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Aaaaeaiea.

Iaoea yaeyaony iaeiie ec ii?aaeaeythueo iniaaiiinoae nia?aiaiiie
eoeueoo?u e, aiciiaeii, naiui aeeiaie/iui aa eiiiiiaioii. Naaiaeiy
iaaiciiaeii ianoaeaeaoue nioeeaeueiua, eoeueoo?iua, aio?iiieiae/aneea
i?iaeaiu, ia i?eieiay ai aieiaiea ?acaeoea iao/iie iunee. Ie iaeia ec
e?oiiaeoeo oeeinioneeo eiioeaioeee XX a. ia iiaea iaieoe oaiiiaia iaoee,
ia au?aceoue naiaai ioiioaiey e iaoea a oeaeii e e oai ie?iaicc?ai/aneei
i?iaeaiai, eioi?ua iia noaaeo. *oi oaeia iaoea? Eaeiaa aeaaiay
nioeeaeueiay ?ieue iaoee? Nouanoaotho ee a?aieoeu iao/iiai iiciaiey e
iiciaiey aiiaua? Eaeiai ianoi iniiaaiiie ia iaoea ?aoeeiiaeueiinoe a
nenoaia ae?oaeo niiniaia ioiioaiey e ie?o? Aiciiaeii ee aiaiao/iia
iiciaiea, eaeia aai noaoon e ia?niaeoeau? Iiaeii ee iao/iui niiniaii
ioaaoeoue ia i?eioeeieaeueiua aii?inu ie?iaicc?aiey: eae aicieeea
Anaeaiiay, eae iiyaeeanue aeeciue, eae i?iecioae /aeiaae, eaeia ianoi
caieiaao oaiiiai /aeiaaea a anaiauae einie/aneie yaiethoeee?

Ianoaeaeaiea anao yoeo e iiiaeanoaa ae?oaeo ie?iaicc?ai/anei –
oeeinioneeo aii?inia nii?iaiaeaeaei noaiiaeaiea e ?acaeoea nia?aiaiiie
iaoee e auei iaiaoiaeeiie oi?iie iniciaiey iniaaiiinoae eae naiie iaoee,
oae e oie oeeaeeecaoeee, a ?aieao eioi?ie iao/iia ioiioaiea e ie?o noaei
aiciiaeiui. Naaiaeiy yoe aii?inu noiyo a iiaie e aanueia ino?ie oi?ia.
Yoi naycaii i?aaeaea anaai n oie neooaoeeae, a eioi?ie ieacaeanue
nia?aiaiiay oeeaeeecaoeey. N iaeiie noi?iiu, auyaeeenue iaaeaeaiiua
ia?niaeoeau iaoee e iniiaaiiie ia iae oaoieee. Nia?aiaiiia iauanoai
anooiaao a eioi?iaoeeiiioth noaaeeth ?acaeoey, ?aoeeiiaeecaoeey anae
nioeeaeueiie aeecie noaiiaeony ia oieueei aiciiaeiie, ii e aeeciaiii
iaiaoiaeeiie. N ae?oaie noi?iiu, iaia?oaeeeenue i?aaeaeu ?acaeoey
oeeaeeecaoeee iaeiinoi?iiia oaoiieiae/aneiai oeia: e a nayce n
aeiaaeueiui yeieiae/aneei e?ecenii, e eae neaaenoaea auyaeaoaeny
iaaiciiaeiinoe oioaeueiiai oi?aaeaiey nioeeaeueiuie i?ioeannaie.

A iineaaeiea aiaeu aieiaiea e yoei aii?inai a iaoae no?aia caiaoii
nieceeinue. Aeoiaaony, /oi iaeia ec aeaaiuo i?e/ei yoiai a iauai ?aceii
iaaeaiee i?anoeaea iao/iiai ciaiey a iaoai iauanoaa, a oie eaoano?ioa,
eioi?oth ia?aaeeaaao iaoea ?innee a iineaaeiea aiaeu. Iaaeaeo oai
niaa?oaiii ynii, /oi aac ?acaeoie iaoee ?inney ia eiaao aoaeouaai eae
oeeaeeeciaaiiay no?aia.

Anoanoaaiiua e aoiaieoa?iua iaoee.

Iaoea caieiaaony eco/aieai iauaeoeaii nouanoaothueo ( o.a. nouanoaothueo
iacaaeneii io /ueaai-eeai niciaiey) iauaeoia e yaeaiee i?e?iaeu. Aii?in
i oii, nouanoaoao ee ie?oaeathuee ian ie? nai ii naaa eee ii yaeyaony
i?iaeoeoii aeayoaeueiinoe ?acoia (i?eiaaeeaaeauaai iaeiio aunoaio
nouanoao eee eaaeaeiio eiie?aoiiio eiaeeaeaeo) ninoaaeyao nooue o.i.
iniiaiiai aii?ina oeeinioee, eeanne/anee oi?ioee?oaiii a aeaea aeeeaiiu
i ia?ae/iinoe iaoa?ee eee niciaiey. A caaeneiinoe io ioaaoa ia iniiaiie
aii?in oeeiniou iiae?acaeaeythony ia iaoa?eaeenoia (i?eciatho
iauaeoeaiia nouanoaiaaiea ie?oaeathuaai ian ie?a, aicieeoaai a
?acoeueoaoa naii?acaeoey iaoa?ee), iauaeoeaiuo eaeaaeenoia (i?eciatho
iauaeoeaiia nouanoaiaaiea ie?a, aicieeoaai eae ?acoeueoao aeayoaeueiinoe
aunoaai ?acoia) e noauaeoeaiuo eaeaaeenoia (n/eoatho, /oi ie?oaeathuee
ian ie? ia nouanoaoao ?aaeueii, a anoue ieiae aiia?aaeaiey ioaeaeueiiai
eiaeeaeaea) . Ii-aeaeeiiio iaaiciiaeii aeaoue yenia?eiaioaeueii
iainiiaaiiiai ioaaoa ia iniiaiie aii?in oeeinioee, oioy aieueoeinoai
anoanoaieniuoaoaeae yaeythony i?eaa?aeaioeaie iaoa?eaeenoe/aneeo
eiioeaioeee.

Ana nouanoaothuea iao/iua aeenoeeieeiu oneiaii (ethaay
eeanneoeeaoeey iineo i?eaeeaeaiiue oa?aeoa? e iaiieii io?aaeaao
enoeiioth nooue aauae!) ?acaeaeaiu ia aeaa iniiaiua a?oiiu:
anoanoaaiiiiao/iua (caieiathony eco/aieai iauaeoia i?e?iaeu e yaeaiee,
ia yaeythueony i?iaeoeoii aeayoaeueiinoe /aeiaaea eee /aeiaa/anoaa) e
aoiaieoa?iua (eco/atho yaeaiey iauaeou, aicieeoea eae ?acoeueoao
aeayoaeueiinoe /aeiaaea).

Ianoiyuee eo?n iinayuai iaci?o aaaeiaeoeo eiioeaioeee nia?aiaiiiai
anoanoaiciaiey.

