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Ответы на вопросы по русской философии философского факультета СПбГУ

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Enoi?einioey ?onneie oeeinioee.

A. E. Aaaaeaineee “Noaeueau oeeinioee a ?innee”.

Iinoaiiaea aii?ina.

A.A. ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi aii?aee anyeiai ?iaea iiaieyi, a ?innee
nouanoaoao oeeinioey, iia ia eneonnoaaiiia yaeaiea, a neaaenoaea
aeoaieie iio?aaiinoe ?onneiai oia. E i?ioeia ?onneie oeeinioee iicaieyao
i?aaeiieiaeeoue, /oi a aoaeouai iia “e o ian iai?aiaiii aeinoeaiao oaeie
aea auniou ?acaeoey e oaeie aea neeu aeeyiey, eae e a iaeaieaa
eoeueoo?iuo no?aiao, ?acoiaaony, anee ia ano?aoyony eaeea-ieaoaeue
iai?aiaeieeiua i?aiyonoaey /enoi aiaoiaai oa?aeoa?a”.

Ioiineoaeueii caeinoaiaaiiiai oa?aeoa?a ?onneie oeeinioee, A,A, aiai?eo
i oii, /oi yoi aiieia iiiyoii e anoanoaaiii, oae eae aieueoaa eee
iaiueoaa caeinoaiaaiea e iiae/eiaiea /oaeei aeeyieyi – “yoi iauee caeii
?acaeoey oeeinioee ethaiai aa?iiaeneiai ia?iaea”. “*ooeinoue e /oaeei
o/aieyi – iaeeo/oee caeia oniaoiiai ?acaeoey oeeinioee”. *oi eanaaony
?onneie oeeinioee, oi niio?aoue iaaei ia oi, eae aeaaii i?iecioei yoi
caeinoaiaaiea, i?e eaeeo oneiaeyo iii niaa?oaeinue e ?ani?ino?aiyeanue e
/oi eiaiii oniaea naeaeaoue o ian oeeinioey i?e yoeo oneiaeyo.

Ia?aue ia?eiae – iiaeaioiaeoaeueiue.

A?aiy iiyaeaiey oeeinioee a ?innee – 1775 aiae, a?aiy ioe?uoey
Iineianeiai oieaa?neoaoa. Aei yoiai, a aeooiaiuo aeaaeaieyo Iineau e
Eeaaa iiae eiaiai oeeinioee i?aiiaeaaaeanue aacaeeciaiiay noieanoeea.

A I. O. Oeeinioey i?aiiaeaaaeanue ii o/aaieeai e a aeooa aieueoeaineie
oeieu. Eaeae yoie oeieu ieacaee ii?aaeaeaiiia aeeyiea ia iaeioi?uo
?onneeo iuneeoaeae, ii a iaiueoae noaiaie, iaaeaee o?aioeocneay
oeeinioey, eioi?ay i?e Aeaoa?eia 2 ?ani?ino?aieeanue ae i?e aeai?a, oae
e ai anai a?aiioiii iauanoaa. Iiyaeeanue ianna ia?aaiaeia ni/eiaiee
o?aioeocneeo iuneeoaeae: Aieueoa?a, ?onni, Iiioaneuea, Aaeueaaoeey,
Eiiaeeeueyea e iiiaeo ae?oaeo. (oee. yioeeeeiiaaeenoia)N?aaee
aini?eiyouo io o?aioeocia eaeae auei e oae iacuaaaiia “aieueoa?eainoai”
– iaoa?eaeeci e yoe/aneee nainoaeeci. (io?eoe. noi?iiu o?. oee.)Iaeiaei
A. A. ioia/aao, /oi aeey aieueoeinoaa ?onneeo ni/eiaiey o?aioeocneeo
oeeinioia auee eeoue /oaieai – aeoaieiiuneaiiui eee ino?ioiiui; ii iii
i?eieiaeinue iiaa?oiinoii, eae au “aiaeaeioe/anee” (iaaaaeanoai ?onneiai
iauanoaa). A. I. Iuiei – n?aaee ?onneeo /eoaoaeae ?ani?ino?aiyeinue ia
noieueei iiieiaiea, neieueei neaaa o?aioeocneeo ienaoaeae. Ainiiaenoai
o?. oeeinioee a ia/aea 19 aaea en/acei, i?iaoaeea no?aieaiea e
oeeinioneiio iuoeaieth, iiaeaioiaea e aieaa aeoaieiio onaiaieth
caiaaeiie oee.

Aanue ia?aue iyoeaeanyoeeaoiee ia?eiae aue iiaeaioiaeoaeueiui. Aeaaea
iiyaeaiea A?eai?ey Naaae/a Neiai?iaeu (oe?.) ia i?ioeai?a/eo yoiio.
Aiieia ni?aaaaeeeai n/eoaoue Neiai?iaeo ia?aui ?onneei oeeinioii e
auniei oeaieoue ia oieueei aai i?eaeiaeueiinoue e aeoaeio iunee, a
oaeaea e oneoae, ieacaiiua ei aeey i?inaauaiey neiaiaeneie Oe?aeiu,
iaeiaei, ii iiaieth A. A. aai aeeyiea eiaei /enoi ianoiue oa?aeoa? (ii
ia iaia/aoae ie iaeiiai naiaai i?iecaaaeaiey) e ia ia?ooaei ainiiaenoaa
o?aioeocia.

Nei?aa ii/oanoaiaaa, /ai iiiya iaeiinoi?iiiinoue o?. oee. ?onneea
iuneeoaee ia?aoeeenue e iaiaoeeiio eaeaaeecio. Aai aeeyiea auei ai?acaei
aeoaaea.

A eoiaa, “onaiaiea caiaaeiie oee. i?iaeieaeaaony o ian iaiaa noieaoey –
n?ie cia/eoaeueii iaiueoee n?aaieoaeueii n oai, eaeie aue eno?a/ai ia
Caiaaea ia iiiuoee ia?aeoe io aic?iaeaeaiey ae?aaiae oee. e
naiinoiyoaeueiie iiaie, aicieeoae aia?aua a eeoea Aeaea?oa e
Ayeiia.?acaa iaeii yoi ianoayoaeuenoai oaea ia auei aeinoaoi/iie
i?e/eiie aeey iauyniaiey n?aaieoaeueii iaaunieiai ?acaeoey nia?aiaiiie
?onneie oeeinioee?

Aoi?ie ia?eiae – ainiiaenoai aa?iaineiai eaeaaeecia.

