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Переход к информационному обществу: дорога в будущее

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Iineianeee ainoaea?noaaiiue einoeooo

yeaeo?iieee e iaoaiaoeee

( oaoie/aneee oieaa?neoao )

Oaia:

nooaeaio: Iaeuoaa Ieeieae Ieoaeeiae/

a?oiia:

I – 46

i?aiiaeaaaoaeue:

Neie Ai?en Aeeoi?iae/

Iineaa 1998

I?aaeeneiaea

Aia/aea auei neiai. A oaeaea aeano, ?enoiie, oaiaoe, aeui io eino?ia
e ae?oaea iaoeo?ua niiniau ia?aaea/e eioi?iaoeee, eioi?ua ethaee
iao/eeenue eniieueciaaoue i?eia?ii oiaaea aea, eiaaea e i?eieoeaiua
i?oaeey o?oaea.

Iioii neiai noaei ienueiaiiui. Yoi auei i/aiue oaeiaii – iiyaeeanue
aiciiaeiinoue aeiaa?eoue eaaaiaeu, ia?iaeiua neacaiey, yiin, a oaeaea
ee/ioth e ainoaea?noaaiioth ia?aieneo oaa?aeui iineoaeyi. Eo?uea?ai
aieueoa ia auei ioaeaeu cao/eaaoue niiauaiey iaeconoue, iiyaeeanue
ath?ie?aoey e aeieoiaioiiai?io.

Aaee/aeoeie i?ic?aieyie /aeiaa/anoaa noaee oeiia?aoneee noaiie e
?aaoey?iua ii/oiaua niiauaiey. Iie ii?iaeeee aeaa aeaaiuo i?eciaea
oeeaeeecaoeee – /aeiaae aeieaeai eiaoue aiciiaeiinoue ?aaoey?ii
ia?aienuaaoueny n ethaui eiee/anoaii ?aniiiaeaioia e /eoaoue naaaeea
iiainoe a aacaoao.

Aieoe a XXI aae ia?aciaaiiui /aeiaaeii iiaeii, oieueei oi?ioi aeaaeay
eioi?iaoeeiiiuie oaoiieiaeyie. Aaaeue aeayoaeueiinoue ethaeae ana a
aieueoae noaiaie caaeneo io eo eioi?ie?iaaiiinoe, niiniaiinoe yooaeoeaii
eniieueciaaoue eioi?iaoeeth. Aeey naiaiaeiie i?eaioaoeee a
eioi?iaoeeiiiuo iioieao nia?aiaiiue niaoeeaeeno ethaiai i?ioeey aeieaeai
oiaoue iieo/aoue, ia?aaaouaaoue e eniieueciaaoue eioi?iaoeeth n
iiiiuueth eiiiuethoa?ia, oaeaeiiioieeaoeee e ae?oaeo n?aaenoa nayce. Ia
eioi?iaoeee ia/eiatho aiai?eoue eae i no?aoaae/aneii eo?na iauanoaa, eae
i ?ano?na, ii?aaeaeythuai o?iaaiue ?acaeoey ainoaea?noaa.
Eioi?iaoecaoeey iaania/eo ia?aoiae iauanoaa io eiaeono?eaeueiiai oeia
?acaeoey e eioi?iaoeeiiiiio. Eioi?iaoeeiiiue ?uiie i?aaeinoaaeo
iio?aaeoaeyi ana iaiaoiaeeiua eioi?iaoeeiiiua i?iaeoeou e oneoae, a eo
i?iecaiaenoai iaania/eo eiaeono?ey eioi?iaoeee, /anoi iacuaaaiay
eioi?iaoeeiiiie eiaeono?eae. Ana yoe aii?inu nae/an aeoeaii
ianoaeaeathony a ia/aoe, oioy aei neo ii? iao aaeeiiai iiaiey
ioiineoaeueii iooae ?acaeoey, iiieiaiey i?ei?eoaoiinoe oiai eee eiiai
iai?aaeaiey, oi?ioee?iaie e iiiyoee e o.i.

I?aaenoaaeaiea ia eioi?iaoeeiiiii iauanoaa.

?ieue e cia/aiea eioi?iaoeeiiiuo ?aaiethoeee.

A enoi?ee ?acaeoey oeeaeeecaoeee i?iecioei ianeieueei eioi?iaoeeiiiuo
?aaiethoeee – i?aia?aciaaiee iauanoaaiiuo ioiioaiee ec-ca ea?aeeiaeueiuo
eciaiaiee a noa?a ia?aaioee eioi?iaoeee. Neaaenoaeai iiaeiaiuo
i?aia?aciaaiee yaeyeinue i?eia?aoaiea /aeiaa/aneei iauanoaii iiaiai
ea/anoaa.

Ia?aay ?aaiethoeey naycaia n ecia?aoaieai ienueiaiiinoe, /oi i?eaaei
e aeaaioneiio ea/anoaaiiiio e eiee/anoaaiiiio nea/eo. Iiyaeeanue
aiciiaeiinoue ia?aaea/e ciaiee io iieieaiey e iieieaieyi.

Aoi?ay ( na?aaeeia XVI a. ) aucaaia ecia?aoaieai eieaiia/aoaiey,
eioi?ia ?aaeeeaeueii eciaieei eiaeono?eaeueiia iauanoai, eoeueoo?o,
i?aaiecaoeeth aeayoaeueiinoe.

