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Роль моделирования в познавательной и практической деятельности

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AINOAeA?NOAAIIUE EIIEOAO ?INNEENEIE OAAeA?AOeEE II AUNOAIO

IA?ACIAAIETH

IIAI*A?EANNEEE AINOAeA?NOAAIIUE OAOIE*ANEEE OIEAA?NEOAO

Naaiei
Aiae?ae Aeaaeeie?iae/

nieneaoaeue eaoaae?u

“I?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey au/eneeoaeueiie oaoieee”

?AOA?AO

IA OAIO

?IEUe IIAeAEE?IAAIEss A IICIAAAOAEUeIIE E

I?AEOE*ANEIE AeAssOAEUeIINOE

?OEIAIAeEOAEUe II EAOAAe?A OEEINIOEE
Aoeiia A.E.

e.
o. i., aeioeaio

eao. oeeinioee

IAO*IUE ?OEIAIAeEOAEUe
Ai?iioeia A.A.

i?ioanni?, ae.o.i.

IIAI*A?EANNE 1997 a

IOCUA IA ?AOA?AO

ii oeeinioee “?ieue iiaeaee?iaaiey a iiciaaaoaeueiie e

i?aeoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe” nieneaoaey

Naaiei Aiae?ay Aeaaeeie?iae/a

?aoa?ao niaea?aeeo oacenu, aiiioaoeeth, aaaaeaiea e aeaa aeaau.

A ia?aie aeaaa aeai e?aoeee iaci? iiiyoee: iiaeaeue (iiaeaee?iaaiea),
aiaeiaey e iiaeiaea. I?eaiaeeony eeanneoeeaoeey iiaeaeae, a oaeaea
n?aaiaiea iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiiuo niiniaia iiaeaee?iaaiey. Iieacaii
enoi?e/aneia ?acaeoea iiaeaeo?iaaiey.

Iao/iie iniiaie iiaeaee?iaaiey yaeyaony aiaeiaey e iiyoiio i?eaaaeaiu
iniiaiua aeaeu aiaeiaee e iieacaii ?acieoea iaaeaeo aiaeiaeae e
iiaeaeueth. I?e ?anniio?aiee aiaeiaee a ?aoa?aoa i?eaaaeaiu ii?iaoeaiua
oneiaey, niaethaeaiea eioi?uo iiauoaao noaiaiue aeinoiaa?iinoe
caeeth/aiey ii aiaeiaee e iaania/eaatho i?aaeeueiinoue oiicaeeth/aiee.

Aoi?ay aeaaa iinayuaia ii?aaeaeaieth ?iee iiaeaee?iaaiey a
iiciaaaoaeueiie e i?aeoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe.

I?e ?aoaiee ethaie caaea/e iniiaioth ?ieue ea?atho yenia?eiaio e
iiaeaeue. Ianoaeaeaaony ?ieue iiaeaee?iaaiey, eae iaoiaeieiaee
yenia?eiaioa.

Iaeanoue i?eiaiaiey iiaeaeae ana a?aiy ?anoe?yaony. A ioieoa 2.3.
i?eaaaeaiu i?eia?u ?acee/iiai i?eiaiaiey iiaeaee?iaaiey a oaoieea.
Iniaoth ?ieue ea?aao iiaeaee?iaaiea iauanoaaiii-enoi?e/aneeo i?ioeannia.
Iienuaaaony i?eiaiaiea iiaeaee?iaaiey a nioeeaeueiuo noa?ao: yeiiiieea,
iaaeaaiaeea, yeieiaee, iieeoeea e o. ae. Ii?aaeaeaiu ia?aie/aiey
nioeeaeueiiai yenia?eiaioa.

A caeeth/aiee ?anniao?eaaaony ?ieue iiaeaee?iaaiey a i?iaiice?iaaiee
?acaeoey i?e?iaeu e iauanoaa.

?aoa?ao iaienai a?aiioii e aeeo?aoii. Oaia eiaao aeooaeueiia cia/aiea e
?ane?uoa a ?aaioa oe?iei.

Iao/iue ?oeiaiaeeoaeue i?ioanni?.
ae. o. i. Ai?iioeia A.A.

OACENU

e ?aoa?aoo ii oeeinioee “?ieue iiaeaee?iaaiey a iiciaaaoaeueiie e

i?aeoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe”

“Iiaeaeue – yoi nenoaia, enneaaeiaaiea eioi?ie neoaeeo n?aaenoaii
aeey iieo/aiey eioi?iaoeee i ae?oaie nenoaia”. Iiaeaee eeanneoeoee?otho
enoiaey ec iaeaieaa nouanoaaiiuo i?eciaeia iauaeoia. Iiiyoea “iiaeaeue”
aicieeei a i?ioeanna iiuoiiai eco/aiey ie?a. Ia?auie, eoi i?eiaiee
iiaeaee ia i?aeoeea, auee no?ieoaee.

Niiniau nicaeaiey iiaeaeae ?acee/iu: oece/aneee, iaoaiaoe/aneee,
oeceei-iaoaiaoe/aneee.

Oece/aneia iiaeaee?iaaiea oa?aeoa?ecoaony oai, /oi enneaaeiaaiey
i?iaiaeyony ia onoaiiaeao, iaeaaeathueo oece/aneei iiaeiaeai, o. a.
nio?aiythueo iieiinoueth eee oioy au a iniiaiii i?e?iaeo yaeaiee.

Aieaa oe?ieeie aiciiaeiinoyie iaeaaeaao iaoaiaoe/aneia iiaeaee?iaaiea.
Yoi niinia enneaaeiaaiey ?acee/iuo i?ioeannia iooai eco/aiey yaeaiee,
eiathueo ?acee/iia oece/aneia niaea?aeaiea, ii iienuaaaiuo iaeeiaeiauie
iaoaiaoe/aneeie iiaeaeyie. Iaoaiaoe/aneia iiaeaee?iaaiea eiaao ia?iiiia
i?aeiouanoai ia?aae oece/aneei, iineieueeo iao iaiaoiaeeiinoe nio?aiyoue
?acia?u iiaeaee. Yoi aeaao nouanoaaiiue auea?uo ai a?aiaie e noieiinoe
enneaaeiaaiey.

Iao/iie iniiaie iiaeaee?iaaiey neoaeeo oai?ey aiaeiaee. Iiae aiaeiaeae
iiieiatho noiaenoai iauaeoia ii eo ea/anoaaiiui e eiee/anoaaiiui
i?eciaeai. Aiaeiaey ia?ac?uaii naycaia n iiaeaeueth, ii iaeuecy iooaoue
yoe aeaa iiiyoey. Yoi n?aaeiaa iiin?aaeothuaa caaii iaaeaeo iiaeaeueth e
iauaeoii. Ooieoeey oaeiai caaia caeeth/aaony a niiinoaaeaiee ?acee/iuo
iauaeoia, iaia?oaeaiee e aiaeeca iauaeoeaiiai noiaenoaa ii?aaeaeaiiuo
naienoa, ioiioaiee, i?enoueo yoei iauaeoai. N ii?iaoeaiuie oneiaeyie,
eioi?ua iiauoatho noaiaiue aeinoiaa?iinoe caeeth/aiey ii aiaeiaee e
iaania/eaatho i?aaeeueiinoue oiicaeeth/aiee, iiaeii iiciaeiieony ia
no?aieoea ???.

I?e ?aoaiee ethaie caaea/e iniiaioth ?ieue ea?atho yenia?eiaio e
iiaeaeue, a oaeaea aiaeec iieo/aiiuo ?acoeueoaoia. Iiaeaeue aeaao
i?aaeeueii iinoaaeaiiue yenia?eiaio, a yenia?eiaio ooi/iyao iiaeaeue.
Yenia?eiaio eiaao aeaa iai?aaeaiey: ia?aaioea ?acoeueoaoia e
ieaie?iaaiea yenia?eiaioa.

Aeinoiaa?iinoue iiaeaee aeinoeaaaony iin?aaenoaii iaaethaeaiey e
eiae/anee i?aaeeueiie ia?aaioee aeaiiuo.

Iiaeaee?iaaiea oe?iei i?eiaiyaony a oaoieea. Yoi e enneaaeiaaiea
aeae?iyia?aaoe/aneeo iauaeoia e einie/aneeo ?aeao, niaoeeaeueiua iiaeaee
aeey iaeaaeee i?eai?ia oi?aaeaiey e o?aie?iaee ia?niiaea, oi?aaeythuaai
?acee/iuie neiaeiuie iauaeoaie. Iiiaiia?acii i?eiaiaiea iiaeaee?iaaiey a
aiaiiie oaoieea. A iineaaeiaa a?aiy iniaia cia/aiea i?ia?aei
iiaeaee?iaaiea aeieiae/aneeo e oeceieiae/aneeo i?ioeannia.

Iauaecaanoia ?ieue iiaeaee?iaaiey iauanoaaiii-enoi?e/aneeo i?ioeannia.
I?eiaiaiea iiaeaeae iiaieyao i?iaiaeeoue eiio?iee?oaiua yenia?eiaiou a
neooaoeeyo, aaea yenia?eiaioe?iaaiea ia ?aaeueiuo iauaeoao yaeyaony
i?aeoe/anee iaaiciiaeiui eee ii eaeei-oi i?e/eiai (yeiiiie/aneei,
i?aanoaaiiui e o. ae.) iaoeaeaniia?aciui.

Aieueoia cia/aiea ia nia?aiaiiii yoaia ?acaeoey iaoee e oaoieee
i?eia?aoatho caaea/e i?aaeneacaiey, oi?aaeaiey, ?aniiciaaaiey. Iaoiae
yaiethoeeiiiiai iiaeaee?iaaiey aiciee i?e iiiuoea aini?iecaaaeaiey ia
YAI iiaaaeaiey /aeiaaea. Yaiethoeeiiiia iiaeaee?iaaiea auei i?aaeeiaeaii
eae aeueoa?iaoeaa ya?enoe/aneiio e aeiie/aneiio iiaeoiaeo,
iiaeaee?iaaaoaio iica /aeiaaea a iae?iiiuo no?oeoo?ao e naoyo. I?e yoii
iniiaiay eaeay cao/aea oae: caiaieoue i?ioeann iiaeaee?iaaiey eioaeeaeoa
iiaeaee?iaaieai i?ioeanna aai yaiethoeee.

