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__ ?aoa?ao

I?aaeiao:Oeeinioey

Oaia: O/aiea Ieaoiia i ainoaea?noaa

Ieai ?aoa?aoa

1. I?iaeaia ainoaea?noaaiiiai ono?ienoaa.

2. Ee/iinoue Ieaoiia.

Ainoaea?noai Ieaoiia:

3. Io?eoeaoaeueiua oi?iu i?aaeaiey.

4. “?acaeaeaiea o?oaea” a “eaeaaeueiii” ainoaea?noaa.

5. *aou?a aeia?iaeaoaee eo/oaai ainoaea?noaa.

6. Ia?aie/aiea naiaiaeu ee/iinoe a ainoaea?noaa Ieaoiia.

7. Aaeeinoai ethaeae “eaeaaeueiiai” ainoaea?noaa.

8. Ii/aio ainoaea?noai Ieaoiia oioaeeoa?ii?

8.1. Aiciiaeiia iiieiaiea aaoi?ii neia “eo/oaa ainoaea?noai”.

8.2. Oai?ey eaeae.

9. Oioaeeoa?eci ee/iinoe.

I?iaeaia ainoaea?noaaiiai ono?ienoaa auea, anoue e aoaeao iaeiie
ec

naiuo neiaeiuo e i?ioeai?a/eauo i?iaeai, noiyueo ia?aae /aeiaa/anoaii.

Iiiaeanoai ethaeae oaea ouny/e eao iuoathony iiiyoue, eaeei ainoaea?noai
aeie-

aeii auoue “a eaeaaea”. I?e yoii iaeioi?ua ethaee n/eoatho eo/oei
neeueiia,

aianiiniaiia ainoaea?noai n oi?ioae yeiiiieeie, ae?oaea – ainoaea?noai,
a

eioi?ii eaaeaeue /aeiaae iuouaao naay aiieia naiaiaeiui e n/anoeeaui.
Oae

i?iaeaia iauanoaaiiiai, ainoaea?noaaiiiai ono?ienoaa ia?a?anoaao a

i?iaeaio iiieiaiey aeaaa, /aeiaa/aneeo oeaiiinoae e naiaiaeu ee/iinoe.

Yoei aii?inai e iinayuai o?aeoao Ieaoiia “Ainoaea?noai”.

Eioa?an e ae?aaiaa?a/aneiio oeeinioo Ieaoiio [ 427 – 347 aei

i.y.(i?aaeiieiaeeoaeueii)], e aai oai?/anoao ia ineaaaaaao, auoue
iiaeao

aeaaea oneeeaaaony a iaoa a?aiy. Ai-ia?auo, iiaiea aeaaea naiiai
iaueii-

aaiiiai /aeiaaea, aeeaoaai aeaa n iieiaeiie ouny/e eao iacaae,
eioa?anii

naii ii naaa. Eiia/ii, eioa?an iiiaie?aoii oneeeaaaony, anee yoio /a-

eiaae – Ieaoii. “… Ieaoii – iaeei ec o/eoaeae /aeiaa/anoaa. Ia
aoaeue

aai eiea, iu ia oieueei ooaea iiieiaee au, eai auee ae?aaiea a?aee,
/oi

iie aeaee ie?o, – iu ooaea iiieiaee au naieo naay, ooaea iiieiaee au,
/oi

oaeia oeeinioey, iaoea, eneonnoai, iiycey, aaeioiiaaiea, /oi oaeia /a-

eiaae, a /ai o?oaeiinoe aai eneaiee e naa?oaiee,” – ienae A.O. Anion.

Eoae, cia/aiea iiaiey aaieaeueiaeoaai aoeineiai oeeinioa i aaaeiaeoeo

/aeiaa/aneeo i?iaeaiao i/aaeaeii.

Nioeeaeueii-iieeoe/aneei aii?inai iinayuaiu ianeieueei
i?iecaaaeaiee

Ieaoiia: o?aeoao “Ainoaea?noai”, aeeaeiae “Caeiiu”, “Iieeoee”. Ana iie

iaienaiu a aeiaieueii iaiau/iii aeai?a – aeai?a aeeaeiaa iaaeaeo
Nie?aoii e

iaiaa ecaanoiuie a?a/aneeie oeeinioaie, iai?eia?, Aeaaeiiii, Aaeeiai-

oii, Eaoaeii. A naieo i?iecaaaeaieyo Ieaoii aiai?eo i iiaeaee
“eaeaaeueii-

ai”, eo/oaai ainoaea?noaa. Yoa iiaeaeue ia anoue iienaiea eaeiai-eeai
no-

uanoaothuaai no?iy, nenoaiu, a, iai?ioea, iiaeaeue oaeiai
ainoaea?noaa,

eioi?iai ieaaea e ieeiaaea ia auei, ii eioi?ia aeieaeii aicieeiooue,
oi

anoue Ieaoii aiai?eo ia eaeaa ainoaea?noaa, nicaeaao i?iaeo, ooiieth.
Yoi

ia cia/eo, /oi aaoi? ia i?iaiaae iiaeeyoue ia ainoaea?noaaiiia oi?aaea-

iea. A oi a?aiy ia Neoeeeee, a Ne?aeocao, auei i?aaeaiea oe?aiia, e

Ieaoii ia ?ac iuoaeny ia?acoieoue ?aca?auaiiiai Aeeiieney,
inoaiiaeoue

aeaniioeth e e?iaii?ieeoea ia Neoeeeee, /oi caeii/eeinue aanueia
iea/aaii:

aoeineiai oeeinioa aue ia ?ac ecaiiyee ec ai?iaea, a iaeei ?ac /ooue
au-

ei ia i?iaeaee a ?aanoai. Oae aanneaaii caeii/eeanue iiiuoea
ono?ieoue

ainoaea?noaaiiia oi?aaeaiea ia iniiaao ?acoia.