O?aouey ( eiiaoe XIX a. ) iaoneiaeaia ecia?aoaieai yeaeo?e/anoaa,
aeaaiaea?y eioi?iio iiyaeeenue oaeaa?ao, oaeaoii, ?aaeei, iicaieythuea
iia?aoeaii ia?aaeaaaoue e iaeaieeaaoue eioi?iaoeeth a ethaii iauaia.

*aoaa?oay ( 70-a aa. XX a. ) naycaia n ecia?aoaieai
iee?ii?ioeanni?iie oaoiieiaee e iiyaeaieai ia?niiaeueiiai eiiiuethoa?a.
Ia iee?ii?ioeanni?ao e eioaa?aeueiuo noaiao nicaeathony eiiiuethoa?u,
eiiiuethoa?iua naoe, nenoaiu ia?aaea/e aeaiiuo ( eioi?iaoeeiiiua
eiiioieeaoeee ). Yoio ia?eiae oa?aeoa?ecotho o?e ooiaeaiaioaeueiua
eiiiaaoeee:

( ia?aoiae io iaoaie/aneeo e yeaeo?e/aneeo n?aaenoa i?aia?aciaaiey
eioi?iaoeee e yeaeo?iiiui;

( ieieaoth?ecaoeey anao oceia, ono?ienoa, i?eai?ia, iaoei;

( nicaeaiea i?ia?aiiii – oi?aaeyaiuo ono?ienoa e i?ioeannia.

Iineaaeiyy eioi?iaoeeiiiay ?aaiethoeey auaeaeaaao ia ia?aue ieai
iiaoth io?aneue – eioi?iaoeeiiioth eiaeono?eth, naycaiioth n
i?iecaiaenoaii oaoie/aneeo n?aaenoa, iaoiaeia, oaoiieiaee aeey
i?iecaiaenoaa iiauo ciaiee. Aaaeiaeoeie ninoaaeythueie eioi?iaoeeiiiie
eiaeono?ee noaiiayony ana aeaeu eioi?iaoeeiiiuo oaoiieiaee, iniaaiii
oaeaeiiioieeaoeee. Nia?aiaiiay eioi?iaoeeiiiay oaoiieiaey iie?aaony ia
aeinoeaeaiey a iaeanoe eiiiuethoa?iie oaoieee e n?aaenoa nayce. (
Eioi?iaoeeiiiay oaoiieiaey – i?ioeann, eniieuecothuee niaieoiiinoue
n?aaenoa e iaoiaeia nai?a, ia?aaioee e ia?aaea/e aeaiiuo ( ia?ae/iie
eioi?iaoeee ) aeey iieo/aiey eioi?iaoeee iiaiai ea/anoaa i ninoiyiee
iauaeoa, i?ioeanna eee yaeaiey.

Oneiaeiaiea eiaeono?eaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa, nioeeaeueiie,
yeiiiie/aneie e iieeoe/aneie aeecie, eciaiaiea aeeiaieee i?ioeannia ai
anao noa?ao aeayoaeueiinoe /aeiaaea i?eaaee, n iaeiie noi?iiu, e ?inoo
iio?aaiinoae a ciaieyo, a n ae?oaie – e nicaeaieth iiauo n?aaenoa e
niiniaia oaeiaeaoai?aiey yoeo iio?aaiinoae.

Ao?iia ?acaeoea eiiiuethoa?iie oaoieee e eioi?iaoeeiiiuo oaoiieiaee
iineoaeeei oie/eii e ?acaeoeth iauanoaa, iino?iaiiii ia eniieueciaaiee
?acee/iie eioi?iaoeee e iieo/eaoaai iacaaiea eioi?iaoeeiiiiai iauanoaa.

Eae iiieiatho o/aiua eioi?iaoeeiiiia iauanoai

ssiiineea o/aiua n/eoatho, /oi a eioi?iaoeeiiiii iauanoaa i?ioeann
eiiiuethoa?ecaoeee aeano ethaeyi aeinooi e iaaeaaeiui enoi/ieeai
eioi?iaoeee, ecaaaeo eo io ?ooeiiie ?aaiou, iaania/eo aunieee o?iaaiue
aaoiiaoecaoeee ia?aaioee eioi?iaoeee a i?iecaiaenoaaiiie e nioeeaeueiie
noa?ao. Aeaeaeouae neeie ?acaeoey iauanoaa aeieaeii noaoue i?iecaiaenoai
eioi?iaoeeiiiiai, a ia iaoa?eaeueiiai i?iaeoeoa. Iaoa?eaeueiue aea
i?iaeoeo noaiao aieaa eioi?iaoeeiiii aieei, /oi icia/aao oaaee/aiea
aeiee eiiiaaoeee, aeecaeia e ia?eaoeiaa a aai noieiinoe.

A eioi?iaoeeiiiii iauanoaa eciaiyony ia oieueei i?iecaiaenoai, ii e
aanue oeeaae aeecie, nenoaia oeaiiinoae, aic?anoao cia/eiinoue
eoeueoo?iiai aeinoaa ii ioiioaieth e iaoa?eaeueiui oeaiiinoyi. Ii
n?aaiaieth n eiaeono?eaeueiui iauanoaii, aaea ana iai?aaeaii ia
i?iecaiaenoai e iio?aaeaiea oiaa?ia, a eioi?iaoeeiiiii iauanoaa
i?iecaiaeyony e iio?aaeythony eioaeeaeo, ciaiey, /oi i?eaiaeeo e
oaaee/aieth aeiee oinoaaiiiai o?oaea. Io /aeiaaea iio?aaoaony
niiniaiinoue e oai?/anoao, aic?anoao ni?in ia ciaiey.