Oaeei ia?acii, iiaeaee?iaaiea i?aa?auaaony a iaeei ec oieaa?naeueiuo
iaoiaeia iiciaiey a ni/aoaiee n YAI. Iniai oi/aony iiae/a?eiooue ?ieue
iiaeaee?iaaiey – aaneiia/ioth iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue ooi/iaiiuo
i?aaenoaaeaiee i i?e?iaea.

Niaea?aeaiea

no?.

Aaaaeaiea. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1. Ii?aaeaeaiea iiiyoee iiaeaee?iaaiey, iiaeaee, aiaeiaee e

iiaeiaey. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.1. Ii?aaeaeaiea iiiyoey iiaeaeue (iiaeaee?iaaiea). Eeanneoe-

eaoeey iiaeaeae e iaoiaeia iiaeaee?iaaiey. . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . .

1.2. Enoi?ey ?acaeoey iiaeaee?iaaiey. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . .

1.3. Aiaeiaey e iiaeiaea, eo niiiae/eiaiiinoue. . . . . . . . . .
. . .

2. ?ieue iiaeaee?iaaiey a iiciaaaoaeueiie e i?aeoe/aneie aeayoaeue-

iinoe. Oaiiiaiieiae/aneee iaoiae iiciaiey. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . .

2.1. Iiaeaee?iaaiea eae niinia e n?aaenoai iienaiey ie?a. . . .

2.2. Iiaeaeue e yenia?eiaio. Aeinoiaa?iinoue iiaeaee. . . . . . .
. . . .

2.3. Iiaeaee?iaaiea a oaoieea. “Ae?ooaeueiay” ?aaeueiinoue. . . .

2.4. iiaeaee?iaaiea iauanoaaiii-enoi?e/aneeo i?ioeannia. . .

2.5. I?iaiice?iaaiea ?acaeoey i?e?iaeu e iauanoaa. . . . . . . .

Nienie eeoa?aoo?u. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . .

AIIIOAOeEss

A ?aoa?aoa i?eaaaeai e?aoeee iaci? iiiyoee iiaeaee ( iiaeaee?iaaiey),
aiaeiaee e iiaeiaey. I?eaiaeeony eeanneoeeaoeey iiaeaeae, a oaeaea
n?aaiaiea iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiiuo niiniaia iiaeaee?iaaiey.

Eae ecaanoii, iao/iie iniiaie iiaeaee?iaaiey yaeyaony aiaeiaey,
iiyoiio i?eaaaeaiu iniiaiua aeaeu aiaeiaee e iieacaia ?acieoea iaaeaeo
aiaeiaeae e iiaeaeueth. I?e ?anniio?aiee aiaeiaee a ?aoa?aoa aeaiu
iiiyoey oiicaeeth/aiee ii aiaeiaee, a oaeaea ii?iaoeaiua oneiaey,
niaethaeaiea eioi?uo iiauoaao noaiaiue aeinoiaa?iinoe caeeth/aiey ii
aiaeiaee e iaania/eaaao i?aaeeueiinoue oiicaeeth/aiee.

Aoi?ay aeaaa iinayuaia ii?aaeaeaieth ?iee iiaeaee?iaaiey a
iicia-aaoaeueiie e i?aeoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe.

I?e ?aoaiee ethaie caaea/e iniiaioth ?ieue ea?atho yenia?eiaio e
iiaeaeue. Ianoaeaeaaony ?ieue iiaeaee?iaaiey eae iaoiaeieiaee
yenia?eiaioa.

Iaeanoue i?eiaiaiey iiaeaeae ana a?aiy ?anoe?yaony. A ioieoa 2.3.
i?eaaaeaiu i?eia?u i?eiaiaiey iiaeaee?iaaiey a oaoieea. Iniaoth ?ieue
ea?aao iiaeaee?iaaiea iauanoaaiii-enoi?e/aneeo i?ioeannia.

A caeeth/aiee ?anniao?eaaaony ?ieue iiaeaee?iaaiey a i?iaiice?iaaiee
?acaeoey i?e?iaeu e iauanoaa.

Aaaaeaiea

Iiaeaee?iaaiea a ianoiyuaa a?aiy i?eaeaeaao i?enoaeueiia aieiaiea e
iieo/eei iaiau/aeii oe?ieia i?eiaiaiea ai iiiaeo iaeanoyo ciaiee: io
oeeinioneeo e ae?oaeo aoiaieoa?iuo ?acaeaeia ciaiee aei yaea?iie oeceee
e ae?oaeo ?acaeaeia oeceee, io i?iaeai ?aaeeioaoieee e yeaeo?ioaoieee
aei i?iaeai iaoaieee e aeae?iiaoaieee, oeceieiaee e aeieiaee e o. ae.
I?aa?aoeeinue: a) a iauaiao/iue, a aunoae noaiaie yooaeoeaiue eino?oiaio
iiciaiey; a) a iaoiae i?iaiice?iaaiey eiaeaia?ii-eiino?oeoi?neeo
?ac?aaioie; a) a iaoiae iaoeiiie eieoaoeee aeieain?i/iuo i?ia?aii e
ieaiia a iaeanoe yeiiiieee, aiaeeca e ioeaiee ?acee/iuo aa?eaioia
i?eieiaaiuo ioaaonoaaiiuo ?aoaiee e iineaaenoaee eo ?aaeecaoeee.

Oaia aeenna?oaoeee “Aiaeeoe/aneia eiino?oe?iaaiea nenoai aeoeaiiai
aaoaiey eieaaaiee iiiaiia?iuo iaaethaeaaiuo eiino?oeoeee” i?aaeiieaaaao
nicaeaiea iiaeaee aunioiiai eee i?ioyaeaiiiai nii?oaeaiey e iiaeaee
nenoaiu oi?aaeaiey aaoaieai eieaaaiee eiino?oeoeee i?e aiaoieo
aicaeaenoaeyo (caieao?ynaiey, aao?iaua iaa?ocee).

No?oeoo?a ?aoa?aoa aeeth/aao iauoth oa?aeoa?enoeeo oa?ieia “iiaeaeue”,
eeanneoeeaoeeth iiaeaeae. Oae eae aiaeiaey yaeyaony iao/iie iniiaie
iiaeaee?iaaiey e?aoei, aeaaony iiiyoea yoiai oa?ieia e aai ioee/ey io
iiaeaee. Iieacaii enoi?e/aneia ?acaeoea iiaeaee?iaaiey.

Aeaaony n?aaiaiea iiaeaee e yenia?eiaioa, i?eaiaeyony i?eia?u
iiaeaee?iaaiey a oaoieea, iiaeaee?iaaiey: iauanoaaiii – enoi?e/aneeo
i?ioeannia e i?ioeannia ?acaeoey i?e?iaeu e iauanoaa.

1. Ii?aaeaeaiea iiiyoee iiaeaee?iaaiey, iiaeaee, aiaeiaee e iiaeiaey

1.1. Ii?aaeaeaiea iiiyoey iiaeaeue (iiaeaee?iaaiea). Eeanneoeeaoeey
iiaeaeae e iaoiaeia iiaeaee?iaaiey

“Iiae iiaeaeueth – iiieiaaony oaeay iuneaiii i?aaenoaaeyaiay eee
iaoa?eaeueii ?aaeeciaaiiay nenoaia, eioi?ay ioia?aaeaao e aini?iecaiaeeo
iauaeo oae , /oi aa eco/aiea aeaao iiaoth eioi?iaoeeth ia yoii
iauaeoa”.(Ooio A.A. Iiaeaee?iaaiea e oeeinioey I., 1966; c.19.)

“Iiaeaeue – yoi nenoaia, enneaaeiaaiea eioi?ie neoaeeo
n?aaenoaii aeey iieo/aiey eioi?iaoeee i ae?oaie nenoaia”.(Oaiia A.E.
Eiae/aneea iniiau iaoiaea iiaeaee?iaaiey, c.48).

iiaeaee?iaaiea – aeaaiue niinia iiciaiey iaie ian naieo e ie?oaeathuaai
ie?a. Ii?aaeaeyy aiinaieiae/aneoth ?ieue iiaeaee?iaaiey, ioiaoei
iiiaiia?acea iiaeaeae a iaoea e oaoieea. Iiaeaee?oaiue iauaeo iacuaaaony
i?eaeiaeii, iiaeaee?othuee – iiaeaeueth. Iiaeaee eeanneoeoee?otho
enoiaey ec iaeaieaa nouanoaaiiuo i?eciaeia iauaeoia [1]. Yoeie
i?eciaeaie yaeythony:

1) caeii ooieoeeiie?iaaiey e oa?aeoa?iua iniaaiiinoe au?aaeaiey naienoa
e ioiioaiee i?eaeiaea;

2) iniiaaiey aeey i?aia?aciaaiey naienoa e ioiioaiee iiaeaee a naienoaa
e ioiioaiey i?eaeiaea.

iiaeaee iiaeii ?acaeaeeoue:

– ii ia?aiio i?eciaeo ia eiae/aneea (ii caeiiai eiaeee a niciaiee
/aeiaaea) e iaoa?eaeueiua (ii iauaeoeaiui caeiiai i?e?iaeu) iiaeaee;

– a naith i/a?aaeue eiae/aneea iiaeaee aeaeyony ia ia?aciua, ciaeiaua,
ia?acii-ciaeiaua (niaoaiiua) iiaeaee;

– iaoa?eaeueiua iiaeaee – ia ooieoeeiiaeueiua, aaiiao?e/aneea,
ooieoeeiiaeueii-aaiiao?e/aneea iiaeaee;

– ooieoeeiiaeueiua e ooieoeeiiaeueii-aaiiao?e/aneea iiaeaee a
caaeneiinoe io oece/aneie iaeii?iaeiinoe e ?acii?iaeiinoe n i?eaeiaeii
?acaeaeythony ia oece/aneea e oi?iaeueiua;

– ii aoi?iio i?eciaeo ?acee/atho oneiaiua (ia iniiaaiee oneiaey eee
niaeaoaiey), aiaeiaiaua (ia iniiaaiee oiicaeeth/aiey ii aiaeiaee,
iai?a?uaiua) e iaoaiaoe/aneea (iaoaiaoe/aneea iaoiaeu au?aaeaiey)
iiaeaee;

– ec iaoaiaoe/aneeo iiaeaeae iiaeii auaeaeeoue ?an/aoiua (
iaoaiaoe/aneia i?aaenoaaeaiea – oi?ioeu, o?aaiaiey, a?aoeee, aeai?eoiu e
o.ae.) e niioaaonoaaiiua (iaoaiaoe/aneea caaeneiinoe) iiaeaee;

– ec niioaaonoaaiiuo auaeaeythony iiaeiaiua iiaeaee (
i?iii?oeeiiaeueiinoue ia?aiaiiuo aaee/ei e niioaaonoaothuei ia?aiaiiui
i?eaeiaea);

– iiaeiaiua iiaeaee iiaoo auoue eiae/aneeie e iaoa?eaeueiuie;

– iiaeiaiua iaoa?eaeueiua iiaeaee ?acaeaeytho ia aiaeiaiaua (
iai?a?uaiua), oeeo?iaua (aeene?aoiua) e aiaeiai-oeeo?iaua (
eiiaeie?iaaiiua e aea?eaeiua) iiaeaee.