O?iaie i?aaiecaoeee iaoa?ee e ea?a?oey anoanoaaiii iao/iuo ciaiee.
Ie?oaeathuea ian iauaeou i?e?iaeu eiatho aioo?aiithth no?oeoo?o, o.a. a
naith i/a?aaeue naie ninoiyo ec ae?oaeo iauaeoia (yaeiei ninoieo ec
eeaoie ?anoeoaeueiie oeaie, eioi?ay neiaeaia ec iieaeoe, yaeythueony
iauaaeeiaieyie aoiiia e o.ae.). I?e yoii anoanoaaiiui ia?acii
aicieeatho ?acee/iua ii neiaeiinoe o?iaie i?aaiecaoeee iaoa?ee :
einie/aneee, ieaiaoa?iue, aaieiae/aneee, aeieiae/aneee, oeie/aneee,
oece/aneee. I?aaenoaaeoaee anoanoaaiiuo iaoe, caieiathueany eco/aieai
iauaeoia eaeiai-eeai o?iaiy iiaoo aeinoe/ue eo iieiiai iienaiey eeoue
iniiauaaynue ia ciaieyo aieaa “ieceiai” (yeaiaioa?iiai) o?iaiy
(iaaiciiaeii iiiyoue caeiiu aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe eeaoee, ia eco/ea
oeieci i?ioaeathueo a iae ?aaeoeee). Iaeiaei ?aaeueiua aiciiaeiinoe
eaaeaeiai ioaeaeueiiai enneaaeiaaoaey aanueia ia?aie/aiu (/aeiaa/aneie
aeecie iaaeinoaoi/ii ia oieueei aeey oiai, /oiau ieiaeioai?ii
caieiaoueny eco/aieai n?aco ianeieueeeo o?iaiae, ii aeaaea caaaaeiii ia
oaaoaao ia neieueei-ieaoaeue iieiia inaiaiea oaea iaeiieaiiuo ciaiee i
eaeii-oi iaeiii). Ec-ca yoiai aicieeei aeaeaiea anoanoaaiii iao/iuo
ciaiee ia ioaeaeueiua aeenoeeieeiu, i?eia?ii niioaaonoaothuea
auoaia?a/eneaiiui o?iaiyi i?aaiecaoeee iaoa?ee: ano?iiiieth, yeieiaeth,
aaieiaeth, aeieiaeth, oeieth e oeceeo. Niaoeeaeenou, ?aaioathuea ia
naiai o?iaia, iie?athony ia ciaiey niaaeiuo iaoe, iaoiaeyueony ieaea ii
ea?a?oe/aneie eanoieoea. Eneeth/aiea ninoaaeyao oeceea, iaoiaeyuayny ia
“naiii ieaeiai yoaaea” /aeiaa/aneeo ciaiee (“ninoaaeythuay eo
ooiaeaiaio”): enoi?e/anee neiaeeeinue oae, /oi a oiaea ?acaeoey yoie
iaoee iaia?oaeeaaeenue ana aieaa “yeaiaioa?iua” o?iaie i?aaiecaoeee
iaoa?ee (iieaeoey?iue, aoiiiue, yeaiaioa?iuo /anoeoe…), eco/aieai
eioi?uo ii-i?aaeiaio caieiaeenue oeceee.

Anoanoaaiiua iaoee ?acee/iuo o?iaiae ia iainiaeaiu ae?oa io ae?oaa.
I?e eco/aiee aunieii?aaieciaaiiuo nenoai aicieeaao anoanoaaiiay
iio?aaiinoue a eioi?iaoeee i ninoaaeythueo eo yeaiaioao,
i?aaeinoaaeyaiie aeenoeeieeiaie “aieaa ieceeo” o?iaiae. I?e eco/aiee aea
“yeaiaioa?iuo” iauaeoia aanueia iieaciu ciaiey i eo iiaaaeaiee a
neiaeiuo nenoaiao, aaea i?e acaeiiaeaenoaeyo n ae?oaeie yeaiaioaie
i?iyaeythony naienoaa eco/aaiuo. I?eia?ii acaeiiaeaenoaey iaoe ?aciuo
o?iaiae iiaeao neoaeeoue ?ac?aaioea Iuethoiiii eeanne/aneie oai?ee
oyaioaiey (oece/aneee o?iaaiue), aicieeoae ia iniiaa caeiiia aeaeaeaiey
ieaiao Eaiea?a (ano?iiiie/aneee o?iaaiue), e nia?aiaiiua eiioeaioeee
yaiethoeee Anaeaiiie, iaiuneeiua aac o/aoa caeiiia a?aaeoaoeee.

Anoanoaaiiua iaoee, iaoiaeyueany ia ieaeieo yoaaeao ea?a?oe/aneie
eanoieoeu, ianiiiaiii i?iua auoanoiyueo, iineieueeo caieiathony aieaa
i?inouie iauaeoaie (no?iaiea yeaeo?iiiiai iaeaea aoiia oaea?iaea,
ianiiiaiii “i?iua ia?aiie ?aiu”, niaea?aeauae iiiaeanoai aoiiia n oaeeie
iaeaeaie!). Iaeiaei, eiaiii ec-ca i?inoiou eco/aaiuo iauaeoia iaoee
ieaeieo o?iaiae noiaee iaeiieoue ai?acaei aieueoa oaeoe/aneie
eioi?iaoeee e nicaeaoue aieaa caeii/aiiua oai?ee.

Ianoi iaoaiaoeee n?aaee anoanoaaiiuo iaoe. Ianoaeaeaaoayny auoa
no?oeoo?a anoanoaiciaiey ia niaea?aeeo iaoaiaoeee, aac eioi?ie
iaaiciiaeia ie iaeia ec nia?aiaiiuo oi/iuo iaoe. Yoi naycaii n oai, /oi
naia iaoaiaoeea ia yaeyaony anoanoaaiiie iaoeie a iieiii niunea yoiai
iiiyoey, iineieueeo ia caieiaaony eco/aieai eaeeo-eeai iauaeoia eee
yaeaiee ?aaeueiiai ie?a. A iniiaa iaoaiaoeee eaaeao aeneiiu,
i?eaeoiaiiua /aeiaaeii. Aeey iaoaiaoeea ia eiaao ?aoathuaai cia/aiey
aii?in, auiieiythony ee yoe aeneiiu a ?aaeueiinoe eee iao (iai?. a
ianoiyuaa a?aiy aeaaiiieo/ii ninouanoaoao ianeieueei aaiiao?ee,
iniiaaiiuo ia ianiaianoiuo ae?oa n ae?oaii nenoaiao aeneii).

Anee iaoaiaoeea caaioeo eeoue eiae/aneay no?iainoue aai auaiaeia,
aeaeaaiuo ia iniiaa aeneii e i?aaeoanoaothueo oai?ai,
anoanoaieniuoaoaeth aaaeii, niioaaonoaoao ee aai oai?aoe/aneia
iino?iaiea ?aaeueiinoe. I?e yoii a ea/anoaa e?eoa?ey enoeiiinoe
anoanoaaiiiiao/iuo ciaiee aunooiaao yenia?eiaio, a oiaea eioi?iai
inouanoaeyaony i?iaa?ea oai?aoe/aneeo auaiaeia.

