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Религия в философии Фейербаха

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Iineianeee einoeooo noa?u nioeeaeueiue ioiioaiee

?aoa?ao

ia oaio:

«?aeeaey a oeeinioee Oaea?aaoa»

o/auaeny a?oiiu 02-98

Noaiaiiaie THeee Aaea?ueaaiu

Iineaa

1999 a.

Iaeaaeaiea.

TOC \o “1-3” Aaaaeaiea. GOTOBUTTON _Toc441327409 PAGEREF
_Toc441327409 3

Aio?iiieiae/aneee iaoa?eaeeci E. Oaea?aaoa. GOTOBUTTON _Toc441327410
PAGEREF _Toc441327410 3

Ethaeaea Oaea?aao eae enoi?ee oeeinioee. GOTOBUTTON _Toc441327411
PAGEREF _Toc441327411 6

E?eoeea ?aeeaee e oaieiaee. GOTOBUTTON _Toc441327412 PAGEREF
_Toc441327412 6

Ie?inica?oeaiea ae?aaiinoe e o?enoeainoaa. GOTOBUTTON _Toc441327413
PAGEREF _Toc441327413 9

(a oeeinioee Oaea?aaoa) GOTOBUTTON _Toc441327414 PAGEREF
_Toc441327414 9

?aeeaey e iaoea GOTOBUTTON _Toc441327415 PAGEREF _Toc441327415 11

(a oeeinioee Oaea?aaoa) GOTOBUTTON _Toc441327416 PAGEREF
_Toc441327416 11

E?eoe/aneee iaci? Oaea?aaoa oeeinioee ca ia?eiae io Ayeiia aei Nieiicu.
GOTOBUTTON _Toc441327417 PAGEREF _Toc441327417 13

Aoaeci oaea?aaoa. GOTOBUTTON _Toc441327418 PAGEREF _Toc441327418
18

(ss io?eoeath aiaa; aeey iaiy yoi cia/eo: y io?eoeath io?eoeaiea
/aeiaaea) GOTOBUTTON _Toc441327419 PAGEREF _Toc441327419 18

Auaiaeu. GOTOBUTTON _Toc441327420 PAGEREF _Toc441327420 20

Nienie eeoa?aoo?u. GOTOBUTTON _Toc441327421 PAGEREF _Toc441327421
21

Aaaaeaiea.

Aio?iiieiae/aneee iaoa?eaeeci E. Oaea?aaoa.

A na?aaeeia XIX aaea n ino?ie e?eoeeie eaeaaeecia aunooiee iaiaoeeee
oeeinio Ethaeaea Oaea?aao. N oi/ee c?aiey Oaea?aaoa, eaeaaeeci anoue ia
/oi eiia, eae ?aoeeiiaeece?iaaiiay ?aeeaey, a oeeinioey e ?aeeaey ii
naiiio eo nouanoao, n/eoae Oaea?aao, i?ioeaiiieiaeiu ae?oa ae?oao. A
iniiaa ?aeeaee eaaeeo aa?a a aeiaiaou, oiaaea eae a iniiaa oeeinioee –
ciaiea, no?aieaiea ?ane?uoue aeaenoaeoaeueioth i?e?iaeo aauae. Iiyoiio
ia?aaeooth caaea/o oeeinioee Oaea?aao aeaeae a e?eoeea ?aeeaee, a
?aciaea/aiee oao eeethcee, eioi?ua ninoaaeytho nouiinoue ?aeeaeiciiai
niciaiey. ?aeeaey e aeeceay e iae ii aeooo eaeaaeenoe/aneay oeeinioey
aicieeatho, ii iiaieth Oaea?aaoa, ec io/oaeaeaiey /aeiaa/aneie nouiinoe,
iin?aaenoaii i?eienuaaiey aiao oao ao?eaooia, eioi?ua a
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe i?eiaaeeaaeao naiiio /aeiaaeo.

Niaeanii Oaea?aaoo, aeey inaiaiaeaeaiey io ?aeeaeiciuo caaeoaeaeaiee
iaiaoiaeeii iiiyoue, /oi /aeiaae – ia oai?aiea aiaa, a /anoue – e i?eoii
iaeaieaa niaa?oaiiay – aa/iie i?e?iaeu. Ii ienae: ”Iia o/aiea eee
aicc?aiea iiaeao auoue iiyoiio au?aaeaii a aeaoo neiaao: i?e?iaea e
/aeiaae. N iiae oi/ee c?aiey, nouanoai, i?aaeoanoaothuea /aeiaaeo,
nouanoai, yaeythueany i?e/eiie eee iniiaie /aeiaaea, eioi?iio ii iaycai
naiei i?ienoiaeaeaieai e nouanoaiaaieai, anoue e iacuaaaony ia aia –
ienoe/aneia, iaii?aaeaeaiiia, iiiaicia/auea neiai, a i?e?iaea – neiai e
nouanoai yniia, /oanoaaiiia, iaaeaoniuneaiiia. Nouanoai aea, a eioi?ii
i?e?iaea aeaeaaony ee/iui, niciaoaeueiui, ?acoiiui nouanoaii, anoue e
iacuaaaony o iaiy – /aeiaae”. O. Yiaaeuen ienae i ni/eiaiee Oaea?aaoa
”Nouiinoue o?enoeainoaa”: ”I?e?iaea anaaaea nouanoaoao iacaaeneii io
eaeie au oi ie auei oeeinioee. Iia anoue oa iniiaa, ia eioi?ie au?inee
iu, ethaee, naie i?iaeoeou i?e?iaeu. Aia i?e?iaeu e /aeiaaea iao ie/aai,
e aunoea nouanoaa, nicaeaiiua iaoae ?aeeaeiciie oaioaceae, yoi – eeoue
oaioanoe/aneea io?aaeaiey iaoae nianoaaiiie nouiinoe”.

Iaoa?eaeeci Oaea?aaoa nouanoaaiii ioee/aaony io iaoa?eaeecia XVIII aaea,
iineieueeo, a ioee/ea io iineaaeiaai, ia naiaeeo anyeoth ?aaeueiinoue e
iaoaie/aneiio aeaeaeaieth e ?anniao?eaaao i?e?iaeo ia eae iaoaieci, a
nei?aa eae i?aaieci. Ii oa?aeoa?ecoaony eae aio?iiieiae/aneee, oae eae a
oeaio?a aieiaiey Oaea?aaoa – ia ioaea/aiiia iiiyoea iaoa?ee, eae o
aieueoeinoaa o?aioeocneeo iaoa?eaeenoia, a /aeiaae eae ineoioece/aneia
aaeeinoai, aaeeinoai aeooe e oaea. Enoiaey ec oaeiai iiieiaiey /aeiaaea,
Oaea?aao ioaa?aaao aai eaeaaeenoe/aneoth o?aeoiaeo, i?e eioi?ie /aeiaae
?anniao?eaaaony i?aaeaea anaai eae aeooiaiia nouanoai. Niaeanii
Oaea?aaoo, oaei a aai oeaeinoiinoe eae ?ac e ninoaaeyao nouiinoue
/aeiaa/aneiai ”ss”. Aeooiaiia ia/aei a /aeiaaea ia iiaeao auoue
ioaeaeaii io oaeaniiai, aeoo e oaei – aeaa noi?iiu oie ?aaeueiinoe,
eioi?ay iacuaaaony i?aaieciii. *aeiaa/aneay i?e?iaea, oaeei ia?acii,
oieeoaony Oaea?aaoii i?aeiouanoaaiii aeieiae/anee, e ioaeaeueiue
eiaeeaeae aeey iaai – ia enoi?e/anee-aeooiaiia ia?aciaaiea, eae o
Aaaaey, a caaii a ?acaeoee /aeiaa/aneiai ?iaea.