I?aaeaea /ai ?anniio?aoue “eaeaaeueiia” ainoaea?noai Ieaoiia,
iaiaoiaee-

ii iiiyoue, eaeea ainoaea?noaa ii ioiinee e io?eoeaoaeueiiio oeio, /oi
a

oaea nouanoaothueo ainoaea?noaao ia ono?aeaaei aaoi?a i?eioeeieaeueii.
A

o?aeoaoa “Ainoaea?noai” Ieaoii ieoao i oii, /oi aeaaiay i?e/eia ii?/e

iauanoa e ainoaea?noa (eioi?ua eiaaea-oi, ai a?aiaia “cieioiai aaea”

eiaee “niaa?oaiiue” no?ie) caeeth/aia a “ainiiaenoaa ei?unoiuo eioa?a-

nia”, iaoneaaeeaathueo iinooiee e iiaaaeaiea ethaeae. A niioaaonoaee
n

yoei iniiaiui iaaeinoaoeii Ieaoii iiae?acaeaeyao ana nouanoaothuea
aino-

aea?noaa ia /aou?a ?aciiaeaeiinoe a ii?yaeea oaaee/aiey, ia?anoaiey
“ei-

?unoiuo eioa?ania” a eo no?ia.

1. Oeiie?aoey – aeanoue /anoiethaoeaa, ii iiaieth Ieaoiia, aua
nio?a-

ieea /a?ou “niaa?oaiiiai” no?iy. A ainoaea?noaa oaeiai oeia i?aaeoaee e

aieiu auee naiaiaeiu io caieaaeaeue/aneeo e ?aianeaiiuo ?aaio.
Aieueoia

aieiaiea oaeaeyaony nii?oeaiui oi?aaeiaieyi, iaeiaei oaea caiaoii
no?aiea-

iea e iaiaauaieth, e “i?e o/anoee aeai” nia?oaineee ia?ac aeecie
ia?aoi-

aeeo a ?ineioiue, /oi iaoneaaeeaaao ia?aoiae e ieeaa?oee.

2. Ieeaa?oey. A ieeaa?oe/aneii ainoaea?noaa oaea eiaaony /aoeia

?acaeaeaiea ia aiaaouo (i?aayuee eeann) e aaaeiuo, eioi?ua aeaeatho
aic-

iiaeiie niaa?oaiii aaccaaioioth aeeciue i?aayuaai eeanna. ?acaeoea
ieeaa?-

oee, ii oai?ee Ieaoiia, i?eaiaeeo e aa ia?a?iaeaeaieth a aeaiie?aoeth.

3. Aeaiie?aoey. Aeaiie?aoe/aneee no?ie aua aieaa oneeeaaao ?acia-

uaiiinoue aaaeiuo e aiaaouo eeannia iauanoaa, aicieeatho ainnoaiey,
e?i-

aii?ieeoey, ai?ueaa ca aeanoue, /oi iiaeao i?eaanoe e aicieeiiaaieth
iae-

ooaeoae ainoaea?noaaiiie nenoaiu – oe?aiee.

4. Oe?aiey. Ii iiaieth Ieaoiia, anee iaeia aeaenoaea aeaeaaony
neeo-

eii neeueii, oi yoi i?eaiaeeo e i?ioeaiiieiaeiiio ?acoeueoaoo. Oae
e

caeanue: ecauoie naiaiaeu i?e aeaiie?aoee i?eaiaeeo e aicieeiiaaieth
aino-

aea?noaa, aiiaua ia eiathuaai naiaiaeu, aeeaouaai ii i?eoioe iaeiiai
/aei-

aaea – oe?aia.

Io?eoeaoaeueiua oi?iu ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe Ieaoii
i?ioeaiiinoaa-

