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Развитие науки: революция или эволюция? Философские модели постпозитивизма

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NEAE?NEIA IOAeAEAIEA ?INNEENEIE AEAAeAIEE IAOE

EAOAAe?A OEEINIOEE

?acaeoea iaoee: ?aaiethoeey eee yaiethoeey?

Oeeinioneea iiaeaee iinoiiceoeaecia.

Aaoi?:

i.i.n. Einoeoooa eaoaeeca

NI ?AI

Eaaaaeaaa I.I.

Iiaineae?ne 1997

Niaea?aeaiea:

Aaaaeaiea 2

Eiaeei-iaoiaeieiae/aneay eiioeaioeey E.Iiiia?a 3

Oai?ey iao/iuo ?aaiethoeee O.Eoia 6

Iaoiaeieiaey enneaaeiaaoaeueneeo i?ia?aii E.Eaeaoina 11

Yaiethoeeiiiay iiaeaeue ?acaeoey iaoee No.Ooeieia 15

Aianoi caeeth/aiey: oai?ey oaciauo ia?aoiaeia Y.Yca?a 19

Eeoa?aoo?a 22

Aaaaeaiea

Eioa?an e oaiiiaio iaoee, caeiiai aa ?acaeoey noieue aea noa?, eae e
naia iaoea. N iacaiaiyoiuo a?aiai iaoeo enneaaeiaaee e oai?aoe/anee, e
yiie?e/anee. A eaaeaeie iaoea oi?ioee?othony ia oieueei auneacuaaiey i
iiciaieyo a oie eee eiie i?aaeiaoiie iaeanoe, ii e iauea i?aaeea e
i?aaeienaiey, ioiinyueany e iino?iaieth, iaoiaeeea e oa?ieiieiaee.

E eiioeo XX aaea oeeinioneey oai?ey ?acaeoey iaoee n/eoaaony a
cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie noi?ie?iaaiiie. Eiioeaioeee O.Eoia, E.Iiiia?a e
E.Eaeaoina, No.Ooeieia, I.Oaea?aaaiaea e I.Iieaie caieiatho aeinoieiia
ianoi a nie?iaeuieoea ie?iaie oeeinioneie iunee. Iaeiaei, a neeo naiae
iiiaia?aiiinoe e aeooaeueiinoe aii?inu oeeinioee iaoee i?iaeieaeatho
i?eeiauaaoue e naaa aieiaiea oeeinioia e o/aiuo ?acee/iuo
niaoeeaeueiinoae.

Ianoiyuay ?aaioa iinayuaia ?anniio?aieth iniiaiuo caiaaeiuo oeeinioneeo
eiioeaioeee XX aaea, cao?aaeaathueo aii?inu iienea e aiaeeca caeiiia
?acaeoey iaoee.

Eiaeei-iaoiaeieiae/aneay eiioeaioeey Ea?ea Iiiia?a

Ea?e Iiiia? – iaeei ec iaeaieaa aeeyoaeueiuo i?aaenoaaeoaeae caiaaeiie
oeeinioee iaoee XX aaea. Ii yaeyaony aaoi?ii aieueoiai eiee/anoaa ?aaio
ii i?iaeaiai oeeinioee, eiaeee iaoee, iaoiaeieiaee e nioeeieiaee, iiiaea
ec eioi?uo, iai?eia? “Eiaeea e ?ino iao/iiai ciaiey”, “Ioe?uoia iauanoai
e aai a?aae”, “Ieuaoa enoi?eoeecia” e ae?., e ianoiyuaio a?aiaie
iioaeeeiaaiu ia ?onneii ycuea.

Eiy E.Iiiia?a /anoi naycuaaaony n oaeei oeeinioneei oa/aieai eae
“oaeeeaeeeci” (io aiaeeeneiai fallible – iiaeaa?aeaiiue ioeaeai,
iia?aoeiue) [1]. Iniiaaieai aeey yoiai yaeeny auaeaeiooue Iiiia?ii
“i?eioeei oaeueneoeoee?oaiinoe” nenoai [2]. Oaeueneoeoee?oaiinoue
oieaa?naeueiuo auneacuaaiee ii?aaeaeyaony eae eo niiniaiinoue
oi?ioee?iaaoueny a aeaea ooaa?aeaeaiee i ianouanoaiaaiee. “Ia
aa?eoeoee?oaiinoue, a oaeueneoeoee?oaiinoue nenoaiu neaaeoao
?anniao?eaaoue a ea/anoaa e?eoa?ey aeaia?eaoeee. Yoi icia/aao, /oi iu ia
aeieaeiu o?aaiaaoue aiciiaeiinoe auaeaeeoue iaeioi?oth iao/ioth nenoaio
?ac e iaanaaaea a iieiaeeoaeueiii niunea, ii iaycaiu iio?aaiaaoue, /oiau
iia eiaea oaeoth eiae/aneoth oi?io, eioi?ay iicaieyea au iin?aaenoaii
yiie?e/aneeo i?iaa?ie auaeaeeoue aa a io?eoeaoaeueiii niunea:
yiie?e/aneay nenoaia aeieaeia aeiioneaoue ii?iaa?aeaiea iooai iiuoa”
[2].

?acaeoea iao/iiai ciaiey, niaeanii Iiiia?o, – yoi iai?a?uaiue i?ioeann
ieni?iaa?aeaiey iaeieo iao/iuo oai?ee e caiaiu eo ae?oaeie, aieaa
oaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiuie. A oeaeii oai?eth yoiai i?ioeanna iiaeii
i?aaenoaaeoue a aeaea neaaeothuae no?oeoo?u: 1) auaeaeaeaiea aeiioacu,
2) ioeaiea noaiaie oaeueneoeoee?oaiinoe aeiioacu, 3) auai?
i?aaeii/oeoaeueiie aeiioacu, oi anoue oaeie, eioi?ay eiaao aieueoaa
/enei iioaioeeaeueiuo oaeueneoeeaoi?ia (i?aaeii/oeoaeueiaa oa aeiioacu,
eioi?ua ?eneiaaiiaa), 4) auaaaeaiea yiie?e/anee i?iaa?yaiuo neaaenoaee e
i?iaaaeaiea yenia?eiaioia, 5) ioai? neaaenoaee, eiathueo i?eioeeieaeueii
iiaue oa?aeoa?, 6) ioa?anuaaiea aeiioacu a neo/aa aa oaeueneoeeaoeee,
anee aea oai?ey ia oaeueneoeoee?oaony, iia a?aiaiii iiaeaea?aeeaaaony,
7) i?eiyoea eiiaaioeeiiaeueiiai eee aieaaiai ?aoaiey i i?ae?auaiee
i?iaa?ie e iauyaeaiee ii?aaeaeaiiuo oaeoia e oai?ee oneiaii i?eiyouie
[3]. Ae?oaeie neiaaie, iaoea, niaeanii Iiiia?o, ?acaeaaaony aeaaiaea?y
auaeaeaeaieth niaeuo i?aaeiieiaeaiee e eo iineaaeothuae aaniiuaaeiie
e?eoeea iooai iaoiaeaeaiey eiio?i?eia?ia.