Iaoa?eaeueiie e oaoiieiae/aneie aacie eioi?iaoeeiiiiai iauanoaa
noaioo ?acee/iiai ?iaea nenoaiu ia aaca eiiiuethoa?iie oaoieee e
eiiiuethoa?iuo naoae, eioi?iaoeeiiiie oaoiieiaee, oaeaeiiioieeaoeeiiiie
nayce.

A ?aaeueiie i?aeoeea ?acaeoey iaoee e oaoieee ia?aaeiauo no?ai a
eiioea XX a. Iinoaiaiii i?eia?aoaao c?eiua i/a?oaiey nicaeaiiay
oai?aoeeaie ea?oeia eioi?iaoeeiiiiai iauanoaa. I?iaiice?oaony
i?aa?auaiea anaai ie?iaiai i?ino?ainoaa a aaeeiia eiiiuethoa?ece?iaaiiia
e eioi?iaoeeiiiia iauanoai ethaeae, i?iaeeaathueo a yeaeo?iiiuo
eaa?oe?ao e eiooaaeaeao. Ethaia aeeeeua iniauaii anaaiciiaeiuie
yeaeo?iiiuie i?eai?aie e ono?ienoaaie. Aeayoaeueiinoue ethaeae aoaeao
nin?aaeioi/aia aeaaiui ia?acii ia ia?aaioea eioi?iaoeee, a iaoa?eaeueiia
i?iecaiaenoai e i?iecaiaenoai yia?aee aoaeao aiceiaeaii ia iaoeiu.

( I?eia?:

Ii aeaiiui nioeeieiae/aneiai enneaaeiaaiey, i?iaaaeaiiiai a NOA, oaea
nae/an 27 iei. ?aaioathueo iiaoo inouanoaeoue naith aeayoaeueiinoue, ia
auoiaey ec aeiia, a 1/3 anao iaaeaaii ca?aaeno?e?iaaiiuo oe?i iniiaaia
ia oe?ieii eniieueciaaiee naiinoiyoaeueiie caiyoinoe. A NOA e eaoaai?ee
naiinoiyoaeueii iaiyouo auee ioianaiu: a 1980 a. – 5,7 iei. /aeiaae, a
1989 a. – 14.6 iei., a a 1995 a. – 20.7 iei. /aeiaae. )

I?e ia?aoiaea e eioi?iaoeeiiiiio iauanoao aicieeaao iiaay eiaeono?ey
ia?a?aaioee eioi?iaoeee ia aaca eiiiuethoa?iuo e oaeaeiiioieeaoeeiiiuo
eioi?iaoeeiiiuo oaoiieiaee.

?yae o/aiuo auaeaeytho oa?aeoa?iua /a?ou eioi?iaoeeiiiiai iauanoaa:

( ?aoaia i?iaeaia eioi?iaoeeiiiiai e?ecena, o.a. ?ac?aoaii
i?ioeai?a/ea iaaeaeo eioi?iaoeeiiiie eaaeiie e eioi?iaoeeiiiui aieiaeii;

( iaania/ai i?ei?eoao eioi?iaoeee ii n?aaiaieth n ae?oaeie ?ano?naie;

( aeaaiie oi?iie ?acaeoey noaiao eioi?iaoeeiiiay yeiiiieea;

( eioi?iaoeeiiiay oaoiieiaey i?eia?aoaao aeiaaeueiue oa?aeoa?,
ioaaouaay ana noa?u nioeeaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe /aeiaaea;

( oi?ie?oaony eioi?iaoeeiiiia aaeeinoai anae /aeiaa/aneie
oeeaeeecaoeee;

( ?aaeeciaaiu aoiaienoe/aneea i?eioeeiu oi?aaeaiey iauanoaii e
aicaeaenoaey ia ie?oaeathuoth n?aaeo;

E?iia iieiaeeoaeueiuo iiiaioia i?iaiice?othony e iianiua oaiaeaioeee:

( ana aieueoaa aeeyiea ia iauanoai n?aaenoa ianniaie eioi?iaoeee;

( eioi?iaoeeiiiua oaoiieiaee iiaoo ?ac?ooeoue /anoioth aeeciue
ethaeae e i?aaiecaoeee;

( iiiaei ethaeyi aoaeao o?oaeii aaeaioe?iaaoueny e n?aaea iiaiai
iauanoaa. Nouanoaoao iianiinoue ?ac?uaa iaaeaeo « eioi?iaoeeiiiie yeeoie
» ( ethaeueie, caieiathueieny ?ac?aaioeie eioi?iaoeeiiiuo oaoiieiaee ) e
iio?aaeoaeyie.