eyao naiaio aeaeaieth “eaeaaeueiiai” iauanoaaiiiai ono?ienoaa.
Ia?iiiia

aieiaiea aaoi? oaeaeyao ii?aaeaeaieth a ainoaea?noaa ianoa i?aayuaai
eean-

na. Ii aai iiaieth, i?aaeoaeyie “eaeaaeueiiai” ainoaea?noaa aeieaeiu
auoue

eneeth/eoaeueii oeeiniou, aeey oiai /oiau a ainoaea?noaa aeaanoaiaaee
?an-

noaeeoaeueiinoue, ?acoi. Eiaiii oeeiniou iaoneaaeeaatho
aeaaininoiyiea,

ni?aaaaeeeainoue ainoaea?noaa Ieaoiia, aaaeue ei naienoaaiiu
“…i?aaaee-

ainoue, ?aoeoaeueiia iai?eyoea eaeie-au oi ie auei eaee, iaiaaenoue e
iae

e ethaiaue e enoeia”. Ieaoii n/eoaao, /oi ethaia iiaoaanoai a
eaeaaeueiii

ainoaea?noaa iaecaaaeii oooaeoeo aai (iaeuecy oeo/oeoue “eaeaaeueiia”).
I/a-

aeaeii, /oi eiaiii oeeiniou aoaeoo io?aiyoue “eaeaaeueiue” no?ie, caeiiu
io

any/aneeo iiaiaaaaeaiee, aaaeue iie iaeaaeatho “…anaie ea/anoaaie
i?aae-

oaeae e no?aaeae eaeaaeueiiai ainoaea?noaa”. Eiaiii iiyoiio
aeayoaeueiinoue

oeeinioia iaoneaaeeaaao nouanoaiaaiea “eaeaaeueiiai” ainoaea?noaa,
aai

iaeciaiiinoue. Ii nouanoao, oeeiniou io?aiytho inoaeueiuo ethaeae io
ii?i-

ea, eaeei yaeyaony ethaia iiaiaaaaeaiea a ainoaea?noaa Ieaoiia. Ia
iaiaa

aaaeii e oi, /oi aeaaiaea?y oeeinioai i?aaeaiea e any aeeciue
“eaeaaeueiiai”

ainoaea?noaa aoaeao iino?iaia ii caeiiai ?acoia, ioae?inoe, oai ia
aoaeao

ianoa ii?uaai aeooe e /oanoaai.

Anee a ainoaea?noaa Ieaoiia nouanoaotho ethaee, eioi?ua
caieiathony

caeiiaie e ono?ienoaii ainoaea?noaa,oi anoanoaaiii i?aaeiieiaeeoue,/oi
a

iai nouanoaotho e ethaee, caieiathueany eneeth/eoaeueii caieaaeaeeai,
?aian-

eii. Aeaenoaeoaeueii, iniiaiie caeii nouanoaiaaiey “eaeaaeueiiai”
aino-

aea?noaa ninoieo a oii, /oi eaaeaeue /eai iauanoaa iaycai
auiieiyoue

oieueei oi aeaei, e eioi?iio ii i?eaiaeai.

Anao aeeoaeae “eaeaaeueiiai” ainoaea?noaa aaoi? ?acaeaeyao ia
o?e

eeanna. Iecoee eeann iauaaeeiyao ethaeae, eioi?ua i?iecaiaeyo
iaiaoiaeeiua

aeey ainoaea?noaa aaue eee niinianoaotho yoiio; a iaai aoiaeyo naiua
?ac-

iua ethaee, naycaiiua n ?aianeii, caieaaeaeeai, ?uii/iuie
iia?aoeey-

ie,aeaiueaaie, oi?aiaeae e ia?ai?iaeaaeae – yoi caieaaeaeueoeu,
?aianeaiieee,

oi?aiaoeu. Ia niio?y ia oi, /oi oi?aiaoeaie e caieaeaeueoeaie iiaoo
auoue

niaa?oaiii ?acee/iua ethaee, ana iie, ii Ieaoiio, noiyo
i?eaeeceoaeueii

ia iaeiie nooiaie i?aanoaaiiiai ?acaeoey. Aioo?e yoiai iecoaai eeanna

oaeaea nouanoaoao /aoeia ?acaeaeaiea o?oaea: eociaoe ia iiaeao
caiyoueny

oi?aiaeae, a oi?aiaaoe ii nianoaaiiie i?eoioe ia iiaeao noaoue
caiea-

aeaeueoeai.

I?eiaaeeaaeiinoue /aeiaaea ei aoi?iio e o?aoueaio eeannai, a
yoi

eeannu aieiia-no?aaeae e i?aaeoaeae-oeeinioia, ii?aaeaeyaony oaea ia
ii

i?ioanneiiaeueiui, a ii i?aanoaaiiui e?aoa?eyi. I?aanoaaiiua ea/anoaa

yoeo ethaeae Ieaoii noaaeo ai?acaei auoa i?aanoaaiiuo ea/anoa
ia?aiai

eeanna.

Oae Ieaoii nicaeaao oioaeeoa?ioth nenoaio ?acaeaeaiey ethaeae ia
?ac-

?yaeu, eioi?ay iaiiiai niya/aaony aiciiaeiinoueth ia?aoiaea ec eeanna
a

eeann (yoi aeinoeaaaony iooai aeeeoaeueiiai ainieoaiey e
naiiniaa?oai-

noaiaaiey). Ia?aoiae yoio inouanoaeyaony iiae ?oeiaiaenoaii
i?aaeoaeae.