E?eoeeoy eaeaaeenoe/aneoth o?aeoiaeo iiciaiey e aoaeo/e iaaeiaieai
aano?aeoiui iuoeaieai, Oaea?aao aiaeee?oao e /oanoaaiiiio nica?oeaieth.
Iieaaay, /oi iuouaiea ninoaaeyao aaeeinoaaiiue enoi/iee iaoaai iiciaiey.
Oieueei oi, /oi aeaii iai /a?ac i?aaiu /oanoa – c?aiea, neoo, inycaiea,
iaiiyiea, – iaeaaeaao, ii Oaea?aaoo, iiaeeeiiie ?aaeueiinoueth. N
iiiiuueth i?aaiia /oanoa iu iiciaai eae oece/aneea iauaeou, oae e
ineoe/aneea ninoiyiey ae?oaeo ethaeae. Oaea?aao ia i?eciaaae ieeaeie
naa?o/oanoaaiiie ?aaeueiinoe e ioaa?aae aiciiaeiinoue /enoi ioaea/aiiiai
iiciaiey n iiiiuueth ?acoia, n/eoay iineaaeiaa ecia?aoaieai
eaeaaeenoe/aneie niaeoeyoeee.

Aio?iiieiae/aneee i?eioeei Oaea?aaoa a oai?ee iiciaiey au?aaeaaony a
oii, /oi ii ii-iiaiio eioa?i?aoe?oao naii iiiyoea ”iauaeo”. Ii
Oaea?aaoo, iiiyoea iauaeoa ia?aiia/aeueii oi?ie?oaony a iiuoa
/aeiaa/aneiai iauaiey, e iiyoiio ia?aue iauaeo aeey anyeiai /aeiaaea –
yoi ae?oaie /aeiaae, ”Ou”. Eiaiii ethaiaue e ae?oaiio /aeiaaeo anoue
iooue e i?eciaieth aai iauaeoeaiiai nouanoaiaaiey, a oai naiui e
i?eciaieth nouanoaiaaiey aiiaua aiaoieo aauae.

Ec aioo?aiiae nayce ethaeae, iniiaaiiie ia /oanoaa ethaae, aicieeaao
aeueo?oenoe/aneay ii?aeue, eioi?ay, ii oaaaeaeaieth Oaea?aaoa, aeieaeia
anoaoue ia ianoi eeethci?iie nayce n aiaii. Ethaiaue e aiao, niaeanii
iaiaoeeiio oeeinioo, anoue eeoue io/oaeaeaiiay, eiaeiay oi?ia iiaeeeiiie
ethaae – ethaae e ae?oaei ethaeyi.

Ethaeaea Oaea?aao eae enoi?ee oeeinioee.

E?eoeea ?aeeaee e oaieiaee.

E. Oaea?aao ecaanoai o ian aeaaiui ia?acii eae aaoi? aioe?aeeaeiciuo
ni/eiaiee, eae e?eoee oaieiaee e eaeaaeecia. Aea e nai oeeinio cayaeye,
/oi aii?in, eioi?ue iaeciaiii aue a oeaio?a aai aieiaiey, — yoi aii?in i
nouiinoe ?aeeaeiciiai ie?a e ai?ueaa i?ioea iaai. Yoie caaea/a
iiae/eiaii oaea ia?aia aai ni/eiaiea «Iunee i nia?oe e aannia?oee»
(1830), i?eianoaa aio iaiaei iai?/aiee; ca niaeoth e?eoeeo o?enoeaineie
aeiaiu i ee/iii aannia?oee ii aue iono?aiai io i?aiiaeaaaiey a
Y?eaiaaineii oieaa?neoaoa, eeoai aiciiaeiinoe ono?ieoueny ia ?aaioo a
ae?oaii ianoa. Oaea?aao aue auioaeaeai ia aeieaea aiaeu oaaeeieoueny a
aea?aaia A?oeaa?aa.