A iauai neo/aa i?ioeann iiaeaee?iaaiey ninoieo ec neaaeothueo yoaiia:

1. Iinoaiiaea caaea/e e ii?aaeaeaiea naienoa i?eaeiaea, iiaeeaaeaueo
enneaaeiaaieth.

2. Eiinoaoaoeey cao?oaeieoaeueiinoe eee iaaiciiaeiinoe enneaaeiaaiey
i?eaeiaea a iaoo?a.

3. Auai? iiaeaee, aeinoaoi/ii oi?ioi oeene?othuae nouanoaaiiua naienoaa
i?eaeiaea e eaaei iiaeaeathuaeny enneaaeiaaieth.

4. Enneaaeiaaiea iiaeaee a niioaaonoaee n iinoaaeaiiie caaea/ae.

5. Ia?aiin ?acoeueoaoia enneaaeiaaiey iiaeaee ia i?eaeiae.

6. I?iaa?ea yoeo ?acoeueoaoia.

Iniiaiuie caaea/aie yaeythony: ai-ia?auo, auai? iiaeaeae e, ai-aoi?uo,
ia?aiin ?acoeueoaoia enneaaeiaaiey iiaeaeae ia i?eaeiae.

A aeenna?oaoeee i?aaeiieaaaaony ninoaaeaiea e enneaaeiaaiea
iaoaiaoe/aneie iiaeaee nenoaiu aaoaiey eieaaaiee eiino?oeoeee, i?e
?acee/iuo aiciouathueo oneeeyo.

1.2. Enoi?ey ?acaeoey iiaeaee?iaaiey

Enoi?e/anee ia?auie iiaeaeyie eae caianoeoaeyie iaeioi?uo iauaeoia
auee, ianiiiaiii, neiaiee/aneea oneiaiua iiaeaee. Eie yaeyeenue ycueiaua
ciaee, anoanoaaiii aicieeoea a oiaea ?acaeoey /aeiaa/anoaa e iinoaiaiii
ninoaaeaoea ?acaiai?iue ycue.

Neaaeothuei yoaiii ?acaeoey iiaeaee?iaaiey iiaeii n/eoaoue
aicieeiiaaiea ciaeiauo /eneiauo iaicia/aiee. Naaaeaiey i ?acoeueoaoao
n/aoa ia?aiia/aeueii nio?aieeny a aeaea ca?oaie. Iinoaiaiiia
niaa?oainoaiaaiea yoiai iaoiaea i?eaaei e ecia?aaeaieth /enae a aeaea
oeeo? eae nenoaiu ciaeia. Iiaeii i?aaeiieiaeeoue, /oi eiaiii ca?oaee
auee i?ioioeiii ?eineeo oeeo? I, II, III, V, X.

Aeaeueiaeoaa ?acaeoea ciaeiauo iiaeaeae naycaii n aicieeiiaaieai
ienueiaiiinoe e iaoaiaoe/aneie neiaieeee. Iaeaieaa ae?aaiea ienueiaiiua
oaenou, ecaanoiua a ianoiyuaa a?aiy, ioiinyo i?eia?ii e 2000 a. aei i.
y.(Aaeiao e Aaaeeii). Anoue iniiaaiey iieaaaoue, /oi aaaeeiiyia oaea
iieueciaaeenue iiiyoeai iiaeiaey i?yiioaieueiuo o?aoaieueieeia.

Cia/eoaeueiia ?acaeoea iiaeaee?iaaiea iieo/aao a ae?aaiae A?aoeee a
V-III aa. aei i. y. Auea nicaeaia aaiiao?e/aneay iiaeaeue Nieia/iie
nenoaiu, a?a/ Aeiiie?ao aeey eco/aiey /aeiaa/aneiai aeaca
ainiieueciaaeny aai oece/aneie aiaeiae/iie iiaeaeueth – aeacii auea,
iaoaiaoee Aaeeeae nicaeae o/aiea i aaiiao?e/aneii iiaeiaee.

Ii ia?a ?acaeoey e oe?oiiaiey iaoaie/aneiai i?iecaiaenoaa, iaoaeeo?aee,
ei?aaeano?iaiey, a?aaeino?iaiey e o. ae., ana /aua iaia?oaeeaaaony
iaaeinoaoi/iinoue aaiiao?e/aneiai iiaeiaey oece/anee iaeii?iaeiuo
iauaeoia aeey i?iaiice?iaaiey naienoa iauaeoia aieueoeo ?acia?ia ia
iniiaaiee naienoa iauaeoia iaiueoeo ?acia?ia.

Ia?aue oaa a ?acaeoee o/aiey i iiaeiaee i?e oece/aneii iiaeaee?iaaiee
aue naeaeai E. Iuethoiiii (1643-1727), eioi?ue noi?ioee?iaae oneiaey
iiaeiaey iaoaie/aneeo yaeaiee. Aeaeaa ?acaeoea aeeeoaeueiia a?aiy oei
iooai ii?aaeaeaiey /anoiuo oneiaee iiaeiaey aeey yaeaiee oieueei
ii?aaeaeaiiie oece/aneie i?e?iaeu – ?aaiou E. I. Eoeeaeia (1735-1818) e
E. Yeea?a (1707-1783) a iaeanoe no?ieoaeueiie iaoaieee, A. E. Ee?ie/aaa
(1845-1913) a iaeanoe oi?oainoe e ae?.

E iaeiiaoe, a 1909-1914 aa. I. A. AEoeianeei, Ae. ?aeaai, O. Aoeeiaaiii
auea noi?ioee?iaaia oai?aia, iicaieythuay onoaiiaeoue oneiaey iiaeiaey
yaeaiee ethaie oece/aneie i?e?iaeu.

Ia?aeeaeueii oei ?acaeoea eiae/aneiai iiaeaee?iaaiey a ciaeiaie oi?ia,
yoi i?aaeaea anaai ?acaeoea iaoaiaoeee. A eiioea XVI a. Ae. Iaia?
(1550-1617) ecia?ae eiaa?eoiu. A eiioea XVII a. E. Iuethoii e A.
Eaeaieoe (1646-1716) nicaeaee aeeooa?aioeeaeueiia en/eneaiea. Iieo/atho
?acaeoea /eneaiiua iaoiaeu ?aoaiey ?acee/iuo caaea/.

E ia?aui au/eneeoaeueiui ono?ienoaai iiaeii ioianoe n/aou (XV-XVI a.),
eiaa?eoie/aneoth eeiaeeo (ia/aei XVII a.). Aeeeoaeueiia a?aiy
au/eneeoaeueiua ono?ienoaa auee eneeth/eoaeueii iaoaie/aneeie –
a?eoiiiao?, n/aoii – ?aoathuea iaoaieciu e o. i. E oieueei a 30-o aa.
iaoaai noieaoey ia/eiaaony ?acaeoea yeaeo?e/aneeo aiaeiaiauo e oeeo?iauo
au/eneeoaeueiuo ono?ienoa.

E ia?aua iaiauaiey aeaoo iai?aaeaiee iaoa?eaeueiiai iiaeaee?iaaiey – a)
oece/aneiai e a) oi?iaeueiiai n iiiiuueth au/eneeoaeueiuo ono?ienoa auee
naeaeaiu A. A. Aaieeiaui (1949 a.) e E. E. Aooaiiaoa?ii (1949 a.), a
caoai iieo/eee aeaeueiaeoaa ?acaeoea o E. I. Oaoaeueaaoia (1959 a.), A.
I. No/eeeia (1964 a.), I. I. Aeaaoaeaaa (1968 a.). Oeeinioneea
eiioeaioeee iniiaiuo iaueo aii?inia iiaeaee?iaaiey io?aaeaiu A. A.
Ooiooii, E. A. Iiaeeiaui, I. A. Oaiiaui e ae?. [2].

1.3. Aiaeiaey e iiaeiaea, eo niiiae/eiaiiinoue

Iao/iie iniiaie iiaeaee?iaaiey neoaeeo oai?ey aiaeiaee, a /anoiii
neo/aa – oece/aneiai e aiaeiaiaiai iiaeaee?iaaiey – oai?ey iiaeiaey, a
eioi?ie iniiaiui iiiyoeai yaeyaony – iiiyoea aiaeiaee -noiaenoai
iauaeoia ii eo ea/anoaaiiui e eiee/anoaaiiui i?eciaeai [1]. Oiaaea eae a
[4] oeacuaaaony, /oi eae ?ac oai?ey iiaeiaey eaaeeo a iniiaa
iiaeaee?iaaiey. Ii iniiauaaynue ia anai /oi ?anniao?eaaeinue ?aiaa e
[2,3,5-9], neaaeoao n/eoaoue aa?iui ia?aia ooaa?aeaeaiea.

