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Ainoaea?noaaiiay Aeaaeaiey Noa?u Auoa e Oneoa

Iiaieaeneee Oaoiieiae/aneee Einoeooo Na?aena

?AOA?AO

Ii aeenoeeieeia: ”Oeeinioey”

Ia oaio: “ I?iaeaiu nia?oe e aannia?oey”

?aoa?ao auiieiee:
Iiiiia?aa A.A.,E-401

?aoa?ao i?iaa?ee : E?aaoeia A.A.

OIEUessOOE 1997

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Eioia? nia?oe anaaaea i?aneaaeiaae ethaeae. Ii ii?iaeaeae
niaoeeoe/aneea i?aaenoaaeaiey i o?aaecia aeecie. “Nia?oue ia
eiaao ia?aca ,-aiai?eo aae?iiianeee Ethoeeoa? ,- ii ana, /oi iineo
aeae caiiuo nouanoa , iiaeioeo. ” Eiia/iinoue /aeiaa/aneiai
nouanoaiaaiey iaioa?aoeii noaaeo aii?in i niunea caiiiai oaeaea , i
i?aaeiacia/aiee aeecie. Ianiiiaiii i?iaeaia nia?oe ioiineony e /eneo
ooiaeaiaioaeueiuo, cao?aaeaaao i?aaeaeueiua iniiaaiey auoey.

Oeeiniou, eioi?ua ia?auaeenue e oaia nia?oe , ia?aaeei ieooo i
oii, /oi a ?acee/iuo eoeueoo?ao yoa oaia ia?aaeeaaeanue ii-?aciiio.A
eiua yiioe no?ao nia?oe e aiana ionoonoaiaae: ethaee iaoiaeeee a naaa
neeu i?ioeainoiyoue oa?ica oece/aneiai oie/oiaeaiey. Aioe/iua a?aee,
iai?eia? , o/eee i?aiaeieaaaoue oaean iaauoey iooai eiioeaio?aoeee
aeooa, oneeeai aeeaioai?iie iunee, ainieouaaoue a naaa i?ac?aiea e
nia?oe. Ethaeae n?aaeiaaaeiauey , iai?ioea, i?aaenoiyuay nia?oue
aeiaiaeeea aei ennooieaiey. Ie iaeia yiioa, eae naeaeaoaeuenoaoao
ieaea?eaiaeneee enoi?ee e oeeinio Eioai Oaeceiaa, ia iaaycuaaao /aeiaaeo
iuneue i nia?oe n oaeie ianoie/eainoueth , eae XV noieaoea.

Anee iu iinoaaei aii?in: /oi neoaeeo iniiaaieai aeey oiai, /oiau
n?aaieaaoue , eae aini?eieiatho nia?oue a ?acee/iuo eoeueoo?ao, yiioao,
oi iaia?oaeeaaaony ia?aaeienaeueiay aauue. Eae i?aaeei, niiinoaaeythony
iau/ii oeeinioneea auneacuaaiey. “Aaaeue eaeia-oi /oanoai oie?aiey
iiaeao auoueo /aeiaaea,-ieoao , iai?eia?, Oeeoea?ii.- Ana yoi iu
aeieaeiu aeoiaoue aua a iieiaeinoe , /oiau iiaee i?ece?aoue nia?oue; aac
oaeiai ?aciuoeaiey auoue niieiai aeooie ia iiaeao auoue ieeoi; aaaeue
oia?aoue iai, eae ecaanoii, i?eaeaony-auoue iiaeao , aeaaea
naaiaeiy.”Aio iii- i?ace?aoue nia?oue…A n?aaeiaaaeiae iuneeoaeue Iaenoa?
Yeoao?, iai?ioea , ieoao i oii, eae o?oaeii aeaaony /aeiaaeo
io?aoaiiinoue io ie?neeo aeaa… Auoiaeeo, auei a?aiy, eiaaea nia?oe ia
aiyeenue, no?ao ia?aae oa?icie oece/aneiai oie/oiaeaiey aue ia anaaaea.
Ii a eaeie ia?a iiaeii aeiaa?youe oeeinioneie iunee? Aaaeue ia?aaeei
au?aaeaiiia a noaeaeaiee i?ac?aiea e nia?oe eae ?ac e io?aaeaao oaean
ia?aae iath.

No?ao ia?aae nia?oueth caeiaeai a naiie /aeiaa/aneie i?e?iaea, a
naiie oaeia aeecie. Ii ecia/aeai, oi anoue ei?aieony a aeoaeiao
/aeiaa/aneie ineoeee. Iaeiaei a eiie?aoiie yiioa, /a?ac i?ecio
ii?aaeaeaiiuo aeooiaiuo oeaiiinoae yoio no?ao ia?aoaao ?acee/iua
i?aia?aaeaiiua oi?iu. Aio iie-oi e iaoiaeeee io?aaeaiea a noieeeo
?aeeaeicii-i?aeoe/aneeo onoaiiaeao. Eoeueoo?a iinoiyiii aini?iecaiaeeo

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aeeciaiiua neooaoeee , n eioi?uie ethaee ano?a/athony ai ana a?aiaia.
?a/ue eaeao i i?iaeaiao aeieaa, ethaae, aea?oau, o?aaaaeee, aa?iecia,
nia?oe. Iaeiaei, eoeueoo?a

aiana ia aeaeaeaony ii e?oao, aica?auaynue aiiaue e aiiaue e iaeiei e
oai aea iioeaai. A eaaeaeoth yiioo yoe oeaiiinoe i?eia?aoatho iiaia
niaea?aeaiea , aeeeooaiia ia oieueei iinoiyiiie, oeene?oaiie i?e?iaeie
/aeiaaea, ii e nioeeaeueiie aeaenoaeoaeueiinoueth , a eioi?ie yoa
i?e?iaea ?ane?uaaaony. Oi/ii oae aea i?iaeaiu nia?oe , oioy e
i?aneaaeotho /aeiaa/anoai ennoa?e , ana aea iieo/atho ?aciia
enoieeiaaiea a ?acee/iuo ?aeeaeiciuo o?aaeeoeeyo.

Eaaeaeay eoeueoo?a au?aaaouaaao ii?aaeaeaiioth nenoaio oeaiiinoae
, a eioi?ie ia?ainiuneeaathony aii?inu aeecie e nia?oe. Iia oai?eo
oaeaea ii?aaeaeaiiue eiiieaen ia?acia e neiaieia , n iiiiuueth eioi?uo
iaania/eaaaony ineoieiae/aneia ?aaiiaanea eiaeeaeaeia. *aeiaae,
?acoiaaony, ?aniieaaaao ioaea/aiiui ciaieai i oaeoa iaioa?aoeiie nia?oe.
Ii ii iuoaaony, iie?aynue ia nouanoaothuoth a aeaiiie eoeueoo?a
neiaieeeo, noi?ie?iaaoue aieaa eiie?aoiia i?aaenoaaeaiea i oii, /oi
aeaeaao aiciiaeiie iieiioeaiioth aeeciue ia?aae oaeoii iaecaaaeiie
aeaaee.

Ii iiaieth ineoieiaia, oaeay nenoaia ia/eiaao neeaaeuaaoueny a
ineoeea /aeiaaea oaea a ?aiiai aeaoneii aic?anoa. Ia?ac , eioi?ue
aicieeaao a iiaeniciaiee /aeiaaea a nayce n aai ?iaeaeaieai , eiaaea
ieiae ioaeaeyaony io iaoa?e , iicaeiaa o?ainoi?ie?oaony a iaeee i?iia?ac
oaeana ia?aae nia?oueth. Ii euao niiniau oeoe io oeaiey , oaaeiaa/eoue
naay, iinoiyiii iuouay i?enoonoaea nia?oe.