A oiaea eco/aiey naienoa ?aaeueiuo iauaeoia /anoi ieacuaaaony oae,
/oi iie i?eaeeaeaiii niioaaonoaotho aeneiiaoeea oiai eee eiiai ?acaeaea
iaoaiaoeee (iai?. iieiaeaiea iaaieueoiai oaea iiaeii i?eaeeaeaiii
iienaoue, caaeaa o?e aai eii?aeeiaou, niaieoiiinoue eioi?uo iiaeii
?anniao?eaaoue eae aaeoi? a o?aoia?iii i?ino?ainoaa). I?e yoii ?aiaa
aeieacaiiua a iaoaiaoeea ooaa?aeaeaiey (oai?aiu) ieacuaathony
i?eiaieiuie e oaeei iauaeoai.

E?iia neacaiiiai, iaoaiaoeea ea?aao ?ieue i/aiue eaeiie/iiai,
yeiiiiiiai e aieiai ycuea, oa?ieiu eioi?iai i?eiaieiu e aiaoia
niaa?oaiii ?acii?iaeiui iauaeoai ie?oaeathuaai ie?a (aaeoi?ii iiaeii
iacaaoue e niaieoiiinoue eii?aeeiao oi/ee, e oa?aeoa?enoeeo neeiaiai
iiey, e eiiiiiaioiue ninoaa oeie/aneie nianoe, e oa?aeoa?enoeeo
yeiiiieei-aaia?aoe/aneiai iieiaeaiey ianoiinoe).

I/aaeaeii, /oi aieaa i?inoua iauaeou iaoaai ie?a oaeiaeaoai?ytho
aieaa i?inoui nenoaiai aeneii, neaaenoaey ec eioi?uo iaoaiaoeeaie
eco/aiu aieaa iieii. Iiyoiio anoanoaaiiua iaoee “iecoeo” o?iaiae
ieacuaathony aieaa iaoaiaoece?iaaiiuie.

Iiuo ?acaeoey nia?aiaiiiai anoanoaiciaiey iieacuaaao, /oi ia
ii?aaeaeaiiii yoaia ?acaeoey anoanoaaiii iao/iuo aeenoeeieei iaecaaaeii
i?ienoiaeeo eo iaoaiaoecaoeey, ?acoeueoaoii eioi?ie yaeyaony nicaeaiea
eiae/anee no?ieiuo oi?iaeeciaaiiuo oai?ee e aeaeueiaeoaa onei?aiiia
?acaeoea aeenoeeieeiu.

I?eaeeaeaiiue oa?aeoa? anoanoaaiiiiao/iuo ciaiee. Ianiio?y ia oi,
/oi anoanoaaiiua iaoee /anoi iacuaatho oi/iuie, i?aeoe/anee ethaia
eiie?aoiia ooaa?aeaeaiea a ieo iineo i?eaeeaeaiiue oa?aeoa?. I?e/eiie
yoiai yaeyaony ia oieueei ianiaa?oainoai ecia?eoaeueiuo i?eai?ia, ii e
?yae i?eioeeieaeueiuo ia?aie/aiee ia oi/iinoue ecia?aiee, onoaiiaeaiiuo
nia?aiaiiie oeceeie. E?iia oiai, i?aeoe/anee ana ?aaeueii iaaethaeaaiua
yaeaiey noieue neiaeiu e niaea?aeao oaeia iiiaeanoai i?ioeannia iaaeaeo
acaeiiaeaenoaothueie iauaeoaie, /oi eo en/a?iuaathuaa iienaiea
ieacuaaaony ia oieueei oaoie/anee iaaiciiaeiui, ii e i?aeoe/anee
aanniuneaiiui (/aeiaa/aneia niciaiea niiniaii aini?eiyoue eeoue aanueia
ia?aie/aiiue iauai eioi?iaoeee). Ia i?aeoeea enneaaeoaiay nenoaia
niciaoaeueii oi?iuaaony iooai aa caiaiu iiaeaeueth, o/eouaathuae oieueei
naiua aaaeiua yeaiaiou e i?ioeannu. Ii ia?a ?acaeoey oai?ee iiaeaee
oneiaeiythony, iinoaiaiii i?eaeeaeaynue e ?aaeueiinoe.

Iniiaiua yoaiu ?acaeoey anoanoaiciaiey iiaoo auoue auaeaeaiu,
enoiaey ec ?acee/iuo niia?aaeaiee. Ii iiaieth aaoi?a, a ea/anoaa
iniiaiiai e?eoa?ey neaaeoao ?anniao?eaaoue aeiieie?othuee n?aaee
anoanoaieniuoaoaeae iiaeoiae e iino?iaieth eo oai?ee. I?e yoii
ieacuaaaony aiciiaeiui auaeaeaiea o?ao iniiaiuo yoaiia.

Anoanoaiciaiea ae?aaiaai ie?a. Caaa?oaiiiai aeaeaiey ia
aeenoeeieeiu ia nouanoaiaaei, nicaeaaaaiua eiioeaioeee a naiai
aieueoeinoaa iineee ie?iaicc?ai/aneee oa?aeoa?. Yenia?eiaioaeueiue
iaoiae iiciaiey a i?eioeeia aeiioneaeny, ii ?ieue ?aoathuaai e?eoa?ey
enoeiiinoe yenia?eiaioo ia ioaiaeeeanue. Aa?iua iaaethaeaiey e
aaieaeueiua iaiauathuea aeiaaaeee ninouanoaiaaee n oiic?eoaeueiuie e
/anoi ioeai/iuie iino?iaieyie.

Eeanne/aneee ia?eiae ?acaeoey anoanoaiciaiey aa?ao naia ia/aei n
yenia?eiaioaeueiuo ?aaio Aaeeeay (18 aae) e aeeeony aei ia/aea iaoaai
noieaoey. Oa?aeoa?ecoaony /aoeei ?acaeaeaieai iaoe ia o?aaeeoeeiiiua
iaeanoe e aeaaea ianeieueei aeia?o?ioe?iaaiiie ?ieueth yenia?eiaioa a eo
?acaeoee (“iiiyoue- cia/eo ecia?eoue”). Yenia?eiaio ?anniao?eaaaony ia
oieueei eae e?eoa?ee enoeiiinoe, ii e eae iniiaiie eino?oiaio iiciaiey.
Aa?a a enoeiiinoue yenia?eiaioaeueii aeiauouo ?acoeueoaoia noieue
aaeeea, /oi eo ia/eiatho ?ani?ino?aiyoue ia iiaua iaeanoe e i?iaeaiu,
aaea niioaaonoaothuae i?iaa?ee ia i?iecaiaeeeinue. I?e iaia?oaeaiee
?anoiaeaeaiee oae nicaeaaaaiuo eiioeaioeee n ?aaeueii iaaethaeaaiuie
yaeaieyie iaecaaaeii aicieeaei iaaeioiaiea, a?aie/auaa n iiiuoeaie
io?eoeaiey naiie aiciiaeiinoe iiciaiey ie?oaeathuaai ie?a.

