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Ainoaea?noaaiiue eiieoao ii aunoae oeiea

Iineianeee Ainoaea?noaaiiue Einoeooo Yeaeo?iieee e Iaoaiaoeee

(Oaoie/aneee Oieaa?neoao)

?AOA?AO IA OAIO

?ACAEOEA E ACAEIIIA AEEssIEA

IAOAIAOEEE, OEEINIOEE

E

ENEONNOAA

Eaoaae?a eoeueoi?ieiaee.

Nooaeaio: Oa?aiaoe Aeieo?ee Aeaenaiae?iae/

A?oiia: AI-41

I?aiiaeaaaoaeue: Oa?aoia Aiaoieee Na?aaaae/

Iineaa, 1995

AAAAeAIEA

Aii?in i acaeiinayce iaoaiaoeee, oeeinioee e eneonnoaa aia?aua aue
caaeai aeiaieueii aeaaii. A?enoioaeue, Ayeii, Eaiia?aei aea Aei/e –
iiiaea aaeeeea oiu /aeiaa/anoaa caieiaeenue yoei aii?inii e aeinoeaaee
auaeathueony ?acoeueoaoia. Yoi ia oaeeaeoaeueii: aaaeue iniiao
acaeiiaeaenoaey oeeinioee n eaeie-eeai ec iaoe ninoaaeyao iio?aaiinoue
eniieueciaaiey aiia?aoa oeeinioee aeey i?iaaaeaiey enneaaeiaaiee a
aeaiiie iaeanoe; iaoaiaoeea aea, ianiiiaiii, aieaa anaai n?aaee oi/iuo
iaoe iiaeaeaaony oeeinioneiio aiaeeco (a neeo naiae aano?aeoiinoe).
Ia?yaeo n yoei i?ia?anne?othuay iaoaiaoecaoeey iaoee ieacuaaao
aeoeaiia aicaeaenoaea ia oeeinioneia iuoeaiea. Eneonnoai aea, ai ana
a?aiaia neoaeeaoaa /aeiaa/anoao eae iooue i?aanoaaiiiai,
yiioeeiiaeueiiai ie?iiuouaiey e ie?iiiieiaiey, eiia/ii aea, ieacuaaei e
i?iaeieaeaao ieacuaaoue ia ?acaeoea iao/iie iunee naiia
iaiin?aaenoaaiiia aeeyiea. Aniiiiei, e i?eia?o, oiai aea aaeeeiai
ooaeiaeieea e o/aiiai – Eaiia?aei aea Aei/e.

Niaianoiue iooue iaoaiaoeee e oeeinioee ia/aeny a Ae?aaiae A?aoeee
ieiei VI aaea aei i.y. Ia noaniaiiia ?aieaie aeaniioecia, a?a/aneia
iauanoai oie ii?u auei iiaeiaii ieoaoaeueiiio ?anoai?o, ia eioi?ii
au?inei iiiaia, /oi aeioei aei ian a neeueii eciaiaiiii a?aiaiai aeaea,
iaeiaei nio?aiea iniiaioth, caeiaeaiioth a?aeaie eaeath: oaao?,
iiycey, ae?aiaoo?aey, iaoaiaoeea, oeeinioey.

A yoie ?aaioa y iiiuoaeny i?ineaaeeoue ca i?ioeannii oi?ie?iaaiey,
?acaeoey e acaeiiiai aeeyiey iaoaiaoeee, oeeinioee e eneonnoaa a enoi?ee
/aeiaa/anoaa, a oaeaea i?eaanoe ?acee/iua oi/ee c?aiey ia aeaeaeouea
neeu e ?acoeueoaou yoiai i?ioeanna. A oi aea a?aiy, ia iuoaynue iauyoue
iaiauyoiia, iia iieacaeinue eioa?aniui ?anniio?aoue eeoue “ei?ie” e
“aa?oeiu”: ca?iaeaeaiea anoanoaaiii-oeeinianeiai iuoeaiey a Ae?aaiae
A?aoeee e ynoaoe/aneea e iauaoeeinianeea aii?inu, aicieeathuea ia
ia?aaeiai e?aa ?acaeoey iaoaiaoeee – oai?ee o?aeoaeia e o?aeoaeueiie
aaiiao?ee.

*ANOUe IA?AAss..

ENOIEE

Aeaaa 1

CA?IAEAeAIEA IAOAIAOEEE

Ecaanoii, /oi a?a/aneay oeeaeeecaoeey ia ia/aeueiii yoaia naiaai
?acaeoey iooaeeeaaeinue io oeeaeeecaoeee ae?aaiaai Ainoiea. Eaeiai
aea auei iaoaiaoe/aneia ianeaaenoai, iieo/aiiia a?aeaie?

Ec aeioaaeoeo aei ian iaoaiaoe/aneeo aeieoiaioia iiaeii caeeth/eoue,
/oi a Ae?aaiai Aaeioa auee neeueii io?anee iaoaiaoeee, naycaiiua n
?aoaieai yeiiiie/aneeo caaea/. Iaie?on ?aeiaea (ie. 2000 a. aei i.y.)
ia/eiaeny n iaauaiey iao/eoue “niaa?oaiiiio e iniiaaoaeueiiio
enneaaeiaaieth anao aauae, iiieiaieth eo nouiinoae, iiciaieth anao
oaei”. Oaeoe/anee eceaaaaony eneonnoai au/eneaiey n oeaeuie /eneaie e
ae?iayie, a eioi?ia iinayuaeenue ainoaea?noaaiiua /eiiaieee aeey oiai,
/oiau oiaoue ?aoaoue oe?ieee e?oa i?aeoe/aneeo caaea/, oaeeo, eae
?ani?aaeaeaiea ca?aaioiie ieaou iaaeaeo ecaanoiui /eneii ?aai/eo,
au/eneaiea eiee/anoaa ca?ia aeey i?eaioiaeaiey oaeiai-oi eiee/anoaa
oeaaa, au/eneaiea iiaa?oiinoae e iauaiia e o.ae. Aeaeueoa o?aaiaiee
ia?aie noaiaie e i?inoaeoeo eaaae?aoiuo o?aaiaiee aaeioyia,
ii-aeaeeiiio, ia iioee. Ana niaea?aeaiea ecaanoiie iai aaeiaoneie
iaoaiaoeee oaaaeeoaeueii naeaeaoaeuenoaoao, /oi iaoaiaoe/aneea ciaiey
aaeioyi i?aaeiacia/aeenue aeey oaeiaeaoai?aiey eiie?aoiuo iio?aaiinoae
iaoa?eaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa e ia iiaee neieueei-ieaoaeue na?ueacii
auoue naycaiiuie n oeeinioeae.

Iaoaiaoeea Aaaeeiia, eae e aaeiaoneay, auea aucaaia e aeecie
iio?aaiinoyie i?iecaiaenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe, iineieueeo ?aoaeenue
caaea/e, naycaiiua n ioaeaeaie i?ioaiey, no?ieoaeuenoaa,
oicyenoaaiiiai o/aoa, ioiioaieyie nianoaaiiinoe, en/eneaieai a?aiaie.
Nio?aieaoeany aeieoiaiou iieacuaatho, /oi, iniiauaaynue ia 60-?e/iie
nenoaia n/eneaiey, aaaeeiiyia iiaee auiieiyoue /aou?a a?eoiaoe/aneeo
aeaenoaey, eiaeenue oaaeeoeu eaaae?aoiuo ei?iae, eoaia e eoae/aneeo
ei?iae, noii eaaae?aoia e eoaia, noaiaiae aeaiiiai /enea, auee
ecaanoiu i?aaeea noiie?iaaiey i?ia?annee. Caia/aoaeueiua ?acoeueoaou
auee iieo/aiu a iaeanoe /eneiaie aeaaa?u. Oioy aaaeeiiyia e ia ciaee
aeaaa?ae/aneie neiaieeee, ii ?aoaiea caaea/ i?iaiaeeeinue ii ieaio,
caaea/e naiaeeeenue e aaeeiiio “ii?iaeueiiio” aeaeo e caoai ?aoaeenue ii
iauei i?aaeeai, i?e/ai enoieeiaaiea i?aia?aciaaiee “o?aaiaiey” ia
naycuaaeinue n eiie?aoiie i?e?iaeie enoiaeiuo aeaiiuo. Ano?a/aeenue
caaea/e, naiaeyueany e ?aoaieth o?aaiaiee o?aoueae noaiaie e iniauo
aeaeia o?aaiaiee /aoaa?oie, iyoie e oanoie noaiaie.

Anee aea n?aaieaaoue iaoaiaoe/aneea iaoee Aaeioa e Aaaeeiia ii
niiniao iuoeaiey, oi iao?oaeii aoaeao onoaiiaeoue eo iauiinoue ii oaeei
oa?aeoa?enoeeai, eae aaoi?eoa?iinoue, iae?eoe/iinoue, neaaeiaaiea ca
o?aaeeoeeae, e?aeia iaaeeaiiay yaiethoeey ciaiee. Yoe aea /a?ou
iaia?oaeeaathony e a oeeinioee, ieoieiaee, ?aeeaee Ainoiea. Eae ienae ii
yoiio iiaiaeo Y.Eieueiai, “a yoii ianoa, aaea aiey aeaniioa n/eoaeanue
caeiiii, ia auei ianoa aeey iuoeaiey, aeieneeaathuaainy aei i?e/ei e
iainiiaaiee yaeaiee, ie oai aieaa aeey naiaiaeiiai ianoaeaeaiey”.

Aiaeec ae?aaiaa?a/aneie iaoaiaoeee e oeeinioee neaaeoao ia/aoue n
ieeaoneie iaoaiaoe/aneie oeieu, caeiaeeaoae iniiau iaoaiaoeee eae
aeieacaoaeueiie iaoee.

Aeaaa 2

IEEAONEAss OEIEA

Ieeaoneay oeiea – iaeia ec ia?auo ae?aaiaa?a/aneeo iaoaiaoe/aneeo oeie,
ieacaaoay nouanoaaiiia aeeyiea ia ?acaeoea oeeinioneeo i?aaenoaaeaiee
oiai a?aiaie. Iia nouanoaiaaea a Eiiee a eiioea V – IV aa. aei i.y.;
iniiaiuie aeayoaeyie aa yaeyeenue Oaean (ie. 624-547 aa. aei i.y.),
Aiaeneiaiae? (ie. 610-546 aa. aei i.y.) e Aiaeneiai (ie. 585-525
aa. aei i.y.). ?anniio?ei ia i?eia?a ieeaoneie oeieu iniiaiua ioee/ey
a?a/aneie iaoee io aeia?a/aneie e i?iaiaeece?oai eo.

Anee niiinoaaeoue enoiaeiua iaoaiaoe/aneea ciaiey a?aeia n
aeinoeaeaieyie aaeioyi e aaaeeiiyi, oi a?yae ee iiaeii niiiaaaoueny a
oii, /oi oaeea yeaiaioa?iua iieiaeaiey, eae ?aaainoai oaeia o iniiaaiey
?aaiiaaae?aiiiai o?aoaieueieea, ioe?uoea eioi?iai i?eienuaatho Oaeano
Ieeaoneiio, ia auee ecaanoiu ae?aaiae iaoaiaoeea. Oai ia iaiaa,
a?a/aneay iaoaiaoeea oaea a enoiaeiii naiai ioieoa eiaea ea/anoaaiiia
ioee/ea io naieo i?aaeoanoaaiieeia.

Aa naiaia?acea caeeth/aaony i?aaeaea anaai a iiiuoea nenoaiaoe/anee
eniieueciaaoue eaeath aeieacaoaeuenoaa. Oaean no?aieony aeieacaoue
oi, /oi yiie?e/anee auei iieo/aii e aac aeieaeiiai iainiiaaiey
eniieueciaaeinue a aaeiaoneie e aaaeeiineie iaoaiaoeea. Aiciiaeii, a
ia?eiae iaeaieaa eioaineaiiai ?acaeoey aeooiaiie aeecie Aaaeeiia e
Aaeioa, a ia?eiae oi?ie?iaaiey iniia eo ciaiee eceiaeaiea oao eee eiuo
iaoaiaoe/aneeo iieiaeaiee nii?iaiaeaeaeinue iainiiaaieai a oie eee
eiie oi?ia. Iaeiaei, eae ieoao Aai aea? Aa?aeai, “ai a?aiaia Oaeana
aaeiaoneay e aaaeeiineay iaoaiaoeea aeaaii oaea auee ia?oauie ciaieyie.
Iiaeii auei iieacaoue Oaeano, eae iaaei au/eneyoue, ii oaea iaecaanoai
aue oiae ?annoaeaeaiee, eaaeaueo a iniiaa yoeo i?aaee”.

A?aee aaiaeyo i?ioeann iainiiaaiey eae iaiaoiaeeiue eiiiiiaio
iaoaiaoe/aneie aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, aeieacaoaeueiinoue aeaenoaeoaeueii
yaeyaony ioee/eoaeueiie /a?oie eo iaoaiaoeee. Oaoieeie aeieacaoaeuenoaa
?aiiae a?a/aneie iaoaiaoeee eae a aaiiao?ee, oae e a a?eoiaoeea
ia?aiia/aeueii yaeyeanue i?inoay iiiuoea i?eaeaiey iaaeyaeiinoe.
Eiie?aoiuie ?aciiaeaeiinoyie oaeiai aeieacaoaeuenoaa a a?eoiaoeea auei
aeieacaoaeuenoai i?e iiiiue eaiaoeia, a aaiiao?ee – iooai iaeiaeaiey. Ii
nai oaeo iaee/ey aeieacaoaeuenoaa aiai?eo i oii, /oi iaoaiaoe/aneea
ciaiey aini?eieiathony ia aeiaiaoe/anee, a a i?ioeanna ?aciuoeaiey.
Yoi, a naith i/a?aaeue, iaia?oaeeaaao e?eoe/aneee neeaae oia,
oaa?aiiinoue (iiaeao auoue, ia anaaaea iniciaiioth), /oi ?aciuoeaieai
iiaeii onoaiiaeoue i?aaeeueiinoue eee eiaeiinoue ?anniao?eaaaiiai
iieiaeaiey, oaa?aiiinoue a neea /aeiaa/aneiai ?acoia.

A?aee a oa/aiee iaeiiai-aeaoo noieaoey noiaee iaeaaeaoue iaoaiaoe/aneei
ianeaaeeai i?aaeoanoaaiieeia, iaeiieaiiiai a oa/aiee ouny/aeaoee, /oi
naeaeaoaeuenoaoao ia eioaineaiinoe, aeeiaiecia eo iaoaiaoe/aneiai
iiciaiey. Ea/anoaaiiia ioee/ea enneaaeiaaiee Oaeana e aai
iineaaeiaaoaeae io aeia?a/aneie iaoaiaoeee i?iyaeyaony ia noieueei a
eiie?aoiii niaea?aeaiee enneaaeiaaiiie caaeneiinoe, neieueei a iiaii
niiniaa iaoaiaoe/aneiai iuoeaiey. Enoiaeiue iaoa?eae a?aee acyee o
i?aaeoanoaaiieeia, ii niinia onaiaiey e eniieueciaaiey yoiai iaoa?eaea
aue iiaue. Ioee/eoaeueiuie iniaaiiinoyie eo iaoaiaoe/aneiai iiciaiey
yaeythony ?aoeeiiaeeci, e?eoeoeeci, aeeiaieci.

Yoe aea /a?ou oa?aeoa?iu e aeey oeeinioneeo enneaaeiaaiee ieeaoneie
oeieu. Oeeinioneay eiioeaioeey e niaieoiiinoue iaoaiaoe/aneeo iieiaeaiee
oi?ie?oaony iin?aaenoaii iaeii?iaeiiai ii naiei iauei oa?aeoa?enoeeai
iuneeoaeueiiai i?ioeanna, ea/anoaaiii ioee/iiai io iuoeaiey
i?aaeoanoaothuae yiioe. Eae aea noi?ie?iaaeny yoio iiaue niinia
aini?eyoey aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe? Ioeoaea aa?ao naia ia/aei no?aieaiea e
iao/iiio ciaieth?

?yae enneaaeiaaoaeae iauyaeyao ioia/aiiua auoa oa?aeoa?enoeee
iuneeoaeueiiai i?ioeanna “a?iaeaeaiiuie iniaaiiinoyie a?a/aneiai
aeooa”. Iaeiaei yoa nnueea ie/aai ia iauyniyao, oae eae iaiiiyoii,
ii/aio oio aea “a?a/aneee aeoo” ii i?ioanoaee yiioe yeeeiecia oa?yao
naie ea/anoaa. Iiaeii iii?iaiaaoue iieneaoue i?e/eiu oaeiai
ie?iiiieiaiey a nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneie noa?a.

Eiiey, aaea i?ioiaeeea aeayoaeueiinoue ieeaoneie oeieu, auea
aeinoaoi/ii ?acaeoie a yeiiiie/aneii ioiioaiee iaeanoueth. Iiyoiio
eiaiii iia i?aaeaea i?i/eo anooieea ia iooue iecaa?aeaiey
ia?aiauoii-iaueiiiai no?iy e oi?ie?iaaiey ?aaiaeaaeaeue/aneeo ioiioaiee.
A VIII-VI aa. aei i.y. caiey ana aieueoa nin?aaeioa/eaaeanue a ?oeao
e?oiiie ?iaeiaie ciaoe. ?acaeoea ?aianeaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa e oi?aiaee
aua a aieueoae ia?a onei?yei i?ioeann nioeeaeueii-eiouanoaaiiiai
?anneiaiey. Ioiioaiey iaaeaeo a?enoie?aoeae e aeaiinii noaiiayony
iai?yaeaiiuie; ni a?aiaiai yoa iai?yaeaiiinoue ia?a?anoaao a ioe?uooth
ai?ueao ca aeanoue. Eaeaeaeineii niauoee ai aioo?aiiae aeecie, ia
iaiaa eciai/eaay aiaoiyy ianoaiiaea oi?ie?otho aeeiaieci, aeeainoue
iauanoaaiiie iunee.

Iai?yaeaiiinoue a iieeoe/aneie e yeiiiie/aneie noa?ao i?eaiaeeo e
noieeiiaaieyi a iaeanoe ?aeeaee, iineieueeo aeaiin , aua ia niiiaaaynue
a oii, /oi ?aeeaeiciua e naaoneea onoaiiaeaiey aa/iu, oae eae aeaiu
aiaaie, o?aaoao, /oiau iie auee caienaiu e noaee iauaaeinooiiuie, eai
i?aaeoaee eneaaeatho aiaeanoaaiioth aieth e oieeotho aa ii-naiaio.
Iaeiaei iao?oaeii iiiyoue, /oi nenoaiaoe/aneia eceiaeaiea ?aeeaeiciuo e
ieoieiae/aneeo i?aaenoaaeaiee (iiiuoea oaeiai eceiaeaiey auea aeaia
Aaneiaeii) ia iiaei ia iaianoe na?ueaciiai oaea?a ?aeeaee. I?e i?iaa?ea
?aeeaeiciuo eciuoeaiee eiaeeie ia?aua, ianiiiaiii, iieacaeenue au
eiiaeiia?aoii iaeaiinoae.

“Oaeei ia?acii, iaoa?eaeenoe/aneia ie?iaicc?aiea Oaeana e aai
iineaaeiaaoaeae ia yaeyaony eaeei-oi caaaaei/iui, ia io ie?a naai
ii?iaeaeaieai “a?a/aneiai aeooa”. Iii yaeyaony i?iaeoeoii aiieia
ii?aaeaeaiiuo nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeo oneiaee e au?aaeaao eioa?anu
enoi?e/anee-eiie?aoiuo nioeeaeueiuo nee, i?aaeaea anaai
oi?aiai-?aianeaiiuo neiaa iauanoaa” – ieoao I.E.Eaae?ianeee.

Ia iniiaaiee anaai auoaia?a/eneaiiiai aua iaeuecy n aieueoie
oaa?aiiinoueth ooaa?aeaeaoue, /oi eiaiii aicaeaenoaea ie?iaicc?aiey
yaeeinue ?aoathuei oaeoi?ii aeey aicieeiiaaiey aeieacaoaeuenoaa; ia
eneeth/aii aaaeue, /oi yoi i?iecioei a neeo ae?oaeo i?e/ei:
iio?aaiinoae i?iecaiaenoaa, cai?inia yeaiaioia anoanoaiciaiey,
noauaeoeaiuo iiaoaeaeaiee enneaaeiaaoaeae. Iaeiaei iiaeii oaaaeeoueny,
/oi eaaeaeay ec yoeo i?e/ei ia eciaieea i?eioeeieaeueii naiaai
oa?aeoa?a ii n?aaiaieth n aeia?a/aneie yiioie iaiin?aaenoaaiii ia
i?eaiaeeo e i?aa?auaieth iaoaiaoeee a aeieacaoaeueioth iaoeo.
Iai?eia?, aeey oaeiaeaoai?aiey iio?aaiinoae oaoieee auei aiieia
aeinoaoi/ii i?aeoe/aneie iaoee ae?aaiaai Ainoiea, a ni?aaaaeeeainoe
iieiaeaiee eioi?ie iiaeii auei oaaaeeoueny yiie?e/anee. Nai i?ioeann
auyaeaiey yoeo iieiaeaiee iieacae, /oi iie aeatho aeinoaoi/ioth aeey
i?aeoe/aneeo ioaeae oi/iinoue.

