieiae/aneay” oeeinioey oioneaea
ec aeaeo ae?oaia, ia iaiaa aaaeiia ianoiyoaeuenoai. Ioaeaeueiua
eiaeeaeaeu, ia aiai?y oaea i iieieaieyo ethaeae e /aeiaa/anoaa a oeaeii,
enoiaeyo, eiia/ii, ec naiaai “ianoiiieiaeaiey” e ec naiaai “a?aiaie”,
eiaaea “ono?aeaathony” a ie?a. Ii iie ia naeaeaee au ie iaeiiai
aeeciaiii aa?iiai, yooaeoeaiiai oaaa, anee au iianaaeiaaii, aaea/anii ia
auyniyee, eaeiau iauaeoeaiua naienoaa (a oii /enea i?ino?ainoaaiiua e
a?aiaiiua) ie?a naiiai ii naaa, aai aauae e i?ioeannia. Iiyoiio ec oiai
oaeoa, /oi /aeiaae aeaeeo ie? ia eia/a, /ai naieie aeacaie, iinoeaaao
aai ia eia/a, /ai nianoaaiiie iuneueth, aiana ia neaaeoao eaeaaeeci, eae
ioeai/ii i?aaeiieaaatho “aio?iiieiae/aneea” oeeiniou. Ethaee iao/athony
niiinoaaeyoue naay n ie?ii, aeaeaoue naia auoea eae /anoue e
i?iaeieaeaiea auoey ie?a. Iie oiatho noaeeoue i ie?a, inaaeaaoue aai ia
oieueei ii ia?ea naiaai aeaea, naiaai niciaiey e aeaenoaey, ii ii ia?ea
naieo aauae. Eia/a iie ia niiaee au auaeeoue a yoii ie?a e oai aieaa ia
niiaee au “aii?ioaoue” i auoee eae oaeiaii.

Oeeinioey Y. aiceaaaao oieueei ia naiiai /aeiaaea ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca
ana /oi n iei i?iecioei eee ia i?iecioei.

*aeiaae oieueei nai aeaeaao naay. Ie Aia ie ae?oaea ethaee aeey iaai ia
iiiiuieee.

Yoio a?oc ioaaonoaaiiinoe oaiaoaao e aeaaeo /aeiaaea e ii i?aaei?eieiaao
iinoiyiiua iiiuoee ecaaaeoueny io iaai.

*aeiaae caaeao iaaeaeo ie?ii e auoeai. Yoi iacuaaaony. auoea a ie?a.

O /aeiaaea a Y. iao iieiy inoaaony oieueei ?ene ?aoaiey eioi?ia ia
aa?aioe?oao oniaoa.

30.2 Iauaeoeaiay enoeia. Aeeaeaeoeea aaniethoiie e ioiineoaeueiie
enoeiu.

I?iaeaia niioaaonoaey ciaiee iauaeoeaiie ?aaeueiinoe ecaanoia a
oeeinioee eae i?iaeaia enoeiu. Aii?in i oii, /oi oaeia enoeia anoue
aii?in i oii, a eaeii ioiioaiee iaoiaeeony ciaiea e aiaoiaio ie?o, eae
onoaiaaeeaaaony e i?iaa?yaony niioaaonoaea ciaiee e iauaeoeaiie
?aaeueiinoe.

A no?oeoo?a ciaiey iiaeii auaeaeeoue aeaa neiy. Iaeei ec ieo caaeneo io
niaoeeoeee aeieiae/aneie e nioeeaeueiie i?aaiecaoeee /aeiaaea,
iniaaiiinoae aai ia?aiie nenoaiu, i?aaiia aini?eyoey, iicaa, niiniaa
ia?a?aaioee eioi?iaoeee, naiaia?acey aeaiiie eoeueoo?u, enoi?e/aneie
yiioe e ycuea. Ae?oaie caaeneo io iauaeoeaiie ?aaeueiinoe, io niaoeeoeee
yaeaiee e i?ioeannia, io?aaeaaiuo iiciaieai. Yoe aeaa neiy iaoiaeyony a
ii?aaeaeaiiii ioiioaiee ae?oa e ae?oao. Aeaaiui a niaieoiiinoe aii?inia,
aicieeathueo a yoii naaoa, yaeyaony aii?in: iiaeai ee iu auaeaeeoue a
iaoeo ciaieyo niaea?aeaiea, ia caaenyuaa ie io eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai
/aeiaaea, ie io /aeiaa/anoaa, e anee iiaeai, oi eaeei ia?acii, eae
ii?aaeaeeoue ia?o niioaaonoaey yoiai niaea?aeaiey iauaeoeaiie
?aaeueiinoe ?

Iauaeoeaiay enoeia – niaea?aeaiea iaoeo i?aaenoaaeaiee e ciaiee, ia
caaenyuaa ie io /aeiaaea, ie io /aeiaa/anoaa. Enoi?e/aneea iiaeoiaeu
ioaeaeaiey a iaoeo ciaieyo oiai, /oi ia caaeneo io /aeiaaea e
/aeiaa/anoaa, io oiai, /oi caaeneo:

1. eiae/aneee aiaeec ciaiee e aaaeoueo e iaio ?aciuoeaiee. Enoeiiui
iiaeao auoue eeoue ciaiea i aa/iuo e iaeciaiiuo eaeayo (Ieaoii). I?e
oaeii iiaeoiaea iu ioeacuaaai a enoeiiinoe anai ciaieyi i iaoa?eaeueiuo
eciai/eauo i?ioeannao, ciaieyi i i?e?iaea e iauanoaa, oae eae yoe ciaiey
ia iiaoo auoue iieo/aiu eee i?iaa?aiu iooai /enoiai oiic?aiey e iaeieo
eeoue eiae/aneeo ?annoaeaeaiee.

2. /oanoaaiiia nica?oeaiea e iaaethaeaiea. Iaeiaei /oanoaaiiia
aini?eyoea ia iiaeao aeaoue iai aano?aeoiuo ciaiee, e oai aieaa ia
iiaeao neoaeeoue n?aaenoaii eo i?iaa?ee, e?eoa?eai eo niioaaonoaey
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe.

Iauaeoeaiay enoeia ia anoue ia/oi canouaoaa, iia?oaaaoaa, caeinoaiaeia;
iia aunooiaao eae iauaeoeaiia niaea?aeaiea iaoeo ciaiee, niioaaonoaea
eioi?iai iauaeoeaiiio ie?o i?iaa?yaony e onoaiaaeeaaaony ia aaca
i?aeoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe. Ooiaeaiaioaeueiua iieiaeaiey oai?ee enoeiu:

1. iauaeoeaiue ie?, io?aaeaaiue a ciaiee, iinoiyiii ?acaeaaaony e
eciaiyaony;

2. i?aeoeea, ia iniiaa eioi?ie inouanoaeyaony iiciaiea, e ana
caaeaenoaiaaiiua a iae iiciaaaoaeueiua n?aaenoaa eciaiythony e
?acaeaathony;

3. ciaiey, au?anoathuea ia iniiaa i?aeoeee e i?iaa?yaiua ath, iinoiyiii
eciaiythony e ?acaeaathony, e, neaaeiaaoaeueii, a i?ioeanna iinoiyiiuo
eciaiaiee e ?acaeoey iaoiaeeony e iauaeoeaiay enoeia.

Oi?io au?aaeaiey iauaeoeaiie enoeiu, caaenyuoth io eiie?aoiuo
enoi?e/aneeo oneiaee, oa?aeoa?ecothuoth noaiaiue aa oi/iinoe, no?iainoe
e iieiiou, eioi?ay aeinoeaiooa ia aeaiiii o?iaia iiciaiey, iacuaatho
ioiineoaeueiie enoeiie. Oaeei ia?acii, ana ?acaeoea /aeiaa/aneiai
iiciaiey anoue iinoiyiiay niaia iaeieo ioiineoaeueiuo enoei ae?oaeie,
aieaa oi/ii e iieii au?aaeathueie iauaeoeaioth enoeio. I?ioeann iiciaiey
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ana aieaa iieiia e oi/iia iiciaiea iauaeoeaiie
enoeiu.

Niaa?oaiii iieiia, oi/iia, ananoi?iiiaa, en/a?iuaathuaa ciaiea i
eaeii-eeai yaeaiee iacuaatho aaniethoiie enoeiie.