Iniiaiua aeaeu ea/anoaaiiie aiaeiaee:

– oeie/aneay;

– oece/aneay;

– eeaa?iaoe/aneay.

Ana yoe aeaeu iauaaeeiythony iiiyoeai iaiauaiiie aiaeiaee –
aano?aeoeeae. Iia au?aaeaao iniaiai ?iaea niioaaonoaea iaaeaeo
niiinoaaeyaiuie iauaeoaie, iaaeaeo iiaeaeueth e i?ioioeiii.

Eeaa?iaoe/aneay aiaeiaey – iiaeiaea ooieoeee, aaaeouaa e onoaiiaeaieth
no?oeoo?iiai noiaenoaa n?aaieaaaiuo nenoai oi?aaeaiey e iaoiaeaeaiey
niiniaa (aeai?eoia) oi?aaeaiey, iaania/eaathuaai aeinoeaeaiea iioeioia
oeaee iooai i?aia?aciaaiey iioieia eioi?iaoeee. Eiinoaioie iiaeiaey a
aeaiiii neo/aa /anoi neoaeeo aeai?eoi iioeiaeueiiai oi?aaeaiey.

Oece/aneay aiaeiaey – iiaeiaea i?e iaee/ee oece/aneiai aiaeiaa.
Eiinoaiou iiaeiaey – aac?acia?iua aaee/eiu, a ?acoeueoao enneaaeiaaiey
i?aaeiieaaaao ?ane?uoea oece/aneiai niunea naieo o?aaiaiee.

Iniiaiui aeaeii eiee/anoaaiiie aiaeiaee yaeyaony iiiyoea iaoaiaoe/aneie
aiaeiaee. Yoi aiaeiaey oi?iu o?aaiaiee e aiaeiaey niioiioaiee iaaeaeo
ia?aiaiiuie a o?aaiaieyo i?eaeiaea e iiaeaee.

*anoiua neo/ae iaoaiaoe/aneie aiaeiaee – aaiiao?e/aneay, a?aiaiiay.
Aaiiao?e/aneay i?aaenoaaeyao niaie iiaeiaea i?ino?ainoaaiiuo i?iii?oeee
/anoae iauaeoa, iiaeiaea aaiiao?e/aneeo ia?acia. A?aiaiiay – iiaeiaea
ooieoeee a?aiaie, i?e eioi?ii eiinoaioa iiaeiaey iieacuaaao, a eaeii
ioiioaiee e iae iaoiaeyony oaeea ia?aiao?u, eae ia?eiae, caaea?aeea e o.
ae.

A eeoa?aoo?a ioia/aaony ia?ac?uaiay naycue iiaeaee n aiaeiaeae.

Ii “Aiaeiaey ia anoue iiaeaeue”. Iaii?aaeaeaiiinoe ii?iaeaeathony
ia/aoeei ?acee/eai:

a) aiaeiaee eae iiiyoey au?aaeathuaai oaeoe/aneia ioiioaiea noiaenoaa
iaaeaeo ?aciuie aauaie, i?ioeannaie, neooaoeeyie, i?iaeaiaie;

a) aiaeiaee eae iniaie eiaeee oiicaeeth/aiey;

a) aiaeiaee eae ya?enoe/aneiai iaoiaea iiciaiey;

a) aiaeiaee eae niiniaa aini?eyoey e iniuneaiey eioi?iaoeee;

ae) aiaeiaee eae n?aaenoaa ia?aiina ai?iae?iaaiiuo iaoiaeia e eaeae ec
iaeiie io?anee ciaiey a ae?oaoth, eae n?aaenoaa iino?iaiey e ?acaeoey
iao/iie oai?ee.

Niioaaonoaaiii yoiio iiaeii aeaoue ?acee/iua ii?aaeaeaiey aiaeiaee [ 3
]:

1. Aiaeiaey – iauaeoeaiay iniiaa iiaeaee?iaaiey.

Ii?aaeaeaiea: Aiaeiaey anoue iiiyoea, au?aaeathuaa ii?aaeaeaiiia
/anoe/iia eee iieiia iiaeiaea iaaeaeo ?acee/iuie iauaeoaie a oao eee
eiuo naienoaao, ooieoeeyo, niioiioaieyo yeaiaioia.

2. Ioee/ea iao/iie aiaeiaee io iaiao/iie (iaoaoi?, aeeaai?ee,
iauaeaiiuo i?aaenoaaeaiee e o. ae.) – oneiaea i?aaeeueiiai ii?aaeaeaiey
nouiinoe e ?iee aiaeiaee a iia?aoeeyo iao/iiai iiaeaee?iaaiey.

Ii?aaeaeaiea: Aiaeiaey- anoue annioeeaoeey iuneae i ?aciuo i?aaeiaoao.

3. Aiaeiaey – ya?enoe/aneee iaoiae iiaeaee?iaaiey.

Ii?aaeaeaiea: Aiaeiaey- anoue iaoiae iao/iiai iienea e iiyniaiey
(?acuyniaiey, iauyniaiey) eco/aaiiai iauaeoa iin?aaenoaii niiinoaaeaiey
aai n ecaanoiui iaaeyaeiui iauaeoii.

4. Aiaeiaey – niinia aini?eyoey e oai?aoe/aneiai iniuneaiey
eioi?iaoeee, e a yoii niunea iia yaeyaony n?aaenoaii auai?a iiaeaee.

Ii?aaeaeaiea: Aiaeiaey – anoue oai?aoe/aneee iaoiae iauyniaiey
aecoaeueii iaiaaethaeaaiuo iauaeoia.

5. Aiaeiaey – eiae/aneay iniiaa iiaeaee?iaaiey, ii iaaeinoaoi/ii aa
ii?aaeaeyoue eae “ia?aiin eioi?iaoeee io iiaeaee ia i?ioioei” eee eae
“ia?aoiae io iiaeaee e i?ioioeio”.

Ii?aaeaeaiea: Iao/iay aiaeiaey – anoue oiicaeeth/aiea, a oiaea eioi?iai
ia iniiaaiee iaia?oaeaiey noiaenoaa eee iauiinoe ?yaea nouanoaaiiuo
i?eciaeia o aeaoo iauaeoia eee /anoe/iiai oiaeaeanoaa niioiioaiee eo
yeaiaioia e o/aoa ?acee/ee iaaeaeo ieie a ae?oaeo ioiioaieyo aeaeaaony
auaiae i oii, /oi iaeiiio ec ieo i?enoue oaeea naienoaa, eioi?ua
iaia?oaeaiu i?e enneaaeiaaiee ae?oaiai iauaeoa (iiaeaee).

Auaiae ii aiaeiaee aeeth/aao eioa?i?aoaoeeth eioi?iaoeee, iieo/aiiie
enneaaeiaaieai iiaeaee. Oaeie auaiae ia naiaeeony e yeno?aiieyoeee
eioi?iaoeee n iaeiiai iauaeoa ia ae?oaie. Aeaaiia caeeth/aaony a oii,
/oiau iauynieoue eioi?iaoeeth, iniuneeoue aa, ii?aaeaeeoue e au?aceoue
?acoeueoao enneaaeiaaiey iiaeaee a oa?ieiao i?aaeiaoa-i?eaeiaea.
Eioa?i?aoaoeeth e iiaeoaa?aeaeaiea ?acoeueoaoia iiaeaee?iaaiey neaaeoao
?anniao?eaaoue eae iniiaiie a?aoiaio a iieueco oacena i oii, /oi
aiaeiaey e aa /anoiue neo/ae – iiaeiaea – anoue iauaeoeaiia e
eiae/aneia iniiaaiea iaoiaea iiaeaee?iaaiey.

Aiiaua, aiaeiaey yoi n?aaeiaa, iiin?aaeothuaa caaii iaaeaeo iiaeaeueth
e iauaeoii. Ooieoeey oaeiai caaia caeeth/aaony:

a) a niiinoaaeaiee ?acee/iuo iauaeoia, iaia?oaeaiee e aiaeeca
iauaeoeaiiai noiaenoaa ii?aaeaeaiiuo naienoa, ioiioaiee, i?enoueo yoei
iauaeoai;

a) a iia?aoeeyo ?annoaeaeaiey e auaiaeao ii aiaeiaee, o. a. a
oiicaeeth/aieyo ii aiaeiaee.

Iniaaiiinoue niiniaa iieo/aiey auaiaeia ii aiaeiaee a eiae/aneie
eeoa?aoo?a iieo/eea iacaaiea o?aaeoeoeey – ia?aiin ioiioaiee (naienoa,
ooieoeee e o. ae.) io iaeieo i?aaeiaoia ia ae?oaea. O?aaeoeoeaiue niinia
?annoaeaeaiee eniieuecoaony i?e niiinoaaeaiee ?acee/iuo i?aaeiaoia ii
eiee/anoao, ea/anoao, i?ino?ainoaaiiiio iieiaeaieth, a?aiaiiie
oa?aeoa?enoeea, iiaaaeaieth, ooieoeeiiaeueiui ia?aiao?ai no?oeoo?u e o.
ae.

Ii?iaoeaiua oneiaey, niaethaeaiea eioi?uo iiauoaao noaiaiue
aeinoiaa?iinoe caeeth/aiey ii aiaeiaee e iaania/eaaao i?aaeeueiinoue
oiicaeeth/aiee:

1. *ai aieueoa iaueo naienoa eee noiaeiuo i?eciaeia o n?aaieaaaiuo
i?aaeiaoia, oai aa?iyoiaa eo iaeeiaeiainoue e a ae?oaeo ioiioaieyo.

2. *ai nouanoaaiiaa iaeaeaiiua iauea naienoaa, oai auoa noaiaiue
i?aaiia?iinoe auaiaea.

3. *ai aeoaaea iiciaia acaeiiay caeiiiia?iay naycue noiaeiuo i?eciaeia,
oai auaiae aeeaea e aeinoiaa?iinoe.

4. Nouanoaotho oneiaey ia?aie/aiey, cai?auathuea ia?aiineoue ia
i?aaeiao ?acoeueoaou aeaenoaey a?aiaie, anee oaeiaua ia naycaiu n
i?aaeiaoaie ii nouanoao eee ii aai i?ienoiaeaeaieth.