Iiaeii n/eoaoue iaeiei ec iiaoaeeoaeueiuo iioeaia aicieeiiaaiey
aeieacaoaeuenoaa iaiaoiaeeiinoue iniuneaiey e iaiauaiey ?acoeueoaoia
i?aaeoanoaaiieeia. Iaeiaei e yoiio oaeoi?o ia i?eiaaeeaaeeo ?aoathuay
?ieue, oae eae, iai?eia?, nouanoaotho oai?ee, aini?eieiaaiua iaie eae
i/aaeaeiua, ii iieo/eaoea no?iaia iainiiaaiea a aioe/iie iaoaiaoeea
(iai?eia?, oai?ey aeaeeiinoe ia 2).

Iiyaeaiea iio?aaiinoe aeieacaoaeuenoaa a a?a/aneie iaoaiaoeea iieo/aao
oaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiia iauyniaiea, anee o/anoue acaeiiaeaenoaea
ie?iaicc?aiey ia ?acaeoea iaoaiaoeee. A yoii ioiioaiee a?aee
nouanoaaiii ioee/athony io naieo i?aaeoanoaaiieeia. A eo oeeinioneeo e
iaoaiaoe/aneeo enneaaeiaaieyo i?iyaeythony aa?a a neeo /aeiaa/aneiai
?acoia, e?eoe/aneia ioiioaiea e aeinoeaeaieyi i?aaeoanoaaiieeia,
aeeiaieci iuoeaiey. O a?aeia aeeyiea ie?iaicc?aiey i?aa?aoeeinue ec
naea?aeeaathuaai oaeoi?a iaoaiaoe/aneiai iiciaiey a noeioee?othuee, a
aeaenoaaiioth neeo i?ia?anna iaoaiaoeee.

A oii, /oi iainiiaaiea i?eiyei eiaiii oi?io aeieacaoaeuenoaa, a ia
inoaiiaeeinue ia yiie?e/aneie i?iaa?ea, ?aoathuei yaeyaony iiyaeaiea
iiaie, ie?iaicc?ai/aneie ooieoeee iaoee. Oaean e aai iineaaeiaaoaee
aini?eieiatho iaoaiaoe/aneea aeinoeaeaiey i?aaeoanoaaiieeia i?aaeaea
anaai aeey oaeiaeaoai?aiey oaoie/aneeo iio?aaiinoae, ii iaoea aeey ieo
– ia/oi aieueoaa, /ai aiia?ao aeey ?aoaiey i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo caaea/.
Ioaeaeueiua, iaeaieaa aano?aeoiua yeaiaiou iaoaiaoeee aieaoathony a
iaoo?oeeinioneoth nenoaio e caeanue auiieiytho ?ieue aioeiiaea
ieoieiae/aneei e ?aeeaeiciui aa?iaaieyi. Yiie?e/aneay
iiaeoaa?aeaeaaiinoue aeey yeaiaioia oeeinioneie nenoaiu auea
iaaeinoaoi/iie a neeo iauiinoe eo oa?aeoa?a e neoaeiinoe
iiaeoaa?aeaeathueo eo oaeoia. Iaoaiaoe/aneea ciaiey aea e oiio a?aiaie
aeinoeaee oaeiai o?iaiy ?acaeoey, /oi iaaeaeo ioaeaeueiuie iieiaeaieyie
iiaeii auei onoaiiaeoue eiae/aneea nayce. Oaeay oi?ia iainiiaaiee
ieacaeanue iauaeoeaii i?eaieaiie aeey iaoaiaoe/aneeo iieiaeaiee.

Aeaaa 3

IEOAAI?AENEAss OEIEA

Ia iniiaaiee aeaiiiai auoa enneaaeiaaiey ieeaoneie oeieu iiaeii eeoue
oaaaeeoueny a aeoeaiii aeeyiee ie?iaicc?aiey ia i?ioeann iaoaiaoe/aneiai
iiciaiey oieueei i?e ?aaeeeaeueiii eciaiaiee nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeo
oneiaee aeecie iauanoaa. Iaeiaei inoathony ioe?uouie aii?inu i oii,
aeeyao ee eciaiaiea oeeinioneie iniiau aeecie iauanoaa ia ?acaeoea
iaoaiaoeee, caaeneo ee iaoaiaoe/aneia iiciaiea io eciaiaiey
eaeaieiae/aneie iai?aaeaiiinoe ie?iaicc?aiey, eiaao ee ianoi ia?aoiia
aicaeaenoaea iaoaiaoe/aneeo ciaiee ia oeeinioneea eaeae. Iiaeii
iiiuoaoueny ioaaoeoue ia iinoaaeaiiua aii?inu, ia?aoeaoenue e
aeayoaeueiinoe ieoaai?aeneie oeieu.

Ieoaai?aeci eae iai?aaeaiea aeooiaiie aeecie nouanoaiaae ia i?ioyaeaiee
anae enoi?ee Ae?aaiae A?aoeee, ia/eiay n VI aaea aei i. y. e i?ioae
a naiai ?acaeoee ?yae yoaiia. Aii?in i eo a?aiaiiie aeeeoaeueiinoe
neiaeai e aei neo ii? ia ?aoai iaeiicia/ii. Iniiaiiieiaeieeii oeieu aue
Ieoaai? Naiinneee (ie. 580-500 aei i.y.). Ie iaeia no?iea, iaienaiiay
Ieoaai?ii, ia nio?aieeanue; aiiaua iaecaanoii, i?eaaaae ee ii e
ienueiaiiie ia?aaea/a naieo iuneae. *oi auei naeaeaii naiei Ieoaai?ii, a
/oi aai o/aieeaie, onoaiiaeoue i/aiue o?oaeii. Naeaeaoaeuenoaa i iai
ae?aaiaa?a/aneeo aaoi?ia i?ioeai?a/eau; a eaeie-oi ia?a ?acee/iua
ioeaiee aai aeayoaeueiinoe io?aaeatho iiiaiia?acea aai o/aiey.

A ieoaai?aecia auaeaeytho aeaa ninoaaeythuea: i?aeoe/aneoth
(“ieoaai?aeneee ia?ac aeecie”) e oai?aoe/aneoth (ii?aaeaeaiiay
niaieoiiinoue o/aiee). A ?aeeaeiciii o/aiee ieoaai?aeoeaa iaeaieaa
aaaeiie n/eoaeanue ia?yaeiaay noi?iia, caoai eiaeinue a aeaeo nicaeaoue
ii?aaeaeaiiia aeooaaiia ninoiyiea e eeoue iioii ii cia/eiinoe oee
aa?iaaiey, a o?aeoiaea eioi?uo aeiioneaeenue ?aciua aa?eaiou. Ii
n?aaiaieth n ae?oaeie ?aeeaeiciuie oa/aieyie o ieoaai?aeoeaa auee
niaoeeoe/aneea i?aaenoaaeaiey i i?e?iaea e noaeueaa aeooe. Aeooa –
nouanoai aiaeanoaaiiia, iia caeeth/aia a oaei a iaeacaiea ca
i?aa?aoaiey. aunoay oeaeue aeecie – inaiaiaeeoue aeooo ec oaeaniie
oaiieoeu, ia aeiionoeoue a ae?oaia oaei, eioi?ia yeiau niaa?oaaony
iinea nia?oe. Iooai aeey aeinoeaeaiey yoie oeaee yaeyaony auiieiaiea
ii?aaeaeaiiiai ii?aeueiiai eiaeaena, “ieoaai?aeneee ia?ac aeecie”. A
iiiai/eneaiiie nenoaia i?aaeienaiee, ?aaeaiaioe?iaaaoeo ii/oe eaaeaeue
oaa aeecie, aeaeiia ianoi ioaiaeeeinue caiyoeyi iocueie e iao/iuie
enneaaeiaaieyie.

Oai?aoe/aneay noi?iia ieoaai?aecia oanii naycaia n i?aeoe/aneie. A
oai?aoe/aneeo ecuneaieyo ieoaai?aeoeu aeaeaee eo/oaa n?aaenoai
inaiaiaeaeaiey aeooe ec e?oaa ?iaeaeaiee, a eo ?acoeueoaou no?aieeenue
eniieueciaaoue aeey ?aoeeiiaeueiiai iainiiaaiey i?aaeiieaaaaiie
aeieo?eiu. Aa?iyoii, a aeayoaeueiinoe Ieoaai?a e aai aeeaeaeoeo o/aieeia
iao/iua iieiaeaiey auee ia?aiaoaiu n ienoeeie, ?aeeaeiciuie e
ieoieiae/aneeie i?aaenoaaeaieyie. Any yoa “ioae?inoue” eceaaaeanue a
ea/anoaa ec?a/aiee i?aeoea, eioi?ui i?eaeaaaeny ne?uoue niune
aiaeanoaaiiiai ioe?iaaiey.

Iniiaiuie iauaeoaie iao/iiai iiciaiey o ieoaai?aeoeaa auee
iaoaiaoe/aneea iauaeou, a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue /enea iaoo?aeueiiai ?yaea
(aniiiiei ciaiaieoia “*enei anoue nouiinoue anao aauae”). Aeaeiia ianoi
ioaiaeeeinue eco/aieth naycae iaaeaeo /aoiuie e ia/aoiuie /eneaie. A
iaeanoe aaiiao?e/aneeo ciaiee aieiaiea aeoeaioe?oaony ia iaeaieaa
aano?aeoiuo caaeneiinoyo. Ieoaai?aeoeaie auea iino?iaia cia/eoaeueiay
/anoue ieaieiao?ee i?yiioaieueiuo oeao?; aunoei aeinoeaeaieai a yoii
iai?aaeaiee auei aeieacaoaeuenoai oai?aiu Ieoaai?a, /anoiua neo/ae
eioi?ie ca 1200 eao aei yoiai i?eaiaeyony a eeeiiieniuo oaenoao
aaaeeiiyi. A?aee aeieacuaatho aa iauei ia?acii. Iaeioi?ua enoi/ieee
i?eienuaatho ieoaai?aeoeai aeaaea oaeea auaeathueany ?acoeueoaou, eae
iino?iaiea iyoe i?aaeeueiuo iiiaia?aiieeia.

*enea o ieoaai?aeoeaa aunooiatho iniiaiiieaaathueie oieaa?naeueiuie
iauaeoaie, e eioi?ui i?aaeiieaaaeinue naanoe ia oieueei iaoaiaoe/aneea
iino?iaiey, ii e ana iiiaiia?acea aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe. Oece/aneea,
yoe/aneea, nioeeaeueiua e ?aeeaeiciua iiiyoey iieo/eee iaoaiaoe/aneoth
ie?aneo. Iaoea i /eneao e ae?oaeo iaoaiaoe/aneeo iauaeoao ioaiaeeony
iniiaiiieaaathuaa ianoi a nenoaia ie?iaicc?aiey, oi anoue oaeoe/anee
iaoaiaoeea iauyaeyaony oeeinioeae. Eae ienae A?enoioaeue, “…o /enae
iie oniao?eaaee, eacaeinue au, iiiai noiaeiuo /a?o n oai, /oi
nouanoaoao e i?ienoiaeeo, – aieueoa, /ai o iaiy, caiee e aiaeu… O
ieo, ii-aeaeeiiio, /enei i?eieiaaony ca ia/aei e a ea/anoaa iaoa?ee
aeey aauae, e a ea/anoaa au?aaeaiey aeey eo ninoiyiee e naienoa…
Iai?eia?, oaeia-oi naienoai /enae anoue ni?aaaaeeeainoue, a oaeia-oi –
aeooa e oi, ae?oaia – oaea/a, e iiaeii neacaoue – a eaaeaeii ec
inoaeueiuo neo/aaa oi/ii oaeaea. “

Anee n?aaieaaoue iaoaiaoe/aneea enneaaeiaaiey ?aiiae ieoaai?aeneie e
ieeaoneie oeie, oi iiaeii auyaeoue ?yae nouanoaaiiuo ?acee/ee. Oae,
iaoaiaoe/aneea iauaeou ?anniao?eaaeenue ieoaai?aeoeaie eae
ia?ainouiinoue ie?a, oi anoue ?aaeeeaeueii eciaieeinue naii iiieiaiea
i?e?iaeu iaoaiaoe/aneeo iauaeoia. E?iia oiai, iaoaiaoeea i?aa?auaia
ieoaai?aeoeaie a ninoaaeythuoth ?aeeaee, a n?aaenoai i/euaiey aeooe,
aeinoeaeaiey aannia?oey. E iaeiiaoe, ieoaai?aeoeu ia?aie/eaatho iaeanoue
iaoaiaoe/aneeo iauaeoia iaeaieaa aano?aeoiuie oeiaie yeaiaioia e
niciaoaeueii eaii?e?otho i?eeiaeaiey iaoaiaoeee aeey ?aoaiey
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo caaea/. Ii /ai aea iaoneiaeaiu oaeea aeiaaeueiua
?anoiaeaeaiey a iiieiaiee i?e?iaeu iaoaiaoe/aneeo iauaeoia o oeie,
nouanoaiaaaoeo i?aeoe/anee a iaeii e oi aea a?aiy e /a?iaaoeo naith
ioae?inoue, ii-aeaeeiiio, ec iaeiiai e oiai aea enoi/ieea – eoeueoo?u
Ainoiea? Ai?i/ai, Ieoaai?, nei?aa anaai, iieueciaaeny aeinoeaeaieyie
ieeaoneie oeieu, oae eae o iaai, eae e o Oaeana, iaia?oaeeaathony
iniiaiua i?eciaee oinoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe, ioee/athueany io
aeia?a/aneie yiioe; iaeiaei iaoaiaoe/aneay aeayoaeueiinoue yoeo oeie
iineea nouanoaaiii ?acee/iue oa?aeoa?.

A?enoioaeue aue iaeiei ec ia?auo, eoi iiiuoaeny iauynieoue i?e/eiu
iiyaeaiey ieoaai?aeneie eiioeaioeee iaoaiaoeee. Ii aeaeae eo a i?aaeaeao
naiie iaoaiaoeee: “Oae iacuaaaiua ieoaai?aeoeu, caiyaoenue
iaoaiaoe/aneeie iaoeaie, aia?aua aeaeioee eo aia?aae e, ainieoaaoenue
ia ieo, noaee n/eoaoue eo ia/aeaie anao aauae.” Iiaeiaia oi/ea c?aiey ia
eeoaia iniiaaiey oioy au a neeo i?eiaieiinoe iaoaiaoe/aneeo
iieiaeaiee aeey au?aaeaiey ioiioaiee iaaeaeo ?acee/iuie yaeaieyie. Ia
yoii iniiaaiee iiaeii, iai?aaiia?ii ?anoe?ea aeaiiue iiiaio
iaoaiaoe/aneiai iiciaiey, i?eeoe e ooaa?aeaeaieth i au?aceiinoe anaai
nouaai n iiiiuueth iaoaiaoe/aneeo caaeneiinoae, a anee n/eoaoue /eneiaua
ioiioaiey oieaa?naeueiuie, oi “/enei anoue nouiinoue anao aauae”. E?iia
oiai, ei a?aiaie aeayoaeueiinoe ieoaai?aeoeaa iaoaiaoeea i?ioea
aeeeiiue iooue enoi?e/aneiai ?acaeoey; i?ioeann oi?ie?iaaiey aa iniiaiuo
iieiaeaiee oa?yeny ai i?aea aaeia. Oaeei ia?acii, iiyaeyeinue eneooaiea
i?aiaa?a/ue ei e iauyaeoue iaoaiaoe/aneea iauaeou /ai-oi ia?ae/iui ii
ioiioaieth e nouanoaothuaio ie?o. Eiaiii oae e iinooieee ieoaai?aeoeu.

A niaaoneie oeeinioneie iaoea i?iaeaia iiyaeaiey ieoaai?aeneie
eiioeaioeee iaoaiaoeee ?anniao?eaaeanue, anoanoaaiii, n iiceoeee
ia?enenonei-eaieineie oeeinioee. Oae, I.E.Eaae?ianeee ieoao:
“…Au?aaioaiiay ei (Ieoaai?ii) eiioeaioeey iauaeoeaii ieacaeanue
eaeaieiaeae aiieia ii?aaeaeaiiuo nioeeaeueiuo neiaa iauanoaa. Yoi auee
…i?aaenoaaeoaee a?enoie?aoee, oanieiua aeaiinii… Aeey ieo oa?aeoa?ii
no?aieaiea oeoe io oyaio caiiie aeecie, ia?auaiea e ?aeeaee e ienoeea”.
Yoa oi/ea c?aiey, eae e ia?aay, ia eeoaia niunea; enoeia aea,
aa?iyoii, iaoiaeeony aaea-oi iina?aaeeia. Iaeiaei, ia iie acaeyae, e?ao
ieoaai?aeneiai o/aiey neaaeoao naycuaaoue a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue ia n
au?iaeaeaieai a?enoie?aoee eae eeanna, a n iiiuoeie ieoaai?aeoeaa
eca?aoeoue naio i?e?iaeo i?ioeanna iaoaiaoe/aneiai iiciaiey, eeoea
iaoaiaoeeo oaeeo aaaeiuo enoi/ieeia i?ia?anna, eae i?eeiaeaiey e
i?iecaiaenoao, ioe?uoia ianoaeaeaiea ?acoeueoaoia enneaaeiaaiee,
eieeaeoeaiia oai?/anoai, oaea?aeaoue i?ia?ann iaoaiaoeee a ?aieao
?aoeie?iaaiiiai o/aiey aeey iinayuaiiuo. Enoaoe, naie ieoaai?aeoeu
iiaei?aaee naie iniiaiiieaaathuee i?eioeei “/enei anoue nouiinoue anao
aauae”, ioe?ua, /oi ioiioaiea aeeaaiiaee e noi?iiu eaaae?aoa ia
au?aaeaaony iin?aaenoaii oeaeuo /enae.

Oaeei ia?acii, oaea a enoiaeiii ioieoa naiaai ?acaeoey oai?aoe/aneay
iaoaiaoeea auea iiaeaa?aeaia aeeyieth ai?ueau aeaoo oeiia
ie?iaicc?aiey – iaoa?eaeenoe/aneiai e ?aeeaeicii-eaeaaeenoe/aneiai. Iu
aea oaaaeeeenue, /oi ia?yaeo n aeeyieai ie?iaicc?aiey ia ?acaeoea
iaoaiaoe/aneiai iiciaiey eiaao ianoi e ia?aoiia aicaeaenoaea.

Aeaaa 4

YEAENEAss OEIEA

Yeaeneay oeiea aeiaieueii eioa?ania aeey enneaaeiaaiey, oae eae yoi
iaeia ec ae?aaiaeoeo oeie, a o?oaeao eioi?ie iaoaiaoeea e oeeinioey
aeinoaoi/ii oanii e ?aciinoi?iiia acaeiiaeaenoaotho. Iniiaiuie
i?aaenoaaeoaeyie yeaeneie oeieu n/eoatho Ia?iaieaea (eiiaoe VI – V a.
aei i.y.) e Caiiia (ia?aay iieiaeia V a. aei i.y.).

Oeeinioey Ia?iaieaea caeeth/aaony a neaaeothuai: anaaiciiaeiua nenoaiu
ie?iiiieiaiey aace?othony ia iaeiie ec o?ao iinueie: 1)Anoue oieueei
auoea, iaauoey iao; 2)Nouanoaoao ia oieueei auoea, ii e iaauoea;
3)Auoea e iaauoea oiaeaeanoaaiiu. Enoeiiie Ia?iaieae i?eciaao oieueei
ia?aoth iinueeo. Niaeanii aio, auoea aaeeii, iaaeaeeii, iaeciaiyaii,
aiaa?aiaiii, caeii/aii a naaa, oieueei iii enoeiii nouaa;
iiiaeanoaaiiinoue, eciai/eainoue, i?a?uaiinoue, oaeo/anoue – ana yoi
oaeae iieiiai.

N caueoie o/aiey Ia?iaieaea io aic?aaeaiee aunooiee aai o/aiee Caiii.
Ae?aaiea i?eienuaaee aio ni?ie aeieacaoaeuenoa aeey caueou o/aiey i
aaeeinoaa nouaai (i?ioea iiiaeanoaaiiinoe aauae) e iyoue
aeieacaoaeuenoa aai iaiiaeaeaeiinoe (i?ioea aeaeaeaiey). Ec ieo aei ian
aeioei anaai aeaayoue. Iaeaieueoae ecaanoiinoueth ai ana a?aiaia
iieueciaaeenue caiiiiau aeieacaoaeuenoaa i?ioea aeaeaeaiey; iai?eia?,
“aeaeaeaiey ia nouanoaoao ia oii iniiaaiee, /oi ia?aiauathuaany oaei
aeieaeii i?aaeaea aeieoe aei iieiaeiu, /ai aei eiioea, a /oiau aeieoe
aei iieiaeiu, ioaeii i?ieoe iieiaeio yoie iieiaeiu e o.ae.”.