Auaeeaaiea /aeiaaea i?aaeiieaaaao , /oi a aai ineoeea cae?aieythony
neiaiee/aneea ia?acu, eioi?ua iicaieytho iaiieieoue caiiia nouanoaiaaiea
niuneii. Yoi ineoieiae/aneia ?aaiiaanea i?eoiaeeony ana a?aiy
iiaeaea?aeeaaoue, iiaee?aieyoue. Oaeay iio?aaiinoue i?enoua ia oieueei
ioaeaeueiiio /aeiaaeo. Eoeueoo?o a oeaeii oiaea iiaeao aieoe a ninoiyiea
?aceaaea e noiyoeoeu, ?ac?ooeoue i?enouaa ae oeeinionei-aa?iiie/aneia
aini?eyoea aeecie e nia?oe. Eiaaea aicieeaao iianiinoue aeey aeecie
ioaeaeueiiai /aeiaaea eee oeaeiai ia?iaea, ia?acu neiaiee/aneiai
aannia?oey noaiiayony aieaa /aoei au?aaeaiiuie, iaino?aiiuie ,
eioaineaiuie.

Ii iiaeii ee eaeei-oi ia?acii oeiieiaece?iaaoue ?acee/iua oi?iu
ioiioaiey e nia?oe? Aaconeiaii. N?aaiaiea ie?iauo ?aeeaee , aeaeaeeo
eoeueoo? iieacuaaao , /oi /a?oo iaaeaeo aeeciueth e nia?oueth ethaee
aini?eieiatho ii-?aciiio. N/eoatho , iai?eia?, /oi iaaeaeo caiiie e
caa?iaiie aeeciueth iao ieeaeie ?acieoeu, ii iieaaatho oaeaea, /oi oaeay
?acieoea anoue. A oi aea a?aiy ?acee/aiea iiaeeoiiiai e eiiai auoey

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i?eieiaao ?aciua oi?iu. Iii?iaoai i?ieeethno?e?iaaoue yoi ia i?eia?a
?acee/iuo eoeueoo?.

Ioiioaiea e nia?oe a ae?aaieo eoeueoo?ao iineo a iniiaiii
yie/aneee oa?aeoa?, oi anoue iia ia aini?eieiaaony eae ee/iay o?aaaaeey.
Eii/eia /aeiaaea oieeoaony eae caeiiiia?iia caaa?oaiea ii?aaeaeaiiiai
aeeciaiiiai oeeeea. Ee?e/aneea e o?aae/aneea aeoeaiou aua ionoonoaotho.

Iiiai/eneaiiua e ?aciioa?aeoa?iua i?aaenoaaeaiey i nia?oe,
eioi?ua neiaeeeenue a ie?iaie eoeueoo?a , iiaeii, ii-aeaeeiiio , a
ecaanoiie ia?a ?acaeaeeoue ii eaeei-oi i?eciaeai. Auaeaeei i?aaeaea
anaai aeio?enoeaineea e o?enoeaineea aicc?aiey. Ioiaoei oaeaea, /oi
ainoi/iua eoeueoo?u a ioee/ea io caiaaeiuo nio?aieee a naaa aa?o a
i?eaeiaeueioth neeo einiieiaee , ?aeeaeiciuo e oeeinioneeo nenoai, a
eioi?uo nia?oue ia ?anniao?eaaaony eae aaniethoiia caaa?oaiea
nouanoaiaaiey. I?enouea ei eiioeaioeee iinia?oiiai auoey eiatho aanueia
oe?ieee niaeo?, aeeth/athuee a naay niaeo? i?aaenoaaeaiee- io aunieeo
ninoiyiee niciaiey aei eiie?aoiuo ia?acia ae?oaiai ie?a, iaiiieiathuoth
caiioth aeeciue. Ai anao yoeo aa?iaaieyo nia?oue ia ioiaeaeanoaeyaony n
iieiui en/aciiaaieai eiaeeaeaea. O?enoeainoai i?eciaaaei eiia/iinoue
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai nouanoaiaaiey. Ianniaia aine?aoaiea o?aeoiaaeinue
eeoue eae caaa?oaiea caiiie enoi?ee.

Enoi?ey /aeiaa/aneie oeeaeeecaoeee niaea?aeeo aieiothuoth
eaoiienue iiiai/eneaiiuo iiiuoie ae?aaiaeoeo eoeueoo? nio?aieoue aeeciue
e ecaaaeaoue nia?oe. Ai iiiaeo eoeueoo?ao i?aaeiieaaaeinue , /oi
eaaeaeue iiaeao aeieaeiui ia?acii iiaeaioiaeoueny e nia?oe, anee ii i?e
yoii ia?aoao ioaeiia ciaiea i i?ioeanna oie?aiey. A eeoa?aoo?iuo
iaiyoieeao , ecaanoiuo eae “Eieae ia?oauo” , eceaaaaony
aeaoaeece?iaaiiia iienaiea nia?oe e ?oeiaiaenoaa ii iiaiaeo oiai, eae
naeaeaoue i?ioeann oie?aiey aieaa iieiui ( iaiiaeaioiaeaiiue /aeiaae
nii?ioeaeyaony nia?oe e ieacuaaaony a i?iiaaeooi/iii ninoiyiee ) e
iineaaeiaaoaeueiui. Iaeaieaa ecaanoiua ec yoeo i?iecaaaeaiee- Aaeiaoneay
Eieaa ia?oauo e Oeaaoneay Eieaa ia?oauo. Iaeiaei iiaeiaiua oaenou
nouanoaiaaee e a eiaeeeneeo, ionoeueiaineeo e ae?oaeo o?aaeeoeeyo.

Aini?eyoea nia?oe a eoeueoo?ao , aaea aua eiaeeaeae ia auaeaeeeny
ec ieaiaie , ec ?iaea, anoanoaaiii, ioee/aaony io oieeiaaiey yoiai
oaiiiaia oai, aaea ainiiaenoaoao ia?niiaeenoneay eaeay ( eaeay ee/iinoe
). A oao iauanoaao , a eioi?uo i?ioeann eiaeeaeaeoaeecaoeee caoae ia
i/aiue aeaeaei , eiiaoe eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai nouanoaiaaiey

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ia ioeaieaaaony eae i?iaeaia, iineieueeo neaai ?acaeoi naii iuouaiea
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai nouanoaiaaiey. Nia?oue aua ia aini?eieiaaony eae
ia/oi ?aaeeeaeueii ioee/iia io aeecie. Nianai eia/a ioeaieaaaony
nia?oue a oao eoeueoo?ao , aaea iniciaaony oeaiiinoue , noaa?aiiinoue e
oieeaeueiinoue ee/iinoe. Caeanue o?oieinoue caiiiai auoey aini?eieiaaony
o?aae/anee , i?iiecuaaao anth /aeiaa/aneoth noauaeoeaiinoue , oi anoue
ie? aai ia?aaeeaaiee , aioo?aiieo ninoiyiee.

Eae i?aaeei, acaeyaeu ia nia?oue oanii naycaiu n
?aeeaeiciuie aicc?aieyie. Iaeuecy, iai?eia?, i?aaenoaaeoue aioe/iiai ,
eiaeoenoneiai , ionoeueiaineiai , o?enoeaineiai /aeiaaea e aai aicc?aiey
ia nia?oue, ia auyniea i?aaeaa?eoaeueii, /oi yaeyee niaie aa?iaaiey
aaeioyi, a?aeia, ionoeueiai, eiaeeeoeaa, o?enoeai.

