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Русская философия серебряного века

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Ieai:

1. Anooieoaeueiia neiai – Oaeaoiay A.I., i?aiiaeaaaoaeue;

2. Oeeinioneea eaeae I.ss.*aaaeaaaa – Ceyoaeeiiaa N., nooaeaioea 112
a?oiiu;

3. Naiaiaea e ee/iinoue a ?onneie oeeinioee – Aiaee/eeia A., nooaeaioea
113 a?oiiu;

4. Eaeay anaaaeeinoaa oeeinioneiai o/aiey Ae. Nieiaue?aa – Ae?ieeia A.,
nooaeaioea 112 a?oiiu;

5. A. O?oaaoeeie i niunea enoi?ee – Eaieoiiiaa N., nooaeaioea 112
a?oiiu;

6. E. Eaiioueaa ia enoi?e/aneie noaeueaa ?innee – Eoaoeiiaa I.,
nooaeaioea 112 a?oiiu;

7. I?iaeaia oai?/anoaa a o/aiee I. Aa?aeyaaa – Neiaaeeeia E., nooaeaioea
111 a?oiiu;

8. E. Eeueei i naiiauoiinoe ?onneie eoeueoo?u – Aiae?eaiiaa O.,
nooaeaioea 112 a?oiiu;

9. E.I. Oienoie i niunea naiaiaeu e iaiaoiaeeiinoe – Aaeieeiaoeeay A.,
nooaeaioea 111 a?oiiu.

Iniiaiua oeeinioneea eaeae I.ss. *aaaeaaaa

(Ceyoaeeiiaa N., nooaeaioea 112 a?.)

I. ss *aaaeaaa ?iaeeeny a 1794 aiaeo, 27 iay, a Iineaa, a naiuea
ionoaaiiai iieeiaieea sseiaa Iao?iae/a *aaaeaaaa. N 1808 ii 1811 I?o?
o/eeny a Iineianeii oieaa?neoaoa. 12 iay 1812 aiaea ca/eneai
iiaei?aii?ueeii a eaea-aaa?aeee Nai?iianeee iiee. A 1812 (ethiue) ii
1814 (ia?o) a ninoaaa Nai?iianeiai, a caoai Aoou?neiai aona?neiai iieea
o/anoaoao a Ioa/anoaaiiie aieia e a caa?aie/iuo iioiaeao ?onneie a?iee.
A 1812 aiaeo i?eeacii ii Nai?iianeiio iieeo *aaaeaaa i?iecaaae?i a
i?aii?ueee. A 1816 aiaeo (ai?aeue) ia?aaaae?i ei?iaoii a eaea-aaa?aeee
Aona?neee iiee, eaa?oe?iaaaoeeny a Oea?neii Naea. A ethia – ethea
*aaaeaaa ciaeiieony n Iooeeiui a aeiia Ea?aiceia. A aaaonoa *aaaeaaa
i?iecaaae?i a ii?o/eee. A 1817 (aeaeaa?ue) ia?aacaeaao a Iaoa?ao?a e
iacia/aaony aaeuthoaioii e eiiaiaee?o aaa?aeaeneiai ei?iona E.A.
Aaneeue/eeiao. A 1819 aiaeo iieo/aao caaiea ?ioieno?a. A 1821 aiaeo
auoiaeeo a ionoaaeo. A 1828 – 1830 aiaeao ?aaioaao iaae oeeeeii
“Oeeinioneeo ienai”. A 1856 aiaeo 14 ai?aey *aaaeaaa neii/aeny.

Aeieaia a?aiy *aaaeaaa iaoiaeeeny a ninoiyiee oaeoae?iiiai iienea e
nicaeaiey iiaiai aaeeinoaa nianoaaiiie ee/iinoe e iunee. Aieueoia
cia/aiea a aai oai?/anoaa eiaei ciaeiinoai n aeaoiy iieiaeuie aeaiueiaie
– Aaaeioueae Na?aaaaiie Ii?iaie e Aeaoa?eiie Aeieo?eaaiie Iaiiaie.

Ii?iaa i?ienoiaeeea ec noa?eiiie aeai?yineie naiuee e iieo/eea oeie/iia
aeey oiai a?aiaie aeiiaoiaa ia?aciaaiea. A naeueneie aeooe, eae e a
i?enoonoaee “aaeie ioaeeee”, I?o? sseiaeaae/ ia oa?ye ie i?acaeie/iinoe
iaeaaeaeu, ie aaaeiinoe inaiee, ie aeenoaoaeueiinoe oia. Iaayieai aai
ee/iinoe e aanaaeu e auea oaea/aia, aa?iaa, iiei?aia Aeoiy Ii?iaa, a
eeoea eioi?ie *aaaeaaa iaoiaeeo ii ia/aeo aaeaa ee ia aaeeinoaaiioth
neooaoaeueieoeo, n iie/aeeaui aeaaiaiaaieai aieiaaooth aai oiiui ?a/ai.
Naiaia?aciua ioiioaiey *aaaeaaaa n aeaiueiaie aanueia aaaeiu aeey
iiieiaiey aai oa?aeoa?a e oeeinioee.

A i?e?iaeiie aeaineie ianneaiinoe e na?aea/iie i?aae?aniieiaeaiiinoe e
naiiio?a/aieth *aaaeaaa aeaeeo caeia ?acaeoey iaiaoiaeeiie aeey
iiaeeeiiiai oai?/anoaa niiniaiinoe iiei?youeny “aa?oiaiie aiea”.

I?aae?aniieiaeaiiinoue aeaineiai na?aeoea e naiiio?a/aieth I?o?
sseiaeaae/ iuouaao eae oi/eo i?eeiaeaiey nee, aaaeoueo e iineaaeiae
noaiaie niaa?oainoaa /aeiaa/aneiai. Aaaeiouey Na?aaaaia ieacaeanue
ia?aie a /enea oao aeaiuei, eioi?uo I?o? sseiaeaae/ iuoaeny “ia?aoeoue”
e iai?aaeoue eo ene?aiithth ?aeeaeiciinoue e “niaa?oainoao”. Iao?a
sseiaeaae/a ianoi?aaeeaaee iieiua ?iaeie e iaaeiie canoai/eainoe
acaeyaeu a?acoieyaiie ei aeaiueiu, /oi ia aoiaeeei a ?an/?o aiceiaeaiiie
ei ia naay iennee “i?i?iea” e “nayoaey” acuneoaiiai “oea?noaa enoeiu”.
Iaeiia?aiaiii yoa ienney iicaieyea *aaaeaaao nio?aiyoue iaiaoiaeeioth
aeenoaioeeth, nie?auaiea eioi?ie iaeaaaei au ia iaai iai?eau/iua
iaycaoaeuenoaa e iinyaaei au ia aai iacaaeneiinoue e naiaiaeo.

Oaeia aea neiaeiia ni/aoaiea /oanoa o Iao?a sseiaeaae/a i?iyaeyaony e a
aai acaeiiioiioaieyo n ae?oaie ninaaeeie – Aeaoa?eiie Aeieo?eaaiie
Iaiiaie. A ii?o ciaeiinoaa n Iao?ii sseiaeaae/ai ae auei 23 aiaea. Aio
oaea 5 eao, eae iia auoea caioae, ii aeaoae ia eiaea. Iie ano?aoeeenue
ia/ayiii. *aaaeaaa oaeaeae nouanoai, oiieaoaany ionoioie ie?oaeaaoae
n?aaeu, aanniciaoaeueii iiieiaaoaa, /oi aeeciue aai /ai-oi eca?auaia,
einoeieoeaii eneaaoaa auoiaea ec caeieaeiaaiiiai e?oaa aeooeaoae aai
n?aaeu. *aaaeaaa ia iia ia i?eiyoue o/anoey a yoie aeaiueia; ii aue
oaea/?i iai?aiaeieeiui aeaeaieai iiaeaoue ae ?oeo iiiiue, iauynieoue ae,
/aai eiaiii ae iaaeinoaaaei, e /aio iia iaaieueii no?aieeanue, ia
ii?aaeaeyy naaa oi/iie oeaee. Iaaeaeo ieie caaycaeanue ia?aienea.

*oiau nenoaiaoece?iaaoue naie aicc?aiey ia aoiaaa, *aaaeaaa niaa?oaiii
oaaeeiyaony io iauanoaa. Neaeeo iaeei a caia?oe, /eoay e oieeoy
ii-naiaio Aeaeeth e iooeia oea?eae. ?aaeueiua e iieiua caaieaaaiey
canoaaeytho aai niaiauaoue aiieiuaiea oeeinioneiai caiunea n ouaoaeueiui
eco/aieai iaaeeoeeineie eeoa?aoo?u. A caaioao i caei?iauea e iooyo
iaoa?eaeecaoeee naiae iunee I?o? sseiaeaae/ i?aaeaeny iaeioi?iai ?iaea
io/ayieth. *aeiaae naaoa e iauanoaa ii i?aeiouanoao, naeaeaeny
iaeeiieei, oa?thiui, iaethaeeiui… Oaea a?iceee iiiaoaoaeuenoaii aai
?acoio…

A oaeii ninoiyiee *aaaeaaa iieo/aao iineaiea iineoaeeaoaa aiaoiei
oi?iiia?acothuei oie/eii aeey nenoaiaoecaoeee aai oeeinioee. A
i/a?aaeiie ?ac ienaea Iaiiaa, ia/aeynue ii iiaiaeo iioa?e aai
aeaai?aniieiaeaiey e aeaeynue n iei naieie cao?oaeiaieyie. Iaaeoiuaay
ioaaoiia iineaiea e iaa?anuaay ia?aua aai no?iee *aaaeaaa ia iia
naea?aeaoue iaieuaa iuneae, eioi?uo iaoaii?oicu nianoaaiiiai niciaiey e
aeooaaiiai iaono?ienoaa Iaiiaie, ?acee/iua iauanoaaiii-enoi?e/aneea
neooaoeee e ie?iaua oeaee ia?aeeeeathony e i?iniao?eaathony ae?oa /a?ac
ae?oaa. An? yoi iiaeneacuaaao aio eneiiue aeai? au?aaeaiey iaeiieaoeony
i?iaeai, niioaaonoaothuee ia oieueei aeooiaiiio naiaia?aceth aae?anaoo,
ii e ii oa?aeoa?o aai oeeinioee, a? oe?ieiio i?aaeiacia/aieth. Oaia?ue
ia/aeueiua no?iee ia?aaeaeuaathony, i?eaeaeaaony aeiiieieoaeueiue
iaoa?eae e ee/iia ienueii a i?ioeanna ?aaiou i?aa?auaaony a ciaiaieoia
ia?aia oeeinioneia ienueii.

“…iaiaoiaeeii iinoa?aoueny aacaiyciaiii e naiiioaa?aeaiii ioaeaaaoueny
na?aea/iui aeaeaeaieyi, i?iaoaeaeaaiui ?aeeaeiciui /oanoaii. *oiau
nio?aieoue e cae?aieoue yoe aeaeaeaiey, neaaeoao oi?aaeiyoueny a
iiei?iii neoaeaiee aiao, o.a. no?iai niaethaeaoue ana oea?eiaiua
ia?yaeu, aioo?iiua aunoei ?acoiii e iaeaaeathuea aeeaioai?iie neeie.
iaaei oaeaea e a iianaaeiaaiinoe nio?aiyoue eo aeoo. Iaeiaei
inouanoaeaieth iiaeiaiuo iaia?aiee iaoaao “ia/aeueiue ii?yaeie aauae”,
ionoonoaea a iianaaeiaaiie ?onneie aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe “iaiaoiaeeiie
?aiee aeecie, a eioi?ie anoanoaaiii ?aciauathony ana niauoey aeiy” e
eioi?ay ioaeia aeey i?aanoaaiiiai caei?iauey, eae /enoue aicaeoo aeey
caei?iauey oece/aneiai. ?a/ue eae?o ia i eaeeo-oi ii?aeueiuo i?eioeeiao
eee oeeinioneeo enoeiao, a “i?inoi i aeaaiono?iaiiie aeecie, i oao
i?eau/eao e iaaueao niciaiey, eioi?ua niiauatho iai?eioaeaeaiiinoue oio
e aiinyo i?aaaaeiinoue a iianaaeiaaioth aeeciue /aeiaaea”. Aac
oaaaeaeaiee aea e i?aaee a iianaaeiaaiii iaeoiaea iacaiaoii ia?aoiaeeo
ii io ee/iuo i?iaeai e nioeeaeueiui, ia nic?aaatho naiaia aeia?a e a
?onneii iauanoaa, aaea iao ?acaeoey yeaiaioa?iuo eaeae aeieaa,
ni?aaaaeeeainoe, i?aaa, ii?yaeea e ieeoi ia eiaao “ii?aaeae?iiie noa?u
nouanoaiaaiey”. Eaeae, naycaiiua n oaeinoaaiiui niuneii enoi?e/aneiai
i?ioeanna, n ?ieueth ?innee a noaeueaao anaai /aeiaa/anoaa caieiatho
oeaio?aeueiia ianoi a aai iuneeoaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe e ninoaaeytho
aeaaiue noa?aeaiue ia?aiai oeeinioneiai ienueia. Ai aoi?ii oeeinioneii
ienueia, aiai?y i i?aeaeacaoeee iaoa?eaeueiiai e aeooiaiiai ie?ia, i
iooyo e n?aaenoaao iiciaiey i?e?iaeu e /aeiaaea, i i?ino?ainoaa,
a?aiaie, aeaeaeaiee, ii ?acai?a/eaaao oeeinioneea e iao/iua
aeieacaoaeuenoaa naiae aeaaiie eaeae: “A /aeiaa/aneii aeooa iao ieeaeie
eiie enoeiu, e?iia oie, eioi?oth naiae ?oeie aeiaeee a iaai aia, eiaaea
ecaeaeae aai ec auoey”.