eiaeeaeaeoaeueiia aannia?oea, Oaea?aao ionoaeaaao eaeath ii?aeueiiai
aannia?oey: /aeiaae aeinoeaaao aai, nicaeaaay /oi-eeai iai?aoiaeyuaa,
ienaoaeue — aeaaiaea?y aeeyieth naieo ni/eiaiee. A 1841 a. auoiaeeo
«Nouiinoue o?enoeainoaa» Oaea?aaoa, ?aaioa, a eioi?ie ii oaea eae
noi?iiiee oeeinioneiai iaoa?eaeecia n?uaaao oaeinoaaiiue, ienoe/aneee
iie?ia n ?aeeaee, naiaeeo aa e nouiinoe /aeiaaea. E «Nouiinoe
o?enoeainoaa» iaiin?aaenoaaiii i?eiueaao oeeee eaeoeee i «Nouiinoe
?aeeaee» (1848). Oaeei ia?acii, e?eoeea ?aeeaee e oaieiaee,
aeaenoaeoaeueii, iinoiyiii inoaaaeanue aeaaiie oaiie Oaea?aaoa aei
eiioea aai aeecie. Iaeiaei ia?o Oaea?aaoa i?eiaaeeaaeao e aeiaieueii
iiiai/eneaiiua o?oaeu ii enoi?ee oeeinioee. Aai eioa?an e yoie iaeanoe
ia aue e?aoeia?aiaiiui e neo/aeiui. Ii ieii/aiee Aa?eeineiai
oieaa?neoaoa ii /eoae eo?n eaeoeee ii eiaeea e iaoaoeceea a Y?eaiaaia.
Aua a 1833 a. ii auioneaao a naao iauaienooth eieao «Enoi?ey oeeinioee
iiaiai a?aiaie io Ayeiia Aa?oeaineiai aei Aaiaaeeeoa Nieiicu». A 1837 a.
auoiaeeo aai iiiia?aoey «Eceiaeaiea, ?acaeoea e e?eoeea oeeinioee
Eaeaieoea», a neaaeothuai aiaeo — «Iuea? Aaeeue». Yoe eaieoaeueiua
o?oaeu E. Oaea?aaoa ii enoi?ee oeeinioee i?eianee aio aeiaieueii
oe?ieoth ecaanoiinoue. E?iia yoeo eaieoaeueiuo o?oaeia Oaea?aao a 30-o
aiaeao ieoao ?yae ?aoeaicee ia enoi?eei-oeeinioneoth eeoa?aoo?o.
Neaaeoao iniai ioiaoeoue iaeio ec ieo, a eioi?ie auea aeaia e?eoeea
aunooiaaoaai i?ioea Aaaaey eaioeaioea Aaoiaia («Aioe-Aaaaeue»).
Oa?aeoa?iay iniaaiiinoue anao enoi?eei-oeeinioneeo ni/eiaiee Oaea?aaoa
ninoieo a oii, /oi iie i?iiecaiu ai?ueaie i?ioea ?aeeaeiciiai
ie?iaicc?aiey; iuneeoaeue ?anniao?eaaao a ieo enoi?eth oeeinioee eae
i?ioeann inaiaiaeaeaiey /aeiaa/aneiai ?acoia ec-iiae aeanoe ?aeeaee e
oaieiaee. Eae ecaanoii, Aaaaeue i?ioeaiiinoaaeye ?aeeaeth e oeeinioeth,
ii eeoue ii oi?ia, iauyaeyy oeeinioeth aieaa aaeaeaaoiui, eiae/aneei
au?aaeaieai enoeiu, a ?aeeaeth — aa io?aaeaieai a neiaiee/aneeo
i?aaenoaaeaieyo. Oaea?aao i?ioeaiiinoaaeyao eo ii nouanoao e i?eoiaeeo e
iaoa?eaeecio /a?ac iieiia i?aiaeieaiea ?aeeaee. Ai aaaaeaiee e «Enoi?ee
oeeinioee» Oaea?aao aiai?eo i iieiaeaiee, a eioi?ii i/ooeeenue iaoea,
oeeinioey e eneonnoai a n?aaeieo aaeao. Aac?acaeaeueiia ainiiaenoai
?aeeaee a oio ia?eiae, ioia/aao ii, i?eaaei e no?aoiiio ineoaeaieth e
oiaaeeo, iniaaiii a iaeanoe ciaiey. Eae iia o?enoeaiei, aeeaouee oieueei
a aiaa, io?aoaiiue io ie?a naai, iiiyoue i?e?iaeo e nio?aieoue
neeiiiinoue e aa eco/aieth? I?e?iaea eiaea aeey iaai eeoue cia/aiea
eiia/iiai, neo/aeiiai, ianouanoaaiiiai. Ia iaiaa io?eoeaoaeueia auea
?ieue ?aeeaee a ?acaeoee eneonnoaa. Iia eeoaea aai naiaiaeu e
naiinoiyoaeueiinoe, aeaeaea ec iaai n?aaenoai naiaai oe?aoaiey e
aicaaee/eaaiey. Iacaaeaeiia ianoi auei ioaaaeaii e oeeinioee: iia
aeieaeia auea i?e iiiiue ?acoia aeieacaoue enoeiiinoue aeiai ?aeeaee. Ii
/aeiaa/aneia niciaiea e “a yoeo o?oaeiuo oneiaeyo i?iaeaaei naaa iooue e
naiaiaea. Yoa aea n?aaeiaaaeiaay oeeinioey, noieue oieaeaiiay naiei
aeaeaieai iainiiaaoue i?aaeiao aa?u, ii iiaieth Oaea?aaoa, iaaieueii
aeieacuaaea aaoi?eoao ?acoia. Eeoaiiue iiaeoiaeyueo i?aaeiaoia e caiyoee
e caeeth/aiiue a oaiieoeo /aeiaa/aneee aeoo «aeaeaao anyeee neo/aeii
iiiaaoee aio ia aeaca i?aaeiao, eae au ii ie aue ie/oiaeai e iaaeinoiei
aieiaiey, iauaeoii naieo caiyoee e ec iaaeinoaoea n?aaenoa
oaeiaeaoai?yao naith aeaaeaeo aeayoaeueiinoe naiui iaeaiui, ?aay/aneei e
i?aa?aoiui ia?acii. Oi aea iiaeii neacaoue ia eneonnoaa. Oioy iii auei
iiae/eiaii oea?eae, iaeiaei i?ae?aniia, eae oaeiaia, noaei i?aaeiaoii
aieiaiey. Eneonnoai ecaiiyei ec i?a/iie ?aeeaeiciie n?aaeu iaeaioieeth e
iecaio?iieth e ioe?uaaei ia?aae /aeiaaeii /a?othuee aeae i?aeanoe caiiie
aeecie, ie? naiaiaeu, e?aniou, aoiaiiinoe e ciaiey. Aaeeeoth iiaaaeo
iaea?aeae /aeiaa/aneee ?acoi iaae ?aeeaeae a yiioo Aic?iaeaeaiey.
I?iecaaaeaiey aioe/iuo aaoi?ia, oeacuaae Oaea?aao, eeoue iioiio auee
i?eiyou a oo ii?o n oaeei yiooceaciii, /oi i?iaoaeaeaiiue, naiaiaeiue e
iuneyuee aeoo i?eciae a ieo naie nianoaaiiua oai?aiey. ?acoi iiyoue
aa?ioeny e i?e?iaea e naeaeae aa iauaeoii naiaai enneaaeiaaiey,
anoanoaiciaiea iiyoue aioei a ii/ao e iieo/eei oe?ieia ?acaeoea.

Ie?inica?oeaiea ae?aaiinoe e o?enoeainoaa.

(a oeeinioee Oaea?aaoa)

Nouiinoue ycu/anoaa i?iyaeyeanue a aaeeinoaa ?aeeaee e iieeoeee, aeooa e
i?e?iaeu, aiaa e /aeiaaea. Ii /aeiaae ai a?aiy ycu/anoaa aue ia
/aeiaaeii aiiaua, a /aeiaaeii ii?aaeaeaiiui iaoeeiiaeueii: a?aeii,
?eieyieiii, aaeioyieiii, eoaeaai; neaaeiaaoaeueii, e aai aia aue
iaoeeiiaeueii ii?aaeaeaiiie, iniaaiiie nouiinoueth, i?ioeainoiyuae
nouiinoe, eee aiao, ae?oaeo ia?iaeia, o. a. nouiinoueth,
i?ioeaiiieiaeiie aeooo, au?aaeathuaio nouiinoue anaai /aeiaa/anoaa e a
oaeii ea/anoaa anaiauaa aaeeinoai anao ia?iaeia e ethaeae.