( I?eia?:

Iia ee/ii i?eoiaeeeanue ano?a/aoueny n ethaeueie, i?aeoe/anee ie/aai
ia iiieiathueie a oaoieea, ii ooaa?aeaeathueie, iai?eia?, /oi YAI e
eiiiuethoa? – aeaa ?aciua aaue. Oioy auoaaeoee nae/an ec oiio?aaeaiey
oa?iei YAI – yoi ?aiia-niaaoneee aiaeia aiaeeeneiai neiaa computer (
au/eneeoaeue ). Ii-aeaeeiiio, yoi yaeyaony ia?aaeeoeii oiai a?aiaie,
eiaaea eaaeaeia i?aaei?eyoea, oae eee eia/a naycaiiia n yeaeo?iieeie,
auioneaei naie nianoaaiiue eiiiuethoa?, iineaoee ai?aeia iacaaiea,
/oi-oi a?iaea A?I, OEIOe, AeAE, ?IO. Ii eiaiii ec oao ia?auo
i?ia?aiienoia ?aaioathueo ia yoeo eneiiaaiuo, aaniethoii ie n /ai ia
niaianoeiuo iaiiioao, ?iaeeeenue naaiaeiyoiea niaoeeaeenou yeno?a –
eeanna, oeaieiua ca ?oaaaeii ( o.a. ia a ?innee ) ia aan cieioa . )

?ieue eioi?iaoecaoeee a ?acaeoee iauanoaa

*oi oaeia i?ioeann eioi?iaoecaoeee iauanoaa

Aeayoaeueiinoue ioaeaeueiuo ethaeae, a?oii, eieeaeoeaia e
i?aaiecaoeee nae/an ana a aieueoae noaiaie ia/eiaao caaenaoue io eo
eioi?ie?iaaiiinoe e niiniaiinoe yooaeoeaii eniieueciaaoue eiathuothny
eioi?iaoeeth. I?aaeaea /ai i?aaei?eiyoue eaeea-oi aeaenoaey, iaiaoiaeeii
i?iaanoe aieueooth ?aaioo ii nai?o e ia?a?aaioea eioi?iaoeee, aa
iniuneaieth e aiaeeco. Iouneaiea ?aoeeiiaeueiuo ?aoaiee a ethaie noa?a
o?aaoao ia?aaioee aieueoeo iauaiia eioi?iaoeee, /oi iiae/an iaaiciiaeii
aac i?eaea/aiey niaoeeaeueiuo oaoie/aneeo n?aaenoa.

Aic?anoaiea iauaia eioi?iaoeee iniaaiii noaei caiaoii a na?aaeeia XX
a. Eaaeiiia?aciue iioie eioi?iaoeee oeuioe ia /aeiaaea, ia aeaaay aio
aiciiaeiinoe aini?eiyoue yoo eioi?iaoeeth a iieiie ia?a. A aaeaaeiaaii
iiyaeythuainy iiaii iioiea eioi?iaoeee i?eaioe?iaaoueny noaiiaeeinue ana
o?oaeiaa. Iiae/an auaiaeiaa noaei nicaeaaaoue iiaue iaoa?eaeueiue eee
eioaeeaeooaeueiue i?iaeoeo, iaaeaee aanoe ?icune aiaeiaa, naeaeaiiiai
?aiaa. Ia?aciaaiea aieueoeo iioieia eioi?iaoeee iaoneaaeeaaaony:

( auno?ui ?inoii /enea aeieoiaioia, io/aoia, aeenna?oaoeee e o.i., a
eioi?uo eceaaathony ?acoeueoaou iao/iuo enneaaeiaaiee e iiuoii –
eiino?oeoi?neeo ?aaio;

( iinoiyiii oaaee/eaathueiny /eneii ia?eiaee/aneeo ecaeaiee ii ?aciui
iaeanoyi /aeiaa/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe;

( iiyaeaieai aeaiiuo ( aaioece/aneeo, iaaeeoeeineeo e ae?. ),
caienuaaaiuo iau/ii ia iaaieoiuo eaioao e iiyoiio ia iiiaaeathueo a
noa?o aeaenoaey nenoaiu eiiioieeaoeee.

Eae ?acoeueoao – ianooiaao eioi?iaoeeiiiue e?ecen, eioi?ue eiaao
neaaeothuea i?iyaeaiey:

( iiyaeythony i?ioeai?a/ey iaaeaeo ia?aie/aiiuie aiciiaeiinoyie
/aeiaaea ii aini?eyoeth e ia?a?aaioea eioi?iaoeee e nouanoaothueie
iiuiuie iioieaie e ianneaaie o?aiyuaeny eioi?iaoeee. Oae, iai?eia?,
iauay noiia ciaiee iaiyeanue aia/aea i/aiue iaaeeaiii, ii oaea n 1900 a.
iia oaeaaeaaeanue eaaeaeua 50 eao, e 1950 a. oaeaiaiea i?ienoiaeeei
eaaeaeua 10 eao, e 1970 a. – oaea eaaeaeua 5 eao, n 1990 a. –
aaeaaiaeii;

( nouanoaoao aieueoia eiee/anoai ecauoi/iie eioi?iaoeee, eioi?ay
cao?oaeiyao aini?eyoea iieaciie aeey iio?aaeoaey eioi?iaoeee;

( aicieeatho ii?aaeaeaiiua yeiiiie/aneea, iieeoe/aneea e ae?oaea
nioeeaeueiua aa?uea?u, eioi?ua i?aiyonoaotho ?ani?ino?aiaieth
eioi?iaoeee. Iai?eia?, ii i?e/eia niaethaeaiey nae?aoiinoe /anoi
iaiaoiaeeiie eioi?iaoeeae ia iiaoo ainiieueciaaoueny ?aaioieee ?aciuo
aaaeiinoa.