Cia/eoaeueiay /anoue o?aoueaai oeeinioneiai ienueia iinayuaia
?anniio?aieth iiae/eiaiey /aeiaa/aneiai aeecaiaiiieiaiey aunoaio ia/aeo,
aiaoiae neea, naiaia?aceth iaia?oaeeaathuae nai? i?iyaeaiea e a
oece/aneii e a i?aanoaaiiii ie?a.

A /aoa??oii oeeinioneii ienueia, ia?aoiaey e aiaeeco aeaeaeaiey
oece/aneeo oae, *aaaeaaa caeeth/ao, /oi iaoiieeiay eiaeea canoaaeyao
aiai?eoue i i?i eae i neaaenoaee iaoiaeyuaainy aiaia enoi/ieea. A
iineieueeo aeaeaeaiea yaeyaony anaiauae oi?iie nouanoaiaaiey ethauo
yaeaiee a ie?a, oi aeaeaeaiea oinoaaiiia e i?aanoaaiiia oaeaea eiaao
aiaoiee iiaoaeeoaeue.

A iyoii oeeinioneii ienueia aaoi? eae au iiaeaiaeeo eoia ?anniio?aieth
aaeeinoaa aeooiaiiai e iaoa?eaeueiiai ii?yaeea auoey.

A oanoii e naaeueiii oeeinioneeo ienueiao ?a/ue eae?o i aeaeaeaiee e
iai?aaeaiee enoi?e/aneiai i?ioeanna.

A ainueiii, e iineaaeiai, oeeinioe/aneii ienueia, io/anoe iinyuai
iaoiaeieiae/aneee oa?aeoa?, aaoi? caeeth/aao: “Enoeiia aaeeia: oea?noai
aiaeea, iaai ia caiea, ana aaaiaaeueneea iaaoiaaiey – an? yoi ia eiia
/oi, eae i?ic?aiea e inouanoaeaiea niaaeeiaiee anao iuneae /aeiaa/anoaa
a aaeeiie iunee; e yoa aaeeiay iuneue anoue iuneue naiiai aiaa, eia/a
aiai?y – inouanoaeaiiue i?aanoaaiiue caeii.”

Oaeaeeaoenue io iineianeiai iauanoaa a 1828 ii 1830 aiaeao, *aaaeaaa a
iniiaiii caaa?oee ?aaioo iaae oeeeeii oeeinioneeo ienai, /oi yaeeinue
aeey iaai niauoeai ia?iiiiai cia/aiey, aeathuai niciaiea ee/iie iieiiou
e oa??aeinoe iiaiai nioeeaeueiiai ea/anoaa e niiniaiui auaanoe ec
oyae?eiai e?ecena.

Nienie eniieueciaaaoaeny eeoa?aoo?u:

1. Oa?ania A.I. “*aaaeaaa” – I.: Iieiaeay aaa?aeey, 1986 a.

2. O?ieiaa E.O. “Oeeinioneee neiaa?ue” – I.: Iieeoecaeao, 1986 a.

“Naiaiaea e ee/iinoue a ?onneie oeeinioee”

(Aiaee/eeia A., nooaeaioea 113 a?.)

I?iaeaia ee/iinoe – iaeia ec aeaaiuo oai?aoe/aneeo i?iaeai a enoi?ee
?onneie oeeinioee. Ananoi?iiia a? enneaaeiaaiea yaeyaony aaaeiie
iaoeeiiaeueiie iniaaiiinoueth oeeinioneie iunee. I?iaeaia ee/iinoe
eiioeaio?e?oao a naaa iniiaiua aii?inu iieeoe/aneie, i?aaiaie,
i?aanoaaiiie, ?aeeaeiciie, nioeeaeueiie e ynoaoe/aneie aeecie e iunee.

Ianoi ee/iinoe a iauanoaa, oneiaey a? naiaiaeu, no?oeoo?a ee/iinoe, a?
oai?/aneay ?aaeecaoeey i?aaenoaaeyao niaie oeaeinoiue i?ioeann ?acaeoey
eaeae.

Oaia i?iaeaiu ee/iinoe i?ioiaeeo a oao eee eiuo oi?iao /a?ac iiiaea
yoaiu enoi?ee ?onneie oeeinioneie iunee. Iaeiaei iaeaieaa eioaineaii yoa
i?iaeaia ?ac?aaaouaaeanue a XIX – ia/aea XX aaea a ?acee/iuo ecaeaieyo,
eioi?ua ioee/aeenue aiaaonoaii niaea?aeaiey.

Neaayiioeeu ooaa?aeaeaee, /oi iiaeeeiiay naiaiaea ee/iinoe aiciiaeia
eeoue ia iniiaa i?eciaiey ?aeeaee aunoae nooiaiueth aeooiaiie aeecie.
Ioaa?aay, ?aoeeiiaeeci e iaoa?eaeeci, iie ionoaeaaee aiaa a /aeiaaea.
Iinoaiiaea aii?ina i aioo?aiiae aeooiaiie naiaiaea /aeiaaea auea
ianiiiaiiie caneoaie oeeinioia-neaayiioeeia.

Neaayiioeeu aunooiaee i?ioea ee/iie nianoaaiiinoe i?aaiaiai
ainoaea?noaa. Iie n/eoaee, /oi ?iae, naiuey, iaueia, nioeeaeueiua nayce,
yaeythony iaeeo/oae n?aaeie aeey nouanoaiaaiey ee/iinoe. Anai oi?iai
aiaoiae naiaiaeu – iieeoe/aneie, i?aaiaie, yeiiiie/aneie, iie
i?ioeaiiinoaaeyee aioo?aiithth naiaiaeo ee/iinoe, iniiaaiioth ia
oeaiiinoyo aioo?aiiaai ie?, inaau?iiuo ?aeeaeae.

*a?iuoaaneee e Aeia?iethaia iiaeiyee yoo i?iaeaio ia iiaoth nooiaiue. Io
aano?aeoiie /aeiaa/aneie i?e?iaeu iie ia?aoee e iiieiaieth ee/iinoe eae
noauaeoa nioeeaeueii-iieeoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe.

Iie ooaa?aeaeaee nioeeaeueioth aeoeaiinoue, ooaa?aeaeaee aaeeinoai neiaa
e aeaea. *aeiaae i?aa?auaaony a ee/iinoue a i?ioeanna ai?ueau i?ioea
nee, i?aiyonoaothueo i?ia?anno, i?ioea ?aanoaa e ionoie ia/oaoaeueiinoe.

*a?iuoaaneaee ?ac?aaioae eaeath “?acoiiiai yaiecia”. Aai nooue: i?ioano
i?ioea oaeueoe e eeoeaia?ey, i?ioea eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai yaiecia, i?ioea
ianeeey iaae ee/iinoueth, ii “ca” ?acoiiia ni/aoaiea eioa?ania ee/iinoe
e iauanoaa, ca aaeeinoai niciaiey e iiaaaeaiey.

Eia/a e ?ac?aaioea i?iaeaiu ee/iinoe iiaeio?e Aeaaeeie? Nieiau?a. Ii
aiaeece?iaae /aeiaaea a ianooaaao aeiaaeueiuo, einie/aneeo, aai
iiieiaiea aiineei aoiaienoe/aneee oa?aeoa?. Aai enneaaeiaaiey nouiinoe
aeia?a, nouaea, aaeeinoaa iiciaiey, i?aanoaaiiinoe, ynoaoeee, iaiaaoeee
ie?iaoth oeeinioneoth iuneue.

Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi Nieiau?a a ?aaioa “Ii?aaaeaiey aeia?a” iauyaeye
nioeeaeeci ianinoiyoaeueiui eiaiii n oi/ee c?aiey oeaiiinoae.

Ii ooaa?aeaeae, /oi nioeeaeeci, io?eoeay aunoaa ia/aei, o.a. aiaa,
“ia?aie/eaaao e oieaeaao /aeiaaea”.

I?iaeaia naiaiaeu ee/iinoe, eioi?ie ?onneea oeeiniou iinayoeee noieueei
y?eeo no?aieoe, i?eia?aea a nia?aiaiiii ie?a iniaia cia/aiea, iia
noaiiaeony iauaeoii ia oieueei iieeoe/aneeo aeaeea?aoeee, ii e
oai?aoe/aneeo ecuneaiee. Iaeiei ec ieo yaeyaony eeaa?aeeci. ?inneeneee
eeaa?aeeci au?aaeaaony nioeeaeueiui no?iai, eioi?ue iiiaea ethaee
i?aaenoaaeyee naaa eae aeaeaeaiea iauanoaa e a?aaeaeaineiio e i?aaiaiio
ainoaea?noao, aaea ana ?aaiu ia?aae caeiiii, aaea eioa?anu ee/iinoe auoa
eioa?ania ainoaea?noaa, aaea oi?ioea oneiaey o?oaea e aeecie.

Aeoaeio eaeae ?onneiai eeaa?aeecia aeaiiino?e?oao ?aaioa iaeiiai ec
aaaeoueo i?aaenoaaeoaeae ?onneie nioeeaeueii-oeeinioneie iunee Iao?a
No?oaa.

A o?oaeao No?oaa iaoei naie i?iaeieaeaiea iiceoeey eeaa?aeueiiai
eiina?aaoecia e eioi?iio ii ioiineo oaeeo ethaeae, eae Aeaoa?eia II,
Ea?aicei e Aycaineee, Aeaenaiae? Iooeei.

No?oaa n/eoae, /oi aeaaiay nouiinoue oao eee eiuo o/aiee – yoi ioiioaiea
“e aeaoi iniiaiui i?iaeaiai eoeueoo?iiai e ainoaea?noaaiiiai ?acaeoey
?innee: i?iaeaia naiaiaeu e aeanoe”. Oaeei ia?acii, nieaoathony aeaa
oaiaeaioeee – iieiay naiaiaea ee/iinoe e a oiaea a?aiy iiene a?aieoe
yoie naiaiaeu. Eeanne/aneei au?aaeaieai eeaa?aeueiiai eiina?aaoecia
No?oaa n/eoae oai?/anoai A.N. Iooeeia, a eioi?ii No?oaa oaeaeae
ni/aoaiea eae ethaae e naiaiaea, oae e ethaae e aeanoe.

I??o? No?oaa ?acaeaae eaeae “Aaeeeie ?innee”. I?e yoii ii iie?aeny e ia
enoi?e/aneia i?ioeia no?aiu, e ia aeeaua eoeueoo?iua o?aaeeoeee.

Iiciaiea ainoaea?noaa aaaeiaeoei oaeoi?ii i?ia?anna no?aiu eiae/anee
aaei e ooaa?aeaeaieth ?iee i?aaa. Eiaiii ii yoiio No?oaa aunooiae i?ioea
i?iecaiea e ?ac?ooeoaeueiie aia?oee.

A 20-a aiaeu a noaouea “Iaoe ethaee” No?oaa aunooiee i?ioea ?aaiethoeee,
oae e i?ioea iaaeaaeae ia ?anoaa?aoeeth oea?ecia. Ii ienae: “?innee
ioaeii aic?iaeaeaiea, a ia ?anoaa?aoeey. Aic?iaeaeaiea anaiauaiethua,
i?iieeiooia eaeayie iaoeee e ioa/anoaa, naiaiaeu e nianoaaiiinoe e a oi
aea a?aiy naiaiaeiia io aeooa e aeooia ei?unoe e ianoe”.

Oieueei oe?aieaiea eiinoeoooeeiiiuo ia/ae ainoaea?noaa, onoaiiaeaiea
oa??aeuo caeiiia, nicaeaiea iauanoaa, iniiaaiiiai ia i?i/iuo i?aaiauo
i?eioeeiao, niiniaiuo i?aaeioa?aoeoue ethaua yenoeannu, ethaua oi?iu
?ac?ooeoaeueiiai aeaenoaey aia?oe/aneie iannu, oiaei iai?aaeyaiie oaie,
eoi no?aieony e aeanoe.

I?o? No?oaa aue oaaaeae?i a iaiaoiaeeiinoe ia oieueei yaiethoeeiiiuo
eciaiaiee ia iniiaa no?iaie caeiiiinoe, ii e a aiciiaeiinoe
?aciiia?aciuo eiii?iiennia n iaaeo noi?ii.

?aaiethoeeth 1917 aiaea No?oaa iacaae ana?inneeneie eaoano?ioie,
ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca eioi?oth ian?o iaiiai?ioeeaay aeanoue, ?aaeeeaeueiay
e eeaa?aeueiay eioaeeeaaioeey.