Iaeioi?ua ae?aaiea ?aeeaee aeiioneaee, /oi iaaeaeo caiiui e
iinia?oiui nouanoaiaaieai iao ieeaeie ?acieoeu. Iaeiaei yoa iauay
eiinoaoaoeey eiaea ana-oaee iooaiee. A iaeiii neo/aa i?aaeiieaaaeinue ,
/oi caeanue, a iiaeeoiiii ie?a, ana oaeaea, eae e a iioonoi?iiiai. A
ae?oaii –( acaeyae a?inaeny eae au “ioooaea”) aeiioneaeinue, /oi a oii
iinia?oiii nouanoaiaaiee ie/aai ia iaiyaony ii n?aaiaieth n caiiui.
Eia/a aiai?y, aeeciue caiiay e iineaaeothuay ia ?acaeaeyeenue, ii
aeoeaio aeaeaeny ana aea ia oi ianoiyoaeuenoai, /oi yaeyaony
ecia/aeueiie oi/eie ion/aoa – yoio eee oio ie?. (“Oai” oae aea, eae
“caeanue”, “caeanue” oae aea , eae “oai”)

A ae?aaiaeeoaeneii niciaiee , iai?eia?, oaeo nia?oe ioeaieaaeny
eae ia/oi, ia eiathuaa aeoaieiai auoeenoaaiiiai cia/aiey. Eia/a aiai?y,
anee /aeiaae oia?, ieeaeie o?aaaaeee a yoii iao. Ii ana ?aaii inoaaony
n?aaee aeeauo, ii oaea eae oniioee. Caeanue oae aea , eae e oai. Ia?oaue
ooiaeeo io aeeauo oneiaii, a eaeii-oi ia?aie/aiiii niunea. Ii ian ia
iieeaeaao. Ie? ieioii canaeai “aeeauie ia?oaaoeaie”. Iie ia?aoee a
ae?oaia ninoiyiea, ii ia ooee a eiie ie?. Aio ii/aio a yoie eoeueoo?a
neiaieeea nia?oe iineea caiiie oa?aeoa?. Ca aiaaeuoaiii ( eiia?aoi?ii
Eeoay) iianthaeo neaaeiaae a?ia , eioi?ue n/eoaeny ao?eaooii aai caiiiai
nouanoaiaaiey. Caaeaaia?aiaiiay iiaeaioiaea iiaeeu aeey i?anoa?aeuo
?iaeeoaeae n/eoaeinue aeoii caaiou e ieeina?aeey. Iieeioa /anoue caiiiai
ie?a , oniioee ioi?aaeyeny e ae?oaei ethaeyi , eioi?ua oia?ee ?aiueoa ,
ii ana aea ieeoaea ia en/acee. Ionthaea eoeueo i?aaeeia , eioi?ue
aanueia oa?aeoa?ai aeey yoie eoeueoo?u.

Ia ?acaeaeyee caiiie e iioonoi?iiiee ie? e aaeioyia. Ii
iie, nei?aa, iiae/a?eeaaee noiaenoai caa?iaiiai ie?a n iiaeeoiiui oai
oae aea , eae caeanue. Nia?oue n/eoaeanue i?aethaeeae e caa?iaiiio
auoeth. Aaeioyia aiceaaaee iaaeaaeaeu ia iaoeaiiinoue oaea oiai /aeiaaea
, aeanoue eioi?iai auea ia?ooeiie i?e aeecie. Oeaiiinoue , ii eo
i?aaenoaaeaieyi, inoaaaeinue ia?ooeiie. Eoeueo ia?oauo ninoaaeye
aaaeiaeooth

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oa?aeoa?enoeeo aaeiaoneie eoeueoo?u. Eneonnoai aaeuecaie?iaaiey e
ioieoeoee?iaaiey, no?ieoaeuenoai a?aiaeeiciuo a?iaieoe, oaaeiaa/eaaiea
iaiyoe ooaaeoeo – ana neoaeeei iaeiie oeaee : iaania/eoue neiaiee/aneia
aannia?oea. Aua a yiioo Ae?aaiaai Oea?noaa

(XXIX-XIX aa. aei i. y.) aaeioyia iieaaaee , /oi aeooe oia?oeo
niaaeeiythony ni caacaeaie. Eaaeaeoth ii/ue aeooa oniioaai aiiaue
iinaeyaony a oaea, iieeaeay ?aaee yoiai caacaeo…

Ii eiathueiny aeaiiui, a enoi?ee /aeiaa/anoaa aeaa
eoeueoo?u iaia?oaeeee iniaaiii ino?ue eioa?an e nia?oe e i?ioeanno
oie?aiey: eoeueoo?u aaeioyi e oeaaooeaa. Oiaaea ?acaeaeyee aeoaieoth
aa?o a oi, /oi niciaiea i?iaeieaeaao aeeoue iinea nia?oe. Iie
i?aaeeaaaee oi?ioi ?ac?aaioaiiua ?eooaeu, iicaieythuea eae iiaeii eaa/a
i?aeoe a iiaia ninoiyiea, au/a?/eaaee neiaeiua noaiu, a eioi?uo
io?aaeaee no?ainoaey aeooe.

Aaeiaoneay Eieaa ia?oauo – eieeaeoeey iieeoa, iaae/aneeo
cao/aiee e ieoieiae/aneeo enoi?ee, eioi?ua ioiinyony e nia?oe e
caa?iaiie aeecie. Iaoa?eaeu yoeo oaenoia ?acii?a/eau. Iie io?aaeatho
enoi?e/aneee eiioeeeo iaaeaeo aeaoiy neeueiuie ?aeeaeiciuie o?aaeeoeeyie
– ae?aoeaie Aiaa Nieioea e iineaaeiaaoaeyie Ice?ena. (A
ae?aaiaaaeiaoneie ieoieiaee aia oie?athuae e aine?aoathuae i?e?iaeu) N
iaeiie noi?iiu iie i?aaeeaaatho nayuaiiia ciaiea, iicaieythuaa
iaania/eoue aa/iia aeaaineiaaiiia nouanoaiaaiea iiae naiueth nieia/iiai
aiaeanoaa , aianoa n iei no?ainoaoy ii e?oao. N ae?oaie noi?iiu, oaenou
io?aaeatho o?aaeeoeeth ae?aaiaai Aiaa nia?oe , eioi?ue , niaeanii
eaaaiaea, aue oaeo naiei a?aoii Naoii. Iinea aic?iaeaeaiey ii noae
i?aaeoaeai ae?oaiai ie?a. Niaeanii yoie o?aaeeoeee ia?oaua ?eooaeueii
ioiaeaeanoaeytho naay Ice?enii e ieeiaaea ia iiaoo aa?iooueny e aeecie
aiiaue.

Eoae, a ae?aaiaeeoaeneie e ae?aaiaaaeiaoneie eoeueoo?ao
aeeciue e nia?oue a ecaanoiie ia?a o?aaiaiu. Caeanue iao e iaiaea ia oi,
/oi aeeciue – yoi aeaai, a nia?oue- yoi cei. Iaa ie?a ?aaiioeaiiu , oioy
e ?acaeaeaiu iaeie /a?oie.

Eia/a ioeaieaaaony yoa i?iaeaia a eiaeeeneii ?aeeaeiciii
niciaiee. Niaeanii aoaeaeecio ana nouanoaa aa?oo naia ia/aei a A?aoiaia,
aacee/iii aaniethoiii aeooiaiii ia/aea, ec eioi?iai aicieeaao ie?.
A?aoiai eaaeeo a iniiaa anaai nouanoaothuaai. Ana a eiia/iii n/aoa
aeieaeii aa?iooueny e iaio. Iiyoiio nia?oue eeoue ia?aoiae io iecoae
nooiaie e aunoae , i?iaeieaeathuaeny n oao ii?, iiea aeoo ia aeinoeaiao
iaeiiaoe oaeie noaiaie /enoiou e niaa?oainoaa , /oiau aieoe a ie?iaoth
aeooo, e /aio no?aieony ana nouanoaothuaa ia caiea. Ie?iaay aeooa- yoi
io?aaeaiea anaai auoey, ie?iaie aeoo- aeoeaiia, niceaeaoaeueiia ia/aei
aeooe.

Iaeiaei aeinoieiu yoiai eeoue oa, eoi ioeaaeaony io anyeeo
/oanoaaiiuo ianeaaeaeaiee, eoi a naiai no?aieaiee e nayoinoe io?aoeony
io iaoa?eaeueiiai ie?a,

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oia?oaeo ieioue, ?aciaueao ieiau, ioya/athuea aai aeooo. A oaeiau iaeie
a?aiaiu. Oio aea, eoi aii?aee nayuaiiui caeiiai i?ioeayony aa/iiio,
aiaeanoaaiiiio , iinea nia?oe iiaeaa?aiaony aaeneei ioeai. Aeooa aai a
caaeneiinoe io noaiaie a?aoiaiinoe niaaeeieony

iooai iiaiai ?iaeaeaiey n aieaa eee iaiaa ieciaiiui nouanoaii e
i?eioaeaeaia aoaeao no?ainoaiaaoue , ia iaoiaey naaa iieiy a thaeiee
ia/aee aei oao ii? , iiea ia ia?aoao aa/iia oniieiaiea a oea?noaa A?aiu.