A yoio ia?eiae i?aiiaeaaaiea oeeinioee auei oe?iei iinoaaeaii ia oieueei
a oieaa?neoaoao e aeooiaiuo aeaaeaieyo, ii aeaaea a naieia?eyo e
aeiiaceyo. A naieia?eyo i?aiiaeaaaeanue eiaeea, iaoaoeceea, ineoieiaey,
i?aanoaaiiay oeeinioey, a n 1813 aiaea – e enoi?ey oeeinioee. Oaeei
ia?acii iiieii naaoneie oee, a ?innee ia/eiaao ?acaeaaoueny e aeooiaiay
oee. Iaeiaei a yoio ia?eiae iia ?acaeaaeanue aac anyeiai aeeyiey ia
naaoneoth e aeaaea ii/oe ia eiaea cia/aiey aeey “iauaai oiaea iaoaai
oinoaaiiiai ?acaeoey”. Iia ?acaeaaeanue i?e iaaeaaii?eyoiuo oneiaeyo,
eioi?ua ei?aieeenue a iauae i?aaiecaoeee aeooiaainoaa e a oii no?ia,
eioi?ue iia ii?aaeaeyea. Aeooiaiay oee. ?anniao?eaaeanue ia/aeuenoaii
eae neoaeaiea aiaineiaey.

Ia/eiay n 1805 aiaea a naaoneie oee. ia/aeanue i?iiaaaiaea o/aiee Eaioa,
Oeooa e Oaeeeiaa. Yoio ia?eiae oaeaea aeeeeny 50 eao, aei anooieaiey ia
i?anoie Aeaenaiae?a 2. Iaeiaiueoei oniaoii iieueciaaeanue oeeinioey
Oeooa (ia?aue oa?ueeianeee i?ioanni? Oaae – a 1813 aiaeo iiyaeeny aai
ia?aaiae ni/eiaiey Oeooa “ssniaeoaa eceiaeaiea, a /ai ninoieo
nouanoaaiiay neea iiaaeoae oeeinioee. Iiuo i?eioaeeoue /eoaoaeae e
?acoiaieth”). Eaioii eioa?aniaaeenue a aieueoae noaiaie, iniaaiii a
Eacaie, aai aieueoa ia?aaiaeeee, iaiaei ienaee iiai, “i?aaaea aieueoa
ii?iaa?aay aai, /ai niaeaoaynue n iei”. Aeaaiui ia?acii
?ani?ino?aiyeinue o/aiea Oaeeeiaa (oieueei a eiioea 30 aiaeia iii
onooieei ianoi Aaaaeth). Ia?aue, eoi noae ?ani?ino?aiyoue
iaoo?oeeinioeth a ?innee, aue i?ioanni? aiaoiiee e oeceieiaee
N.-Iaoa?ao?anie iaaeeei-oe?o?ae/aneie aeaaeaiee Aaeeaineee. Aai eaeoeee
iieueciaaeenue aieueoie iiioey?iinoueth. A Iaoa?ao?aa eaeae Oaeeeiaa
?ani?ino?aiye e Aaee/, i?ioanni? Iaaeaaiae/aneiai oieaa?neoaoa, oae, a
/anoiinoe, eceiaeaiea nenoaiu Oaeeeiaa ii iiianoee a aeaea i?eeiaeaiey a
naith ?aaioo “Enoi?ey oee. nenoai”.

Iaeiaei iinea iaiieaiiianeeo aiei, a ?onea eciaieaoeony iano?iaiee
Aeaenaiae?a 1 oeeinioey iiaeaa?aeanue aaniiuaaeiiio aiiaieth e neeueii
iino?aaeaea io “?aoi?i” ?onneeo ainieoaiieeia eacoeoia. Ia?aia
iaiaaeaiea ia iaa i?iecioei a Oa?ueeianeii oieaa?neoaoa – a 1816 aiaeo
oeooaaiaoe Oaae i?eciaaony aeiiaiui a oii, /oi ii yaii i?eaea?aeeaaaony
nenoaiu Oaeeeiaa (!), e aue auneai ec ?innee. Ii naiiio neeueiiio
?aca?iio iiaeaa?aeenue Eacaineee N.-Iaoa?ao?aneee oieaa?neoaou. A Eacaie
ii eieoeeaoeaa Iaaieoeeiai auee oaieaiu ianeieueei eo/oeo i?ioanni?ia:
i?io. anoanoaaiiiai i?aaa Nieioeaa (aai nenoaia iineea, ii iiaieth
Iaaieoeeiai, yaiua neaaeu oeeinioee Eaioa, anaaenoaea /aai Nieioeaa
niaoae aiaeanoaaiiia o/aiea n iiaieyie /aeiaa/aneeie) aue eeoai i?aaa
i?aiiaeaaaiey aeaaea a /anoiuo o/. caaaaeaieyo. A N.-Iaoa?ao?aa ii
eieoeeaoeaa ?oie/a, ae?oaa e i?ioaaea Iaaieoeeiai, Auei oaieaii ieiei 12
i?ioanni?ia, iaeioi?ua ooiaeeee e naie. A /enea oaieaiiuo auee e aeaa
oeeinioa – Eoieoeui e Aaee/. Iineaaeiee iaaeiyeny a oii, /oi naiae eieaa
“Enoi?ey oeein. nenoai” i?iaiaeeo ia/aea, i?ioeaiua aa?a e aeanoyi,
onoaiiaeaiiui io Aiaa, e ioaeaao yaiia i?aaeii/oaiea oeeinioee Oaeeeiaa,
eceaaaao i?ioeaiua o/aieth aa?u iiiyoey eiaeeeneie oeeinioee e o.ae.
Aaee/o ieiei aeanyoe eao ia iicaieyee /eoaoue aeaaea e /anoiua eaeoeee a
aai nianoaaiiie eaa?oe?a.