Oaeei ia?acii, ioiineoaeueiay e aaniethoiay enoeiu – yoi eeoue ?aciua
o?iaie, eee oi?iu, iauaeoeaiie enoeiu. Iaoa ciaiea anaaaea
ioiineoaeueii, oae eae caaeneo io o?iaiy ?acaeoey iauanoaa, oaoieee,
ninoiyiey iaoee e o.ae. *ai auoa o?iaaiue iaoaai iiciaiey, oai iieiaa iu
i?eaeeaeaainy e aaniethoiie enoeia. Ii yoio i?ioeann iiaeao aeeeoueny
aaneiia/ii, oae eae ia eaaeaeii yoaia enoi?e/aneiai ?acaeoey iu
ioe?uaaai iiaua noi?iiu e naienoaa a ie?oaeathuai ian ie?a e nicaeaai i
iai ana aieaa oi/iua e iieiua ciaiey. Yoio iinoiyiiue i?ioeann ia?aoiaea
io iaeieo ioiineoaeueiuo oi?i iauaeoeaiie enoeiu e ae?oaei – aaaeiaeoaa
i?iyaeaiea aeeaeaeoeee a i?ioeanna iiciaiey. Oaeei ia?acii, eaaeaeay
ioiineoaeueiay enoeia niaea?aeeo a naaa aeieth aaniethoiie. E iaiai?io:
aaniethoiay enoeia – yoi i?aaeae aaneiia/iie iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe enoei
ioiineoaeueiuo.

Aaniethoiay enoeia, eae en/a?iuaathuaa ciaiea i aauao iiaeao
nouanoaiaaoue oieueei a ii?aaeaeaiiie iaeanoe ciaiee i i?e?iaea
ia?aie/aiiie io inoaeueiie i?e?iaeu /aoei noi?ioee?iaaiiuie a?aieoeaie
aeiioneathueie aioo?e naay nouanoaiaaiea yoie aaniethoiie enoeiu.

I?eia?:

Iaoaieea Iuethoiia aeaao en/a?iuaathuaa ciaiea i aauao iaoa?eaeueiiai
ie?a oieueei anee iu i?eieiaai iinooeao i nouanoaiaaiee aaniethoiiai
i?ino?ainoaa-a?aiaie e iieo/aao naia yiie?e/aneia iiaeoaa?aeaeaiea ia
i?aeoeea oieueei a iaeanoe ii?aaeaeaiiie aieaa iauae oai?eae
ioiineoaeueiinoe Yiooaeia.

30.3 Iaoea e i?aanoaaiiinoue. Yoeea iaoee.

A iaoea acaeiiioiioaiey iaaeaeo oaie, eoi a iae caiyo, e aeaenoaey
eaaeaeiai ec ieo iiae/eiythony ii?aaeaeaiiie nenoaia yoe/aneeo ii?i,
ii?aaeaeythueo, /oi aeiionoeii, /oi iiiu?yaony, a /oi n/eoaaony
iaiicaieeoaeueiui e iai?eaieaiui aeey o/aiiai a ?acee/iuo neooaoeeyo.
Yoe ii?iu aicieeatho e ?acaeaathony a oiaea ?acaeoey naiie iaoee,
yaeyynue ?acoeueoaoii naiaai ?iaea “enoi?e/aneiai ioai?a”, eioi?ue
nio?aiyao oieueei oi, /oi iaiaoiaeeii iaoea e iauanoao ia eaaeaeii yoaia
enoi?ee.

A ii?iao iao/iie yoeee iaoiaeyo naia aiieiuaiea eae iaua/aeiaa/aneea
ii?aeueiua o?aaiaaiey e cai?aou, i?eniiniaeaiiua e iniaaiiinoyi iao/iie
aeayoaeueiinoe (“ia oe?aaee” – iaeuecy caieiaoueny ieaaeaoii, “ia eae” –
iaeuecy caieiaoueny oaeueneoeeaoeeae), oae e o?aaiaaiey aeey
ooaa?aeaeaiey e caueou niaoeeoe/aneeo, oa?aeoa?iuo eiaiii aeey iaoee
oeaiiinoae (iai?eia?, aanei?unoiue iiene e ionoaeaaiea enoeiu).

A iianaaeiaaiie iao/iie aeayoaeueiinoe iau/ii auaaao iai?inoi n?aco aea
ioeaieoue iieo/aiiia cia/aiea eae enoeio eee caaeoaeaeaiea. E yoi
ianoiyoaeuenoai iaoiaeeo io?aaeaiea a ii?iao iao/iie yoeee, eioi?ua ia
o?aaotho, /oiau ?acoeueoao eaaeaeiai enneaaeiaaiey iai?aiaiii aue
enoeiiui ciaieai. Iie o?aaotho eeoue, /oiau yoio ?acoeueoao aue iiaui
ciaieai e oae eee eia/a – eiae/anee, yenia?eiaioaeueii e i?. –
iainiiaaiiui. Ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca niaethaeaiea oaeiai ?iaea o?aaiaaiee
eaaeeo ia naiii o/aiii, e ii ia iiaeao ia?aaae?aniaaoue aa eiio-ieaoaeue
ae?oaiio. Aeey oiai, /oiau oaeiaeaoai?eoue yoei o?aaiaaieyi, ii
aeieaeai: oi?ioi ciaoue ana oi, /oi naeaeaii e aeaeaaony a aai iaeanoe
iaoee; ioaeeeoy ?acoeueoaou naieo enneaaeiaaiee, /aoei oeacuaaoue, ia
eaeea enneaaeiaaiey i?aaeoanoaaiieeia e eieeaa ii iie?aeny, e eiaiii ia
yoii oiia iieacuaaoue oi iiaia, /oi ioe?uoi e ?ac?aaioaii ei naiei.
E?iia oiai, a ioaeeeaoeee o/aiue aeieaeai i?eaanoe oa aeieacaoaeuenoaa e
a?aoiaiou, n iiiiuueth eioi?uo ii iainiiauaaao iieo/aiiua ei
?acoeueoaou; i?e yoii ii iaycai aeaoue en/a?iuaathuoth eioi?iaoeeth,
iicaieythuoth i?iaanoe iacaaeneioth i?iaa?eo aai ?acoeueoaoia.

Ii?iu iaoee (ii ?.Ia?oiio) no?iyony aie?oa neaaeothueo iniiaiiieaaathueo
oeaiiinoae:

1. oieaa?naeeci – oaaaeaeaiea a oii, /oi eco/aaiua iaoeie i?e?iaeiua
yaeaiey iianthaeo i?ioaeatho iaeeiaeiai e /oi enoeiiinoue iao/iuo
ooaa?aeaeaiee aeieaeia ioeaieaaoueny iacaaeneii io aic?anoa, iiea, ?anu,
aaoi?eoaoa, oeooeia e ciaiee oao, eoi eo oi?ioee?oao.

2. iauiinoue – iao/iia ciaiea aeieaeii naiaiaeii noaiiaeoueny iauei
aeinoiyieai. Oio, eoi aai aia?aua iieo/ee, ia ai?aaa iiiiiieueii
aeaaeaoue ei. Ioaeeeoy ?acoeueoaou enneaaeiaaiey, o/aiue ia oieueei
ooaa?aeaeaao naie i?ei?eoao e auiineo iieo/aiiue ?acoeueoao ia noae
e?eoeee, ii e aeaeaao aai ioe?uoui aeey aeaeueiaeoaai eniieueciaaiey
anaie eieeaaaie.

3. aanei?unoiinoue – ia?ae/iui noeioeii aeayoaeueiinoe o/aiiai yaeyaony
iiene enoeiu, naiaiaeiue io niia?aaeaiee ee/iie auaiaeu (caaiaaaiey
neaau, iieo/aiey aeaiaaeiiai aiciaa?aaeaeaiey). I?eciaiea e
aiciaa?aaeaeaiea aeieaeiu ?anniao?eaaoueny eae aiciiaeiia neaaenoaea
iao/iuo aeinoeaeaiee, a ia eae oeaeue, ai eiy eioi?ie i?iaiaeyony
enneaaeiaaiey.