I?e anao oao iiaeeoeeaoeeyo, eioi?ui iiaeaa?aaeanue ia i?ioyaeaiee
iieoaaea eiioeaioeey yoiai oeeinioa, iaeciaiiie a iae inoaaaeanue eaeay
i oii, /oi iio?aaiinoue, aiciiaeiinoue e iaiaoiaeeiinoue e?eoeee e
iinoiyiiiai ia?aniio?a naieo iieiaeaiee noaiiayony iniiaiuie e
ii?aaeaeythueie i?eciaeaie iaoee, nouanoaii iao/iie ?aoeeiiaeueiinoe.
Eaaeaeay oai?ey oycaeia aeey e?eoeee, a i?ioeaiii neo/aa iia ia iiaeao
?anniao?eaaoueny a ea/anoaa iao/iie. Anee oai?ey i?ioeai?a/eo oaeoai,
iia aeieaeia auoue ioaa?aiooa. Iiaeii nii?eoue i oii, ioa?anuaaaony ee a
?aaeueiie iaoea ii?iaa?aiooay iiuoii oai?ey eee aeiioaca iaiaaeeaiii eee
aea yoio i?ioeann i?ienoiaeeo neiaeiaa, ii aeey E.Iiiia?a ianiiiaiii
iaeii – anee o/aiue, iinoaaeaiiue ia?aae oaeoii e?ooaiey naiae oai?ee
(iai?eia?, a neo/aa “?aoathuaai yenia?eiaioa”, canoaaeythuaai
ioaa?aiooue iaeio ec eiieo?e?othueo aeiioac), oai ia iaiaa inoaaony aa
i?eaa?aeaioeai, oi ii iinooiaao ia?aoeeiiaeueii e ia?ooaao i?aaeea
“iao/iie ea?u”. Oaeei ia?acii, niaia iao/iuo oai?ee aeaei ia oieueei
iau/iia, ii e nouanoaaiii iaiaoiaeeiia. Any enoi?ey iao/iiai iiciaiey e
ninoieo, niaeanii Iiiia?o, ec auaeaeaeaiey niaeuo i?aaeiieiaeaiee e eo
ii?iaa?aeaiee e iiaeao auoue i?aaenoaaeaia eae enoi?ey “ia?iaiaioiuo
?aaiethoeee” [4]. Iiyoiio iiiyoea iao/iie ?aaiethoeee aeey E.Iiiia?a
aunooiaao eae iaeee oneeeaathuee iai?io, iiae/a?eeaathuee iniaoth
ino?ioo iienaiee neooaoeee eee iaiau/ioth ?aceoth i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue
(ianiaianoeiinoue) iaaeaeo niaiythueie ae?oa ae?oaa oai?eyie, iniaaiii
eiaaea ?a/ue eaeao i ooiaeaiaioaeueiuo, a ia “eieaeueiuo” oai?eyo.

Iioieiae/aneei iniiaaieai iiaeaee neoaeeo aai eiioeaioeey “O?aoueaai
ie?a”, eioi?ay noaiiaeony /anoueth iauae oai?ee iauaeoeaiinoe iao/iiai
ciaiey. A naiae ?aaioa “Iauaeoeaiia ciaiea” aaoi? auaeaeaaao oacen i
oii, /oi iiaeii ?acee/eoue neaaeothuea o?e ie?a: “ai-ia?auo, ie?
oece/aneeo iauaeoia eee oece/aneeo ninoiyiee, ai-aoi?uo, ie? ninoiyiee
niciaiey, iuneeoaeueiuo (iaioaeueiuo) ninoiyiee e, aiciiaeii,
aeeniiceoeee e aeaenoaeth, a-o?aoueeo, ie? iauaeoeaiiai niaea?aeaiey
iuoeaiey, i?aaeaea anaai niaea?aeaiey iao/iuo eaeae, iiyoe/aneeo iuneae
e i?iecaaaeaiee eneonnoaa.” [2]. O?aoee ie? aicieeaao eae ?acoeueoao
acaeiiaeaenoaey oece/aneiai ie?a e niciaiey, eae anoanoaaiiue i?iaeoeo
/aeiaa/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe. Iaiaoiaeeiui oneiaeai aai aicieeiiaaiey
yaeyaony iiyaeaiea ycuea. Eiaiii cae?aieyynue a ycuea, ciaiea
i?aa?auaaony a “iauaeoeaiue aeoo”, i?eia?aoaao iauaeoeaiue oa?aeoa?.

Iiiia? iiae/a?eeaaao, /oi “o?aoee ie?” a cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie
aaoiiiiai, oioy iu iinoiyiii aicaeaenoaoai ia iaai e iiaeaa?aaainy
aicaeaenoaeth n aai noi?iiu.

Iaeoaoaeyie o?aoueaai ie?a yaeythony oai?aoe/aneea nenoaiu, i?iaeaiu e
e?eoe/aneea ?annoaeaeaiey, nthaea aea ioiinyony e niaea?aeaiea
aeo?iaeia, eiea e aeaeeioae. I?ioeann ?acaeoey iao/iuo oai?ee
i?ienoiaeeo a “o?aoueai ie?a” e eiaao nianoaaiioth eiaeeo ?acaeoey. “Iiy
eiaeea enneaaeiaaiey niaea?aeaea oai?eth ?acaeoey ciaiey /a?ac iiiuoee e
ioeaee, oi/iaa, /a?ac ono?aiaiea ioeaie. A yoi cia/eo – /a?ac
aea?aeiianeoth naeaeoeeth, /a?ac ioai?, a aiana ia /a?ac eaia?eianeoth
eino?oeoeeth, oi anoue iao/aiea”. Yoo aiaeiaeth Iiiia? a eiioea aeecie
?ac?aaioae, nicaeaa noaio /aou?ao oac aeeiaieee oai?ee:

1) I?iaeaia (ia iaaethaeaiea);

2) Iiiuoee ?aoaiey – aeiioacu;

3) Ono?aiaiee ioeaie – oaeueneoeeaoeey aeiioac eee oai?ee;

4) Iiaay e aieaa oi/iay iinoaiiaea i?iaeaiu a ?acoeueoaoa e?eoe/aneie
aeeneonnee”. [Popper K., Alles Leben ist Problemlfosen. Muenchen,
Zuerich, 1994/ oeeoe?oaony ii 5]

Oaeei ia?acii, iiiia?ianeea “iao/iua ?aaiethoeee” oeaeeeii ioiinyony e
ie?o eaeae, ia cao?aaeaay ie? o/aiuo. Inoaaaynue ?aoeeiiaeueiui,
iiaaaeaiea iineaaeieo ia iiaeao auoue eiui, e?iia iaiaaeeaiiiai niaeaney
n ?aoeeiiaeueii ii?aaaeaiiie caiaiie oai?aoe/aneeo iino?iaiee. A
“ioe?uoii iauanoaa” o/aiuo iaiuneeia eaeay-eeai eiay, e?iia
eioaeeaeooaeueiie, ai?ueaa, niia?ie/atho eaeae, ii ia ethaee,
aaeeinoaaiiue e ii?aaeaeythuee eioa?an eioi?uo ninoieo a aanei?unoiii
neoaeaiee iaoea. Iiyoiio iu ia iaoiaeei o Iiiia?a neieueei-ieaoaeue
?ac?aaioaiiie “no?oeoo?u iao/iuo ?aaiethoeee”.

Oai?ey iao/iuo ?aaiethoeee O.Eoia

Eiioeaioeey nioeeieiae/aneie e ineoieiae/aneie ?aeiino?oeoeee e
?acaeoey iao/iiai ciaiey naycaia n eiaiai e eaeayie O.Eoia, eceiaeaiiuie
a aai oe?iei ecaanoiie ?aaioa ii enoi?ee iaoee “No?oeoo?a iao/iuo
?aaiethoeee” [6]. A yoie ?aaioa enneaaeothony nioeeieoeueoo?iua e
ineoieiae/aneea oaeoi?u a aeayoaeueiinoe eae ioaeaeueiuo o/aiuo, oae e
enneaaeiaaoaeueneeo eieeaeoeaia.

Eoi n/eoaao, /oi ?acaeoea iaoee i?aaenoaaeyao niaie i?ioeann
iii/a?aaeiie niaiu aeaoo ia?eiaeia – “ii?iaeueiie iaoee” e “iao/iuo
?aaiethoeee”. I?e/ai iineaaeiea ai?acaei aieaa ?aaeee a enoi?ee
?acaeoey iaoee ii n?aaiaieth n ia?auie. Nioeeaeueii-ineoieiae/aneee
oa?aeoa? eiioeaioeee Eoia ii?aaeaeyaony aai iiieiaieai iao/iiai
niiauanoaa, /eaiu eioi?iai ?acaeaeytho ii?aaeaeaiioth ia?aaeeaio,
i?eaa?aeaiiinoue e eioi?ie iaoneaaeeaaaony iieiaeaieai aai a aeaiiie
nioeeaeueiie i?aaiecaoeee iaoee, i?eioeeiaie, aini?eiyouie i?e aai
iao/aiee e noaiiaeaiee eae o/aiiai, neiiaoeyie, ynoaoe/aneeie iioeaaie e
aeonaie. Eiaiii yoe oaeoi?u, ii Eoio, e noaiiayony iniiaie iao/iiai
niiauanoaa.