Ono?aiaieai yoiai i?ioeai?a/ey a ycu/anoaa auea ycu/aneay oeeinioey,
eioi?ay au?uaaea /aeiaaea ec aai iaoeeiiaeueiie caieiooinoe e
naiiiainiaeaiiinoe, aicauoaea iaae ia?aie/aiiinoueth ia?iaeiiai
naiiiiaiey e ia?iaeiie aa?u e i?eaiaeeea e einiiiieeoe/aneie oi/ea
c?aiey. Iia iiyoiio iiaeiaii neea iuneyuaai aeooa, ?anoe?yy ia?aie/aiiia
niciaiea ia?iaea aei anaiauaai niciaiey, auea eae au iaoiieeiui ?ieii ii
ioiioaieth e aiaai ycu/anoaa e aeooiaiui iniiaaieai aeaaee iniaaiiinoae
ycu/aneeo ia?iaeia eae ainiiaenoaothueo iaae ie?ii aiaeanoaaiiuo nee. Ii
oeeinioey ono?aiyea yoi i?ioeai?a/ea eeoue a iuoeaiee, o.e. ioaea/aiii.

Yoi i?ioeai?a/ea iaoei naia aeaenoaeoaeueiia ?ac?aoaiea oieueei a
o?enoeainoaa, eai a iai neiai noaei ieioueth, o. a. anaiauee ?acoi,
iaieiathuee ana ia?iaeu e anao ethae ae, ono?aiythuee ana a?aaeaeaaiua
?acee/ey e i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoe iaaeaeo ethaeueie, yoio anaiauee e /enoue
?acoi, ninoaaeythuee iiyoiio nouiinoue /aeiaa/anoaa, oiaeaeanoaaiioth n
aiaeanoaaiiie nouiinoueth, noae i?aaeiaoii iaiin?aaenoaaiiie
aeinoiaa?iinoe, i?aaeiaoii ?aeeaee. O?enoin ia /oi eiia, eae niciaiea
/aeiaaeii aaeeinoaa naiae e aiaeanoaaiiie nouiinoe, niciaiea, eioi?ia,
eiaaea ianooieei a?aiy aai i?aa?auaiey ai anaie?ii-enoi?e/aneia,
aeieaeii auei noaoue iaiin?aaenoaaiiui oaeoii, niaaeeieoueny a iaeiie
ee/iinoe, caoai aiieioeoueny a iaeiii eiaeeaeaeooia e i?ioeainoaaeoue
naay ie?o, i?aauaaaoaio aua a ae?aaiai i?ioeai?a/ee ia?iaeiuo ?acee/ee,
eae oai?oea iiaie ie?iaie yiioe.

Iiyoiio a o?enoeainoaa aia eae aeoo noae i?aaeiaoii /aeiaaea, eai aia
oieueei a oie /enoioa e anaiauiinoe, a eioi?ie ii i?eciaaaeny
o?enoeainoaii eae anaiauay nouiinoue, i/euaiiay io anyeie iaoeeiiaeueiie
e eiie anoanoaaiiie iniaaiiinoe e ?acee/ey, yaeyaony aeooii. Ii aeoo
iinoeaaaony ia ai ieioe, a eeoue a aeooa. Iiyoiio aianoa n o?enoeainoaii
onoaiiaeeinue ?acee/ea iaaeaeo aeooii e oaeii, /oanoaaiiui e
naa?o/oanoaaiiui — ?acee/ea, eioi?ia, iaeiaei, ii ia?a ii?aaeaeaiiiai
?acaeoey ?yaea iiiaioia a enoi?ee o?enoeainoaa oneeeeinue aei
i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoe, aeaaea aei ?acaeaiaiey aeooa e iaoa?ee, aiaa e ie?a,
naa?o/oanoaaiiiai e /oanoaaiiiai. A oae eae a yoie i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoe
naa?o/oanoaaiiia ii?aaeaeyeinue eae nouanoaaiiia, a /oanoaaiiia eae
ianouanoaaiiia, oi o?enoeainoai noaei a naiai enoi?e/aneii ?acaeoee
aioeeinie/aneie e io?eoeaoaeueiie ?aeeaeae, ioaeaeathuaeny io i?e?iaeu,
/aeiaaea, aeecie, ie?a aiiaua, e ia oieueei io noaoiie, a e io
iieiaeeoaeueiie noi?iiu ie?a, ?aeeaeae, ia i?eciathuae e io?eoeathuae
naith enoeiioth nouiinoue.

?aeeaey e iaoea

(a oeeinioee Oaea?aaoa)

Eiaaea yoio io?eoeaoaeueii ?aeeaeiciue aeoo ooaa?aeeeny e noae
ainiiaenoaothuei aeooii a?aiaie a ea/anoaa enoeiiie aaniethoiie
nouiinoe, ia?aae eioi?ie ana ae?oaia aeieaeii en/aciooue eae noaoiia e
ie/oiaeiia, oi eae iaecaaaeiia neaaenoaea yoiai iiaeaee ia oieueei
eneonnoai e ecyuiua iaoee, ii aiiaua iaoee, eae oaeiaua. Ia
iiiai/eneaiiua aieiu e iaaaae oiai a?aiaie, ia anoanoaaiiay a?oainoue
oiaaeaoieo ia?iaeia, a oieueei io?eoeaoaeueii ?aeeaeiciay oaiaeaioeey
auea ianoiyuae, ii e?aeiae ia?a aeooiaiie i?e/eiie eo iaaeaiey e aeaaee,
eai aeey aeooa n oaeie oaiaeaioeeae aeaaea eneonnoaa e iaoee iiaeoiaeyo
iiae iiiyoea noaoiiai e ie?neiai, i?inoie caaaau.

Iniaaiii yoi eanaeinue i?e?iaeu, eioi?ay i?e ainiiaenoaa oaeie
oaiaeaioeee aeieaeia auea iia?oceoueny ai i?ae caaaaiey e iaecaanoiinoe.
Eae iia ia?aie/aiiue o?enoeaiei, aeeaoee eeoue naiei aiaii, ioaea/aiiui
io nouiinoe ie?a, eiaoue aeon e i?e?iaea e e aa eco/aieth! I?e?iaea,
nouanoaaiiay oi?ia eioi?ie anoue /oanoaaiiinoue, eaeiaoth ii n/eoae eae
?ac iiaeeaaeauae io?eoeaieth, ioaeaeathuae io aiaeanoaaiiiai, eiaea aeey
iaai eeoue cia/aiea eiia/iiai, noaoiiai, ianouanoaaiiiai. Ii iiaeao ee
aeoo nin?aaeioi/eoueny ia oii, /oi eiaao aeey iaai cia/aiea oieueei
eiia/iiai e noaoiiai, naeaeaoue aai i?aaeiaoii na?ueaciiai,
aeeeoaeueiiai eco/aiey? Naa?o oiai, eaeie eioa?an i?aaenoaaeyao iiciaiea
a?aiaiiiai aeaeeiai oai?aiey, anee ecaanoai oai?aoe? Eae iiaeao oio, eoi
iaoiaeeony a aeeceeo ioiioaieyo n oicyeiii, oae oieceoueny, /oiau
anooieoue a oa aea ioiioaiey n aai neoaeaieie? A eaeia eiia iieiaeaiea e
cia/aiea iiaea eiaoue i?e?iaea n oi/ee c?aiey io?eoeaoaeueiie
?aeeaeiciinoe, /ai neoaeaiee aiaeueae? Oaieiae/anee-oaeaieiae/aneee
niinia ?anniio?aiey i?e?iaeu anoue aaeeinoaaiii niioaaonoaothuee yoie
oi/ea c?aiey; ii eiaiii yoio niinia ?anniio?aiey e ia iauaeoeaiue, e ia
oece/aneee, e ia i?iieeaao a naio i?e?iaeo.