4. i?aaieciaaiiue neaioeoeeci – eaaeaeue o/aiue ianao ioaaonoaaiiinoue
ca ioeaieo aeia?iea/anoaaiiinoe oiai, /oi naeaeaii aai eieeaaaie, e ca
oi, /oiau naia ioeaiea noaea aeinoiyieai aeaniinoe. I?e yoii o/aiue,
iie?aaoeeny a naiae ?aaioa ia iaaa?iua aeaiiua, caeinoaiaaiiua ec ?aaio
aai eieeaa, ia inaiaiaeaeaaony io ioaaonoaaiiinoe, eieue nei?i ii nai ia
i?iaa?ee oi/iinoue eniieuecoaiuo aeaiiuo. Oaeei ia?acii, a iao/iie
aeayoaeueiinoe ?aaii iaiaoiaeeiu eae oaaaeaiea e oiio, /oi naeaeaee
i?aaeoanoaaiieee, oae e e?eoe/aneia ioiioaiea e eo ?acoeueoaoai.

Yoe/aneea ii?iu ioaaouaatho naiua ?aciua noi?iiu aeayoaeueiinoe o/aiuo:
i?ioeannu iiaeaioiaee e i?iaaaeaiey enneaaeiaaiee, ioaeeeaoeee iao/iuo
?acoeueoaoia, i?iaaaeaiey iao/iuo aeeneonnee, eiaaea noaeeeaathony
?acee/iua oi/ee c?aiey. A nia?aiaiiie iaoea iniaoth ino?ioo i?eia?aee
aii?inu, eanathueany ia noieueei ii?i acaeiiaeaenoaey aioo?e iao/iiai
niiauanoaa, neieueei acaeiiioiioaiee iaoee e o/aiiai n iauanoaii. Yoio
e?oa aii?inia /anoi iaicia/atho eae i?iaeaio nioeeaeueiie
ioaaonoaaiiinoe o/aiiai.

Nioeeaeueiay ioaaonoaaiiinoue o/aiiai – i?aanoaaiiay e ii?aeueiay
ioeaiea o/aiui aiciiaeiuo iaaaoeaiuo iineaaenoaee aeey ethaeae io
eniieueciaaiey iauanoaii aai ioe?uoey eee ecia?aoaiey.

Ae?oaeie neiaaie o/aiue ianao ia?aae iauanoaii ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca oi a
/uee ?oee iiiaaeao aai ?aaioa. E?iia oiai o/aiue aeieaeai ioeaieaaoue
aioiai ee iauanoai i?eiyoue iiaia.

I?eia?:

Eaiia?aei Aea Aei/e oie/oiaeee naie /a?oaaee iiaeaiaeiie eiaeee, /oiau
ethaee ia iiaee aa ainiieueciaaoueny eae n?aaenoaii aaaeaiey aieiu

31.2 Iiiyoea iaoiaea e iaoiaeieiaee.

Iaoiae (a?a/. Methodos – ) – niinia aeinoeaeaiey
oeaee, ii?aaeaeaiiui ia?acii oii?yaei/aiiay aeayoaeueiinoue. Iaoiae eae
n?aaenoai iiciaiey anoue niinia aini?iecaaaeaiey a iuoeaiee eco/aaiiai
i?aaeiaoa. Niciaoaeueiia i?eiaiaiea iao/ii iainiiaaiiuo iaoiaeia
yaeyaony nouanoaaiiui oneiaeai iieo/aiey iiauo ciaiee.

Oeeinioey, a ioee/ea io ae?oaeo iaoe au?aaioaea anaiauee iaoiae iiciaiey
– aeeaeaeoe/aneee iaoiae. Iauaeoeaioth iniiao aeeaeaeoe/aneiai iaoiaea
ninoaaeytho iaeaieaa iauea caeiiu ?acaeoey ie?a. Yoio iaoiae ia
iiaeiaiyao iaoiaeu ae?oaeo iaoe, a yaeyaony eo iauae oeeinioneie iniiaie
e aunooiaao a ea/anoaa i?oaeey iiciaiey ai anao iaeanoyo.

Nouanoaotho 2 oeia iaoiaeia e i?eaiia enneaaeiaaiey:

1). Iauaeiae/aneea iaoiaeu iiciaiey (aiaeec e neioac, eiaeoeoeey e
aeaaeoeoeey, aano?aae?iaaiea e iaiauaiea e o.ae.).

Aiaeec – yoi ?an/eaiaiea oeaeinoiiai i?aaeiaoa ia ninoaaeythuea /anoe
(noi?iiu, i?eciaee, naienoaa eee ioiioaiey) n oeaeueth eo ananoi?iiiaai
eco/aiey.

Neioac – yoi niaaeeiaiea ?aiaa auaeaeaiiuo /anoae (noi?ii, i?eciaeia,
naienoa eee ioiioaiee) i?aaeiaoa a aaeeiia oeaeia.

Aano?aae?iaaiea – yoi iniaue i?eai iuoeaiey, eioi?ue caeeth/aaony a
ioaea/aiee io ?yaea naienoa e ioiioaiee eco/aaiiai yaeaiey n
iaeiia?aiaiiui auaeaeaieai eioa?anothueo ian naienoa e ioiioaiee.

Iaiauaiea – yoi oaeie i?eai iuoeaiey, a ?acoeueoaoa eioi?iai
onoaiaaeeaathony iauea naienoaa e i?eciaee iauaeoia.

Eiaeoeoeey – yoi oaeie iaoiae enneaaeiaaiey e niinia ?annoaeaeaiey, a
eioi?ii iauee auaiae no?ieony ia iniiaa /anoiuo iinueie.

Aeaaeoeoeey – yoi niinia ?annoaeaeaiey, iin?aaenoaii eioi?iai ec iaueo
iinueie n iaiaoiaeeiinoueth neaaeoao caeeth/aiea /anoiiai oa?aeoa?a.

Aiaeiaey – yoi oaeie i?eai iiciaiey, i?e eioi?ii ia iniiaa noiaenoaa
iauaeoia a iaeieo i?eciaeao caeeth/atho ia eo noiaenoaa e a ae?oaeo
i?eciaeao.

Iiaeaee?iaaiea – yoi eco/aiea iauaeoa (i?eaeiaea) iooai nicaeaiey e
enneaaeiaaiey aai eiiee (iiaeaee), caiauathueo i?eaeiae n ii?aaeaeaiiuo
noi?ii, eioa?anothueo iiciaiea.

2). Iao/iua iaoiaeu enneaaeiaaiey:

a). Iaoiaeu iino?iaiey yiie?e/aneiai ciaiey.

Iaaethaeaiea – oeaeaiai?aaeaiiia aini?eyoea yaeaiee iauaeoeaiie
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, a oiaea eioi?iai iu iieo/aai ciaiea i aiaoieo
noi?iiao, naienoaao e ioiioaieyo eco/aaiuo iauaeoia.

Iienaiea – yoi cae?aieaiea e ia?aaea/a ?acoeueoaoia iaaethaeaiey n
iiiiuueth ii?aaeaeaiiuo ciaeiauo n?aaenoa.

Ecia?aiea – yoi n?aaiaiea iauaeoia ii eaeei-eeai noiaeiui naienoaai eee
noi?iiai.

Yenia?eiaio – yoi enneaaeiaaiea e.-e. ssaeaiey iooai aeoeaiiai
aicaeaenoaey ia ieo i?e iiiiue nicaeaiey iiauo oneiaee, niioaaonoaothueo
oeaeyi enneaaeiaaiey, eee aea /a?ac eciaiaiea oa/aiey i?ioeanna a
ioaeiii iai?aaeaiee.

a). Iaoiaeu iino?iaiey oai?aoe/aneiai ciaiey.

Oi?iaeecaoeey – yoi iino?iaiea aano?aeoii-iaoaiaoe/aneeo iiaeaeae,
?ane?uaathueo nouiinoue eco/aaiuo i?ioeannia aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe.

Aeneiiu – yoi ooaa?aeaeaiey, aeieacaoaeuenoaa enoeiiinoe eioi?uo ia
o?aaoaony.

Aeiioaoeei-aeaaeoeoeaiue iaoiae – nooue eioi?iai caeeth/aaony a
nicaeaiee nenoaiu aeaaeoeoeaii naycaiiuo iaaeaeo niaie aeiioac, ec
eioi?uo auaiaeyony ooaa?aeaeaiey ia yiie?e/aneeo oaeoao.

Iaoiae ainoiaeaeaiey io aano?aeoiiai e eiie?aoiiio.

Enoi?e/aneee e eiae/aneee iaoiaeu enneaaeiaaiey.