Yoe i?e/eiu ii?iaeeee aanueia ia?aaeienaeueioth neooaoeeth – a ie?a
iaeiieai a?iiaaeiue eioi?iaoeeiiiue iioaioeeae, ii ethaee ia iiaoo ei
ainiieueciaaoueny a iieiii iauaia a neeo ia?aie/aiiinoe naieo
aiciiaeiinoae. Eioi?iaoeeiiiue e?ecen iinoaaee iauanoai ia?aae
iaiaoiaeeiinoueth iienea iooae auoiaea ec nicaeaaoaainy iieiaeaiey.
Aiaae?aiea eiiiuethoa?ia, nia?aiaiiuo n?aaenoa ia?a?aaioee e ia?aaea/e
eioi?iaoeee a ?acee/iua noa?u aeayoaeueiinoe iineoaeeei ia/aeii iiaiai
yaiethoeeiiiiai i?ioeanna, iacuaaaiiai eioi?iaoecaoeeae, a ?acaeoee
/aeiaa/aneiai iauanoaa, iaoiaeyuaainy ia yoaia eiaeono?eaeueiiai

?acaeoey. ( Eioi?iaoecaoeey iauanoaa – i?aaieciaaiiue nioeeaeueii –
yeiiiie/aneee e iao/ii – oaoie/aneee i?ioeann nicaeaiey iioeiaeueiuo
oneiaee aeey oaeiaeaoai?aiey eioi?iaoeeiiiuo iio?aaiinoae e ?aaeecaoeee
i?aa a?aaeaeai, i?aaiia ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe, i?aaiia ianoiiai
naiioi?aaeaiey, i?aaiecaoeee, iauanoaaiiuo iauaaeeiaiee ia iniiaa
oi?ie?iaaiey e eniieueciaaiey eioi?iaoeeiiiuo ?ano?nia.)

Eioi?iaoecaoeey iauanoaa yaeyaony iaeiie ec caeiiiia?iinoae
nia?aiaiiiai nioeeaeueiiai i?ia?anna. Yoio oa?iei ana ianoie/eaaa
auoaniyao oe?iei eniieuecoaiue aei iaaeaaiaai a?aiaie «
eiiiuethoa?ecaoeey iauanoaa ». I?e aiaoiae noiaeanoe yoeo iiiyoee iie
eiatho nouanoaaiiia ?acee/ea.

I?e eiiiuethoa?ecaoeee iauanoaa iniiaiia aieiaiea oaeaeyaony
?acaeoeth e aiaae?aieth oaoie/aneie aacu eiiiuethoa?ia, iaania/eaathueo
iia?aoeaiia iieo/aiea ?acoeueoaoia ia?a?aaioee eioi?iaoeee e aa
iaeiieaiea.

I?e eioi?iaoecaoeee iauanoaa iniiaiia aieiaiea oaeaeyaony eiiieaeno
ia?, iai?aaeaiiuo ia iaania/aiea iieiiai eniieueciaaiey aeinoiaa?iiai,
en/a?iuaathuaai e naiaa?aiaiiiai ciaiey ai anao aeaeao /aeiaa/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoe.

Oaeei ia?acii, « eioi?iaoecaoeey iauanoaa » yaeyaony aieaa oe?ieei
iiiyoeai, /ai « eiiiuethoa?ecaoeee iauanoaa », e iai?aaeaia ia nei?aeoaa
iaeaaeaiea eioi?iaoeeae aeey oaeiaeaoai?aiey naieo iio?aaiinoae.
Eioi?iaoecaoeey ia aaca aiaae?aiey eiiiuethoa?iuo e
oaeaeiiioieeaoeeiiiuo oaoiieiaee yaeyaony ?aaeoeeae iauanoaa ia
iio?aaiinoue a nouanoaaiiii oaaee/aiee i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea a
eioi?iaoeeiiiii naeoi?a iauanoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa, aaea nin?aaeioi/aii
aieaa iieiaeiu o?oaeiniiniaiiai ianaeaiey. Oae, iai?eia?, a
eioi?iaoeeiiiie noa?a NOA caiyoi aieaa 60% o?oaeiniiniaiiai ianaeaiey, a
NIA – ieiei 40%.

Iiuo eioi?iaoecaoeee e ia?niaeoeaiua eaeae

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy ana no?aiu ie?a a oie eee eiie noaiaie
inouanoaeytho i?ioeann eioi?iaoecaoeee. Iai?aaeeueii aua?aiiay no?aoaaey
eioi?iaoecaoeee eee aa iaaeinoaoi/iua aeeiaieci e iiaeeueiinoue iiaoo
i?eaanoe e nouanoaaiiui, a iiae/an ae?aiaoe/aneei eciaiaieyi ai anao
noa?ao aeecie no?aiu. Eae ecaanoii, ia?aay no?aia, eioi?ay ia/aea
eioi?iaoecaoeeth, – yoi NOA. Ae?oaea i?iiuoeaiii ?acaeoua no?aiu ie?a,
iiiya ia?niaeoeaiinoue e iaecaaaeiinoue yoiai iai?aaeaiey, aeinoaoi/ii
auno?i ni?eaioe?iaaeenue e noaee ia?aueaaoue oaiiu aiaae?aiey
eiiiuethoa?ia e n?aaenoa oaeaeiiioieeaoeee. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy any
aeaeiaay e iieeoe/aneay i?anna NOA iieia aaneiia/iuo aeeneonnee i iioa?a
?uieia nauoa yoie no?aiie a eiiiuethoa?iie e iee?iyeaeo?iiiie iaeanoyo
ca n/ao auoaniaiey NOA ae?oaeie ?acaeouie no?aiaie ( ssiiieae, Aa?iaieae
e ae?.).