Niia?acii n yoie oi/eie c?aiey i?e?iaea eae au ne?ueanue io aci?ia
/aeiaa/aneiai aeooa. Iiaeiaii oiio eae a nayuaiiua iieeoaaiiua aeiia oao
a?aiai naao i?iieeae ia /a?ac /enooth i?ic?a/ioth n?aaeo, a neaicue
iano?i ie?aoaiiua ieia, eae aoaeoi /enoue naao aeey iaaiaeiie iaueiu,
ia?aoeaoaeny io ie?a e i?e?iaeu e aiao, i?aaenoaaeye ia/oi ioaeaeathuaa
e ia?ooathuaa, eae aoaeoi naao i?e?iaeu ianiaianoei ni naaoii iieeoau e
aeoo ainieaiaiyaony iieeoaie oieueei a ieoouaathuae i?e?iaeo oaiiioa,
oae auei e a oo yiioo, eiaaea aeoo niiaa i?iaoaeeeny e iuoeaieth,
ia?aoea aci? e i?e?iaea, a naao aa i?iiee a /aeiaaea, ii?a/aiiue e
i?aeiieaiiue n?aaeie a?enoioaeaaneie oeceee, oae eae iiae aeanoueth
io?eoeaoaeueiie ?aeeaeiciinoe ii eae au aiyeny ioe?uoue naie aci? e
nianoaaiiie ?oeie ni?aaoue cai?aoiue ieiae n ae?aaa iiciaiey.

Oioy ioaeaeueiua eeoea a n?aaeiea aaea iniaaiii ?aaiinoii caieiaeenue
eco/aieai i?e?iaeu e aiiaua oae iacuaaaiay naaoneay o/aiinoue aua
aea?aeaeanue e ii/eoaeanue a iiianou?yo e oeieao, ana-oaee iaoee
inoaaaeenue iiae/eiaiiui, iiai/iui caiyoeai /aeiaa/aneiai aeooa, eiaee
ne?iiiia, ia?aie/aiiia cia/aiea e aeieaeiu auee inoaaaoueny a oaeii
iieiaeaiee, iiea ?aeeaeiciue aeoo aue aa?oiaiie noaeaaiie einoaioeeae,
caeiiiaeaoaeueiie aeanoueth, a oea?eiaue — aeanoueth eniieieoaeueiie.

E?eoe/aneee iaci? Oaea?aaoa oeeinioee ca ia?eiae io Ayeiia aei Nieiicu.

Iniiaiiieiaeieeaie iiaie iaoee e oeeinioee, ii iiaieth Oaea?aaoa, auee
Ayeii e Aeaea?o. Aeaaiia cia/aiea Ayeiia Oaea?aao aeaeae a oii, /oi ii
iaoeo, iniiaaiioth ia iiuoa, naeaeae «iaoeie anao iaoe», i?eioeeiii,
iaoa?ueth anao /aeiaa/aneeo ciaiee. Nouanoaaiiui aeinoeaeaieai Ayeiia,
niaeanii Oaea?aaoo, yaeyaony oi, /oi ii aeae iaoiae, i?aaiii, eiaeeo
iiuoa. Ayeii — i?ioeaiee neaioeoeecia; /aeiaa/aneee oi, o?aaiaae ii, ia
aeieaeai ia?aie/eaaoueny iaaethaeaieai aiaoiae noi?iiu yaeaiee, ii
aeieaeai i?iieeiooue aaeoaue, iiciaoue eo i?e/eiu, aioo?aiithth
nouiinoue e oi?io. Auyniyy oa?aeoa?iua /a?ou iaoa?eaeecia Ayeiia,
Oaea?aao ioia/ae eae aai caneoao oi, /oi ii no?aieeny iiiyoue aaue a eo
ea/anoaaiiii auoee. O?ea?aao aianoa n oai e?eoeeiaae aiaeeeneiai
iaoa?eaeenoa ca aai o/aiea i «aeaienoaaiiinoe enoeiu». A yoii niunea ii
n/eoae Ayeiia iaiineaaeiaaoaeueiui. Aaaeue iniiaiay oaiaeaioeey
ayeiiianeie nenoaiu, oeacuaae Oaea?aao, i?yii i?ioeai?a/eo ?aeeaeiciui
aeiaiaoai. A oeceea, anoanoaiciaiee Ayeii ioaa?aaao enoeio o?enoeainoaa,
ii?iaeaeaaooth i?aae?annoaeee, eioi?ua ii iauyaeye aaee/aeoeie
i?aiyonoaeyie e eco/aieth i?e?iaeu. A iaiin?aaenoaaiiie nayce n o/aieai
Ayeiia Oaea?aao ?anniao?eaaao o/aiea Aiaana iacuaay iineaaeiaai iaeiei
ec eioa?aniaeoeo e ino?ioiiaeoeo iaoa?eaeenoia iiaiai a?aiaie, ii a oi
aea a?aiy oeacuaay ia e?aeia iaoaienoe/aneee oa?aeoa? aai iaoa?eaeecia,
ioee/athuee aai io Ayeiia. Iuoeaiea Aiaana, ii aai iiaieth, niaa?oaiii
?aaiiaeooii e niaoeeoe/aneei iniaaiiinoyi aauae, i?inoe?ay ia ana
iaeanoe caeiiu eee eaoaai?ee, eiathuea neeo eeoue a ia?aie/aiiie noa?a
auoey — iaoaieea. Oaea?aao, iaeiaei, ia inoaeaeaao ca yoi Aiaana, aieaa
oiai, a yoie iaoaienoe/aneie iaeiinoi?iiiinoe ii aeaeeo enoi?e/aneia
cia/aiea nenoaiu aiaeeeneiai iaoa?eaeenoa. Ii iuoaaony iaeoe iauyniaiea
yoiai yaeaiey a oa?aeoa?a iaoee oiai a?aiaie, n oi/ee c?aiey eioi?ie
iaoa?ey eae noanoaioeey iaeaaeaao eeoue iaeiei ao?eaooii — aaee/eiie eee
i?ioyaeaiiinoueth, ea/anoaaiiia naiaia?acea ia aeaii a aauao, iii
nicaeaaony iin?aaenoaii iaoaie/aneiai aeaeaeaiey.