Iaoiaeieiaey – 1). Niaieoiiinoue iiciaaaoaeueiuo n?aaenoa, iaoiaeia,
i?eaiia, eniieuecoaiuo a e.-e. Iaoea; 2). Iaeanoue ciaiey, eco/athuay
n?aaenoaa, i?aaeiinueee e i?eioeeiu i?aaiecaoeee iiciaaaoaeueiie e
i?aeoe/anee – i?aia?acothuae aeayoaeueiinoe.

?acaeoea iaoiaeieiaee – iaeia ec noi?ii ?acaeoey iao/iiai iiciaiey a
oeaeii. Anyeia iao/iia ioe?uoea eiaao ia oieueei i?aaeiaoiia, ii e
iaoiaeieiae/aneia niaea?aeaiea, o.e. iii naycaii n e?eoe/aneei
ia?aniio?ii nouanoaothuaai iiiyoeeiiai aiia?aoa, i?aaeiinueie e
iiaeoiaeia e eioa?i?aoaoeee eco/aaiiai iaoa?eaea. O?aaeeoeeiiii i?iaeaiu
iaoiaeieiaee ?ac?aaaouaaeenue a ?aieao oeeinioee. Iaeiaei a nayce n
aeeooa?aioeeaoeeae nia?aiaiiiai iao/iiai iiciaiey, oneiaeiaieai
iiiyoeeiiai aiia?aoa, oneeeaathuaeny oai?aoecaoeeae iao/iiai iuoeaiey,
niaa?oainoaiaaieai iiciaaaoaeueiuo n?aaenoa e iaoiaeia
aeeooa?aioee?oaony e noa?a iaoiaeieiaee.

Nia?aiaiiay iaoiaeieiaey auiieiyao 2 oeia ooieoeee:

a). iia auyaeyao niune iao/iie aeayoaeueiinoe e aa acaeiiioiioaiee n
ae?. noa?aie aeayoaeueiinoe, o.a. ?anniao?eaaao iaoeo n oi/ee c?aiey
i?aeoeee, eoeueoo?u, /aeiaaea.

a). iaoiaeieiaey ?aoaao caaea/e niaa?oainoaiaaiey, ?aoeeiiaeecaoeee
iao/iie aeayoaeueiinoe, auoiaey ca i?aaeaeu oeeinioee, oioy e iie?aynue
ia ?ac?aaaouaaaiua ath ie?iaicc?ai/aneea e iaoiaeieiae/aneea i?eaioe?u e
iniiaiiieiaeaiey.

Eiae/aneee iaoiae aieaa oe?ieee /ai iao/iue o.e. ei iieuecothony ia
oieueei o/aiua a ana ethaee.

Caeiiu eiaeee – caeiiu /aeiaa/aneiai iuoeaiey. Ana ethaee oae eee eia/a
iuneyo eiae/anee ii ia

ana oiatho yoi aeaeaoue oi?ioi. Eiae/aneee iaoiae enoi?e/anee iiyaeeny
?aiueoa iao/iiai.

Ei iieueciaaeenue e ae?aaiea a?aee e oaieiae n?aaeieo aaeia.

Eiae/aneee iaoiae iineoaeee iniiaie aeey iao/iiai ii iineaaeiee
ea/anoaaiii ioee/aaony io iaai. ni auoa.

31.1 Iniiaiua /a?ou oeeinioee iaioiiecia. Eaoiee/aneee iiaea?ieci
AEeeueniia.

Ethaia ec aa?ieniiaaaeaiee eae a i?ioeii, oae e a ianoiyuai,
i?aaenoaaeaii eaeaieiaaie – n?aaee ieo e oeeiniou, eioi?ua ea?aee e
ea?atho caeanue ia?aoth ne?eieo. Iaioiieci (io eaoeineiai iaienaiey
eiaie Oiiu Aeaeineiai – Oiian) eae iai?aaeaiea – aeaoeua ioeoeeaeueiiai
eaoiee/anoaa. Ca?iaeeeinue iii a 70-o aiaeao 19 noieaoey iiae aeeyieai
?aoaiee Aaoeeaineiai niai?a (1869-1870). A 1879 a. a yioeeeeeea iaiu
Eueaa13 oeeinioey Aeaeiaoa auea iauyaeaia aaeeinoaaiii enoeiiie.

Iniiao iaioiienoe/aneiai o/aiey ninoaaeyao i?eioeei: . Iaiiiceoeaeci – oaieiae/aneay oi?ia nia?aiaiiiai
iauaeoeaiiai eaeaaeecia. Aunoae ?aaeueiinoueth iaioiienou i?eciatho
auoea>, iiieiaaiia eae aeooiaiia, aiaeanoaaiiia ia?aiia/aei.
Aeey aeieacaoaeuenoaa ?aeeaeiciuo aeiai iaioiienou oe?iei eniieuecotho
a?enoioaeaaneea eaoaai?ee oi?iu e iaoa?ee, iioaioeee e aeoa
(aiciiaeiinoe e aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe), nouanoaiaaiey e nouiinoe.
?acoeueoaoii iaioiienoneeo iino?iaiee yaeyaony i?eciaiea aiaa
ia?aii?e/eiie auoey e ia?aiiniiaaieai anao oeeinioneeo eaoaai?ee.

A oeaeii oeeinioey iaioiiecia i?aaenoaaeyao niaie oaieiaece?iaaiioth
iaoaoeceeo. Ii naiae i?iaeaiaoeea e oa?ieiieiaee iaioiienoneay
iaoaoeceea cia/eoaeueii ioee/aaony io n?aaeiaaaeiaiai oiiecia, a iae
yeeaeoe/anee niaaeeiaiu iniiaiua yeaiaiou o/aiey Oiiu Aeaeineiai
(i?eioeei aa?iiiee aa?u e ?acoia e ae?.) n iiaaeoeie iieiaeaieyie
iiaaeoeo eaeaaeenoe/aneeo nenoai.

N oi/ee c?aiey iaioiiecia enoi?e/aneee i?ioeann caaeneo io
naa?ouanoanoaaiiuo o?ainoeaiaeaioiuo nee. Yoei oaeoe/anee eneeth/aaony
aiciiaeiinoue aeoeaiiai aicaeaenoaey /aeiaaea ia oiae ie?iaie enoi?ee. N
oi/ee c?aiey nioeeaeueiie oeeinioee iaioiiecia, naeoey?ecaoeey oa?iaeaao
nouanoaiaaieth oeaeinoiiai /aeiaaea, aaaeao aai e ii?aeueiie
aeaa?aaeaoeee, a iioiio aeaaioth ?ieue a ii?iaeueiii, anoanoaaiiii
?acaeoee iauanoaa i?ecaaiu nua?aoue ?aeeaey e oea?eiaue.

A oeaeii oeeinioey iaioiiecia noaaeo ia?aae niaie caaea/o ethaie oeaiie
nio?aieoue Aiaa a naaoa oniaoia anoanoaaiiuo iaoe. N yoie oeaeueth, eae
auei iieacaii auoa, iaioiienou ?acai?a/eaatho e?eoeeo iaoaea/ iaoee e
iniiaaiiiai ia iaoea eiaeono?eaeueiiai iauanoaa ( oai ia iaiaa
eniieuecoy aeey naieo i?iiiaaaeae ana iineaaeiea oaoie/aneea
aeinoeaeaiey yoiai iauanoaa ) iuoaynue iauynieoue nianoaaiii iaoaea/e
iauanoaa, eioi?ua anaaaea aoaeoo eiaoue ianoi, iaiineooaieai aeiaiaoai
o?enoeaineie oea?eae.

31.3 O?iaie iauanoaaiiiai niciaiey.

Niciaiea – niiniaiinoue /aeiaaea iia?e?iaaoue ia?acaie nioeeaeueiuo
acaeiiaeaenoaee, aeaenoaee n i?aaeiaoaie, i?e?iaeiuo e eoeueoo?iuo
naycae, ioaeaeaiiuie io iaiin?aaenoaaiiuo eiioaeoia n ethaeueie e aeoia
aeayoaeueiinoe, ?anniao?eaaoue yoe ia?acu a ea/anoaa oneiaee, n?aaenoa,
i?eaioe?ia naiaai iiaaaeaiey.