A ioee/ea io o?enoeainoaa , aaea ioiouaiea a?aoia ,
aeinoeaeaiea aa/iiai aeaaeainoaa naycuaaee n aiaeanoaaiiui ieeina?aeeai
, a?aieiu iieaaaee, /oi oieueei nai /aeiaae iiaeao eneoieoue naie a?aoe
, oieueei nianoaaiiuie neeaie iiaeao aeiaeoueny i?iuaiey. Ioaa?aioa
eaeath aannia?oey oaea, eiaeonu i?eaea?aeeaaeenue eiioeaioeee aannia?oey
aeooe. Oaei aeey eiaeonia anaaaea i?ac?aiii e aeieaeii auoue i?aaeaii
iaith oio/an aea iinea nia?oe. Aannia?oiay aea aeooa i?aeaeao a iiaia
oaei , e yoio i?ioeann aoaeao ana iiaoi?youeny e iiaoi?youeny , iiea
aeooa ia en/aciao e ia nieueaony n aeooie anaeaiiie. Eaeay aani?a?uaiiai
ia?a?iaeaeaiey , aica?auaiey /aeiaaea ia caieth a iiauo oaeaniuo
iaea/aieyo e ninoaaeyao niune eaeae ?aeiea?iaoeee , oi anoue
iiiai/eneaiiuo aic?iaeaeaiee aeooe.

Ec o/aiey i ia?anaeaiee aeoo neaaeiaaee no?iaea i?aaeienaiey i
iieayiee. Eoaea au ie ia?aoee naie aci? aa/ii o?aiauouee eiaeon , e ia
yoii e ia oii naaoa aai iaeeaeaea no?iaay ea?a. Anyeia aeeaia nouanoai
aeaaeaeao inaiaiaeaeaiey. Aeey eiaeona aai ia nouanoaiaaei. ?acoiaaony
, a i?eioeeia eiaeon iia, niaa?oainoaoy naay , noaoue a?aieiii, ii yoi
ia ii?aaeaeyei a iineaaeiee noaiaie aai iineaaeothuoth ea?io. AEeciue
auea aeey iaai aaneiia/iui iaeiiie/anoaii, iieiui ai?ueeeo
?aci/a?iaaiee, oaeaniuo no?aaeaiee, iaiineeueiuo iaycaiiinoae, aac
iaiae?ythuae iaaeaaeaeu ia oi, /oi “aa/ii aeaeaeouaany eieani”
eiaaea-ieaoaeue inoaiiaeony aac iaeooioai?ythuae neeu ethaae, aac
aeaai?iaeiie iiaeaea?aeee nino?aaeaiey, e aeaaea nia?oue ia
aa?aioe?iaaea ecaaaeaiey io io/aiee. Aiineaaenoaee naiioaeenoai
naeaeaeinue aeaaea ?aeeaeiciii aeieaii. Eoae, a eiaeeeneii ie?iiuouaiee
caiiie e caa?iaiue ie? ?acaeaeaiu , ii i?aaeii/oaiea ia aeecie a nia?oe.

Ae?aaiea aa?ae i?eieiaee oaeo nia?oe ?aaeenoe/ii e auee
niiniaiu i?eie?eoueny n iuneueth i i?ae?auaiee eiaeeaeaeoaeueiie aeecie.
Eoaeae iieaaaee, /oi ee/iinoue /aeiaaea ?acaeaiaia , iineieueeo eiaao
iaeoth oaiue , i?aaenoaaeythuoth niaioe aeaaeioth e aiaoaeanioth eiieth
eiaeeaeaea. Iinea nia?oe yoa oaiue nioneaaony iiae caieth , aaea a
i?a/iuo iieiyo ia?aoaao a?onoiia e i?a/iia nouanoaiaaiea.
I?aaeiieaaaeinue, /oi ssoaa iaeaiao a ieioue ?aca?inaiiua einoe, iaeeaeo
ia?oauo aeey iiaie aeecie. Iiyoiio ?ae ?eniaaeny iaeoaeueth aeaaeaiiuo,
aae aea, iai?ioea, aue n?aaeioi/eai a?yce e iaaica.

-7-

A eaaaeenoe/aneie o?aaeeoeee aa?ae ?acaeee o/aiea i ia?anaeaiee
aeoo. A onoiie ia?aaea/a ?aeeaeiciie caiiaaaeae aiai?eeinue i oii, /oi
aeooa Aaeaia ia?aoea a Aeaaeaea, a iioii “aaeioiaony” a ianneth , oi
anoue a ieniineaiiiai Aiaii nianeoaey ( oea?ue Ec?aeeuenei-Eoaeaeneiai
ainoaea?noaa a eiioea XI a. – ieiei 950 a aei i.y. ). No?ainoaey aeooe
i?eoioeeau , iia iiaeao i?eiyoue oaeanioth iaiei/eo aeeaioiiai,
i?aa?aoeoueny a eenouey aea?aaueaa e aeaaea eaiie. I?e yoii a
ae?aaiaaa?aeneie o?aaeeoeee /aeiaae o?aeooaony ia oieueei eae i?e?iaeiia
, ii e eae naa?oi?e?iaeiia nouanoai, eioi?ia iaoiaeeony a aeeaii e
o?aiaoiii eiioaeoa n aiaii. Iiyoiio aicieeaao e iiaay eioa?i?aoaoeey
nia?oe. Eoaeaa ooaoaee naay iaeeaeaieai oiai oea?noaa n/anouey e
ni?aaaaeeeainoe, e eioi?iio aeieaeii a eiioea eiioeia i?eeoe
/aeiaa/anoai. A oeaeii aea yoa eiioeaioeey ioee/aaony ianneieciii , e
aeeciue e iinia?oiia nouanoaiaaiea auaeyaeyo a iae aac?aaeinoii.

O?enoeainoai naeaeaei nia?oue ia?aaeueiie e iuoaeinue
inaiaiaeeoue ian/anoiiai /aeiaaea io oa?icu oie/oiaeaiey iaauaieai
aeecie iinea nia?oe. Ii aianoa n oai ?iaeaeaaony ino?ia ia?aaeeaaiea
nianoaaiiiai ee/iiai auoey. Iuouaiea eiaeeaeaeoaeueiie iaiiaoi?eiie
noaeueau, anoanoaaiii , auei nii?yaeaii n o?aae/aneei niyoaiiui
iuouaieai caaa?oaiey oieeaeueiie aeecie.

I?aaenoaaeaiea i oii, /oi caiiay e iinia?oiay aeeciue ?acaeaeaiu
?ieiaie /a?oie, iieo/eei ?acaeoea e a eneaia. I?e yoii aiaeanoaaiiia
aunooiaei eae aanueia cuaeee eaeaae. Aaeeinoaaiiie ?aaeueiinoueth ,
eioi?ie aeaaeaao /aeiaae , ieacuaaeanue eiaiii iiaeeoiiay aeeciue,
iioonoi?iiiaa nouanoaiaaiea. Anee o?enoeai, ciay i oii, /oi ii
i?eiaaeeaaeeo e a?aoiiio , iaaeoaio ie?o, a oi aea a?aiy aue oaaaeaeai a
oii, /oi ii iiaeao inouanoaeoue i?i?ua e eo/oae aeiea , ionoeueiaiei ,
iai?ioea, aue eeoai oaeie ia?niaeoeau e oyaioae e caiiiio ii?yaeeo, ii
n/eoae , /oi nia?oue- yoi aeaaeue aeooe e oaea.

A oeaeii iiaeii neacaoue, /oi ae?aaiea eoeueoo?u, eae e
nia?aiaiiua iacaiaaeiua o?aaeeoeee , enoiaeeee ec oiai, /oi i?ioeann
oie?aiey iaecaaaeai e yaeyaony iaiouaieaiie /anoueth /aeiaa/aneiai
nouanoaiaaiey. Naia oaia nia?oe ieacuaaea aeoaieia aicaeaenoaea ia
?aeeaeth , ieoieiaeth, eneonnoai, oeeinioeth.