Aiieia caeiiiia?ii, /oi No?oaa i?eo?e e ioeaiea ?onneie ?aaiethoeee 1917
aiaea eae “iaoeeiiaeueiiai ian/anouey”, eoeueoo?iiai, nioeeaeueiiai e
iieeoe/aneiai e?ooaiey. Ii i?eciaaae aeeyiea ia?enecia ia iauanoaaiiia
niciaiea, ii naia oai?ey ia iiaeao neoaeeoue enoi/ieeii aeaaioneeo
enoi?e/aneeo ia?aiai.

Oaeei ia?acii, iuneeoaee XIX – ia/aea XX aaea no?aieeenue ooaa?aeeoue a
?inneeneii iauanoaa eaeae i?inaauaiey e oaaaeaiey e i?aaiaui ii?iai,
oaaaeaiea e ee/iinoe.

“Eaeay anaaaeeinoaa oeeinioneiai o/aiey Ae. Nieiaue?aa”

(Ae?ieeia A., nooaeaioea 112 a?.)

Naiie y?eie oeao?ie a ?onneie oeeinioee aoi?ie iieiaeiu XIX aaea aue
Aeaaeeie? Na?aaaae/ Nieiaue?a.

Ii n naiiai ia/aea naiaai oeeinioneiai oai?/anoaa aue iaiau/ii
naiinoiyoaeueiui. Nieiaue?a iaeaaeae ?aaeeie niiniaiinoueth auno?i
inaieoue, eco/eoue cia/eoaeueiia /enei enoi/ieeia, a oii /enea e
ae?aaieo aaoi?ia, a ca oai i/aiue e?eoe/ii e ianoiyoaeueii eo
i?iaiaeece?iaaoue. Ia?iiiia aeeyiea ia ie?iaicc?aiea Nieiaue?aa ieacaee
o?oaeu Ieaoiia. Ecaanoii, /oi ii aeaaea i?aaei?eiye iiiuoeo ia?aaanoe
ana aeeaeiae Ieaoiia ia ?onneee ycue e oieueei nia?oue iiiaoaea aio
aeiaanoe yoi aeaei aei eiioea.

Aeaaeeie? Nieiaue?a auniei oeaiee eaeaaeeci Ieaoiia, aai eaeaaeueiia
ie?iaicc?aiea, ii n/eoae, /oi iaeieie eaeayie i?aia?aciaaoue aeeciue
iaaiciiaeii. A iioiio, eaeay aeieaeia auoue aiieiuaia iaoa?eaeueii, ia
iioa?ya naiaai niunea. Nieiaue?a n/eoae, /oi noaoue aeaenoaeoaeueiui
naa?o/aeiaaeii oieueei neeie oia e aaieaeueiinoe iaaiciiaeii.

Nieiaue?a, nicaeaaay naith oeeinioneoth nenoaio, ia?auaeny e o?oaeai e
ae?oaeo aa?iiaeneeo oeeinioia. A /anoiinoe e Oaeeeiao, Eaioo, Aaaaeth.
Oaeaea eae e yoe iaiaoeeea oeeiniou, ii auniei oeaiee /aeiaa/aneee
?acoi, ii ii ?yaeo i?eioeeieaeueiuo aii?inia ?anoiaeeeny n ieie. Aeaaiia
i?eioeeieaeueiia ?acee/ea caeeth/aeinue oaea a oii, /oi Aeaaeeie?
Nieiaue?a n ia/aea e aei eiioea i?eaioe?iaaeny ia o?enoeaineia
aiaineiaea, a oi a?aiy eae iaiaoeeea oeeiniou a oie eee eiie ia?a
iooiaeeee io o?enoeainoaa.

Ii naiaio ie?iaicc?aieth ii aue ananoi?iiiei o/?iui, oi anoue a naieo
oai?aoe/aneeo o?oaeao ii aunooiae ia oieueei eae oeeinio, ii e noa?aeny
i?aaenoaaeoue oeaeueiia, neioaoe/aneia ciaiea.

Nieiaue?a aeoaiei ciae ia oieueei oaieiaeth, ii e oi?ioi ciae
ooaeiaeanoaaiioth eeoa?aoo?o. Ii n/eoaaony auaeathueiny ioaeeoeenoii e
ooaeiaeanoaaiiui e?eoeeii.

Oaeei ia?acii, oeeinio Aeaaeeie? Nieiaue?a aunooiaao eae iiiainoi?iiiee
enneaaeiaaoaeue. Aaaeiia ianoi a aai oeeinioneii oai?/anoaa caieiaao
o/aiea i Nioee e i Aiai/aeiaa/anoaa. Aai ni/eiaiey “*oaiey i
Aiai/aeiaa/anoaa” iicaieytho oynieoue i?aaenoaaeaiey Nieiaue?aa i niunea
aeecie e i niunea enoi?e/aneiai i?ioeanna.

Oeaio?aeueiay eaeay oeeinioee Nieiaue?aa – eaeay anaaaeeinoaa. Iniiaiie
i?eioeei anaaaeeinoaa: “An? aaeeii a Aiaa”. Aia o Nieiaue?aa –
ianiethoiay ee/iinoue: ethayuay, ieeinoeaay, aieaaay, eioi?ay
iaania/eaaao iaoa?eaeueiia e aeooiaiia aaeeinoai ie?a. Oeeinio
oa?aeoa?ecoao Aiaa eae “einie/aneee ?acoi”, “nouanoai naa?oee/iia”,
“iniaoth i?aaiecothuoth neeo, aeaenoaothuoth a ie?a”.

Nieiaue?a aue noi?iiieeii aeeaeaeoe/aneiai iiaeoiaea e
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe. Ii aai iiaieth, aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue iaeuecy
?anniao?eaaoue a canouaoeo oi?iao. Naiue iauee i?eciae anaai aeeaouaai
ninoieo a iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe eciaiaiee. Iaiin?aaenoaaiiui noauaeoii
anao eciaiaiee a ie?a aunooiaao o Nieiaue?aa ie?iaay aeooa, iaeaaeathuay
iniaie yia?aeae, eioi?ay iaeooioai?yao an? nouanoaothuaa. Iaeiaei,
aeayoaeueiinoue ie?iaie aeooe ioaeaeaaony a aiaeanoaaiiii eiioeuena.
Yoio eiioeuen i?iyaeyaony a oii, /oi Aia aea?o ie?iaie aeooa eaeath
anaaaeeinoai eae ii?aaeaeythuoth oi?io anae aai aeayoaeueiinoe. Yoa
aa/iay aiaeanoaaiiay eaeay a nenoaia Nieiaue?aa iieo/eea iacaaiea Nioee
– ioae?inoe. Iniiaie e nouanoaii ie?a yaeyaony “aeooa ie?a” – Nioey,
eioi?oth neaaeoao ?anniao?eaaoue eae naycothuaa caaii iaaeaeo oai?oeii e
oai?aieai, i?eaeathuaa iauiinoue Aiao, ie?o e /aeiaa/anoao.

Iaoaieci naeeaeaiey Aiaa, ie?a e /aeiaa/anoaa ?ane?uaaaony a oeeinioneii
o/aiee Nieiaue?aa /a?ac eiioeaioeeth aiai/aeiaa/anoaa. ?aaeueiui e
niaa?oaiiui aiieiuaieai aiai/aeiaa/anoaa, ii Nieiaue?ao, aunooiaao Eenon
O?enoin, yaeythueeny, niaeanii o?enoeaineiio aeiaiaoo, e iieiui aiaii, e
iieiui /aeiaaeii. Aai ia?ac neoaeeo ia oieueei eaeaaeii, e eioi?iio
aeieaeai no?aieoueny eaaeaeue eiaeeaeaeooi, ii e aunoae oeaeueth
?acaeoey anaai enoi?e/aneiai i?ioeanna.

Ia yoie oeaee aace?oaony nieiaue?aneay enoi?einioey. Oeaeueth e niuneii
anaai enoi?e/aneiai i?ioeanna yaeyaony iaeooioai?aiea /aeiaa/anoaa,
niaaeeiaiea /aeiaaea n Aiaii, aiieiuaiea aiai/aeiaa/anoaa.
Iaaeinoaoi/ii, n/eoaao Nieiaue?a, /oiau niaiaaeaiea aiaeanoaaiiiai n
/aeiaa/aneei i?iecioei oieueei a eeoea Eenona O?enoa. Iaiaoiaeeii, /oiau
niaaeeiaiea ninoiyeinue ?aaeueii – i?aeoe/anee e i?e oii, ia a
ioaeaeueiuo ethaeyo (a “nayouo”), a a ianooaaao anaai /aeiaa/anoaa.
Ia?ae/iui oneiaeai ia iooe e aiai/aeiaa/anoao yaeyaony i?eiyoea
aa?io/aiey o?enoeainoaa. O?enoin ioe?ue /aeiaaeo anaiauea ii?aeueiua
oeaiiinoe, nicaeae oneiaey aeey aai i?aanoaaiiiai niaa?oainoaiaaiey.
I?eiauaynue e o/aieth O?enoa /aeiaae eae?o ii iooe naiaai
iaeooioai?aiey. Yoio i?ioeann caieiaao aanue enoi?e/aneee ia?eiae aeecie
/aeiaa/anoaa. *aeiaa/anoai i?eae?o e oi?aeanoao ie?a e ni?aaaaeeeainoe,
i?aaaeu e aeia?iaeaoaee, eiaaea aai iauaaeeiythuei ia/aeii noaiao
aiieiu?iiue a /aeiaaea Aia, ia?aianoeaoeeny ec oeaio?a aa/iinoe a oeaio?
enoi?e/aneiai i?ioeanna. Iauanoaaiiia ono?ienoai i?aaeiieaaaao, n oi/ee
c?aiey Nieiaue?aa, aaeeinoai “anaeaineie oea?eae” e iiia?oe/aneiai
ainiiaenoaa, neeyiea eioi?uo aeieaeii i?eaanoe e ia?aciaaieth
“naiaiaeiie oaie?aoee”. A aiinaieiae/aneii aniaeoa i?eioeei anaaaeeinoaa
?aaeecoaony /a?ac eiioeaioeeth oeaeueiiai ciaiey, i?aaenoaaeythuoth
niaie ia?ac?uaioth acaeiinaycue o??o ?aciiaeaeiinoae yoiai ciaiey:
eiia?e/aneiai (iao/iiai), ?aoeeiiaeueiiai (oeeinioneiai) e ienoe/aneiai
(nica?oeaoaeueii-?aeeaeiciiai). A ea/anoaa i?aaeiinueee,
iniiaiiieaaathuaai i?eioeeia oeaeueiia ciaiea i?aaeiieaaaao aa?o a
nouanoaiaaiea aaniethoiiai ia/aea – Aiaa.

A ooaa?aeaeaiee Nieiaue?aa ia enoeiiii ciaiee eae neioaca eiia?e/aneiai,
?aoeeiiaeueiiai e ienoe/aneiai iiciaiey yaeyaony iniiaaieai aeey auaiaea
i iaiaoiaeeiinoe aaeeinoaa iaoee, oeeinioee e ?aeeaee. Iiaeiaiia
aaeeinoai, eioi?ia ii iacuaaao “naiaiaeiie oainioeae” iicaieyao
?anniao?eaaoue ie? eae caaa?o?iioth nenoaio, iaoneiaeaiioth
anaaaeeinoaii eee Aiaii.

Nienie eniieueciaaaoaeny eeoa?aoo?u:

1. ?aaeoaeei A.A. “Oeeinioey”, eo?n eaeoeee, ecaeaoaeuenoai “Oeaio?”
1996 a.

2. Iaie?ianeay E.C. “Oeeinioey”, 1996a.

“A. O?oaaoeeie i niunea enoi?ee”

(Eaieoiiiaa N., nooaeaioea 112 a?.)

Aaaaiee Ieeieaaae/ O?oaaoeeie ?ac?aaaouaae i?iaeaiu oeeinioee i?aaa,
oai?ee iiciaiey, o?enoeaineie yoeee e ynoaoeee, aio?iiieiaee.

Aaaeiia ianoi a oeeinioneii o/aiee Aaaaiey O?oaaoeeiai caieiatho
?annoaeaeaiey ia enoi?e/aneii i?ioeanna. Ii n/eoae, /oi a ia/aea XX aaea
anaie?iay oeeaeeecaoeey noiyea ia ii?iaa aeiaaeueiiai e?ecena. *a?ou
iaaeaeaathuaeny eaoano?iou ii aeaeae i?aaeaea anaai ii ii?aeueiinoe
nia?aiaiiiai ainoaea?noaa, eioi?ay io?aaeaao eieeaeoeaiue yaieci
iieeoeeia, i?aaei?eieiaoaeae, eeannia e aeaaea oeaeuo iaoeee.

*aeiaa/aneia iauanoai i?aa?auaaony a oniaa?oainoaiaaiiiai caa?y. Aeaaiie
i?e/eiie yoiai i?ioeanna O?oaaoeeie n/eoae aeeyiea ia iauanoai e ii?aeue
eiaeono?eaeecaoeee, eioi?ay ?ac?ooaao caeiiu aiaeaneea e /aeiaa/aneea.