Ana o?e ?ani?ino?aiyaoeany o ian nenoaiu iiaiai eaeaaeecia iaeiia?aiaiii
e iianthaeo iiaeaa?aaeenue i?aneaaeiaaieth. Iaeiaei ia niio?y ie ia /oi,
eaeaaeenoe/aneay oeeinioey ana aea onoiyea. Oeeinioneia aeaeaeaiea
iiaeaea?aeeaaeinue naiui iaiaeeaeaiiui aeey ianeo?aioia niiniaii. A
?ani?ino?aiaiee iiaie oee. i?eiyee o/anoea iaoo?aeenou, iia
i?iaiaeeeanue a aeaea anoanoaiciaiey: 1820 aiae – ec-ca a?aieoeu
aa?ioeny Iaaeia, i?io. ieia?ieiaee e naeueneiai oicyenoaa, ii neiaai
Aa?oeaia, ii acaiai oeceee e naeueneiai oicyenoaa a nayce n ieie, ia
naiii aeaea eceaaae aeaaiui ia?acii oee. Oaeeeiaa e Ieaia; 1826 aiae –
Iaeneiiae/, i?io. aioaieee, ecaanoiue niae?aoaeue iaei?inneeneeo ianai,
n/eoae, /oi “a anoanoaiciaiee aai iaioeo/iie niooieoeae e aa?iie
iiiioieoeae auea oeeinioey”. A Iineaa 30-o e 40-o aiaeia
eaeaaeenoe/aneay oee. ?ani?ino?aiyeanue oaeaea iin?aaenoaii eeoa?aoo?iuo
e?oaeeia, eio. aicieeee iiae aeeyieai iaeeaeaiey oieaa?neoaoneie aeecie,
ianooieaoaai a 20-o aiaeao aneaaenoaea iiyaeaiey oai oeaeiai ?yaea
oaeaioeeauo i?aiiaeaaaoaeae. N yoeie e?oaeeaie naycaii i/aiue iiiai
ecaanoiuo eiai: Ae. Iaeiaaneee, Aaiaaeoeiia; Ee?aaaneea, Aenaeiau
(“Iauanoai ethaiioae?ey”), Oiiyeia, Noaieaae/, Aaeeineee, Aa?oeai e
iiiaea ae?. A ?aieao yoeo e?oaeeia ianoaeaeaeenue anaaiciiaeiua
oeeinioneea iieiaeaiey, aeayoaeueiinoue eo /eaiia aicaoaeaeaea eioa?an e
oeeinioee ai anao, eoi oieueei nii?eeanaeny n ieie. Yoe e?oaeee, ia/aa n
oee. Oeeeeiaa, a 30-o aiaeao, iinoaiaiii ia?aoee e oiio, /oi o ieo
iaeaieaa ainiiaenoaothuei iai?aaeaieai naeaeaeinue aaaeueyinoai a oie
eee ae?oaie, ii anaaaea a aieaa eee iaiaa naiaia?aciie ie?anea. “E eae
ecaanoii iiae aeeyieai yoiai oaeeeiai-aaaaeaaneiai aeaeaeaiey
au?aaioaeenue aeaa iai?aaeaiey, ynii ii?aaeaeeaoeany a 40-o aiaeao:
neaayiioeeu e caiaaeieee”. Ii yoe aeaa iai?aaeaiey ia ia?aie/eeenue
ianneaiui onaiaieai aa?iaineie oeeinioee, a aianee a iaa oi, /aai ia
auei ie o eiai ec iaiaoeeeo oeeinioia. ”Yoi – oee. acaeyae ia i?ioeia e
aoaeouaa ?onneiai ia?iaea, ia aai ?ieue a naiuea aa?ii. ia?iaeia, oee.
inaauaiea n aeaoo ?aciuo oi/ae c?aiey anao noi?ii aai aeecie”.

“Oaeei ia?acii oaea ai aoi?ie ia?eiae naiaai nouanoaiaaiey ?onneay oee.
oniaea ieacaoue iainii?eiia e naiia aeaaioai?iia aeeyiea ia oiae ?onneie
eoeueoo?u”(neaayiioeeu e caiaaeieee). Aa oneoae ?ani?ino?aiythony e ia
aanue oeeaeeeciaaiiue ie? (Ieeieae Eaaiiae/ Eiaa/aaneee).

Ca aanue aoi?ie ia?eiae aeey ?onneie oee. auei eeoue ianeieueei
ioiineoaeueii eaaeeo eao a eiioea 30-o aiaeia. Iaeiaei caeii/eeny ii
naiui oyaeaeui ia?acii. Iinea iaai oee. auea auioaeaeaia ia/aoue naia
?acaeoea caiiai, oae /oi anooieea a ia?eiae naiaai aoi?e/iiai ?acaeoey
caiiai. A 1848 aiaeo ia/aeanue oaeay ?aaeoeey, eioi?ie ?aaiie ,eaaeaony,
aua ia auei, iia ieeiaaea ?aiueoa ia ia?auaeanue n oaeie neeie i?ioea
oeeinioee. *oaeiaeuiay oeaico?a, cai?ao ia auacae ca a?aieoeo aeey anao
neoaeaueo ieienoa?noaa ia?. i?inaauaiey, aiciee e aeaaea na?ueacii
ianoaeaeaeny ieai i?aia?aciaaiey anao oieaa?neoaoia a aunoea
aiaiii-o/aaiua caaaaeaiey (e n/anoueth ii ia aue eniieiai, caoi a
oieaa?neoaoa aue onoaiiaeai eiiieaeo nooaeaioia 300 /aeiaae aeey anao
oaeoeueoaoia e eo?nia, acyouo aianoa, e?iia iaae. oaeoeueoaoa),
oieaa?neoaoneea niaaou auee eeoaiu i?aaa ecae?aoue ?aeoi?a, e oneeaia
?ieue iiia/eoaey, i?aiiaeaaaiea auei naycaii iaiiaeaeaeiuie i?ia?aiiaie
e o.ae. A 1850 aiaeo oee. oaeoeueoao aue ?acaeaeai ia
enoi?eei-oeeieiae/aneee e oeceei-iaoaiaoe/aneee, eaoaae?a oee. cae?uoa,
i?aiiaeaaaiea aa ia?aie/aii eiaeeie e ineoieiaeae e ii?o/aii ia iniaiio
i?io., a iaycaoaeueii caeiiio/eoaeth. “Iieiaeai eiiaoe iaieuenoeoaeueiui
ioae?iaaieyi oeeinioee”, – n oi?aeanoaii aineeeoeae Oe?eineee-Oeoiaoia
(niaieaoee Oaa?iaa) ai anaiiaeaeaiiaeoai io/aoa ca 1850 aiae.

O?aoee ia?eiae – ia?eiae aoi?e/iiai ?acaeoey.

Ecaiaiea oeeinioee ec ?onneeo oieaa?neoaoia i?iaeieaeaeinue
o?eiaaeoeaoue eao, aieioue aei aaaaeaiey onoaaa 1863 aiaea. Eae
neaaenoaea – neeueiue oiaaeie oee. iuoeaiey. A eoiaa iii auioaeaeaii
?acaeaaoueny caiiai. Iaaeaeo ?acaeoeai ?onneie oeeinioee a o?aoueai
ia?eiaea e a aeaoo i?aaeoanoaothueo ai iaeioi?uo ioiioaieyo iiiai
noiaenoaa (oioy aan niiiaiey aanue yoio i?ioeann niaa?oaaony ai?acaei
auno?aa, /ai i?aaeaea, e, eiia/ii, oaia?ue ?onneay iao/iay aeeciue oaea
ieeiaaea ia iiaeao auoue oae noaniaia e oyaeaea, eae yoi auaaei
i?aaeaea).