A Iiaia a?aiy a aa?iiaeneii niciaiee i?iecioae ?aaeeeaeueiue
ia?aai?io a iniuneaiee aeaiiie i?iaeaiu. Oaoie/aneee i?ia?ann noae
ieaoie ca aeoai/aeoaa io/oaeaeaiea io ooiaeaiaioaeueiuo aeieiae/aneeo
aniaeoia nouanoaiaaiey.

A Iiaia a?aiy a iniuneaiee nia?oe a aa?iiaeneii niciaiee
ainiiaenoaoao eiay o?aaeeoeey – iaioaenoe/aneay , ioiaeaeanoaeythuay
aiaa a ie?. A yoeo eiioeaioeeyo,

-8-

eioi?ua neeaaeuaaeenue aua a ienoeea n?aaeieo aaeia, a caoai a
iaoo?oeeinioee yiioe Aic?iaeaeaiey, ainiiaenoaiaaee iaoo?aeenoe/aneea
oaiaeaioeee, ?anoai?yaoea Aiaa a i?e?iaea. Iaioaenoe/aneay o?aaeeoeey ,
i?iiecaaoay oai?/anoai Nieiicu, Aaoa, Aaaaey , ioaa?aaea aiciiaeiinoue
nayce i?e?iaeiiai e naa?oi?e?iaeiiai /a?ac

ee/iinoue. Iia i?eeiauaaea aieiaiea e aeecie. Oae , Nieiica
iiae/a?eeaae, /oi “/aeiaae naiaiaeiue ie i /ai oae iaei ia aeoiaao , eae
i nia?oe, e aai ioae?inoue ninoieo a ?aciuoeaiee ia i nia?oe , a i
aeecie.” Nia?oue eae iaeee oaiiiai e /aeiaa/aneay ?aaeueiinoue
i?aiaeieaaaeenue no?aiiui ia?acii : i iae i?inoi ia?anoaee aeoiaoue ,
nin?aaeioi/ea iuneeoaeueiua oneeey ia aii?inao iiaeeoiiiai ie?a .
I?aaiaoeci eae oeeinioneia oa/aiea aeaeae a nia?oe ia caeiiiia?iia
?ac?aoaiea aeeciaiiiai i?ioeanna , a ii?aaeaiea , aieaciaiiia
iaiiieiaiea ia ia?aie/aiiinoe iaoae aeanoe iaae i?e?iaeie.

Ioiuia aieiaiea oeeinioia i?eeiaaii e caiiiio ie?o. “ I?eciaai
/enoina?aea/ii ,- niiauaao o?aioeocneee oeeinio XI a. Ieoaeue Iiioaiue ,
– /oi aannia?oea iaauatho iai oieueei Aia e ?aeeaey; ie i?e?iaea ie iao
?acoi ia aiai?yo iai ia yoii ”.Iaeiaei e?ecen eaeaaeia I?inaauaiey
i?eaae e oiio, /oi a aa?iiaeneie oeeinioee aicieeea oyaa e i?ineaaeaieth
eoeueoa y?ina e ia i?inaaoeaiiuo ?acoiii aanniciaoaeueiuo aeeciaiiuo
aea/aiee. Iniaaiii io/aoeeai yoi i?iyaeeinue a oai?/anoaa A?oo?a
Oiiaiaaoy?a, O?eae?eoa Ieoeoa, e Inaaeueaea Oiaiaea?a.

E yoiio a?aiaie ia?aciaaiiue caiaaeiue /aeiaae a iniiaiii n/eoae
aa?o a niciaoaeueioth aeeciue iinea nia?oe, a caa?iaiua no?ainoaey aeooe
i?iyaeaieai i?eieoeaiiai no?aoa oao ethaeae, eioi?ua ia iaeaaeatho
iao/iuie ciaieyie. Enoeiiay ?iiaioecaoeey nia?oe , eioi?ay yaeyaony
auciaii aeecie , ia/eiaaony a iiaaeoae caiaaeiie oeeinioee o
Oiiaiaaoy?a. Iaiaoeeee oeeinio iuoaeny nicaeaoue aaeeiia aicc?aiea ia
noaeueau oaea e aeooe. AEeciue a nenoaia aai ?annoaeaeaiee ioeaieaaaony
eae ia/oi oaeia, /aio eo/oa auei au aiana ia auoue. Caiiia nouanoaiaaiea
, ii aai iiaieth ,- yoi ii?aaeaeaiiiai ?iaea i?iiao e neo/aeiinoue.

Oiiaiaaoy? oaaaeaeai, /oi ?acaeoea einie/aneiai oeeeea ii?iaeeei
iiiaeanoai ian/anoee. A /aeiaae i?eciai iniciaoue eaoano?ioe/iinoue
yoiai i?ioeanna, /oiau iniuneeoue iaaoaiinoue caiiiai auoey. Oeeinio
aeieacuaae, /oi nouanoaa iecoae i?aaiecaoeee aeaaeaiiaa /aeiaaea. Aaaeue
iie eeoaiu niciaiey, iiyoiio e ia aaaeatho , /oi ie? aeo?ai, aoaeoaeai.
Ioeoaea acye Aeaioa iaoa?eae aeey naiaai aaea?- ni?aoeaaao Oiiaiaaoy?.
E ioaa/ae: ?acoiaaony ec iaoaai aeaenoaeoaeueiiai ie?a. Eiaaea aea,

-9-

iaiai?io, ia?aae Aeaioa aicieeea caaea/a ecia?aceoue iaaana e eo
aeaaeainoai, oi ii ieacaeny a iaiaeieeiii cao?oaeiaiee eiaiii iioiio,
/oi iao ie? ia aeaao iaoa?eaea ie aeey /aai iiaeiaiiai.

AEeaioiia, ?annoaeaeae Oiiaiaaoy?, no?aoeony nia?oe oieueei
aanniciaoaeueii, einoeieoeaii. Iii ia iiaeao au?aaioaoue ynioth ea?oeio
oece/aneie aeaaee. *aeiaae aea ia oieueei ioaeaao naaa io/ao a a?yaeouai
en/aciiaaiee. Ii niiniaai ii yoie i?e/eia no?aaeaoue. ?aaeueiia iuouaiea
i?aaenoiyuaai enoiaea oneeeaaao aai io/aiey. Aio ii/aio, ii Oiiaiaaoy?o,
n/anouea ie a eiae ia?a ia iiaeao ?anniao?eaaoueny eae oeaeue
/aeiaa/aneiai nouanoaiaaiey.

I?aaeeiaeaiea i oii, /oi /aeiaae niiniaai ia?anoe n/anouea ,
Oiiaiaaoy? iacuaaao “iaaoaiui caaeoaeaeaieai ”. Enoiaey ec iaai ,
iaaiciiaeii iino?ieoue eiae/aneoth ea?oeio ie?a. Iia iaecaaaeii aoaeao
iieia i?ioeai?a/ee. Ii noieo ia?aeoe ia i?ioeaiiieiaeioth oi/eo c?aiey –
oaeaeaoue oeaeue aeecie a no?aaeaieyo, eae ana ia?aaeienu ?ac?ooaony.
Ana nouanoaiaaiea /aeiaaea oeacuaaao, /oi no?aaeaiey – aai ianoiyuee
oaeae, aeeciue iaioaeaeeia io io/aiee. Iiyaeaiea iaoa ia naao
nii?iaiaeaeaaony iea/ai. Naii auoea /aeiaaea a nouiinoe o?aae/ii, a
aieaa anaai – enoiae. Ai anai aeaeia ia/aoue i?aaeii?aaeaeaiey.

Aaea aea auoiae? Oiiaiaaoy? iieaaaao, /oi ia nia?oue iaaei
niio?aoue eae ia aeaaioth oeaeue. Aa oaiue iaecaaaeii eaaeeo ia
/aeiaa/aneie aeecie. Iaiaoeeee oeeinio iieaaae, /oi a iiiaio nia?oe
?ac?aoaaony ana, /oi iiaeaioiaeyeinue a oa/aiea aeecie. Eoae, iaeeaeaiea
nia?oe, aa i?aae/oanoaea , aa aica?auaiea- aio ia /oi niiniaai ?acoiiue
/aeiaae a ioee/ea io aeeaioiiai. Oieueei /aeiaa/aneay aiey iiaeao
io?a/ueny io aeecie, ioaa?iooueny io iaa. Oaeie iiyoecaoeee nia?oe ia
auei ie a iaeiie eoeueoo?a. Ie iaeei ia?iae ia n/eoae nia?oue aeaaii e
ia no?aieeny ia?a/a?eiooue aeeciue. Aeaaea noi?iiieee Aoaeaeu ia
ioaa?aaee oeaiiinoe naiie aeecie, iieiie ?acee/iuo i?aa?aoiinoae e
ceieeth/aiee.