O?oaaoeeie iuoaeny iaeoe ioaao ia aii?inu: iiaeao ee iaoa aa?a a niune
aeecie auaea?aeaoue aaeneee aeo?ue anaiauaai ?ac?ooaiey, eiaaea aanue
ie? ioaa/ai ceiaauei ca?aaii iiaea?a ie?iaie aieiu e ?aaiethoeee? Ia yoo
oaio A. O?oaaoeeie ?annoaeaeaao a iaeiii ec aeaaiuo naieo o?oaeia,
eioi?ue iacuaaaony “Niune aeecie”. Yoo eieao oeeinio iaienae a o?oaeiua
aeie 1918 aiaea. Ii aiai?eo, /oi ainiiaenoai cea a ie?a i?iyaeyaony a
oi?ia anaiauae aieiu iaaeaeo ethaeueie. E oioy oaeo naiie aieiu –
yaeaiea ae?aaiaa eae ie?, ii ie?iaay aieia – iiaue e iaiau/iue oaeo a
enoi?ee /aeiaa/anoaa. A ?innee aea aieia, iieo/ea aeaeueiaeoaa ?acaeoea,
noaea anaiauath a ae?oaii niunea, ia?aoea a aieio anao i?ioea anao, o.a.
a a?aaeaeaineoth. Aiththo eeannu, ia?oee e aeaaea ioaeaeueiua eeoea. “E
neiaii naiie ?iaeeiu iao aieueoa, – anoue oieueei a?aaeaeothuea iaaeaeo
niaie…oeuiua aieee, eioi?ua ?aoo ae?oa ae?oaa ia /anoe eee niae?athony
a noae, /oi au aianoa iaiaaeaoue ia iaeeiieeo…”

A aeie ie?iaie aieiu a niciaiee ?onneiai ia?iaea i?iecioee na?ue?ciua
ia?aiaiu. Ana i?iieeeenue iuneueth, /oi a eioa?anao eieeaeoeaiuo,
iaoeeiiaeueiuo an? aeicaieaii. A ?acoeueoaoa ?anoaoaeenue ana
i?aanoaaiiua onoie. A aeeciue e ee/iinoue /aeiaaea oo?aoeee naith
oeaiiinoue. “Oaeiaii “i?eeieioue” naeaaoaainy a ieai a?aaa, /oiau
?acaycaoue naaa ?oee, ia aiceoueny n iei, – ?acaa ia niaeacieoaeueiay
aiciiaeiinoue ii?aaaeaoue yoi oaeianoai niia?aaeaieyie anaiauae
aaciianiinoe?…” Oaeei ia?acii, ee/iue yaieci noae niaiaaeaoue n
yaieciii eieeaeoeaiui. Ooaa?aeeeinue i?aeoe/aneia Aacaiaeea.

A ?acoeueoaoa ia?iae iioa?ye aeiaa?ea e naiei noa?ui ?oeiaiaeeoaeyi e
iiaa?ee oai, eoi aiai?ee ia iaiaia e i?aaeaoaeuenoaa i?aayueo eeannia.
Aieueoaaeee eieeaeoeaiiio yaiecio iaoeee i?ioeaiiinoaaeee eieeaeoeaiue
yaieci eeanna. Iie iauyniyee ia?iaeo, /oi nouanoaoao oieueei aeaa
iaoeee: i?inoie ia?iae e eiouea eeannu, aai caeeyoua a?aae.

Ia?iae iiaa?ee. E aieia ia?aiaieea o?iio, ia?aoeeanue aioo?ue: ec
ie?iaie noaea a?aaeaeaineie. ?aaiethoeey, eioi?ay ia/aeanue n aiaiiiai
aoioa, ia?aianea ii?aeue aieiu ia iauanoaaiiua ioiioaiey. Anaiauay aieia
– yoi o?iiue naoaie/aneee iaeee ie?iaie aeecie, eioi?ue i?iyaeyaony a
ianniaii icaa?aiee, aeoieaiee iaae /aeiaaeii, aiiaiee i?ioea oea?eae,
o?enoeaineie ii?aee.

O?oaaoeeie euao i?e/eio aiiaiey Niaaoneie aeanoe ia oea?eiaue e
i?eoiaeeo e auaiaeo, /oi i?e/eiie aiiaiey yaeyaony iniaay ?ieue oea?eae
a iauanoaa. Oea?eiaue naiei nouanoaiaaiea ieeoeaoai?yao inoaeaeaiea
e?iaaaiai oaina a?aoioaeenoaaiiie aieiu. Oea?eiaue iaiaaenoia, iioiio
/oi iia aini?auaao ethaeyi aeioaoue ae?oa ae?oaa.

Eae ?aeeaeiciue oeeinio O?oaaoeeie aeaeeo niune aeecie a
i?ioeaiaeaenoaee yoiio anaiauaio ceo, a aeayoaeueiie ethaae e Aiao. Ii
i?aaeeaaaao n iaieuaieai /aeiaa/aneiai iauanoaa, caaioeoueny i
i?aanoaaiiii ?inoa ee/iinoe. I?e yoii ii aiai?eo ia oieueei i
aicauoaiee, no?aieaiee e aiao eae e eiia/iiio ?acoeueoaoo, ii e i
i?eciaiee ioiineoaeueiuo oeaiiinoae e iieiaeeoaeueiiai ioiioaiey e iei,
iineieueeo Aia anoue niune e anaai ioiineoaeueiiai, a?aiaiiiai. Oaeei
ia?acii, ana yeaiaiou eoeueoo?u, ia?a/?iiua ia en/aciiaaiea e aa/iua
oeaiiinoe, i/aiue aaaeiu.

Iauanoaaiiue eaoano?iou (aieiu, ?aaiethoeee) ia aeieaeiu i?eaanoe
ethaeae e aacaeayoaeueiinoe, iai?ioea, aeeciue aeieaeia iinoiyiii
?acaeaaoueny. Ioaeii oe?aieyoue ii?yaeie a ainoaea?noaa, caaioeoueny i
aeeceeo e ioaeaeathueony a iiiiue. Iaaei ia iioa?youe a iianaaeiaaiie
aeecie eoeueoo?o auoa e ioiioaiee. Eniuoaiey aeieaeiu i?aanoaaiii
caeaeyoue ee/iinoue.

O?oaaoeeie e?eoe/anee ioiineony e iiioey?iui a oa aiaeu eaeayi i aeeceii
eiioea naaoa. Ii aiai?eo, /oi eiiaoe ie?a, yoi ia i?inoua i?ae?auaiey
ie?iaiai i?ioeanna, a aeinoeaeaiey aeaaiie aai oeaee, aeaaiiai niunea –
nicaeaiey Aiai/aeiaa/anoaa. Aiai/aeiaa/anoai, eioi?iio, O?oaaoeeie
n/eoae, ie? i?eae?o a oiaea o?oaeiuo eniuoaiee e i?aanoaaiiiai
niaa?oainoaiaaiey, – yoi ia oieueei aaee/aeoaa /oaei aiaeuea, ii, aianoa
n oai, i?iyaeaiea aunoae yia?aee /aeiaa/aneiai anoanoaa.

Aeia?aoe/aneay ni?aaea.

Aaaaiee Ieeieaaae/ O?oaaoeeie (1863 – 1920) – eiycue, ?onneee
?aeeaeiciue oeeinio, i?aaiaaae, iauanoaaiiue aeayoaeue. Ii aue aeeceee
ae?oaii A. Nieiaue?aa, oioy aue iieiaea aai. A.I. O?oaaoeeie
i?iaeieaeae aeaei Nieiaue?aa, ?ac?aaaouaay i?aaineaaiia ?aeeaeiciia
oeeinioneia ie?iaicc?aiea.

A. O?oaaoeeie o/eeny a eeanne/aneie aeiiacee a Iineaa, ainieouaaeny a
ie?oaeaiee aunieieoeueoo?iuo ethaeae. N 12-oe eaoiaai aic?anoa ii
i?iieeny no?anoueth e iocuea, iniaaiii eeanne/aneie, Aaeaei, Iioea?o,
Aaooiaai, a iicaeiaa ?onneeo eiiiiceoi?ia – Ai?iaeeia, Ioni?aneiai,
?eineiai-Ei?nieiaa… Ai a?aiy ?onnei-oo?aoeeie aieiu, aniuoioaoae a
1877 aiaeo, O?oaaoeeie aue noi?iiieeii eaeae ?innee eae aaeeeie iaoeee.
Aoaeo/e au? a aeiiacee, O?oaaoeeie, iiaeiaii Nieiaue?ao e ae?oaei
?onneei iieiaeui ethaeyi naiaai a?aiaie, i?aiaeieae aeooiaiue e?ecen,
au?aceaoeeny a io?eoeaiee anao o?aaeeoeee i?ioeiai. Ii oo?aoee aa?o a
Aiaa e oae?eny iiceoeaeciii. Iiceoeaeci – oeeinioneay eiioeaioeey,
noi?iiieee eioi?ie no?aieeenue e aeinoeaeaieth iieiaeeoaeueiiai,
iiceoeaiiai ciaiey, iaiaoiaeeiiai /aeiaaeo. Iicaeiaa O?oaaoeeie
i?enooiee e aieaa na?ue?ciiio eco/aieth oeeinioee. Anei?a ii io??eny io
iiceoeaecia e ia?ao?e e neaioeoeecio, eioi?ue noae aeey iaai enoi/ieeii
iiauo io/aiee. Neaioeoeeci – yoi oeeinioneay eiioeaioeey noi?iiieee
eioi?ie eeai niiiaaathony a aiciiaeiinoe iiciaiey aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe,
eeai, ia niiiaaaynue a yoii, inoaiaaeeaathony ia io?eoeaoaeueiii
?acoeueoaoa. Oioy A. O?oaaoeeie, iai?eia?, ynii iniciae, /oi aan/anoiua
iinooiee iaaeiionoeiu, oai ia iaiaa aai ?acoi aue aanneeai i?eaanoe
eaeie eeai oaaaeeoaeueiue aeiaiae a iieueco aanei?unoiiai iiaaaeaiey. Ii
i?aiaeieae e?ecen eeoue oiaaea, eiaaea no?anoii oae?eny oeeinioeae
Oiiaiaaoy?a. A. O?oaaoeeie ia/ae iiieiaoue, /oi ianneieci aue
iaecaaaeiui neaaenoaeai io?eoeaiey aaniethoii i?aaeeueiuo i?eioeeiia,
oi?aaeythueo ie?ii. Oiaaea ii anoae ia?aae aeueoa?iaoeaie: “Eee anoue
Aia, eee ia noieo aeeoue”. Na?aeoea O?oaaoeeiai i?eciaaaei Aiaa, a oi
ioaa?aae aai. I?aiaeieaa iiaeiaioth aeaienoaaiiinoue, A. O?oaaoeeie
ii/oanoaiaae aica?auaiea oeaeueiinoe naiaai /aeiaa/aneiai nouanoaa. Ii
aa?ioeny a eiii i?aaineaaiie oea?eae e au? aieaa noae eioa?aniaaoueny
i?iaeaiaie ?onneiai iaoeeiiaeueiiai aeooa.

A 1886 aiaeo ii ano?aoeeny n A. Nieiaue?aui e n oao ii? noae aai aeeceei
ae?oaii. O?oaaoeeie aue i?ioanni?ii oeeinioee i?aaa nia/aea a Eeaaa, a
caoai a Iineaa. Ii aue aeayoaeueiui ioaeeoeenoii e ionoaeaae eaeath
iacaaeneiinoe oea?eae io ainoaea?noaa. Eae iieeoee, ii aunooiae i?ioea
?aaeoeeiiiuo nee, no?aieaoeony “caii?iceoue” ?inneth, e i?ioea
?aaiethoeeiia?ia, eioi?ua, ii aai neiaai, “iinoaaeee ia?aae niaie
caaea/o ia?aaa?iooue an? aaa?o aeiii”. A iaioeaoa “Aeaa caa?y” ii
iacuaaao yoe neeu aeaoiy caa?yie aiieaeeinena e iieacuaaao, /oi ianoue
e?aniiai caa?y e eiaoe /??iiai caa?y iaeeiieiai iianiu.

A 1910 aiaeo A. O?oaaoeeie iniiauaaao ecaeaoaeuenoai “Iooue”, aaea
ia/aoaao ni/eiaiey auaeathueony ?onneeo ?aeeaeiciuo oeeinioia. N 1918
aiaea a Iiai?inneenea iiaeaea?aeeaaao Aaeia aeaeaeaiea e a 1920 aiaeo a
Iiai?inneenea aea oie?aao io oeoa.