Oa?iei “iauanoaaiiia niciaiea” oa?aeoa?ecoao e ?aaeueiia niciaiea
eiie?aoiiai iauanoaa (ianniaia niciaiea), e eaeaaeueioth iiaeaeue
iauanoaaiiiai niciaiey. Iauanoaaiiia niciaiea iaeaaeaao neiaeiie
aioo?aiiae no?oeoo?ie, eco/aiea eioi?ie eiaao iaoiaeieiae/aneia cia/aiea
aeey aiaeeca aai ?acee/iuo ia?aciaaiee n o/aoii eo niaoeeoeee,
nioeeaeueiuo ooieoeee e o.i.

A no?oeoo?a iauanoaaiiiai niciaiey iau/ii auaeaeythony neaaeothuea
o?iaie – iauaeaiiia e oai?aoe/aneia niciaiea, iauanoaaiiay ineoieiaey e
eaeaieiaey, a oaeaea oi?iu iauanoaaiiiai niciaiey, e eioi?ui ioiinyony
iieeoe/aneay eaeaieiaey, i?aainiciaiea, ii?aeue, ?aeeaey, eneonnoai,
iaoea e oeeinioey. Ioiineoaeueii /aoeia ?aca?aie/aiea oi?i iauanoaaiiiai
niciaiey i?ineaaeeaaaony ia aai oai?aoeei-eaeaieiae/aneii o?iaia e aieaa
?anieua/aoui noaiiaeony ia aai iauaeaiii-ineoieiae/aneii o?iaia.

Iauaeaiiia niciaiea aicieeaao a i?ioeanna iianaaeiaaiie i?aeoeee
ethaeae, noeoeeii, eae yiie?e/aneia io?aaeaiea aiaoiae noi?iiu
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe.

Oai?aoe/aneia niciaiea i?aaenoaaeyao niaie io?aaeaiea aa nouanoaaiiuo
naycae e caeiiiia?iinoae e iaoiaeeo naia au?aaeaiea a iaoea e ae?oaeo
oi?iao niciaiey, iineieueeo iineaaeiea oaeaea aini?iecaiaeyo ia
aiaoithth, a aioo?aiithth noi?iio aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, o?aaothuoth
iiin?aaenoaiaaiiiai oai?aoe/aneiai iiciaiey.

Iauanoaaiiay ineoieiaey oaeaea oi?ie?oaony a i?ioeanna iianaaeiaaiie
i?aeoe/aneie aeecie ethaeae. Ii a iauanoaaiiie ineoieiaee eae o?iaia
iauanoaaiiiai niciaiey aeiieie?othuei yaeyaony ia naii ii naaa ciaiea i
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, a ioiioaiea e yoiio ciaieth, ioeaiea
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe.

Eaeaieiaey – neiaeiia aeooiaiia ia?aciaaiea, aeeth/athuaa a naay
ii?aaeaeaiioth oai?aoe/aneoth iniiao, auoaeathuea ec iaa i?ia?aiiu
aeaenoaee e iaoaieciu ?ani?ino?aiaiey eaeaieiae/aneeo onoaiiaie a
iannao. Eaeaieiaey – niaieoiiinoue iauanoaaiiuo eaeae, oai?ee,
acaeyaeia, eioi?ua io?aaeatho e ioeaieaatho nioeeaeueioth
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue n oi/ee c?aiey eioa?ania ii?aaeaeaiiuo eeannia
(eeoe), ?ac?aaaouaathony, eae i?aaeei, eaeaeiuie i?aaenoaaeoaeyie yoeo
eeannia e iai?aaeaiu ia ooaa?aeaeaiea eeai eciaiaiea, i?aia?aciaaiea
nouanoaothueo iauanoaaiiuo ioiioaiee.

Ii?aeue – iaeia ec oi?i iauanoaaiiiai niciaiey, nioeeaeueiue einoeooo,
auiieiythuee ooieoeeth ?aaoee?iaaiey iiaaaeaiey ethaeae ai anao aac
eneeth/aiey iaeanoyo iauanoaaiiie aeecie. A ii?aee iio?aaiinoe, eioa?anu
iauanoaa au?aaeathony a aeaea noeoeeii noi?ie?iaaaoeony e iauai?eciaiiuo
i?aaeienaiee e ioeaiie, iiaee?aieaiiuo neeie ianniaiai i?eia?a,
i?eau/ee, iau/ay, iauanoaaiiiai iiaiey.

?aeeaey – niaoeeoe/aneay oi?ia iauanoaaiiiai niciaiey, ioee/eoaeueiui
i?eciaeii eioi?ie yaeyaony oaioanoe/aneia io?aaeaiea a niciaiee ethaeae
ainiiaenoaothueo iaae ieie aiaoieo nee, i?e eioi?ii caiiua neeu
i?eieiatho aeae iacaiiuo (Ia?en). ?aeeaey – no?aieaiea /aeiaaea e
iauanoaa e iaiin?aaenoaaiiie nayce n aaniethoii.

Iaoea – niaoeeoe/aneay oi?ia /aeiaa/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe,
iaania/eaathuay iieo/aiea iiaiai ciaiey, au?aaaouaathuay n?aaenoaa
i?iecaiaenoaa e ?acaeoey iiciaaaoaeueiiai i?ioeanna, inouanoaeythuay
i?iaa?eo, nenoaiaoecaoeeth e ?ani?ino?aiaiea aai ?acoeueoaoia.

O?iaie iauanoaaiiiai niciaiey ii Aai?iao

A) Oai?aoe/aneee o?iaaiue

1.Iao/iia iuoeaiea

/ Io?aaeaao i?e?iaeiia e nioeeaeueiia auoea.

2.Eaeaieiaey

/ Iaoaieci iiaaaeaiey /aeiaaea a iauanoaa.

A) Yiie?e/aneee o?iaaiue

1.Ianniaia niciaiea

/ ?aaeoeey ia aeaenoaey ainoaea?noaa.

2.Iauaeaiiia niciaiea

/ Iau/ae

3.Iauay ineoieiaey

/ Ioeaiea niauoee

32.1 Nia?aiaiiay caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneay oeeinioey enoi?ee. Oooo?ieiae/aneea
iiaeaee iauanoaa (oaoiie?aoe/aneea, oaoiioianeea, eioi?iaoeeiiiua).

Oooo?ieiaey (eao. Futurum – aoaeouaa e a?a/. Logos – o/aiea, neiai) –
i?aaenoaaeaiey i aoaeouai /aeiaa/anoaa, iaeanoue ciaiee, ioaaouaathuay
ia?niaeoeau nioeeaeueiuo i?ioeannia. Oa?iei “oooo?ieiaey” i?aaeeiaeee a
1943 a. iai. Nioeeieia I.Oeaoooaei, eiay aaeaeo iaeoth iaaeeeanniaoth
“oeeinioeth aoaeouaai”, i?ioeainoiyuoth eaeaieiaee e ooiiee. N ia/aea
60-o aa. yoi iiiyoea ?ani?ino?aieeinue ia caiaaea a niunea “enoi?ee
aoaeouaai”, “iaoee i aoaeouai”, i?eciaiiie auyaeoue i?iaiinoe/aneea
(i?aaeneacaoaeueiua) ooieoeee anao iao/iuo aeenoeeieei. Iineieueeo
ia?niaeoeau nioeeaeueiuo i?ioeannia eco/athony iiiaeie iaoeaie, oa?iei
“O.”, aaeaeo aai iiiaicia/iinoe e iaii?aaeaeaiiinoe, n eiioea 60-o aa.
auoaniyaony iiiyoeai “enneaaeiaaiea aoaeouaai”, eioi?ia ioaaouaaao
oai?eth e i?aeoeeo i?iaiice?iaaiey. A ao?aeoaciie O. Auaeaeythony
aiieiaaoe/aneia, ?aoi?ienoneia, eaai?aaeeeaeueiia e ae?. oa/aiey. A 60-o
aa. ainiiaenoaiaaei ia?aia, auaeaeioaoaa oai?eth “iinoeiaeono?eaeueiiai
iauanoaa” (Aaee, A.Eai, A?ii, A. aea AEoaaiaeue). ?aoi?ienou aunooiaee
n iiceoeee oai?ee eiiaa?aaioeee (O. Aaaaea, O.Iieae, E, Aaeooia),
eaai?aaeeeaeu aeieacuaaee iaecaaaeiinoue eaoano?iou “caiaaeiie
oeeaeeecaoeee” i?aae eeoeii IO? (A.Oineio e ae?.). N eiioea 60-o aa.
ao?aeoaciay O. Ia?aaeeaaao e?ecen, a oiaea eioi?iai nia/aea
auaeaeioeinue oa/aiea, aeieacuaathuaa iaecaaaeiinoue “aeiaaeueiie
eaoano?iou” i?e nouanoaothueo oaiaeaioeeyo iauanoaaiiiai ?acaeoey, a
caoai, n eiioea 70-o aa., – oa/aiea, ionoaeaathuaa iaiaoiaeeiinoue
ia?aoiaea e “iiaie oeeaeeecaoeee”. Aaaeouaa aeeyiea a ao?aeoaciie O.
70-o aa. i?eia?ae ?eineee eeoa, ii eieoeeaoeaa eioi?iai ?acaa?ioeinue o.
iacuaaaiia Aeiaaeueiia iiaeaee?iaaiea ia?niaeoea /aeiaa/anoaa ia iniiaa
eniieueciaaiey YAI.