Nioeeaeueiay oeeinioey Aiaana, iniaaiii aai o/aiea i ainoaea?noaa,
aeieacuaae Oaea?aao, ceaeaeaony ia oao aea iaoaie/aneeo ia/aeao. Eae a
oeeinioee a oeaio?a noieo eciee?iaaiiue i?aaeiao, oae e a nioeeieiaee
enoiaeiui ioieoii neoaeeo aaeeie/iue /aeiaae, eiaeeaeae. *aeiaae a
anoanoaaiiii ninoiyiee — ?ac?iciaiiay e ?aaiiaeooiay e ae?oaiio,
iiaeiaiiio naaa nouanoao ianna.

Eaeoth iiceoeeth a aii?ina ia ioiioaiee oeeinioee e ?aeeaee caieiae
Aiaan? Aue ee ii aoaenoii? Iaeioi?ua, aiai?eo Oaea?aao, ia aac iniiaaiey
n/eoaee aiaeeeneiai oeeinioa aoaenoii. A naiii aeaea, ii aai aicc?aieth,
eeoue oaeaniia, o. a. iaoa?eaeueiia, nouanoaoao ?aaeueii. Aanoaeanioth,
iaiaoa?eaeueioth noanoaioeeth aeaaea a iuneyo iaeuecy naaa
i?aaenoaaeoue. Aia — iiiyoea iauaa, a anyeia iauaa iiiyoea, n oi/ee
c?aiey iiieiaeenoa Aiaana, ia eiaao ieeaeiai ?aaeueiiai niaea?aeaiey.
Iiyoiio aeey oa?aeoa?enoeee aiaa iau/ii iieuecothony ?acee/iuie
io?eoeaoaeueiuie ii?aaeaeaieyie. Iieiaeeoaeueiia, nouanoaaiiia
i?eiaaeeaaeeo aoaecio, ionoia e iaii?aaeaeaiiia — oaecio. Eoae, oioy
Aiaan e «ia io?eoeaao aiaa, ii aai oaeci, — ienae Oaea?aao, — ii
nouanoao, ii niaea?aeaieth… anoue aoaeci, aai aia eeoue
io?eoeaoaeueiay nouiinoue eee, aa?iaa, ia-nouiinoue».

Eae iu oaea ioia/aee, Oaea?aao n/eoae Aeaea?oa ia?yaeo n Ayeiiii iaeiei
ec iniiaiiieiaeieeia oeeinioee iiaiai a?aiaie: a eeoea Aeaea?oa
/aeiaa/aneia iuoeaiea ooaa?aeaeaao naay eae noaa?aiiia e enoeiiia auoea,
au?aaeaieai /aai auei ciaiaieoia iieiaeaiea oeeinioa: «ss iuneth,
neaaeiaaoaeueii, y nouanoaoth». Neaaoth noi?iio oeeinioee Aeaea?oa, eae
iieaaae Oaea?aao, ninoaaeyao oi, /oi ii aeae eeoue eiee/anoaaiioth
oa?aeoa?enoeeo iaoa?ee, naaaey aa e i?ioyaeaiiinoe. Ae?oaie nouanoaaiiue
iaaeinoaoie aicc?aiey Aeaea?oa, ii aai iiaieth, ninoieo a oii, /oi
Aeaea?o a?ae iaoa?eth aia aeaeaeaiey. Iaeiaei aeaaiui ii?ieii o/aiey
Aeaea?oa a oeaeii, ii Oaea?aaoo, yaeyaony aai aeoaeeci. Ieaaea ii ia
i?ioeai?a/eo naaa aieueoa, /ai a aii?ina i niioiioaiee iaaeaeo aeooii e
oaeii, i?ioyaeaiiie e iuneyuae noanoaioeeae. Aeaea?o, eae e Ayeii e
Aiaan, aeieacuaaao Oaea?aao, anaaaea eiae a aeaeo i?aeoe/aneee eioa?an,
no?aieeny ono?aieoue aanneeea ethaeae ia iieeoaaie, a ?aaeueiuie
n?aaenoaaie — iaoeie e yenia?eiaioii. Anee «Aeaea?o-oaieia e
Aeaea?o-oeeinio iaoiaeyony a ninoiyiee ai?ueau iaaeaeo niaie», oi
Nieiica, ii iiaieth Oaea?aaoa, oaea ia ciaao oaeie ?acaeaiaiiinoe,
oaeiai i?ioeai?a/ey. Aia, eee noanoaioeey, o Nieiicu, ?acuyniyao
Oaea?aao, ia ii a?aiaie nouanoaoao i?aaeaea aauae, a eeoue ii i?e?iaea.

Oaea?aao i?eaeaaae ia?iiiia cia/aiea iniiaiiio i?eioeeio Nieiicu i
aaeeinoaa iaoa?eaeueiiai e aeooiaiiai e oaea a oi a?aiy ii nouanoao
iaoa?eaeenoe/anee enoieeiauaae niioiioaiea yoeo aeaoo noi?ii
/aeiaa/aneie aeecie. Eiaaea oaei eia?oii, ioia/ae ii, oi e aeoo ia
?aniieiaeai e iuoeaieth, eiaaea oaei iaoiaeeony ai nia, oi iaeiia?aiaiii
n iei e aeoo i?aauaaao a aacaeayoaeueiinoe. Iuneeo ia aeooa eae ia/oi
eciee?iaaiiia io oaea, iuneeo naii oaei.

Aai ciaiaieoia iieiaeaiea «aia, eee i?e?iaea», ii iiaieth Oaea?aaoa,
aeaoniuneaiii. Ooo, n iaeiie noi?iiu, Nieiica ono?aiyao aiaa a i?e?iaea,
n ae?oaie — ono?aiyao i?e?iaeo a aiaa. «I?i/ue yoi i?ioeai?a/ea! Ia
«aia, eee i?e?iaea», ii «eeai aia, eeai i?e?iaea» — aio eicoia enoeiu.
Oai, aaea aia ioiaeaeanoaeyaony eee niaoeaaaony n i?e?iaeie eee,
iaiai?io, i?e?iaea n aiaii, oai iao ie aiaa, ie i?e?iaeu, ii anoue
ienoe/aneay, aioeaiee/aneay nianue. Aio iniiaiie iaaeinoaoie Nieiicu».
Yoi neiaa c?aeiai oaea iaoa?eaeenoa Oaea?aaoa i Nieiica. I?eia/aoaeueii,
/oi noiaeioth ioeaieo ii auneacuaae aua a naiae ?aiiae ?aaioa ii enoi?ee
oeeinioee.