Oeaio?aeueiia ianoi a eiioeaioeee Eoia caieiaao iiiyoea ia?aaeeaiu, eee
niaieoiiinoe iaeaieaa iaueo eaeae e iaoiaeieiae/aneeo onoaiiaie a iaoea,
i?eciaaaaiuo aeaiiui iao/iui niiauanoaii. Ia?aaeeaia iaeaaeaao aeaoiy
naienoaaie: 1) iia i?eiyoa iao/iui niiauanoaii eae iniiaa aeey
aeaeueiaeoae ?aaiou; 2) iia niaea?aeeo ia?aiaiiua aii?inu, o.a.
ioe?uaaao i?inoi? aeey enneaaeiaaoaeae. Ia?aaeeaia – yoi ia/aei anyeie
iaoee, iia iaania/eaaao aiciiaeiinoue oeaeaiai?aaeaiiiai ioai?a oaeoia e
eo eioa?i?aoaoeee. Ia?aaeeaia, ii Eoio, eee “aeenoeeieeia?iay iao?eoea”,
eae ii aa i?aaeeiaeee iacuaaoue a aeaeueiaeoai, aeeth/aao a naie ninoaa
/aou?a oeia iaeaieaa aaaeiuo eiiiiiaioia: 1) “neiaiee/aneea iaiauaiey” –
oa au?aaeaiey, eioi?ua eniieuecothony /eaiaie iao/iie a?oiiu aac
niiiaiee e ?aciiaeanee, eioi?ua iiaoo auoue iaea/aiu a eiae/aneoth
oi?io, 2) “iaoaoece/aneea /anoe ia?aaeeai” oeia: “oaieioa i?aaenoaaeyao
niaie eeiaoe/aneoth yia?aeth /anoae, ninoaaeythueo oaei”, 3) oeaiiinoe,
iai?eia?, eanathueany i?aaeneacaiee, eiee/anoaaiiua i?aaeneacaiey
aeieaeiu auoue i?aaeii/oeoaeueiaa ea/anoaaiiuo, 4) iauai?eciaiiua
ia?acoeu.

Ana yoe eiiiiiaiou ia?aaeeaiu aini?eieiathony /eaiaie iao/iiai
niiauanoaa a i?ioeanna eo iao/aiey, ?ieue eioi?iai a oi?ie?iaaiee
iao/iiai niiauanoaa iiae/a?eeaaaony Eoiii, e noaiiayony iniiaie eo
aeayoaeueiinoe a ia?eiaeu “ii?iaeueiie iaoee”. A ia?eiae “ii?iaeueiie
iaoee” o/aiua eiatho aeaei n iaeiieaieai oaeoia, eioi?ua Eoi aeaeeo ia
o?e oeia: 1) eeai oaeoia, eioi?ua iniaaiii iieacaoaeueiu aeey ane?uoey
nooe aauae. Enneaaeiaaiey a yoii neo/aa ninoiyo a ooi/iaiee oaeoia e
?aniiciaiee eo a aieaa oe?ieii e?oao neooaoeee, 2) oaeou, eioi?ua oioy e
ia i?aaenoaaeytho aieueoiai eioa?ana naie ii naaa, ii iiaoo
iaiin?aaenoaaiii niiinoaaeyoueny n i?aaeneacaieyie ia?aaeeaiaeueiie
oai?ee, 3) yiie?e/aneay ?aaioa, eioi?ay i?aaei?eieiaaony aeey ?ac?aaioee
ia?aaeeaiaeueiie oai?ee.

Iaeiaei iao/iay aeayoaeueiinoue a oeaeii yoei ia en/a?iuaaaony.
?acaeoea “ii?iaeueiie iaoee” a ?aieao i?eiyoie ia?aaeeaiu aeeeony aei
oao ii?, iiea nouanoaothuay ia?aaeeaia ia oo?a/eaaao niiniaiinoe ?aoaoue
iao/iua i?iaeaiu. Ia iaeiii ec yoaiia ?acaeoey “ii?iaeueiie iaoee”
iai?aiaiii aicieeaao ianiioaaonoaea iaaethaeaiee e i?aaeneacaiee
ia?aaeeaiu, aicieeatho aiiiaeee. Eiaaea oaeeo aiiiaeee iaeaieeaaaony
aeinoaoi/ii iiiai, i?ae?auaaony ii?iaeueiia oa/aiea iaoee e ianooiaao
ninoiyiea e?ecena, eioi?ia ?ac?aoaaony iao/iie ?aaiethoeeae, i?eaiaeyuae
e eiiea noa?ie e nicaeaieth iiaie iao/iie oai?ee – ia?aaeeaiu.

Eoi n/eoaao, /oi auai? oai?ee ia ?ieue iiaie ia?aaeeaiu ia yaeyaony
eiae/aneie i?iaeaiie: “Ie n iiiiuueth eiaeee, ie n iiiiuueth oai?ee
aa?iyoiinoe iaaiciiaeii ia?aoaaaeeoue oao, eoi ioeacuaaaony aieoe a
e?oa. Eiae/aneea iinueee e oeaiiinoe, iauea aeey aeaoo eaaa?ae i?e
nii?ao i ia?aaeeaiao, iaaeinoaoi/ii oe?iee aeey yoiai. Eae a
iieeoe/aneeo ?aaiethoeeyo, oae e a auai?a ia?aaeeaiu iao einoaioeee
aieaa aunieie, /ai niaeanea niioaaonoaothuaai niiauanoaa” [6]. Ia ?ieue
ia?aaeeaiu iao/iia niiauanoai auae?aao oo oai?eth, eioi?ay, eae
i?aaenoaaeyaony, iaania/eaaao “ii?iaeueiia” ooieoeeiie?iaaiea iaoee.
Niaia iniiaiiieaaathueo oai?ee auaeyaeeo aeey o/aiiai eae anooieaiea a
iiaue ie?, a eioi?ii iaoiaeyony nianai eiua iauaeou, iiiyoeeiua nenoaiu,
iaia?oaeeaathony eiua i?iaeaiu e caaea/e: “Ia?aaeeaiu aiiaua ia iiaoo
auoue eni?aaeaiu a ?aieao ii?iaeueiie iaoee. Aianoi yoiai… ii?iaeueiay
iaoea a eiioea eiioeia i?eaiaeeo oieueei e iniciaieth aiiiaeee e e
e?ecenai. A iineaaeiea ?ac?aoathony ia a ?acoeueoaoa ?aciuoeaiey e
eioa?i?aoaoeee, a aeaaiaea?y a eaeie-oi noaiaie iaiaeeaeaiiiio e
iano?oeoo?iiio niauoeth, iiaeiaii ia?aeeth/aieth aaooaeueoa. Iinea yoiai
niauoey o/aiua /anoi aiai?yo i “iaeaia, niaaoae n aeac”, eee ia
“ica?aiee”, eioi?ia inaauaao ?aiaa caiooaiioth aieiaieiieo, oai naiui
i?eniinaaeeaay aa eiiiiiaiou e oiio, /oiau oaeaeaoue eo a iiaii ?aeo?na,
aia?aua iicaieythuai aeinoeaiooue aa ?aoaiey”. Oaeei ia?acii, iao/iay
?aaiethoeey eae niaia ia?aaeeai ia iiaeeaaeeo ?aoeeiiaeueii-eiae/aneiio
iauyniaieth, iioiio /oi nooue aeaea a i?ioanneiiaeueiii naii/oanoaee
iao/iiai niiauanoaa: eeai niiauanoai iaeaaeaao n?aaenoaaie ?aoaiey
aieiaieiiee, eeai iao – oiaaea niiauanoai eo nicaeaao.

Iiaiea i oii, /oi iiaay ia?aaeeaia aeeth/aao noa?oth eae /anoiue
neo/ae, Eoi n/eoaao ioeai/iui. Eoi auaeaeaaao oacen i ianiecia?eiinoe
ia?aaeeai. I?e eciaiaiee ia?aaeeaiu iaiyaony aanue ie? o/aiiai, oae eae
ia nouanoaoao iauaeoeaiiai ycuea iao/iiai iaaethaeaiey. Aini?eyoea
o/aiiai anaaaea aoaeao iiaeaa?aeaii aeeyieth ia?aaeeaiu.

Ii-aeaeeiiio, iaeaieueoay caneoaa O.Eoia ninoieo a oii, /oi ii iaoae
iiaue iiaeoiae e ?ane?uoeth i?e?iaeu iaoee e aa i?ia?anna. A ioee/ea io
E.Iiiia?a, eioi?ue n/eoaao, /oi ?acaeoea iaoee iiaeii iauynieoue enoiaey
oieueei ec eiae/aneeo i?aaee, Eoi aiineo a yoo i?iaeaio “/aeiaa/aneee”
oaeoi?, i?eaeaeay e aa ?aoaieth iiaua, nioeeaeueiua e ineoieiae/aneea
iioeau.