A?aoiaiou Caiiia i?eaiaeyo e ia?aaeienaeueiui, n oi/ee c?aiey
“cae?aaiai niunea”, auaiaeai, ii eo iaeuecy auei i?inoi ioa?ineoue eae
ianinoiyoaeueiua, iineieueeo e ii oi?ia, e ii niaea?aeaieth
oaeiaeaoai?yee iaoaiaoe/aneei noaiaea?oai oie ii?u. ?aceiaeea aii?ee
Caiiia ia ninoaaiua /anoe e aeaeaaynue io caeeth/aiee e iinueeai,
iiaeii ?aeiino?oe?iaaoue enoiaeiua iieiaeaiey, eioi?ua ii acye ca
iniiao naiae eiioeaioeee. Aaaeii ioiaoeoue, /oi a eiioeaioeee yeaaoia,
eae e a aeicaiiiianeie iaoea ooiaeaiaioaeueiua oeeinioneea
i?aaenoaaeaiey nouanoaaiii iie?aeenue ia iaoaiaoe/aneea i?eioeeiu.
Aeaeiia ianoi n?aaee ieo caieiaee neaaeothuea aeneiiu:

1. Noiia aaneiia/ii aieueoiai /enea ethauo, oioy au e aaneiia/ii iaeuo,
ii i?ioyaeaiiuo aaee/ei aeieaeia auoue aaneiia/ii aieueoie;

2. Noiia ethaiai, oioy au e aaneiia/ii aieueoiai /enea iai?ioyaeaiiuo
aaee/ei anaaaea ?aaia ioeth e ieeiaaea ia iiaeao noaoue iaeioi?ie
ca?aiaa caaeaiiie i?ioyaeaiiie aaee/eiie.

Eiaiii a neeo oaniie acaeiinayce iaueo oeeinioneeo i?aaenoaaeaiee n
ooiaeaiaioaeueiuie iaoaiaoe/aneeie iieiaeaieyie oaea?, iaianaiiue
Caiiiii ii oeeinioneei aicc?aieyi, nouanoaaiii cao?iioe nenoaio
iaoaiaoe/aneeo ciaiee. Oeaeue ?yae aaaeiaeoeo iaoaiaoe/aneeo
iino?iaiee, n/eoaaoeony aei yoiai ianiiiaiii enoeiiuie, a naaoa
caiiiianeeo iino?iaiee auaeyaeaee eae i?ioeai?a/eaua. ?annoaeaeaiey
Caiiia i?eaaee e iaiaoiaeeiinoe ia?ainiuneeoue oaeea aaaeiua
iaoiaeieiae/aneea aii?inu, eae i?e?iaea aaneiia/iinoe, niioiioaiea
iaaeaeo iai?a?uaiui e i?a?uaiui e o.i. Iie ia?aoeee aieiaiea
iaoaiaoeeia ia iai?i/iinoue ooiaeaiaioa eo iao/iie aeayoaeueiinoe e
oaeei ia?acii ieacaee noeioee?othuaa aicaeaenoaea ia i?ia?ann yoie
iaoee.

Neaaeoao ia?aoeoue aieiaiea e ia ia?aoioth naycue – ia ?ieue iaoaiaoeee
a oi?ie?iaaiee yeaeneie oeeinioee. Oae, onoaiiaeaii, /oi aii?ee Caiiia
naycaiu n iaoiaeaeaieai noiiu aaneiia/iie aaiiao?e/aneie i?ia?annee. Ia
yoii iniiaaiee niaaoneee enoi?ee iaoaiaoeee Y. Eieueiai naeaeae
i?aaeiieiaeaiea, /oi “eiaiii ia iaoaiaoe/aneee ii/aa noiie?iaaiey oaeeo
i?ia?annee e au?inee eiaeei-oeeinioneea aii?ee Caiiia”. Iaeiaei oaeia
i?aaeiieiaeaiea, ii-aeaeeiiio, eeoaii aeinoaoi/iuo iniiaaiee, oae eae
iii neeoeii aeanoei naycuaaao o/aiea Caiiia n iaoaiaoeeie i?e oii, /oi
eiathuea enoi?e/aneea aeaiiua ia aeatho iniiaaiey ooaa?aeaeaoue, /oi
Caiii aiiaua aue iaoaiaoeeii.

Ia?iiiia cia/aiea aeey iineaaeothuaai ?acaeoey iaoaiaoeee eiaei
iiauoaiea o?iaiy aano?aeoeee iaoaiaoe/aneiai iiciaiey, /oi i?iecioei a
aieueoie noaiaie aeaaiaea?y aeayoaeueiinoe yeaaoia. Eiie?aoiie oi?iie
i?iyaeaiey yoiai i?ioeanna auei aicieeiiaaiea einaaiiiai
aeieacaoaeuenoaa (“io i?ioeaiiai”), oa?aeoa?iie /a?oie eioi?iai yaeyaony
aeieacaoaeuenoai ia naiiai ooaa?aeaeaiey, a aano?aeiinoe ia?aoiiai aio.
Oaeei ia?acii aue naeaeai oaa e noaiiaeaieth iaoaiaoeee eae
aeaaeoeoeaiie iaoee, nicaeaiu iaeioi?ua i?aaeiinueee aeey aa
aeneiiaoe/aneiai iino?iaiey.

Eoae, oeeinioneea ?annoaeaeaiey yeaaoia, n iaeiie noi?iiu, yaeeenue
iiuiui oie/eii aeey i?eioeeieaeueii iiaie iinoaiiaee aaaeiaeoeo
iaoiaeieiae/aneeo aii?inia iaoaiaoeee, a n ae?oaie – iineoaeeee
enoi/ieeii aicieeiiaaiey ea/anoaaiii iiaie oi?iu iainiiaaiey
iaoaiaoe/aneeo ciaiee.

Aeaaa 5

AeAIIE?EO

A?aoiaiou Caiiia ane?uee aioo?aiiea i?ioeai?a/ey, eioi?ua eiaee ianoi a
neiaeeaoeony iaoaiaoe/aneeo oai?eyo. Oai naiui oaeo nouanoaiaaiey
iaoaiaoeee aue iinoaaeai iiae niiiaiea. Eaeeie aea iooyie ?ac?aoaeenue
i?ioeai?a/ey, auyaeaiiua Caiiiii ?

I?inoaeoei auoiaeii ec nicaeaaoaainy iieiaeaiey aae ioeac io
aano?aeoeee a iieueco oiai, /oi iiaeii iaiin?aaenoaaiii i?iaa?eoue n
iiiiuueth iuouaiee. Oaeoth iiceoeeth caiye nioeno I?ioaai?. Ii n/eoae,
/oi “iu ia iiaeai i?aaenoaaeoue naaa ie/aai i?yiiai eee e?oaeiai a oii
niunea, eae i?aaenoaaeyao yoe oa?ieiu aaiiao?ey; a naiii aeaea, e?oa
eanaaony i?yiie ia a iaeiie oi/ea”. Oaeei ia?acii, ec iaoaiaoeee
neaaeoao oa?aoue eae e??aaeueiua: i?aaenoaaeaiey i aaneiia/iii /enea
aauae, oae eae ieeoi ia iiaeao n/eoaoue aei aaneiia/iinoe; aaneiia/ioth
aeaeeiinoue, iineieueeo iia iainouanoaeia i?aeoe/anee e o.ae. Oaeei
iooai iaoaiaoeeo iiaeii naeaeaoue iaoycaeiie aeey ?annoaeaeaiee Caiiia,
ii i?e yoii i?aeoe/anee oi?acaeiyaony oai?aoe/aneay iaoaiaoeea.
Cia/eoaeueii neiaeiaa auei iino?ieoue nenoaio ooiaeaiaioaeueiuo
iieiaeaiee iaoaiaoeee, a eioi?ie au auyaeaiiua Caiiiii i?ioeai?a/ey ia
eiaee au ianoa. Yoo caaea/o ?aoee Aeaiie?eo, ?ac?aaioaa eiioeaioeeth
iaoaiaoe/aneiai aoiiecia.

Aeaiie?eo aae, ii iiaieth Ia?ena, “ia?aui yioeeeeiiaaee/aneei oiii
n?aaee a?aeia”. Aeeiaai Eaa?oeee (III a. i.y.) iacuaaao 7I aai
ni/eiaiee, a eioi?uo auee inaauaiu aii?inu oeeinioee, eiaeee,
iaoaiaoeee, einiieiaee, oeceee, aeieiaee, iauanoaaiiie aeecie,
ineoieiaee, yoeee, iaaeaaiaeee, oeeieiaee, eneonnoaa, oaoieee e ae?oaea.
A?enoioaeue ienae i iai: “Aiiaua, e?iia iiaa?oiinoiuo ecuneaiee, ieeoi
ie/aai ia onoaiiaee, eneeth/ay Aeaiie?eoa. *oi aea eanaaony aai, oi
iieo/aaony oaeia aia/aoeaiea, /oi ii i?aaeoniio?ae ana, aea e a iaoiaea
au/eneaiee ii auaiaeii ioee/aaony io ae?oaeo”.

Aaiaeiie /anoueth iao/iie nenoaiu Aeaiie?eoa auea “eaiiieea”, a eioi?ie
oi?ioee?iaaeenue e iainiiauaaeenue i?eioeeiu aoiienoe/aneie oeeinioee.
Caoai neaaeiaaea oeceea, eae iaoea i ?acee/iuo i?iyaeaieyo auoey, e
yoeea. Eaiiieea aoiaeeea a oeceeo a ea/anoaa enoiaeiiai ?acaeaea, yoeea
aea no?ieeanue eae ii?iaeaeaiea oeceee. A oeeinioee Aeaiie?eoa i?aaeaea
anaai onoaiaaeeaaaony ?acee/ea iaaeaeo “iiaeeeiii nouei” e oai, /oi
nouanoaoao oieueei a “iauai iiaiee”. Iiaeeeiii noueie n/eoaeenue
eeoue aoiiu e ionoioa. Eae iiaeeeiii nouaa, ionoioa (iaauoea) anoue
oaeay aea ?aaeueiinoue, eae aoiiu (auoea). “Aaeeeay ionoioa”
aaca?aie/ia e caeeth/aao a naaa ana nouanoaothuaa, a iae iao ie aa?oa,
ie ieca, ie e?ay, ie oeaio?a, iia aeaeaao i?a?uaiie iaoa?eth e
aiciiaeiui aa aeaeaeaiea. Auoea ia?acotho aan/eneaiiua iaeue/aeoea
ea/anoaaiii iaeii?iaeiua ia?aioaeueoea, ?acee/athueany iaaeaeo niaie ii
aiaoiei oi?iai, ?acia?o, iieiaeaieth e ii?yaeeo, iie aeaeaa iaaeaeeiu
aneaaenoaea aaniethoiie oaa?aeinoe e ionoonoaey a ieo ionoiou e “ii
aaee/eia iaaeaeeiu”. Aoiiai naiei ii naaa naienoaaiii iai?anoaiiia
aeaeaeaiea, ?aciiia?acea eioi?iai ii?aaeaeyaony aaneiia/iui
?aciiia?aceai oi?i aoiiia. Aeaeaeaiea aoiiia aa/ii e a eiia/iii
eoiaa yaeyaony i?e/eiie anao eciaiaiee a ie?a.

Caaea/a iao/iiai iiciaiey, niaeanii Aeaiie?eoo, /oiau iaaethaeaaiua
yaeaiey naanoe e iaeanoe “enoeiiiai nouaai” e aeaoue ei iauyniaiea
enoiaey ec iaueo i?eioeeiia aoiienoeee. Yoi iiaeao auoue aeinoeaiooi
iin?aaenoaii niaianoiie aeayoaeueiinoe iuouaiee e ?acoia.
Aiinaieiae/aneoth iiceoeeth Aeaiie?eoa Ia?en noi?ioee?iaae neaaeothuei
ia?acii: “Aeaiie?eo ia oieueei ia oaeaeyeny io ie?a, a, iaiai?io, aue
yiie?e/aneei anoanoaieniuoaoaeai”. Niaea?aeaiea enoiaeiuo oeeinioneeo
i?eioeeiia e aiinaieiae/aneea onoaiiaee ii?aaeaeeee iniiaiua /a?ou
iao/iiai iaoiaea Aeaiie?eoa:

a) A iiciaiee enoiaeeoue io aaeeie/iiai;

a) Ethaua i?aaeiao e yaeaiea ?aceiaeeiu aei i?inoaeoeo yeaiaioia
(aiaeec) e iauynieiu enoiaey ec ieo (neioac);

a) ?acee/aoue nouanoaiaaiea “ii enoeia” e “niaeanii iiaieth”;

a) ssaeaiey aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe – yoi ioaeaeueiua o?aaiaiou
oii?yaei/aiiiai einiina, eioi?ue aiciee e ooieoeeiie?oao a ?acoeueoaoa
aeaenoaee /enoi iaoaie/aneie i?e/eiiinoe.

Iaoaiaoeea ii i?aao aeieaeia n/eoaoueny o Aeaiie?eoa ia?aui ?acaeaeii
nianoaaiii oeceee e neaaeiaaoue iaiin?aaenoaaiii ca eaiiieeie. A
naiii aeaea, aoiiu ea/anoaaiii iaeii?iaeiu e eo ia?ae/iua naienoaa
eiatho eiee/anoaaiiue oa?aeoa?. Iaeiaei auei au iai?aaeeueii
o?aeoiaaoue o/aiea Aeaiie?eoa eae ?aciiaeaeiinoue ieoaai?aecia,
iineieueeo Aeaiie?eo oioy e nio?aiyao eaeath ainiiaenoaa a ie?a
iaoaiaoe/aneie caeiiiia?iinoe, ii aunooiaao n e?eoeeie ai?ei?iuo
iaoaiaoe/aneeo iino?iaiee ieoaai?aeoeaa, n/eoay, /oi /enei aeieaeii
aunooiaoue ia caeiiiaeaoaeai i?e?iaeu, a ecaeaeaoueny ec iaa.
Iaoaiaoe/aneay caeiiiia?iinoue auyaeyaony Aeaiie?eoii ec yaeaiee
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, e a yoii niunea ii i?aaeainoeuaao eaeae
iaoaiaoe/aneiai anoanoaiciaiey. Enoiaeiua ia/aea iaoa?eaeueiiai auoey
aunooiatho o Aeaiie?eoa a cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie eae iaoaiaoe/aneea
iauaeou, e a niioaaonoaee n yoei iaoaiaoeea ioaiaeeony aeaeiia ianoi
a nenoaia ie?iaicc?aiey eae iaoea i ia?ae/iuo naienoaao aauae. Iaeiaei
aeeth/aiea iaoaiaoeee a iniiaaiea ie?iaicc?ai/aneie nenoaiu
iio?aaiaaei aa ia?ano?ieee, i?eaaaeaiey iaoaiaoeee a niioaaonoaea n
enoiaeiuie oeeinioneeie iieiaeaieyie, n eiaeeie, aiinaieiaeae,
iaoiaeieiaeae iao/iiai enneaaeiaaiey. Nicaeaiiay oaeei ia?acii
eiioeaioeey iaoaiaoeee, iacuaaaiay eiioeaioeeae iaoaiaoe/aneiai
aoiiecia, ieacaeanue nouanoaaiii ioee/iie io i?aaeuaeoueo.

O Aeaiie?eoa ana iaoaiaoe/aneea iauaeou (oaea, ieineinoe, eeiee, oi/ee)
aunooiatho a ii?aaeaeaiiuo iaoa?eaeueiuo ia?acao. Eaeaaeueiua
ieineinoe, eeiee, oi/ee a aai o/aiee ionoonoaotho. Iniiaiie
i?ioeaaeo?ie iaoaiaoe/aneiai aoiiecia yaeyaony ?aceiaeaiea
aaiiao?e/aneeo oae ia oii/aeoea eenoeee (ieineinoe), ieineinoae – ia
oii/aeoea ieoee (eeiee), eeiee – ia iaeue/aeoea ca?iuoee (aoiiu).
Eaaeaeue aoii eiaao iaeoth, ii iaioeaaoth aaee/eio e aeaeaa iaaeaeei.
Oaia?ue aeeeia eeiee ii?aaeaeyaony eae noiia niaea?aeaueony a iae
iaaeaeeiuo /anoeoe. Aiaeiae/ii ?aoaaony aii?in i acaeiinayce eeiee ia
ieineinoe e ieineinoae a oaea. *enei aoiiia a eiia/iii iauaia
i?ino?ainoaa ia aaneiia/ii, oioy e ianoieueei aaeeei, /oi iaaeinooiii
/oanoaai. Eoae, aeaaiui ioee/eai o/aiey Aeaiie?eoa io ?anniio?aiiuo
?aiaa yaeyaony io?eoeaiea ei aaneiia/iie aeaeeiinoe. Oaeei ia?acii ii
?aoaao i?iaeaio i?aaiia?iinoe oai?aoe/aneeo iino?iaiee iaoaiaoeee, ia
naiaey eo e /oanoaaiii aini?eieiaaiui ia?acai, eae yoi aeaeae I?ioaai?.
Oae, ia ?annoaeaeaiey I?ioaai?a i eanaiee ie?oaeiinoe e i?yiie Aeaiie?eo
iia au ioaaoeoue, /oi /oanoaa, yaeythueany ioi?aaiui e?eoa?eai
I?ioaai?a, iieacuaatho aio, /oi /ai oi/iaa /a?oaae, oai iaiueoa o/anoie
eanaiey; a aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe aea yoio o/anoie ianoieueei iae, /oi ia
iiaeaeaaony /oanoaaiiiio aiaeeco, a ioiineony e iaeanoe enoeiiiai
iiciaiey.

?oeiaiaenoaoynue iieiaeaieyie iaoaiaoe/aneiai aoiiecia, Aeaiie?eo
i?iaiaeeo ?yae eiie?aoiuo iaoaiaoe/aneeo enneaaeiaaiee e aeinoeaaao
auaeathueony ?acoeueoaoia (iai?eia?, oai?ey iaoaiaoe/aneie ia?niaeoeau
e i?iaeoeee). E?iia oiai, ii nua?ae, ii naeaeaoaeuenoao A?oeiaaea,
iaiaeiaaaeioth ?ieue a aeieacaoaeuenoaa Yaaeienii oai?ai ia iauaia
eiiona e ie?aieaeu. Iaeuecy n oaa?aiiinoueth neacaoue, iieueciaaeny ee
ii i?e ?aoaiee yoie caaea/e iaoiaeaie aiaeeca aaneiia/ii iaeuo.
A.I.Iaeiaaeueneee ieoao: “Aeaiie?eo anooiee ia iooue, ii eioi?iio
aeaeueoa iioee A?oeiaae e Eaaaeuea?e. Iaeiaei, iiaeieaey aieioioth e
iiiyoeth aaneiia/ii iaeiai, Aeaiie?eo ia naeaeae iineaaeiaai
?aoeoaeueiiai oaaa. Ii ia aeiioneaao aaca?aie/iiai oaaee/aiey /enea
neaaaaiuo, ia?acothueo a naiae noiia aeaiiue iauai. Ii i?eieiaao eeoue
/?acau/aeii aieueoia, ia iiaeaeathuaany en/eneaieth aneaaenoaea naiae
ia?iiiinoe /enei yoeo neaaaaiuo”.

Auaeathueiny aeinoeaeaieai Aeaiie?eoa a iaoaiaoeea yaeeanue oaeaea aai
eaeay i iino?iaiee oai?aoe/aneie iaoaiaoeee eae nenoaiu. A ca?iaeuoaaie
oi?ia iia i?aaenoaaeyao niaie eaeath aeneiiaoe/aneiai iino?iaiey
iaoaiaoeee, eioi?ay caoai auea ?acaeoa a iaoiaeieiae/aneii ieaia
Ieaoiiii e iieo/eea eiae/anee ?acaa?iooia iieiaeaiea o A?enoioaey.