Oaoiie?aoe/aneay iiaeaeue ?enoao aoaeouaa iauanoai eae i/aiue neiaeiue
ii ana aea eiia/iie neiaeiinoe iaoaieci aeaenoaey eioi?iai iiaeii
i?aaeneacaoue iaeiicia/ii. Oaoieea caeanue ?aoaao ana, /ai aieueoa
oaoieee oai auoa noaiiaeony aeaaininoiyiea ethaeae oai eaa/a ei aeeoue.
Iaoaea/e iineaaeiaai a?aiaie, oaoiiaaiiua aaa?ee e o.ae. iauyniyaony
iaaunieei o?iaiai ?acaeoey oaoieee e ianiiniaiinoueth ethaeae yooaeoeaii
aa eniieueciaaoue aneaaenoaea iaeie a?aiioiinoe.

Oaoiioianeay iiaeaeue ( Aiyciue oaoieee ) io?eoeaao i?yioth caaeneiinoue
iaaeaeo ?inoii iiue oaoieee e ?inoii ea/anoaa aeecie /aeiaaea. Nei?aa
aeia?o?ioe?iaaiii-?acaeoay oaoieea e nae/an yaeyaony iniiaiie i?e/eiie
ian/anoee /aeiaa/anoaa.

Eioi?iaoeeiiiay iiaeaeue ?enoao aoaeouaa a eioi?ii ia?aaaouaathuaa
iai?oaeiaaiea aeinoeaiao oaeiai o?iaiy niaa?oainoaa, /oi iio?aaoaony
nianai iaiiiai /aeiaa/aneiai o?oaea aeey i?iecaiaenoaa n?aaenoa
i?iecaiaenoaa ( ?iaiou aoaeoo ecaioaaeeaaoue iiaua ia?acoeu oaoieee i?e
ieieiaeueiii o/anoee /aeiaaea ). A nayce n yoei oeaio? oyaeanoe aoaeao
ia?aiauaoueny a noa?o oinoaaiiiai o?oaea a eioi?ii ?aoathuaa cia/aiea
i?eia?aoaao iaiai eioi?iaoeeae

( iao/iie, oi?aaeai/aneie, e o.ae. )

Oeeinioey enoi?ee – iaeanoue ciaiey, caieiathuayny i?iaeaiaie niunea
enoi?ee, aa caeiiiia?iinoyie, iniiaiui iai?aaeaieai ?acaeoey
/aeiaa/anoaa e enoi?e/aneei iiciaieai. A nia?aiaiiie ao?aeoaciie O.E.
iniaui aeeyieai iieuecothony eiioeaioeee Oieiae e Oiaiaea?a. Ao?aeoaciua
oeeiniou iau/ii ?anniao?eaatho enoi?eth eae e??aoeeiiaeueiue iioie
niauoee, eeoaiiue aioo?aiiae eiaeee, eae oaioe/aneia /a?aaeiaaiea
neo/aeiinoae, ioaa?aatho i?e/eiiinoue, caeiiiia?iinoe a enoi?ee e
nioeeaeueiue i?ia?ann. A eo aicc?aieyo i?aiaeaaeaao aeoo ianneiecia e
aaiinoeoeecia.

Oeeinioey enoi?ee iiaeao ?anniao?eaaoueny a eiioaenoa enoi?e/aneiai
?acaeoey iauanoaaiiiai niiniaa i?iecaiaenoaa. Oiaaea iiaeii
i?aaeeiaeeoue oaeoth eeanneoeeaoeeth:

/ Oi oea? /

1. Caieaaeaeue/aneay

2. Eiaeono?eaeueiay

3. Iinoeiaeono?eaeueiay eee Eioi?iaoeeiiiay

Oa?iei eioi?iaoeeiiiay oeeaeeecaoeey aia?aua i?aaeeiaeee yiiiaoe Ianoaea
a ?aaioa: “Iinoeiaeono?eaeueiia iauanoai eae eioi?iaoeeiiiia iauanoai”.

32.2 Iiiyoea iaoee.

Iaoea – noa?a enneaaeiaaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe, iai?aaeaiiay ia
i?iecaiaenoai iiauo ciaiee i i?e?iaea, iauanoaa e iuoeaiee e
aeeth/athuay a naay ana oneiaey e iiiaiou yoiai i?iecaiaenoaa: o/aiuo n
eo ciaieyie e niiniaiinoyie, eaaeeoeeaoeeae e iiuoii, n ?acaeaeaieai e
eiiia?aoeeae iao/iiai o?oaea; iao/iua o/?aaeaeaiey, yenia?eiaioaeueiia e
eaai?aoi?iia iai?oaeiaaiea; iaoiaeu iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneie ?aaiou,
iiiyoeeiue e eaoaai?eaeueiue aiia?ao, nenoaio iao/iie eioi?iaoeee, a
oaeaea anth noiio iaee/iuo ciaiee, aunooiathueo a ea/anoaa eeai
i?aaeiinueee, eeai n?aaenoaa, eeai ?acoeueoaoa iao/iiai i?iecaiaenoaa.

Iaoea – yoi enoi?e/anee neiaeeaoayny oi?ia /aeiaa/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe,
iai?aaeaiiay ia iiciaiea e i?aia?aciaaiea iauaeoeaiie
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe.

Iaoea – yoi iaeiia?aiaiii e nenoaia ciaiee, e eo aeooiaiia
i?iecaiaenoai, e i?aeoe/aneay aeayoaeueiinoue ia eo iniiaa.

I?aaeiao iaoee – ie?oaeathuee ie?.

Iaoiae iaoee – iino?iaiea niaeanothueony n yenia?eiaioii iiaeaeae ie?a a
aeaea oai?ee.

Oai?aoe/aneee e yiie?e/aneee o?iaie a iaoea.

Ooieoeey iaoee ia oieueei iiciaiea.

Ooieoeee iaoee:

1. Ie?iaicc?ai/aneay ( nthaea aoiaeeo iiciaiea ie?a )

2. Oi?aaeai/aneay ( ciay caeiiu ?acaeoey ie?a iu iiaeai oi?aaeyoue
nianoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoueth aeey iieo/aiey oao eee eiuo ?acoeueoaoia )

3. Eoeueoo?ieiae/aneay ( iaoea niiniaia oi?ie?iaaoue ia oieueei
ioiioaiea /aeiaaea e i?e?iaea ii, ia iniiaa iiauo ciaiee i naiii
/aeiaaea, ioiioaiey iaaeaeo ethaeueie a iauanoaa )

32.3 Iauanoai. Acaeiinaycue iauanoaaiiuo noa?. I?iaeaia iaoa?eaeueiiai
e eaeaaeueiiai a iauanoaa.

– Nouanoaotho oeeinioneee e iauanioeeieiae/aneee iiaeoiae e eco/aieth
iauanoaa.

Oeeinioneee aeeth/aao ?anniio?aiea ?acaeoey anao noa? iauanoaa iaoee,
eoeueoo?u, eneonnoaa, i?iiuoeaiiinoe, i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo e ae?oaeo
ioiioaiee, ioiioaiee /aeiaaea n i?e?iaeie e o.ae.