Eieaa O.Eoia ii?iaeeea iiiaeanoai aeeneonnee, eae a niaaoneie, oae e
caiaaeiie eeoa?aoo?a. Iaeia ec ieo iiae?iaii aiaeece?oaony a noaouea
[7], eioi?ay aoaeao eniieueciaaia aeey aeaeueiaeoaai ianoaeaeaiey. Ii
iiaieth aaoi?ia noaouee, ino?ie e?eoeea iiaeaa?aeenue eae auaeaeiooia
Eoiii iiiyoea “ii?iaeueiie iaoee”, oae e aai eioa?i?aoaoeey iao/iuo
?aaiethoeee.

A e?eoeea iiieiaiey Eoiii “ii?iaeueiie iaoee” auaeaeythony o?e
iai?aaeaiey. Ai-ia?auo, yoi iieiia io?eoeaiea nouanoaiaaiey oaeiai
yaeaiey eae “ii?iaeueiay iaoea” a iao/iie aeayoaeueiinoe. Yoie oi/ee
c?aiey i?eaea?aeeaaaony Aeae.Oioeein. Ii iieaaaao, /oi iaoea ia
naeaeioeanue au n ianoa, anee au iniiaiie oi?iie aeayoaeueiinoe o/aiuo
auea “ii?iaeueiay iaoea”. Ii aai iiaieth, oaeie neo/iie e iaaa?ie/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoe, eae “ii?iaeueiay iaoea”, ia nouanoaoao aiiaua, ec
“ii?iaeueiie iaoee” Eoia ia iiaeao au?anoe ?aaiethoeee [7].

Aoi?ia iai?aaeaiea a e?eoeea “ii?iaeueiie iaoee” i?aaenoaaeaii Ea?eii
Iiiia?ii. Ii, a ioee/ea io Oioeeina, ia io?eoeaao nouanoaiaaiey a iaoea
ia?eiaea “ii?iaeueiiai enneaaeiaaiey”, ii iieaaaao, /oi iaaeaeo
“ii?iaeueiie iaoeie” e iao/iie ?aaiethoeeae iao oaeie nouanoaaiiie
?acieoeu, ia eioi?oth oeacuaaao Eoi. Ii aai iiaieth, “ii?iaeueiay iaoea”
Eoia ia oieueei ia yaeyaony ii?iaeueiie, ii e i?aaenoaaeyao iianiinoue
aeey naiiai nouanoaiaaiey iaoee. “Ii?iaeueiue” o/aiue a i?aaenoaaeaiee
Eoia aucuaaao o Iiiia?a /oanoai aeaeinoe: aai ieioi iao/aee, ii ia
i?eaue e e?eoe/aneiio iuoeaieth, ec iaai naeaeaee aeiaiaoeea, ii aea?oaa
aeieo?eia?noaa. Iiiia? iieaaaao, /oi oioy o/aiue e ?aaioaao iau/ii a
?aieao eaeie-oi oai?ee, i?e aeaeaiee ii iiaeao aueoe ec yoeo ?aiie.
I?aaaea i?e yoii ii ieaaeaony a ae?oaeo ?aieao, ii iie aoaeoo eo/oa e
oe?a [7].

O?aouea iai?aaeaiea e?eoeee ii?iaeueiie iaoee Eoia i?aaeiieaaaao, /oi
ii?iaeueiia enneaaeiaaiea nouanoaoao, /oi iii ia yaeyaony iniiaiui aeey
iaoee a oeaeii, iii oae aea ia i?aaenoaaeyao oaeiai cea eae n/eoaao
Iiiia?. Aiiaua ia neaaeoao i?eienuaaoue ii?iaeueiie iaoea neeoeii
aieueoiai cia/aiey, ie iieiaeeoaeueiiai, ie io?eoeaoaeueiiai. Noeaai
Ooeiei, iai?eia?, iieaaaao, /oi iao/iua ?aaiethoeee neo/athony a iaoea
ia oae oae ?aaeei, e iaoea aiiaua ia ?acaeaaaony eeoue iooai iaeiieaiey
ciaiee. Iao/iua ?aaiethoeee nianai ia yaeythony “ae?aiaoe/aneeie”
ia?a?uaaie a “ii?iaeueiii” iai?a?uaiii ooieoeeiie?iaaiee iaoee. Aianoi
yoiai iia noaiiaeony “aaeeieoeae ecia?aiey” aioo?e naiiai i?ioeanna
iao/iiai ?acaeoey [7]. Aeey Ooeieia ?aaiethoeey iaiaa ?aaiethoeeiiia, a
“ii?iaeueiay iaoea” – iaiaa eoioeyoeaia, /ai aeey Eoia.

Ia iaiueoaa aic?aaeaiea aucaaei iiieiaiea Eoiii iao/iuo ?aaiethoeee.
E?eoeea a yoii iai?aaeaiee naiaeeony i?aaeaea anaai e iaaeiaieyi a
e??aoeeiiaeecia. Iaeaieaa aeoeaiui iiiiiaioii Eoia a yoii iai?aaeaiee
aunooiaao iineaaeiaaoaeue Ea?ea Iiiia?a E.Eaeaoin. Ii ooaa?aeaeaao,
iai?eia?, /oi Eoi “eneeth/aao anyeoth aiciiaeiinoue ?aoeeiiaeueiie
?aeiino?oeoeee ciaiey”, /oi n oi/ee c?aiey Eoia nouanoaoao ineoieiaey
ioe?uoey, ii ia eiaeea, /oi Eoi ia?eniaae “a aunoae noaiaie
i?eaeiaeueioth ea?oeio e??aoeeiiaeueiie caiaiu iaeiiai ?aoeeiiaeueiiai
aaoi?eoaoa ae?oaei”.

Eae aeaeii ec eceiaeaiiiai ianoaeaeaiey, e?eoeee Eoia iniiaiia aieiaiea
oaeaeeee aai iiieiaieth “ii?iaeueiie iaoee” e i?iaeaiu ?aoeeiiaeueiiai,
eiae/aneiai iauyniaiey ia?aoiaea io noa?uo i?aaenoaaeaiee e iiaui.

A ?acoeueoaoa ianoaeaeaiey eiioeaioeee Eoia aieueoeinoai aai iiiiiaioia
noi?ie?iaaee naie iiaeaee iao/iiai ?acaeoey e naia iiieiaiea iao/iuo
?aaiethoeee. Eiioeaioeee E.Eaeaoina e No. Ooeieia aoaeoo ?anniio?aiu a
neaaeothueo ?acaeaeao aeaiiie ?aaiou.

Iaoiaeieiaey enneaaeiaaoaeueneeo i?ia?aii E.Eaeaoina

?aoeoaeueioth iiiuoeo nianoe eiae/aneoth o?aaeeoeeth i?e aiaeeca
enoi?e/aneeo eciaiaiee a iaoea i?aaei?eiye o/aiee Iiiia?a Ei?a Eaeaoin.

Aneaae ca E.Iiiia?ii E.Eaeaoin iieaaaao, /oi iniiaie oai?ee iao/iie
?aoeeiiaeueiinoe (eee iaoiaeieiae/aneie eiioeaioeee) aeieaeai noaoue
i?eioeei e?eoeoeecia. Yoio i?eioeei yaeyaony oieaa?naeueiui i?eioeeiii
anyeie iao/iie aeayoaeueiinoe; iaeiaei, i?e ia?auaiee e ?aaeueiie
enoi?ee iaoee noaiiaeony ynii, /oi “?aoeeiiaeueiue e?eoeoeeci” ia
aeieaeai naiaeeoueny e oaiaoe/aneiio o?aaiaaieth aaniiuaaeiie
oaeueneoeeaoeee. Iai?aaeacyoia ?anniio?aiea enoi?e/aneeo ia?eiaoee
iao/iuo eaeae e oai?ee n?aco aea noaeeeaaaony n oai oaeoii, /oi
“aeiaiaoe/aneee oaeueneoeeaoeeiieci” anoue oaeay aea ooiiey, eae
oi?iaeenoe/aneea ia/ou i “aaeeeaeiaie” ?aoeeiiaeueiie iaoea.
“Eiio?i?eia?u” e “aiiiaeee” ioithaeue ia anaaaea iiaoaeaeatho o/aiuo
?ani?aaeyoueny ni naieie oai?eyie; ?aoeeiiaeueiia iiaaaeaiea
enneaaeiaaoaey caeeth/aao a naaa oeaeue ?yae no?aoaaee, iauee niune
eioi?uo – eaeoe aia?aae, ia oeaiaiay io ioaeaeueiuo iaoaea/, anee yoi
aeaeaeaiea iaauaao ana iiaua yiie?e/aneea oniaoe e iaauaiey nauaathony.
E.Eaeaoin i/aiue ino?i iuooee nouanoaothuee ?ac?ua iaaeaeo
“oai?aoe/aneie ?aoeeiiaeueiinoueth”, eae aa iiieiaao “e?eoe/aneee
?aoeeiiaeeci” e i?aeoe/aneie ?aoeeiiaeueiinoueth ?acaeaathuaeny iaoee e
i?eciae iaiaoiaeeiinoue ?aoi?ie?iaaiey “e?eoe/aneiai ?aoeeiiaeecia” [8].
?acoeueoaoii oneeee ii ?aoaieth yoie caaea/e noaea au?aaioaiiay
E.Eaeaoinii iaoiaeieiae/aneay eiioeaioeey “ooii/aiiiai
oaeueneoeeaoeeiiecia” eee iaoiaeieiaey iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneeo
i?ia?aii. Yoa oai?ey iieo/eea au?aaeaiea a aai ?aaioa “Oaeueneoeeaoeey e
iaoiaeieiaey iao/iuo enneaaeiaaoaeueneeo i?ia?aii”, ia?aaiae o?aaiaioa
eioi?ie i?eaaaeai a [9].