A aieueoeinoaa ?acaeouo no?ai iiieiatho, /oi aac /?acau/aeiuo oneeee
ionoaaaiea a iaeanoe eioi?iaoeeiiiuo e eiiioieeaoeeiiiuo oaoiieiaee
iiaeao noaoue iaia?aoeiui aeey eo ?acaeoey a oeaeii. ?oeiaiaeeoaee
iaeioi?uo no?ai « o?aoueaai ie?a » n ia?anoathuae o?aaiaie
iaaethaeatho ca ana aieueoei ionoaaaieai eo io i?iiuoeaiii ?acaeouo
no?ai, inouanoaeythueo eioi?iaoecaoeeth. Yoi iiaeao i?eaanoe e oiio, /oi
no?aia aoaeao aini?eieiaoueny eae nu?ueaaie i?eaeaoie niiauanoaa
eioi?iaoeeiiii e i?iiuoeaiii ?acaeouo no?ai. Yoi a iieiie ia?a ioiineony
e e ?innee.

A ethaie no?aia, iacaaeneii io o?iaiy aa ?acaeoey iiieiatho a oie eee
eiie ia?a iaecaaaeiinoue e iaiaoiaeeiinoue i?aoai?aiey a aeeciue eaeae
eioi?iaoecaoeee iauanoaa. Iiiaea no?aiu eiatho iaoeeiiaeueiua i?ia?aiiu
eioi?iaoecaoeee n o/aoii ianoiuo iniaaiiinoae e oneiaee. Iaeiaei i?e
nicaeaiee e aiaae?aiee oaeeo i?ia?aii neaaeoao iie?aoueny ia iiuo
ia?aaeiauo no?ai, o/anoue eo oniaoe e iaoaea/e, io?aceoue a ieo
nouanoaothuea e ia?niaeoeaiua oaiaeaioeee eioi?iaoecaoeee.

?acoeueoaoii i?ioeanna eioi?iaoecaoeee yaeyaony nicaeaiea
eioi?iaoeeiiiiai iauanoaa, aaea iaieioee?otho ia iaoa?eaeueiuie
iauaeoaie, a neiaieaie, eaeayie, ia?acaie, eioaeeaeoii, ciaieyie. Anee
?anniio?aoue /aeiaa/anoai a oeaeii, oi iii a ianoiyuaa a?aiy ia?aoiaeeo
io eiaeono?eaeueiiai iauanoaa e eioi?iaoeeiiiiio.

Aeey eaaeaeie no?aiu aa aeaeaeaiea io eiaeono?eaeueiiai yoaia
?acaeoey e eioi?iaoeeiiiiio ii?aaeaeyaony noaiaiueth eioi?iaoecaoeee
iauanoaa.

?ieue n?aaenoa ianniaie eioi?iaoeee

Iaeiie ec ioee/eoaeueiuo iniaaiiinoae aeecie a nia?aiaiiii iauanoaa
yaeyaony aeaaioneia ?acaeoea n?aaenoa ianniaie eioi?iaoeee. Iinoaaeaiiua
nia?aiaiiuie iao/ii-oaoie/aneeie ?ac?aaioeaie ia ea/anoaaiii iiaue
o?iaaiue e iauaaeeiaiiua n?aaenoaaie nayce a ie?iaua
eioi?iaoeeiiii-eiiioieeaoeeiiiua naoe, iie ieacuaatho /?acau/aeii
neeueiia aeeyiea ia ineoieiaeth a?iiaaeiie iannu ethaeae ai anai ie?a.
Iniaaiii neeueii e io/aoeeai yoi iaia?oaeeaaaony a iaeaieaa ?acaeouo
no?aiao Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu, NOA, ssiiiee, Aaeeeia?eoaiee. N iiiiuueth
n?aaenoa ianniaie eioi?iaoeee aiciiaeii iaieioee?iaaiea iauanoaaiiui
iiaieai, nicaeaiea iaiaoiaeeiuo ineoieiae/aneeo i?aaeiinueie aeey
oi?ie?iaaiey iieeoe/aneeo ?aoaiee a ?acee/iuo noa?ao aeayoaeueiinoe.

?acaeoeth n?aaenoa ianniaie eioi?iaoeee ai iiiaii niinianoaoao
i?ioeann eioi?iaoecaoeee iauanoaa. Iiyaeaiea iiauo oaoie/aneeo n?aaenoa,
eioi?iaoeeiiiuo oaoiieiaee e ae?. iaania/eaaao naiaa?aiaiiue nai?,
iaeiieaiea, iia?aoeaioth ia?aaioeo e ia?aaea/o eioi?iaoeee a ethaoth
oi/eo ie?iaiai i?ino?ainoaa. Eae neaaenoaea, noaiiaeony aiciiaeiui
i?eiyoea iia?aoeaiuo ?aoaiee e oeaeaiai?aaeaiiuo aicaeaenoaee ia
iauanoai. Yoi iaeia ec i?e/ei, aneaaenoaea eioi?uo i?aaeoaeuenoaa
iaeaieaa ia?aaeiauo no?ai a iineaaeiea aiaeu noaee oaeaeyoue aieueoia
aieiaiea ?acaeoeth eioi?iaoeeiiiie noa?u i?iecaiaenoaa. Ia?yaeo n
iiceoeaiui aeeyieai eioi?iaoecaoeee iauanoaa ia n?aaenoaa ianniaie
eioi?iaoeee nouanoaoao e iaaaoeaiia. Oae, ?yae o/aiuo ai iiiaeo no?aiao
cayaeytho, /oi oaoie/aneee i?ia?ann a noa?a ianniaie eiiioieeaoeee
neoaeeo a iaeioi?uo neo/ayo nioeeaeueiiio ?aa?anno iauanoaa, oae eae
ii?ie ?ac?ooaao aaeaie nicaeaaaaiua nioeeaeueiua eiiioieeaoeeiiiua
nayce.