Oa?aeoa?ii, /oi anee aeaaea n?aaee i?aaeoaee iiyaeony /aeiaae,
aieueoa

iiaeoiaeyuee aeey iecoaai eeanna, oi aai iaiaoiaeeii “iiieceoue” aac
niaea-

eaiey. Oaeei ia?acii, Ieaoii n/eoaao, /oi aeey aeaaininoiyiey aino-

aea?noaa eaaeaeue /aeiaae aeieaeai caieiaoueny oai aeaeii, aeey
eioi?iai ii

i?eniiniaeai iaeeo/oei ia?acii. Anee /aeiaae aoaeao caieiaoueny ia naiei

aeaeii, ii aioo?e naiaai eeanna, oi yoi aua ia aeaaeueii aeey
“eaeaaeueii-

ai” ainoaea?noaa. Eiaaea aea /aeiaae iacaneoaeaiii ec naiiaeieea
(ia?aue

eeann) noaiiaeony aieiii (aoi?ie eeann), eee aea aiei iacaneoaeaiii noa-

iiaeony i?aaeoaeai (o?aoee eeann), oi yoi a?iceo e?aoii anaio ainoaea?-

noao, iiyoiio oaeie “ia?aneie” n/eoaaony “aunoei i?anooieaieai” i?i-

oea nenoaiu, aaaeue aeey aeaaa anaai ainoaea?noaa a oeaeii /aeiaae
aeieaeai

aeaeaoue oieueei oi aeaei, e eioi?iio ii iaeeo/oei ia?acii i?eniiniaeai.

A o?aeoaoa “Ainoaea?noai” Ieaoii ieoao i oii, /oi “eaeaaeueiia”
ai-

noaea?noai aeieaeii iaeaaeaoue, ii iaiueoae ia?a, /aou?ueiy __aeaaiuie__
aeia?iaea-

oaeyie:

1. ioae?inoueth,

2. ioaeanoaii,

3. ?annoaeeoaeueiinoueth,

4. ni?aaaaeeeainoueth.

Ioae?inoueth ia iiaoo iaeaaeaoue ana aeeoaee ainoaea?noaa, ii
i?aaeoa-

ee-oeeiniou, eca?aiiua ethaee, aaconeiaii, ioae?u e i?eieiatho ioae?ua
?a-

oaiey. Ioaeanoaii iaeaaeaao aieueoaa eiee/anoai ethaeae, yoi ia oieueei
i?a-

aeoaee-oeeiniou, ii e aieiu-no?aaee. Anee ia?aua aeaa aeia?iaeaoaee
auee

oa?aeoa?iu oieueei aeey ii?aaeaeaiiuo eeannia ethaeae, oi
?annoaeeoaeueiinoue

aeieaeia auoue i?enoua anai aeeoaeyi, iia “iiaeiaia iaeie aa?iiiee”,
iia

“iano?aeaaao ia naie eaae ?aoeoaeueii ana oeaeeeii”. Iiae /aoaa?oie
aeia?i-

aeaoaeueth – ni?aaaaeeeainoueth – aaoi? iiieiao oaea ?anniio?aiiia
aeaeaiea

ethaeae ia ?ac?yaeu, eanou: “…caieiaoueny naiei aeaeii e ia
aiaoeaaoueny a

/oaeea – yoi anoue ni?aaaaeeeainoue”. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, ?acaeaeaiea
ethaeae ia

eeannu eiaao aeey Ieaoiia ia?iiiia cia/aiea, ii?aaeaeyao nouanoaiaaiea

“eaeaaeueiiai” ainoaea?noaa (aaaeue iii ia iiaeao auoue
iani?aaaaeeeaui), e

oiaaea iaoaeeaeoaeueii, /oi ia?ooaiea eanoiaiai no?iy n/eoaaony
aunoei

i?anooieaieai. Oae ainoaea?noai Ieaoiia iacaiaoii, ?aaee eo/oae
oeaee,

i?eia?aoaao oa iaaeinoaoee, eioi?ua ?anniao?eaae nai aaoi?, iienuaay

“ii?i/iua” ainoaea?noaa (iai?eia?, ?anneiaiea iauanoaa a ieeaa?oe/an-

eii ainoaea?noaa).

Oa?aeoa?ii, /oi Ieaoii, aeeaoee ai a?aiaia anaiauaai ?aaiaea-

aeaeue/aneiai no?iy, ia oaeaeyao ?aaai iniaiai aieiaiey. A
“Ainoaea?noaa”

ana i?iecaiaenoaaiiua caaiou aiceaaathony ia ?aianeaiieeia e caiea-

aeaeueoeaa. Caeanue aea Ieaoii ieoao, /oi a ?aanoai iiaeii ia?auaoue
oieueei

“aa?aa?ia”, iayeeeiia, ai a?aiy aieiu. Iaeiaei ii aea aiai?eo, /oi aie-

ia – cei, aicieeathuaa a ii?i/iuo ainoaea?noaao “aeey iaiaauaiey”, e
a

“eaeaaeueiii” ainoaea?noaa aieiu neaaeoao ecaaaaoue, neaaeiaaoaeueii, ia
ao-

aeao e ?aaia. Eae ienae A.O. Anion, a o?aeoaoa “Ainoaea?noai” “…eeann

?aaia eae iaeei ec iniiaiuo eeannia ia?acoeiaiai ainoaea?noaa ia
i?aaeon-

iao?eaaaony, ia oeacuaaaony, ia iacuaaaony”. Yoi ia cia/eo, /oi aaoi?

aunooiaao i?ioea oaiaoaiey /aeiaaea /aeiaaeii, i?inoi, ii aai iiaieth,

aunoea ?ac?yaeu (eanou) ia aeieaeiu eiaoue /anoiie nianoaaiiinoe,
/oiau

nio?aieoue aaeeinoai. Oai ia iaiaa, a aeeaeiaa “Caeiiu”, aaea oaeaea
ianoae-

aeathony i?iaeaiu ainoaea?noaaiiiai ono?ienoaa, Ieaoii ia?aeeaaeuaaao
in-

iiaiua oicyenoaaiiua caaiou ia ?aaia e /oaeano?aioeaa, ii inoaeaeaao
aieiu.