5. Iauea naienoaa aeieaeiu auoue aiciiaeii aieaa oa?aeoa?iuie aeey
n?aaieaaaiuo i?aaeiaoia.

6. Ia?aiineiua naienoaa aeieaeiu auoue oiai aea oeia, /oi e iauea
naienoaa.

7. I?aaeiaou aeieaeiu n?aaieaaoueny ii ethaui neo/aeii aua?aiiui
naienoaai.

A iauai neo/aa iiae iiaeiaeai iiieiaaony oaeia acaeiiiaeiicia/iia
niioaaonoaea iaaeaeo niiinoaaeyaiuie iauaeoaie (i?ioeannaie), i?e
eioi?uo ooieoeee eee i?aaeea ia?aoiaea io ia?aiao?ia, oa?aeoa?ecothueo a
oii eee eiii niunea iaeei ec iauaeoia, e ia?aiao?ai, a oii aea niunea
oa?aeoa?ecothuei ae?oaie iauaeo, ecaanoiu, a iaoaiaoe/aneea iienaiey
(anee iie eiathony eee iioaioeeaeueii iiaoo auoue iieo/aiu) aeiioneatho
eo i?aia?aciaaiea e oiaeaeanoaaiiiio aeaeo.

2. ?ieue iiaeaee?iaaiey a iiciaaaoaeueiie e i?aeoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe.
Oaiiiaiieiae/aneee iaoiae iiciaiey.

2.1. Iiaeaee?iaaiea eae niinia e n?aaenoai

iienaiey ie?a

Iiiyoea “iiaeaeue” aicieeei a i?ioeanna iiuoiiai eco/aiey ie?a, a naii
neiai “iiaeaeue” i?iecioei io eaoeineeo neia modus, modulus, icia/athueo
ia?o, ia?ac, niinia. Ia?aiia/aeueiia ?acaeoea iiaeaee iieo/eee a
no?ieoaeueiii eneonnoaa. ?acee/iua aaue, naeaeaiiua ia iniiaa eaeeo-eeai
ecia?aiee, aini?iecaiaeyueo /oi-eeai eee yaeythueany i?iia?acii /aai-oi,
eaeeie-oi ia?acoeaie aeey ae?oaeo aauae, noaee iacuaaoue iiaeaeyie.

Iiaeii iiiai i?eaanoe i?eia?ia iiaeaeae, i?e iiiiue eioi?uo
iienuaathony e eco/athony oa eee eiua yaeaiey.

Oae iai?eia?, ia iiaeaeyo noaee eco/aoue oa/aiea aiaeyiuo iioieia,
?acee/iua aeae?iaeeiaie/aneea yaeaiey, i?ienoiaeyuea i?e iiuiuo ac?uaao,
i?e caieao?ynaieyo.

Iiaeaeue aeaao aiciiaeiinoue iaaethaeaoue oaeea yaeaiey eae,
ecaa?aeaiea aoeeaia, aicieeiiaaiea e en/aciiaaiea ai?iuo nenoai. Iiaeaee
oe?iei i?eiaiythony a ei?aaeano?iaiee, naiieaoino?iaiee, yaea?iie
oeceea, a oaeaea no?ieoaeuenoaa.

Niiniau nicaeaiey iiaeaeae ?acee/iu: oece/aneea, iaoaiaoe/aneea,
oeceei-iaoaiaoe/aneea.

Oece/aneia iiaeaee?iaaiea oa?aeoa?ecoaony i?aaeaea anaai oai, /oi
enneaaeiaaiey i?iaiaeyony ia onoaiiaeao, iaeaaeathueo oece/aneei
iiaeiaeai, o. a. nio?aiythueo iieiinoueth eee oioy au a iniiaiii
i?e?iaeo yaeaiee. Anee inouanoaeaii iieiia eee iaiieiia oece/aneia
iiaeaee?iaaiea, oi ii oa?aeoa?enoeeai iiaeaee iiaeii iieo/eoue ana
oa?aeoa?enoeee i?eaeiaea ia?an/aoii /a?ac ianooaaiua eiyooeoeeaiou.

Iaoaiaoe/aneia iiaeaee?iaaiea iaeaaeaao aieaa oe?ieeie aiciiaeiinoyie.
Iiae yoei aeaeii iiaeaee?iaaiey iiieiatho niinia enneaaeiaaiey ?acee/iuo
i?ioeannia iooai eco/aiey yaeaiee, eiathueo ?acee/iia oece/aneia
niaea?aeaiea, ii iienuaaaiuo iaeeiaeiauie iaoaiaoe/aneeie iiaeaeyie.
Iai?eia?, eieaaaiey e aieiu ?acee/iie i?e?iaeu ( eieaaaiey iayoieea e
eieaaaiey a yeaeo?e/aneie oeaie aiaeiae/iu).

E iaoaiaoe/aneei iiaeaeyi iiaeii ioianoe aeai?eoiu e i?ia?aiiu,
ninoaaeaiiua aeey au/eneeoaeueiuo iaoei. Yoe i?ia?aiiu a oneiaiuo ciaeao
io?aaeatho (iiaeaee?otho) ii?aaeaeaiiua i?ioeannu, iienaiiua
aeeooa?aioeeaeueiuie o?aaiaieyie, iieiaeaiiuie a iniiao aeai?eoiia.

Iaoaiaoe/aneia iiaeaee?iaaiea eiaao ia?iiiia i?aeiouanoai.

Iineieueeo i?e yoii niiniaa iiaeaee?iaaiey iao iaiaoiaeeiinoe nio?aiyoue
?acia?u nii?oaeaiee, iaa?ocee ia yeaiaiou eiino?oeoeee, eiaaony
aiciiaeiinoue iieo/eoue nouanoaaiiue auea?uo ai a?aiaie e noieiinoe
enneaaeiaaiey.

Oeceei-iaoaiaoe/aneia iiaeaee?iaaiea niaaeeiyao a naaa yeaiaiou e
oece/aneiai e iaoaiaoe/aneiai iiaeaee?iaaiey.

Oaeei ia?acii iiaeaee?iaaiea i?aa?auaaony a iaeei ec oieaa?naeueiuo
iaoiaeia iiciaiey, i?eiaiyaiuo ai anao nia?aiaiiuo iaoeao, eae
anoanoaaiiuo, oae e iauanoaaiiuo, eae oai?aoe/aneeo, oae e
yenia?eiaioaeueiuo, oaoie/aneeo.

A i?aeoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe iiaeaee?iaaiea ea?aao iaiaeiaaaeioth
?ieue. Yoi iao/athuea i?ia?aiiu aeey eao/eeia, einiiiaaoia,
eiiiuethoa?iua iao/athuea i?ia?aiiu a naiuo ?acee/iuo aa?eaioao,
i?ia?aiiu – aeecaeia?u, ea?iaua e iiiaea ae?oaea. Aiciiaeiinoe
eiiiuethoa?iuo oaoiieiaee o?oaeii iienaoue a ianeieueeeo neiaao e
caneoaeeaatho ioaeaeueiiai ?acaiai?a.

2.2. Iiaeaeue e yenia?eiaio. Aeinoiaa?iinoue iiaeaee

A oeaeii i?e ?aoaiee ethaie caaea/e iniiaioth ?ieue ea?atho yenia?eiaio
e iiaeaeue, a oaeaea aiaeec iieo/aiiuo ?acoeueoaoia. Aeey enneaaeiaaoaey
yoe yeaiaiou iaioaeaeeiu ae?oa io ae?oaa. Iiaeaeue aeaao i?aaeeueii
iinoaaeaiiue yenia?eiaio, a yenia?eiaio ooi/iyao iiaeaeue. Iai?eia?, i?e
nii?oaeaiee aeaeaciiaei?iaeiuo iinoia Ae.E. AEo?aaneee i?eiaiee
ieieyenia?eiaio aeey ii?aaeaeaiey ?acia?ia ninoaaiuo /anoae oa?i iinoia.
?aiaa aeey eo ii?aaeaeaiey i?eiaiyeenue oi?iuaiiua i?eaiu e ana ?aneinu
e oyaee eaaeaeie oa?iu aeaeaeenue iaeiiai e oiai aea ?acia?a. Auaiaeu i
oii, /oi eo iaa?ocee iaiaeeiaeiau, nia/aea eacaeenue iai?aaaeiiiaeiaiuie
e auee i?iaa?aiu ia iiaeaee ec iaoaee/aneie i?iaieiee. Ia yoie iiaeaee
ieacaeinue aiciiaeiui, i?iaiaey niu/eii io ne?eiee ii i?iaieieai
iiaeaee, ?aniieiaeaiiui aaeece iii?u oa?iu, iieo/aoue aieaa aunieee oii,
/ai ia i?iaieieao, ?aniieiaeaiiuo a na?aaeeia; neaaeiaaoaeueii,
ieacaeinue ynii, /oi ia?aua ioaeii iaoyiooue cia/eoaeueii neeueiaa
aoi?uo.

Iiaeaee?iaaiea ii nooe yaeyaony iaoiaeieiaeae yenia?eiaioa.

Iii oeacuaaao eae noaaeoue yenia?eiaio e eae ia?aaaouaaoue aai aeaiiua,
/oiau iieo/eoue ?acoeueoao, ia oieueei aeinoiaa?iue a aeaiiii /anoiii
neo/aa, ii e ?ani?ino?aiythueeny ia a?oiio iiaeiaiuo yaeaiee.