Aeaaa 6

IEAOIIIANEEE EAeAAEECI

Ni/eiaiey Ieaoiia (427-347 aa. aei i.y.) – oieeaeueiia yaeaiea a
ioiioaiee auaeaeaiey oeeinioneie eiioeaioeee. Yoi
aunieiooaeiaeanoaaiiia, caoaaouaathuaa iienaiea naiiai i?ioeanna
noaiiaeaiey eiioeaioeee, n niiiaieyie e iaoaa?aiiinoueth, iiae/an n
aac?acoeueoaoiuie iiiuoeaie ?ac?aoaiey iinoaaeaiiiai aii?ina, n
aica?aoii e enoiaeiiio ioieoo, iiiai/eneaiiuie iiaoi?aieyie e o.i.
Auaeaeeoue a oai?/anoaa Ieaoiia eaeie-eeai aniaeo e nenoaiaoe/anee
eceiaeeoue aai aeiaieueii neiaeii, oae eae i?eoiaeeony
?aeiino?oe?iaaoue iunee Ieaoiia ec ioaeaeueiuo auneacuaaiee, eioi?ua
ianoieueei aeeiaie/iu, /oi a i?ioeanna yaiethoeee iunee ii?ie
i?aa?auathony a naith i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue.

Ieaoii iaiaeiie?aoii auneacuaae naia ioiioaiea e iaoaiaoeea e iia
anaaaea ioeaieaaeanue ei i/aiue auniei: aac iaoaiaoe/aneeo ciaiee
“/aeiaae n ethauie i?e?iaeiuie naienoaaie ia noaiao aeaaeaiiui”, a naiai
eaeaaeueiii ainoaea?noaa ii i?aaeiieaaae “ooaa?aeeoue caeiiii e
oaaaeeoue oao, eioi?ua iaia?aaathony caiyoue a ai?iaea aunieea
aeieaeiinoe, /oiau iie oi?aaeiyeenue a iaoea n/eneaiey”.
Nenoaiaoe/aneia oe?ieia eniieueciaaiea iaoaiaoe/aneiai iaoa?eaea eiaao
ianoi o Ieaoiia, ia/eiay n aeeaeiaa “Iaiii”, aaea Ieaoii iiaeaiaeeo e
iniiaiiio auaiaeo n iiiiuueth aaiiao?e/aneiai aeieacaoaeuenoaa.
Eiaiii auaiae yoiai aeeaeiaa i oii, /oi iiciaiea anoue i?eiiieiaiea,
noae iniiaiiieaaathuei i?eioeeiii ieaoiiianeie aiinaieiaee.

Cia/eoaeueii a aieueoae ia?a, /ai a aiinaieiaee, aeeyiea iaoaiaoeee
iaia?oaeeaaaony a iioieiaee Ieaoiia. I?iaeaia no?iaiey iaoa?eaeueiie
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe o Ieaoiia iieo/eea oaeoth o?aeoiaeo: ie? aauae,
aini?eieiaaiue iin?aaenoaii /oanoa, ia anoue ie? enoeiii
nouanoaothuaai; aaue iai?a?uaii aicieeatho e iiaeaatho. Enoeiiui auoeai
iaeaaeaao ie? eaeae, eioi?ua aanoaeaniu, ia/oanoaaiiu e aunooiatho ii
ioiioaieth e aauai eae eo i?e/eiu e ia?acu, ii eioi?ui yoe aaue
nicaeathony. Aeaeaa, iiieii /oanoaaiiuo i?aaeiaoia e eaeae ii
onoaiaaeeaaao iaoaiaoe/aneea enoeiu, eioi?ua io /oanoaaiiuo
i?aaeiaoia ioee/athony oai, /oi aa/iu e iaiiaeaeaeiu, a io eaeae –
oai, /oi iaeioi?ua iaoaiaoe/aneea enoeiu noiaeia ae?oa n ae?oaii, eaeay
aea anyeee ?ac oieueei iaeia. O Ieaoiia a ea/anoaa iaoa?ee ia/aeaie
yaeythony aieueoia e iaeia, a a ea/anoaa nouiinoe – aaeeiia, eai eaeae
(iie aea /enea) iieo/athony ec aieueoiai e iaeiai /a?ac i?eiauaiea
eo e aaeeinoao. *oanoaaiii aini?eieiaaiue ie?, niaeanii Ieaoiio,
nicaeai Aiaii. I?ioeann iino?iaiey einiina iienai a aeeaeiaa “Oeiae”.
Iciaeiieaoenue n yoei iienaieai, ioaeii i?eciaoue, /oi Nicaeaoaeue aue
oi?ioi ciaeii n iaoaiaoeeie e ia iiiaeo yoaiao oai?aiey nouanoaaiii
eniieueciaae iaoaiaoe/aneea iieiaeaiey, a ii?ie e auiieiye oi/iua
au/eneaiey.

Iin?aaenoaii iaoaiaoe/aneeo ioiioaiee Ieaoii iuoaeny ioa?aeoa?eciaaoue e
iaeioi?ua yaeaiey iauanoaaiiie aeecie, i?eia?ii /aai iiaeao neoaeeoue
o?aeoiaea nioeeaeueiiai ioiioaiey “?aaainoai” a aeeaeiaa “Ai?aee” e a
“Caeiiao”. Iiaeii caeeth/eoue, /oi Ieaoii nouanoaaiii iie?aeny ia
iaoaiaoeeo i?e ?ac?aaioea iniiaiuo ?acaeaeia naiae oeeinioee: a
eiioeaioeee “iiciaiea – i?eiiieiaiea”, o/aiee i nouiinoe iaoa?eaeueiiai
auoey, ia ono?ienoaa einiina, a o?aeoiaea nioeeaeueiuo yaeaiee e o.ae.
Iaoaiaoeea nua?aea cia/eoaeueioth ?ieue a eiino?oeoeaiii ioi?ieaiee aai
oeeinioneie nenoaiu. Oae a /ai aea caeeth/aeanue aai eiioeaioeey
iaoaiaoeee?

Niaeanii Ieaoiio, iaoaiaoe/aneea iaoee (a?eoiaoeea, aaiiao?ey,
ano?iiiiey e aa?iiiey) aea?iaaiu /aeiaaeo aiaaie, eioi?ua “i?iecaaee
/enei, aeaee eaeath a?aiaie e aicaoaeeee iio?aaiinoue enneaaeiaaiey
anaeaiiie”. Ecia/aeueiia iacia/aiea iaoaiaoeee a oii, /oiau “i/euaeny e
iaeeaeyeny oio i?aai aeooe /aeiaaea, ?anno?iaiiue e ineaieaiiue eiuie
aeaeaie”, eioi?ue “aaaeiaa, /ai ouny/a aeac, iioiio /oi ei iaeiei
nica?oeaaony enoeia”. “Oieueei ieeoi ia iieuecoaony ath (iaoaiaoeeie)
i?aaeeueii, eae iaoeith, aeaeouae iai?aiaiii e nouaio”.
“Iai?aaeeueiinoue” iaoaiaoeee Ieaoii aeaeae i?aaeaea anaai a aa
i?eiaieiinoe aeey ?aoaiey eiie?aoiuo i?aeoe/aneeo caaea/. Iaeuecy
neacaoue, /oiau ii aiiaua io?eoeae i?aeoe/aneoth i?eiaieiinoue
iaoaiaoeee. Oae, /anoue aaiiao?ee ioaeia aeey “?aniieiaeaiey eaaa?ae”,
“i?e anao iino?iaieyo eae ai a?aiy naieo n?aaeaiee, oae e ai a?aiy
iioiaeia”. Ii, ii iiaieth Ieaoiia, “aeey oaeeo aauae …aeinoaoi/ia
iaeay /anoue aaiiao?e/aneeo e a?eoiaoe/aneeo aueeaaeie, /anoue aea eo
aieueoay, i?inoe?athuayny aeaeaa, aeieaeia …niinianoaiaaoue eaa/aeoaio
onaiaieth eaeae aeaaa”. Ieaoii io?eoeaoaeueii iocuaaeny i oao
iiiuoeao eniieueciaaiey iaoaie/aneeo iaoiaeia aeey ?aoaiey
iaoaiaoe/aneeo caaea/, eioi?ua eiaee ianoi a iaoea oiai a?aiaie. Aai
iaoaeiaeaoai?aiiinoue aucuaaei oaeaea i?eiyoia nia?aiaiieeaie iiieiaiea
i?e?iaeu iaoaiaoe/aneeo iauaeoia. ?anniao?eaay eaeae naiae iaoee eae
io?aaeaiea ?aaeueiuo naycae aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, iaoaiaoeee a naieo
enneaaeiaaieyo ia?yaeo n aano?aeoiuie eiae/aneeie ?annoaeaeaieyie
oe?iei eniieueciaaee /oanoaaiiua ia?acu, aaiiao?e/aneea iino?iaiey.
Ieaoii any/anee noa?aaony oaaaeeoue, /oi iauaeou iaoaiaoeee nouanoaotho
iainiaeaiii io ?aaeueiiai ie?a, iiyoiio i?e eo enneaaeiaaiee
iai?aaiia?ii i?eaaaaoue e /oanoaaiiie ioeaiea.

Oaeei ia?acii, a enoi?e/anee neiaeeaoaeny nenoaia iaoaiaoe/aneeo ciaiee
Ieaoii auaeaeyao oieueei oiic?eoaeueioth, aeaaeoeoeaii iino?iaiioth
eiiiiiaioo e cae?aieyao ca iae i?aai iacuaaoueny iaoaiaoeeie. Enoi?ey
iaoaiaoeee ienoeoeoee?oaony, oai?aoe/aneea ?acaeaeu ?acei
i?ioeaiiinoaaeythony au/eneeoaeueiiio aiia?aoo, aei i?aaeaea noaeaaony
iaeanoue i?eeiaeaiey. A oaeii eneaaeaiiii aeaea iaeioi?ua ?aaeueiua
noi?iiu iaoaiaoe/aneiai iiciaiey e iineoaeeee iaeiei ec iniiaaiee
aeey iino?iaiey nenoaiu iauaeoeaiiai eaeaaeecia Ieaoiia. Aaaeue naia ii
naaa iaoaiaoeea e eaeaaeecio aiiaua ia aaaeao, e a oeaeyo iino?iaiey
eaeaaeenoe/aneeo nenoai aa i?eoiaeeony nouanoaaiii aeaoi?ie?iaaoue.

Aii?in i aeeyiee, ieacaiiii Ieaoiiii ia ?acaeoea iaoaiaoeee,
aeiaieueii o?oaeai. Aeeeoaeueiia a?aiy ainiiaenoaiaaei oaaaeaeaiea,
/oi aeeaae Ieaoiia a iaoaiaoeeo aue cia/eoaeai. Iaeiaei aieaa
aeoaieee aiaeec i?eaae e eciaiaieth yoie ioeaiee. Oae, I.Iaeaaaaoy?
ieoao: “Aai nianoaaiiue i?yiie aeeaae a iaoaiaoe/aneea ciaiey,
i/aaeaeii, aue ?aaai ioeth… Eneeth/eoaeueii yeaiaioa?iue oa?aeoa?
i?eia?ia iaoaiaoe/aneeo ?annoaeaeaiee, i?eaiaeeiuo Ieaoiiii e
A?enoioaeai, ia iiaeoaa?aeaeaao aeiioacu i oii, /oi Yaaeien eee Oayoao
/aio-eeai iao/eeenue o Ieaoiia… Aai niaao ano?iiiiai caiaieoue
iaaethaeaiey niaeoeyoeeae iia au ?ac?ooeoue iaeei ec iaeaieaa
cia/eoaeueiuo aeeaaeia a?aeia a oi/iua iaoee”. Oaeay a?aoiaioaoeey
aiieia oaaaeeoaeueia; iiaeii oaeaea niaeaneoueny e n oai, /oi
eaeaaeenoe/aneay oeeinioey Ieaoiia a oeaeii nua?aea io?eoeaoaeueioth
?ieue a ?acaeoee iaoaiaoeee. Iaeiaei ia neaaeoao caauaaoue i neiaeiii
oa?aeoa?a yoiai aicaeaenoaey.

Ieaoiio i?eiaaeeaaeeo ?ac?aaioea iaeioi?uo aaaeiuo iaoiaeieiae/aneeo
i?iaeai iaoaiaoe/aneiai iiciaiey: aeneiiaoe/aneia iino?iaiea iaoaiaoeee,
enneaaeiaaiea ioiioaiee iaaeaeo iaoaiaoe/aneeie iaoiaeaie e
aeeaeaeoeeie, aiaeec iniiaiuo oi?i iaoaiaoe/aneiai ciaiey. Oae,
i?ioeann aeieacaoaeuenoaa iaiaoiaeeii naycuaaao iaai? aeieacaiiuo
iieiaeaiee a nenoaio, a iniiaa eioi?ie eaaeao iaeioi?ua iaaeieacoaiua
iieiaeaiey. Oio oaeo, /oi ia/aea iaoaiaoe/aneeo iaoe “nooue
i?aaeiieiaeaiey”, iiaeao aucaaoue niiiaiea a enoeiiinoe anao
iineaaeothueo iino?iaiee. Ieaoii n/eoae oaeia niiiaiea iaiainiiaaiiui.
Niaeanii aai iauyniaieth, oioy naie iaoaiaoe/aneea iaoee, “iieuecoynue
i?aaeiieiaeaieyie, inoaaeytho eo a iaiiaeaeaeiinoe e ia iiaoo aeaoue
aeey ieo iniiaaiey”, i?aaeiieiaeaiey iaoiaeyo iniiaaiey iin?aaenoaii
aeeaeaeoeee. Ieaoii auneacae e ?yae ae?oaeo iieiaeaiee, ieacaaoeony
ieiaeioai?iuie aeey ?acaeoey iaoaiaoeee. Oae, a aeeaeiaa “Ie?”
auaeaeaaaony iiiyoea i?aaeaea; eaeay aunooiaao caeanue eae i?aaeae
noaiiaeaiey aaue.

E?eoeea, eioi?ie iiaeaa?aaeenue iaoiaeieiaey e ie?iaicc?ai/aneay
nenoaia Ieaoiia ni noi?iiu iaoaiaoeeia, i?e anae naiae aaaeiinoe ia
cao?aaeaaea naie iniiau eaeaaeenoe/aneie eiioeaioeee. Aeey caiaiu
?ac?aaioaiiie Ieaoiiii iaoiaeieiaee iaoaiaoeee aieaa i?iaeoeoeaiie
nenoaiie ioaeii auei iiaeaa?aiooue e?eoe/aneiio ?acai?o aai o/aiea ia
eaeayo, iniiaiua ?acaeaeu aai oeeinioee e eae neaaenoaea yoiai – aai
aicc?aiea ia iaoaiaoeeo. Yoa ienney auiaea ia aeieth o/aieea Ieaoiia –
A?enoioaey.

Aeaaa 7

NENOAIA OEEINIOEE IAOAIAOEEE A?ENOIOAEss

E.Ia?en iacaae A?enoioaey (384-322 aa. aei i.y.) “aaee/aeoei oeeinioii
ae?aaiinoe”. Iniiaiua aii?inu oeeinioee, eiaeee, ineoieiaee,
anoanoaiciaiey, oaoieee, iieeoeee, yoeee e ynoaoeee, iinoaaeaiiua a
iaoea Ae?aaiae A?aoeee, iieo/eee o A?enoioaey iieiia e ananoi?iiiaa
inaauaiea. A iaoaiaoeea ii, ii-aeaeeiiio, ia i?iaiaeee eiie?aoiuo
enneaaeiaaiee, iaeiaei aaaeiaeoea noi?iiu iaoaiaoe/aneiai iiciaiey
auee iiaeaa?aioou ei aeoaieiio oeeinioneiio aiaeeco, iineoaeeaoaio
iaoiaeieiae/aneie iniiaie aeayoaeueiinoe iiiaeo iieieaiee iaoaiaoeeia.

Ei a?aiaie A?enoioaey oai?aoe/aneay iaoaiaoeea i?ioea cia/eoaeueiue
iooue e aeinoeaea aunieiai o?iaiy ?acaeoey. I?iaeieaeay o?aaeeoeeth
oeeinioneiai aiaeeca iaoaiaoe/aneiai iiciaiey, A?enoioaeue iinoaaee
aii?in i iaiaoiaeeiinoe oii?yaei/eaaiey naiiai ciaiey i niiniaao
onaiaiey iaoee, i oeaeaiai?aaeaiiie ?ac?aaioea eneonnoaa aaaeaiey
iiciaaaoaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe, aeeth/athuaai aeaa iniiaiuo ?acaeaea:
“ia?aciaaiiinoue” e “iao/iia ciaiea aeaea”. N?aaee ecaanoiuo ni/eiaiee
A?enoioaey iao niaoeeaeueii iinayuaiiuo eceiaeaieth iaoiaeieiae/aneeo
i?iaeai iaoaiaoeee. Ii ii ioaeaeueiui auneacuaaieyi, ii eniieueciaaieth
iaoaiaoe/aneiai iaoa?eaea a ea/anoaa eeethno?aoeee iaueo
iaoiaeieiae/aneeo iieiaeaiee iiaeii ninoaaeoue i?aaenoaaeaiea i oii,
eaeia aue aai eaeaae iino?iaiey nenoaiu iaoaiaoe/aneeo ciaiee.

Enoiaeiui yoaiii iiciaaaoaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe, niaeanii A?enoioaeth,
yaeyaony iao/aiea, eioi?ia “iniiaaii ia (iaeioi?ii) oaea ?aiaa
eiathuainy ciaiee… Eae iaoaiaoe/aneea iaoee, oae e eaaeaeia ec i?i/eo
eneonnoa i?eia?aoaaony (eiaiii) oaeei niiniaii”. Aeey ioaeaeaiey ciaiey
io iaciaiey A?enoioaeue i?aaeeaaaao i?iaiaeece?iaaoue “ana oa iiaiey,
eioi?ua ii-naiaio auneacuaaee a yoie iaeanoe iaeioi?ua iuneeoaee” e
iaaeoiaoue aicieeoea i?e yoii cao?oaeiaiey. Aiaeec neaaeoao i?iaiaeeoue
n oeaeueth auyniaiey /aou?ao aii?inia: “/oi (aauue) anoue, ii/aio
(iia) anoue, anoue ee (iia) e /oi (iia) anoue”.

Iniiaiui i?eioeeiii, ii?aaeaeythuei anth no?oeoo?o “iao/iiai ciaiey
aeaea”, yaeyaony i?eioeei naaaeaiey anaai e ia/aeai e aini?iecaaaeaiey
anaai ec ia/ae. Oieaa?naeueiui i?ioeannii i?iecaiaenoaa ciaiee ec
ia/ae, niaeanii A?enoioaeth, aunooiaao aeieacaoaeuenoai.
“Aeieacaoaeuenoaii aea y iacuaath neeeiaeci, – ieoao ii, – eioi?ue
aeaao ciaiey”. Eceiaeaieth oai?ee aeieacaoaeueiiai ciaiey iieiinoueth
iinayuai “I?aaiii” A?enoioaey. Iniiaiua iieiaeaiey yoie oai?ee iiaeii
na?oiie?iaaoue a ?acaeaeu, eaaeaeue ec eioi?uo ?ane?uaaao iaeio ec
o?ao iniiaiuo noi?ii iaoaiaoeee eae aeieacuaathuae iaoee: “oi,
ioiineoaeueii /aai aeieacuaaaony, oi, /oi aeieacuaaaony e oi, ia
iniiaaiee /aai aeieacuaaaony”. Oaeei ia?acii, A?enoioaeue
aeeooa?aioee?iaaiii iiaeoiaeee e iauaeoo, i?aaeiaoo e n?aaenoaai
aeieacaoaeuenoaa.

Nouanoaiaaiea iaoaiaoe/aneeo iauaeoia i?eciaaaeinue caaeieai aei
A?enoioaey, iaeiaei ieoaai?aeoeu, iai?eia?, i?aaeiieaaaee, /oi iie
iaoiaeyony a /oanoaaiiuo aauao, ieaoiieee aea, iaiai?io, n/eoaee eo
nouanoaothueie ioaeaeueii. Niaeanii A?enoioaeth:

1. A /oanoaaiiuo aauao iaoaiaoe/aneea iauaeou ia nouanoaotho, oae eae
“iaoiaeeoueny a oii aea naiii ianoa aeaa oaea ia a ninoiyiee”;

2. “Iaaiciiaeii e oi, /oiau oaeea ?aaeueiinoe nouanoaiaaee
iainiaeaiii”.

A?enoioaeue n/eoae i?aaeiaoii iaoaiaoeee “eiee/anoaaiioth
ii?aaeaeaiiinoue e iai?a?uaiinoue”. A aai o?aeoiaea “eiee/anoaii
iacuaaaony oi, /oi iiaeao auoue ?acaeaeaii ia ninoaaiua /anoe,
eaaeaeay ec eioi?uo …yaeyaony /ai-oi iaeiei, aeaiiui iaeeoei. Oi eee
ae?oaia eiee/anoai anoue iiiaeanoai, anee aai iiaeii n/anoue, yoi
aaee/eia, anee aai iiaeii ecia?eoue”. Iiiaeanoaii i?e yoii iacuaaaony
oi, “/oi a aiciiaeiinoe (iioaioeeaeueii) aeaeeony ia /anoe ia
iai?a?uaiua, aaee/eiith oi, /oi aeaeeony ia /anoe iai?a?uaiua”.
I?aaeaea /ai aeaoue ii?aaeaeaiea iai?a?uaiinoe, A?enoioaeue
?anniao?eaaao iiiyoea aaneiia/iiai, oae eae “iii ioiineony e
eaoaai?ee eiee/anoaa” e i?iyaeyaony i?aaeaea anaai a iai?a?uaiii. “*oi
aaneiia/iia nouanoaoao, oaa?aiiinoue a yoii aicieeaao o
enneaaeiaaoaeae ec iyoe iniiaaiee: ec a?aiaie (eai iii aaneiia/ii); ec
?acaeaeaiey aaee/ei..; aeaeaa, oieueei oaeei ia?acii ia ennyeioo
aicieeiiaaiea e oie/oiaeaiea, anee aoaeao aaneiia/iia, ioeoaea aa?aony
aicieeathuaa.