A nayce n ?anniio?aiiui ?acaeaeaieai ethaeae ia ?ac?yaeu
aicieeaao

aii?in: eoi aea aicueiao ia naay ioaaonoaaiiinoue ii?aaeaeaiey
niiniaiin-

oe /aeiaaea e iaeiaio aeaeo, e oieueei e iaio? Ii-aeaeeiiio, a
“e-

aeaaeueiii” ainoaea?noaa yoo ooieoeeth aicueioo ia naay ioae?aeoea e
ni?aaaae-

eeaaeoea ethaee – i?aaeoaee-oeeiniou. I?e yoii iie, anoanoaaiii,
aoaeoo

auiieiyoue __caeii__, aaaeue caeii – aaaeiaeoay ninoaaeythuay
“eaeaaeueiiai”

noaea?noaa, e aai auiieiytho ana aac eneeth/aiey (aeioiaeeo aei oiai,
/oi

aeaoe aeieaeiu ea?aoue (!) ii caeiiai ainoaea?noaa). Oaeei ia?acii,
i?aae-

oaee-oeeiniou aa?oao noaeueau anao inoaeueiuo ethaeae. Iie ia oieueei
ii?a-

aeaeytho niiniaiinoe /aeiaaea, ii e inouanoaeytho ?aaeaiaioaoeeth
a?aea,

eiatho i?aai (e aeieaeiu) oaeaaoue iaeieaoieo aeaoae n oece/aneeie
iaaein-

oaoeaie (caeanue, eae e a iaeioi?uo ae?oaeo neo/ayo, Ieaoii aa?ao ca
ia-

?acaoe ainoaea?noaaiiia ono?ienoai nia?aiaiiie aio Nia?ou).

Oeeiniou,ia iniiaao ?acoia, oi?aaeytho inoaeueiuie eeannaie, ia?a-

ie/eaay eo naiaiaeo, aaieiu ea?atho ?ieue “niaae”, aea?aeaueo a
iiaeiiaa-

iee iecoaa “noaaei”. Yoei onoaoaeyaony e aac oiai aeanoieia
?acaeaeaiea

ia ?ac?yaeu . Iai?eia?, aieiu ia aeeaoo a iaeieo ianoao n
?aianeeiieeaie,

ethaeueie o?oaea. Ethaee “iecoae” ii?iaeu nouanoaotho aeey iaania/aiey
“aunoeo”

anai iaiaoiaeeiui. “Aunoea”aea io?aiytho e iai?aaeytho “iecoeo”,
oie/oi-

aeay neaaaeoeo e ?aaeaiaioe?oy aeeciue inoaeueiuo.

Iiaeii i?aaeiieiaeeoue, /oi oaeay ananoi?iiiyy iaei/iay
?aaeaiaioa-

oeey aaaeiaeoeo iinooieia /aeiaaea, eioi?ua ii, ii nia?aiaiiui iiiyoeyi,

aeieaeai ?aoaoue nai, i?eaaaeao e ?aciauaieth ethaeae, iaaeiaieuenoao,
caaenoe.

Iaeiaei a “eaeaaeueiii” ainoaea?noaa yoiai ia i?ienoiaeeo, iai?ioea,
aaeei-

noai ethaeae Ieaoii n/eoaao iniiaie oaeiai ainoaea?noaa. Ai a?aiaia
ae?aa-

iinoe, “cieioiai aaea”, eiaaea naie aiae oi?aaeyee ethaeueie, ethaee
?iaeaea-

eenue ia io ethaeae, eae nae/an, ii io naiie caiee. Ethaee ia
ioaeaeaeenue a

iaoa?eaeueiuo aeaaao e iiiai a?aiaie iinayuaee caiyoeyi oeeeeinioeae.

Ai iiiaii aaeeinoai ae?aaieo iaoneaaeeaaeinue ionoonoaeai ?iaeeoaeae
(o

anao iaeia iaoue – caiey). Ieaoii oi/ao aeinoe/ue oiai aea ?acoeueoaoa,
“i-

aiauanoaea” ia oieueei ethaeneia eiouanoai, ii e aeai, aeaoae. Aaoi?
oi/ao,

/oiau ieeoi ia iia neacaoue: “Yoi iiy aauue”, eee “Yoi iiy aeaia”.
Ii

eaeaa Ieaoiia, ioae/eiu e aeaiueiu ia aeieaeiu anooiaoue a a?ae ii
nianoaai-

iie i?eoioe. Ieacuaaaony, a?aeii oaeii oi?aaeytho oeeiniou, niaieoieyy

eo/oeo n eo/oeie, a ooaeoeo – n ooaeoeie. Iinea ?iaeia aeaoe
ioae?athony, e

ioaeathony iaoa?yi /a?ac iaeioi?ia a?aiy, i?e/ai ieeoi ia ciaao, /ae ?a-

aaiie aio aeinoaeny, e ana ioae/eiu (a i?aaeaeao eanou) n/eoathony
iooeaie

anao aeaoae, a ana aeaiueiu – iaueie aeaiaie anao ioae/ei. Eae
ienae

A.Anion, aeey Ieaoiia iauiinoue aeai e aeaoae yaeyaony aunoae oi?iie
aaeei-

noaa ethaeae. Oaeay iauiinoue iienaia ei aeey eeanna aieiia-no?aaeae,
eioi-

?ui aaoi? oaeaeyao ia?iiiia aieiiea. Ii aai iiaieth, ionoonoaea
a?aaeaeu

aioo?e eeanna no?aaeae iiaea/ao ca niaie aaeeinoai iecoaai eeanna e io-

noonoaea ainnoaiee.