Yenia?eiaio eiaao aeaa iai?aaeaiey:

– ieaie?iaaiea yenia?eiaioa – iaoiaeeea i?iaaaeaiey iaaethaeaiee ca
yaeaieyie (ianneaiue yenia?eiaio) e iaeiia?aiaiii oaeoth noeioeyoeeth
eco/aaiuo yaeaiee (aeoeaiue yenia?eiaio), eioi?ay iicaieeea au iaeaieaa
auno?i, n iaiueoei /eneii iiuoia iaeoe iaeaieaa oa?aeoa?iua caaeneiinoe
eee oi/ee (aeoeaiue – yeno?aiaeueiue yenia?eiaio). E?iia oiai,
oeaio?aeueiia ianoi caieiatho aii?inu i?aaiecaoeee iiuoia i?e o/aoa ia
iaeiiai, a iiiaeo aeeythueo oaeoi?ia. Oaeie iiiaioaeoi?iue yenia?eiaio
aeieaeai i?iaiaeeoueny niaeanii /aoeie noaia, i?aaeoniao?eaathuae
yeno?aiaeueiue e aa?iyoiinoiue iiaeoiaeu e enneaaeiaaieyi;

– ia?aaioea aeaiiuo- iaoiaeeea ?an/aoa e iino?iaiey aeinoiaa?iuo
oa?aeoa?enoee ia iniiaa iiuoiuo aeaiiuo, /oi iaecaaaeii eiaao
iia?aoiinoe, io?aaeathueany, a /anoiinoe, a “?aca?ina” iiuoiuo oi/ae.

Aa?iyoiinoiue iiaeoiae i?aaeeaaaao ia i?aiaeieaaaoue neo/aeiua,
aa?iyoiinoiua neooaoeee, a, iai?ioea eneonnoaaiii nicaeaaaoue eo.

Yeno?aiaeueiue iiaeoiae iai?aaeai ia auno?ia auyaeaiea iaeaieaa
nouanoaaiiuo oa?aeoa?enoee e eo oi/ae. I?aaeeaaaao i?iaiaeeoue iiuou a
ethaie neiaeiie, iaeeiaeiie nenoaia, nia/aea iaoiaey aa eeiaeiia
i?eaeeaeaiea.

Aeinoiaa?iinoue iiaeaee aeinoeaaaony iin?aaenoaii iaaethaeaiey a
ii?iaeueiuo oneiaeyo, aini?eyoey eee yenia?eiaioaeueiiai enneaaeiaaiey
iauaeoia iiciaiey, eiae/anee i?aaeeueiie ia?aaioee iiuoiuo aeaiiuo,
iieo/aiiuo oaeei iooai, e e?iia oiai iin?aaenoaii eiae/aneeo auaiaeia ec
eiathuaainy ciaiey.

2.3. Iiaeaee?iaaiea a oaoieea.

“Ae?ooaeueiay” ?aaeueiinoue

Iaeanoue i?eiaiaiey iiaeaeae ana a?aiy ?anoe?yaony: a yeiiiieea,
aeieiaee, iaaeeoeeia, enoi?e/aneeo e ae?oaeo iauanoaaiiuo iaoeao, o. a.
a naiuo ?aciiia?aciuo i?ioeannao. Ieacaeinue, /oi eae i?aaeei, iienaiea
oaeiai ?iaea i?ioeannia i a c a i e i o o i, a iiaeaeyo i?enoonoaotho
“naiaiaeiua ia?aiao?u” eee ooieoeee, eioi?ua ia ii?aaeaeaiu. Ae?oaeie
neiaaie, oaeea i?ioeannu aeieaeiu oi?aaeyoueny /aeiaaeii e aicieeaao
i?iaeaia iiaeaee?iaaiey eiiieaena “/aeiaae-iaoeia” n io?aaeaieai a iai
“iiaeaee /aeiaa/aneeo ooieoeee”. Oaeei ia?acii, neiaeiinoue e
eiiieaeniinoue iauaeoia, eioi?ua iiaoo eco/aoueny iaoiaeaie
iiaeaee?iaaiey a oaoieea, i?aeoe/anee ia ia?aie/aiu.

A iineaaeiea aeanyoeeaoey ana e?oiiua nii?oaeaiey enneaaeiaaeenue ia
iiaeaeyo. Iai?eia?, aeae?iyia?aaoe/aneea iauaeou (ieioeiu, eaiaeu,
aeae?ioo?aeiu aeey oaeeo noaioeee eae Aieaeneay, Aieaia?aaeneay,
A?aoneay, E?aniiy?neay AYN) enneaaeiaaeenue ia oece/aneeo iiaeaeyo,
ecia?aaeathueo a oiaiueoaiiii ianooaaa yoe a?aiaeeiciua nii?oaeaiey.
Aieueoia cia/aiea aeey nii?oaeaiey yeaeo?e/aneeo nenoai e aeaeueieo
yeaeo?iia?aaea/ eiaee enneaaeiaaiey eo ?aaeeiia ia oece/aneeo iiaeaeyo,
nicaeaaaaiuo a noaaeee i?iaeoe?iaaiey e iicaieythueo i?iaa?eoue
oai?aoe/aneea iieiaeaiey, eaaeauea a iniiaa ?an/aoia, e aeaenoaea
?acee/iuo ?aaoee?othueo ono?ienoa, aiia?aoo?u, ?aeaeiie caueou e o. ae.
I?e nicaeaiee e niaa?oainoaiaaiee iaaeeiioeiaioaeueiuo e einie/aneeo
?aeao ia oece/aneeo iiaeaeyo oniaoii i?iaiaeeeenue enneaaeiaaiey
ay?iaeeiaie/aneeo naienoa ?aeao, aeeyiea eiiecaoeee aicaeooa aia?aaee
aieiaiie /anoe ?aeaou e o. ae.

Oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiaiiua niaoeeaeueiua iiaeaee, iau/ii auiieiyaiua a
aeaea ni/aoaiey oece/aneie e iaoaiaoe/aneie iiaeaee n iaoo?iuie
i?eai?aie, noaee i?eiaiyoueny aeey iaeaaeee i?eai?ia oi?aaeaiey e
o?aie?iaee ia?niiaea, oi?aaeythuaai ?acee/iuie neiaeiuie iauaeoaie. A
ia?aii neo/aa yoe iiaeaee noaee iacuaaoueny – eniuoaoaeueiuie noaiaeaie,
a ai aoi?ii – o?aiaaea?aie. O?aiaaea?u i?eiaiythony aeey iao/aiey
?acee/iiai yenieoaoaoeeiiiiai ia?niiaea; iniaia cia/aiea iie eiatho i?e
iiaeaioiaea eao/eeia, einiiiaaoia, iiaeaiaeieeia a yeno?aiaeueiuo
neooaoeeyo e i?inoi o?aie?iaea. A aoaeouai o?aiaaea?u aeieaeiu iaeoe
i?eiaiaiea e i?e iiaeaioiaea ia?niiaea aeey yia?ainenoai.

Iau/ii i?eai?u e i?aaiu oi?aaeaiey a o?aiaaea?ao
nio?aiythony ii?iaeueiuie, i?eiaiyaiuie a i?aeoeea. Iai?eia?, o?aiaaea?u
aeey eao/eeia aini?iecaiaeyo o iao/aaiiai ana oece/aneea iuouaiey,
naycaiiua n iieaoii a ethaii iai?aaeaiee, iiaeuaiii, nioneii.

Iiaeaee?iaaiea i/aiue aaaeii aua e aeey oiai, /oiau ii?aaeaeeoue
i?aeoeeo. Iai?eia?, eiaaea ia?aay a ie?a yeaeo?iia?aaea/a 500 eAo
oieueei i?iaeoe?iaaeanue – ia iiaeaee oaea auea eco/aia aa ?aaioa,
ia?aue iannaaee?neee naa?ocaoeiaie naiieao aua oieueei nicaeaaaeny, a
aai aoaeouea ieeiou oaea i?iaiaeeee o?aie?iaee ii oi?aaeaieth iaoeiie.
“Aiaeeoue” aua ia iino?iaiiue naiieao o/eeenue ia iiaeaea-noaiaea. Ii
yaeyeny eiieae eaaeiu eao/eeia ni anaie i?eai?aie, ono?ienoaaie
oi?aaeaiey e nayce. Eiaeny oaeaea ioeueo, n eioi?iai eino?oeoi? iia
caaeaaaoue oneiaey “iieaoa” e eiio?iee?iaaoue aeaenoaey yeeiaaea.
Oaeaaeceiiiay aiia?aoo?a, iaaieoioiiu, aeiee eieoaoeee o?ynee
i?aaeiacia/aeenue aeey nicaeaiey niioaaonoaothuae “eaoiie” ianoaiiaee.
Iicaii iiaeaee-noaiaea yaeyeanue au/eneeoaeueiay iaoeia, ?aoaaoay
aeeooa?aioeeaeueiua o?aaiaiey aeaeaeaiey naiieaoa.

Iiaeaee?iaaiea aiciiaeii e a aiaiiie noa?a – yoi oi?ioi ecaanoiua
iaiaa?u, a eioi?uo iiaeaee?oaony i?eiaiaiea i?oaeey e acaeiiaeaenoaey n
i?ioeaieeii. Oioy, eae oeacuaaaony a [12], ieii/aoaeueiia i?eiyoea
?aoaiey caaeneo io “aaiey” iieeiaiaeoea.

A iineaaeiaa a?aiy iniaia cia/aiea i?eia?aei iiaeaee?iaaiea
aeieiae/aneeo e oeceieiae/aneeo i?ioeannia. Oae nicaeathony i?ioacu oao
eee eiuo i?aaiia /aeiaaea, oi?aaeyaiua aeioieaie. ?ac?aaaouaathony
onoaiiaee, iiaeaee?othuea oneiaey, iaiaoiaeeiua aeey ?acaeoey aeeauo
oeaiae e i?aaieciia.

Iaeioi?ua ooieoeee /aeiaa/aneiai iicaa e ia?aiie nenoaiu iiaeaee?othony
n iiiiuueth niaoeeaeueiuo iiaeaeae (ooieoeeiiaeueiuo eee, eae eo eia/a
iacuaatho, eeaa?iaoe/aneeo). Ia io?aaeay aioo?aiiae no?oeoo?u iauaeoa,
oaeea iiaeaee a ii?aaeaeaiiuo oneiaeyo aini?iecaiaeyo aai ooieoeee.
Iai?eia?, iiaeaee na?aeoea e eaaeeo, auiieiythuea iaeioi?ua ooieoeee
yoeo i?aaiia, i?eiaiythony ai a?aiy iia?aoeee.