Niaeanii Eaeaoino, a iaoea ia?acothony ia i?inoi oeaii/ee niaiythueo
iaeia ae?oaoth oai?ee, i eioi?uo ieoao Iiiia?, ii iao/iua
enneaaeiaaoaeueneea i?ia?aiiu, o.a. niaieoiiinoe oai?aoe/aneeo
iino?iaiee ii?aaeaeaiiie no?oeoo?u. “O anao enneaaeiaaoaeueneeo i?ia?aii
anoue “oaa?aeia yae?i”. Io?eoeaoaeueiay ya?enoeea cai?auaao
eniieueciaaoue modus tollens, eiaaea ?a/ue eaeao ia ooaa?aeaeaieyo,
aeeth/aiiuo a “oaa?aeia yae?i”. Aianoi yoiai iu aeieaeiu iai?yaaoue iaoo
ecia?aoaoaeueiinoue, /oiau i?iyniyoue, ?acaeaaoue oaea eiathueany eee
auaeaeaaoue iiaua “aniiiiaaoaeueiua aeiioacu”, eioi?ua ia?acotho
“caueoiue iiyn” aie?oa yoiai yae?a, modus tollens naiei ino?eai
iai?aaeyaony eiaiii ia yoe aeiioacu. Caueoiue iiyn aeieaeai auaea?aeaoue
aeaaiue oaea? ni noi?iiu i?iaa?ie; caueuay oaeei ia?acii ieinoaiaaoaa
yae?i, ii aeieaeai i?eniinaaeeaaoueny, ia?aaeaeuaaoueny eee aeaaea
iieiinoueth caiaiyoueny, anee yoiai o?aaotho eioa?anu iai?iiu” [9].
E.Iiiia? ?anniao?eaaao oieueei ai?ueao iaaeaeo oai?eyie, Eaeaoin aea
o/eouaaao ia oieueei ai?ueao ii?iaa?aeeiuo e eiieo?e?othueo oai?ee,
ninoaaeythueo “caueoiue iiyn”, ii e ai?ueao iaaeaeo enneaaeiaaoaeueneeie
i?ia?aiiaie. Iiyoiio ?acaeoea iaoee Eaeaoin i?aaenoaaeyao ia eae
/a?aaeiaaiea ioaeaeueiuo iao/iuo oai?ee, a eae “enoi?eth ?iaeaeaiey,
aeecie e aeaaee enneaaeiaaoaeueneeo i?ia?aii”.

Iaeiaei e iaoiaeieiaey enneaaeiaaoaeueneeo i?ia?aii Eaeaoina ia iiaeao
iauynieoue, ii/aio i?ienoiaeeo niaia i?ia?aii. Eaeaoin i?eciaao, /oi
iauyniaiey eiaeee e iaoiaeieiaee caeanue aanneeueiu, ii, a ioee/ea io
Eoia, ii aa?eo, /oi eiae/anee iiaeii “niecia?eoue” niaea?aeaiea
i?ia?aii, n?aaieaaoue eo iaaeaeo niaie e iiyoiio iiaeii aeaoue o/aiiio
aiieia ?aoeeiiaeueiue i?eaioe? aeey oiai, /oiau aua?aoue – ioeacuaaoueny
eee iao io iaeiie i?ia?aiiu a iieueco ae?oaie. Ii iiaieth Eaeaoina niaia
e iaaeaiea onoiyaoeony acaeyaeia, oi anoue iao/iua ?aaiethoeee, aeieaeiu
iauyniyoueny ia “ineoieiaeae oieiu”, eae n/eoaao Eoi. Aeey iienaiey
oiai, eae niecia?eoue eee n?aaieoue aeaa eiieo?e?othuea i?ia?aiiu,
Eaeaoin aaiaeeo i?aaenoaaeaiea i naeaeaa i?iaeai.

“Enneaaeiaaoaeueneay i?ia?aiia n/eoaaony i?ia?anne?othuae oiaaea,
eiaaea aa oai?aoe/aneee ?ino i?aaeainoeuaao aa yiie?e/aneee ?ino, oi
anoue eiaaea iia n iaeioi?ui oniaoii iiaeao i?aaeneacuaaoue iiaua oaeou
(“i?ia?anneaiue naeaea i?iaeaiu”). I?ia?aiia ?aa?anne?oao, anee aa
oai?aoe/aneee ?ino ionoaao io aa yiie?e/aneiai ?inoa, oi anoue eiaaea
iia aeaao oieueei caiicaeaeua iauyniaiey eeai neo/aeiuo ioe?uoee, eeai
oaeoia, i?aaeainoeuaaiuo e ioe?uaaaiuo eiieo?e?othuae i?ia?aiiie
(“?aa?anneaiue naeaea i?iaeaiu”). Anee enneaaeiaaoaeueneay i?ia?aiia
i?ia?anneaii iauyniyao aieueoa, iaaeaee eiieo?e?othuay, oi iia
“auoaniyao” aa e yoa eiieo?e?othuay i?ia?aiia iiaeao auoue ono?aiaia
(eee, anee oaiaeii “ioeiaeaia”) [E.Eaeaoin, Enoi?ey iaoee e aa
?aoeeiiaeueiua ?aeiino?oeoeee./oeeoe?oaony ii 3]. Eaeaoin n/eoaao, /oi,
aaconeiaii, neaaeoao nio?aiyoue “aeanoeia yae?i”
iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneie i?ia?aiiu, iiea i?ienoiaeeo “i?ia?anneaiue
naeaea” i?iaeai. Ii aeaaea a neo/aa “?aa?anneaiiai naeaeaa” ia neaaeoao
oi?iieoueny n ioeacii io i?ia?aiiu. Aeaei a oii, /oi a i?eioeeia
nouanoaoao aiciiaeiinoue iaeoe aioo?aiiea enoi/ieee ?acaeoey aeey
noaaie?othuae i?ia?aiiu, aeaaiaea?y eioi?ui iia ia/iao iaiaeeaeaiii
?acaeaaoueny aeaaea iia?aaeay oo i?ia?aiio, eioi?ay aei iaaeaaieo ii?
iaea?aeeaaea iaae iath aa?o. “Iao ie/aai oaeiai, /oi iiaeii auei au
iacaaoue ?aoathueie yenia?eiaioaie, ii e?aeiae ia?a, anee iiieiaoue iiae
ieie oaeea yenia?eiaiou, eioi?ua niiniaiu iaiaaeeaiii ii?ieeaeuaaoue
enneaaeiaaoaeueneoth i?ia?aiio. Nai?y/a o/aiue iiaeao ooaa?aeaeaoue, /oi
aai yenia?eiaio ?aca?iiee i?ia?aiio… Ii anee o/aiue ec
“iiaaaeaeaiiiai” eaaa?y ianeieueei eao nionoy i?aaeeaaaao iao/iia
iauyniaiea yeiau “?aoathuaai yenia?eiaioa” a ?aieao yeiau ?aca?iieaiiie
i?ia?aiiu (eee a niioaaonoaea n iae), ii/aoiue oeooe iiaeao auoue niyo e
“?aoathuee yenia?eiaio” iiaeao i?aa?aoeoueny ec ii?aaeaiey i?ia?aiiu a
aa iiaoth iiaaaeo” [9].