Oaeei ia?acii, i?aayuea eeannu ainoaea?noaa Ieaoiia ninoaaeytho

eiiioienoe/aneia aaeeinoai. Yoio eiiioieci, eae oaea aiai?eeinue, ia
aei-

ioneaao n?aaee aunoeo eeannia aaaeiinoe eee aiaaonoaa, a
neaaeiaaoaeueii,

ii eiaeea aaoi?a, oie/oiaeaao n?aaee ieo ?acaei?u. I?iia?ac aeanoe o
Iea-

oiia – yoi ianooo, ianouee noaaei. Anee i?eaaaiooue e yoiio
n?aaiaieth,

oi a “eaeaaeueiii” ainoaea?noaa ianoooe – yoi i?aaeoaee, aieiu – yoi
noi-

?iaeaaua niaaee. *oiau oaea?aeaoue noaaei iaaoe a ii?yaeea, ianoooe e
niaaee

aeieaeiu auoue aaeeiu a naieo aeaenoaeyo, /aai e aeiaeaaaony aaoi?.
Eoae, ii

au?aaeaieth E.Iiiia?a, ieaoiiianeia ainoaea?noai ia?auaaony n
“/aeiaa/an-

eei noaaeii”, eae ioae?ue, ii aeanoeina?aeiue ianooo ni naieie
iaoeaie.

Yoiai ne?anoeoue n oai-oi, yoeo – ia aieith. Aeaeii, /oi, ii iaoei
i?aae-

noaaeaieyi, yoi oioaeeoa?iay i?ia?aiia, i?e eioi?ie eo/ea ethaeae
(ionoue

aeaaea ioae?aeoeo) iiae/eiyao “…aeaeeea aiaeaeaeaiey aieueoeinoaa …
?acoi-

iui aeaeaieyi iaiueoeinoaa”.

Eaeei aea ia?acii Ieaoii, nicaeaaay “eaeaaeueiia” ainoaea?noai ia
in-

iiaao ?acoia, iieo/ee iaeii ec oaeaniaeoeo oioaeeoa?iuo ainoaea?noa,
i?e-

ia?u eioi?uo iu aeaeei neeoeii /anoi, eioi?ua iienaiu a nia?aiaiiie ee-

oa?aoo?a a aeai?a aioeooiiee (Ae.I?oye, “1984”)? Aeey oiai, /oiau
ioaa-

oeoue ia yoio aii?in, iaiaoiaeeii oynieoue, /oi iiieiae Ieaoii iiae
neiaa-

ie “eaeaaeueiia ainoaea?noai”. Ai-ia?auo, yoi ainoaea?noai,
ono?iaiiia

eo/oei ia?acii, ai-aoi?uo, (e yoi aaaeiaa) yoi eaeay ainoaea?noaa.
?an-

niio?ei nia/aea, /oi iia iiieiaoue Ieaoii iiae neiaaie “eo/oaa
ainoaea?-

noai”.

Aeaeeii, Ieaoii n/eoae, /oi ana aaaenoaey ethaeae i?ienoiaeyo
ec-ca

ionoonoaey iauiinoe, iinoiyiiuo ?acaei?ia, ionoonoaey oi?ioiai ia-

/aeuenoaa. Ana yoi iaaethaeaaony ai a?aiy ie?a, iai?ioea, ai a?aiy
aieiu

nouanoaoao e aaeeinoai, e ii?yaeie, e iauay oeaeue. Ai a?aiy aieiu o
eth-

aeae iiiai iauaai, e iie, aeaaiaea?y ii?yaeeo, ioae?ui ia/aeueieeai e
?aa-

eaiaioaoeee aeece iiaoo aeiaeoueny oiai, /aai iaaiciiaeii naeaeaoue,
aeeay,

eae caaeaai?annoaeeony e caieiaynue ia naiei aeaeii. Aaeeinoai ethaeae
ai

a?aiy aieiu caia/aoaeueii iieacae E.Oienoie a “Aieia e ie?a”, iieacae

oo neeo, eioi?ay aicieeaao, eiaaea ana aaeoi?u /aeiaa/aneeo no?aieaiee

iai?aaeaiu a iaeio noi?iio, a yoi aiciiaeii oieueei ai a?aiy
nioeeaeueiuo

iio?ynaiee. Eiaaea aea eo iao, eaaeaeue /aeiaae aieaa eee iaiaa
naiaiaeai,

e ana aaeoi?u ethaeneeo aeaeaiee iai?aaeaiu a ?aciua noi?iiu,
aicieeaao

oain, aani?aaeae, iaaiciiaeii i?iaanoe iauoth eeieth aeaenoaee, eae yoi
aea-

eaaony ia aieia. Oae ii/aio au ia ono?ieoue aeeciue ainoaea?noaa oaeei
ia-

?acii, /oiau ethaee anaaaea aeeee eae au ia aieia, ii, anoanoaaiii, ia
ii-

aeaaee?