Aai iniiaiua ?aaiou: “Ie?iaicc?aiea aeaaeaiiiai Aaaonoeia”, 1892;
“Ie?inica?oeaiea iaiu A?eai?ey VII e ioaeeoeenoia – aai nia?aiaiieeia”,
1897; “Ie?inica?oeaiea A. Nieiaue?aa”, 1912; “Iaoaoece/aneea
i?aaeiieiaeaiea iiciaiey”, 1917; “Niune aeecie”, 1918, a oae aea aeaa
aai caia/aoaeueiua a?ioth?u i ?onneie eeiiia?aoee – “Aeaa ie?a a
ae?aaia?onneie eeiiiiene” e “Oiic?aiea a e?aneao”.

Nienie eniieueciaaaoaeny eeoa?aoo?u:

1. O?oaaoeeie A.I. “Niune aeecie. Aioieiaey”, I., 1994;

2. Einneee I.I. “Enoi?ey ?onneie oeeinioee”, I., 1991;

3. AEa?ia E.A., Cieioooeia A.A. “Nia?aiaiiay oeeinioey: neiaa?ue e
o?anoiiaoey.”, ?inoia-ia-Aeiio, 1996.

“E. Eaiioueaa ia enoi?e/aneie noaeueaa ?innee”

(Eoaoeiiaa I., nooaeaioea 112 a?.)

Eiinoaioei Ieeieaaae/ Eaiioueaa (1831 – 1891) ?iaeeeny 25 yiaa?y a
Eaeoaeneie aoaa?iee. ?aoathuaa aeeyiea ia noaeueao aoaeouaai ienaoaey e
oeeinioa ieacaea iaoue, eioi?oth ioee/aea aeoaieay ?aeeaeiciinoue e
oa??aeua iiia?oe/aneea oaaaeaeaiey. O/anue a Iineianeii oieaa?neoaoa, ii
ia/ae ienaoue. Ia?aua ni/eiaiey Eaiioueaaa auee auniei ioeaiaiu E.N.
Oo?aaiaaui. Eiinoaioei Eaiioueaa naeaeae ioee/ioth ea?uea?o, ii caieiae
aeieaeiinoue eiinoea a aa?iiaeneeo aeaaeaieyo a Oo?oeee, aue oeaici?ii,
a?a/ii, o/anoaiaae a E?uineie aieia. Ii ii iiaea?oaiaae naiae ea?uea?ie
?aaee naieo ni/eiaiee. A eiioea eiioeia ii inoaaee aeieaeiinoue e
oaeaeeeny a iiianou?ue, aaea i?eiye oaeiue iino?ea iiae eiaiai Eeeiaioa.
I?iaeee ii a iiianou?a ia aeieai e a 1891 aiaeo Eaiioueaa oia?.

Au? i?e aeecie oai?/anoai Eaiioueaaa aucuaaei aea?eea nii?u. Oae eae aai
oeeinioey oea a ?ac?ac e n oeeinioeae caiaaeieeia e n oeeinioeae
neaayiioeeia. Eaiioueaaa n/eoaee iineaaeiaaoaeai I.ss. Aeaieeaaneiai. Ii
iaeuecy yoi ooaa?aeaeaoue, oae eae acaeyaeu Eaiioueaaa neiaeeeenue au?
aei ano?a/e n Aeaieeaaneei. A a iineaaenoaee E.I. Eaiioueaa ?acio?eny n
Aeaieeaaneei ii aii?ino ia oaio, /oi yaeyaony iniiaie anyeie eoeueoo?u e
ainoaea?noaa. Aeaieeaaneee n/eoaao, /oi iniiaie yaeyaony “ieaiy”, a
Eaiioueaa iieaaae, /oi ieaiaiiie i?eioeei aanniaea?aeaoaeai aeey ?innee,
oae eae neaayia ii?aaeaiu “ae?onii” caiaaeiiai aa?iiaeneiai ao?aeoaciiai
yaieeoa?ecia. I?e yoii Eaiioueaa n/eoae, /oi ?inney niiaeao
inaiaiaeeoueny io yoiai “ae?ona”. Ii iiaieth Eaiioueaaa, ?inney – iniaue
eoeueoo?ii-enoi?e/aneee oei, eioi?ue aeieaeai aoaeao niaieoue
?iiaii-aa?iaineee. Enoiaey ec yoiai Eaiioueaa aeaeae aeaa auoiaea ec
neiaeeaoaeny a ?innee neooaoeee: eeai ?inney aeieaeia iiae?aaeaoue
aa?iiaeneie oeeaeeecaoeee e ia?aiyoue iiuo “noa?i-a?eoaineiai ee/iiai
naiaiaeiethaey” n i?eianueth ieineiai o?aioeocneiai ?aaiii?aaey, eeai
ionoaeaaoue nai? iaoeeiiaeueiia naiaiau/ea, i?iieoaiiia
ae?aaia-i?aaineaaiui aeooii. Eaiioueaa oyaioee ei aoi?iio aa?eaioo. E
auaae eoeueoo?ii-iieeoe/aneee eaeaae ainoaea?noaa, eaeei aeieaeia auea
au noaoue ?inney. Ii n/eoae, /oi “ainoaea?noai aeieaeii auoue e?aieei,
nineiaiui e nae?aiui, oea?eiaue – iacaaeneiie, auo ?onneiai ia?iaea
aeieaeai auoue iaoeeiiaeueiui e iainiaeaiiui io Caiaaea.”

Anee ii i?aaeiieiaeaieyi Eaiioueaaa ?inney noaea au oaeie, oi iia au
caiyea eeaea?noai a ie?a, caoiea Aa?iio. Ii ooo anoa?o aii?in, ii/aio
Aa?iia aeieaeia ioaeaoue nai? ie?iaia eeaea?noai. Eaiioueaa iao?e ioaao.
E ioaao yoio niaea?aeeony a aai enoi?e/aneie eiioeaioeee. A n?aaeiai, ii
iiaieth Eaiioueaaa, enoi?e/aneee n?ie ?acaeoey ia?iaeia – 1000 – 1200
eao. N?ie yoio aeaeeony ia o?e ia?eiaea: ia?aiia/aeueiie i?inoiou,
oeaaoouae neiaeiinoe e oi?inoeoaeueiiai niaoaiey. A ?aaioa “i
aeieaiaa/iinoe ainoaea?noaa” Eaiioueaa ioo?i iiaen/?oa naeaeae auaiae i
oii, /oi aa?iiaeneay oeeaeeecaoeey iaoiaeeony a o?aoueai ia?eiaea e
aeeceony eiae/aneee eiiaoe a? nouanoaiaaiey. Ia ianoi Aa?iiu Eaiioueaa
auaeaeaae ?inneth. Ii iaoaeaee ?inney iaiiiai iieiaea Aa?iiu? Aeey oiai,
/oiau auaanoe aic?ano ?innee, iaaei nin/eoaoue iaoo enoi?eth, eeai n
?th?eea (862 a.), eeai n e?auaiey Aeaaeeie?a (988 a.). Auoiaeeo, eeai
1012 eee 886 eao. Oae cia/eo ?inney ia /ooue ia iieiaea Aa?iiu! Ii
Aa?iia e ?inney ?acee/iu a nai?i ?acaeoee. A Aa?iia ?acaeoea auei
i?ia?anneaiui e auno?ui, a ?inney ianeieueei aaeia auea “caii?iaeaia”
(Oaoa?i-iiiaieueneia eai), iiyoiio ?acaeoea i?ioaeaei iaaeeaiii. ?inney
oieueei aioea ai aoi?oth oaco ?acaeoey, e ae au? i?aaenoieo noaoue
iiuiui e neeueiui ainoaea?noaii. Aeey yoiai ae iaaei caaiaaaoue
Eiinoaioeiiiieue, aaea a aeaeueiaeoai iaaei oe?aieoue eiina?aaoeaiue
eoeueoo?iue neie e ainnoaiiaeoue Ainoi/iia oea?noai n i?eioaeeoaeueiie
caieaaeaeue/aneie iaueiie. Eaiioueaa oeaiee i?eioaeeoaeueiue oa?aeoa?
ioiioaiee, oae eae ineaaeaiea neeueiie aeanoe – aa?iue i?eciae
?aceiaeaiey ainoaea?noaa.

Ii ia ana ioiineeenue iiceoeaii e ?acaeaeyee oeeinioeth Eaiioueaaa. Ii
iiaieth Nieiaue?aa, ana yoe ?annoaeaeaiey i aeaeueiaeoai ?acaeoee ?inne
iaiiieiatho ?aay/anoai. Iaaeaaeaeu e ia/oaiey ia auoaeatho ec enoeiiiai
o?enoeainoaa. Iiaiea A. Nieiaueaaa ?acaeaeye N.I. Aoeaaeia. Ii n/eoae,
/oi “Eaiioueaa caoaye oyaeao n eoeueoo?ie.” Eaeaaeii Eaiioueaaa auea
yiioa Aic?iaeaeaiey. Ii aaaeue yoa yiioa eiaea aeaa noi?iiu: Auni/aeoee
?annaao eoeueoo?u n iaeiie noi?iiu, e aaee/aeoea no?aaeaiey, n ae?oaie
noi?iiu, Eaiioueaa, ii iiaieth Aoeaaeiaa, aue aioia, ia eieaaeynue,
i?eianoe a aea?oao aeaiiio e?aniou /aeiaa/aneea ne?cu. Yoio ynoaoeci
Aoeaaeia iacuaae aacaiaeiui aoiaieciii. Ia ana inoaeaeaee Eaiioueaaa. Ii
iiaieth A. Caiueeianeiai, Eaiioueaa oiae iiaeieoe e naiui o?oaeiui
i?iaeaiai (a oii /enea e i?iaeaiai iieeoeee). Ii ia iieiioa
o?enoeaineiai niciaiey ia aeaea aiciiaeiinoe E.I.Eaiioueaao ?acaeoue
iieiaeeoaeueioth i?ia?aiio enoi?e/aneiai aeaeaiey.

Nienie eniieueciaaiiie eeoa?aoo?u:

1. “?onneea oeeiniou” (eiiaoe XIX – na?aaeeia OO aa.). Aeaeaia?aoe/aneea
i/a?ee, oaenou ni/eiaiee., I., 1993;

2. Nieiaue?a A., Eaiioueaa E.I., o.2, I., 1994;

3. Eaiioueaa E.I. “Aecaioey e neaayinoai”, I., 1995.

“I?iaeaia oai?/anoaa I. Aa?aeyaaa”

(Neiaaeeeia E., nooaeaioea 111 a?.)

Aiaeec aeaau VIII “Ie? oai?/anoaa. “Niune oai?/anoaa” e ia?aaeeaaiey
oai?/aneiai yenoaca” oeeinioneiai aaoiaeia?aoe/aneiai i?iecaaaeaiey I.A.
Aa?aeyaaa “Naiiniciaiea”.

Aa?aeyaa ienae, /oi oaia i oai?/anoaa, oai?/aneii i?ecaaiee /aeiaaea
yaeyaony iniiaiie oaiie aai iaoee. I?e/?i, iinoaiiaea yoie oaiu ia auea
?acoeueoaoii oeeinioneeo ?aciuoeaiee, yoi aue aioo?aiiee iiuo,
“ica?aiea”. Aa?aeyaa, eae /aeiaae aeoaiei ?aeeaeiciue neaaeoy aeooiaiiio
iooe, ia?aaeee ino?ue ia?eiae niciaiey iiaeaaeaiiinoe a?aoii, ii ia
caieioeny a naaa io niciaiey yoiai, a i?aiaeieae aai, iuooea neeueiaeoee
oai?/aneee iiaeu?i. Oae /oi aea ii iuooee? *oi oaeia “oai?/anoai” ii
Aa?aeyaao? N iaeiie noi?iiu oai?/anoai – yoi o?aaiaaiea Aiaa e /aeiaaeo,
yoi “ioaaoiay ?aaeoeey /aeiaaea ia oai?/aneee aeo Aiaa”. Aa?aeyaa ienae,
/oi aea?cei auei au i?aaeiieaaaoue iio?aaiinoue Aiaa a /aeiaaea, ii oa
ia iaiaa “Ethayuee (Aia) ia iiaeao nouanoaiaaoue aac ethaeiiai
(/aeiaaea)”. Oai?/anoai Aa?aeyaa ii?aaeaeee e eae “iie?o a
aaneiia/iinoue”, i?i?ua a eiia auoea. Ii ienae, /oi eiia/iua i?iaeoeou
oai?/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe yaeythony eeoue “neiaiee/aneei oai?/anoaii”, a
“?aaeueiia oai?/anoai” – yoi no?aieaiea e i?aia?aaeaieth ie?a, aaaeouaio
ca niaie aicieeiiaaiea “iiaiai iaaa e iiaie caiee”. Ii Aa?aeyaao
oai?/aneee aeo – aeo ynoaoieiae/aneee, ia?au?iiue e eiioeo ie?a.

I?iaeaio oai?/anoaa ii oanii ia?aieaoae n i?iaeaiie naiaiaeu. Naiaiaea
aaciniiaia, iia ia aoyiooa a i?e/eiu ioiioaiee, eioi?ui iiae/eiaii
auoea. Aa?aeyaa ioia/ae, /oi naiaiaea yaeyaony iaycaoaeueiui oneiaeai a
oai?/anoaa. Ii n ae?oaie noi?iiu aaeeeee oai?/aneee aeo ioaeaeaaony a
iaoa?ee, iioiio, eae ii niaa?oaaony ia a ionoioa. Ii oai?/anoai /aeiaaea
ia iiaeao ii?aaeaeyoueny oieueei iaoa?eaeii, a i?i anoue ia/oi, ia
iiae/eiythuaany ie?iaui caeiiai. Yoi e anoue yeaiaio naiaiaeu.