Ii onoaao 1863 a. aiciaiiaeyaony i?aiiaeaaaiea oeeinioee a
oieaa?neoaoao. Ioaeii auei a?aiy aeey oiai, /oiau oi?i/eoueny e
i?aaieciaaoueny. Iiyoiio aeieaia a?aiy oee. aicc?aiey aicieeaee e
?ani?ino?aiyeenue a iaoai iauanoaa eae au naie niaie, ii/oe iacaaeneii
io aicaeaenoaey ni noi?iiu oieaa?. i?aiaeaaaoaeae oee. Anoanoaaiii, /oi
ia?aiia/aeueii ?ani?ino?aieeenue oaeea aicc?aiey, eioi?ua ia oieueei
auee iaeaieaa aeinooiiu a caaeneiinoe io oiaaeea oee. iuoeaiey, ii aua a
yoi aea a?aiy ?ani?ino?aieeenue e oai, ioeoaea iie caeinoaiaaeanue
?onneay oee. A Aa?iaiee aea a 50-o aiaeao ?ani?ino?aieeny iaoa?eaeeci a
neaaenoaea oiaaeea oee. iuoeaiey a e?oaao, caeioa?aniaaiiuo
anoanoaiciaieai. Yoa aea i?e/eia auea e a ?innee. Iaoa?eaeeci a 50-o e
60-o aiaeao eniiaaaeiaaee n iaiau/aeiui oaea/aieai, /enoi aeiaiaoe/anee
e /ooue ia n oaiaoeciii, ie ia ieiooo ia caaeoiuaaynue ie iaae eaeeie
aic?aaeaieyie i?ioea iaai. Aiaeiae/ii ?ani?ino?aiaieth aieueoa?ieainoaa
a Aeaoa?eieineea a?aiaia. Iaoa?eaeeci enuac eae au naii niaie. Iinea
iaoa?eaeecia eee iaeiia?aiaiii n iei eaaei iiaeii oaea/ueny e
iiceoeaeciii, “eio. a naiae ia?aiia/aeueiie eiioianeie oi?ia eeoue n
o?oaeii ioee/aaony io iaoa?eaeecia”. N iieiaeiu 60-o aiaeia e
iiceoeaecio noaee i?eniaaeeiyoueny e iaeioi?ua ?ueyiua iaoa?eaeenou,
iai?. Ae.E. Iena?aa. Ia/aei 70-o – aeaaainoaothuaa ainiiaenoai
eiioianeeo eaeae. Cia/aiea Eiioa aeey ?acaeoey ?onneie iunee –
oe?aieaiea iiae aai aeeyieai eioa?ana e nioeeieiaee. Io?eoeaoaeueiua
noi?iiu aeeyiey Eiioa – aai io?eoeaiea naiiiaaethaeaiey, iieiia
ionoonoaea o iaai iaei-iaeuenee ?ac?aaioaiiie oai?ee iiciaiey, i?e
iaecaaaeii auoaeathuai ionthaea /enoi aeiaiaoe/aneii ioiioaiee e
enoi?e/anee onoaiiaeaoeiny i?eioeeiai oi/iuo iaoe, aai ia?aie/aiea
nioaaa oeeinioee iaeiie eeoue nenoaiaoecaoeeae eo iaueo auaiaeia. Ana
yoi iiaeaeei oiaaeie oee. iuoeaiey. A 1872 aiaeo Eaaaeei oae
oa?aeoa?eciaae iieiaeaiea nia?aiaiiie aio oeeinioee: “*oi iu aeaeei a
iaoa a?aiy? Oee. a iieiii oiaaeea. Ath i?aiaa?aaatho, iaae iath
aeoiyony. Iia ?aoeoaeueii ieeiio ia ioaeia… Anaai ooaea oi, /oi iu
oaia?ue aeaeei ia ai?ueao i?ioea oie eee ae?oaie oee. aeieo?eiu, a
niaa?oaiiia ?aaiiaeooea e naiie oee… Oeeinioey aei neo ii? ia
ii?iaa?aiooa a naieo ia/aeao, a i?inoi ioa?ioaia, eae iaioaeiay
aauue.Oiaaeie aa ia anoue iao/iue auaiae, a i?eciae aeoaieie ia?aiaiu a
iai?aaeaiee e no?ia iuneae. A oaeie aea iiaea, eae oeeinioey, iaoiaeeony
e aaeeinoaaiiia aa i?oaeea – oiic?aiea. Iu nenoaiaoe/anee i?aiaa?aaaai
oiic?aieai, ieoaai e iaio iieiia iaaeiaa?ea. Oiic?aiea a iaoe aeie
/ooue-/ooue ia a?aiiia neiai. *oiau eeoeoue eaeie-ieaoaeue auaiae
anyeiai aeiaa?ey. Aicaoaeeoue i?ioea iaai anaaiciiaeiua
i?aaeoi?aaeaeaiey, noieo oieueei iacaaoue aai oiic?eoaeueiui, – e aeaei
naeaeaii, oeaeue aeinoeaiooa” (“Caaea/e ineoieiaee”, Eaaaeei. N.-I.,
1872, no?.2). N 1863 a. oee. ia iiaeaa?aaeanue i?yiiio aiiaieth, ii
i?aaeoaeuenoai ioiineeinue e iae n oaeei ?aaiiaeooeai, a eiiaaea aeaaea
n oaeei i?aiaa?aaeaieai, eio. oieueei /oi ia ia?aoiaeeei a aiiaiey.

Ia aeaiiue iiiaio (1998 a.) iaoa?eaeeci ieii/aoaeueii en/ac. En/ac e
iiceoeaeci a naiae ia?aiia/aeueiie eiioianeie oi?ia, caiaieaoenue aieaa
aeoaieeie n?iaeiuie n iei iai?aaeaieyie – yaiethoeeiiiie oai?eae e oae
iacuaaaiie iao/. oee. “Neeueiaa aea anaai, eae yoi auei e ai aoi?ie
ia?eiae, o ian oaia?ue ?ani?ino?aiaiu eaeaaeenoe/aneea eee
nie?eooaeenoe/aneea aicc?aiey, n oie eeoue ?acieoeae, /oi ia
eaeia-ieaoaeue iaeii, a a?iaea oiai, eae auei a ia/aea aoi?iai ia?eiaea,
aeiaieueii ?aciiia?aciua”. Eioa?an e oeeinioee aeiaieueii neeai:
aicieeiaaiea e ia?iiiue oniao Iineianeiai Ineoieiae/aneiai Iauanoaa,
eio. ii naiae i?ia?aiia e iauaio oa?aeoa?o naiae aeayoaeueiinoe aeieaeii
au e iacuaaoueny oeeineoneei, oniao ecaeaaaaiiai ei niaoeeaeueii
oeeinioneiai aeo?iaea, neeueiia oaaee/aiea /enea oee. noaoae a iaueo
eaiaineianeeo aeo?iaeao, ana aieaa oiaiueoathueeny ?ac?ua anoanoaiciaiey
n oee. e o.ae. Noiaenoai ni aoi?ui ia?eiaeii: oaeay aea eae au naia
niaie i?ienoaaeoay caiaia nainoaeecia e iaoa?eaeecia iai?aaeaieyie
i?ioeaiiieiaeiiai oa?aeoa?a, oaeia aea neeueiia e oi?ieia. Ioaaouaathuaa
ana ?iaeu oinoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe, ?ani?ino?aiaiea eioa?ana e
oeeinioee.