Oaeie aeeciue auea a Nia?oa, eioi?ay eiiaaea neoaeeea Ieaoiio eae
ia-

?acaoe aeey iino?iaiey “eaeaaeueiiai” ainoaea?noaa. Ana ainoaea?noai,
aacon-

eiaii, iieo/eo ai?acaei aieueoa iieuecu, anee ieioiee inoaiaony
ieioie-

eii, a ia ia/iao ienaoue ea?oeiu, ii, ii nia?aiaiiui i?aaenoaaeaieyi i

/aeiaa/aneeo oeaiiinoyo e naiaiaeao, ieaoiiianeia ainoaea?noai
yaeyaony

eaeioynnaioeeae oioaeeoa?ecia. Aioeeiaeeaeaeoaeenoe/aneia
ainoaea?noai

Ieaoiia iiaeii iienaoue neaaeothuae oeeoaoie ec “Caeiiia”, au?aaeathuae
nooue

oioaeeoa?ecia: “…ieeoi ieeiaaea ia aeieaeai inoaaaoueny aac
ia/aeueieea –

ie ioae/eiu, ie aeaiueiu. Ie a na?ueaciuo caiyoeyo, ie a ea?ao ieeoi
ia

aeieaeai i?eo/aoue naay aeaenoaiaaoue ii nianoaaiiiio oniio?aieth:
iao,

anaaaea – e ia aieia, e a ie?iia a?aiy – iaaei aeeoue n iinoiyiiie
iaeyae-

eie ia ia/aeueieea e neaaeiaaoue aai oeacaieyi… Ionoue /aeiaa/aneay
aeo-

oa i?eia?aoaao iaaue niaa?oaiii ia oiaoue aeaeaoue /oi-eeai ioaeaeueii
io

ae?oaeo ethaeae, e aeaaea ia iiieiaoue, eae yoi aiciiaeii.Ionoue
aeeciue anao

ethaeae anaaaea aoaeao aiciiaeii aieaa niei/aiiie e iauae. Eai iao e
ieeia-

aea ia aoaeao ie/aai eo/uaai… a aeaea aeinoeaeaiey oaea/e, a oaeaea
iiaaaeu

ia aieia. Oi?aaeiyoueny a yoii iaaei n naiuo iaeuo eao… Iaaei
ia-

/aeuenoaiaaoue iaae ae?oaeie e naiiio auoue o ieo iiae ia/aeii. A
aacia/a-

eea aeieaeii auoue ecuyoi ec aeecie anao ethaeae, e aeaaea aeeaioiuo,
iiaeaean-

oiuo ethaeyi”.

I/aaeaeii, /oi yoe i?eioeeiu auiieiythony a “eaeaaeueiii”
ainoaea?noaa

Ieaoiia, e aeaenoaeoaeueii, “…iao ie/aai eo/oaai… a aeaea
aeinoeaeaiey

oaea/e e iiaaaeu ia aieia”. Ii eae aea ee/iinoue? Aeaei a oii, /oi aeey
Iea-

oiia ee/iinoe n aa oeaeyie e eioa?anaie eae au ia nouanoaoao, nouan-

oaotho oieueei iauea eioa?anu.

Iaeiaei eiaaony e aoi?ie niune neiaini/aoaiey “eaeaaeueiia
ainoaea?-

noai”. Aeaei a oii, /oi aeey Ieaoiia “eaeaaeueiia” ia oieueei “eo/oaa”,
ii

e oi, /oi yaeyaony “eaeaae” i?aaeiaoa. Neiai “eaeay” ( ) e aeeceia
e

iaio “yeaein” iaicia/aao o Ieaoiia “nouiinoue”, “oi?io”, “aeae”,
“iaeee”

i?aaeiaoa. Yoi oiiiinoeaaaiay, aioo?aiiyy oi?ia aaue, a ia oa, /oi ia-

iin?aaenoaaiii aeaia /oanoaaiiiio aini?eyoeth. Eaeae-oi?iu aanoaeaniu.
Oa-

ea i?aauaatho a iai?anoaiii aeaeaeouainy ( – ana oa/ao),
iaon-

oie/eaii, noaiiayuainy, a ia noaaoai ie?a, iinoiyiii iaiinoiyiiii. ?a-

coi euao a yoii aeaeaeaiee oo ne?uooth iiaa?oiinoueth aauae nouiinoue,
eioi-

?ay ia oieueei nio?aiyaony ai anao eciaiaieyo aauiiai auoey, ii e ya-

eyaony enoiaeiie i?e/eiie yoeo eciaiaiee. Oae ?acoi ?acee/aao nouiinoue

e yaeaiea. Oi, /oi eaaeaony nouanoaothuei, ia anoue enoeiiia auoea,
ii

eeoue i?e/anoii aio – iinoieueeo, iineieueeo yaeyao
(“yaeaiea”)

eaeaaeueiia, niaa?oaiiia (“eaeath”, “nouiinoue”). I?aaeaea anaai iaaei
?acee-

/aoue: /oi anaaaea nouanoaoao e ieeiaaea ia noaiiaeony, e /oi anaaaea
noa-

iiaeony, ii ieeiaaea ia nouanoaoao”, – ienae Ieaoii a aeeaeiaa Oeiae.