Oaeei ia?acii ec ?anniio?aiey auoaeceiaeaiiie eiioeaioeee
“enneaaeiaaoaeueneeo i?ia?aii” Eaeaoina aeaeii, /oi iao/iua ?aaiethoeee,
eae ii eo iiieiaao, ia ea?atho neeoeii oae nouanoaaiiie ?iee aua e
iioiio, /oi a iaoea ii/oe ieeiaaea ia auaaao ia?eiaeia aac?acaeaeueiiai
ainiiaenoaa eaeie-eeai iaeiie “i?ia?aiiu”, a ninouanoaotho e
niia?ie/atho ?acee/iua i?ia?aiiu, oai?ee e eaeae. Iaeie eo ieo ia
iaeioi?ia a?aiy noaiiayony aeiieie?othueie, ae?oaea iooaniythony ia
caaeiee ieai, o?aouee – ia?a?aaaouaathony e ?aeiino?oe?othony. Iiyoiio
anee ?aaiethoeee e i?ienoiaeyo, oi yoi ia neeoeii oae “nio?ynaao iniiau”
iaoee: iiiaea o/aiua i?iaeieaeatho caieiaoueny naiei aeaeii, aeaaea ia
ia?aoea iniaiai aieiaiey ia niaa?oeaoeeny ia?aai?io. Aaeeeia e iaeia,
yiioaeueiue naeaea eee iacia/eoaeueiia eciaiaiea – ana yoe ioeaiee
niaa?oathony eeoue ?ao?iniaeoeaii i?e iaoiaeieiae/aneie, “iaoaiao/iie”
?aoeaenee. Ii iiaieth Eaeaoina, enoi?ey iaoee yaeyaony “i?iaiui eaiiai”
ethaie eiaeei-iaoiaeieiae/aneie eiioeaioeee, aa ?aoeoaeueiui e
aaneiii?iienniui noaeueae.

Yaiethoeeiiiay iiaeaeue ?acaeoey iaoee Noeaaia Ooeieia

Iaeiei ec aa?eaioia iinoiiceoeaecia, caaiaaaaoei ia Caiaaea i?eciaiea e
iiioey?iinoue, noaea eiioeaioeey Noeaaia Ooeieia. A yoie eiioeaioeee
eceiaeaiiie a ?aaioao “?aoeeiiaeueiinoue e iao/iia ioe?uoea” e
“*aeiaa/aneia iiieiaiea” [10], i?ia?ann iaoee e ?ino ciaiee
oniao?eaaaony ai ana aieaa aeoaieii iiieiaiee ie?oaeathuaai ie?a, a ia a
auaeaeaeaiee e oi?ioee?iaaiee aieaa enoeiiuo ooaa?aeaeaiee eae
i?aaeeaaaao Iiiia? (“aieaa iieiia ciaiea /a?ac aieaa enoeiiua
noaeaeaiey” Ooeiei caiaiyao ia aieaa aeoaieia iiieiaiea /a?ac aieaa
aaeaeaaoiua iiiyoey”).

Naia iiieiaiea ?aoeeiiaeueiinoe Ooeiei i?ioeaiiinoaaeyao eae oi/ea
c?aiey aaniethoenoia, eioi?ua i?eciatho nenoaio aaoi?eoaoiie i?e aa
niioaaonoaee iaeioi?ui aiaa?aiaiiui, oieaa?naeueiui noaiaea?oai,
iai?eia?, ieaoiiianeei “eaeayi” eee noaiaea?oai Aaeeeaeiaie aaiiao?ee,
oae e ?aeyoeaenoia, eioi?ua n/eoatho aii?in ia aaoi?eoaoiinoe eaeie-eeai
nenoaiu oianoiui oieueei a i?aaeaeao ii?aaeaeaiiie enoi?e/aneie yiioe,
i?eoiaey e auaiaeo i iaaiciiaeiinoe oieaa?naeueiie ioeaiee. Aeey Ooeieia
“…?aoeeiiaeueiinoue – yoi ao?eaoo … /aeiaa/aneeo aeaenoaee eee
eieoeeaoea…a iniaaiiinoe oao i?ioeaaeo?, aeaaiaea?y eioi?ui iiiyoey,
noaeaeaiey e oi?iaeueiua nenoaiu, oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiaiiua a yoeo
eieoeeaoeaao e?eoeeothony e niaiythony” [10]. Aiai?y ae?oaeie neiaaie,
?aoeeiiaeueiinoue – yoi niioaaonoaea enoi?e/anee iaoneiaeaiiui
ii?iaoeaai iao/iiai enneaaeiaaiey, a /anoiinoe, ii?iaoeaai ioeaiee e
auai?a oai?ee. Ionthaea neaaeoao, /oi iao e ia iiaeao auoue aaeeiuo
noaiaea?oia ?aoeeiiaeueiinoe – iie iaiythony aianoa n eciaiaieai
“eaeaaeia anoanoaaiiiai ii?yaeea”.

Iiaia iiieiaiea ?aoeeiiaeueiinoe iaoneaaeeaaao iiceoeeth Ooeieia e ii
ae?oaei aii?inai. I?aaeaea anaai, yoi ioiineony e ?aoaieth i?iaeaiu
iao/iuo ?aaiethoeee.

Eiaiii ioiaeaeanoaeaieai ?aoeeiiaeueiiai e eiae/aneiai, ii iiaieth
Ooeieia, naycaiu oaeea e?aeiinoe eae oieoi?ienoneia e ?aaiethoeeiiiia
iauyniaiey. Aeaenoaeoaeueii, oieoi?ienoneay, eee eoioeyoeaiay, iiaeaeue
iniiaaia ia i?aaenoaaeaiee i iiciaiee eae iinoiyiiii e iai?a?uaiii
i?eaeeaeaiee e oieaa?naeueiiio aano?aeoiiio eaeaaeo, eioi?ue iiieiaaony
eae eiae/anee acaeiinaycaiiay nenoaia. ?aaiethoeeiiiia aea, eee
?aeyoeaenoneia, iauyniaiea i?aaeiieaaaao niaio ii?i ?aoeeiiaeueiinoe eae
iieioth niaio nenoai ciaiee. Aeaenoaeoaeueii, anee ana iiiyoey noa?ie
aeenoeeieeia?iie nenoaiu eiae/anee acaeiinaycaiu, aeene?aaeeoaoeey
iaeiiai iaecaaaeii aaaeao e ?ac?ooaieth anae nenoaiu a oeaeii. Oaeei
ia?acii, eiaiii “eoeueo nenoaiaoeee” i?eaae Eoia e auaiaeai i
“iaecia?eiinoe ia?aaeeai” e i iao/iuo ?aaiethoeeyo eae i ia?aeeth/aieyo
aaooaeueoia. “Iai iaiaoiaeeii o/anoue, – ieoao Ooeiei, – /oi
ia?aeeth/aiea ia?aaeeaiu ieeiaaea ia auaaao oaeei iieiui, eae yoi
iiae?acoiaaaao no?iaia ii?aaeaeaiea; /oi a aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe
niia?ie/athuea ia?aaeeaiu ieeiaaea ia ?aaiineeueiu aeueoa?iaoeaiui
ie?iaicc?aieyi a eo iieiii iauaia e /oi ca eioaeeaeooaeueiui ia?a?uaii
iinoaiaiiinoe ia oai?aoe/aneii o?iaia iaoee ne?uaaaony iniiaiiieaaathuay
iai?a?uaiinoue ia aieaa aeoaieii, iaoiaeieiae/aneii o?iaia” [10]. Ii
iiaieth Ooeieia, ie aeene?aoiinoue, ie eoioeyoeaeci ia aaeaeaaoiu
?aaeueiie enoi?ee, iiyoiio iaiaoiaeeii ioeacaoueny io acaeyaeia ia iaoeo
eae niaeaniaaiioth “i?iiiceoeeiiaeueioth nenoaio” e caiaieoue aa
iiiyoeai “eiioeaiooaeueiie iiioeyoeee”. Iiiyoey aioo?e iiioeyoeee
iaeaaeatho aieueoae aaoiiiiiinoueth: iie iiyaeythony a iiioeyoeee a
?acee/iia a?aiy e a nayce n ?acee/iuie caaea/aie e iiaoo ioiineoaeueii
iacaaeneii auoiaeeoue ec iaa.