Aa?aeyaa noaaeo aii?in: “Iiaeii ee ia?aeoe io oai?/anoaa niaa?oaiiuo
i?iecaaaeaiee, e oai?/anoao niaa?oaiiie aeecie?” Oai?/anoai nia?aiaiiie
aeecie caeanue neaaeoao iiieiaoue, eae ?aaeueiia eciaiaiea ie?a.
Aa?aeyaa ia eciaiye naiae aa?u a oai?/aneia i?ecaaiea /aeiaaea, ii
iaaeaaeaea ia nei?ia ianooieaiea oai?/aneie yiioe ?acaeaaaony
eaoano?ioe/aneeie niauoeyie a ie?a (aieiu, ?aaiethoeee, oa?ica ie?iaiai
?aanoaa e o.i.)”. “Iia anaaaea eacaeinue iaeicia/eoaeueiuie e ia i/aiue
aaaeiuie naie ii naaa niauoey ia iiaa?oiinoe enoi?ee, y aeaeo a ieo
eeoue ciaee eiiai… Iia eacaeinue, /oi ianoiyuay aeeciue ca anai yoei.”

Aa?aeyaa io?eoeaao oaeia iiiyoea, eae “yaiethoeey oai?/anoaa”. Aio
/oaeaea eaeay i?yiiai, nieioiiai, iai?a?uaiiai ?acaeoey. A ie?iaii e
enoi?e/aneii i?ioeanna iao iaiaoiaeeiinoe caeiiiia?iiai ?acaeoey,
i?ia?aiiu. Aiciiaeii ia?eiaeu ?aaeoeee e oueiu a oie aea noaiaie eae
aiciiaeiu e oai?/aneea i?i?uau, ioe?uoea “iiauo ie?ia”.

Eioa?ania i?iaeaia ioiioaiey nica?oeaiey e oai?/anoaa a iiiyoee
Aa?aeyaaa. Eacaeinue au, yoe iiiyoey i?ioeaiiieiaeiu, iineieueeo
oai?/anoai – aeayoaeueiinoue, o?aaothuay aeoeaiinoe aeooa, a nica?oeaiea
anoue ianneaiia aini?eyoea aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe… Ii Aa?aeyaa aeieacuaaao
ia?aoiia. Ii aiai?eo, /oi nica?oeaiea e?aniou ie?oaeathuaai ie?a
i?aaeiieaaaao aeoeaiia no?aieaiea a eiie ie?. “A nica?oeaiee, aunoaai
i?ae?aniiai, aa?iiie/aneiai, nica?oeathuee ia?aaeeaaao iiiaio
oai?/aneiai yenoaca… Ii naie iiiaiou nica?oeaiey ia ciatho ai?ueau,
eiioeeeoa, io/eoaeueiiai i?ioeaeaiey e cao?oaeiaiey, yoe ninoiyiey
i?aiaeieaaathony. Yoei nica?oeaiea ioee/aaony io ae?oaeo oi?i aeoeaiinoe
aeooa. E /aeiaae aeieaeai ia?eiaee/anee i?eoiaeeoue e iiiaioai
nica?oeaiey, eniuouaaoue aeaaiaeaoiue ioaeuo nica?oeaiey.
Eneeth/eoaeueiue aeeiaieci, iai?a?uaiue aeoeaeci eee ?anoa?cuaatho
/aeiaaea, eee i?aa?auatho aai a iaoaieci. A yoii oaean iaoae yiioe.”

Aa?aeyaa iniciaaae e n ai?a/ueth ioia/ae, /oi nia?aiaiieee nia?aiaiieee
aai ia iiieiatho. Ia iiieiatho aai iuneae, eaeae, eioi?ua “auee a
aeoaieii eiioeeeoa ni a?aiaiai e auee ia?auaiu e aeae?eiio aoaeouaio”.
“ss iuoaeny i?iiiaaaeiaaoue /aeiaa/iinoue a naioth aan/aeiaa/ioth
yiioo”, – ienae I.A. Aa?aeyaa. E yoi auei nooueth aai oai?/anoaa.

Aeia?aoe/aneay ni?aaea.

?onneee ?aeeaeiciue oeeinio. Ia ?oaaaea 1900 e iaoiaeeeny iiae
aicaeaenoaeai eaeae ia?enecia e iaieaioeainoaa, a aeaeueiaeoai ia?aoeeny
e ?aeeaeiciie oeeinioee; eniuoae aeeyiea Aeinoiaaneiai, A. Nieiaue?aa,
iicaeiaa – A?ia. O/anoaiaae a nai?ieeao “I?iaeaiu eaeaaeecia” (1902),
“Aaoe” (1909), “Ec aeoaeiu” (1918), a aeayoaeueiinoe
?aeeaeicii-oeeinioneiai iauanoaa eiaie A. Nieiaue?aa, aue eieoeeaoi?ii
nicaeaiey Aieueiie aeaaeaiee aeooiaiie eoeueoo?u (1918 – 1922). A 1922
aiaeo auaoae ec NNN?. N 1924 aiaea aeee ai O?aioeee, ecaeaaae
?aeeaeicii-oeeinioneee aeo?iae “Iooue” (Ia?eae, 1925 – 1940).
Ioeacuaaynue iiienoe/anee no?ieoue naith oeeinioeth, auaiaeeoue a? ec
iaeiiai i?eioeeia, Aa?aeyaa ?aca??ouaaao a? eae niaieoiiinoue
ianeieueeeo iacaaeneiuo eaeaeiuo eiiieaenia, eaaeaeue ec eioi?uo
au?anoaao ec ii?aaeae?iiie ia?ae/iie eiooeoeee: eaeay naiaiaeu,
ii?aaeaeythuay anth aioieiaeth Aa?aeyaaa, eaeay oai?/anoaa e
iauaeoeaaoeee, eaeay ee/iinoe eaaeauay a iniiaa aio?iiieiaee,
nioeeaeueiie oeeinioee e yoeee, eaeay “iaoaenoi?e/aneiai”
ynoaoieiae/aneiai niunea enoi?ee. Iauay iniiaa yoeo eaeae –
aeoaeenoe/aneay ea?oeia ?aaeueiinoe, a eioi?ie acaeiii
i?ioeaiiinoaaeythony aeaa ?yaea ia/ae. Naiaiaea, aeoo (Aia), iioiai,
noauaeo (ee/iinoue, “ss”) – n iaeiie noi?iiu, iaiaoiaeeiinoue, ie?,
oaiiiai, iauaeo – n ae?oaie. Iaa ?yaea oa?aeoa?ecotho aeaa ?acee/iuo
?iaea ?aaeueiinoe, acaeiiaeaenoaothueo iaaeo niaie. Yoi ea?oeia, ii
Aa?aeyaao, aeecea iaoaoeceea Eaioa, iaeiaei iniiaiua iiiyoey iineaaeiae
caeanue ia?ainiuneeaathony: iioiaiii eee “aauueth a naaa”, ieacuaaaony o
Aa?aeyaaa noauaeo – “nouanoaa e eo nouanoaiaaiey”, oieueei a noauaeoa, a
ee/iinoe caeeth/aia, ii Aa?aeyaao, Iaiinoeaeeiay aioo?aiiyy aeoaeia,
ei?aiyuayny a naiaiaea.

Ee/iinoue a eiioeaioeee Aa?aeyaaa ia niaiaaeaao n eiia?e/aneie
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiinoe; iia iuneeony eae n?aaeioi/ea anao aeooiaiuo e
aeooaaiuo nee /aeiaaea. Iiiyoea “iauaeoeaaoeee” o Aa?aeyaaa – ia
?ane?uoea aeooa (n?. n iiiyoeai Aaaaey), a aai eneaiey, “cae?uoea”. Ie?
iauaeoia eeo?i aeooiaiinoe e naiaiaeu, aai caeii – no?aaeaiea, ?aanoai,
cei, ei?aiyuaany a iauaeoeaaoeee; ae i?ioeainoieo a ie?a oai?/anoai,
i?iaeeaaathuaa io/oaeaeaiea e aiaiieiaeiinoue iauaeoia /aeiaaeo:
oai?/aneee noauaeo aeeth/aao ie? a naay, a naith aioo?aiithth aeeciue,
ioe?uooth aeey naiaiaeu, e oai i?aia?aaeaao aai. Niune enoi?ee – a
ecaaaeaiee io iauaeoeaaoeee. Eiioeeeo iaaeaeo ee/iinoueth e
iauaeoeaaoeeae – aeaaiia niaea?aeaiea o/aiey Aa?aeyaaa i /aeiaaea e
iauanoaa. Aini?eiya ia?enenoneoth e?eoeeo ao?aeoaciiai iauanoaa Aa?aeyaa
a oi aea a?aiy aunooiae eae eaeaeiue i?ioeaiee ia?enecia e eaeaieia
aioeeiiioiecia; i?ecuaay e “ia?niiaeenoe/aneie ?aaiethoeee”, ii ioaa?aae
nioeeaeueioth ?aaiethoeeth, eae naiioeaeue e iacuaae naay noi?iiieeii
“ia?niiaeenoe/aneiai nioeeaeecia”. Eaeae Aa?aeyaaa ieacaee cia/eoaeueiia
aeeyiea ia ?acaeoea o?aioeocneiai yecenoaioeeaeeci e ia?niiaeecia, a oae
aea ia nioeeaeueii oeeinioneea eiioeaioeee “iiauo eaauo” oa/aiee ai
O?aioeee 1960 – 1970 aa.

“E. Eeueei i naiiauoiinoe ?onneie eoeueoo?u”

(Aiae?eaiiaa O., nooaeaioea 112 a?.)

Eaai Aeaenaiae?iae/ Eeueei i?iaeee ia ?iaeeia 39 eao. N 1909 aiaea
?aaioae a Iineianeii oieaa?neoaoa, a a 1922 iieeioe Iineao. A oi a?aiy
ii aue a caaiee aeioeaioa 2-o oaeoeueoaoia – th?eaee/aneiai e
enoi?eei-oeeieiae/aneiai. Iieeioe ?iaeiie ai?iae ia ii nianoaaiiie aiea.
Iinea aeanoieiai a?anoa eiioiii-iieeoe/aneie iieeoeeae iieo/ee nia?oiue
i?eaiai?, eioi?ue iioii aue caiai?i iiaeeciaiiie aunueeie ca a?aieoeo.
“Yoi noaei oi?ioae oeieie aeey aeaeueiaeoaai oi?ie?iaaiey e noieeinoe
aai, aeey oiaiey ?aaee naiaiaeu eae oaeiaie, ?aaee naiaiaeu iunee e aa?u
iinoaaeoue ia ea?oo an? – naay, naith aeeciue, aiciiaeiinoe, naiueth”. A
1938 aiaeo aaaeae ec iaoeenoeie Aa?iaiee e oaaeoea?neea aeanoe
i?aaeinoaaeee aio aeae ia aeeoaeuenoai n i/aiue ae?noeeie oneiaeyie: ia
aanoe iieeoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe, ia eiaoue i?aaa ia ?aaioo, ia iaiyoue
ianoi aeeoaeuenoaa iiae oa?icie ioi?aaee ia?aoii a Aa?iaieth.

2-o /aniaay eaeoeey “Aeooa” /eoaeanue Eeueeiui iaiaeiie?aoii a ?aciuo
ai?iaeao Oaaeoea?ee. *eoaeanue iia iiae ?aciuie iacaaieyie – “I ?onneie
aeooa”, “?onneay aeooa”, “?onneee noeien”. Aeaaaeaeu eaeoeee “Aeooa”
auea iioaeeeiaaia a Oeth?eoa ia iaiaoeeii ycuea, a a ?innee iioaeeeiaaia
aia?aua a 1996 aiaeo a aeo?iaea ?onneie eoeueoo?u “Iineaa”. A eaeoeee
“Aeooa” Eeueei ea/aaony aii?inia:

1. I?e?iaea e eeeiao;

2. Oaiia?aiaio;

3. Naiaiaea e aa?iiiey;

4. sscue e thii?;

5. I?inoioa e aeinoieinoai;

6. Oa?aeoa?;

7. Na?aeoea e niaanoue;

8. No?aieaiea e niaa?oainoao;

9. Eii?iaecaoeey e ioaaonoaaiiinoue;

10. Ia?ae/iua neeu.

Ai anooieoaeueiii neiaa e eaeoeee “Aeooa” E.A. Eeueei ii?aaeaeyao oaio.
Any eaeoeey ia/eiaaony ni neiaa “?inney”. E oae eae eaeoeeth ii /eoaao
ca a?aieoeae, oi e ai anooieoaeueiii neiaa ii nia/aea aiai?eo i oii,
eaeie i?aaenoaaeyaony ?inney, a? ia?iae e eoeueoo?a ia?aae Caiaaeiie
Aa?iiie: “Eae noa?a ne?uoiai, eae i?iaeaia ia iiaeaeathuayny iiieiaieth,
eae naiaai ?iaea noeien, aucuaathuee iianaiey”. A oae eae ?aaeee
aa?iiaaoe iia iicaieeoue naaa iiacaeeo a ?inneth n iao/iie oeaeueth, oi
iieo/aee ciaiey iie io oae iacuaaaiuo “ciaoieia” ?innee. Noaey ii anaio
Eeueei n/eoae iaaeiionoeiui i?iaeieaeaiea oaeiai iaaa?iiai, ca/anooth
aacioaaonoaaiiiai ?ani?ino?aiaiey eioi?iaoeee, ii yoiio e ?aoaao acyoue
ia naay oaeia aaaeiia aeaei, eae ?acuyniaiea nouiinoe e naiaia?acey
?onneie eoeueoo?u Aa?iia.