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“Noaeueau oeeinioee a ?innee” – ?a/ue, i?iecianaiiay A. E. Aaaaeaineei
ia ia?aii ioaee/iii canaaeaiee N.-Iaoa?ao?aneiai Oeein. Iauanoaa 31
yiaa?y 1898a. Iiceoeey aaoi?a – acaaoaiiia e a?aoiaioe?iaaiiia ioiioaiea
e enoi?ee ?onneie oeeinioee (?). E eiioeo 19 a. ai iiiaeo i/a?eao,
noaoueyo e aunooieaieyo auei cayaeaii, /oi a ?innee iao oeeinioee
(“?onneee oi ia ?aniieiaeai e oeein. ioae?iaaieyi”), a anee e anoue, oi
iia yae. “?acoeueoaoii eneonoaaiiiai ainieoaiey cae?aaiai ?onneiai
oia”). A. E. Aaaaeaineee ?aoeoaeueii aunooiee i?ioea oaeeo cayaeaiee.
I?iaeaia caeinoaiaaiey ia yae. niaoeeoe/anee ?onneie /a?oie.

Ie?iaicc?aiea O?aioeenea Nei?eiu. (1490 – 1551)

O.N. noiye o enoieia aeooiaiiai naeoey?ecia e aa?iiaecaoeee. Ecaeaoaeue
ciaiaieoie “Aeaeee ?onneie”, i?inaaoeoaeue-eieaeiee. Aeey Nei?eiu Aeaeey
– naiae aiaiioe?iaaiiuo ciaiee e enoi/iee “naaeie iaoe aucaieaiuc” –
a?aiiaoeee, eiaeee, ?eoi?eee, iocuee, a?eoiaoeee, aaiiao?ee e
ano?iiiiee. Aeey iaeaaeaiey a?aiioie ?aeiiaiaeiaaeinue /oaiea Inaeou?e,
eiaeeie – Eieae Eiaa e Iineaiee aiinoiea Iaaea, ?eoi?eeie – I?eo/ae
Nieiiiiiauo e o.ae. Nioeeieiae/aneea e oeeinioneea acaeyaeu Nei?eiu
niaea?aeaony a i?aaeeneiaeyo e iineaneiaeyo, eioi?ua ii iiiauae ai ana
ia?aaaaeaiiua ei aeaeaeneea eieae. Aai ie?iaicc?aiea iinyo naaoneee
oa?aeoa?, aoiaienoe/aneay iai?aaeaiiinoue.

A oeaio?a – nioe. e i?aanoaaiiua aii?inu. Ii ?aoae eo, iie?aynue
i?aaeaea anaai ia Aeaeeth. A iae ii auaeaeye aeaa aeaea caeiiia –
“i?e?iaeaeaiiue”: aiaeanoaaiiue, nouanoaothuee a aeooa /aeiaaea io
?iaeaeaiey, aeaaiaea?y aio ii ?acee/aao aeia?i e cei, oai?eo aeaai
aeeaeiaio; e “iaienaiiue”: aicieeaao ii iaiaoiaeeiinoe e io?aaeaao
eciaiaiea aeecie ethaeae a ?aciua yiioe e a ?aciuo no?aiao. Ii o?aaieaae
caeiiu ie?neea e aiaeanoaaiiua, Nayuaiiia ienaiea oo?a/eaaei i?aie
iai?eeiniiaaiiie nayoinoe, aeaeaeinue aeinooiiui eaaeaeiio iuneyuaio
/aeiaaeo. Ioiaaeaea iaiaoiaeeiinoue a iin?aaeie/anoaa oea?eae, e /aeiaae
nai ieacuaaeny oai?oeii naiae noaeueau.

Nouiinoiay aeia?iaeaoaeue /aeiaaea aeey Nei?eiu – ?acoi. Ii i?ecuaae
ia?auaoue aai ia iieueco naiaai ia?iaea, ainoaea?noaa. Ii -iao?eio, aeey
iaai neoaeaiea ioa/anoao aaaeiaa oea?eiaiuo aea?oaii?eiioaiee, aaaeiaa
naiie aa?u. Iao?eioeci, /oanoai aeieaa ia?aae ?iaeeiith i?eaeatho
i?aanoaaiii-iaoeeiiaeueiue oa?aeoa? ie?iaicc?aieth Nei?eiu, aeaeatho aai
i?iaicaanoieeii ?aiannainiuo eaeaaeia a ainoi/iineaayineii iauanoa.

Aeooiaiay aeeaeaeoeea A. E. Aaee/a.

I?io. Iao. Oieaa?neoaoa ia/aea 19 aaea (oeeinio, eiaee, ineoieia).
Iaoiaeeeny iiae aeeyieai Oaeeeiaa. Iauaeoeaiue eaeaaeeci, ii i?e yoii a
aai nenoaia aeinoaoi/ii yaii i?iyaeythony iaoa?eaeenoe/aneea e
aeeaeaeoe/aneea oaiaeaioeee. Iaeaieaa ooiaeaiaioaeueiia i?iecaaaeaiea –
“Ea?oeia /aeiaaea” (1834a.) – eio. caaa?oaao i?inaaoeoaeueneee yoai
?acaeoey ?onneie oeeinioneie aioi?iieiaee.

Aio?iiieiaey – /aeiaaeiciaiea. Iaoea, “ioe?uoay” a yiioo I?inaauaiey,
iia ia naiaeeony ie e oeceieiaee, ie e ineoieiaee. Aa i?aaeiao – “iieiay
ea?oeia auoa /aeiaa/aneiai, ioe?uaaaiiai iaaethaeaieai”. *aeiaaeiciaiea
neioace?oao a naiae nouiinoe nianoaaiii aio?iiieiaeth, nioeeieiaeth e
yoeeo. Naiia neiaeiia – ii?aaeaeaiea ioiioaiee iaaeaeo oaeaniie e
aeooiaiie noi?iiaie /aeiaaea. Aeey yoiai iaiaoiaeeii iiiyoue eae a
/aeiaaea io?aaeaaony aeeciue Anaeaiiie, eae ii aeeth/ai a iauoth aeeciue
i?e?iaeu.