Aieueoia ?acaeoea iieo/aao iiaay iaoea- aeiieea, a eioi?ie
cia/eoaeueioth ?ieue ea?aao eeaa?iaoe/aneia – ooieoeeiiaeueiia
iiaeaee?iaaiea aeeauo i?aaieciia, inouanoaeyaiia n?aaenoaaie nia?aiaiiie
yeaeo?iieee.

2.4. iiaeaee?iaaiea iauanoaaiii-enoi?e/aneeo i?ioeannia.

O/aiua, ?aaioathuea a noa?a anoanoaiciaiey, oaoieee, iaoaiaoeee,
auiieiytho a naieo iaeanoyo ciaiey oaeea enneaaeiaaiey, eioi?ua eiatho
i?yiie auoiae a nioeeaeueioth noa?o. Iai?eia?, enneaaeiaaiey aeeyiey
i?iiuoeaiiiai ?acaeoey e eniuoaiee i?oaeey ianniaiai ii?aaeaiey ia
naenie/iinoue caiiuo iaae?, eeeiao e aeieiaeth eiaao aieueoia
nioeeaeueiia cia/aiea.

Naeaeaoaeuenoaii iauaeoeaii i?ienoiaeyueo i?ioeannia
acaeiii?iieeiiaaiey e oneeaiey acaeiinaycae iaaeaeo iauanoaaiiuie e
anoanoaaiiuie iaoeaie yaeyaony iaiai iaoiaeaie iaaeaeo ieie.
Anoanoaiciaiea, iai?eia?, oaea aeaaii ia iiaeao iaieoenue aac
enoi?e/aneiai iaoiaea. A oi aea a?aiy, yenia?eiaioaeueiue iaoiae
enneaaeiaaiey e oi/iua eiee/anoaaiiua iaoiaeu (eioi?ua ?aiueoa auee
i?a?iaaoeaie oieueei anoanoaaiiiiao/iiai iiciaiey) oaia?ue ana oe?a
eniieuecothony a iiciaiee nioeeaeueiii. I?ia?ann nioeeaeueiuo iaoe a OO
noieaoee a iaiaeie noaiaie naycai n i?eiaiaieai iaoiaea nioeeaeueiiai
yenia?eiaioe?iaaiey, oi?iaeecaoeeae ciaiee, ana ?anoe?ythueiny
eniieueciaaieai iiaeaee?iaaiey, yeaeo?iiii-au/eneeoaeueiie oaoieee e o.
ae.

Nioeeaeueiue yenia?eiaio auiieiyao aeaa ooieoeee: enneaaeiaaoaeueneoth
e oi?aaeai/aneoth. I?eiaiyaony eae a iaoeao, enneaaeothueo ?acee/iua
nioeeaeueiua noa?u (yeiiiieea, iaaeaaiaeea, nioeeaeueiay ineoieiaey e
ae?.,) oae e a nioeeaeueiii oi?aaeaiee, aaea i?iaeoe?othony e
aiaae?ythony iiaua e niaa?oainoaothony eiathueany nioeeaeueiua oi?iu.

Nioeeaeueiue yenia?eiaio eiaao ia?aie/aiey:

– iaaiciiaeiinoue aicaeaenoaiaaoue ia eco/aaiua iauaeou (a enoi?e/aneeo
enneaaeiaaieyo eco/aaiua i?ioeannu, niauoey aacaica?aoii ioioee a
i?ioeia);

– a neo/aa i?eioeeieaeueiie aeinooiiinoe yenia?eiaioaeueiuo aicaeaenoaee
ia eco/aaiue nioeeaeueiue iauaeo, iaiaoiaeeii n/eoaoueny n
aiciiaeiinoueth io?eoeaoaeueiuo iineaaenoaee;

– o?oaeii nicaeaoue aeaeaaiue aa?eaio yenia?eiaioaeueiie neooaoeee,
ia?aaiae iauaeoa a iiaua ninoiyiey a oiaea nioeeaeueiiai yenia?eiaioa ia
aeieaeai ia?ooaoue aai ooieoeeiie?iaaiey;

– neiaeii i?eiaiaiea yenia?eiaioaeueiiai iaoiaea i?e enneaaeiaaiee
nioeeaeueii-iieeoe/aneeo aii?inia, iineieueeo iaaeieai e iieiinoueth
“ioai?iaeeoue” eaeoth-eeai a?oiio ethaeae io anae niaieoiiinoe
iauanoaaiiuo naycae, iinoaaea eo a iniaua oneiaey aeecie e oi?aaeaiey,
yaeyaony aeiaieueii cao?oaeieoaeueii;

– iauanoaaiiua aeaenoaey ee/iinoae, oai aieaa eo /oanoaa, iano?iaiey e
o. i. o?oaeii iiaeaeathony yenia?eiaioaeueiiio eco/aieth.

O?oaeiinoe inouanoaeaiey yenia?eiaioia a i?ioeanna nioeeaeueiiai
iiciaiey o?aaiaaee niioaaonoaothueo iaoiaeieiae/aneeo ?aoaiee. Iie
iiaoaeeee enneaaeiaaoaeae ei ana aieaa oe?ieiio eniieueciaaieth
iiaeaeueiiai yenia?eiaioe?iaaiey, a eioi?ii ?aaeueiua nioeeaeueiua
iauaeou caiauatho eo iiaeaeyie. I?eiaiaiea iiaeaeae iicaieyao
i?iaiaeeoue eiio?iee?oaiua yenia?eiaiou a neooaoeeyo, – aanueia
oa?aeoa?iuo aeey nioeeaeueiiai iiciaiey, – aaea yenia?eiaioe?iaaiea ia
?aaeueiuo iauaeoao yaeyaony i?aeoe/anee iaaiciiaeiui eee ii eaeei-oi
i?e/eiai (yeiiiie/aneei, i?aanoaaiiui e o. ae.) iaoeaeaniia?aciui.

Iaoaiaoe/aneea iaoiaeu e iiaeaee i?iaeaiiino?e?iaaee naith
ieiaeioai?iinoue i?e eco/aiee naiuo ?acee/iuo nioeeaeueiuo yaeaiee –
aeaiia?aoe/aneeo, nioeeaeueii-iieeoe/aneeo e o. ae. Ii eo i?eiaiaiea
ia/aeinue n yeiiiie/aneie noa?u, caoai noaea ?acaeaaoueny iaoaiaoe/aneay
oeiea a iieeoyeiiiiey, a eiioea OIO- ia/aea OO a.a. iieo/eei ?acaeoea
noaoenoe/aneia iai?aaeaiea. Aai aeaaiie caaea/ae auei eco/aiea
yeiiiie/aneeo oeeeeia e i?iaiice?iaaiea oicyenoaaiiie eiiuthieoo?u ia
iniiaa iaoiaeia iaoaiaoe/aneie noaoenoeee.

Oaoiieiaey eieoaoeeiiiiai iiaeaee?iaaiey naiaeeony e eiino?oe?iaaieth
iuneaiiie iiaeaee, eieoe?othuae iauaeou eee i?ioeannu ii ioaeiui, ii ia
iieiui iieacaoaeyi. Eiaiii iaiieiioa iienaiey iauaeoa, i?ioeanna aeaeaao
eieoaoeeiiioth iiaeaeue i?eioeeieaeueii ioee/iie io iaoaiaoe/aneie a
o?aaeeoeeiiiii iiieiaiee. Yoi i?eia?aoaao iniaoth cia/eiinoue i?e
iiaeaee?iaaiee nioeeaeueiuo i?ioeannia, oa?aeoa?ecothueony /?acau/aeiie
neiaeiinoueth eae ec-ca aieueoiai /enea ?acee/iuo oaeoi?ia e eo
acaeiinaycae, oae e ec-ca i?enoonoaey n?aaee ieo iniauo, noauaeoeaiuo
oaeoi?ia.

I?e iiiiue eieoaoeeiiiiai iiaeaee?iaaiey iieo/aiu ieiaeioai?iua
?acoeueoaou a ?acee/iuo iaeanoyo nioeeaeueiiai iiciaiey (eiiia?/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoe, ia?eaoeiaa, iieeoeea, nenoaia ia?aciaaiey,
e?eieiaeenoeea e o. ae.).

Ia?iiiue iauai eioi?iaoeee, oa?aeoa?ecothuee iauaeou nioeeaeueiiai
iiciaiey, o?oaeiinoe o/aoa aieueoiai /enea oaeoi?ia, eiae/aneeo
acaeiinaycae e eiee/anoaaiiuo niioiioaiee iaaeaeo ieie aeaeatho
iaiineeueiui aeey /aeiaaea-enneaaeiaaoaey iia?e?iaaiea iuneaiiuie
iiaeaeyie nioeeaeueiuo i?ioeannia. Ionthaea aicieeaao iaiaoiaeeiinoue
i?eaea/aiey aeey iiaeaee?iaaiey nioeeaeueiuo i?ioeannia eioi?iaoeeiiiuo
aiciiaeiinoae nia?aiaiiie yeaeo?iiii – au/eneeoaeueiie oaoieee.

Oae aicieeei aaaeiia iai?aaeaiea a iao/iii iiciaiee, iniiaaiiia, n
iaeiie noi?iiu, ia eniieueciaaiee i?eioeeieaeueii iiauo iaoaiaoe/aneeo
iiaeaeae, a n ae?oaie – ia i?eiaiaiee YAI aeey yenia?eiaioe?iaaiey n
yoeie iiaeaeyie.

?acaeoea YAI e iaoiaeieiaee nenoaiiiai aiaeeca iaania/eaaao
aiciiaeiinoe aeey eco/aiey ana aieaa oe?ieiianooaaiuo nioeeaeueiuo
i?ioeannia. Aicieeaao oae iacuaaaiia aeiaaeueiia iiaeaee?iaaiea e ia aai
iniiaa – i?iaiice?iaaiea ie?iauo nioeeaeueiuo yaeaiee.