A naith i/a?aaeue, e n?aaenoaa ianniaie eioi?iaoeee iiaoo ieacuaaoue
aeeyiea ia i?ioeann eioi?iaoecaoeee iauanoaa, ?aeeaie?oy iiaua
eioi?iaoeeiiiua i?iaeoeou e oneoae, oi?ie?oy iauanoaaiiia iiaiea i
i?ei?eoaoiinoe yoiai i?ioeanna ii n?aaiaieth n ae?oaeie, i
ia?ainoaiaiiie aaaeiinoe i?iaiaeeiuo ia?ii?eyoee ii aai eioaineoeeaoeee,
i ?iee eioi?iaoeeiiiie noa?u a iiaeaee aoaeouaai eioi?iaoeeiiiiai
iauanoaa.

Ia eioi?iaoeeiiiie eoeueoo?a

A ia?eiae ia?aoiaea e eioi?iaoeeiiiiio iauanoao e?iia ?aoaiey
iienaiiuo auoa i?iaeai iaiaoiaeeii iiaeaioiaeoue /aeiaaea e auno?iio
aini?eyoeth e ia?aaioea aieueoeo iauaiia eioi?iaoeee, iaeaaeaieth ei
nia?aiaiiuie n?aaenoaaie, iaoiaeaie e oaoiieiaeae ?aaiou. E?iia oiai,
iiaua oneiaey ?aaiou ii?iaeaeatho caaeneiinoue eioi?ie?iaaiiinoe iaeiiai
/aeiaaea io eioi?iaoeee, i?eia?aoaiiie ae?oaeie ethaeueie. Iiyoiio oaea
iaaeinoaoi/ii oiaoue naiinoiyoaeueii inaaeaaoue e iaeaieeaaoue
eioi?iaoeeth, a iaaei iao/eoueny oaeie oaoiieiaee ?aaiou n eioi?iaoeeae,
eiaaea iiaeaioaaeeaathony e i?eieiathony ?aoaiey ia iniiaa eieeaeoeaiiai
ciaiey. Yoi aiai?eo i oii, /oi /aeiaae aeieaeai eiaoue ii?aaeaeaiiue
o?iaaiue eoeueoo?u ii ia?auaieth n eioi?iaoeeae. Aeey io?aaeaiey yoiai
oaeoa aue aaaaeai oa?iei eioi?iaoeeiiiay eoeueoo?a.

Eioi?iaoeeiiiay eoeueoo?a – oiaiea oeaeaiai?aaeaiii ?aaioaoue n
eioi?iaoeeae e eniieueciaaoue aeey aa iieo/aiey, ia?aaioee e ia?aaea/e
eiiiuethoa?ioth eioi?iaoeeiiioth oaoiieiaeth, nia?aiaiiua oaoie/aneea
n?aaenoaa e iaoiaeu.

Aeey naiaiaeiie i?eaioaoeee a eioi?iaoeeiiiii iioiea /aeiaae aeieaeai
iaeaaeaoue eioi?iaoeeiiiie eoeueoo?ie eae iaeiie ec ninoaaeythueo iauae
eoeueoo?u. Eioi?iaoeeiiiay eoeueoo?a naycaia n nioeeaeueiie i?e?iaeie
/aeiaaea. Iia yaeyaony i?iaeoeoii ?aciiia?aciuo oai?/aneeo niiniaiinoae
/aeiaaea e i?iyaeyaony a neaaeothueo aniaeoao:

( a eiie?aoiuo iaaueao ii eniieueciaaieth oaoie/aneeo ono?ienoa;

( a niiniaiinoe eniieueciaaoue a naiae aeayoaeueiinoe eiiiuethoa?ioth
eioi?iaoeeiiioth oaoiieiaeth;

( a oiaiee ecaeaeaoue eioi?iaoeeth ec ?acee/iuo enoi/ieeia: eae ec
ia?eiaee/aneie ia/aoe, oae e ec yeaeo?iiiuo eiiioieeaoeee,
i?aaenoaaeyoue aa a iiiyoiii aeaea e oiaoue aa yooaeoeaii
eniieueciaaoue;

( ai aeaaeaiee iniiaaie aiaeeoe/aneie ia?a?aaioee eioi?iaoeee;

( a oiaiee ?aaioaoue n ?acee/iie eioi?iaoeeae;

( a ciaiee iniaaiiinoae eioi?iaoeeiiiuo iioieia a naiae iaeanoe
aeayoaeueiinoe.

Eioi?iaoeeiiiay eoeueoo?a aae?aao a naay ciaiey ec oao iaoe, eioi?ua
niinianoaotho aa ?acaeoeth e i?eniiniaeaieth e eiie?aoiiio aeaeo
aeayoaeueiinoe ( eeaa?iaoeea, oai?ey eioi?iaoeee e ae?. ). Iaiouaieaiie
/anoueth eioi?iaoeeiiiie eoeueoo?u yaeythony ciaiea iiaie
eioi?iaoeeiiiie oaoiieiaee e oiaiea aa i?eiaiyoue eae aeey
aaoiiaoecaoeee ?ooeiiuo iia?aoeee, oae e a iai?aeeia?iuo neooaoeeyo,
o?aaothueo iao?aaeeoeeiiiiai oai?/aneiai iiaeoiaea.