Eaeay ia ecaeaiee eieae eee eo?na eaeoeee auiaoeaaeanue aeanyoeeaoeyie.

ss ?acaa?o ianeieueei aii?inia yoie eaeoeee; iaeioi?ua ec ieo auiieiytho
aaeeioth ooieoeeth e iioiaee ii niaea?aeaieth, iiyoiio ia o?aaotho
iiae?iaiiai ?anniio?aiey.

1) I?e?iaea e eeeiao. “Aeooa ia?iaea iaoiaeeony a aeeaie e oaeinoaaiiie
acaeiinayce n aai i?e?iaeiuie oneiaeyie e ii oiio ia iiaeao auoue
aeinoaoi/ii iauyniaia e iiiyoa aac o/?oa yoie acaeiinayce”. Iniiauaaynue
ia aai nianoaaiiii neiaa iu iiaeai neacaoue, /oi ii n/eoae iaiaoiaeeiui
?ane?uoue yoio aii?in. Eae i?eia? yoie acaeiinayce ii aa??o aanaiiaa
iieiaiaeuea: “Eioaineaiia iieiaiaeuea: ?aee auoiaeyo ec aa?aaia,
caoaieeaatho ieceiu, iianthaeo ia?acothony i?ioaeeiu; aei?iae noaiiayony
iai?iacaeeie; i?iaoaeaeaaony io ceiiaai nia, e ethaee oiaeyo eae
iueyiua, n oiaeai a e?iae e a aeooa”.

2) Oaiia?aiaio. E.A. Eeueei iiieiaao ?onneee oaiia?aiaio. Ii aiai?eo i
i?i ycueii aiae?ui, aoaei?aaeauei, e yoio naiue oaiia?aiaio /oanoaoaony
a i?i naiii. Aiai?y i ?onneii ia?iaea (“ii ianeaaeaeaaony i?ino?ainoaii,
e?aeei iaii?enoui aeaeaeaieai, eaaeioiaeii, eaniie /auath,
iaeooeoaeueiuie a?icaie… ii oieaaaony eioaineaiinoue auoey”), Eeueei
n/eoaao, /oi o ?onneiai /aeiaaea anoue oyaa e iieiiio aeinoeaeaieth
oeaee, ia/oa i iineaaeiai e eiia/iii, aeaeaiea caaeyiooue a iaiaic?eioth
aeaeue, niiniaiinoue ia no?aoeoueny nia?oe. A yoii aii?ina aniiieiaao
Iooeeia e Aeinoiaaneiai. E aeaeaao oaeia caeeth/aiea: “Oaeiaa ?onneay
aeooa: ae aeaiu no?anoue e iiuue; oi?ia, oa?aeoa? e i?aia?aaeaiea nooue
a? enoi?e/anee aeeciaiiua caaea/e.

3) Naiaiaea e aa?iiiey. Ii neiaai E. Eeueeia “ii?aeueiia e aeooiaiia
?aaiiaanea ?onneie aeooe io?aaeaaony a naiaia?aciie naiaiaea e
aa?iiiee”. Ii ii iiaieth Eeueeia ia i?aaeeueii i?aaenoaaeyoue ?onneoth
aeooo eae “aa/ii eeiyuee eio?e”; “a aoaeiyo ioeeaa ?onneee i?aaenoa?o
?iaiui e anoanoaaiiui, e?aeei e aeia?iaeooiui.” A yoi aea aii?ina Eeueei
aniiieiaao i ia?iaeiie iania. Ca/ai? Aea aaaeue eiaiii a yoii ia?iaeiii
aeaea eneonnoaa yaeyaony aa?iiiey; aac aea?eae??ia, eaia?oiiia, e eaeie
eeai iocueaeueiie iiaeaioiaee ?onneee oi? cao/eo io anae aeooe, a
naiaiaeiii eniieiaiee, ec aioo?aiiaai /oanoaa, neoo e aeona. Caeanue aea
aniiieiaaony oeeinioii e eoeueoo?a oea?eiaiiai eieieieueiiai caiia,
eioi?ue /anoi eii?iaece?iaaeny a caaeneiinoe io aeona caiia?y.

4) Ia?ae/iay neea. E.Eeueei ia no?aieoueny eaeaaeece?iaaoue ?onneoth
aeooo: “/oi a iae anoue, oi anoue; /aai ia aeinoa?o, ionoue ioai?auaaao
a no?aaeaiee e oa?iaiee”. Eeueei no?aieoueny oeacaoue ia naiaia?acea
?onneie aeooe. N/eoatho, /oi oaia?ue e Caiaaeiay Aa?iia aeieaeia
i?eciaoue yoi naiaia?acea. “*oi au iiiyoue yoo iniaaiiinoue ?onneie
aeooe aaaeii au i?iaanoe ?acee/ea iaaeaeo ia?ae/iuie e aoi?e/iuie
aeooaaii-aeooiaiuie neeaie. Ia?ae/iua neeu – yoi neeu
aeeciaii?aaeaeythuea, oai?/anee-aeooiaii aaaeouea. Aoi?e/iua i?eiueatho
e ia?ae/iui e iinyo ioia/aoie iineaaeieo. ?onneay aea aeooa i?aaeaea
anaai anoue “aeooa /oanoaa e nica?oeaiey”. “A? eoeueoo?ii-oai?aoeeee aeo
nooue na?aea/iia aeaeaiea e ?aeeaeicii-niaanoeeaue ii?ua”. Ethaiaue e
nica?oeaiea i?e yoii naiaiaeiu, eae naiaiaeii i?ino?ainoai, ?aaieia, eae
iieyuee aeoo, – aio ii/aio ?onneee ioaeaeaaony a naiaiaea, oeaieo a?.
?onneay eoeueoo?a iino?iaia ia /oanoaa e na?aeoea, ia nica?oeaiee, ia
naiaiaea niaanoe e naiaiaea iieeoau. Yoi e anoue, ii iiaieth E Eeueeia,
ia?ae/iua neeu ?onneie aeooe, eioi?ua oi?ie?otho e ieoatho ?onneee
oaiia?aiaio. *oanoaa e nica?oeaiey eae iniiaa oa?aeoa?a eiatho iniaoth
oeaiiinoue aeey o?enoeaieia, ii iie ia oi?ie?otho oa?aeoa?. Aio ii/aio
ainieoaiea iineaaeiaai Eeueei n/eoaao aeeaeaeoae e aaaeiaeoae caaea/ae
?onneiai ia?iaea. Caeanue na?aeoea e niaanoue aeieaeiu aeiiieiyoueny e
ii?aaeaeyoueny aieae, e oiaaea noi?ie?iaaeny au iooue iaiiaeaiey
eoeueoo?u a o?enoeaineii aeooa e a niioaaonoaee ni noa?ie o?aaeeoeeae.
Aianoa n yoei ?onneea iaeaaeatho niciaieai aeieaa, nioeeaeueiie
aeoaeiie, i?aaiecaoi?neie niiniaiinoueth. Ii Eeueei ioia/aao, /oi
“i?i/iie oi?iu e neeu ia aeinoa?o au? e ?onneiio i?aainiciaieth”.

Eeueei i?eaiaeeo e oiio, /oi ?onneay aeooa – “yoi ia eaeie-oi no?aoiue
noeien” – eoi iiieiaao a? eee auaea?o ca oaeiaiai aeaiiino?e?oao
iaaeinoaoie nianoaaiiie niiniaiinoe i?iieeiiaaiey. “Yoi aeooa acuneoao
i?aaeeueiiai iiieiaiey e ia aeaeaao, /oi au a? niaoeaaee n e?aeia ae
oceeie oa/aieyie e eaeaieiaeyie (iai?eia?, n aieueoaaeciii). Aoaeo/e
aeooie naiaiaeiiai /oanoaa e naiaiaeiiai nica?oeaiey iia eae au
?iaeaeaia aeey o?enoeainoaa; e a? iineaaeiei nianoaaiiui i?eaaaeeuai
yaeyaony oai naiui aa?a e ?aeeaey”.

Aeey eioi?iaoeee:

Anaai o E. Eeueeia auei 13 eaeoeee:

1. “Aeooa”;

2. “Aa?a”;

3. “Oiae enoi?e/aneiai ?acaeoey”;

4. “Aeaaiua iaoeeiiaeueiua i?iaeaiu ?innee”;

5. “Enoi?ey noaiiaeaiey ainoaea?noaa”;

6. “Oai?/aneay eaeay ?innee”;

7. “?onneay aeooa a neaceao e eaaaiaeao”;

8. “I ?onneii aini?eyoee eneonnoaa e ooaeiaeanoaaiiiai niaa?oainoaa”;

9. “I nia?aiaiiie ?onneie ooaeiaeanoaaiiie eeoa?aoo?a”;

10. “Ae?aaia?onneia eneonnoai (ciae/anoai, o?anee)”;

11. “Naiaiaea aeooa ?innee. Iinoaoeu ii i?e?iaea ?innee e th?iaeeaay ai
O?enoa”;

12. “Iieie e ?aaeinoue a i?aaineaaiii ie?iaicc?aiee”;

13. “Aa/ii aeaineia e aa/ii ioaeanoaaiiia a ?onneie aeooa”(ia iaeaeaii).

Nienie eniieueciaaiiie eeoa?aoo?u:

1. AEo?iae ?onneie eoeueoo?u “Iineaa”, yiaa?ue 1996 a.

“E.I. Oienoie i niunea naiaiaeu e iaiaoiaeeiinoe”

(Aaeieeiaoeeay A., nooaeaioea 111 a?.)

Eaa Ieeieaaae/ Oienoie (1828 – 1910) – aaieaeueiue ?onneee ienaoaeue –
?aaeeno, ecaanoiue iuneeoaeue, ie?iaicc?ai/aneea iiceoeee eioi?iai
i?aaenoaaeytho aieueoie eioa?an aeey oa?aeoa?enoeee
enoi?eei-oeeinioneiai i?ioeanna a ?innee XIX – ia/aea OO aaeia. Aai
ianeaaeea – ooaeiaeanoaaiiua i?iecaaaeaiey, oai?aoe/aneea o?oaeu,
ioaeeoeenoe/aneea noaouee, aeiaaieee e ienueia iieiua aeoaieeo
oeeinioneeo ?acaeoiee ii?aeueiiai, nioeeaeueiiai, ynoaoe/aneiai
oa?aeoa?a. Yoe ?acaeoiuey aieueoae /anoueth iaoiaeyony a i?aaie/aneie
nayce n nianoaaiii eeoa?aoo?iuie iniaaiiinoyie ooaeiaeanoaaiiiai
ianeaaenoaa ienaoaey e iaioaeaeeiu io ieo. A ?aciuoeaiey Oienoiai iaoee
oi eee eiia, i?aeiouanoaaiii eaeaaeenoe/aneia, ?aoaiea oeeinioneea (eae
aioieiae/aneea, oae e aiinaieiae/aneea) i?iaeaiu auyaeeenue aai neiiaoee
e aioeiaoee, aai ioiioaiey e ?acee/iui oa/aieyi iauanoaaiii
iieeoe/aneie, oeeinioneie nioeeieiae/aneie iunee, ynoaoe/aneei e
yoe/aneei o/aieyi. A aai ie?inica?oeaiee anoue ?aoeeiiaeueiua
noaeaeaiey, ia iioa?yaoea naiaai cia/aiey e a iaoe aeie. Aianoa n oai
aicc?aiey aaieaeueiiai ienaoaey e ecaanoiiai iuneeoaey, au?aceoaey
iano?iaiee e /ayiee iiiaiieeeeiiiiai iao?ea?oaeueiiai e?anoueyinoaa
i?iiecaiu e?e/aueie i?ioeai?a/eyie, aeoaieee aiaeec eioi?uo aeae
A.E.Eaiei a naieo noaoueyo i Oienoii. N iaeiie noi?iiu Oienoie iaiinee
oyae?eue oaea? ii aeiaiai i?aaineaaiie oea?eae. N ae?oaie noi?iiu ii
euao iooe iaiiaeaiey ?aeeaee, auneacuaaao yaiua eaeaaeenoe/aneea
ooaa?aeaeaiey. A oi aea a?aiy aeey Oienoiai oa?aeoa?ii ?aaeenoe/aneia
aini?eyoea i?e?iaeu e iauanoaaiiie aeecie, o iaai ano?a/athony
iaoa?eaeenoe/aneea noaeaeaiey. Enoiaey ec iiceoeee iaoaoeceee a ?aoaiee
?yaea aii?inia, aeiioneay, iai?eia?, nouanoaiaaiea aa/iuo e iaeciaiiuo
enoei, E.I. Oienoie aianoa n oai a naieo ooaeiaeanoaaiiuo oai?aieyo
io?aaeaao aeeaeaeoeeo iaoa?eaeueiiai e aeooiaiiai. Ianoa?neia
ecia?aaeaiea Oienoui “aeeaeaeoeee aeooe”, iiaeaeaeiinoue e aeeiaieea
aicc?aiey iiiai/eneaiiuo aa?iaa aai ?iiaiia, iiaanoae, ?anneacia
iaoiaeeony a yaiii i?ioeai?a/ee n aai iaoaoece/aneeie i?aae?annoaeeaie,
ooaa?aeaeaieyie, n i?enouae aio ia/?oeinoueth a aii?ina i niioiioaiee
iaoa?eaeueiiai e eaeaaeueiiai.