Iiiia?aoey «Iuea? Aaeeue» caaa?oeea oeeee enoi?eei-oeeinioneeo
enneaaeiaaiee Oaea?aaoa. Iia ioee/aaony io i?aaeuaeoueo enneaaeiaaiee
nouanoaaiiui ianoiyoaeuenoaii. A ia?auo aeaoo ni/eiaieyo ii
i?ioeaiiinoaaeye ?aeeaee aeaaiui ia?acii oeeinioeth e anoanoaiciaiea.
Ooo aea ii iieacuaaao a?aaeaeaaiinoue ?aeeaee ia oieueei iaoea e
oeeinioee, ii e eneonnoao e ii?aee. *aeiaae ia iiaeao naiaiaeii
oai?eoue, iuneeoue e aeaenoaiaaoue, inoaaaynue ?aeeaeiciui. A yoii
ioiioaiee ia iiaeao auoue ieeaeiai eiii?iienna. Neaaeoao naeaeaoue
auai?: neoaeeoue iaoea, oeeinioee, eneonnoao eee ?aeeaee.

Oaea?aao ianoaeaaao ia iacaaeneiii io ?aeeaee nouanoaiaaiee
ynoaoe/aneiai /oanoaa. Oai?aiea eneonnoaa — i?iaeoeo /oanoaa e?aniou.
O?enoeaineee ooaeiaeiee iuneeo e ecia?aaeaao ia o?enoeaineia, eae
oaeiaia, a i?ae?aniia, eia/a aai oai?aiey ia aoaeoo aieiiaaoue
iao?enoeaieia. Eneonnoai iiaeieiaao naie i?aaeiao ca i?aaeaeu
ioaeaeueiuo ?aeeaee a noa?o iaua/aeiaa/aneiai. Ooaeiaeanoaaiiua
i?iecaaaeaiey eaoiee/aneiai eneonnoaa, eioi?ua o?iaatho e iaeaoieeeia, e
aeaaea a?aaeaeaaii iano?iaiiuo e eaoieeoeecio ethaeae, iiaee aicieeiooue
oieueei ec naiaiaeiiai e iacaaeneiiai io ?aeeaee aeooa. Oai, aaea
iiiaoaneee ia?ac aeecie iieuecoaony neaaie naiie aunieie aeia?iaeaoaee,
eneonnoai iaycaoaeueii eiaao aeo?ioth ?aiooaoeeth. Oai, aaea
ianeaaeaeaiea iauyaeyaony a?aoii, aaea /aeiaae iaiaaenoai naiiio naaa,
ia ?ac?aoaao naaa ieeaeiai oaeiaieuenoaey, aaea aieaciue n/eoaaony
anoanoaaiiui ninoiyieai, aaea enoiuaiea, oia?uaeaiea ieioe yaeythony
caeiiii, ynoaoe/aneia /oanoai — iniiaa eneonnoaa — aeieaeii auoue a
iiaea. Eae aea iiaeao oio, eiai ?aeeaey iaycuaaao aaaeaoue io
eeoeac?aiey aeaiueiu, ecaaaaoue anao iiaiaeia aeey iaoeaeiioae?aiiuo
iuneae, aicaea?aeaoueny io /oanoaaiiuo ianeaaeaeaiee, niieieii
ethaiaaoueny i?ae?aniui ecia?aaeaieai iaaeiiiu? Anee iu, ieoao Oaea?aao,
ana-oaee ano?a/aai e?anioo a eaoiee/aneii eneonnoaa, «oi yoi iiaeii
iauynieoue oieueei oie aea i?e/eiie, aneaaenoaea eioi?ie aaeece ioaeneeo
iiianou?ae no?ieeenue aeaineea, niaaeeiaiiua n ia?auie iioaeiuie
oiaeaie».

Oa?aeoa?iie /a?oie enoi?eei-oeeinioneie eiioeaioeee Oaea?aaoa, eae iu
aeaeaee, aue ianiiiaiiue eioa?an e i?aaenoaaeoaeyi iaoa?eaeenoe/aneiai
iai?aaeaiey. Caia/aoaeueii, /oi Oaea?aao nai i?eaeaaae ia?iiiia cia/aiea
naiaio eioa?ano e i?aaenoaaeoaeyi iaoa?eaeecia aeey naiae aeooiaiie
yaiethoeee. Aeaaiaea?y aeeyieth iaoa?eaeenoia-yiie?eeia, ioia/ae
Oaea?aao, ii i?eoae e oaaaeaeaieth ia enoeiiii oa?aeoa?a /oanoaaiiinoe e
eaaeauaai a aa iniiaaiee iaoa?eaeueiiai iauaeoa. Eioa?an e Ayeiio,
Aiaano, Aannaiaee, Nieiica i?eaae aai e iaoa?eaeecio. E e /anoe
Oaea?aaoa, iaaei neacaoue, /oi, eaey e iaoa?eaeecio, ii, eae iieacuaaao
aai ioiioaiea e Aei?aooo, any/anee ioiaaeaauaaeny io
aoeueaa?ii-iaoa?eaeenoe/aneiai niiniaa iuoeaiey.

A naiai ioiioaiee e iaoa?eaeenoe/aneie o?aaeeoeee Oaea?aao ?acei
?anoiaeeony n Aaaaeai, eioi?ue anaaaea aunieiia?ii e i?aiaa?aaeeoaeueii
ioiineeny e i?aaenoaaeoaeyi iaoa?eaeecia. Ayeiia, iai?eia?, Aaaaeue
oi?aeae a oii, /oi oio oioae «aeeoue iinoiyiii iia?oaeaiiui a iaoa?eth e
eiaoue naiei i?aaeiaoii aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue, a ia ?acoi» e «ia iaeaaeae
niiniaiinoueth ?annoaeaeaoue, enoiaey ec anaiaueo iuneae e iiiyoee».

Aoaeci oaea?aaoa.