Aeaeaa, ec oiai, /oi eiia/iia anaaaea a?aie/eo n /ai-ieaoaeue, oae eae
iaiaoiaeeii, /oiau iaeii anaaaea a?aie/eei n ae?oaei. Ii aieueoa anaai
-…ia oii iniiaaiee, /oi iuoeaiea ia inoaiaaeeaaaony: e /enei
eaaeaony aaneiia/iui, e iaoaiaoe/aneea aaee/eiu”. Nouanoaoao ee
aaneiia/iia eae ioaeaeueiay nouiinoue eee iii yaeyaony aeoeeaeaioeeae
aaee/eiu eee iiiaeanoaa? A?enoioaeue i?eieiaao aoi?ie aa?eaio, oae eae
“anee aaneiia/iia ia anoue ie aaee/eia, ie iiiaeanoai, a naii yaeyaony
nouiinoueth…, oi iii aoaeao iaaeaeeii, oae eae aeaeeiia aoaeao eee
aaee/eiie, eee iiiaeanoaii. Anee aea iii ia aeaeeii, iii ia aaneiia/ii
a niunea iai?ioiaeeiiai aei eiioea”. Iaaiciiaeiinoue iaoaiaoe/aneiai
aaneiia/iiai eae iaaeaeeiiai neaaeoao ec oiai, /oi iaoaiaoe/aneee
iauaeo – ioaea/aiea io oece/aneiai oaea, a “aeooaeueii iaaeaeeiia
aaneiia/iia oaei ia nouanoaoao”. *enei “eae /oi-oi ioaeaeueiia e a oi
aea a?aiy aaneiia/iia” ia nouanoaoao, aaaeue “…anee aiciiaeii
ia?an/eoaoue n/eneeiia, oi aoaeao aiciiaeiinoue i?ieoe aei eiioea e
aaneiia/iia”. Oaeei ia?acii, aaneiia/iinoue caeanue a iioaioeee
nouanoaoao, aeooaeueii aea – iao.

Iie?aynue ia eceiaeaiiia auoa iiieiaiea aaneiia/iiai, A?enoioaeue
ii?aaeaeyao iai?a?uaiinoue e i?a?uaiinoue. Oae, “iai?a?uaiia anoue naii
ii naaa ia/oi niaaeiia. Niaaeiia anoue oi, /oi, neaaeoy ca ae?oaei,
eanaaony aai”. *enei eae oeie/ii i?a?uaiia (aeene?aoiia) ia?aciaaiea
oi?ie?oaony niaaeeiaieai aeene?aoiuo, aeaeaa iaaeaeeiuo yeaiaioia –
aaeeieoe. Aaiiao?e/aneei aiaeiaii aaeeieoeu yaeyaony oi/ea; i?e yoii
niaaeeiaiea oi/ae ia iiaeao ia?aciaaoue eeieth, oae eae “oi/eai, ec
eioi?uo auei au ninoaaeaii iai?a?uaiia, iaiaoiaeeii eee auoue
iai?a?uaiuie, eee eanaoueny ae?oa ae?oaa”. Ii iai?a?uaiuie iie ia
aoaeoo: “aaaeue e?ay oi/ae ia ia?acotho /aai-ieaoaeue aaeeiiai, oae
eae o iaaeaeeiiai iao ie e?ay, ie ae?oaie /anoe”. Oi/ee ia iiaoo e
eanaoueny ae?oa ae?oaa, iineieueeo eanathony “ana i?aaeiaou eee eae
oeaeia oeaeiai, eee naieie /anoyie, eee eae oeaeia /anoe. Ii oae eae
iaaeaeeiia ia eiaao /anoae, ei iaiaoiaeeii eanaoueny oeaeeeii, ii
eanathuaany oeaeeeii ia ia?acoao iai?a?uaiiai”.

Iaaiciiaeiinoue ninoaaeaiey iai?a?uaiiai ec iaaeaeeiuo e iaaoiaeeiinoue
aai aeaeaiey ia anaaaea aeaeeiua /anoe, onoaiiaeaiiua aeey aaee/eiu,
A?enoioaeue ?ani?ino?aiyao ia aeaeaeaiea, i?ino?ainoai e a?aiy,
iainiiauaay (iai?eia?, a “Oeceea”) i?aaiia?iinoue yoiai oaaa. N ae?oaie
noi?iiu, ii i?eoiaeeo e auaiaeo, /oi i?eciaiea iaaeaeeiuo aaee/ei
i?ioeai?a/eo iniiaiui naienoaai aeaeaeaiey. Auaeaeaiea iai?a?uaiiai e
i?a?uaiiai eae ?aciuo ?iaeia auoey iineoaeeei iniiaie aeey ?aciaaeaaaiey
a eiaeei-aiinaieiae/aneie iaeanoe, aeey ?aceiai ioiaaeaaaiey a?eoiaoeee
io aaiiao?ee.

“Ia/aeaie… a eaaeaeii ?iaea y iacuaath oi, ioiineoaeueii /aai ia
iiaeao auoue aeieacaii, /oi iii anoue. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, oi, /oi
iaicia/aao ia?ae/iia e ec iaai auoaeathuaa, i?eieiaaony. Nouanoaiaaiea
ia/ae iaiaoiaeeii i?eiyoue, ae?oaia – neaaeoao aeieacaoue. Iai?eia?,
/oi oaeia aaeeieoea eee /oi oaeia i?yiia eee /oi oaeia o?aoaieueiee
(neaaeoao i?eiyoue); /oi aaeeieoea e aaee/eia nouanoaoao, oaeaea
neaaeoao i?eiyoue, ae?oaia – aeieacaoue”. A aii?ina i iiyaeaiee o
ethaeae niiniaiinoe iiciaiey ia/ae A?enoioaeue ia niaeaoaaony n oi/eie
c?aiey Ieaoiia i a?iaeaeaiiinoe oaeeo niiniaiinoae, ii e ia aeiioneaao
aiciiaeiinoe i?eia?aoaiey eo; caeanue ii i?aaeeaaaao neaaeothuaa
?aoaiea: “iaiaoiaeeii iaeaaeaoue iaeioi?ie aiciiaeiinoueth, iaeiaei ia
oaeie, eioi?ay i?aainoiaeeea au yoe niiniaiinoe a ioiioaiee oi/iinoe”.
Ii oaeay aiciiaeiinoue, i/aaeaeii, i?enoua anai aeeaui nouanoaai; a
naiii aeaea, iie iaeaaeatho i?e?iaeaeaiiie niiniaiinoueth ?acae?aoueny,
eioi?ay iacuaaaony /oanoaaiiui aini?eyoeai. Oi?ie?iaaiea ia/ae eaeao
“io i?aaeoanoaothuaai e aieaa ecaanoiiai aeey ian”, oi anoue io oiai,
/oi aeeaea e /oanoaaiiiio aini?eyoeth e “i?aaeoanoaothuaio e aieaa
ecaanoiiio aaconeiaii” (oaeei yaeyaony iauaa). A?enoioaeue aeaao
?acaa?ioooth eeanneoeeaoeeth ia/ae, enoiaey ec ?aciuo i?eciaeia.

Ai-ia?auo, ii auaeaeyao “ia/aea, ec eioi?uo (/oi-eeai) aeieacuaaaony, e
oaeea, i eioi?uo (aeieacuaaaony)”. Ia?aua “nooue iauea (anai ia/aea)”,
aoi?ua – “naienoaaiiua (eeoue aeaiiie iaoea), iai?eia?, /enei,
aaee/eia”. A nenoaia ia/ae iauea caieiatho aaaeouaa ianoi, ii eo
iaaeinoaoi/ii, oae eae “n?aaee iaueo ia/ae ia iiaeao auoue oaeeo, ec
eioi?uo iiaeii auei au aeieacaoue ana”. Yoei e iauyniyaony, /oi n?aaee
ia/ae aeieaeiu auoue “iaeie naienoaaiiu eaaeaeie iaoea a ioaeaeueiinoe,
ae?oaea – iauea anai”. Ai-aoi?uo, ia/aea aeaeyony ia aeaa a?oiiu a
caaeneiinoe io oiai, /oi iie ?ane?uaatho: nouanoaiaaiea iauaeoa eee
iaee/ea o iaai iaeioi?uo naienoa. A-o?aoueeo, eiiieaen ia/ae
aeieacuaathuae iaoee aeaeeony ia aeneiiu, i?aaeiieiaeaiey, iinooeaou,
enoiaeiua ii?aaeaeaiey.

Auai? ia/ae o A?enoioaey aunooiaao ii?aaeaeythuei iiiaioii iino?iaiey
aeieacuaathuae iaoee; eiaiii ia/aea oa?aeoa?ecotho iaoeo eae
aeaiioth, auaeaeytho aa ec ?yaea ae?oaeo iaoe. “Oi, /oi
aeieacuaaaony”, iiaeii o?aeoiaaoue i/aiue oe?iei. N iaeiie noi?iiu, yoi
yeaiaioa?iue aeieacuaathuee neeeiaeci e aai caeeth/aiey. Ec yoeo
yeaiaioa?iuo i?ioeannia no?ieony caeaiea aeieacuaathuae iaoee a aeaea
ioaeaeueii acyoie oai?ee. Ec ieo aea nicaeaaony e iaoea eae nenoaia
oai?ee. Iaeiaei ia anyeee iaai? aeieacaoaeuenoa ia?acoao oai?eth. Aeey
yoiai ii aeieaeai oaeiaeaoai?youe ii?aaeaeaiiui o?aaiaaieyi,
ioaaouaathuei eae niaea?aeaiea aeieacuaaaiuo i?aaeeiaeaiee, oae e nayce
iaaeaeo ieie. A i?aaeaeao aea iao/iie oai?ee iaiaoiaeeii eiaao ianoi
?yae aniiiiaaoaeueiuo ii?aaeaeaiee, eioi?ua ia yaeythony ia?ae/iuie, ii
neoaeao aeey ?ane?uoey i?aaeiaoa oai?ee.

Oioy aii?inu iaoiaeieiaee iaoaiaoe/aneiai iiciaiey e ia auee eceiaeaiu
A?enoioaeai a eaeie-oi ioaeaeueiie ?aaioa, ii ii niaea?aeaieth a
niaieoiiinoe iie ia?acotho iieioth nenoaio. A iniiaa oeeinioee
iaoaiaoeee A?enoioaey eaaeeo iiieiaiea iaoaiaoe/aneeo ciaiee eae
io?aaeaiey iauaeoeaiiai ie?a. Yoa onoaiiaea nua?aea aaaeioth ?ieue a
ai?ueaa A?enoioaey n ieaoiiiaui eaeaaeeciii; aaaeue “anee a yaeaieyo
/oanoaaiiiai ie?a ia iaoiaeeony aiana iaoaiaoe/aneia, oi eaeei ia?acii
aiciiaeii, /oi e iei i?eeaaathony aai naienoaa?” – ienae ii. ?acoiaaony,
iaoa?eaeeci A?enoioaey aue iaiineaaeiaaoaeueiui, a oeaeii aai
aicc?aiey a aieueoae noaiaie niioaaonoaiaaee iio?aaiinoyi
iaoaiaoe/aneiai iiciaiey, nai acaeyaeu Ieaoiia. A naith i/a?aaeue
iaoaiaoeea auea aeey A?enoioaey iaeiei ec enoi/ieeia oi?ie?iaaiey ?yaea
?acaeaeia aai oeeinioneie nenoaiu.

*ANOUe AOI?Ass.

AANEIIA*IAss AA?IIIEss IIAeIAEss

Aeaaa 1

AANNEEEA I?ssIIE

A ea/anoaa aaaaeaiey ei aoi?ie /anoe iia au oioaeinue i?eaanoe neiaa
O?eaeain?aeoa Ooiaea?oaanna?a, iaeiiai ec oao caia/aoaeueiuo ethaeae
neeaie eioi?uo nia?aiaiiay iaoea noaiiaeony ana aeeaea e eneonnoao, a
eneonnoai iieo/aao aiciiaeiinoue eniieueciaaoue aanue a?naiae n?aaenoa,
i?aaeinoaaeyaiuo naaiaeiyoiae iaoeie aeey au?aaeaiey eaeae e
ooaeiaeanoaaiiuo caiuneia:

A 1953 aiaeo y iiiye, /oi i?yiay eeiey aaaeao /aeiaa/anoai e oiaaeeo.
Oe?aiey i?yiie noaea aaniethoiie. I?yiay eeiey – yoi ia/oi o?oneeaia,
i?i/a?/aiiia ii eeiaeea, aac yiioeee e ?aciuoeaiee; yoi eeiey, ia
nouanoaothuay a i?e?iaea. E ia yoii ianeaicue i?iaieaoai ooiaeaiaioa
iino?iaia iaoa ia?a/aiiay oeeaeeecaoeey. Anee aeaaea e aicieeaao aaea-oi
iuneue, /oi i?yiay eeiey iai?yiee aaaeao e aeaaee, aa eo?no ana ?aaii
i?iaeieaeatho neaaeiaaoue aeaeueoa… Ethaie aeecaei, iniiaaiiue ia
i?yiie eeiee, aoaeao ia?oai?iaeaeaiiui. Naaiaeiy iu yaeyainy
naeaeaoaeyie o?eoioa ?aoeeiiaeenoe/aneeo ciaiee e iaeiia?aiaiii
iaia?oaeeaaai, /oi ieacaeenue a ionoioa. Ynoaoe/aneee aaeooi, ionouiy
iaeiiia?acey, i?anooiiia aanieiaeea, oo?aoa niceaeaoaeueiuo
aiciiaeiinoae.

Noaiaea?oece?oaony aeaaea oai?/anoai. Iu noaee aanneeueiuie. Iu
aieueoa ia niiniaiu oai?eoue. A yoii iaoa iaaaaeanoai.

O?aeoaeu aie?oa ian iianthaeo, e a i/a?oaieyo ai?, e a ecaeeenoie eeiee
ii?neiai aa?aaa. Iaeioi?ua ec o?aeoaeia iai?a?uaii iaiythony, iiaeiaii
aeaeaeoueiny iaeaeai eee ia?oeathuaio ieaiaie, a oi a?aiy eae ae?oaea,
iiaeiaii aea?aaueyi eee iaoei ninoaeenoui nenoaiai, nio?aiytho
no?oeoo?o, i?eia?aoaiioth a i?ioeanna yaiethoeee. *aeiaaeo, ia
naycaiiiio n iaoeie, iiaeao iieacaoueny no?aiiui oi, /oi oaeea
i?eau/iua anai aaue n iaaeaaieo ii? ieacaeenue a oieona eioaineaiuo
iao/iuo enneaaeiaaiee. Ii i?eau/iinoue eaeiai-eeai yaeaiey nianai ia
icia/aao, /oi o/aiua iiaoo i?aaeeueii aai iauynieoue. ?aaaieo oiaea
i?eau/iu e aai aieoaay eieuaaeue, e aieoaia iaai caaeieai aei oiai,
eae ii iniciaao, /oi aieoaie oeaao anoue iauaa ea/anoai nianai ?aciuo
aauae. A aai iiciaaaoaeueiii ?acaeoee ianooieo iiiaio, eiaaea ii oaea
niiaeao aini?eiyoue iiiyoea oeaaoa; ii neuoeo, /oi iaai yaeyaony
aieoaui e aae?oa “ioe?uaaao”, /oi e iaeioi?ua ae?oaea aaue oiaea
yaeythony aieoauie.

?acaeoea iaoaai iao/iiai iiieiaiey ie?a i?ienoiaeeo ii oaeie aea
noaia. Aea, iiiaea o?aeoaeu iai ciaeiiu, ii aei naiiai iineaaeiaai
a?aiaie a iaoai iao/iii i?aaenoaaeaiee i ie?a ei ia iaoiaeeeinue ianoa.
Yoi i?aaenoaaeaiea ainoiaeeo aua e Aaeeeai Aaeeeath, /uea ianoa?noai
aeaaeaiey aano?aeoeeae, anooiathuae a i?ioeai?a/ea n eiooeoeeae, aeaao
i?eia? nia?aiaiiiai iao/iiai ?annoaeaeaiey. Aai e?aaei,
noi?ioee?iaaiiia ei naiei a 1623 aiaeo, aeaneo:

Any iaoea caienaia a yoie aaeeeie eieaa – y eiath a aeaeo Anaeaiioth, –
eioi?ay anaaaea ioe?uoa aeey ian, ii eioi?oth iaeuecy iiiyoue, ia
iao/eaoenue iiieiaoue ycue, ia eioi?ii iia iaienaia. A iaienaia iia ia
ycuea iaoaiaoeee, e aa aoeaaie yaeythony o?aoaieueieee, ie?oaeiinoe e
ae?oaea aaiiao?e/aneea oeao?u, aac eioi?uo /aeiaaeo iaaiciiaeii
?acia?aoue ie iaeiiai aa neiaa; aac ieo ii iiaeiaai aeoaeaeathuaio
ai oueia. Iiiaaeiaeeinue ii/oe 350 eao, /oiau aueoe ca ?aiee
aaeeeaaaneiai i?aaenoaaeaiey – aei oao ii?, iiea Aaioa Iaiaeaeuea?io
ia ?ac?aaioae iiiyoea o?aeoaea. A?inay acaeyae a i?ioeia, ii ?aciuoeye
a 1984 aiaeo:

Ii/aio aaiiao?eth /anoi iacuaatho oieiaeiie e nooie? Iaeia ec i?e/ei
caeeth/aaony a aa ianiiniaiinoe iienaoue oi?io iaeaea, ai?u, aea?aaa
eee aa?aaa ii?y. Iaeaea – yoi ia noa?u, ai?u – yoi ia eiionu, eeiee
aa?aaa – yoi ia ie?oaeiinoe, e ei?a ia yaeyaony aeaaeeie, e iieiey ia
?ani?ino?aiyaony ii i?yiie… I?e?iaea aeaiiino?e?oao iai ia i?inoi
aieaa aunieoth noaiaiue, a nianai ae?oaie o?iaaiue neiaeiinoe. *enei
?acee/iuo ianooaaia aeeei a no?oeoo?ao anaaaea aaneiia/ii.

Iaoaiaoe/aneia iiiyoea o?aeoaea auaeaeyao iauaeou, iaeaaeathuea
no?oeoo?aie ?acee/iuo ianooaaia, eae aieueoeo, oae e iaeuo, e, oaeei
ia?acii, io?aaeaao ea?a?oe/aneee i?eioeei i?aaiecaoeee. A iniiaa yoiai
iiiyoey niaea?aeeony iaeia aaaeiay eaeaaeecaoeey aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe:
o?aeoaeueiua iauaeou naiiiiaeiaiu, o. a. eo aeae ia i?aoa?iaaaao
nouanoaaiiuo eciaiaiee i?e ?acaeyaeuaaiee eo /a?ac iee?ineii n ethaui
oaaee/aieai. Oioy yoa eaeaaeecaoeey e iiaeao ieacaoueny neeoeii
aieueoei oi?iuaieai aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, iia ia ii?yaeie oaaee/eaaao
aeoaeio iaoaai iaoaiaoe/aneiai iienaiey i?e?iaeu. Enneaaeiaaiey
Iaiaeaeuea?ioa iieo/eee oe?ieoth ecaanoiinoue iinea ioe?uoey ei a
1980 aiaeo iiiaeanoaa, iinyuaai oaia?ue aai eiy. Ii iaia?oaeee
i?eioeei, n iiiiuueth eioi?iai ianeieueei iaiaeeaeaiiui iooai
ia?acoaony oeaeue ie? naiiiiaeiaiuo no?oeoo?.

Yoa i?e/oaeeeaay oi?ia (ni. ?en.1) iiaeao ieacaoueny iaeiei ec
eeth/aauo yeaiaioia iaeioi?ie iiaie “iaoo?aeueiie” iaoaiaoeee, oae
aea, eae i?yiay eeiey yaeyaony iaeiei ec iniiaiuo yeaiaioia aaeeeaeiaie
aaiiao?ee.

Aiciiaeii, iaeaieaa oaaaeeoaeueiue a?aoiaio a iieueco eco/aiey
o?aeoaeia – yoi eo a?inathuayny a aeaca e?anioa.