A iaeanoe nioeeieiaee, iniaaiii a enoieeiaaiee caeiiiia?iinoae
iauanoaaiii-enoi?e/aneiai ?acaeoey, Eaa Ieeieaaae/ ooaa?aeaeaao ?yae
aanueia aaaeiuo e oeaiiuo a iao/iii ioiioaiee enoei. Ia iaoa?eaeao
?onneie e ie?iaie enoi?ee ienaoaeue a ooaeiaeanoaaiii-iaaeyaeiie oi?ia
iieacuaaao aeaeaeouea neeu e ii?aaeaeythuea oaeoi?u
iauanoaaiii-enoi?e/aneiai iauaeoeaiiai ?acaeoey /aeiaa/aneiai iauanoaa.
A nai?i o?oaea “Oeeinioey enoi?ee” Oienoie ?anniao?eaae aeaeaeaiea
/aeiaa/anoaa. Ii n/eoae, /oi yoi aeaeaeaiea iai?a?uaii, a
neaaeiaaoaeueii iinoeaeaiea caeiiia yoiai aeaeaeaiey anoue oeaeue
enoi?ee. Ii, /oi au iinoeaiooue caeiiu iai?a?uaiiai aeaeaeaiey – noiiu
anao i?iecaieia ethaeae, oi /aeiaa/aneee aeiioneaao i?iecaieueiia,
iai?a?uaiue aaeeieoeu. Yoi aeinoeaaaony aeaoiy i?e?iaie. Ia?aue i?e?i
ninoieo a oii, /oi au acya i?iecaieueiue ?yae iai?a?uaiuo niauoee,
?anniao?eaaoue aai ioaeaeueii io ae?oaeo, oiaaea eae ia iiaeao auoue
ia/aeii ieeaeiai niauoey, oae eae iii iai?a?uaii auoaeaao ec ae?oaiai.
Aoi?ie a oii, /oi au ?anniao?eaaoue aeaenoaey iaeiiai /aeiaaea (oea?y),
eae noiio i?iecaieia ethaeae, oiaaea eae noiia i?iecaieia ethaeneeo
ieeiaaea ia au?aaeaaony a aeayoaeueiinoe iaeiiai eeoea. Ii aeey eco/aiey
caeiiia enoi?ee ioaeii eciaieoue niaa?oaiii iaaethaeaiey i?aaeiao,
inoaaeoue a iieia oea?ae e iieeiaiaeoeaa, a eco/aoue iaeii?iaeiua,
aaneiia/ii iaeua yeaiaiou, eioi?ua ?oeiaiaeyo iannaie. I?aaeiaoii
enoi?ee anaaaea auea aeeciue ia?iaeia e /aeiaa/anoaa. Ii enoi?eee
?acaeaeeeenue ia noa?uo (ae?aaieo) e iiauo. ?aoaeenue aii?inu i aiea
ethaeae e i oii, /ai iia oi?aaeyeanue. Aeey ae?aaieo aii?inu yoe
?ac?aoaeenue aa?ith a iaiin?aaenoaaiiia o/anoea aiaeanoaa a aeaeao
/aeiaa/anoaa. Iiaay enoi?ey yoi ioaa?aaea. Iia ioaa?aaea oai?eth, ii
neaaeiaaea ae ia i?aeoeea. Aianoi i?aaeieo oaiaeiuo aiaeanoao oeaeae
ia?iaeia: a?a/aneiai, ?eineiai, eioi?ua i?aaenoaaeyeenue oeaeyie
aeaeaeaiey /aeiaa/anoaa, iiaay enoi?ey iinoaaeea naiae oeaeueth aeaai
o?aioeocneiai, aa?iaineiai, aiaeeeneiai e a naiii aunoai ioaea/aiee,
oeaee aeaaa oeeaeeecaoeee anaai /aeiaa/anoaa, iiae eioi?ui ?acoiathony
iaueiiaaiiua ia?iaeu, caieiathuea iaeaiueeee naaa?i-caiaaeiue oaieie
aieueoiai iaoa?eea. Iiaay enoi?ey ioaa?aea aa?iaaiey ae?aaieo, ii i?eoea
e iei ae?oaei ioo?i:

1. *oi ia?iaeu ?oeiaiaeyony aaeeie/iuie ethaeueie;

2. *oi nouanoaoao ecaanoiay oeaeue, e eioi?ie aeaeaeoony ia?iaeu e
/aeiaa/anoai.

Ii Oienoie n/eoaao, /oi niaaeeieoue yoe aeaa enoi?ee iaaiciiaeii. Ii
anee niaaeeieoue iaa enoi?ee aianoa, eae oi e aeaeatho iiaaeoea
enoi?eee, oi yoi aoaeao enoi?ey iiia?oia e ienaoaeae, a ia enoi?ey
aeecie ia?iaeia.

Ii iiaieth Oienoiai, aaaeiaeooth ?ieue a enoi?ee ea?atho naiaiaea e
iaiaoiaeeiinoue. Yoi oeeinioneea eaoaai?ee, au?aaeathuea acaeiiioiioaiea
iaaeaeo aeayoaeueiinoueth ethaeae e iauaeoeaiuie caeiiaie i?e?iaeu e
iauanoaa. Naiaiaea yoi niiniaiinoue /aeiaaea aeaenoaiaaoue a
niioaaonoaee ni naieie eioa?anaie e oeaeyie, iie?aynue ia iiiciaiea
iauaeoeaiie iaiaoiaeeiinoe. Iaiaoiaeeiinoue yoi oi, /oi ia iiaeao a
aeaiiuo oneiaeyo ia i?iecieoe, /oi iaycaoaeueii aeieaeii i?iecieoe. Yoi
oaeaea ?acaeoea yaeaiee, eioi?ia n iaecaaaeiinoueth auoaeaao ec
aioo?aiieo nouanoaaiiuo acaeiinaycae, acaeiiioiioaiee e acaeiiaeaenoaee
yoeo yaeaiee. Niioiioaiea naiaiaeu e iaiaoiaeeiinoe anaaaea iaiyaony, oi
anoue ?aeeaey, cae?aaue niune, /aeiaa/anoai, iaoea i?aaa e naia enoi?ey
iaeeiaeiai iiieiatho yoi ioiioaiea iaaeaeo iaiaoiaeeiinoueth e
naiaiaeie. Ana aac eneeth/aiey neo/ae a eioi?uo oaaee/eaaaony eee
oiaiueoaaony iaoa i?aaenoaaeaiea i naiaiaea e iaiaoiaeeiinoe eiatho
oieueei 3 iniiaaiey:

1) Ioiioaiea /aeiaaea, niaa?oeaoaai iinooiie e aiaoiaio ie?o. Anee
?anniao?eaaoue iaeiiai /aeiaaea, a ia iaai aeaenoaotho eaeea eeai
i?aaeiaou, oi naiaiaea oiaiueoaaony, a iaiaoiaeeiinoue oaaee/eaaaony.

2) Ei a?aiaie. Yoi anoue oi iniiaaiea a neaaenoaea eioi?iai aeeciue e
aeayoaeueiinoue ethaeae aeeaoeo aaea oiio iacaae, naycaiiay ni iiith ai
a?aiaie, ia iiaeao i?aaenoaaeyoueny iia noieue naiaiaeiith, eae aeeciue
nia?aiaiiay, iineaaenoaey eioi?ie iia au? ia ecaanoiu. ?annoaeaeaiea i
naiaiaea iinooiea noaiiayony niiieoaeueiuie, /ai aeaeueoa ia?aiineony
ainiiieiaieyie e aia??ae noaeaeaieyie. Naiaiaea ethaeae noaiiaeony
niiieoaeueiie, a caeii iaiaoiaeeiinoe i/aaeaeai.

3) E i?e/eiai i?iecaaaeoei iinooiie. I?aaenoaaeaiey i naiaiaea e
iaiaoiaeeiinoe oaaee/eaathony eee oiaiueoathony a caaeneiinoe io i?e/ei,
ii eae au ia oaeeeiyee e ia oei?a/eaaee ia?eiae a?aiaie, eae au iiiyoii
eee iaiinoeaeeii auee au aeey ian i?e/eiu – iu ieeiaaea ia niiaeai naaa
i?aaenoaaeoue ia iieiie naiaiaeu, ia iieiie iaiaoiaeeiinoe.

Oae eae :

1) I?aaenoaaeoue naaa /aeiaaea naiaiaeiui, aia i?ino?ainoaa iaaiciiaeii;

2) Aeey oiai, /oi au i?aaenoaaeoue aai aeaeaeaiea naiaiaeiui, iaaei
i?aaenoaaeoue aai a a?aie ianoiyuaai, i?ioeiai e aoaeouaai, o.a. aia
a?aiaie, a yoi iaaiciiaeii;

3) Iaeuecy niaa?oeoue iinooiie aac i?e/eiu, oae eae oi, /oi y oi/o
niaa?oeoue iinooiie aac i?e/eiu e anoue i?e/eia iiaai iinooiea.

Oi/ii oae aea iu ia iiaeai i?aaenoaaeoue /aeiaaea, aai aeaenoaey aac
o/anoey naiaiaeu e iiaeeaaeauaai oieueei caeiio iaiaoiaeeiinoe, oae eae
an? ?aaii anoue aeiey naiaiaeu.

An? yoi aaae?o e aeaoi iniiaaieyi ie?inica?oeaiey /aeiaaea e ?acoio e
niciaieth. ?acoi au?aaeaao caeiiu iaiaoiaeeiinoe, a niciaiea au?aaeaao
nouiinoue naiaiaeu. Naiaiaea, ie/ai iaia?aie/aiiay, anoue nouiinoue
aeecie a niciaiee /aeiaaea. Oieueei i?e niaaeeiaiee naiaiaeu e
iaiaoiaeeiinoe anoue yniia i?aaenoaaeaiea i aeecie /aeiaaea. Oienoie
n/eoaao, /oi a iouneaiee i?e/ei enoi?ey aeieaeia iinoaaeoue naiae
caaea/ae iouneaiea caeiiia, oae eae ianiio?y ia ioaeaeueiua yeaiaiou
oaoaeecia Oienoie i?aaeeueii ?aoaao aii?in i ?iee ia?iaeiuo iann a
enoi?ee, a nicaeaiee eie iaoa?eaeueiuo aeaa e aeooiaiuo oeaiiinoae,
ni?aaaaeeeai e?eoeeoao oi/eo c?aiey oao enoi?eeia e nioeeieiaia, eioi?ua
ecia?aaeatho iaeaaeathuoth aeanoueth ioaeaeueioth ee/iinoue, eae ia/oi
ii?aaeaeythuaa a enoi?e/aneii aeaenoaee.

Aiiaua Oienoie iuoaeny iinoeaiooue /aeiaaea e i?e?iaeo a a? aaeeiaiee n
/aeiaaeii. Oienoie ?acaei/eaaao “iiaoth eoeueoo?o” naaoneee noeeue
iuoeaiey, ii cia?o ia e o?aaeeoeeiiiie, a e “naiae” oea?eae. Oienoie –
oai?aoee aaeeiaiey. Ii ainnoa?o i?ioea ?aniaaea ia ninoaaeythuea, /aio
iiaeaa?aeaia nia?aiaiiay iaoea, iauanoai, eoeueoo?a. Ii i?ecuaaao
ethaeae e aaeeinoaaiiiio i?e?iaeiiio aaeeinoao. Cia/aiea oai?/anoaa
Oienoiai aeey ?acaeoey ?onneie iunee i/aiue aaeee e ia iaeiicia/ii. Ii
i?aiaeieae naeoey?eci ?onneie iunee. Naeoey?ecaoeey – yoi inaiaiaeaeaiea
iauanoaaiiiai e eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai io aeeyiey ?aeeaee. Ii iieacae
eioaeeeaaioeee eiie iooue, ii nai ia iio?e ei. Ii ia aue iiiyo ie
iineaaeiaaoaeyie, ie nia?aiaiieeaie.

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