A iniiaa eiioeaioeee Aaee/a – eaeay ia?aiia/aeueiie oeaeinoiinoe
i?e?iaeiiai auoey. Ie? nouanoaoao a oi?ia i?ino?ainoaa e a?aiaie, eio.
aicieeatho aianoa n iei e iaioaeaeeiu io iaai. Ie? i?aauaaao, i?aoiaeeo,
aeaeaeaony e iaiiaeyaony a naiai ninoaaa. Aeaaiaea?y yoiioeo
aeaeaeaieth, i?e?iaea caiieiyaony ?aciuie oaeaie – “i?inouie” e
“iniaaiiuie”. E “iniaaiiui” ioiineony /aeiaae naiae “aeecieth
oaeaniith”. Ii eiaao naia ianoi a iaoe?iie i?e?iaea, i?eiaaeeaaeeo ae,
i?iaeieaeaao aianoa n iae i?ioiaeeoue caiiia iii?eua. *a?ac /aeiaa/aneee
i?aaieci caiiay aeeciue i?i?uaaaony e naiaiaea e oai naiui aeinoeaaao
oeaee, e eio. “no?aieony /a?ac ana noaiaie enoi?e/. ?acaeoey”. Oae
/aeiaae noaiiaeony i?aaenoaaeoaeai anae ieaiaou, iaeiia?aiaiii
i?eia?aoay naiinoiyoaeueiia auoea. *aeiaae – n?aaeioi/aiea oaeaniiai e
aeooiaiiai ie?a, aaeeiaiea anao nee e “noeoee” i?e?iaeu, “ana ?aaeeonu
ie?icaeaiey”.

Aeooa – n?aaeioi/aiea oieeaeueiinoe /aeiaaea. Iia ninoaaeyao ss
eaaeaeiai /aeiaaea, i?aa?auaao aai a ee/iinoue. Iia aeeaao e aeaenoaoao
a ?aaeueiii ie?a, aiaoiaa i?iyaeaiea aa auoey – oaei. Aeooa – ia i?inoi
aeooiaiia nouanoai /aeiaaea, ia/oi ioaea/aiiia, iia nouanoaoao a oaea e
aianoa n oaeii, iiaoaeaeay /aeiaaea e aeayoaeueiinoe e iuoeaieth. Aeooa
– aeiiii?aaeoaeueieoea oaea, iia ia nouanoaoao aei iaai a iaeiai
oinoaaiiii ie?a, ii aicieeaao aianoa n iei /a?ac ?iaeaeaiea e naycaia n
i?e?iaeie, i?iieeiooie “aeeaioai?yueie neeaie”. Yoi iioiaea ia iaioaeci.

Nouiinoue aeooe iaoiaeeo naia au?aaeaiea /a?ac iiciaiea. “Aeooiaiay
aeeaeaeoeea” – nianoaaiiay aiinaieiaey Aaee/a. Aeoo. aeeciue aeeth/aao
/aou?a eaeaaeueiuo aeoa: iuoeaiea, oioaiea, oaioaceth e na?aea/ioth
aeayoaeueiinoue (iuouaiea). A iiciaaaoaeueiii i?ioeanna yoe /aou?a aeoa
ia?acaeaeeiu. Iaeiaei ciaiea aeaaony eeai a oi?ia /oanoaiaaiey, eeai a
oi?ia iuoeaiey.

*oanoaiaaiea – “iaiin?aaenoaaiiia ioe?iaaiea nouanoaaiiaeoaai,
ianiiiaiiiai auoey, – naiy e ia/aei aeooiaiie aeecie iaoae”. A
/oanoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe auaeaeythony o?e “noaiaie aeaeaeaiey”: /oano.
nica?oeaiea, /oano. aiia?aaeaiea e /oano. noeaieaiea i?aaenoaaeaiee.
*oano. nica?oeaiea – o?iaaiue i?yiiai iuouaiey, n iiiiuueth eio. /aeiaae
oaeinoiaa?yaony a nouanoaiaaiee aauae. Aai aeaaiia naienoai –
iaiaoiaeeiinoue (iiciaiea aauae iaiaoiaeeii caaeneo io oiai, eae iu eo
aeaenoaeoaeueii aeaeei e ia eia/a). *oano. nica?oeaiea aeaao i?aaeiao
oieueei “a ioaeaeueiii auoee”, iii iiaeaa?aeaii i?eeeao e ioeeao
neo/aeiuo aia/aoeaiee e ia aeioiaeeo aei “i?aaenoaaeaiey a nianoaaiiii
niunea”, oi anoue aei ia?aca i?aaeiaoa.

Aiia?aaeaiea ia?aaiaeeo i?aaeiao ec aiaoiaai ie?a ai aioo?aiiee. Eae yoi
i?ienoiaeeo – oaeia, ai anyeii neo/aa “ia?acu ia aeathony iai ioaia”, ia
iaaycuaathony “neeith noi?iiiae”, a iieo/atho naia auoea aeaaiaea?y
niiniaiinoe aeooe e ceaeaeeoaeueiiio oai?/anoao. Ia?acu i?aaeiaoia ia
ioi?aaiu io /oano. nica?oeaiee; iie i?eiaaeeaaeao noieueei aea e
aeooiaiui nicaeaieyi, neieueei e e oaeaniui: “anyeee ia?ac caeinoaoao
naie noeoee eee iaoa?eaeu ec aeaenoaeoaeueiuo /oanoaiaaiee”.

?acieoea i-o aiia?aaeaieai e /oanoaaie iineo a iniiaiii aiinaieiae/aneee
oa?aeoa?: /oanoaa aaeeie/iu e /anoiu, nicaeaiey aiia?aaeaiey
iiiai/eneaiiu e ?aciiia?aciu. Yoi iiiaiia?acea niinianoaoao
aicieeiiaaieth /oanoaaiiuo ni/aoaiee eee noeaieaiee, aicaiaeyueo
iiciaiea ia o?iaaiue naiaiaeiiai iuoeaiey. Yoe ni/aoaiey ii?aaeaeythony
eeai aiaoia caeiiaie naieo aauae, eeai iiae ?oeiaiaenoaii “neaiiai, ia
i?aaeeueiiai” einoeieoa. Ia?aua – niia?aaeaiey, aoi?ua – ia/oaiey. A
iniiaa ni/aoaiee-niia?aaeaiee – “n?iaenoai”, “iaeiiea/anoaaiiinoue”,
“inoaiaiiue ia?aeea “ ia?acia aauae. Yoi iniiaiie caeii /oano.
ni/aoaiee. Anoue oaeaea e i?iecaiaeiua caeiiu: nii?aauaaiey – au?aaeaao
ni/aoaiea i?aaenoaaeaiee i?aaeiaoia ii eo ?yaeiiieiaeaiiinoe a
i?ino?ainoaa, iaeiia?aiaiiainoe e iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe; noiaenoaa –
enoiaeeo ec i?aaenoaaeaiey iauiinoe aiaoieo /a?o i?aaeiaoia,
iiciaaaoaeueiue i?eciaee – n?aaiaiea, oiiaeiaeaiea, iaoaoi?a,
eiineacaiea, i?eo/a; a?oiie?iaee – i?aaenoaaeaiea ii i?eioeeio
annioeeaoeee, “aueeeeaiey” iaeieo ia?acia n iiiiuueth ae?oaeo.