Iauanioeeieiae/aneee ?anniao?eaaao aieaa i?eeeaaeiua caaea/e, eae
i?aaeei eneeth/ay i?ioeannu i?e?iaeu iaiin?aaenoaaiii iauanoaa ia
eanathueany. ( iaoea, eae y aeoiath aoaeao ?anniao?eaaoueny caeanue ia n
iiceoeee iiciaiey /aeiaaeii ie?a ( O. iiaeoiae ) a n iiceoeee aeeyiey
eiie?aoiuo ?acoeueoaoia aeayoaeueiinoe iaoee ia noaaeeueiinoue eee
ianoaaeeueiinoue aeecie iauanoaa ia oi eae ?acoeueoaou iaoee iiaoo
eciaieoue ie?iaicc?aiea ethaeae e oaeei ia?acii eciaieoue naii iauanoai.
A.A. )

3 iniiaiuo iiaeoiaea e iauyniaieth caeiiiia?iinoae iauaaeeiythueo
ethaeae a iauanoaaiiue i?aaieci

1 – Iaoo?aeenoe/aneee. Aeeyiea nieia/iie aeoeaiinoe, aaia?aoee, ?aniauo
e iieiauo i?eciaeia.

2 – Eaeaaeenoe/aneee. Naycothuay ?ieue eaeae, aa?iaaiee, ieoia.

3 – Oeeinioneee aiaeec iaae/aeiaa/aneeo naycae e ioiioaiee, eioi?ua
aicieeatho a niioaaonoaothueo i?e?iaeiuo oneiaeyo i?e iaee/ee
ii?aaeaeaiiuo aa?iaaiee, ii eiatho naiiaeiaeathuee, ii?aaeaeythuee
oa?aeoa?.

– Aoiienoe/aneee iiaeoiae – iauanoai – noiia eiaeeaeaeia, naycaiiuo
iauanoaaiiui aeiaiai?ii.

Nooue iauanoaaiiiai aeiaiai?a a oii, /oi /aeiaae ia?aie/eaaao naith
naiaiaeo iiaaaeaiey aeeay a iauanoaa e auiieiyy aai caeiiu e acaiai
iieo/aao ii?aaeaeaiioth noaiaiue nioeeaeueiie caueou: iaineth,
eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiia iaaeeoeeineia ianeoaeeaaiea, iieeoeeth e a?ieth aeey
caueou aeecie e eiouanoaa.

– I?aaienoe/aneay iiaeaeue – iauanoai – noiia /anoae, ii e iei ia
naiaeeony iineieueeo ioaeii o/eouaaoue aua e nayce iaaeaeo yoeie
/anoyie. *aeiaae ?aaeecoao naay a caaeneiinoe io ianoa a iauanoaa. ( A
caaeneiinoe io naiaai aeaeaiey A.A. ) *anoe iauanoaa ?aciiia?aciu yoi
iiaeao auoue /aeiaae eee a?oiia ethaeae iauaaeeiaiiuo ii eaeiio eeai
i?eciaeo, iai?eia? iaoeeiiaeueiiio eee nioeeaeueiiio. ( Nioeeaeueiue –
?aai/ee, aeaeaciiaei?iaeiee, o/eoaeue e o.ae. )

33.1 Iniiaiua /a?ou e i?iaeaiu ?onneie oeeinioee 19 – ia/aea 20 a.

– Ia/aei: Aeinoiaaneee, Oienoie, Nieiaueaa.

Yoe ienaoaee auaeaeioee e noi?ioee?iaaee eaeath i nayce i?ia?anna n
o?enoeaineie i?aanoaaiiinoueth. Oieueei oi iiaeao auoue i?eiyoi
iauanoaii /oi i?ioei /enoeeeua i?aanoaaiiinoe.

– I?aaeaeueiue aoiaieci.

Ciaiaieoia iai?ioeaeaiea ceo ianeeeai. / Oienoie /

Ana aeinoeaeaiey i?ia?anna ca neaco ?aaaiea. / Aeinoiaaneee/

– Aaoi ia ethaie i?ia?ann, anee ii naycai n ianeeeai iaae /aeiaaeii.

Ianeeea iiieiaaony eae i?aa?auaiea /aeiaaea a i?iecaiaenoaaiioth iaoeio
ca n/ao oaeooaiey oieeaeueiie, aiaeanoaaiiie aeooe.

– Eeoa?aoo?a: aeai? aioeooiiee.

Aoaeouaa iniiaaii ia ethaae e eneonnoaa e iioiio i?ae?anii. I?eia?: niu
Aa?u Iaaeiaiu. *a?iuoaaneee “*oi aeaeaoue”

– Naa?oiaoeeiiaeenoe/aneee oa?aeoa? oeeinionoaiaaiey.

Aeeth/aiea anaai /aeiaa/anoaa a iaeeaeaaiue i?ia?ann i?ae?aniiai
aoaeouaai.

– Iinoeaeaiea nouaai aeaaony eeoue oeaeueiie aeeciueth aeooa, eeoue a
iieiioa aeecie.

Iieiinoueth i?aaineaaii-o?enoeaineee iiaeoiae e /aeiaaeo e aai ianoo a
i?e?iaea. Anoue Aia, anoue /aeiaae e aiaeanoaaiiia i?aaeiacia/aiea
iineaaeiaai. Auiieieoue yoi i?aaeiacia/aiea aai caaea/a. Caaea/a
?aoaaony ia?auaieai e Aiao, aa?a, o?enoeaineie i?aanoaaiiinoe.

– Aioeiiae ?onneie oeeinioee – aa?iiaeneee ?aoeeiiaeeci – Aaaaeue.

– ?onneee e??aoeeiiaeeci (aa?a, i?aaineaaea) VS caiaaeiue (aiey) ->
aeaeaiea ia neaayiioeeia e caiaaeieeia.

– Neaayiioeeu (Ee?aaaneee, Oiiyeia) – naiiauoiue iooue ?acaeoey ?innee.
Caiaeueiay iaueia e a?oaeue. Caiaaeiua i?eia?aoaiey – nei?aa a?aae, oae
eae iiea/aiu iioa?ae oeaeinoiinoe /aeiaa/aneie ee/iinoe.

– Caiaaeieee (Aa?oeai, A?aiianeee, Aioeei) – ?inney n iao?ianeeo a?aiai
i?eaycaia e caiaaeo. I?ia?ann ia iiaeao iaieoe ?inneth, i?ia?ann
iiiiaeao iai aua?aoueny ec ionoaeinoe.

– I?eiao o?enoeaineiai ioe?iaaiey, aa?u iaae ?aoeeiiaeueiui ciaieai.

– Oeeinioey anaaaeeinoaa (Nieiaueaa). Oai?ey oeaeueiiai ciaiey.
Naa?o?aoeeiiaeeci. Oeaeueiinoue – oa?aeoa?enoeea e naienoai /aeiaa/aneie
aeooe, ioee/athuay /aeiaaea io aeeaioiuo. Yoi ninoiyiea aeooe,
i?eaeathuaa ae oeaeueiinoue, – na?aeoea, ethaiaue..

Nianaiea a /aeiaaea /aeiaa/aneiai /a?ac aea?oao yaiecia. = aea?oaa
iniiaiiai i?eioeeia caiaaeiiai i?ia?anna.

Iaoiaeu oai?aoe/aneiai iiciaiey. Aeiioacu e oai?ee.