Nia?aiaiiia anoanoaiciaiea oa?aeoa?ecoaony eaaeiiia?aciui
iaeiieaieai iiaiai oaeoe/aneiai iaoa?eaea e aicieeiiaaieai iiiaeanoaa
iiauo aeenoeeieei ia noueao o?aaeeoeeiiiuo. ?aceia oaei?iaeaiea iaoee,
iniaaiii yenia?eiaioaeueiie. Eae neaaenoaea – aic?anoaiea ?iee
oai?aoe/aneeo enneaaeiaaiee, iai?aaeythueo ?aaioo yenia?eiaioaoi?ia a
iaeanoe, aaea iaia?oaeaiea iiauo yaeaiee aieaa aa?iyoii. oi?ioee?iaea
iiauo ya?enoe/aneeo o?aaiaaiee e nicaeaaaaiui oai?eyi: e?aniou,
i?inoiou, aioo?aiiae iai?ioeai?a/eainoe, yenia?eiaioaeueiie
i?iaa?yaiinoe, niioaaonoaey (i?aainoaaiiinoe). ?ieue yenia?eiaioa, eae
e?eoa?ey enoeiiinoe ciaiey, nio?aiyaony, ii i?eciaaony , /oi naii
iiiyoea enoeiiinoe ia eiaao aaniethoiiai oa?aeoa?a: ooaa?aeaeaiey,
enoeiiua i?e ii?aaeaeaiiuo oneiaeyo, i?e auoiaea ca a?aieoeu, a ?aieao
eioi?uo i?iaiaeeeanue yenia?eiaioaeueiay i?iaa?ea, iiaoo ieacaoueny
i?eaeeaeaiiuie e aeaaea eiaeiuie. Nia?aiaiiia anoanoaiciaiea oo?aoeei
i?enouoth eeanne/aneei ciaieyi i?inoioo e iaaeyaeiinoue. Yoi i?iecioei
aeaaiui ia?acii ec-ca oiai, /oi eioa?anu nia?aiaiiuo enneaaeiaaoaeae ec
o?aaeeoeeiiiuo aeey eeanne/aneie iaoee iaeanoae ia?aianoeeenue ooaea,
aaea iau/iue “aeeoaeneee” iiuo e ciaiey ia iauaeoao e i?ienoiaeyueo n
ieie yaeaieyo a aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa ionoonoaotho.

I?aaeiinueee ?acaeoey iaoee.

?acaeaeaiea iaoe, i?eaaaeoaa e aicieeiiaaieth ooiaeaiaioaeueiuo
io?aneae anoanoaiciaiey e iaoaiaoeee, ?acaa?ioeinue iieiui oiaeii
ia/eiay n yiioe Aic?iaeaeaiey (aoi?ay iieiaeia XVa.). Iauaaeeiaiea iaoe
nia/aea ionoonoaiaaei ii/oe iieiinoueth. Aaaeii auei enneaaeiaaoue
/anoiinoe, a aeey yoiai o?aaiaaeinue, i?aaeaea anaai, au?uaaoue eo ec eo
iauae nayce. Iaeiaei ai ecaaaeaiea oiai, /oiau ana iao/iia ciaiea ia
?annuiaeinue au ia ioaeaeueiua, ie/ai ia naycaiiua iaaeaeo niaie
io?anee, iiaeiaii aoneieai i?e ?ac?uaa ieoe, ia eioi?oth iie auee
iaiecaiu, oaea a XVII a. noaee i?aaeeaaaoueny iauea nenoaiu n oeaeueth
iauaaeeieoue ana iaoee a iaeii oeaeia. Iaeiaei ieeaeie aioo?aiiae nayce
iaaeaeo iaoeaie i?e yoii ia ?ane?uaaeinue; iaoee i?inoi i?eeeaaeuaaeenue
iaeia e ae?oaie neo/aeii, aiaoiei ia?acii. Iiyoiio e ia?aoiaeia iaaeaeo
ieie ia iiaei auoue.

Oae a i?eioeeia ianoiyei aeaei aei na?aaeeiu e aeaaea aei eiioea
o?aoueae /aoaa?oe XIXa. A yoeo oneiaeyo i?iaeieaeaaoaany ia?anoaaoeie
oaiiaie ?acaeaeaiea iaoe, eo ae?iaeaiea ia ana aieaa e aieaa iaeeea
?acaeaeu e iiae?acaeaeu auee oaiaeaioeeae, ia oieueei i?ioeaiiieiaeiie
oaiaeaioeee e eo iauaaeeiaieth, ii e cao?oaeiyaoae e ineiaeiyaoae yoo
iineaaeithth: /ai aieueoa iiyaeyeinue iiauo iaoe e /ai ae?iaiaa
noaiiaeeanue eo nianoaaiiay no?oeoo?a, oai o?oaeiaa e neiaeiaa
noaiiaeeinue eo iauaaeeiaiea a iauoth aaeeioth nenoaio. Aneaaenoaea
yoiai oaiaeaioeey e eo eioaa?aoeee ia iiaea ?aaeeciaaoueny a aeinoaoi/ii
caiaoiie noaiaie, ianiio?y ia oi, /oi iio?aaiinoue a aa inouanoaeaiee
aeaaaea naay ciaoue n ana ia?anoathuae neeie.

Ia/eiay n na?aaeeiu XIX a. oaiaeaioeey e iauaaeeiaieth iaoe aia?aua
ia?aea aiciiaeiinoue ec i?inoiai aeiiieiaiey e i?ioeaiiieiaeiie ae
oaiaeaioeee (e eo aeeooa?aioeeaoeee) i?eia?anoe naiiaeiaeathuaa
cia/aiea, ia?anoaoue iineoue iiae/eiaiiue oa?aeoa?. Aieaa oiai, ec
iiae/eiaiiie iia ana auno?aa e ana iieiaa noaiiaeeanue aeiieie?othuae,
ainiiaenoaothuae. Iaa i?ioeaiiieiaeiua oaiaeaioeee eae au iiiaiyeenue
naieie ianoaie: ?aiueoa eioaa?aoeey iaoe aunooiaea eeoue eae no?aieaiea
e i?inoiio oaea?aeaieth anao io?aneae ?acae?iaeaoaainy iao/iiai ciaiey;
oaia?ue aea aeaeueiaeoay aeeooa?aioeeaoeey iaoe aunooieea eeoue eae
iiaeaioiaea eo iiaeeeiiie eioaa?aoeee, eo aeaenoaeoaeueiiai
oai?aoe/aneiai neioaca. Aieaa oiai, ia?anoaaoaa iauaaeeiaiea iaoe noaei
inouanoaeyoueny naii /a?ac aeaeueiaeooth eo aeeooa?aioeeaoeeth e
aeaaiaea?y ae.

Iauyniyeinue yoi oai, /oi aiaeec e neioac aunooiatho ia eae aano?aeoii
i?ioeaiiinoaaeaiiua ae?oa ae?oao i?ioeaiiieiaeiua iaoiaeu iiciaiey, ii
eae neeoua i?aaie/anee aiaaeeii e niiniaiua ia oieueei aeiiieiyoue ae?oa
ae?oaa, ii e acaeiii iaoneiaeeaaoue ae?oa ae?oaa e ia?aoiaeeoue,
i?aa?auaoueny iaeei a ae?oaie. I?e yoii aiaeec noaiiaeony iiae/eiaiiui
iiiaioii neioaca e iiaeiuaaony ei a ea/anoaa naiae i?aaeiinueee, oiaaea
eae neioac iai?anoaiii iie?aaony ia aiaeec a oiaea naiaai inouanoaeaiey.