Ana “noaiaie aeaeaeaiey” /oanoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe i?eaiaeyo e
iuoeaieth, o.a. e “i?iecaiaenoao iiciaiey”. Iuoeaiea – naycuaaiea
iiiai?acee/iuo i?aaenoaaeaiee ii iaiaoiaeeiui caeiiai. I?iaeoeou
iuoeaiey – /enoi eaeaaeueiua, ioaea/aiiua “nouiinoe”. A iunee
aeinoeaaaony aaeeinoai i?aaenoaaeaiee, eio. iaeaaeaao ea?a?oe/aneie
no?oeoo?ie. Iiiyoea – i?aaeiao a neiaeiii aeaea “oinoaaiiie, ioaea/aiiie
aaeeieoeu”; noaeaeaiea – iiyniyao eee ?anoe?yao iiiyoea, oeaio?aeueiue
aeo iuneyuae neeu; noaeaeaiea aoiaeeo a oiicaeeth/aiea. Iineaaeiea Aaee/
naiaeee e eiae/aneie i?ioeaaeo?a auaaaeaiey noaeaeaiee ec noaeaeaiee.

“Iiiyoey aunoaai, yioeeeeiiaaee/aneiai aaeeinoaa” – eaoaai?ee. Iie
au?aaeatho eeai aiciiaeiinoue auoue /aio-eeai yaeaieai (eaoaai?ee
i?ino?ainoaa, a?aiaie, aeaeaeaiey), eeai iaicia/atho niinia
nouanoaiaaiey yaeaiee (eaoaai?ee eiee/anoaa, ea/anoaa, ioiioaiee).

A eaoaai?eyo iuneyuay neea aeooe aeinoeaaao naiaai i?aaeaeueiiai
?acaeoey e iaia/aaony aa ia?aoiae e ?acoio, eio. iia?e?oao ia iiiyoeyie,
a eaeayie. Eaeae ioee/athony io iiiyoee: 1) ioaaouaatho oeaeinoiinoue
auoey; 2) eaeae anaaaea iaeeiaeiau, ia eciaiythony, iie auoa naiaai
i?aaeiaoa, aieueoa aai ii iauaio (iiiyoey aea anaaaea iaiueoa,
ii?aaeaeytho eeoue iaeioi?ua noi?iiu); 3) eaeae anaaaea oieueei enoeiiu,
iieiaeeoaeueiu (iiiyoey aea iiaoo auoue e eiaeiuie, e io?eoeaoaeueiuie).
Iiiyoey – i?oaeea iiciaiey, aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe; eaeae – ecia/aeueii
“aiaae?aiiua a oai?aiea”, aunooiatho a ea/anoaa ?acoia.

?acoi – aiaeanoaaiiay neea, a eioi?ie i?aauaaao aanue ie? i naieie
nouiinoyi e /aeiaae ni naieie eaeayie. Aunoaa aiieiuaiea ?acoia –
oeeinioey.

Oeeinioey iicaieyao ?ane?uoue aa?iiieth i-o eaeaaeueiui e anoanoaaiiui
oea?noaii. Iiciaiea iauaeoeaiiai ie?a oanii niueaaony n naiiiiciaieai
/aeiaaea. Iiciaaay aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue, /aeiaae ii?aaeaeyao naia ianoi a
i?e?iaeiii auoee, a iiciaaay naiiai naay, ii iaeaaeaaaao “eaeaae
aeia?iai” – caeiiaie e i?eioeeiaie i?aanoaaiiinoe.

Aac ciaiey i?e?iaeu ia auaaao enoeiiie aio?iiieiaee, aac o/aiey i
/aeiaaea, “/aeiaaeiciaiey” – iaoee i ie?a, oeeinioe.

-iainiiaae eiioeaioeeth iauaeoeaiiai ?acoia.

Eaeaieiaey ?aneiea. Aaaaeoi Iao?ia.

Oea?eiaiue ?aneie na?aaeeiu 17 aaea a iieiie ia?a iaia?oaeee aeooiaiue
e?ecen ae?aaia?onneiai i?aaineaaey, aai ei?aiiia ianiioaaonoaa iieeo.
no?aieaieyi naiiaea?aeaaiie aeanoe. Eca?aiea ia oea?noai aeeianoee
?iiaiiauo (1613a.), ia?niaeoeaa aa?iiaecaoeee ?inne – i?eniaaeeiaiea
Oe?aeiu (1654a.) – iaiaoiaeeiinoue i?iaaaeaiey oea?eiaiuo ?aoi?i. Ia
Oe?aeia nio?aieeenue o?aaeeoeee anaeaineiai o?enoeainoaa, iia
iaoiaeeeanue iiae th?enaeeeoeeae eiinoaioeiiiieueneiai iao?ea?oa.
Iineianeia “i?aaiaa?ea” neiaeeeinue eae /enoi iiianoiia
aa?ieniiaaaeaiea, aeaeaei oeeiieaoaany io aecaioeeneiai ia?acoea.
Iineiaeou e?anoeeenue aeaoiy ia?noaie, Nuia Aiaeeaai iacuaaee Enonii,
i?aaeii/eoaee eieaiiua iieeiiu e o.ae. N niaeaney oea?y Aeaenay iao?ea?o
Ieeii ia/ae i?iaiaeeoue ?aoi?iu. – Iaaeiaieuenoai ia oieueei n?aaee
aeooiaainoaa, ii e a ia?iaeiuo iannao. “Nayoay ?onue” ia aeaeaea
noaiiaeoueny “?inneeneie Aa?iieae”. Ai aeaaa i?ioeaieeia oea?eiaiuo
?aoi?i aunooiee i?ioiiii Aaaaeoi Iao?ia.

?oeiaiaeee ?aoi?iaie iao?ea?o Ieeii (1605 – 1681aa.). N iiiiuueth a?aea
ea?iiiiaoa A?naiey Nooaiiaa, i?eauaoeo ec Eeaaa o/aiuo eieaeieia
Aieoaiey Neaaeiaoeeiai, A?naiey Naoaiianeiai e Aeaianeeia Ioeoeeiai ii
ia/ae ia?ano?aeaaoue “ae?aaeaioa/aneia aeaai/anoea” ia “a?a/aneee eaae”.

A ia?aoth i/a?aaeue iiaeaa?aeinue eciaiaieth aiaineoaeaiea, eioi?ia e
ai?yiue auei iaa?aaeii e aanii?yaei/ii. Nayuaiiee /eoae naia, aeuey/ae –
naia, oi? iae niaa, e ana yoi iaeiia?aiaiii. I?e yoii eaaeaeue noa?aeny
caaeooeoue ae?oaiai. Iieaaai aue iai?iaeieaeeoaeai. Ana Aiaeuea
aiciineeinue e Aiao, i aeooa iieyuaainy ieeoi ia aeoiae; aaaeii auei
eeoue oaiaeeoue iaaaniiio aeaaeuea. Ieeii ?acineae ii oea?eaai
“iaiaoue”, cai?auaaooth iiiaiaeanea. Nie?auaeinue a?aiy neoaeau
(iai?eia? ioiaiyeenue eieaiiua iieeiiu). Aianoi “o?eninoaaiiai”
(ainueieeiia/iiai) e?anoa n ecia?aaeaieai ?aniyoey aaiaeeeny
“aeao/anoiue” – /aou?aoeiia/iue. Ianoiyuei a?iiii n iaaa yaeeanue caiaia
aeaoia?noey ia o?iaia?noea. Aeaa ia?noa ciaiaiiaaee aeaa i?e?iaeu, aeaa
aiee Nuia Aiaeueaai. Eoeueo O?enoa aini?eieiaeny eae nouanoaaiiay iii?a
aaaiaaeueneiai o/aiey, aacioiineoaeueii e aeiaiaoo O?ieoeu. ?aoi?iu
Ieeiia a iaeii/anuea io/oaeaeaee ia?iae io i?ioeiai. Aacunoiaeiinoue
?iaeaeaea io/ayiea, io/ayiea oieeaei ia aoio.