A eioi?iaoeeiiiii iauanoaa iaiaoiaeeii ia/aoue iaeaaeaaaoue
eioi?iaoeeiiiie eoeueoo?ie n aeaonoaa, nia/aea n iiiiuueth yeaeo?iiiuo
ea?ooae, a caoai i?eaeaeay ia?niiaeueiue eiiiuethoa?. Aeey AOCia
nioeeaeueiui caeacii eioi?iaoeeiiiiai iauanoaa neaaeoao n/eoaoue
iaania/aiea o?iaiy eioi?iaoeeiiiie eoeueoo?u nooaeaioa, iaiaoiaeeiie
aeey ?aaiou a eiie?aoiie noa?a aeayoaeueiinoe. I?e/ai ia?yaeo n
eco/aieai oai?aoe/aneeo aeenoeeieei eioi?iaoeeiiiiai iai?aaeaiey iiiai
a?aiaie iaiaoiaeeii oaeaeeoue eiiiuethoa?iui eioi?iaoeeiiiui
oaoiieiaeyi, yaeythueiny aaciauie ninoaaeythueie aoaeouae noa?u
aeayoaeueiinoe. Ea/anoai iao/aiey aeieaeii ii?aaeaeyoueny noaiaiueth
cae?aieaiiuo onoie/eauo iaaueia ?aaiou a n?aaea aaciauo eioi?iaoeeiiiuo
oaoiieiaee i?e ?aoaiee oeiiauo caaea/ noa?u aeayoaeueiinoe.

A eioi?iaoeeiiiii iauanoaa oeaio? oyaeanoe i?eoiaeeony ia
iauanoaaiiia i?iecaiaenoai, aaea nouanoaaiii iiauoathony o?aaiaaiey e
o?iaith iiaeaioiaee anao aai o/anoieeia. Iiyoiio a i?ia?aiia
eioi?iaoecaoeee neaaeoao iniaia aieiaiea oaeaeeoue eioi?iaoecaoeee
ia?aciaaiey eae iai?aaeaiey, naycaiiiai n i?eia?aoaieai e ?acaeoeai
eioi?iaoeeiiiie eoeueoo?u /aeiaaea. Yoi, a naith i/a?aaeue, noaaeo
ia?aciaaiea a iieiaeaiea « iauaeoa » eioi?iaoeee, aaea o?aaoaony oae
eciaieoue niaea?aeaiea iiaeaioiaee, /oiau iaania/eoue aoaeouaio
niaoeeaeenoo ia oieueei iauaia?aciaaoaeueiua e i?ioanneiiaeueiua ciaiey
a iaeanoe eioi?iaoeee, ii e iaiaoiaeeiue o?iaaiue eioi?iaoeeiiiie
eoeueoo?u. Iianaianoiia aiaae?aiea ia?niiaeueiiai eiiiuethoa?a ai ana
noa?u ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa, iiaua aai aiciiaeiinoe ii i?aaiecaoeee «
ae?oaeanoaaiiie » i?ia?aiiiie n?aaeu, i?eaioe?iaaiiie ia iieueciaaoaey,
eniieueciaaiea oaeaeiiioieeaoeeiiiie nayce, iaania/eaathuae iiaua
oneiaey ?aaiou niaoeeaeenoia, i?eiaiaiea eioi?iaoeeiiiuo oaoiieiaee aeey
naiie ?aciiia?aciie aeayoaeueiinoe, iinoiyiii ?anoouay iio?aaiinoue a
niaoeeaeenoao, niiniaiuo aa inouanoaeyoue, noaayo ia?aae ainoaea?noaii
i?iaeaio ii ia?aniio?o anae nenoaiu iiaeaioiaee ia nia?aiaiiuo
oaoiieiae/aneeo i?eioeeiao. A iaoae no?aia ?aoaiea yoie i?iaeaiu
iaoiaeeony ia ia/aeueiie noaaeee, iiyoiio oeaeaniia?acii o/anoue iiuo
iaeaieaa ?acaeouo no?ai, aaea yoio i?ioeann oaea iieo/ee cia/eoaeueiia
?acaeoea.

Nienie eniieuecoaiie eeoa?aoo?u:

Aethiaiao Ae.E. Eioi?iaoeey e eioi?iaoeeiiiue na?aen. – I.:Iaoea,1989.

Eioi?iaoeeiiiua ?ano?nu ?innee. – I:?ineioi?i?ano?n,1996

?aeeoia A.E. Oeeinioey eiiiuethoa?iie ?aaiethoeee. – I.:Iieeoe/aneay
eeoa?aoo?a,1990.

O?noe A.Ae. Eioi?iaoecaoeey iauanoaa. – I.:1990.

Aieeoeui A.A., Iao?ia A.I. Eioi?iaoeey.Iiaaaeaiea.Oai?/anoai. –
I.:Iaoea,1991.

Oeao?iia A.Y. IBM PC aeey iieueciaaoaey. – I.:Eio?a-I,1989.

Eooie?aiei A.A. e ae?. Iniiau eioi?iaoeee e au/eneeoaeueiie oaoieee. –
I.: I?inaauaiea,1990.

Aaoy? O.E. Eioi?iaoeea.

Iiaeoeaee aeo?iaeia:

Eiiiuethoa? i?ann,

Eiiiuethoa??a,

Ie? IE .

9) Neiaa?ue nia?aiaiiuo eiiiuethoa?iuo oa?ieiia.

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