Yaiethoeey iaoe e acaeiiaeaenoaea iaoe.

?acaeaeaiea iaoe, i?eaaaeoaa e aicieeiiaaieth ooiaeaiaioaeueiuo io?aneae
anoanoaiciaiey e iaoaiaoeee, ?acaa?ioeinue iieiui oiaeii ia/eiay n yiioe
Aic?iaeaeaiey (aoi?ay iieiaeia XVa.). Iauaaeeiaiea iaoe nia/aea
ionoonoaiaaei ii/oe iieiinoueth. Aaaeii auei enneaaeiaaoue /anoiinoe, a
aeey yoiai o?aaiaaeinue, i?aaeaea anaai, au?uaaoue eo ec eo iauae nayce.
Iaeiaei ai ecaaaeaiea oiai, /oiau ana iao/iia ciaiea ia ?annuiaeinue au
ia ioaeaeueiua, ie/ai ia naycaiiua iaaeaeo niaie io?anee, iiaeiaii
aoneieai i?e ?ac?uaa ieoe, ia eioi?oth iie auee iaiecaiu, oaea a XVII a.
noaee i?aaeeaaaoueny iauea nenoaiu n oeaeueth iauaaeeieoue ana iaoee a
iaeii oeaeia. Iaeiaei ieeaeie aioo?aiiae nayce iaaeaeo iaoeaie i?e yoii
ia ?ane?uaaeinue; iaoee i?inoi i?eeeaaeuaaeenue iaeia e ae?oaie
neo/aeii, aiaoiei ia?acii. Iiyoiio e ia?aoiaeia iaaeaeo ieie ia iiaei
auoue.

Oae a i?eioeeia ianoiyei aeaei aei na?aaeeiu e aeaaea aei eiioea
o?aoueae /aoaa?oe XIXa. A yoeo oneiaeyo i?iaeieaeaaoaany ia?anoaaoeie
oaiiaie ?acaeaeaiea iaoe, eo ae?iaeaiea ia ana aieaa e aieaa iaeeea
?acaeaeu e iiae?acaeaeu auee oaiaeaioeeae, ia oieueei i?ioeaiiieiaeiie
oaiaeaioeee e eo iauaaeeiaieth, ii e cao?oaeiyaoae e ineiaeiyaoae yoo
iineaaeithth: /ai aieueoa iiyaeyeinue iiauo iaoe e /ai ae?iaiaa
noaiiaeeanue eo nianoaaiiay no?oeoo?a, oai o?oaeiaa e neiaeiaa
noaiiaeeinue eo iauaaeeiaiea a iauoth aaeeioth nenoaio. Aneaaenoaea
yoiai oaiaeaioeey e eo eioaa?aoeee ia iiaea ?aaeeciaaoueny a aeinoaoi/ii
caiaoiie noaiaie, ianiio?y ia oi, /oi iio?aaiinoue a aa inouanoaeaiee
aeaaaea naay ciaoue n ana ia?anoathuae neeie.

Ia/eiay n na?aaeeiu XIX a. oaiaeaioeey e iauaaeeiaieth iaoe aia?aua
ia?aea aiciiaeiinoue ec i?inoiai aeiiieiaiey e i?ioeaiiieiaeiie ae
oaiaeaioeee (e eo aeeooa?aioeeaoeee) i?eia?anoe naiiaeiaeathuaa
cia/aiea, ia?anoaoue iineoue iiae/eiaiiue oa?aeoa?. Aieaa oiai, ec
iiae/eiaiiie iia ana auno?aa e ana iieiaa noaiiaeeanue aeiieie?othuae,
ainiiaenoaothuae. Iaa i?ioeaiiieiaeiua oaiaeaioeee eae au iiiaiyeenue
naieie ianoaie: ?aiueoa eioaa?aoeey iaoe aunooiaea eeoue eae no?aieaiea
e i?inoiio oaea?aeaieth anao io?aneae ?acae?iaeaoaainy iao/iiai ciaiey;
oaia?ue aea aeaeueiaeoay aeeooa?aioeeaoeey iaoe aunooieea eeoue eae
iiaeaioiaea eo iiaeeeiiie eioaa?aoeee, eo aeaenoaeoaeueiiai
oai?aoe/aneiai neioaca. Aieaa oiai, ia?anoaaoaa iauaaeeiaiea iaoe noaei
inouanoaeyoueny naii /a?ac aeaeueiaeooth eo aeeooa?aioeeaoeeth e
aeaaiaea?y ae.

Iauyniyeinue yoi oai, /oi aiaeec e neioac aunooiatho ia eae aano?aeoii
i?ioeaiiinoaaeaiiua ae?oa ae?oao i?ioeaiiieiaeiua iaoiaeu iiciaiey, ii
eae neeoua i?aaie/anee aiaaeeii e niiniaiua ia oieueei aeiiieiyoue ae?oa
ae?oaa, ii e acaeiii iaoneiaeeaaoue ae?oa ae?oaa e ia?aoiaeeoue,
i?aa?auaoueny iaeei a ae?oaie. I?e yoii aiaeec noaiiaeony iiae/eiaiiui
iiiaioii neioaca e iiaeiuaaony ei a ea/anoaa naiae i?aaeiinueee, oiaaea
eae neioac iai?anoaiii iie?aaony ia aiaeec a oiaea naiaai inouanoaeaiey.

Ia?aay i?inoaeoay oi?ia acaeiiaeaenoaey iaoe – eo “oeaiaioaoeey”. Ai
aoi?ie iieiaeia XIX a. aia?aua ii?aaeaeeeanue oaiaeaioeey a ?acaeoee
iaoe io eo eciee?iaaiiinoe e eo naycuaaieth /a?ac i?iiaaeooi/iua iaoee.
A ?acoeueoaoa aeaenoaey yoie oaiaeaioeee a yaiethoeee iaoe ni aoi?ie
iieiaeiu XIX a. ia/aeinue iinoaiaiiia caiieiaiea i?aaeieo i?iaaeia e
?ac?uaia iaaeaeo ?acee/iuie e i?aaeaea anaai niaaeiuie a eo iauae
nenoaia iaoeaie. A nayce n yoei aeaeaeaieai iaoe io eo eciee?iaaiiinoe e
aicieeiiaaieth iaoe i?iiaaeooi/iiai, ia?aoiaeiiai oa?aeoa?a noaee
ia?aciauaaoueny naycothuea caaiuey (“iinou”) iaaeaeo ?aiaa ?aci?aaiiuie
e aiaoia niiieiaeaiiuie iaeia aicea ae?oaie iaoeaie. Iniiaie aeey aiiaue
aicieeaaoeo i?iiaaeooi/iuo io?aneae iao/iiai ciaiey neoaeeee ia?aoiaeu
iaaeaeo ?acee/iuie oi?iaie aeaeaeaiey iaoa?ee. A iai?aaie/aneie i?e?iaea
oaeea ia?aoiaeu auee iaia?oaeaiu aeaaiaea?y ioe?uoeth i?ioeannia
acaeiiiai i?aa?auaiey ?acee/iuo oi?i yia?aee. Ia?aoiae aea iaaeaeo
iai?aaie/aneie e i?aaie/aneie i?e?iaeie aue io?aaeai a aeiioaca
Yiaaeuena i oeie/aneii i?ienoiaeaeaiee aeecie ia Caiea. A nayce n yoei
Yiaaeuen auaeaeioe i?aaenoaaeaiea i aeieiae/aneie oi?ia aeaeaeaiey.
Iaeiiaoe, ia?aoiae iaaeaeo yoie iineaaeiae e iauanoaaiiie oi?iie
aeaeaeaiey (enoi?eae) Yiaaeuen inaaoee a naiae o?oaeiaie oai?ee
aio?iiiaaiaca.