(ss io?eoeath aiaa; aeey iaiy yoi cia/eo: y io?eoeath io?eoeaiea
/aeiaaea)

Oaea?aao ?anniao?eaaao enoi?eth oeeinioee iiaiai a?aiaie iiae oaeii
c?aiey ai?ueau ?yaea oaiaeaioeee: yiie?ecia n ?aoeeiiaeeciii, ?aaeecia n
?iiaioeciii, a a iaeioi?uo neo/ayo iaoa?eaeecia n eaeaaeeciii. Iaeiaei
^oeaio?aeueioth oaiaeaioeeth ii aeaeae, eae auei iieacaii auoa, a
ai?ueaa ?acoia n aa?ie, iaoee n ?aeeaeae, oeeinioee n oaieiaeae. Yoie
ai?ueaie, iieacuaaao Oaea?aao, i?iiecaia any oeeinioey iiaiai a?aiaie —
Ayeiia e Aiaana, Aannaiaee e Aeaea?oa, Eaeaieoea e Aae-ey, Aeaea?oa e
Nieiicu. Oaea?aao ioia/ae no?aieaiea eaaeaeiai ec yoeo iuneeoaeae
inaiaiaeeoue /aeiaa/aneee oi io ?aeeaeiciiai aeeyiey e eo ianiiiaiiue
aeeaae a yoi aeaei. Ii ieeoi ec ieo, ii aai iiaieth, ia inaiaiaeeeny
iieiinoueth io aeoaeecia aa?u e ?acoia. «Oeeiniou iiaaeoaai a?aiaie
i?eciaaaee aa?o, ii oae, eae caeiiiay aeaia i?eciaaony a ea/anoaa
oiieiiii/aiiiai eeoea ioaea, eiaaea ii oaea aioo?aiia n iae ?acioaeny».
Oaea?aao o?aaiaae iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe e aaneiii?iienniinoe a yoii
aii?ina . N?uaay n aiaeanoaa aai oaeinoaaiiinoue, Oaea?aao aia/aea aua
iieaaae, /oi /aeiaa/aneia iuoeaiea, eae oaeiaia, iaeaaeaao
naiinoiyoaeueiui auoeai. Iiae aeeyieai aaaaeaaneiai i?eioeeia
oiaeaeanoaa noauaeoa e iauaeoa, iuoeaiey e auoey ii ia ianoi
naa?o/oanoaaiiiai aiaa iinoaaee naa?o/oanoaaiiue ?acoi, iuoeaiea.

Neaaeoao iiae/a?eiooue, /oi aeey Oaea?aaoa aoaeci ia naiaeeeny e
i?inoiio io?eoeaieth aiaa. Yoo oi/eo c?aiey ii n/eoae oa?aeoa?iie aeey
XVII e XVIII aa. «Eoi iai iia ia aiai?eo e ia ciaao ie/aai aieueoaai,
e?iia oiai, /oi y — aoaeno, oio aiiaua ie/aai ia aiai?eo e ie/aai iai
iia ia ciaao. Aii?in i oii, nouanoaoao ee aia eee iao, eae aiaei?acaeae
iaaeaeo oaeciii e aoaeciii aeinoiei naiiaaeoeaoiai e ainaiiaaeoeaoiai,
ii ioithaeue ia aeaayoiaaeoeaoiai aaea. ss io?eoeath aiaa; aeey iaiy yoi
cia/eo: y io?eoeath io?eoeaiea /aeiaaea, y ooaa?aeaeath /oanoaaiiia,
enoeiiia, neaaeiaaoaeueii, iaecaaaeii oaeaea iieeoe/aneia, nioeeaeueiia
ianoi /aeiaaea acaiai eeethci?iiai, oaioanoe/aneiai, iaaaniiai
i?aauaaiey /aeiaaea, eioi?ia a aeaenoaeoaeueiie aeecie iaecaaaeii
i?aa?auaaony a io?eoeaiea /aeiaaea. Aeey iaiy aii?in i auoee eee iaauoee
aiaa anoue eeoue aii?in i auoee eee iaauoee /aeiaaea».

Oaeei ia?acii, Oaea?aaoa ia oaeiaeaoai?ye iaaaoeaiue aoaeci aai
i?aaeoanoaaiieeia. Aoaeci Oaea?aaoa o?aaoao iieiaeeoaeueiiai
ooaa?aeaeaiey /aeiaaea a i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue aai ?aeeaeiciiio,
oeeoeaiiio ooaa?aeaeaieth. Ooaa?aeaeaiea /aeiaaea aeieaeii auoue ia
oieueei ?aaeueiui, ii e ananoi?iiiei, ioaaouaathuei ana noa?u aai auoey.
Oaea?aao iiieiae, /oi iaiiiaiai noieo caaioa «i yniinoe e caei?iaii
ninoiyiee aieiau e na?aeoea», anee «aeaeoaeie ia a ii?yaeea» e «iniiaa
/aeiaa/aneiai nouanoaiaaiey iia?aaeaeaia. Ii Oaea?aaoo, aeey oiai /oiau
auea/eoue «aieacie aieiau e na?aeoea», e eioi?ui ii ioiinee e
?aeeaeicioth eaeaieiaeth, iaiaoiaeeii ?aoaiea i?iaeaiu «aeaeoaeea». Ni
nnueeie ia oeceieiaeth e aio?iiieiaeth ii auneacuaae oeaiioth iuneue,
/oi aeooiaiay (a cia/eo, e ?aeeaeiciay) yiaineiaoeey /aeiaaea yaeyaony
/anoueth aieaa oe?ieie, a oii /enea nioeeaeueiie e iieeoe/aneie, aai
yiaineiaoeee. Oiiiyioa yoo /?acau/aeii aaaeioth caaea/o, Oaea?aao,
iaeiaei, niciaaae, /oi aai i?iecaaaeaiey aaeaa ee iaia/atho aeinoaoi/ii
eiie?aoiua iooe aeey aa ?aoaiey. Ii iiyoiio noaaeo ia?aae niaie ai?acaei
aieaa ne?iiioth caaea/o — «iniiaaoaeueiia enneaaeiaaiea e enoeaeaiea
aieiaiuo e na?aea/iuo aieaciae /aeiaa/anoaa». Oai naiui Oaea?aao
ia?aie/eaae naie aoaeci oceeie ?aieaie i?inaaoeoaeuenoaa.

Auaiaeu.

Eco/aiea enoi?eei-oeeinioneeo ni/eiaiee Oaea?aaoa iieacuaaao, /oi aai
iooue e iaoa?eaeecio e aoaecio ia aue, eae au?aaeaeny ii, «neo/aeiui» e
«i?iecaieueiui», ii «i?aaie/aneei» e «iaiaoiaeeiui» e i?ieaaae /a?ac aai
ni/eiaiey 30-o aiaeia. Eaaeaeia ec yoeo ni/eiaiee auei nooiaiueth a aai
aeooiaiie yaiethoeee, a io iineaaeiaai ec ieo, iiiia?aoee «Iuea?
Aaeeue», ia?aoiae e «Nouiinoe o?enoeainoaa», ii neiaai naiiai Oaea?aaoa,
oaea aue iao?oaeai.

Nienie eeoa?aoo?u.

Oaea?aao E. Nouiinoue ?aeeaee // Eca?aiiua oeeinioneea i?iecaaaeaiey.
I., 1955.

Yiaaeuen O. Ethaeaea Oaea?aao e eiiaoe eeanne/aneie iaiaoeeie oeeinioee.
N i?ee.: E. Ia?en. Oacenu i Oaea?aaoa. I.: Iieeoecaeao

Oaea?aao E. Enoi?ey oeeinioee «Iuneue» I, 1974.

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