Oiiaiaaoy? ?aoeoaeueii ioaa?aaao eaeath ee/iiai aannia?oey.
Aieaa oiai, n/eoaao, /oi ianoaeaaoue ia aa/iinoe naiiai naay ana ?aaii
/oi oe?aieyoue caaeoaeaeaiea. Aaaeue eaaeaeue eiaeeaeae ia /oi eiia, eae
“/anoiay ioeaea” , “eiaeiue oaa “, “ eiioeaio?aoeey neo/aeiinoe”, /oi-oi
oaeia, /aio eo/oa aiana ia auoue.

I?iaeaiai nia?oe cia/eoaeueiia aieiaiea oaeaeeee e iniiaaoaee e
noi?iiieee ineoiaiaeeca: Ceaioiae O?aeae, Ea?e THia, Y?eo O?iii.

C. O?aeae i?eoae e auaiaeo, /oi a /aeiaaea i?iyaeyaony aeaa
iniiaiuo no?aieaiey: oyaa e aeecie, aieaa eee iaiaa eaeaioe/iay
naenoaeueiiio aea/aieth, e

-10-

einoeieo nia?oe, eiathuee oeaeueth oie/oiaeaiee aeecie. Ii
i?aaeiieiaeee, /oi einoeieo nia?oe, nieaaeaiiue n naenoaeueiie yia?aeae,
iiaeao auoue iai?aaeai eeai i?ioea naiiai /aeiaaea, eeai i?ioea aia aai.
I?e yoii ii iieaaae, /oi einoeieo

nia?oe aeieiae/anee caeiaeai ai anao aeeauo i?aaieciia e,
neaaeiaaoaeueii, yaeyaony iaiaoiaeeiie e iaono?aieiie ninoaaeythuae
aeecie aiiaua.

Nia?aiaiiay eoeueoo?a , ii iiaieth O?aeaea, ?aaeeeaeueii
ia?ainiuneeea i?iaeaio nia?oe. Ethaee ai?aeyony naieie aeinoeaeaieyie e
a?iaea au eiatho ia yoi i?aai. Ii aeinoeaiooia ainiiaenoai iaae a?aiaiai
e i?ino?ainoaii, iiae/eiaiea nee i?e?iaeu, ii neiaai aano?eeneiai
ineoeao?a, ieneieueei ia oiaiueoeei aeaaeaeo ianeaaeaeaiee, eioi?ay
i?enoua iuiaoiaio /aeiaaeo. Aeanoue iaae i?e?iaeie ia yaeyaony
aaeeinoaaiiui oneiaeai /aeiaa/aneiai n/anouey. Ca/ai aeieaay aeeciue,
anee iia oae oyaeaea, oae aaaeia ?aaeinoyie e iieia no?aaeaieyie, /oi iu
aioiau i?eaaonoaiaaoue nia?oue eae ecaaaeoaeueieoeo? “Ian neieueei
oaiaeii iiaeao oaeanaoue ii?aaeaeaiiay ianoaiiaea , a eioi?ie
iaoiaeeeenue ae?aaiea ?aau ia aaea?ao, e?anoueyia ai a?aiy
o?eaeoeaoeeaoiae aieiu, aea?oau nayuaiiie Eieaeceoeee, aa?ae ai a?aiy
iia?iia, ii iu ia iiaeai aaeeoueny a aeooaaiue ie? yoeo ethaeae e
iinoe/ue eciaiaiey, i?ienoiaeeaoea a eo aini?eei/eainoe ii ioiioaieth e
iuouaieyi ianeaaeaeaiey e iai?eyoiinoae aneaaenoaea i?e?iaeaeaiiie
ia/oanoaeoaeueiinoe , iinoaiaiiiai iooiaiey, iioa?e iaaeaaeae eee iyaeeo
oi?i aeo?iaia ”.

Y?eo O?iii iuoaeny ooi/ieoue o?aeaeianeoth eiioeaioeeth nia?oe.
Ii aai iiaieth, aeiioaca i nouanoaiaaiee einoeieoa nia?oe iaeaaeaao oai
aeinoieinoaii, /oi iia ioaiaeeo aaaeiia ianoi ?ac?ooeoaeueiui
oaiaeaioeeyi, eioi?ua ia i?eieiaeenue ai aieiaiee a ?aiieo oai?eyo
O?aeaea. Ii aeieiae/aneia enoieeiaaiea noeoee ?ac?ooeoaeuenoaa ia iiaeao
oaeiaeaoai?eoaeueii iauynieoue oio oaeo, /oi aeoaeia yoie iio?aaiinoe a
aunoae noaiaie ?acee/ia o ?aciuo eiaeeaeaeia e o ?aciuo nioeeaeueiuo
a?oii. Anee au i?aaeiieiaeaiey O?aeaea, ?aciuoeyao O?iii, auee aa?iu,
neaaeiaaei au iaeeaeaoue, /oi neea oaeiai einoeieoa , iai?aaeaiiiai
i?ioea ae?oaeo eee i?ioea naay, o anao ethaeae ieacaeanue au aieaa eee
iaiaa iinoiyiiie. Iaeiaei iaaethaeaaony ia?aoiia: ia oieueei iaaeaeo
?acee/iuie eiaeeaeaeaie, ii e iaaeaeo ?acee/iuie nioeeaeueiuie a?oiiaie
nouanoaoao a?iiaaeiay ?acieoea a aana ?ac?ooeoaeueiuo oaiaeaioeee.

Oae, iai?eia?, aan yoeo oaiaeaioeee a no?oeoo?a oa?aeoa?a
i?aaenoaaeoaeae iecia aa?iiaeneiai n?aaeiaai eeanna cia/eoaeueii auoa ,
iaaeaee a n?aaea ?aai/eo eee i?aaenoaaeoaeae nioeeaeueiie aa?oooee.
Yoiia?aoe/aneea enneaaeiaaiey iiciaeiieee

-11-

ian n oeaeuie ia?iaeaie , aeey eioi?uo oa?aeoa?ai iniaaiii aunieee
o?iaaiue ?ac?ooeoaeueiinoe. Iaaeaeo oai ae?oaea ia?iaeu i?iyaeytho
noieue aea caiaoiia

ionoonoaea ?ac?ooeoaeueiuo oaiaeaioeee- eae ii ioiioaieth e ae?oaei
ethaeyi, oae e ii ioiioaieth e naaa.

Ii iiaieth O?iiia , no?aieaiea e aeecie e oyaa e ?ac?ooaieth ia
yaeyaony acaeiii iacaaeneiuie oaeoi?aie , a naycaiu ia?aoiie
caaeneiinoueth. *ai aieueoa i?iyaeyaony no?aieaiea e aeecie , oai iieiaa
aeeciue ?aaoee?oaony , oai neaaaa ?ac?ooeoaeueiua oaiaeaioeee. *ai
aieueoa no?aieaiea e aeecie iiaeaaeyaony, oai neeueiaa oyaa e
?ac?ooaieth. Eae iieaaae O?iii , iaoa yiioa i?inoi io?eoeaao nia?oue, a
aianoa n iae e iaeio ec ooiaeaiaioaeueiuo noi?ii aeecie: “Aianoi oiai,
/oiau i?aa?aoeoue iniciaiea nia?oe e no?aaeaiee a iaeei ec neeueiaeoeo
noeioeia aeecie – a iniiao /aeiaa/aneie nieeaea?iinoe , a eaoaeecaoi? ,
aac eioi?iai ?aaeinoue e yiooceaci oo?a/eaatho eioaineaiinoue e aeoaeio
,- eiaeeaeae auioaeaeai iiaeaaeyoue yoi iniciaiea . Ii eae e i?e anyeii
iiaeaaeaiee , ni?yoaoue – ia cia/eo oie/oiaeeoue. No?ao nia?oe aeeaao a
ian, aeeaao aii?aee iiiuoeai io?eoeaoue aai, ii iiaeaaeaiea i?eaiaeeo e
noa?eeecaoeee.