Aeaaa 2

IUOEAIEA A IA?ACAO

?anniao?eaaaiua caeanue i?ioeannu aicieeatho a ?acee/iuo oece/aneeo e
iaoaiaoe/aneeo caaea/ao. Ana iie eiatho iaeii iaoaa – yoi eiieo?aioeeth
ianeieueeeo oeaio?ia ca aeiieie?iaaiea ia ieineinoe. I?inoua a?aieoeu
iaaeaeo oa??eoi?eyie a ?acoeueoaoa oaeiai niia?ie/anoaa aicieeatho
?aaeei. *aoa eiaao ianoi ianeii/aaiia oeeea?aiiia ia?aieaoaiea e
iai?ae?auathuayny ai?ueaa aeaaea ca naiua iaeua o/anoee.

Eiaiii a yoie iia?aie/iie iaeanoe i?ienoiaeeo ia?aoiae io iaeiie oi?iu
nouanoaiaaiey e ae?oaie: io ii?yaeea e aanii?yaeeo, io iaiaaie/aiiiai
ninoiyiey e iaiaiaaie/aiiiio a caaeneiinoe io eioa?i?aoaoeee oao
nouiinoae, eioi?ua i?eiueatho e a?aieoea. Iia?aie/iua iaeanoe a aieueoae
eee iaiueoae ia?a caiuneiaaoi caaenyo io oneiaee, oa?aeoa?ecothueo
eco/aaiue i?ioeann. Ii?ie aicieeaao o?aoee eiieo?aio, eioi?ue
iieuecoaony ?aciiaeaneyie aeaoo ae?oaeo e ianaaeaeaao naith iaeanoue
aeeyiey. Iiaeao neo/eoueny, /oi iaeei oeaio? caoaaoeo anth ieineinoue,
ii e aai aeanoue eiaao “a?aieoeu” a aeaea eciee?iaaiiuo oi/ae, eioi?ua
iaiiaeaeanoiu aai i?eoyaeaieth. Yoi, oae neacaoue, “aeenneaeaiou”, ia
aeaeathuea “i?eiaaeeaaeaoue”.

?enoiee i?aaenoaaeytho i?ioeannu, yaeythueany, eiia/ii, aanueia
oi?ioaiiie eaeaaeecaoeeae aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe. Iie i?aoaaee/eaatho
iaeioi?ua naienoaa, /oiau naeaeaoue eo aieaa yniuie. Iai?eia?, iao ie
iaeiie ?aaeueiie no?oeoo?u, eioi?oth iiaeii auei au iineaaeiaaoaeueii
oaaee/eaaoue aaneiia/iia /enei ?ac e eioi?ay auaeyaeaea au i?e yoii
iaeciaiiie. Oai ia iaiaa i?eioeei naiiiiaeiaey a i?eaeeaeaiiii aeaea
eiaaony a i?e?iaea: a eeieyo aa?aaia ii?ae e ?ae, a i/a?oaieyo iaeaeia
e aea?aaueaa, a oo?aoeaioiii iioiea aeeaeeinoe e a ea?a?oe/aneie
i?aaiecaoeee aeeauo nenoai. A ioe?ue iai aeaca ia yoo o?aeoaeueioth
aaiiao?eth i?e?iaeu Aaioa A. Iaiaeaeuea?io. Ia naiii aeaea i?ioeannu,
ii?iaeaeathuea oaeea no?oeoo?u, aeiaieueii aeaaii eco/athony a
iaoaiaoeea e oeceea. Yoi iau/iua i?ioeannu n ia?aoiie naycueth, a
eioi?uo iaeia e oa aea iia?aoeey auiieiyaony niiaa e niiaa, eiaaea
?acoeueoao iaeiie eoa?aoeee yaeyaony ia/aeueiui cia/aieai aeey
neaaeothuae:

C

e

e

caaeneo io ia?aiao?a c, aeeyiea eioi?iai aoaeao ianoaeaeaoueny ieaea.

, iiaaaeaiea eioi?ie ii enoa/aiee aeinoaoi/ii aieueoiai ia?eiaea
a?aiaie e aoaeao ninoaaeyoue i?aaeiao iaoaai eioa?ana. Aoaeao ee
iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue noiaeeoueny e iaeioi?iio i?aaeaeueiiio cia/aieth
O, no?aiynue e ninoiyieth iieiy? I?eaeao ee iia e iaeioi?iio oeeeeo
cia/aiee, eioi?ua aoaeoo iiaoi?youeny aiiaue e aiiaue? Eee yoa
iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue ana a?aiy aaaeao naay aanii?yaei/ii, oioy e
ii?aaeaeaia aeeiaie/aneei caeiiii e eiie?aoiui ia/aeueiui cia/aieai,
ii oai ia iaiaa iai?aaeneacoaia?

I?ioeannu oeacaiiiai aeaea iaia?oaeeaathony a ethaie oi/iie iaoea. Oae,
iienaiea yaeaiee i?e?iaeu n iiiiuueth aeeooa?aioeeaeueiuo o?aaiaiee,
eioi?ia aaaee ieiei 300 eao iacaae Enaae Iuethoii e Aiooo?eae A.
Eaeaieoe, iniiaaii ia i?eioeeia ia?aoiie nayce. Aeeiaie/aneee caeii
ii?aaeaeyao iieiaeaiea e nei?inoue /anoeoeu a aeaiiue iiiaio a?aiaie
/a?ac eo cia/aiey a i?aaeuaeouee iiiaio. Aeaeaeaiea /anoeoeu iiieiaaony
eae ?aaeecaoeey yoiai caeiia. Ianouanoaaiii, aoaeao ee i?ioeann
aeene?aoiui, o. a. inouanoaeyaiui ii oaaai, eeai iai?a?uaiui. Oeceeai
i?aaeony iuneeoue a oa?ieiao eioeieoaceiaeueiuo aaeeieoe a?aiaie:
Natura non facit saltus (“I?e?iaea ia aeaeaao nea/eia”). Aeieiae,
iai?ioea, /anoi i?aaeii/eoatho ?anniao?eaaoue eciaiaiey io aiaea e aiaeo
eee io iieieaiey e iieieaieth. I/aaeaeii, aeiionoeiu iaa oi/ee
c?aiey, a auai? iiaeoiaeyuaai iienaiey ii?aaeaeyaony ianoiyoaeuenoaaie.

Aeaaa 3

NOeAIA?EE I?IIEEIIAAIEss A OAIN

?anniio?ei i?eia?. ?ino iaeioi?ie iiioeyoeee ca ianeieueei eao iau/ii
iienuaatho i?e iiiiue eiyooeoeeaioa i?e?inoa, o. a. ioiioaiey
aaeaaiaeiiai i?e?inoa /eneaiiinoe iiioeyoeee e aa iauae /eneaiiinoe.
Anee yoa aaee/eia inoaaony iinoiyiiie a oa/aiea anaai ia?eiaea a?aiaie,
oi aiai?yo, /oi caeii ?inoa yaeyaony eeiaeiui, a nai ?ino iacuaatho
yeniiiaioeeaeueiui. Iai?eia?, i?e eiyooeoeeaioa i?e?inoa a 5%
iiioeyoeey oaeaaeaaao naith /eneaiiinoue eaaeaeua 14 eao. Caeiiu oaeiai
oeia, iaeiaei, i?eiaieiu oieueei ia ia?aie/aiiuo i?iiaaeooeao
a?aiaie. Aeey ?inoa anaaaea nouanoaotho i?aaeaeu.

Iaeiei ec ia?auo ia?aoee ia yoi aieiaiea I. O. Oa?otheueno,
noi?ioee?iaaa a 1845 aiaeo caeii, niaea?aeauee ia?aie/aiea ia ?ino. Ii
iauyniee yoi oai, /oi ethaay yeieiae/aneay ieoa iiaeao iaania/eoue
nouanoaiaaiea iiioeyoeee oieueei ii?aaeaeaiiiai iaeneiaeueiiai ?acia?a O
e /oi eiyooeoeeaio i?e?inoa aeieaeai nieaeaoueny, eiaaea ?acia?u
iiioeyoeee i?eaeeaeathony e O. Oaeei ia?acii, ii i?eoae e
iaiaoiaeeiinoe ?anniao?eaaoue ia?aiaiiue eiyooeoeeaio i?e?inoa. A
?acoeueoaoa yoiai i?ioeann noaiiaeeny iaeeiaeiui, /oi ei?aiiui ia?acii
eciaieei aai aeeiaie/aneia iiaaaeaiea.

I?ioei aieaa noa eao, i?aaeaea /ai auee iniciaiu ana auoaeathuea ec
yoiai i?iaeaiu. I?e iaeuo eiyooeoeeaioao i?e?inoa, i/aaeaeii, ie/aai
iniaaiiiai ia i?iecieaeao: /eneaiiinoue iiioeyoeee aoaeao i?inoi
?aaoee?iaaoueny oae, /oiau aeinoe/ue iioeiaeueiiai cia/aiey O,
oaaee/eaaynue eiaaea iia iaiueoa aai, e oiaiueoaynue, eiaaea aieueoa.
Iaeiaei, eae oieueei eiyooeoeeaio i?aauneo 200%, ian iaeeaeatho
nth?i?ecu.

Nouanoaotho ee a i?e?iaea oaeea aieueoea eiyooeoeeaiou i?e?inoa?
Eiia/ii, /aeiaa/aneay iiioeyoeey oae auno?i ia ?anoao, ii aeey
ii?aaeaeaiiuo aeaeia ianaeiiuo oaeie eiyooeoeeaio ia yaeyaony
iaiau/iui. Aaaeii oi, /oi a iineaaeiea 20 eao caeii Oa?otheuenoa iaoae
i?eiaiaiea aeey cia/eoaeueii aieaa oe?ieiai e?oaa yaeaiee, /ai
i?aaenoaaeye naaa nai Oa?otheueno.

Yaeaa?ae I. Ei?aioe, iaoai?ieia ec Ianna/onaoneiai oaoiieiae/aneiai
einoeoooa, iaia?oaeee a 1963 aiaeo, /oi eiaiii yoio caeii iienuaaao
iaeioi?ua naienoaa oo?aoeaioiiai iioiea, a /anoiinoe eiaaea
eiyooeoeeaio aaeee. Caoai oai?aoe/aneea enneaaeiaaiey ii eaca?iie
oeceea, aeae?iaeeiaieea e eeiioeea oeie/aneeo ?aaeoeee
i?iaeaiiino?e?iaaee i?eioeeieaeueiue oa?aeoa? yoiai caeiia, e
i?aaeneacaiiua ei noeaia?ee auee iaia?oaeaiu a yenia?eiaioao.

Ii eae aea aaaeao naay i?ioeann Oa?otheuenoa, eiaaea eiyooeoeeaio
noaiiaeony aieueoei? Iiae?iaiue aiaeec i/aiue neiaeai.

Oiiiyiai oieueei iaeaieaa aaaeiua ?acoeueoaou. Eiaaea ia?aiao?u ?inoa
i?aaunyo 200%, noaiiaeony iaaiciiaeiui aeinoeaeaiea iioeiaeueiie
/eneaiiinoe X. Eiaaea iiioeyoeey iaea, yia?ae/iue ?ino iaeciaiii
i?eaiaeeo e i?aauoaieth iioeiaeueiiai ?acia?a, /oi aucuaaao ioaaoioth
?aaeoeeth, a ?acoeueoaoa eioi?iai iiioeyoeey oiaiueoaaony aei ?acia?ia,
cia/eoaeueii iaiueoeo X. Iinea yoiai iiyaeythony onoie/eaua eieaaaiey
iaaeaeo aeaoiy ?acia?aie, aieueoei e iaiueoei.

Eiaaea ia?aiao? ?inoa i?aauneo 245%, i?ienoiaeeo aeaeueiaeoaa
oneiaeiaiea iiaaaeaiey. Eieaaaiey i?ienoiaeyo nia/aea iaaeaeo 4, caoai
8, caoai 16 ?acee/iuie aaee/eiaie /eneaiiinoe iiioeyoeee e oae aeaeaa,
aei oao ii? iiea aeey ia?aiao?ia, aieueoeo 257%, ia aicieeaao oain.

*oi iu iiieiaai iiae oainii? Iii?inoo aiai?y, nenoaia auoiaeeo ec iiae
eiio?iey. Ia nouanoaoao niiniaa i?aaeneacaoue aa iiaaaeaiea ia
aeeeoaeueiia a?aiy. Aanii?yaei/iua nea/ee aaa?o e aiec oii?ii
i?iaeieaeathony e ieeiaaea ia i?aa?aoyony a oii?yaei/aiioth
iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue. *oiau iiiyoue oaeeaeaiea, eioi?ia eniuoae Ei?aioe
i?e yoii ioe?uoee, iaiiiiei, /oi ieeaeie iaii?aaeaeaiiinoe ia
i?aaeiieaaaaony. I?ioeann ii-i?aaeiaio iienuaaaony caeiiii Oa?otheuenoa,
iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue ii?aaeaeaia naiei ia/aeueiui cia/aieai – e ana aea
aa iiaaaeaiea iaaiciiaeii i?aaeneacaoue, inoaaony i?aaeinoaaeoue
i?ioeanno ?acaeaaoueny naiiio ii naaa.

Yoa i/aiue oiieay neooaoeey o?aaoao iaeioi?iai aieaa iiae?iaiiai
iauyniaiey. Ooaa?aeaeaiea i oii, /oi iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue ii?aaeaeaia
naiei ia/aeueiui cia/aieai, iiae?acoiaaaao aiciiaeiinoue ii?aaeaeaiey
iineaaeothueo cia/aiee n aaneiia/iie oi/iinoueth. Yoi yaeyaony aa?iui
oieueei “a i?eioeeia”. Ethaia ?aaeueiia iienaiea ia/aeueiie aaee/eiu,
iai?eia? aa i?aaenoaaeaiea a eiiiuethoa?a iiaeii iieo/eoue oieueei n
eiia/iie oi/iinoueth. Eco/aaiue i?ioeann iiaeii n?aaieoue n
iieo/aieai eioi?iaoeee: /ai aeieueoa iu aai aoaeai iaaethaeaoue, oai
eo/oa aoaeai ciaoue a ?ao?iniaeoeaa oi/ioth aaee/eio ia/aeueiiai
cia/aiey.

? Eiio yoi ioaeii?

Ii iaaeaioe/iinoue /anoi noiyea o eieuaaee aaaeiuo ioe?uoee. Eiaaii
Eaiea? ia ioe?ue au yeeeioe/aneie oi?iu i?aeo aeaeaeaiey ieaiao, anee
au ia aue iaaniieiai iaaieueoei ioeeiiaieai a 8 oaeiauo ieioo i?aeou
Ia?na io i?aaeneacaiee oai?ee Ioieiiay. O?eae?eo Aeeueaaeuei
Aannaeue ia niia au ii?aaeaeeoue ?annoiyiea io Nieioea aei aeeaeaeoeo
iaiiaeaeaeiuo caacae, ia iao/eaoenue oi/iaeoaio eniieueciaaieth /enae e
oaaeeoe ai a?aiy naiaai o/aie/anoaa o iaeiiai ec a?aiaineeo
oi?aiaoeaa. Iao/iay ?aaioa anaaaea caaeneo io naiiai ne?oioeaciiai
aieiaiey e aeaoaeyi aeaaea oiaaea, eiaaea noaiiaeony yniie ea/anoaaiiay
noi?iia. A eae ecaanoii anai, eiio i?eoiaeeeinue eneaoue ioeaee a
eaeie-eeai i?ia?aiia, aeey yoiai iao eo/oaai eino?oiaioa, /ai
eiiiuethoa?.

I?e oi/iii aiaeeca oi/ae aeoo?eaoeee a i?ioeanna Oa?otheuenoa
iaia?oaeeaaaony caeiiiia?iinoue, eiathuay eneeth/eoaeueiia cia/aiea a
ie?a iaeeiaeiuo yaeaiee. Caeiiiia?iinoue eanaaony aeeei eioa?aaeia
cia/aiee ia?aiao?a, i?e eioi?uo onoie/eaui yaeyaony ia?eiaee/aneia
aeaeaeaiea n iaeioi?ui ii?aaeaeaiiui ia?eiaeii. Yoe eioa?aaeu
nie?auathony i?e eaaeaeii oaeaiaiee ia?eiaea, i?e/ai iiiaeeoaeue,
oa?aeoa?ecothuee nie?auaiea, i?eaeeaeaaony e oieaa?naeueiiio cia/aieth

= 4.669201660910…,

eiaaea ia?eiae ?anoao.

aeey ioiioaiey aeeeiu ie?oaeiinoe e aa aeeaiao?o. Yoi /enei
iacuaatho oaia?ue “/eneii Oaeaaiaaoia”. Ieo/ae Oaeaaiaaoi i?iaeaeae
au/eneaiey ia naiai eaeueeoeyoi?a a Ein Aeaiina aeey oeaeiai ?yaea
?acee/iuo i?ioeannia e iieo/ee a eaaeaeii neo/aa iaeei e oio aea
iiiaeeoaeue. Ii ioe?ue oieaa?naeueiinoue yoiai /enea.

Yoi ioe?uoea aucaaei iaaa?iyoioth aeoeaiinoue o/aiuo ai iiiaeo iaeanoyo
iaoee. Auei iinoaaeaii ia?iiiia /enei yenia?eiaioia, iieacaaoeo, /oi
noeaia?ee oaeaiaiey ia?eiaea aeaenoaeoaeueii iaaethaeaaony ai iiiaeo
anoanoaaiiuo nenoaiao. Yoi e ia/aei oo?aoeaioiinoe a iioiea aeeaeeinoe,
e iaeeiaeiua eieaaaiey a oeie/aneeo eee yeaeo?e/aneeo naoyo, e aeaaea
ia?aoiae ii?iaeueiiai ?eoia na?aeoea a oa?iaeathuoth aeecie
oea?eeeyoeeth. E iu i?inoi ia a ninoiyiee ia?a/eneeoue ana a?oiiu a
NOA, O?aioeee, O?A eee aaea-eeai aua, i?iaeaiiino?e?iaaaoea, /oi
nouanoaaiiua aniaeou aeeiaieee neiaeiuo nenoai iiaeii naanoe e
iiaaaeaieth, i?eia? eioi?iai aeaao o?aaiaiea Oa?otheuenoa.

Ia oai?eth yoi ieacaei ia iaiaa neeueiia aicaeaenoaea. Iaoaiaoeee ana
aua iuoathony aei eiioea iiiyoue yoo iaiaeeaeaiioth
oieaa?naeueiinoue. Ii, ii-aeaeeiiio, aieaa aaaeii, /oi iia ii?iaeeea
iaaeaaeaeo ia oi, /oi iaeeiaeiua yaeaiey ia eaaeao ca i?aaeaeaie
nenoaiaoecaoeee e iao/iie eeanneoeeaoeee.

Iaeiei ec ia?auo, eoi iniciae aaaeiinoue eco/aiey i?ioeanna
Oa?otheuenoa, aue aeieia ?iaa?o I. Iye. Aua a 1976 aiaeo ii ienae:

Iiyoiio y ianoiyoaeueii niaaooth, /oiau ethaee ciaeiieeenue, neaaeai (n
o?aaiaieai Oa?otheuenoa), ia ?aiiai yoaia naiaai iao/aiey iaoaiaoeea.
Yoi o?aaiaiea iiaeii eco/aoue oaiiiaiieiae/anee, eoa?e?oy aai ia
eaeueeoeyoi?a eee aeaaea a?o/ioth. Aai eco/aiea aeaaea ia o?aaoao anaai
iiiaeanoaa neiaeiuo iiiyoee, eaeea eniieuecothony a yeaiaioa?iii
aiaeeca. Oaeia eco/aiea i/aiue iaiaauaei au eiooeoeaiua i?aaenoaaeaiey
o/auaainy i iaeeiaeiuo nenoaiao.

Aeey anao ian auei au eo/oa, anee au ia oieueei a iao/iie ?aaioa, ii e a
iianaaeiaaiie iieeoe/aneie e yeiiiie/aneie aeecie eae iiaeii aieueoa
ethaeae iiiyei, /oi i?inoua iaeeiaeiua nenoaiu ia anaaaea iaeaaeatho
i?inouie aeeiaie/aneeie naienoaaie.

Aeaaa 4

IIA?AIE*IUA NOU*EE:

OAIN, AICIEEATHUEE EC EIIEO?AIOeEE

Aeey iiieiaiey iaeeiaeiuo yaeaiee aeoo?eaoeeiiiue noeaia?ee i?eia?aoaao
ooiaeaiaioaeueiia cia/aiea. Aiaeec i?ioeanna Oa?otheuenoa i?aa?aoee
eaeath aeaoa?ieie?iaaiiiai oaina a aaaeiue i?aaeiao ianoaeaeaiey e
auyaee iaeioi?ua oieaa?naeueiua naienoaa neiaeiuo aeeiaie/aneeo
i?ioeannia. Oieaa?naeueiinoue neaaeoao enoieeiauaaoue i?aaeeueii.
Eiia/ii, nouanoaotho e ae?oaea iooe e oaino; ia naiii aeaea auee ioe?uou
e ae?oaea noeaia?ee noieue aea iauaai oa?aeoa?a. Iiiyoea
oieaa?naeueiinoe io/anoe io?aaeaao oaiaeaioeeth oeceeia e iaoaiaoeeia
eniieueciaaoue neiaa, cao/auea iiiaicia/eoaeueii.