Eae iiaeii caiaoeoue, eiaiii caeanue i?ioiaeeo eeiey eiio?iioaoeee
iaaeaeo oeeinioneeie nenoaiaie Eoia e Ooeieia “… Aianoi
?aaiethoeeiiiiai iauyniaiey eioaeeaeooaeueiuo eciaiaiee, – ieoao Ooeiei,
– eioi?ia caaeaaony oeaeueth iieacaoue, eae oeaeua eiioeaiooaeueiua
nenoaiu niaiytho ae?oa ae?oaa, iai ioaeii nicaeaoue yaiethoeeiiiia
iauyniaiea, eioi?ia iauyniyao, eae iinoaiaiii o?ainoi?ie?othony
eiioeaiooaeueiua iiioeyoeee” [10].

Yaiethoeeiiiay iiaeaeue no?ieony ii aiaeiaee n oai?eae Aea?aeia e
iauyniyao ?acaeoea iaoee /a?ac acaeiiaeaenoaea i?ioeannia “eiiiaaoeee” e
“ioai?a”. Ooeiei auaeaeyao neaaeothuea iniiaiua /a?ou yaiethoeee iaoee:

Eioaeeaeooaeueiia niaea?aeaiea aeenoeeieeiu, n iaeiie noi?iiu,
iiaeaa?aeaii eciaiaieyi, a n ae?oaie – iaia?oaeeaaao yaioth
i?aainoaaiiinoue.

A eioaeeaeooaeueiie aeenoeeieeia iinoiyiii iiyaeythony i?iaiua eaeae eee
iaoiaeu, iaeiaei oieueei iaiiiaea ec ieo caaiaauaatho i?i/iia ianoi a
nenoaia aeenoeeieeia?iiai ciaiey. Oaeei ia?acii, iai?a?uaiia
aicieeiiaaiea eioaeeaeooaeueiuo iiaaoeee o?aaiiaaoeaaaony i?ioeannii
e?eoe/aneiai ioai?a.

Yoio aeaoonoi?iiiee i?ioeann i?iecaiaeeo caiaoiua eiioeaiooaeueiua
eciaiaiey oieueei i?e iaee/ee iaeioi?uo aeiiieieoaeueiuo oneiaee.
Iaiaoiaeeii nouanoaiaaiea, ai-ia?auo, aeinoaoi/iiai eiee/anoaa ethaeae,
niiniaiuo iiaeaea?aeeaaoue iioie eioaeeaeooaeueiuo iiaiaaaaeaiee;
ai-aoi?uo, “oi?oiia eiieo?aioeee”, e eioi?uo i?iaiua eioaeeaeooaeueiua
iiaiaaaaeaiey iiaoo nouanoaiaaoue a oa/aiea aeeeoaeueiiai a?aiaie, /oiau
iaia?oaeeoue naie aeinoieinoaa e iaaeinoaoee.

“Eioaeeaeooaeueiay yeieiaey” ethaie enoi?e/aneie e eoeueoo?iie neooaoeee
ii?aaeaeyaony iaai?ii acaeiinaycaiiuo iiiyoee. “A ethaie i?iaeaiiie
neooaoeee aeenoeeieeia?iue ioai? “i?eciaao” oa ec “eiieo?e?othueo”
iiaiaaaaeaiee, eioi?ua eo/oa anaai ioaa/atho “o?aaiaaieyi” ianoiie
“eioaeeaeooaeueiie n?aaeu”. Yoe “o?aaiaaiey” ioaaouaatho eae oa
i?iaeaiu, eioi?ua eaaeaeue eiioeaiooaeueiue aa?eaio iaiin?aaenoaaiii
i?aaeiacia/ai ?aoaoue, oae e ae?oaea oi?i/eaoeany iiiyoey, n eioi?uie ii
aeieaeai ninouanoaiaaoue” [10].

Oaeei ia?acii, aii?in i caeiiiia?iinoyo ?acaeoey iaoee naiaeeony e aeaoi
a?oiiai aii?inia: ai-ia?auo, eaeea oaeoi?u ii?aaeaeytho iiyaeaiea
oai?aoe/aneeo iiaaoeee (aiaeia i?iaeaiu i?ienoiaeaeaiey iooaioiuo oi?i a
aeieiaee) e, ai-aoi?uo, eaeea oaeoi?u ii?aaeaeytho i?eciaiea e
cae?aieaiea oiai eee eiiai eiioeaiooaeueiiai aa?eaioa (aiaeia i?iaeaiu
aeieiae/aneiai ioai?a).

Aeaeaa a naiae eieaa Ooeiei ?anniao?eaaao yoe aii?inu. I?e yoii
iaiaoiaeeiui eiia/iui enoi/ieeii eiioeaiooaeueiuo eciaiaiee ii n/eoaao
“ethaiiuonoai e niiniaiinoue e ?aciuoeaieth ioaeaeueiuo ethaeae”, i?e/ai
yoio oaeoi? aeaenoaoao i?e auiieiaiee ii?aaeaeaiiiai ?yaea oneiaee. A
oe?aieoueny a aeenoeeieeia?iie o?aaeeoeee, aicieeathuea eiioeaiooaeueiua
iiaaoeee iiaoo, i?ieaey oeeueo? “ioai?a”. ?aoathuei oneiaeai a yoii
neo/aa aeey auaeeaaiey eiiiaaoeee noaiiaeony aa aeeaae a onoaiiaeaiea
niioaaonoaey iaaeaeo iauyniaieyie aeaiiiai oaiiiaia e i?eiyoui
“iauynieoaeueiui eaeaaeii”.

Aianoi caeeth/aiey: oai?ey oaciauo ia?aoiaeia Y.Yca?a

A i?aaeuaeoueo ?acaeaeao auee ?anniio?aiu iniiaiua oeeinioneea oai?ee
?acaeoey iaoee, neiaeeaoeany a XX aaea. Iiaeaiaey eoia, aaoi?o ianoiyuae
?aaiou oioaeinue au i?aaenoaaeoue /?acau/aeii eioa?anioth eiioeaioeeth
nia?aiaiiiai aano?eeneiai oeeinioa, i?ioanni?a Aaineiai oieaa?neoaoa
Y?oa?aea Yca?a, iaoaaeooth io?aaeaiea a aai ?aaioa “Aeeiaieea oai?ee e
oaciaua ia?aoiaeu” [5].

Ii iiaieth Yca?a, ianiio?y ia ana ?anoiaeaeaiey ai acaeyaeao noi?iiieeia
oiai eee eiiai oeeinioneiai iai?aaeaiey (eoioeyoeaeci/?aeyoeaeci,
eioa?iaeeci/yenoa?iaeeci), ?aaiethoeeiiiie eee yaiethoeeiiiie iiaeaeae
?acaeoey iaoee, iaaeaeo ieie nouanoaoao iaeay ooiaeaiaioaeueiay
iauiinoue: “Ia oieueei ana aaoi?u oai?ee iao/iiai ?acaeoey, eae ,
iai?eia?, Eoi e Ooeiei, ii e Iiiia? i?eaaaatho e aiaeiaee n
aea?aeiianeie yaiethoeeiiiie oai?eae. Ana auoaia?a/eneaiiua iiceoeee a
oai?ee, ineoieiaee e nioeeieiaee iaoee n eo ia ia?aue acaeyae noieue
?acee/iie oa?ieiieiaeae iiaoo aac o?oaea auoue i?aia?aciaaiu a iaeio
aieaa aeoaieoth e oieaa?naeueioth yaiethoeeiiioth oai?eth e eceiaeaiu a
aa oa?ieiao. Aaaeiaeoaa aeey i?iaeaiu aicieeiiaaiey anaai iiaiai a
enoi?ee iaoee iiiyoeeiia i?aia?aciaaiea – yoi i?aia?aciaaiea iiiyoey
“niaia ia?aaeeai” a iiiyoea “ia?aoiae a iiaoth oaco”. N aai iiiiuueth
iiaeii i?aa?aoeoue enneaaeiaaiea aeeiaieee oai?ee, eioi?ui ia?aie/eaaeny
Eoi n aai iiiyoeai niaiu ia?aaeeai, a iauaa enneaaeiaaiea aeeiaieee
iaoee” [5].

Ia?auaynue e enoi?ee iaoee, Yca? oaaaeeoaeueii iieacuaaao, /oi
“…iaoea ecia/aeueii anoue ia /oi eiia, eae iaoaieci auaeeaaiey aoi?iai
ii?yaeea…”, “…iineieueeo iiuoiua iao/iua eiino?oeou, o.a. aeiioacu e
oai?ee, i?eiaiythony ia i?aeoeea e neoaeao ?oeiaiaenoaii aeey
/aeiaa/aneeo aeaenoaee…e …auae?aaony oa oai?ey, eioi?ay eo/oa
ooieoeeiie?oao, aieueoa iauyniyao e oi/iaa i?aaeneacuaaao” [5].