A naiii anoanoaiciaiee aia?aua iaeei ec ia?aoiaeia iaaeaeo ?aiaa
?aciauaiiuie iaoeaie aue nicaeai ioe?uoeai niaeo?aeueiiai aiaeeca. Yoi
auea ia?aay i?iiaaeooi/iay io?aneue iaoee, naycaaoay niaie oeceeo
(iioeeo), oeieth e ano?iiiieth. A ?acoeueoaoa oaeiai eo naycuaaiey
aicieeea ano?ioeceea e a eaeie-oi noaiaie ano?ioeiey.

A iauai neo/aa aicieeiiaaiea oaeeo iaoe i?iiaaeooi/iiai oa?aeoa?a iiaeao
eiaoue ianoi, eiaaea iaoiae iaeiie iaoee a ea/anoaa iiaiai n?aaenoaa
enneaaeiaaiey i?eiaiyaony e eco/aieth i?aaeiaoa ae?oaie iaoee. Oae, a
iaoa a?aiy aicieeea ?aaeeiano?iiiiey eae /anoue nia?aiaiiie ano?ioeceee.

Anei?a iinea niaeo?aeueiiai aiaeeca aicieeea oeie/aneay oa?iiaeeiaieea,
niaaeeieaoay oeieth n ?aiaa oaea naycaiiuie iaaeaeo niaie iaoaieeie e
o/aieai i oaieioa (a aeaea oa?iiaeeiaieee). Caoai e iei i?eniaaeeieeinue
o/aiea i ?acaaaeaiiuo ?anoai?ao e yeaeo?ioeiey, a ?acoeueoaoa /aai
aicieeea oece/aneay oeiey.

Aieaa iiae?iaii y oioaea au ?anneacaoue ia enoi?ee aeioeceee. Aeioeceea
eae iaoea ia/aea oi?ie?iaaoueny aua a XIXa. Iiiaea oeceieiae oiai
ia?eiaea oaea ?aaioaee iaae aii?inaie, eioi?ua a ianoiyuaa a?aiy
yaeythony iauaeoii aeioece/aneiai enneaaeiaaiey. Oae, iai?eia?,
auaeathueeny oeceieia E.I.Na/aiia (1829-1905) yaeyeny ieiia?ii a yoie
iaeanoe.

Eniieuecoy iaoiaeu oece/aneie oeiee e iaoaiaoe/aneee aiia?ao, ii eco/ae
aeeiaieeo aeuoaoaeueiiai i?ioeanna e onoaiiaee i?e yoii eiee/anoaaiiua
caeiiu ?anoai?eiinoe aacia a aeieiae/aneeo aeeaeeinoyo. Ii aea
i?aaeeiaeee iacuaaoue iaeanoue iiaeiaiiai ?iaea enneaaeiaaiee
iieaeoey?iie oeceieiaeae.

A yoio aea ia?eiae ecaanoiue oecee Aaeueiaieueoe (1821-1894),
?ac?aaaouaay i?iaeaiu oa?iiaeeiaieee, iuoaeny iiaeieoe e iiieiaieth
yia?aaoeee aeeauo nenoai. A naiae yenia?eiaioaeueiie ?aaioa ii
aeaoaeueii eco/ae ?aaioo i?aaiia c?aiey, a oaeaea ii?aaeaeee nei?inoue
i?iaaaeaiey aicaoaeaeaiey ii ia?ao.

N ?acaeoeai oece/aneie e eieeieaeiie oeiee o?iio ?aaio a iaeanoe
aeioeceee ?anoe?yaony. Iiyaeythony iiiuoee iauynieoue n yoeo iiceoeee
iaoaieci ?aaeoeee aeeaiai i?aaiecia ia aiaoiea aicaeaenoaey. Aieueooth
?ieue a ?acaeoee aeioeceee nua?aea oeiea Eaaa. A ?aaioao Eaaa
(1859-1924) auee auyaeaiu oeceei-oeie/aneea iniiau yaeaiey ia?oaiiaaiaca
e iieiaeioai?aiey. Eiie?aoioth oeceei-oeie/aneoth eioa?i?aoaoeeth
iieo/eei yaeaiea aioaaiiecia eiiia. Iaiauathuay eieaa Eaaa “Aeeiaieea
aeeaiai aauanoaa” auea ecaeaia ia iiiaeo ycueao. A 1906a. ia?aaiae yoie
eieae aue ecaeai a ?innee. Iicaeiaa iiyaeeenue eeanne/aneea
enneaaeiaaiey Oaaea i ?iee eiiiuo e eieeieaeiuo i?ioeannia iaoieiaee
ainiaeaiey. A 1911-1912aa. a ?onneii ia?aaiaea auoiaeeo aai
ooiaeaiaioaeueiue o?oae “Oece/aneay oeiey ai aioo?aiiae iaaeeoeeia”.

Ia?aay ie?iaay aieia i?einoaiiaeea ia iaeioi?ia a?aiy ao?iia ?acaeoea
iaoee. Iaeiaei a ?innee oaea a ia?aua aiaeu iinea Aaeeeie Ieoya?ueneie
?aaiethoeee ?acaeoeth iaoee oaeaeyaony aieueoia aieiaiea. A 1922 a. a
NNN? ioe?uaaaony “Einoeooo aeioeceee”, eioi?ui ?oeiaiaeeo I.I.Eaca?aa. A
yoii einoeoooa aio oaeaaony iauaaeeieoue aieueoia eiee/anoai
auaeathueony o/aiuo. Caeanue N. E. Aaaeeia caieiaeny aii?inaie
i?aaeaeueiie /oanoaeoaeueiinoe /aeiaa/aneiai aeaca, I.A.?aaeiaea? e A.A.
Aoeiia eco/aee oeceei-oeie/aneea iaoaieciu i?iieoeaaiinoe e naycue
iaaeaeo i?iieoeaaiinoueth e iiaa?oiinoiui iaoyaeaieai. N.A.E?aaeia
eco/ae oeceei-oeie/aneea iniiau oeaaoiiai c?aiey e o.ae. Aieueooth ?ieue
a ?acaeoee aeioeceee nua?aea oeiea I.E.Eieueoeiaa. Aai o/aieee
?ac?aaaouaaee aii?inu aeeyiey oeceei-oeie/aneeo oaeoi?ia aiaoiae n?aaeu
ia eeaoee e eo no?oeoo?u. Ii eieoeeaoeaa I.E.Eieueoeiaa a Iineianeii
oieaa?neoaoa auea ioe?uoa eaoaae?a oeceei-oeie/aneie aeieiaee,
?oeiaiaeeiay aai o/aieeii N.I.Neaaeianeei.