Ia naiii aeaea iii icia/aao, /oi iaeioi?ia iiaaaeaiea yaeyaony
oeie/iui, e yoi aieaa eee iaiaa oaeeaeoaeueiay iaoiaeea n?aaee anaai
iiiaiia?acey nenoai.

E?aeia aeaeaoaeueii onoaiiaeoue i?eioeeiu, oa?aeoa?ecothuea niioiioaiey
iaaeaeo eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuie noeaia?eyie. Aaioa A. Iaiaeaeuea?ioo yoi
oaeaeinue naeaeaoue a 1980 aiaeo, eiaaea ii iaia?oaeee iiiaeanoai,
iinyuaa oaia?ue aai eiy. Yoi ia i?inoi i?e/oaeeeaay oeao?a, eioi?ay
eiio-oi eaaeaony i?ae?aniie, a eiio-oi aacia?aciie; iiiaeanoai
Iaiaeaeuea?ioa aiieiuaao a naaa aieaa iauee, /ai oieaa?naeueiinoue
Oaeaaiaaoia, i?eioeei ia?aoiaea io ii?yaeea e oaino. Caeanue, eae yoi
/anoi auaaao a iaoaiaoeea, iaia?oaeeaaaony naycue ynoaoe/aneie
i?eaeaeaoaeueiinoe n ooiaeaiaioaeueiui cia/aieai.

eeai a oa/aiea i?ioeanna i?eoiaeeo e oiio eee ae?oaiio oeaio?o, eeai
eaaeeo ia a?aieoea e ia iiaeao i?eiyoue ii?aaeaeaiiia ?aoaiea. N
eciaiaieai ia?aiao?a eciaiythony e iaeanoe, i?eiaaeeaaeauea
aoo?aeoi?ai, a aianoa n ieie e a?aieoeu. Iiaeao neo/eoueny, /oi a?aieoea
i?aa?aoeony a iueue, e oaeie ?aniaae i?aaenoaaeyao niaie iaeei ec
iaeaieaa aaaeiuo noeaia?eaa.

I?ioeann Iaiaeaeuea?ioa iaoaiaoe/anee yeaeaaeaioai i?ioeanno
Oa?otheuenoa. Oi?ioea oaeay aea i?inoay:

e o. ae. Yoi iiae neeo eaaeaeiio. Ii ieeoi ia iaeeaeae, /oi a oaeii
eoa?e?iaaiee iiaeao ne?uaaoueny noieueei caaaaei/iie e?aniou.

Aeaaa 5

IAOEA E / EEE ENEONNOAI?

Ca aiaeu iiiuoie i?aaenoaaeoue naie ?aaiou caeioa?aniaaiiie
iauanoaaiiinoe o/aiua iiiyee, /oi ooaeiaeanoaaiiay aeayoaeueiinoue
oiaea iiaeao i?eianoe iao/iua ieiaeu. Eee ana eeyoaaiiua caaa?aiey
iaoaiaoeeia e oeceeia-oai?aoeeia ia ynoaoe/aneie eiiiiiaioa eo iaoee
yoi eeoue neiaa? Aia?eeaineea iaoaiaoeee Oeeeii Aeae. Aeyaen e ?thaai
Oa?o ienaee:

Neaiioa e ynoaoeea iaoaiaoeee ?ani?ino?aiaia oe?iei e eiaiii yoei
iauyniyaony, /oi iaoaiaoeea n/eoaaony nooie, eae iueue, aieiothuae,
eae oaeaoiiiay eieaa, aeaeaeie io aeecie, eae caeiiioeiaeaiea Oioeaiaeee
XV a. Iaiai?io, iiieiaiea ynoaoeee iaoaiaoeee canoaaeyao i?aaeiao aeeoue
i?ae?aniie aeeciueth e ai?aoue, eae, ii-aeaeeiiio, ieeaeia ae?oaia
oai?aiea /aeiaa/aneiai ?acoia.

Iiaeao ee yoa ynoaoeea i?iyaeoueny eia/a /ai a naiii iienea
iaoaiaoe/aneiai e anoanoaaiii-iao/iiai ciaiey?

Iiiaea iocuau aunoaaee o?aeoaeueiuo ea?oei oaaaeeee iiiaeo eo aaoi?ia
o/aiuo a oii, /oi naeeaeaiea eneonnoaa e iaoee iiaei au i?eianoe
ia?iiioth iieueco. Aiciiaeiinoue oaeiai naeeaeaiey ia neaaeoao
iiieiaoue, eae neaiia oaea/aiea anai iiaui e iaiau/iui, a neaaeoao
?anniao?eaaoue aiieia ?aaeenoe/anee a oi?iao “iiauo n?aaenoa ia?aaea/e
eioi?iaoeee”, i?aaeaea anaai eiiiuethoa?a. Eiiiuethoa? aieueoa ia
yaeyaony i?eiaaeeaaeiinoueth eneeth/eoaeueii iaoee e oaoieee;
iiae?anoaao iieiaeia iieieaiea eiiiuethoa?iuo ae?iaaoia, eioi?ua
iaycaoaeueii aoaeoo ?acaeaaoue naie ooaeiaeanoaaiiua aiaeoeee. Iiea ia
ynii, eoaea caaaaeao oaeia ?acaeoea, e ia ynii, iiaeao auoue,
eae ?ac a niunea eiiieaeniie aeeiaieee: aiieia ii?aaeaeaiiia e
aeaoa?ieie?iaaiiia, ii iai?aaeneacoaiia, ao?eyuaa a naiae iiai?ioiie
oi/ea, iiaeiaii Oaonoo ai a?aiy iiieiaeaiey a eieaeianeii eiaiaa:

Aioiaeoue auoyaeeo ec o?aa –

O?oae iaiiia?iiai oa?iaiuey.

Iaiaoiaeei niieieiue i?aa,

*oia auaeaeaoue iiiai eao a?iaeaiuey.

Ooo e ianoo e?iiioeeaue aea?,

I?aaeiao ii-aeainee uaiaoeeai.

Oioue /a?o o/ee aa?eoue ioaa?,

Ii nai naa?eoue aai aanneeai.

E. A. Aaoa

(Ia?aaiae A. E. Ianoa?iaea)

Aeaaa 6

I?AEIIEAIEA IAOEE A ENEONNOAA

Ecaanoiue iaiaoeeee oaioano e ioaeeoeeno Aa?aa?o O?aiea ienae, /oi
eneonnoaiaaaeu a?yaeoueo noieaoee, iaeyioaoenue ia iaoa a?aiy,
i?eaeoo e auaiaeai, aanueia ioee/iui io oao, e eioi?ui i?eoiaeyo iaoe
nia?aiaiieee. Ii/eoaaiua iuia ooaeiaeieee e neoeueioi?u aoaeoo nei?aa
anaai ii/oe caauou, caoi iiyaeaiea yeaeo?iiiuo n?aaenoa aoaeao
i?iaicaeaoaii iaeaieaa cia/eoaeueiie ia?aiaiie a enoi?ee eneonnoaa.
Ia?aua iiiuoee, aia/aea ?iaeea e iaoaa?aiiua, aeinoe/ue oeaee, eioi?ay
eae ecaanoii noieo ia?aae eneonnoaii – aeeaiieniie
au?aceoaeueiinoe e oi/iinoe ecia?aaeaiey ie?oaeathuaai ian ie?a – ii n
iiiiuueth iiauo n?aaenoa, oaai/athony a eiioea eiioeia caneoaeaiiui
oniaoii.

I?e yoii O?aiea ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi oiaaea, “a i?ioeii” (o. a.
nae/an!), aia?aua iiyaeeanue aiciiaeiinoue nicaeaaaoue o?aoia?iua
ecia?aaeaiey oaioanoe/aneeo iaecaaeae e ae?oaea aiaeiae/iua ea?oeiu n
oioia?aoe/aneie oi/iinoueth. A aianoa n ea?oeiaie iiyaeeanue
aiciiaeiinoue ia eiaeoue ioaeaeueiua iaiiaaiey, a ioaaouaaoue
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue a aeaeaeaiee e eciaiaieyo. Yoi, aiciiaeii,
aaaeiaeoee aniaeo iiaie ia?aiaiu: a?aiy ia yoeo ea?oeiao ia
caoeene?iaaii e eaaei iiaeii iino?ieoue ieineea eee o?aoia?iua (a
ia?niaeoeaa) aeaeaeoueany ecia?aaeaiey aeaaea n oao oi/ae c?aiey,
eioi?ua iaaeinooiiu /aeiaa/aneiio aeaco eee eaia?a.

Naaiaeiy, ai?i/ai, ooaeiaeieee, eniieuecothuea eiiiuethoa?, ioiaeaeioou
ia ia?eoa?eth “noeaiu” eneonnoaa. *anoe/ii yoi naycaii n oi?iaeueiuie
e?eoa?eyie, /anoe/ii – n iaiaeia?aieai, aucaaiiui eiie?aoiuie
eiiia?/aneeie eioa?anaie.

Aeaaa 7

AAE IAAEssAeIINOE

Eiiiuethoa? – yoi ono?ienoai aeey ia?aaioee aeaiiuo, a oa?iei
“aeaiiua” (eioi?iaoeey), eacaeinue au, icia/aao /enea, a ia ?enoiee.
Iaeiaei ?enoiee – yoi a nouiinoe ae?oaie niinia iienaoue ?aaeueiua
niauoey – oaeou.

E?iia oiai, ?enoiee iiaeii caeiaee?iaaoue /eneaie, a caoai ia?aaioaoue n
iiiiuueth eiiiuethoa?a. A?aoe/aneea ecia?aaeaiey, nicaeaiiua
eiiiuethoa?ii, aoaeai aeaeaa iacuaaoue aeey e?aoeinoe eiiiuethoa?iie
a?aoeeie. Cia/aiea yoiai (eiaaea-oi iiai/iiai) niiniaa eniieueciaaiey
eiiiuethoa?ia /?acau/aeii aic?inei a iineaaeiaa a?aiy.

Eiia/ii aea, aia/aea ieeoi ia aeoiae ?acaeaaoue eiiiuethoa?ioth
a?aoeeo eae eneonnoai; iia aicieeea a ?acoeueoaoa /enoi i?aeoe/aneeo
iao/iuo, oaoiieiae/aneeo e eiiia?/aneeo enneaaeiaaiee. Iiieiaiea oiai,
/oi ?enoiee cia/eoaeueii oaeiaiaa aeey aini?eyoey, /ai aeeeiiua ia?a/ie
/enae, i?eaaei e oiio, /oi ai anao yoeo iaeanoyo /enea iinoaiaiii
auoaniyeenue aenoia?aiiaie, e?eaieeiaeiuie a?aoeeaie e o. i.

Yoio i?ioeann e i?eaae e iiyaeaieth e ?acaeoeth eiiiuethoa?iie
a?aoeee. Ia?aui, ii niaa?oaiii iaiiaeoiaeyuei n?aaenoaii iieo/aiey
eiiiuethoa?iie a?aoeee aue i?eioa?, eioi?ue oai ia iaiaa aeieacae
yooaeoeaiinoue eniieueciaaiey iaaeyaeiuo ecia?aaeaiee noieue
oaaaeeoaeueii, /oi iaoaie/aneea ?enothuea i?eai?u, iacaaiiua
a?aoiiino?ieoaeyie, iiyaeeenue eae ia/oi naii niaie ?acoiathuaany. A
a?aoiiino?ieoaeyo eniieuecoaony i?eioeei ia?a n na?aieiio?ieai
(neaaeyuei eiio?ieai), ?enothuaai ia ieineie eee oeeeeiae?e/aneie
iiaa?oiinoe. Iie iicaieytho iieo/aoue n iiiiuueth iaoeiu /a?oaaee,
oi/iinoue eioi?uo aiieia aeinoaoi/ia aeey oeaeae, neaaeai a?oeoaeoo?u,
ea?oia?aoee e o. i. Ii neaaeoao ioiaoeoue e iaeei iaaeinoaoie – e?aeia
iaaeeaiioth ?aaioo iaoaie/aneeo nenoai ii n?aaiaieth ni nei?inoueth
yeaeo?iiiuo i?ioeannia a eiiiuethoa?a. Oae, aeey oiai /oiau
ecia?aceoue eiioeao?aoeee, ?ann/eoaiiua eiiiuethoa?ii ca aeiee
naeoiaeu, o?aaothony ieioou, a eiiaaea aeaaea /anu.

Ia?aue na?ueaciue i?i?ua a eiiiuethoa?iie a?aoeea naycai n nicaeaieai
yeaeo?iiiiai a?aoiiino?ieoaey – aeenieay, ia eioi?ii aecoaeueiay
eioi?iaoeey aicieeaao oai aea niiniaii e n oie aea nei?inoueth, /oi e a
yeaeo?iiiieo/aaie o?oaea oaeaaeci?a. Iiyaeeinue, oaeei ia?acii,
n?aaenoai iino?iaiey a?aoe/aneeo ecia?aaeaiee, aeinoaoi/ii auno?ia,
/oiau iiniaaaoue ca eiiiuethoa?ii. E?iia oiai, iiyaeeanue
aiciiaeiinoue nicaeaaaoue aeaeaeoueany e aeaaea acaeiiaeaenoaothuea
ecia?aaeaiey.

Iiaua niiniau ia?aaioee ecia?aaeaiee auee ?acaeou ia iniiaa aieaa
noa?uo iaoiaeia aiaeeca ?enoieia e ?aniiciaaaiey ia?acia, iniiaie
eioi?uo a naith i/a?aaeue iineoaeeee iaoiaeu, eniieuecoaiua a
oioia?aoee. Yoe niiniau iicaieytho cia/eoaeueii eaa/a ioeaieaaoue
ia?acu, aicieeathuea a ?acee/iuo iaeanoyo iaoee, oaoiieiaee e
iaaeeoeeiu, a a iaeioi?uo neo/ayo oaeay aiciiaeiinoue iiyaeyaony oieueei
aeaaiaea?y ei.

Iaeioi?ua iaoaiaoeee e i?ia?aiienou eniieueciaaee ynoaoe/aneea
aiciiaeiinoe a?aoe/aneeo nenoai n ia/aea 60-o aiaeia. Aieueoeinoai ec
ieo noa?aeenue ia oiio?aaeyoue neiai “eneonnoai” a ioiioaiee naieo
?aaio, ooiaey oai naiui io eiioeeeoa n aeayoaeyie eneonnoaa. Eeoue
iaeioi?ua ?aoaeenue ioaeanoaaiii i?ioeainoiyoue e?eoeeai, n/eoay
eiiiuethoa?u iiaui n?aaenoaii iieo/aiey i?iecaaaeaiee ecia?aceoaeueiiai
eneonnoaa. Naie iaoiae iie iacaaee “eiiiuethoa?iia eneonnoai”, /oi
aucaaei iiiaeanoai iaeanoi/aiiuo aeeneonnee i aiciiaeiinoe nicaeaiey
(oioy au a i?eioeeia) i?iecaaaeaiee eneonnoaa n iiiiuueth iaoeiu. I?e
yoii i?eaiaeeeanue ianna oai?aoe/aneeo a?aoiaioia i?ioea yoie eaeae. E
n/anoueth, yoe aeeneonnee iaei aeeyee ia i?aaenoaaeoaeae iiaiai
iai?aaeaiey, e iie i?iaeieaeaee naith ?aaioo, ia ia?auay aieiaiey ia
oai?aoe/aneea aic?aaeaiey. E ia naaiaeiy oaea nia?aia aia/aoeythuay
eieeaeoeey eiiiuethoa?iie a?aoeee, io?aaeathuay oaoie/aneee i?ia?ann –
io i?inoiai a?aoiiino?ieoaey aei a?aoe/aneeo aeenieaaa n aunieie
?ac?aoathuae niiniaiinoueth.

Aeaaa 8

?ENOIIE EAE N?AAeNOAI AU?AAEAIEss

Iaeioi?ua niaoeeaeenou niiiaaathony a oii, /oi aiciiaeai ia?aaiae n
ycuea neia ia ycue ?enoieia, n/eoay, /oi ea/anoai aecoaeueiie
eioi?iaoeee ieaea /ai ea/anoai neiaaniie. Yoa iiceoeey iaeiae/ia,
iai?ioea, iineiaeoea: “Eo/oa iaeei ?ac oaeaeaoue, /ai noi ?ac
oneuoaoue” iiaee?aieaia a?aoiaioaie ec iaeanoe ineoieiaee aini?eyoey.

Aecoaeueiua nenoaiu iiaoo ia oieueei iia?e?iaaoue n eioi?iaoeeiiiui
iioieii i?eaeeceoaeueii a 10 ?ac aieaa eioaineaiui, /ai ana inoaeueiua
naini?iua nenoaiu aianoa acyoua, ii e ia?aaaouaaoue eioi?iaoeeth,
eioi?ay eiaao aeaoia?ioth e aeaaea (a ecaanoiie noaiaie) o?aoia?ioth
no?oeoo?o. Caiaia neia ?enoieaie – yoi ia?aoiae ia oieueei e iiaie
nenoaia eiaee?iaaiey eioi?iaoeee, ii e e iiaui iaoiaeai iienaiey
ie?oaeathuaai ian ie?a.

Eniieuecoy eae n?aaenoai iauaiey ycue, o. a. eeiaeiuie oii?yaei/aiiua ii
a?aiaie a aeaea ?yaea no?oeoo?u, iu aaoiiaoe/anee ioaeaai
i?aaeii/oaiea i?eioeeiai eeiaeiiai oii?yaei/eaaiey. I?eia?aie iiaoo
neoaeeoue iiiyoey i?e/eiiinoe eee enoi?e/aneiai i?ioeanna. A oi aea
a?aiy ycue ecia?aaeaiee iicaieyao iaaethaeaoue e ae?oaea i/aiue
aaaeiua aeaeu acaeiinayce yaeaiee, iai?eia? iaoeaaeaeiua i?ioeannu,
acaeiiaeaenoaey, naoe eiiioieeaoeee e o. i. Aanueia aa?iyoii, /oi iaoa
ianiiniaiinoue iuneeoue eaoaai?eyie naoae a iaiaeie noaiaie naycaia n
oai, /oi iu i?eaycaiu e iienaoaeueiie nenoaia ycuea neia.

Yoe ?annoaeaeaiey iieacuaatho, /oi ooaa?aeaeaiey iiiaeo i?ioeaieeia
eniieueciaaiey ecia?aceoaeueiuo n?aaenoa nianai ia iaycaiu auoue
ni?aaaaeeeauie. Ii anee iie n/eoatho, /oi ?enoiee inoaaeytho ai?acaei
iaiueoa ianoa aeey oaioacee, /ai iaienaiiue oaeno, oi eo iiaeii
ii?iaa?aiooue. Aeaaea eiieenu o?aaotho oai?/aneiai aeiiniuneaiey
/eoaoaeyie (yoi neaaeoao ec oiai oaeoa, /oi iaeioi?ua ?iaeeoaee ia
iiieiatho eo ;). ?enoiee aeaenoaeoaeueii oeene?otho iaeei ec aeaeia
eioi?iaoeee aieaa aeanoei, /ai neiaa, ii inoaaeytho aeinoaoi/ii
i?iaaeia, eioi?ua aeieaeai caiieieoue nai c?eoaeue. A eiieenao,
iai?eia?, eiaeea nthaeaoa, nioeeaeueiua ioiioaiey aeaenoaothueo eeoe,
yiioeeiiaeueiue oii – ana yoi ainiieiyaony oaioaceae c?eoaey. Oi aea
naiia ni?aaaaeeeai e a ioiioaiee ae?oaeo ecia?aceoaeueiuo n?aaenoa:
oeeueiia, oaeaaeci?a, aeaeai e ae?.

E niaeaeaieth, a aeeneonneyo, eanathueony iiauo eiiiuethoa?iuo
?enoieia, neeoeii caiaoiia ianoi caiyee aaiaeueiua eiiia?/aneea
eioa?anu. Iniiaiay aea i?iaeaia, aieaa aaaeiay naaiaeiy, /ai
eiaaea-eeai ?aiueoa, ia oiiieiaeanue a yoeo aeeneonneyo, a eiaiii, eae
i?eaeaoue aeinooiioth aeey iiieiaiey oi?io anai neiaeiui
acaeiinaycyi iaoaai nia?aiaiiiai ie?a, eae naeaeaoue eo iienaiea
iiiyoiui e iaeiia?aiaiii en/a?iuaathuei. *ai neiaeiaa neooaoeey, oai
aieaa iiaeoiaeyuei noaiiaeony iaaeyaeiia ecia?aaeaiea.