O?iii iiae/a?eeaae, /oi n?aaee ethaeae anoue aeioeeu e
iae?ioeeu. Ii iiaieth yoiai aia?eeaineiai oeeinioa, a?iaeaeaiiui
no?aieaieai anao aeeauo nouanoa aii?aee oiio, /oi neacae O?aeae,
yaeyaony oyaa e aeecie, eioaineaiia iiaoaeaeaiea nio?aieoue naia
nouanoaiaaiea. Aeioeeuenoai o?aeoiaaii aia?eeaineei enneaaeiaaoaeai eae
aeoaieay aeeciaiiay i?eaioaoeey, eioi?ay i?iiecuaaao ana nouanoai
/aeiaaea. Ii a nia?aiaiiie eoeueoo?a aanueia io/aoeeai iaia?oaeeaaao
naay e ae?oaay oaiaeaioeey- iaei?oeeueneay, o.a. ?ac?ooeoaeueiay.
Iae?ioeeuenoai- oyaioaiea /aeiaaea e nia?oe.

Ianeieueei eao iacaae a iaeiii ec aia?eeaineeo aeo?iaeia auea
iaia/aoaia caiaoea i oii, eae ia aeacao oieiu oie?ae iaeue/ee,
ieacaaoenue a ciia oiea aunieiai iai?yaeaiey. Iiae?inoea iiaeii auei
nianoe , ii ieeoi ec i/aaeaeoeaa yoie o?aaaaeee ia nooiee e oaao. Ana
auee aoeaaeueii caai?iaeaiu ea?oeiie io/eoaeueii aeeyuaeny aaiiee.
Naeaeaoaee, eae auynieeinue, iaaethaeaee ca yoei yieciaeii e ioeaieaaee
aai oae, neiaii ana yoi iiiaie?aoii e a ?aciuo ?aeo?nao oaea
?acaa?ouaaeinue ia ye?aia.

I?aaenoaaei naay ia ieiooo n?aaee yoie “ ca/a?iaaiiie oieiu”.
Ii?aciuneei iaoi?iieeai n iaiaoiaeeiie aioo?aiiae nin?aaeioi/aiiinoueth.
Eae iinooiee au eaaeaeue ec ian? Au ee/ii? I?iyaeee naiinoiyoaeueiinoue
eee onooieee au einoeieoo

-12-

noaaeiinoe? Ieacaeenue niiniaiuie e nino?aaeaoaeueiiio iiaaaeaieth eee
ieaiaiaee au a niaa?oaiiii aac?acee/ee e iaiii?aaeiie aaaea? A oaia?ue
ioe?iaaiii, eae ia eniiaaaee – ia aeinoaaeytho ee aai oaeiaieuenoaey
noeaiu eacie, io/aiee, aaiiee?

Aacaou ienaee i oii, eae a NOA aue nicaeai eeoa, aaea iieacuaaee
oeeueiu aeey eca?aiiuo. Aeaiiino?e?iaaeenue aeieoiaioaeueiua e
ooaeiaeanoaaiiua oeeueiu, a eioi?uo aea?oaa io/eoaeueii ?annoaaaeanue n
aeeciueth. Naaeenou i?eoiaeeee “iiaaeaeaoue”. Aeey ao?iaiia “e?iaaaiai
c?aeeua ” nieiaeenue iniaua eaiou. Cia/eo, oae… Niae?aeenue iaea/e (
ana yoi nieiaeinue ia ieaieo) e ianoaeaeaee, eiai au i?enooeiooue, ii n
iaeaieueoei “ooaeiaeanoaaiiui yooaeoii”. Aicieeaee eaiaeeaeaoo?u,
iaeioi?ua ec ieo ioeeiiyeenue ii i?e/eia iaiieiiai niioaaonoaey “aunieei
iae?ioeeueneei noaiaea?oai”.

Iaeiiaoe, i?eeneeaaeanue no?aaeaeeoea, eioi?ay aiieia
aiaeeeanue aeey aieiothuaai iaea/aneiai c?aeeua. Ii i?inoi oaeaaeoue-
yoi iaeioa?anii. Ia oaeii iooe ooaeiaeanoaaiiua eaiou ia ?iaeaeathony.
Iaaeoiuaaeenue ieaiu caiaaeeaiiiai oaeenoaa, eioi?ia iicaieeei au
caaeyiooue aea?oaa a aeaca, iuooeoue aa i?aaenia?oiue oaean, ia
i?iionoeoue iineaaeiaa aeuoaiea… Aua oi?ioi au aea?oao iinea
aeeeoaeueiuo oa?caiee /ooue-/ooue iaeeaeoue e iiyoue ia/aoue ana
nia/aea.

Iae?ioee- aioeiiae aeecie. Aai iaoaea?aeeii aea/ao ei anaio, /oi
ia ?anoao , ia iaiyaony, ei anaio iaoaie/aneiio. Ii aeaeaeao aai
iiaaaeaieai ia oieueei oyaa e iia?oaaeiio, ii e no?aieaiea ?ac?ooeoue
caeaiathuaa, aeecianiiniaiia. Iiyoiio ana aeeciaiiua i?ioeannu,
/oanoaa, iiaoaeaeaiey, ii oioae au ii?aaeiaoeoue , i?aa?aoeoue , a aaue.
AEeciue n aa aioo?aiiae iaeiio?iee?oaiinoueth, eai a iae iao
iaoaie/aneiai ono?ienoaa, ioaaao e aeaaea no?aoeo iae?ioeea. Ii nei?aa
?annoaiaony n aeeciueth, iaaeaee n aauaie, nianoaaiiinoueth, iineieueeo
iineaaeiaa iaeaaeaao aeey iaai iaeaunoae oeaiiinoueth.

Oae eae aea ?aniiciaoue iae?ioeea? O?iii ?acuyniyao: iae?ioeea
aea/ao e naaa oueia e aacaeia. A ieoieiaee e a iiycee aai aieiaiea
i?eeiaaii e iaua?ai, io/eiai ieaaia, iiaecaiaeueyi, aeooeei oaeiai e
ia?acai neaiuo ethaeae. Ii, eae iiae/a?eeaaao aia?eeaineee oeeinio,
i?eaioe?iaai ia i?ioeia , a ia ia aoaeouaa…

Iae?ioeeueneay ia?niieoeeaoeey iaeaaeaao ia iaiueoei ia
niciaiea ethaeae, iaaeaee eiay, neaaeai aeioeeueneay. Ioaeiu
aeieacaoaeuenoaa? Aniiiiei-ea “No?aaeaiey iieiaeiai Aa?oa?a”. Neieueei
iieiaeuo ethaeae naaee n/aou n aeeciueth ii ?aoeaioo thiiai aa?iy… A a
iaoe aeie? Iiiai/eneaiiua oaeaaeceiiiua eaiou

-13-

?enotho ea?oeiu oieaa?naeueiie eaoano?iou. Auaeaeaiiay caiey… Aiacaiii
i?a?aaiiua aeecie. Aaeiau ioee… Iinea oaeenoaa i?aceaeaioa Eaiiaaee
ianno

ethaeae, eae naeaeaoaeuenoaotho caiaaeiua aaoi?u, iaeuecy auei
ioi?aaoue io ye?aiia oaeaaeci?ia, iiea ia?aaeaaaeenue ana aeaoaee
oaeenoaa e o?ao?iuo oea?aiiiee. *a?ac

ianeieueei aeiae , eiaaea oaeanooaeee aa?ioeenue e naiei iau/iui
i?ia?aiiai , iiiaea eniuoaee /oanoai no?aiiie ionoiou. Aiaeiae/iua
yaeaiey caoeene?iaaee e niaaoneea ineoieiae a oa aiaeu, eiaaea o?ao?iay
iocuea o?e aiaea iiae?yae nii?iaiaeaeaea i/a?aaeiie ooiae ec aeecie
aaaeoueo iieeoe/aneeo eeaea?ia oie ii?u…