A eiioea 30-o aiaeia oeceei-oeie/aneia iai?aaeaiea a aeieiaee
?acaeaaeinue a Einoeoooa aeioeiee ei.A.I.Aaoa AI NNN?. Ai Ananithciii
einoeoooa yenia?eiaioaeueiie iaaeeoeeiu ei.A.I.Ai?ueeiai nouanoaiaae
aieueoie Ioaeae aeioeceee, a eioi?ii ?aaioaee I.I.Eaca?aa, A.I.O?aie,
Ae.E.?oaeiooaei; iineaaeiei aue iaienai ?yae o/aaiuo ?oeiaiaenoa e
iiiia?aoee.

A ia/aea 50-o a.a. aue i?aaieciaai Einoeooo aeieiae/aneie oeceee e
eaoaae?a aeioeceee ia Aeieiai-ii/aaiiii oaeoeueoaoa IAO. Iicaeiaa
eaoaae?u aeioeceee auee nicaeaiu a Eaieia?aaeneii e iaeioi?uo ae?oaeo
oieaa?neoaoao.

Oaeie i?ioeann caiieiaiey i?iianoae iaaeaeo iaoeaie i?iaeieaeaeny e
iicaeiaa, i?e/ai a ia?anoaaoeo ianooaaao. A eoiaa aiiaue aicieeaaoea
iao/iua iai?aaeaiey ia?aoiaeiiai oa?aeoa?a aunooiaee eae oeaiaioe?othuea
niaie ?aiaa ?aciauaiiua, eciee?iaaiiua iniiaiua iaoee, iaiiaeiaea oeceee
e oeiee. Yoei niiauaeanue ana aieueoay naycaiiinoue anaio iao/iiio
ciaieth, /oi niinianoaiaaei i?ioeanno aai eioaa?aoeee. Eia/a aiai?y,
aeaeueiaeoay aeeooa?aioeeaoeey iaoe (iiyaeaiea iiiaeanoaa i?iiaaeooi/iuo
– iaaeaeenoeeieeia?iuo – iao/iuo io?aneae) i?yii aueeaaeanue a eo aieaa
aeoaieoth eioaa?aoeeth, oae /oi yoa iineaaeiyy niaa?oaeanue oaea
iaiin?aaenoaaiii /a?ac i?iaeieaeathuothny aeeooa?aioeeaoeeth iaoe.

Oaeiai auei iieiaeaiea aauae i?eia?ii e eiioeo ia?aie iieiaeiu OOa. A
iineaaeothuea aeanyoeeaoey i?iecioei oneeaiea acaeiiaeaenoaey iaoe e
aeinoeaeaiea aai iiauo, aieaa aunieeo e aieaa neiaeiuo oi?i.

Acaeiiia iaiaauaiea anoanoaaiiuo e iauanoaaiiuo iaoe.

Ia?aay i?inoaeoay oi?ia acaeiiaeaenoaey iaoe – eo “oeaiaioaoeey”. Ai
aoi?ie iieiaeia XIX a. aia?aua ii?aaeaeeeanue oaiaeaioeey a ?acaeoee
iaoe io eo eciee?iaaiiinoe e eo naycuaaieth /a?ac i?iiaaeooi/iua iaoee.
A ?acoeueoaoa aeaenoaey yoie oaiaeaioeee a yaiethoeee iaoe ni aoi?ie
iieiaeiu XIX a. ia/aeinue iinoaiaiiia caiieiaiea i?aaeieo i?iaaeia e
?ac?uaia iaaeaeo ?acee/iuie e i?aaeaea anaai niaaeiuie a eo iauae
nenoaia iaoeaie. A nayce n yoei aeaeaeaieai iaoe io eo eciee?iaaiiinoe e
aicieeiiaaieth iaoe i?iiaaeooi/iiai, ia?aoiaeiiai oa?aeoa?a noaee
ia?aciauaaoueny naycothuea caaiuey (“iinou”) iaaeaeo ?aiaa ?aci?aaiiuie
e aiaoia niiieiaeaiiuie iaeia aicea ae?oaie iaoeaie. Iniiaie aeey aiiaue
aicieeaaoeo i?iiaaeooi/iuo io?aneae iao/iiai ciaiey neoaeeee ia?aoiaeu
iaaeaeo ?acee/iuie oi?iaie aeaeaeaiey iaoa?ee. A iai?aaie/aneie i?e?iaea
oaeea ia?aoiaeu auee iaia?oaeaiu aeaaiaea?y ioe?uoeth i?ioeannia
acaeiiiai i?aa?auaiey ?acee/iuo oi?i yia?aee. Ia?aoiae aea iaaeaeo
iai?aaie/aneie e i?aaie/aneie i?e?iaeie aue io?aaeai a aeiioaca
Yiaaeuena i oeie/aneii i?ienoiaeaeaiee aeecie ia Caiea. A nayce n yoei
Yiaaeuen auaeaeioe i?aaenoaaeaiea i aeieiae/aneie oi?ia aeaeaeaiey.
Iaeiiaoe, ia?aoiae iaaeaeo yoie iineaaeiae e iauanoaaiiie oi?iie
aeaeaeaiey (enoi?eae) Yiaaeuen inaaoee a naiae o?oaeiaie oai?ee
aio?iiiaaiaca.

A naiii anoanoaiciaiee aia?aua iaeei ec ia?aoiaeia iaaeaeo ?aiaa
?aciauaiiuie iaoeaie aue nicaeai ioe?uoeai niaeo?aeueiiai aiaeeca. Yoi
auea ia?aay i?iiaaeooi/iay io?aneue iaoee, naycaaoay niaie oeceeo
(iioeeo), oeieth e ano?iiiieth. A ?acoeueoaoa oaeiai eo naycuaaiey
aicieeea ano?ioeceea e a eaeie-oi noaiaie ano?ioeiey.

A iauai neo/aa aicieeiiaaiea oaeeo iaoe i?iiaaeooi/iiai oa?aeoa?a iiaeao
eiaoue ianoi, eiaaea iaoiae iaeiie iaoee a ea/anoaa iiaiai n?aaenoaa
enneaaeiaaiey i?eiaiyaony e eco/aieth i?aaeiaoa ae?oaie iaoee. Oae, a
iaoa a?aiy aicieeea ?aaeeiano?iiiiey eae /anoue nia?aiaiiie ano?ioeceee.

Anei?a iinea niaeo?aeueiiai aiaeeca aicieeea oeie/aneay oa?iiaeeiaieea,
niaaeeieaoay oeieth n ?aiaa oaea naycaiiuie iaaeaeo niaie iaoaieeie e
o/aieai i oaieioa (a aeaea oa?iiaeeiaieee). Caoai e iei i?eniaaeeieeinue
o/aiea i ?acaaaeaiiuo ?anoai?ao e yeaeo?ioeiey, a ?acoeueoaoa /aai
aicieeea oece/aneay oeiey.

Aieaa iiae?iaii y oioaea au ?anneacaoue ia enoi?ee aeioeceee. Aeioeceea
eae iaoea ia/aea oi?ie?iaaoueny aua a XIXa. Iiiaea oeceieiae oiai
ia?eiaea oaea ?aaioaee iaae aii?inaie, eioi?ua a ianoiyuaa a?aiy
yaeythony iauaeoii aeioece/aneiai enneaaeiaaiey. Oae, iai?eia?,
auaeathueeny oeceieia E.I.Na/aiia (1829-1905) yaeyeny ieiia?ii a yoie
iaeanoe.