A ?aieao iiaeiaiie yaiethoeeiiiie iiaeaee iiaeii aeaoue ioaao i
aicieeiiaaiee iiaiai a iaoea. “*oi eiaiii aicieeaao: iiaua oaeou,
aeiioacu, oai?ee eee iaoiaeu? – caaeaao aii?in Yca?, – Ie iaeia ec yoeo
aiciiaeiinoae ia aeieaeia ?anniao?eaaoueny ioaeaeueii, eai ana iie
ooieoeeiiaeueii acaeiinaycaiu.” Neaaeiaaoaeueii, “anee aicieeiiaaiea
iiaiai a ie?a naycaii n ?acee/iuie, ii ooieoeeiiaeueii acaeiinaycaiiuie
aiciiaeiinoyie, oiaaea nouanoaotho e ?acee/iua oeiu ia?aoiaeia ec iaeiie
oacu a ae?oaoth, ec eioi?uo eeoue iaeei iiaeao auoue iacaai “niaiie
ia?aaeeaiu” (Eoi)”. Aeaeaa aeaaony oeiieiaey “oaciauo ia?aoiaeia”,
iaaethaeathueony a iaoea [5]:

Ia?aoiae io aeioai?aoe/aneie noaaeee iaoee e ia?ae/iie oai?ee. I?eia?:
io aaaeeiineie ano?iiiiee e aaioeaio?e/aneie ano?iiiiee Ioieaiay.
Ia?aoiae yoiai oeia naycai n yaiethoeeiiiui nea/eii a ?acaeoee iao/iiai
iaoiaea: io /enoi yioia?aoeaiie eiaeoeoeee e yeno?aiieyoeee e
ya?enoe/aneie eiaeoeoeee e nicaeaieth oai?ee. Nia?aiiue oaeoe/aneee
iaoa?eae ia i?iiaaeaao i?e oaeii oaciaii ia?aoiaea.

Ia?aoiae io iaeiie oai?ee e ae?oaie (aeueoa?iaoeaiie) oai?ee (oae
iacuaaaiay iao/iay ?aaiethoeey = “niaia ia?aaeeaiu”. I?eia?: io
a?enoioaeaaneie oeceee e iaoaieea Aaeeeay. Ii n?aaiaieth n ia?aui oeiii
oaciaiai ia?aoiaea niaia iao/iie ia?aaeeaiu – niauoea eoaea iaiaa
cia/eoaeueiia, oae eae i?ienoiaeeo iii ia oii aea o?iaia ?acaeoey
iao/iie iaoiaeieiaee. No?oeoo?a oai?ee inoaaony oa aea naiay, oioy
iaiyaony niaea?aeaiea. Onei?aiiay oai?aoe/aneay aeeiaieea iaoaai a?aiaie
i?aa?aoeea iiaeiaioth ia?ano?ieeo iao/iuo oai?ee a iauaeaiioth ?aaioo.

Ia?aoiae io aeaoo ioaeaeueii aicieeoeo e ia?aeeaeueii ?acaeaaaoeony
/anoiuo oai?ee e iaeiie oieaa?naeueiie oai?ee (eioaa?aoeey oai?ee).
I?eia?: io caiiie iaoaieee Aaeeeay e iaaaniie iaoaieee Eaiea?a e
oieaa?naeueiie iaoaieea Iuethoiia. Yoio oei oaciauo ia?aoiaeia
ii-i?aaeiaio inoaaony ?aaeeei e /?acau/aeii cia/eoaeueiui niauoeai.

Ia?aoiae io iaaeyaeiie, iniiaaiiie ia /oanoaaiiii iiuoa oai?ee e
aano?aeoiie iaiaaeyaeiie oai?ee n oioaeueiie niaiie iniiaiuo iiiyoee.
I?eia?: io eeanne/aneie iaoaieee Iuethoiia e oai?ee ioiineoaeueiinoe
Yeiooaeia. Ia?aoiae yoiai oeia yaeyaony iaeaieaa cia/eiui e
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie iiaue yaiethoeeiiiue oaa a iaoiaeeea iaoe. Eai ii
aaaeao io eiaeoeoeaii-eiino?oeoeaiiai iino?iaiey oai?ee e eo
naii?acaeoeth. Ioiuia iaaethaeaiea ia?anoaao auoue aaeeinoaaiiui
e?eoa?eai enoeiiinoe iaoaai iiciaiey; oaia?ue eeoue a ?aieao oai?ee
iiaeii ?aoeoue, enoeiii ee naii iaaethaeaiea.

Ioaa/ay ia aii?inu, eae neaaeoao oiaaea iiieiaoue no?oeoo?o enoi?ee
iaoee: eae ?aaiethoeeth eee yaiethoeeth, Yca? ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi “A
?acoeueoaoa iai?a?uaiiai i?ioeanna ia aicieeaao ie/aai iiaiai. Iiaia
iiyaeyaony eeoue aneaaenoaea i?a?uaiinoe”, o.a. ?aaiethoeee. “Iaeiaei,
yoi ia icia/aao, /oi o i?a?uaiinoe iao naiae i?aaeunoi?ee, i?e/ai
eaaeaeay niaea?aeeo naie iaeaiueeea i?a?uaiinoe”. A oi aea a?aiy,
“…yoi ia icia/aao, /oi a enoi?ee iaoee nianai iao aiacaiiuo e
iaiaeeaeaiiuo oaciauo ia?aoiaeia. Niaeanii iiiia?ianeiio iiiyoeth
eioaa?aoeaiiai ?inoa oai?ee oaeie ia?aoiae eiaao ianoi anyeee ?ac,
eiaaea aeaa naiinoiyoaeueii ?acaeaaaoeany oai?ee eioaa?e?othony a iaeio
iiaoth.” [5].

Oaeei ia?acii, iiaeii ooaa?aeaeaoue, /oi ?acaeoea iao/iiai ciaiey
i?ienoiaeeo nei?aa yaiethoeeiiiui, /ai ?aaiethoeeiiiui, iooai, ii
yaiethoeey yoa i?ienoiaeeo /a?ac “eaace?aaiethoeee”.

Nienie eeoa?aoo?u

A.A.Ia/aieei, Iainiiaaiea iao/iie oai?ee. Eeanneea e nia?aiaiiinoue.,
I., Iaoea, 1991

E.Iiiia?, Eiaeea e ?ino iao/iiai ciaiey, I., 1983

E?eoeea iinoiiceoeaecia. Iaoiaee/aneea oeacaiey aeey anie?aioia
iaoeeinioneeo niaoeeaeueiinoae, eco/athueo ia?enenonei-eaieineoth
oeeinioeth., Iiaineae?ne, IAO, 1986

A.A.Eaeoi?neee, ?aoeeiiaeueiinoue, e?eoeoeeci e i?eioeeiu eeaa?aeecia
(acaeiinaycue nioeeaeueiie oeeinioee e yienoaiieiaee Iiiia?a) //Aii?inu
oeeinioee, 1995, ?10, no?.27-36

Y.Yca?, Aeeiaieea oai?ee e oaciaua ia?aoiaeu//Aii?inu oeeinioee, 1995,
?10, no?.37-44

O.Eoi, No?oeoo?a iao/iuo ?aaiethoeee, I., I?ia?ann, 1977

N.?.Ieeoeeineee, E.A.Ia?eiaa, *ai eioa?ania eieaa O.Eoia “No?oeoo?a
iao/iuo ?aaiethoeee”. Iineaneiaea e ?on.ecae.ei. – A ei.: Eoi O.
No?oeoo?a ia/iuo ?aaiethoeee. I., I?ia?ann, 1977, no?. 274 – 292

A.I.Ii?on, ?uoea?ue Ratio//Aii?inu oeeinioee, 1995, ?4, no?.127-134

E.Eaeaoin, Iaoiaeieiaey iao/iuo enneaaeiaaoaeueneeo i?ia?aii//Aii?inu
oeeinioee, 1995, ?4, no?.135-154

No.Ooeiei, *aeiaa/aneia iiieiaiea, I., I?ia?ann, 1984

A ae?oaeo ia?aaiaeao yoio oa?iei cao/eo eae “aeanoeia yae?i”

PAGE 10

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