Iniiaiiieiaeieeii e “eaeaeiui iooeii” oaeiai ?iaea enneaaeiaaiee
n/eoaaony Aeae. Oi??anoi?. A naiae ?aaioa “Ie?iaay aeeiaieea” (1971 a.)
ii naeaeae oniaoioth iiiuoeo eniieueciaaoue iaoaiaoe/aneea iaoiaeu e
eiiiuethoa?ioth oaoieeo aeey nicaeaiey aa?eaioa iiaeaee yeiiiie/aneiai
?acaeoey iauanoaa n o/aoii aeaoo aaaeiaeoeo oaeoi?ia – /eneaiiinoe
ianaeaiey e caa?yciaiey ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu.

A 80-o aiaeao iiyaeythony i?eaeiaeueiua ?aaiou a iaeanoe aeiaaeueiiai
iiaeaee?iaaiey a Niaaoneii Nithca. A?oiiie o/aiuo iiae ?oeiaiaenoaii
I.I.Iienaaaa, auea naeaeaia iiiuoea i?iaiaeece?iaaoue iaoaiaoe/aneeie
iaoiaeaie no?oeoo?o iaaeaeoia?iaeiie eiioeeeoiie neooaoeee.

Iniiaiie auaiae, eioi?ue aue neaaeiaae ec aiaeeca ninoaaeaiiie iiaeaee,
ninoiye a neaaeothuai. Ianiio?y ia neiaeioth caaeneiinoue oeaeaaie
ooieoeee, iauae aeey anao ia?oia?ia (ooieoeee ?enea yaea?iie aieiu), a
aeaenoaeyo o/anoieeia eiioeeeoa, a oaeie naa?oneiaeiie e naa?oiianiie
neooaoeee, eaeie yaeyaony aiiea yaea?iuo aii?oaeaiee, nouanoaoao
acaeiiauaiaeiue e yooaeoeaiue eiii?iienn. (Iienaaa I.I. Iiaia iuoeaiea –
einoeooo niaeaney // “Ecaanoey”, 14 oaa?aey 1987 a. n.5. Iienaaa I.I.
*aeiaae e iiinoa?a. I.,1990. n.300-302.)

Iiaeaee?iaaiea iauanoaaiii-enoi?e/aneeo i?ioeannia aua n?aaieoaeueii
iieiaei. Ii a aai ?aieao oaea aeinoeaioou aanueia eioa?aniua
?acoeueoaou, iaiaoeeenue i?eioeeieaeueii iiaua acaeyaeu ia iooe
aeaeueiaeoaai ?acaeoey oeeaeeecaoeee.

2.5. I?iaiice?iaaiea ?acaeoey i?e?iaeu e iauanoaa

Ia nia?aiaiiii yoaia ?acaeoey iaoee e oaoieee aieueoia cia/aiea
i?eia?aoatho caaea/e i?aaeneacaiey, oi?aaeaiey, ?aniiciaaaiey e o. i. a
oneiaeyo iaono?aieiie eioi?iaoeaiie iaii?aaeaeaiiinoe. I/aiue /anoi yoe
caaea/e iaiaoiaeeii ?aoaoue a ?aaeueiii ianooaaa a?aiaie, /oi yaeyaony
aeiiieieoaeueiui aanueia nouanoaaiiui ia?aie/aieai.

Iaoiae yaiethoeeiiiiai iiaeaee?iaaiey aiciee i?e iiiuoea
aini?iecaaaeaiey ia YAI iiaaaeaiey /aeiaaea. I?e i?aaeneacaiee
iiaaaeaiey iauaeoa e oi?aaeaiey ei, o/aiuie E. Oiaaeai, A. Ioyinii e E.
Oieoai a 60-o aiaeao auea auneacaia eaeay iiaeaee?iaaiey anoanoaaiiiai
i?ioeanna yaiethoeee.

Yoi aue ia?eiae ?iiaioe/aneiai ?acaeoey eeaa?iaoeee. Ia YAI
i?ia?aiie?iaaeenue ?acee/iua eiae/aneea ea?u (oaoiaou, oaoee, ea?oi/iua
ea?u), i?ioeannu caaea/ neiaiee/aneie eiaeee, nicaeaaaeenue i?ia?aiiu
iaoeiiiai ia?aaiaea.

Eiaiii yoa iaeanoue enneaaeiaaiee, a eioi?ie o?aaeeoeeiiiue
eeaa?iaoe/aneee iiaeoiae n eniieueciaaieai YAI i?eiaiyeny aeey
aini?iecaaaeaiey ?acoiiiai iiaaaeaiey, a oaeaea iuneeoaeueiuo
i?ioeannia, iieo/eea iacaaiea “eneonnoaaiiue eioaeeaeo”. Yaiethoeeiiiia
iiaeaee?iaaiea auei i?aaeeiaeaii eae aeueoa?iaoeaa ya?enoe/aneiio e
aeiie/aneiio iiaeoiaeo, iiaeaee?iaaaoaio iica /aeiaaea a iae?iiiuo
no?oeoo?ao e naoyo.

I?e yoii iniiaiay eaeay yaiethoeeiiiiai iiaeaee?iaaiey cao/aea oae:
caiaieoue i?ioeann iiaeaee?iaaiey eioaeeaeoa iiaeaee?iaaieai i?ioeanna
aai yaiethoeee.

Naiae a?aiaeeiciinoueth eaeay iiaeaee?iaaiey yaiethoeee ii?aceea anao e
aucaaea anoanoaaiioth e?eoeeo. Ecaanoiue niaoeeaeeno ii ya?enoe/aneiio
i?ia?aiie?iaaieth Aeae. Neaeae ienae: “Iaeia ec o?oaeiinoae
eniieueciaaiey yoiai iiaeoiaea ninoieo a oii, /oi iaoaieciu anoanoaaiiie
yaiethoeee aua ia aiieia iiiyoiu”. Iaeiaei i?iaaaeaiiua enneaaeiaaiey e
?ac?aaioee ia auee iai?aniu: iie ii?aaeaeeee oa iaeanoe, aaea
ya?enoe/aneea i?ia?aiiu iiaoo auoue yooaeoeaiu, e aianee aeeaae a
i?ia?anneaiia ?acaeoea eeaa?iaoeee. Eeoue a i?ioeanna na?ueaciie
?ac?aaioee eaeae yaiethoeeiiiiai iiaeaee?iaaiey, iai?aaeaiiie ia ?aoaiea
eiie?aoiuo i?aeoe/aneeo caaea/, iiaeii onoaiiaeoue aa ieiaeioai?iinoue e
iieo/eoue ioaao ia anaaiciiaeiua e?eoe/aneea caia/aiey e niiiaiey, a oii
/enea e ia neiaa eeaa?iaoeea I. Ieeueniia: “Oioy oaeie iiaeoiae aeaao
aiciiaeiinoue naanoe ianeieueei ia?auo ieeeeiiia eao yaiethoeee e
ianeieueeei aeiyi au/eneeoaeueiiai a?aiaie, nicaeaaony aia/aoeaiea, /oi
aaaeiua n?aaeiea e iicaeiyy noaaeee yaiethoeee naycaiu ni noieue
neiaeiuie no?oeoo?aie (oioy e ia yaeythueieny aua “?acoiiuie”), /oi eo
yaiethoeey oaea ia iiaeao auoue ono?iaia iooai iiaeaee?iaaiey ia
au/eneeoaeueiie iaoeia”.

Yaiethoeeiiiia iiaeaee?iaaiea, inouanoaeythuaa neioac neiaeiuo
iiaeaeae, yaeyaony aeaeueiaeoei ?acaeoeai iaoiaea iaoeiiiai
iiaeaee?iaaiey. Iaiaoiaeeiinoue oaeiai ?acaeoey iaoneiaeaia ?acaeoeai
i?aeoeee, noaayuae ana aieaa neiaeiua e aaaeiua caaea/e, a eioi?uo
ecaanoiua iaoiaeu iaaeinoaoi/ii yooaeoeaiu.

EEOA?AOO?A

1. Aaieeia A.A. Oai?ey iiaeiaey e iiaeaee?iaaiey / I.: Aunoay oeiea
1986 a. 480n.

2. Eaaaaeaa A.I. iiaeaee?iaaiea a iao/ii-oaoie/aneeo enneaaeiaaieyo /
I.: ?aaeei e naycue 1989 a. 224n.

3. Aaoi?iaa E.A. Aiaeiaee e iiaeaee a iiciaiee / Iiaineae?ne. Iaoea
1981 a. 320n.

4. Iniiau oai?ee iiaeiaey e iiaeaee?iaaiey (oa?ieiieiaey) / I.: Iaoea
1973 a. 25n.

5. Anoaoia A. E. Iaoaiaoe/aneia iiaeaee?iaaiea eiaeaia?iuo caaea/ a
yeaeo?ioaoieea / Iiai/a?eanne: IAOO, 1994 a. 192n.

6. Eeeiaieiaa O.A. Io oaiiiaia e no?oeoo?a / I.: Iaoea 1991 a. 88n.

7. Iaiia N.A. Iiaeaee ia?o?ooecaoeee ia aaoiiiaeeueiii o?ainii?oa / I.:
O?ainii?o 1978 a. 152n.

8. Aoneaiei I.I. Iiaeaee?iaaiea neiaeiuo nenoai / I.: Iaoea 1988 a.
400n.

9. Oi?aoan Ae.I. Nenoaiu e iiaeaee?iaaiea / I.: Ie? 1976 a. 420n.

10. Coaa A.A. I?ia?aiiiia iiaeaee?iaaiea nenoai / Iiai/a?eanne: IIE 1992
a. 109n.

11. Eoeaoaae/ A. E. Iiaeaee e iaoiae iiaeaee?iaaiey a /aeiaa/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoe / Ieine “Iaoea e oaoieea” 1983 a. 120n.

12.Eaaieeia A.TH. e ae?. Eieoaoeey eiioeeeoia / I.: Au/eneeoaeueiue
oeaio? ?AI 1993 a. 196n.

13. E?ena/aiei A.N. Oeeinioneee aiaeec yaiethoeeiiecia / Eeaa. Iaoea
aeoiea 1990 a.

14. Aoeaoiaa E.E. e ae?. Yaieioi?iaoeea: oai?ey e i?aeoeea
yaiethoeeiiiiai iiaeaee?iaaiey / I.: Iaoea 1991 a. 206n.

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