Eniieuecoy iaoiaeu oece/aneie oeiee e iaoaiaoe/aneee aiia?ao, ii eco/ae
aeeiaieeo aeuoaoaeueiiai i?ioeanna e onoaiiaee i?e yoii eiee/anoaaiiua
caeiiu ?anoai?eiinoe aacia a aeieiae/aneeo aeeaeeinoyo. Ii aea
i?aaeeiaeee iacuaaoue iaeanoue iiaeiaiiai ?iaea enneaaeiaaiee
iieaeoey?iie oeceieiaeae.

A yoio aea ia?eiae ecaanoiue oecee Aaeueiaieueoe (1821-1894),
?ac?aaaouaay i?iaeaiu oa?iiaeeiaieee, iuoaeny iiaeieoe e iiieiaieth
yia?aaoeee aeeauo nenoai. A naiae yenia?eiaioaeueiie ?aaioa ii
aeaoaeueii eco/ae ?aaioo i?aaiia c?aiey, a oaeaea ii?aaeaeee nei?inoue
i?iaaaeaiey aicaoaeaeaiey ii ia?ao.

N ?acaeoeai oece/aneie e eieeieaeiie oeiee o?iio ?aaio a iaeanoe
aeioeceee ?anoe?yaony. Iiyaeythony iiiuoee iauynieoue n yoeo iiceoeee
iaoaieci ?aaeoeee aeeaiai i?aaiecia ia aiaoiea aicaeaenoaey. Aieueooth
?ieue a ?acaeoee aeioeceee nua?aea oeiea Eaaa. A ?aaioao Eaaa
(1859-1924) auee auyaeaiu oeceei-oeie/aneea iniiau yaeaiey ia?oaiiaaiaca
e iieiaeioai?aiey. Eiie?aoioth oeceei-oeie/aneoth eioa?i?aoaoeeth
iieo/eei yaeaiea aioaaiiecia eiiia. Iaiauathuay eieaa Eaaa “Aeeiaieea
aeeaiai aauanoaa” auea ecaeaia ia iiiaeo ycueao. A 1906a. ia?aaiae yoie
eieae aue ecaeai a ?innee. Iicaeiaa iiyaeeenue eeanne/aneea
enneaaeiaaiey Oaaea i ?iee eiiiuo e eieeieaeiuo i?ioeannia iaoieiaee
ainiaeaiey. A 1911-1912aa. a ?onneii ia?aaiaea auoiaeeo aai
ooiaeaiaioaeueiue o?oae “Oece/aneay oeiey ai aioo?aiiae iaaeeoeeia”.

Ia?aay ie?iaay aieia i?einoaiiaeea ia iaeioi?ia a?aiy ao?iia ?acaeoea
iaoee. Iaeiaei a ?innee oaea a ia?aua aiaeu iinea Aaeeeie Ieoya?ueneie
?aaiethoeee ?acaeoeth iaoee oaeaeyaony aieueoia aieiaiea. A 1922 a. a
NNN? ioe?uaaaony “Einoeooo aeioeceee”, eioi?ui ?oeiaiaeeo I.I.Eaca?aa. A
yoii einoeoooa aio oaeaaony iauaaeeieoue aieueoia eiee/anoai
auaeathueony o/aiuo. Caeanue N. E. Aaaeeia caieiaeny aii?inaie
i?aaeaeueiie /oanoaeoaeueiinoe /aeiaa/aneiai aeaca, I.A.?aaeiaea? e A.A.
Aoeiia eco/aee oeceei-oeie/aneea iaoaieciu i?iieoeaaiinoe e naycue
iaaeaeo i?iieoeaaiinoueth e iiaa?oiinoiui iaoyaeaieai. N.A.E?aaeia
eco/ae oeceei-oeie/aneea iniiau oeaaoiiai c?aiey e o.ae. Aieueooth ?ieue
a ?acaeoee aeioeceee nua?aea oeiea I.E.Eieueoeiaa. Aai o/aieee
?ac?aaaouaaee aii?inu aeeyiey oeceei-oeie/aneeo oaeoi?ia aiaoiae n?aaeu
ia eeaoee e eo no?oeoo?u. Ii eieoeeaoeaa I.E.Eieueoeiaa a Iineianeii
oieaa?neoaoa auea ioe?uoa eaoaae?a oeceei-oeie/aneie aeieiaee,
?oeiaiaeeiay aai o/aieeii N.I.Neaaeianeei.

A eiioea 30-o aiaeia oeceei-oeie/aneia iai?aaeaiea a aeieiaee
?acaeaaeinue a Einoeoooa aeioeiee ei.A.I.Aaoa AI NNN?. Ai Ananithciii
einoeoooa yenia?eiaioaeueiie iaaeeoeeiu ei.A.I.Ai?ueeiai nouanoaiaae
aieueoie Ioaeae aeioeceee, a eioi?ii ?aaioaee I.I.Eaca?aa, A.I.O?aie,
Ae.E.?oaeiooaei; iineaaeiei aue iaienai ?yae o/aaiuo ?oeiaiaenoa e
iiiia?aoee.

A ia/aea 50-o a.a. aue i?aaieciaai Einoeooo aeieiae/aneie oeceee e
eaoaae?a aeioeceee ia Aeieiai-ii/aaiiii oaeoeueoaoa IAO. Iicaeiaa
eaoaae?u aeioeceee auee nicaeaiu a Eaieia?aaeneii e iaeioi?uo ae?oaeo
oieaa?neoaoao.

Oaeie i?ioeann caiieiaiey i?iianoae iaaeaeo iaoeaie i?iaeieaeaeny e
iicaeiaa, i?e/ai a ia?anoaaoeo ianooaaao. A eoiaa aiiaue aicieeaaoea
iao/iua iai?aaeaiey ia?aoiaeiiai oa?aeoa?a aunooiaee eae oeaiaioe?othuea
niaie ?aiaa ?aciauaiiua, eciee?iaaiiua iniiaiua iaoee, iaiiaeiaea oeceee
e oeiee. Yoei niiauaeanue ana aieueoay naycaiiinoue anaio iao/iiio
ciaieth, /oi niinianoaiaaei i?ioeanno aai eioaa?aoeee. Eia/a aiai?y,
aeaeueiaeoay aeeooa?aioeeaoeey iaoe (iiyaeaiea iiiaeanoaa i?iiaaeooi/iuo
– iaaeaeenoeeieeia?iuo – iao/iuo io?aneae) i?yii aueeaaeanue a eo aieaa
aeoaieoth eioaa?aoeeth, oae /oi yoa iineaaeiyy niaa?oaeanue oaea
iaiin?aaenoaaiii /a?ac i?iaeieaeathuothny aeeooa?aioeeaoeeth iaoe.

Oaeiai auei iieiaeaiea aauae i?eia?ii e eiioeo ia?aie iieiaeiu OOa. A
iineaaeothuea aeanyoeeaoey i?iecioei oneeaiea acaeiiaeaenoaey iaoe e
aeinoeaeaiea aai iiauo, aieaa aunieeo e aieaa neiaeiuo oi?i.

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