A iao?ea?oaeueiie, aeiia?niiaeenoe/aneie eoeueoo?a nia?oue ia
aini?eieiaeanue eae ianeuoaiiay e aeooeay eaoano?ioa. A o?aaeeoeeiiiie
eoeueoo?a e?anoueyia ciaee i oeeeee/iinoe anaai auoey. O?aaeeoeee
iiiiaaee iaeoe ineoieiae/aneoth iii?o a anoanoaaiiii i?ioeanna aeecie e
nia?oe. Naeueneia eeaaeaeua auei /anoueth iauaai oeeaaea. Ia?oaua
inoaaaeenue n?aaee aeeauo. Nia?aiaiiay eiaeono?eaeueiay eoeueoo?a
?ac?ooeea yoe aaeiaua onoaiiaeaiey. Iaae iieieiui niueathony aieiu
caaaaiey. Iaiyoue aacaeaeinoii au/a?eeaaao aai. A ?acoeueoaoa iuouaiea
iieiie e aanniuneaiiie o?aaaaeee noaiiaeony aeey /aeiaaea iaauiineiui.
Ia a oii ee ?acaaaeea oao ineoieiae/aneeo aeaoi?iaoeee, eioi?ua
nii?yaeaiu naaiaeiy n oa?icie nia?oe?

Ianiiiaiii, iao?ea?oaeueiay eoeueoo?a i?eaieao oaeo nia?oe
ioe?iaaiiaa, o?acaaa e i?aaie/iaa. Aiciiaeii, a nia?aiaiiii niciaiee
ia?ooaiu eaeea-oi o?aaeeoeeiiiua ineoieiae/aneea iaoaieciu , eioi?ua
neoaeeee iii?ie /aeiaaeo.

Eae aaaeao naay /aeiaae, eiaaea ii noaeeeaaaony n neooaoeeae
aaniiuaaeiie, ineoieiae/anee ia?aiineiie? Eaeea caueoiua iaoaieciu
iaia?oaeeaatho naia aeaenoaea? Ineoieiae noieeioeenue ni iiiaeie
yaeaieyie, naeaeaoaeuenoaothuea i aanniciaoaeueiie aaoiiaoeea iiaaaeaiey
a oneiaeyo eaoano?iou. Caeanue e iniaia ninoiyiea “ca/a?iaaiiinoe
nia?oueth” , iaayc/eaia no?aieaiea e ia?acai aeaaee e ?ac?ooaiey, e
iioa?y /oanoaa nianoaaiiiai “y”.

Ethaee, ia?aaeeaoea oyaeaeaeoee iiuo eaoano?iou ( *a?iiaueue,
a?iyineia caieao?ynaiea, iaoeeiiaeueiua nou/ee) ia?aaeei oa?ytho
i?aaenoaaeaiea i nianoaaiiie eaeaioe/iinoe. Inoaaoeany a aeeauo
eniuouaatho iiaoaeaeaiea ioiaeaeanoaeoue naay n ia?oauie, ni “ceui
acaeyaeii ” iaaaaeiiie neeu. Iinea a?iyineiai caieao?ynaiey ia niaaoneii
oaeaaeaeaiee i?ioei iaiaei ?aii?oaaeae. Iieacuaaee ?acaaeeiu,
nianeoaeueiua ?aaiou, aacia?iia ai?a. Ii aio ia?aaeien: ieeoi ia ia?aoee
aieiaiey ia oio oaeo, /oi a o?iieea ia auei ie iaeiiai “iau/iiai
/aeiaaea” n?aaee oao, eoi

-14-

ia?aaeee caieao?ynaiea. Eia/a aiai?y, eaaeaeue i?ioaaeoee /a?ac iiuo
eaoano?iou ia?aaeee e e?ecen ee/iinoe. Ii aeaenoaiaae aaoiiaoe/anee, a
ninoiyiee iieiiai ineoe/aneiai iia?oaaiey. Auyaeeny ineoieiae/aneee
neiae?ii, iienaiiue aia?eeaineei enneaaeiaaoaeyi ?. Eeooiiii e
iiaeoaa?aeaeaiiue naieie aea?oaaie.

Nia?aiaiiay eoeueoo?a, eae ioia/atho iiiaea enneaaeiaaoaee ,
oaoaeueii ca?aaeaia iae?ioeeueneeie , ?ac?ooeoaeueiuie oaiaeaioeeyie.
Oie/oiaeaiea ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu, oneeaiea naaeenoneeo iiiieciiaaiee,
oyaa e iaoaie/aneie iia?oaaeinoe- neiioiiu yoiai aeeaaiica. Anoue ee
auoiae? Aiciiaeii ee ono?aiaiea iianiuo eaoano?ioe/aneeo yaeaiee?
Auaiae ?yaea niaoeeaeenoia i?ino : i?iaeaia ninoieo a oii, /oiau
ia?ainiuneeoue noieue ooiaeaiaioaeueioth oaio, eae nia?oue.

Caeeth/aiea

Iniuneaiea nia?oe eiaao ia?iiiua enoi?eei-oeeinioneea ,
aeooiaiua enoiee e o?aaeeoeee. N enoieeiaaieai yoiai oaiiiaia naycaiu
?aciinoi?iiiea auoeenoaaiiua i?iaeaiu. Iacaaiiay i?iaeaia ii-?aciiio
ioeaieaaaony a ?aciuo eoeueoo?ao, ii?iaeaeay neiaieeeo e niiniau
ineoieiae/aneie caueou i oa?icu oece/aneiai oie/oiaeaiey. *aeiaa/anoai
au?aaioaei iiiaeanoai o?aaeeoeee e niiniaia, n iiiiuueth eioi?uo
iaania/eaaaony neiaiee/aneia aannia?oea. Oae, iai?eia?, oi?ia
ineoieiae/aneiai auaeeaaiey /a?ac iaaeaaeaeo ia nio?aiaiea
ii?aaeaeaiiuo aaiaoe/aneeo naienoa i?ineaaeeaaaony a iao?ea?oaeueiuo
ainoi/iuo eoeueoo?ao.

Ae?oaei niiniaii neiaiee/aneiai oaaeiaa/eaaiey iiaeii
n/eoaoue oai?/aneia aannia?oea. Iii aiieiuaaony a ia?aaea/a
oianeaaeiaaiiuo o?aaeeoeee, a aani?a?uaiii niceaeaiee. Ae?aaiea o/eee:
iiiie i nia?oe! Iu oaaaeaeaainy naaiaeiy a ioae?inoe yoiai caaaoa.
Iiiie, o.a. ia iuoaeny ooiiooue a caaaaiee. Ia ii/eoae naay aannia?oiui,
eai auoaniaiiua no?aoe ana ?aaii i?i?aoo ieioeio.

Nia?aiaiiay eoeueoo?a, noaey ii anaio, noieo ia ii?iaa
a?aiaeeiciuo ioe?uoee , naycaiiuo n oaeiaie auoey nia?oe. Ia?iiiue
yoiia?aoe/aneee, oeeinioneee, anoanoaaiii-iao/iue iaoa?eae, eioi?ue
iaeiieai o/aiuie, iicaieyao cia/eoaeueii ?anoe?eoue ?aiee ianoaeaeaaiie
oaiu. Ii?a iauaaeeieoue oneeey niaoeeaeenoia ?aciuo i?ioeeae aeey
iniuneaiey oao caaaaeie, eioi?ua iinoaaeaiu nia?aiaiiie iaoeie.

Eniieueciaaiiay eeoa?aoo?a:

“Oeeinioey e aeeciue”, 1991/4 “I nia?oe e aannia?oee ”, /Ecae. “Ciaiea”;

“Oeeinioey e aeeciue”,1991/1 “I ethaae e aeecie, i nia?oe, e i ‘oaeiao
eiiai auoey’”

/ Ecae. “Ciaiea” ; “Oeeinioey e aeeciue”,1991/11 “I niunea aeecie” /
Ecae. “Ciaiea”

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