Oeeinioneea iaoiaeu (aeeaeaeoe/aneee, iaoaoece/aneee) – Iauaiao/iua
(nenoaiiue, no?oeoo?ii-ooieoeeiiaeueiue, eeaa?iaoe/aneee, aa?iyoiinoiue,
iiaeaee?iaaiea, oi?iaeecaoeey) – *anoiiiao/iua ( iaoiae oai?ee oi?oainoe
– Oeceea oaa?aeiai oaea) – Aeenoeeieeia?iua (iaoiae ?an/aoa ia
i?i/iinoue a nii?iiaoa) – Iaoiaeu iaaeaeenoeeieeia?iiai enneaaeiaaiey(
i?eioeei iiaeiaey i?ioeannia ?aciie oece/aneie i?e?iaeu ) Iao/iua
iaoiaeu oai?aoe/aneiai iiciaiey: – oi?iaeecaoeey, aeneiiaoe/aneee
iiaeoiae, aeiioaoeei-aeaaeoeoeaiue iaoiae Iauaeiae/aneea iaoiaeu: –
aiaeec, aano?aae?iaaiea, eaeaaeecaoeey, eiaeoeoeey, aiaeiaey,
iiaeaee?iaaiea, nenoaiiue iiaeoiae Aeiioaca – oi?ia ciaiey, niaea?aeauay
i?aaeiieiaeaiea, eioi?ia noi?ioee?iaaii ia iniiaa ?yaea oaeoia, a aai
enoeiiia cia/aiea iaii?aaeaeaiii e ioaeaeaaony a aeieacaoaeuenoaa. –
Aa?iyoiinoiue oa?aeoa?. – A oiaea aeieacaoaeuenoaa iaeie aeiioacu
noaiiayony oai?eae, a ae?oaea ioa?anuaathony, i?aa?auathony a
caaeoaeaeaiey. – Iiaua aeiioacu auaeaeaathony ia iniiaa i?iaa?ie noa?uo,
aeaaea anee iie auee io?eoeaoaeueiuie. Oai?ey – iaeaieaa ?acaeoay oi?ia
iao/iiai ciaiey, aeathuay oeaeinoiia ioia?aaeaiea caeiiiia?iuo e
nouanoaaiiuo naycae ii?aaeaeaiiie iaeanoe aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe. Iniiaiua
yeaiaiou no?oeoo?u oai?ee : – enoiaeiua iniiaaiey – ooiaeaiaioaeueiua
i?eioeeiu, iiiyoey, caeiiu, aeneiiu e o.i. – eaeaaeece?iaaiiue iauaeo
aeaiiie oai?ee. – eiaeea e iaoiaeieiaey, i?eiaiyaiua aeey aa iino?iaiey.
– oeeinioneea onoaiiaee e oeaiiinoiua oaeoi?u. – niaieoiiinoue caeiiia e
ooaa?aeaeaiee, auaaaeaiiuo ec iniiaiuo iieiaeaiee. – eeth/aaie yeaiaio
oai?ee – caeii. Oai?ey – nenoaia caeiiia. Ooieoeee oai?ee:
neioaoe/aneay, iauynieoaeueiay, iaoiaeieiae/aneay, i?aaeneacaoaeueiay,
i?aeoe/aneay. Neioaoe/aneay – inouanoaeoue nai? ciaiee i i?iaeaia.
Iauynieoaeueiay – iauynieoue i?iaeaio enoiaey ec nia?aiaiiiai o?iaiy
ciaiee i ie?a. Iaoiaeieiae/eneay – au?aaioaoue iaoiae ?aoaiey i?iaeaiu (
eioi?ue iiaeao auoue eniieueciaai e a ae?oaeo aeenoeeieeiao )
I?aaeneacaoaeueiay – i?aaeneacaoue niauoey eioi?ua iiaoo i?iecieoe
enoiaey ec ia/aeueiuo oneiaee eioi?ua aeaiu. I?aeoe/aneay –
eniieueciaaoue iiaua ciaiey aeey oeo/oaiey ea/anoaa aeecie ethaeae.

33.3 Aoaeouaa, aai ia?eiaeecaoeey e e?eoa?ee iiaaaeaiey.

Iaiaoiaeeiinoue i?iaiice?iaaiey aoaeouaai i/aaeaeia.

Iaeiaei i?aaeneacaoue aoaeouaa iiaeii oieueei aa?iyoiinoii e /ai
aeaeueoa iu iooiaeei io ianoiyuaai oai iaiueoa oi/iinoue iaoaai
i?iaiica. A nayce n yoei iiaeii auaeaeeoue o?e ia?eiaea aoaeouaai.

1. Iaiin?aaenoaaiiia aoaeouaa ( 1-25 eao )

2. Iaic?eiia aoaeouaa ( a oeaeii 21-e aae )

3. Ioaeaeaiiia aoaeouaa ( >21 aaea )

E?eoa?ee iiaaaeaiey e /aeiaaea e iauanoaa ii?aaeaeythony oeaeyie eioi?ua
/aeiaae eee iauanoai noaayo naaa a naiai ?acaeoee. Yoe oeaee iaoiaeyony
a aoaeouai ii canoaaeytho ian aeaenoaiaaoue naaiaeiy ii?aaeaeaiiui
ia?acii. Ii iaaiciiaeii noaaeoue oeaee a aoaeouai aac i?aaeiieiaeaiey
i?iaiice?oaiinoe aoaeouaai o.a. aac i?aaeiieiaeaiey i oii /oi
ii?aaeaeaiiua aeaenoaey i?eaaaeoo e ii?aaeaeaiiiio ?acoeueoaoo a ?aieao
aiciiaeiinoe ( aa?iyoiinoe ) aai ianooieaiey a aoaeouai eae neaaenoaey
iaoeo aeaenoaee. E?iia oiai a caaeneiinoe io ia?eiaea aoaeouaai iaoe
aeaenoaey i?e iaeeiaeiauo oeaeyo aoaeoo ?acee/iu.

I?eia?:

Oi/o ioaeioiooue naaiaeiy – eaeo a eeii, eeoa, ia noaaeeii e o.ae. Oi/o
eiaoue aiciiaeiinoue ioaeuoaoue caao?a, iineacaao?a e o.ae. eaeo ia a
eeii a ia ?aaioo.

Aeey i?aaeneacaiey aoaeouaai iaiaoiaeeii ciaoue caeiiu ?acaeoey i?e?iaeu
e ia/aeueiua oneiaey. Iaeiaei ana caeiiu e ana oneiaey iu ciaoue ia
iiaeai ionthaea iia?aoiinoue i?iaiicia.

Iniiaiua iaoiaeu i?iaiicia

1. Iaoiae yeno?aiieyoeee

Iniiaai ia i?aaeiieiaeaiee /oi caeiiu eioi?ua aeaenoaotho naaiaeiy
aoaeoo nio?aiyoue naith neeo e a iaeioi?ue ia?eiae a?aiaie a aoaeouai.
Yoi oi?ioee iaoiae aeey iai?aaie/aneie iaoa?ee ii ieioi iiaeoiaeeo aeey
aeeaie i?e?iaeu e iauanoaa.

2. Enoi?e/aneay aiaeiaey

Iniiaai ia i?aaeiieiaeaiee i iiaoi?yaiinoe enoi?e/aneeo neooaoeee e
neaaeiaaoaeueii niiniaia eo ?aoaiey. Eiaao ia?aie/aiiia i?eiaiaiea
iineieueeo ia o/eouaaao ?acaeoea, i?ia?ann iauanoaa.

3. Eiiiuethoa?iia iiaeaee?iaaiea

Iaeaieaa oi/iue ia naaiaeiyoiee aeaiue iaoiae.

4. Noeaia?ee aoaeouaai

Noeaia?ee yoi a iniiaiii ea/anoaaiiua ioeaiee iineieueeo aieueoa
ioaa/atho ia aii?in eae auei au eo/oa a ia eae aoaeao.

5. Yenia?oiua ioeaiee

?ani?ino?aiaiiue iaoiae iicaieythuee iauaaeeieoue iioaioeeae
niaoeeaeenoia ec ?aciuo iaeanoae ciaiee. Ieion cia/eoaeueiue ee/iinoiue
oaeoi? e ca/anooth aeeaiao?aeueii i?ioeaiiieiaeaiiua iiaiey
ii?aoeaaaiuo.

Eia?oeeiiiue aiaeec

– Yeno?aiieyoeey onoie/eauo oaiaeaioeee.

O?aiaeiaue aiaeec.

– Iino?iaiea iaeaieaa onoie/eaie oaiaeaioeee.

Noeaia?iue iiaeoiae

– Ea?a

?eoiu e oeeeeu a enoi?ee.

Ieaei Oiooea? – oooo?oie.- enoi?e/aneia ?acaeoea iia?aaeaao ?acaeoea
/aeiaaea.

Aeeaeaeoe/aneia aaeeinoai /aeiaaea, eae aaoi?a e aeoa?a a naiae aeecie.

Eiioeaioeey onoie/eaiai ?acaeoey – no?aoaaee /aeiaa/anoaa. O/ao
aeiaaeueiuo i?iaeai /aeiaa/anoaa.

Noauaeo

I?e?iaea

/aeiaae

Noauaeo

I?aeoeea

Iauaeo

Noauaeo

Eiee

Iiciaiea

Aeaea?o

Aano?aeoiia

*oanoaaiiia

I?aaenoaaeaiea

Oiicaeeth/aiea

Iiiyoea

Iuouaiea

Noaeaeaiea

Aini?eyoa

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