Iaeia ec iniiaiuo aiciiaeiinoae aeey eniieueciaaiey eiiiuethoa?iie
a?aoeee, e, a /anoiinoe, acaeiiaeaenoaothueo ecia?aaeaiee ioe?uaaaony a
iaoea e ia?aciaaiee. Ieacuaaaony, /oi ecia?aaeaiey, nicaeaiiua
eiiiuethoa?ii, iicaieytho aeaoue naiia oaeeaeoaeueiia e iaeiia?aiaiii
naiia iieiia ec anao ecaanoiuo iienaiea ia?iiiiai iiiaeanoaa
iaoaiaoe/aneeo oi?ioe. I?e yoii aua ?ac iiaeoaa?aeaeaaony eaeay, /oi
eiaee?iaaiea eioi?iaoeee a aeaoia?iie e (a iaeioi?ii niunea)
o?aoia?iie oi?iao iicaieyao oaeaeaoue acaeiinayce, eioi?ua aeaaea
i?aaenoaaeoue naaa auei iaaiciiaeii, aeyaey ia ioaeaeueiua oi?ioeu.
Iiieii yoiai eiiiuethoa? aeaao aiciiaeiinoue yenia?eiaioe?iaaoue;
iaoaiaoee iiaeao, iai?eia?, enneaaeiaaoue aeeyiea ia?aiao?a ia ?aoaiea
caaea/e, eiio?iee?iaaoue ?acoeueoaou i?aia?aciaaiee eee iaoiaeeoue
i?aaeaeueiua cia/aiey aaneiia/iuo eoa?aoeeiiiuo i?ioeannia; oecee,
neaaeai, iiaeao enneaaeiaaoue, eae aeeytho a?aie/iua oneiaey ia ?aoaiea
?acee/iuo oece/aneeo caaea/, a oeiee – i?iaiaeece?iaaoue
i?ino?ainoaaiiua no?oeoo?u aa?aaaoia iieaeoe.

Aeaaa 9

ENEONNOAI EE YOI?

Eaeei aea ia?acii aeinoeaathony yoa aeinooiiinoue aeey iiieiaiey e
yniinoue i?aaenoaaeaiey? Iooaaiaeioth ieoue aeatho ineoieiaey e
ynoaoeea oai?ee eioi?iaoeee. Naie aeeaae a aeinoeaeaiea yoie oeaee
aiinyo e aa?iiie/aneia ?aciauaiea, e aaeain, e neiiao?ey – ana i?eioeeiu
oii?yaei/eaaiey, ?anniao?eaaaiua a oai?ee eioi?iaoeee.

ssnii, /oi yoe iiiyoey i?eiaieiu e e aecoaeueii iaaethaeaaiui yaeaieyi,
iineieueeo caeanue eniieuecothony oa aea i?eioeeiu ia?aciiai iuoeaiey,
/oi e i?e ?aniiciaaaiey, aiaeeca e iienaiee ?acee/iuo iauaeoia
/aeiaa/aneei iicaii. E?iia oiai, eiaiii n yoeie oi?iaeueiuie
iiiyoeyie iu naycuaaai eeanne/aneee eaeaae e?aniou. Anee i?iecaieueiue
iaai? aeaiiuo i?aaenoaaeoue, neaaeai, n iiiiuueth eiiiuethoa?a a
iioeiaeueiii aeey aecoaeueiiai aini?eyoey aeaea, oi iu iaeiia?aiaiii
i?eaeeceiny e e oa?aeoa?enoeea I?ae?aniiai.

Iaeiaei eco/aiea nia?aiaiiiai eneonnoaa iieacaei, /oi iaeiiai eeoue
niioaaonoaey eeanne/aneiio ii?aaeaeaieth e?aniou iaaeinoaoi/ii aeey
nicaeaiey i?iecaaaeaiey eneonnoaa. Ia?yaeo n yoei aeieaeii auoue
ia/oi aucuaathuaa eioa?an, o?aaothuaa nii?e/anoiinoe e canoaaeythuaa
aeoiaoue.

Ec ineoieiaee oai?ee eioi?iaoeee ecaanoii, /oi iiaeiaiua noeioeu
aicieeatho a iniiaiii aeaaiaea?y “iiaecia”, o. a. oiaaea, eiaaea
ia?aae iaoeie aeacaie i?aaenoaao ia/oi, eae iai eaaeaony, iiaia, /aai iu
?aiueoa ia ano?a/aee.

I?iecaiaeeiia ynoaoe/aneia aia/aoeaiea e aucuaaaiia iiaeciie
oaeeaeaiea – aio /oi ?iaeieo i?iecaaaeaiey eneonnoaa n ecia?aaeaieyie,
nicaeaaaaiuie iaoeie. Iai?eia?, iao/iay oioia?aoey – yoi ioithaeue ia
i?yiia io?aaeaiea aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, a nei?aa ?acoeueoao neiaeiuo
iioe/aneeo eee aeaaea yeaeo?iiiuo i?aia?aciaaiee, oeaeue eioi?uo
nicaeaoue iaeaieaa ociaaaaiue e caiiieiathueeny c?eoaeueiue ia?ac.
Eniieuecoy e?aneoaee eee iiey?ecaoeeiiiua oeeueo?u a iee?ineiiee, iu
iieo/aai ia/oi, ie/aai iauaai ia eiathuaa n ?aaeueiie ie?aneie iauaeoa.
Yoe n?aaenoaa neoaeao oieueei aeey oiai, /oiau naeaeaoue iaeioi?ua
iaeanoe aieaa ?acee/eiuie.

Eiia/ii aea, iauaeou enneaaeiaaiey, iai?eia? e?enoaeee/aneea
no?oeoo?u, e naie ii naaa niaea?aeao ana iaiaoiaeeiia aeey ?aniiciaaaiey
eo oa?aeoa?iuo /a?o. Ii eeoue i?aia?aciaaiea n iiiiuueth n?aaenoa
iee?ineiiee iicaieyao nicaeaoue ecia?aaeaiey, noieue ii?aceoaeueii
iioiaeea ia i?iecaaaeaiey eneonnoaa. I?e?iaeiua oi?iu eae eneonnoai
yoa eiioeaioeey Y?inoa Oaeeaey i?aaenoaaeyao niaie au?aaeaiea
ii?aceoaeueiie acaeiinayce iaaeaeo, eacaeinue au, niaa?oaiii ?aciuie
iaeanoyie c?eoaeueiiai iiuoa. Aeaeeii, ianoiyuaa ynoaoe/aneia
oaeiaieuenoaea iiaeii iieo/eoue, iooaoanoaoy, neaaeai, ii iiaa?oiinoe
e?enoaeea n iiiiuueth iee?ineiia. A iiea c?aiey iiiaaeatho ana iiaua
iaeanoe, iaiiieiathuea eaeea-oi eaiaeoaoou, e anaaaea iiaeii aua aieueoa
oaaee/eoue ecia?aaeaiea, /oiau enneaaeiaaoue aieaa aeoaieea ieanou
no?oeoo?iuo aiciiaeiinoae.

Ai iiiaeo o?aeoaeueiuo ea?oeiao – “iaecaaeao” iaia?oaeeaaaony
oaeeaeoaeueiia noiaenoai n ea?oeiaie, iaaethaeaaiuie iiae iee?ineiiii.
A?oiia enneaaeiaaoaeae, caieiathuayny eo nicaeaieai, iineo iacaaiea
“Eiiieaeniay aeeiaieea”, /oi io?aaeaao iao/ioth noi?iio aa
aeayoaeueiinoe, ii, e yoi i/aiue aaaeii, naie a?aoe/aneea ecia?aaeaiey
iie iacaaee iiaui, nicaeaiiui eie oa?ieiii “ENEONNOAI IOIA?AAEAIEss”.
Yoi neioaoe/aneia iacaaiea au?aaeaao iaeiia?aiaiii e aiaeiae/iue iiuo,
iaeiieaiiue aia/aea aeieiaaie e e?anoaeeia?aoaie, eniieuecothueie
iee?ineiiu, e aiineaaenoaee o/aiuie, ?aaioathueie a ?acee/iuo iaeanoyo
anoanoaaiiuo iaoe – io oeceee yeaiaioa?iuo /anoeoe ii ano?iiiiee.

Ii iaaeaeo iaoaiaoeeie e anoanoaaiiuie iaoeaie anoue nouanoaaiiia
ioee/ea. Anaaaea iiaeii neacaoue, /oi o/aiue oioia?aoe?oao ?aaeueii
nouanoaothuea a i?e?iaea no?oeoo?u e auaeaao, a eaeii-oi niunea, eiiee
i?e?iaeiuo iauaeoia ca i?iecaaaeaiey eneonnoaa. Ii oaeia iaaeiaiea
iaaiciiaeii i?aaeuyaeoue iaoaiaoeeo. Eniieueciaaiea eiiiuethoa?a
iiaeao aiaoia e iaiiieiaao eniieueciaaiea iee?ineiia, ii oi, /oi iu n
aai iiiiuueth iieo/aai, i?aaenoaaeyao niaie a /enoii aeaea i?iaeoeo
/aeiaa/aneiai ?acoia e ia iaycaoaeueii eiaao aiaeiae a i?e?iaea.
Iiyoiio ea?oeiu, eioi?ua oaeaeinue iieo/eoue a?oiia “Eiiieaeniay
aeeiaieea” – yoi aiana ia eneeth/eoaeueii oaea/iue c?eoaeueiue ia?ac
i?e?iaeu, iai?ioea, eo iniiaiia niaea?aeaiea i?eaeoiaii aaoi?aie.
Neaaeoao iiae/a?eiooue, /oi yoe ?enoiee ii?aaeatho iiaeeeiiie iiaeciie
e iaicia/atho i?iaeaiu, iai?eia? eiiieaeniinoue, enneaaeiaaiea eioi?uo
iiaeao ieacaoueny ieiaeioai?iui e iieaciui. Iiaeii, eiia/ii, aiai?eoue,
/oi oaiu eiiiuethoa?iuo ?enoieia iaiau/iu aeey eneonnoaa, /oi iie
eioa?anotho oieueei o/aiuo e oaoiieiaia e, noaei auoue, iiaoo
?anniao?eaaoueny eae eneonnoai eeoue a ?aieao iao/ii-oaoie/aneie
noaeoeueoo?u. Ii a yoii iaaeiaiee ia/enoi eaii?e?oaony oio oaeo,
/oi i?iaeaiaoeeo eiiieaeniuo nenoai iiaeii iaia?oaeeoue a naiie iniiaa
aeieiae/aneie aeecie e nioeeaeueiuo nenoai, a i?ienoiaeaeaiee
Anaeaiiie e aeaaea a oeeinioee. Oi anoue a naiii aeaea eneonnoai, anee
neaaeiaaoue iau/iui ii?aaeaeaieyi. E anee aai e iiaeii n/eoaoue
iaianoiyuei, oi eeoue ii oie i?e/eia, /oi iii nicaeaaaeinue n
iiiiuueth eiiiuethoa?a.

Aeaaa 10

?ANI?INO?AIAIEA EIIIUeTHOA?IIAI ENEONNOAA

Eneonnoai i?aaeiieaaaao iauaiea iaaeaeo ooaeiaeieeii e c?eoaeyie. A
eaeaaeueiii neo/aa – yoi caieiooue oeeee: ooaeiaeiee i?aaenoaaeyao
c?eoaeyi naith ?aaioo, aucuaaao eo ?aaeoeeth e eniieuecoao aa eae
ia?aoioth naycue, o/eouaay, n oeaeueth auoue eo/oa iiiyoui, ioeeee
c?eoaeae a naiae aeaeueiaeoae ?aaioa.

Anoue ee i?aiyonoaey ?ani?ino?aiaieth eiiiuethoa?iie a?aoeee e
eiiiuethoa?iiai eneonnoaa? Iiea yoi auee eeoue ?enoiee, nicaeaiiua
a?aoiiino?ieoaeai, aeaaiie i?iaeaiie auee niiiaiey niaoeeaeenoia,
enoi?eeia eneonnoaa, eneonnoaiaaaeia e, aieaa anaai, aeaaeaeueoeaa
aaea?ae. I?iaeaia caeeth/aeanue a oii, /oi eiiiuethoa? iiaeao nicaeaoue
ethaia /enei iaeeiaeiai niaa?oaiiuo “i?eaeiaeia”, /oi iiaeao iaianoe
oua?a aeciano, naycaiiiio n eneonnoaii. Caoai auei iaia?oaeaii, /oi
iaeioi?ua ec ia?auo ?aaio, nicaeaiiuo eiiiuethoa?ii, a iieiie ia?a
oieeaeueiu e iaaini?iecaiaeeiu. E eo aeaenoaeoaeueii noieei
eieeaeoeeiie?iaaoue.

Nae/an neooaoeey neiaeiaa. Naycaii yoi n oai, /oi ecia?aaeaiey
nicaeathony ia a?aoiiino?ieoaeai, a ia ye?aia aeenieay. N ye?aia iie
aeieaeiu auoue “ia?aienaiu” e caoeene?iaaiu, neaaeai, n iiiiuueth
iaeneaaeathuae, eiio?iee?oaiie eiiiuethoa?ii, oioia?aoee. Ii caeanue
n?aco aea anieuaatho noa?ua iaiai?ee, e aiiaue aicieeaao aeeneonney i
oii, iiaeao ee oioia?aoey auoue i?iecaaaeaieai eneonnoaa.

Anoue e ae?oaea niiniau ia?aiina ecia?aaeaiee n ye?aia aeenieay ia
aoiaao a iaeneaaeaiiii aeaea, a /anoiinoe, n iiiiuueth no?oeiuo e
eaca?iuo i?eioa?ia iiaiai iieieaiey. E niaeaeaieth iiaeiaiay oaoieea
aua iaaeaaii auea aeinooiia eeoue iaiiiaei enneaaeiaaoaeyi, e iiyoiio
aieueoeinoai iiauo ?acoeueoaoia, aeaaea oao, a eioi?uo iieo/aiu
o?aoia?iua ia?acu n ia?niaeoeaie, inoaaony ia neaeaeao eee oioiaoiaaa.
Naiua aieueoea neiaeiinoe aicieeatho n aeaeaeoueieny ecia?aaeaieyie,
eioi?ua iaeuecy aunoaaeoue a aaea?ayo e eioi?uie o?oaeii caeioa?aniaaoue
oao, eoi oi?aoao i?iecaaaeaieyie o?aaeeoeeiiiiai eneonnoaa. *oiau
naeaeaoue yoe i?iecaaaeaiey aeinooiiuie aeey ioaeeee, ioaeii
eniieueciaaoue aaniethoii iiaua n?aaenoaa, iai?eia? oa i?aaiecaoeee,
eioi?ua eiatho aeaei n oaeaaeceiiiuie ecia?aaeaieyie oeia aeaeeioae
aeaeaieannao eee oaeanoaioeee. Iaiiiyoii, /oi i?ienoiaeeo: oi ee i?inoi
neeoeii iae ni?in ia nicaeaiiua eiiiuethoa?ii aeaeaeoueany ia?acu, oi
ee anaio aeiie iaaeeeoaeueiinoue n?aaenoa ianniaie eioi?iaoeee,
iaaeaeaiea ia?aeeth/eoueny ia iiaue iooue?

Eaeei aea niiniaii iiaeao “eiiiuethoa?iue” ooaeiaeiee i?aaenoaaeoue
naie ?aaiou oe?ieie ioaeeea? I?inoaeoee iaoiae, eae iia eaaeaony,
neaaeiaaoue o?aaeeoeeyi aaea?ae e aunoaaeyoue aia/aea ia?aianaiiua ia
aoiaao noaoe/aneea ecia?aaeaiey. A eiaaea yoe i?iecaaaeaiey aoaeoo
i?eciaiu, ioe?ithony iiaua aiciiaeiinoe e aeey aeaeaeoueony
ecia?aaeaiee. Ai?i/ai, a iineaaeiaa a?aiy, a nayce n aiacaiiui ac?uaiui
?inoii ?ani?ino?aiaiiinoe ia?niiaeueiuo eiiiuethoa?ia, iiyaeythony
aiciiaeiinoe ia?aaea/e iiaeiaiuo i?iecaaaeaiee eneonnoaa a aeaea
niaoeeaeueiuo oaeeia. Aieaa oiai, oaeea oaeeu iiaoo niaea?aeaoue ia
iaycaoaeueii a?aoe/aneoth eioi?iaoeeth, ii i?inoi “iaai? eiyooeoeeaioia”
aeey aini?iecaaaeaiey ea?oeiu ii ecaanoiiio aeai?eoio.

Aeaaa 11

ENEONNOAI E OAOIIEIAEss NAAIAeIss

?acoiiay no?aoaaey aeciana e i?aainoiaeiia ea/anoai i?iaeoeoeee ia
iiiiaoo, anee ioaeeea yoo i?iaeoeoeeth ioaa?aaao. Iaeiie ec i?e/ei, ii
eioi?ui eiiiuethoa?iia eneonnoai ioaa?aaaony, iiaeao neoaeeoue oi, /oi
iii nicaeaii n iiiiuueth oaoie/anee i/aiue neiaeiuo ono?ienoa, eioi?ua
naie iiiaee iui/a iiae neeueiue ia?ae?anoiue iaiiue. Aunooieaiea a
caueoo oaoiieiaee (n oeaeueth ocaeiieoue aa eae oai?/aneee iaoiae)
iaoaeeeaaaony ia iaiaoiaeeiinoue ?aoaiey aii?ina: “Ia neaaeoao ee
ia?aaeeoue eneonnoai io aiaoaoaeuenoaa iaoei a nia?aiaiiii ie?a, oai
aieaa, /oi e nai ii naaa oaoiieiae/aneee i?ioeann aucuaaao
ii?aaeaeaiiua niiiaiey?” Ioaao i?ino. Oaoiieiaey, iaiaoiaeeiay aeey
eiiiuethoa?iiai eneonnoaa, nouanoaaiii ioee/aaony io eniieuecoaiuo a
yia?aaoeea e i?iiuoeaiiinoe, eioi?ua a iniiaiii e ieacaeenue iiae
iaiai e?eoeee. Eiiiuethoa? – yoi i?iaeoeo eioi?iaoeeiiiie oaoiieiaee,
iio?aaeythuee ieieioi yia?aee e iaoa?eaeueiuo ?ano?nia. E iao i?e/ei
ia?aie/eaaoue i?eiaiaiea nenoai ia?aaioee aeaiiuo eeoue iaoeie,
oaoiieiaeae, aecianii e oi?aaeaieai, eneeth/ay noa?o eneonnoaa.

Aii?in i caiaia o?aaeeoeeiiiuo iaoiaeia oai?/anoaa ooaeiaeieea
yeaeo?iieeie eee iaoeiaie ia noieo. Iai?ioea, eiaao niune
eniieueciaaoue ana aiciiaeiua n?aaenoaa, /oiau ?anoe?eoue aiciiaeiinoe
aeey naiiau?aaeaiey ooaeiaeieea. Eneonnoai eaaeaeie yiioe
iieueciaaeinue nia?aiaiiuie n?aaenoaaie, /oiau i?eaeaoue oi?io oiio
iiaiio, /oi iiyaeyeinue a ooaeiaeanoaaiiii oai?/anoaa. I?e yoii ieeiaaea
ia ?oeiaiaenoaiaaeenue oieueei oaoie/aneeie eee i?aeoe/aneeie oeaeyie,
nouanoaaiioth ?ieue ea?aee e niiniau iauaiey ethaeae ae?oa n
ae?oaii. Ii/aio aea iaeuecy eniieueciaaoue eiiiuethoa? – yoi
oieaa?naeueiia n?aaenoai iauaiey e iieo/aiey eioi?iaoeee, eioi?ia
caaiaauaaao aeaaea iaoe nianoaaiiua aeiia – a ea/anoaa eino?oiaioa
aeey nicaeaiey i?iecaaaeaiee eneonnoaa?

ENOI*IEEE

1. Eioi?iaoeeiiiua eaiaeu na?aa?ia 279.0 e 200.25 a nenoaia 5020.

2. O.-I. Iaeoaai, I.O.?eooa?. E?anioa o?aeoaeia. Ia?acu eiiieaeniuo
aeeiaie/aneeo nenoai. “IE?”, 1993 a.:

3. Aa?aa?o A. O?aiea. I?aeiieaiea iaoee a eneonnoaa.

PAGE

STYLEREF DB_PartName\l \* MERGEFORMAT ENOIEE STYLEREF
DB_ChapName\l \* MERGEFORMAT CA?IAEAeAIEA IAOAIAOEEE

STYLEREF DB_PartName\l \* MERGEFORMAT

STYLEREF DB_ChapName\l \* MERGEFORMAT ENOI*IEEE

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