Oae Nie?ao e aneaae ca iei Ieaoii ?acee/atho e?aneaua i?aaeiaou
(ee-

?a, eooiiiue ai?oie, eiiue, aeaaooea) e e?anioo, i?ae?aniia naii ii na-

aa, eaeay i?ae?aniiai; aeia?ue iinooiie e aeia?i eae oaeiaia.

“Eaeay” o Ieaoiia yoi oi, /oi anoue:

1.__i?e/eia__ ( ), enoi/iee auoey aauae, oi, /oi aeaao ei
aeeciue,

aieth e aeecie, aucuaaao eo auoea.

2.__ia?acaoe__ ( ), ace?ay ia eioi?ue, aeaieo?a nicaeaao
aauiue

ie?, iiae?aaeay “eaeaaeueiiio”.

3.__oeaeue__ ( ), e eioi?iio iaaei no?aieoueny eae e
aa?oiaiiio aeaao.

4.__iiaeaeue__, ii?iaeaeathuay no?oeoo?a, i?eioeei aaue.

Oaeei ia?acii, iiaeii i?aaeiieiaeeoue, /oi, nicaeaaay aeeaeia
“Ainoaea?-

noai”, Ieaoii, a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue, iuoaaony iiiyoue, eaeiaa eaeay
ainoaea?-

noaa a iaoai ie?a, n eaeiai ia?acoea nicaeaaaeenue nouanoaothuea
ainoaea?-

noaa. I?iaeaia iiciaiey eaeae ainoaea?noaa, aaconeiaii, oe?a, /ai i?ia-

eaia iino?iaiey “eo/oaai” ainoaea?noaa, iiiya eaeath ainoaea?noaa, iu
iae-

iia?aiaiii iieiai, e /aio iaaei no?aieoueny. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, aii?in
i

oii, ianeieueei oi?ioi ainoaea?noai Ieaoiia, aoi?e/ai, aaaeiaa oi,
/oi

yoi ia nouanoaothuaa ainoaea?noai, ii aai “eaeay”.

A nayce n yoei aicieeaao aua iaeia i?iaeaia. *aeiaae, ia ciaeiiue

n oai?/anoaii Ieaoiia e aia?aua i?i/eoaaoee o?aeoao “Ainoaea?noai”,

neaaeao, /oi Ieaoii nicaeae ioa?aoeoaeueiia oioaeeoa?iia ainoaea?noai,
/oi

ii aue iai?aa. Nia?aiaiiue /aeiaae inoaeaeaao Ieaoiia. Ii aaaeue iu
iiie-

iaai oieueei naie eoeueoo?iua oeaiiinoe, iu oeaiei ee/iinoue, a ana
i?eoan-

iythuaa aa iacuaaai oioaeeoa?eciii. I?e yoii iu ia oioei iiiyoue, /oi

aaoi? eiae niaa?oaiii ae?oaea iiiyoey i /aeiaa/aneeo oeaiiinoyo. Iaei

oiai, iu aeaaea ia /oanoaoai, /oi, aiciiaeii, Ieaoii ia niae?aeny
aiiei-

uaoue a aeeciue eiaiii yoio i?iaeo, /oi ii ienae ia eaeaa
ainoaea?noaa.

Iaaeiyy Ieaoiia a oioaeeoa?ecia, iu naie iiaeaaeyai aai naiaiaeo, iu na-

ie noaiiaeiny oioaeeoa?iuie ethaeueie, oie/oiaeathueie i?aai /aeiaaea
ia

ae?oaea iunee, ae?oaoth eoeueoo?o. Ia noieo niaoeoue iaaeiyoue Ieaoiia a
oi-

oaeeoa?ecia, eiaaea oioaeeoa?ecia aeinoaoi/ii a ian naieo, a eaaeaeie
ee/-

iinoe. Auoue iiaeao, yoi ecia/aeueii caeiaeaii a ian, eae einoeieo
naii-

nio?aiaiey, e aac iaai /aeiaae ia?anoaiao auoue /aeiaaeii. Oai ia ia-

iaa, iaaei iiiyoue, /oi a ethaie, aeaaea naiie auoiaie neooaoeee
/aeiaae

eiaao i?aai ia nianoaaiiia iiaiea. Ca aeaa ouny/e eao iu iao/eeenue

inoaeaeaoue oioaeeoa?eci iauanoaa. Oaia?ue eaaeaeue /aeiaae aeieaeai
no?a-

ieoueny eneeth/eoue oioaeeoa?eci ec nianoaaiiie aeooe.

__Eeoa?aoo?a

2. Ieaoii Aeeaeiae.Ia?.n ae?aaiaa?a/.Oa?ueeia:1999a.

4. Iiiia? E. “Ioe?uoia ia/anoai e aai a?aae”, o.1, “*a?u

Ieaoiia”, // I, 1992.

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