– Aaaaeoi Iao?ia.

Ii aai i?aaenoaaeaieyi a aeoee nouanoaoao aeaa “ianoa” – iaeii ia
iaaanao, aaea i?aauaaao Aia; ae?oaia a aaeo, aaea iaeoaao aeueyaie n
a?aoieeaie. Eaaeaeue /aeiaae auae?aao naie iooue nai. Aieueoeinoai
ono?aieyaony ii aei?iaa, aaaeouae a aae. Iiyoiio nianaiea ia?aoaao eeoue
“iaeia noaaei O?enoiai”, ana aea inoaeueiua iiaeaioo, i?aaeaaoenue aeaeo
e noaoa ie?a.

Ie?, eae oai?aiea Aiaa, ia oiaeaeanoaaiai aaeo, iaeiaei ioe?uo
aeueyaieo, eioi?ue ianueaao a iaai aania, /oiau iie any/anee
aeinaaeaeaee /aeiaaeo. Io ieo – ai?aeinoiue oi, naiiaaee/aiea,
“ethaeaiea oaeaniuo ?aaeinoae”. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, anee aeueyaie
aeaenoaoao /a?ac ie?neea niaeaciu. Oi /aeiaae aeieaeai io?eiooue ie? e
ana ie?neia, /oiau i?eeoe e Aiao. Io?eoeaiea ie?a – ia?aoaiea
no?aaeaiey. No?aaeaiea Aaaaeoi iniuneeaaao ynoaoieiae/anee: yoi
iiieiiaaiea nia?oe e “neii/aiea aaea”. A no?aaeaiee /aeiaae
oiiaeiaeyaony O?enoo.

A nayce n yoei Aaaaeoi aunooiae i?ioea naiaai aeooiaiiai nuia aeueyeiia
Oaaei?a, eio. ioaa?aae ieioneoth i?e?iaeo, ieioneia auoea O?enoa. Aeey
aeueyeiia Oaaei?a – O?enoin anaaaea e ai anao ioiioaieyo inoaaony
aiaeanoaii. Oaeaniia, ieioneia iai?eeiaeii e aiaeanoaaiiie i?e?iaea,
iai?e/anoii aiaeanoaaiiiio. “Aia ?iaeeeny ooii aieaey e aieii ecueaey” –
niaoeeoe/aneia oaeaeaiea aiaeanoaa io /aeiaaea. O?enoin nouiinoii
oiaeaeanoaaiiai Aiao Iooeo. Eiaiii ec yoiai nouiinoiiai oiaeaeanoaa Aiaa
Iooea, Aiaa Nuia e Nayoiai Aeooa ii auaiaeee naia iiieiaiea O?ieoeu eae
“aaeeieoeu”. Iaeee ae?aaioeaiiue eaiaiue, eio. iaaiciiaeii ?anna/ue,
eio. eiaao o?e ?aciuo oeaaoa, ii ia?ac anaaaea iaeei e oio aea
(iaiiiyiaao iiiioeceonoai). Aeey Aaaaeoia – Aia, aiieioeaoeeny a
/aeiaaea, e aeaenoaoao eae /aeiaae. Ionthaea – aiciiaeiinoue
aiinoieecaoeee ethaiai /aeiaaea. A i?aanoaaiii ieaia (a ieaia
aeinoeaeaiey i?aan. oeaee) ethaee o?aaiaiu. A aai i?aaenoaaeaiee O?ieoea
– naiiauoiia ni?aaainoai anao o?ao eiinoanae Aiaeanoaa, “nianoanoaaiiay
aaeeieoea o?eninoaaiay”. Ec ?aaainoaa eiinoanae Aaaaeoi auaiaeee naia
o/aiea i “o?ao oea?yo iaaaniuo”. Oaeia “?anna/aiea” O?ieoeu iicaieyei
aio iaaeaeeoue O?enoa ieioueth. Ia ai/aeiaa/aiea, a i/aeiaa/aiea.
O?enoin – Aia ii ii nouanoao e /aeiaae ii aiieiuaieth. Ii,
“ieioiiinaoe”, ?iaeeeny /aeiaa/aneei ia?acii, oieueei i?e yoii
“iaec?a/aiii aeaa?ueth i?ieaea, a ia ?ac?ooee ia/aoe”. O?enoin e oia?,
eae ana ethaee, i?eiya e?anoiia no?aaeaiea, caaauaa oai naiui ia?ac
aeecie aeey anaai /aeiaa/anoaa. Aaaaeoi i?iaicaeaoae iaeciaiiinoue /ae.
no?aaeaiey ia caiea.

Ioiineoaeueii eaeae noa?iia?yae/anoaa nouanoaaiai oaeaea
nioeeaeueii-iieeoe/aneee aii?in, aii?in ia aioeo?enoa. A ?aiiai
noa?iia?yae/anoaa ooaa?aeeeanue oai?ey /oanoaaiiiai aioeo?enoa. Naii
iiiyoea aioeo?enoa iaiaoiaeeii aeey enoeiiiai iiieiaiey i?e?iaeu O?enoa.
O eaaeaeiai naie noa?u aeaenoaey, naia iacia/aiea: aioeo?eno
aeaiiino?e?oao neii/aiea ie?a, i?iyaeyao oi, /oi aeieaeai naeaeaoue
O?enoin, eiaaea i?eeaeao aai a?aiy (eoi ia aa?eo a aioeo?enoa, oio ia
aa?eo a O?enoa). Oea?eiaiia iano?iaiea aeey noa?iia?yaeoeaa – i?eciae
nouanoaiaaiey a yoii ie?a aioeo?enoa, au?aaeaiea aai i?enoonoaey.
Neaaeiaaoaeueii, i?eniaei a?aiy aeey iaeeaeaiey eiioea naaoa. Aa?a a
aioeo?enoa oaaaeaeaao a aiciiaeiinoe Aiaiyaeaiey. aioeo?eno i?enoonoaoao
anaaaea, e iiiaioo Aiaiyaeaiey ii aeoeaece?oaony. Aeey noa?iia?yaeoeaa
aioeo?eno eiae noaoon aiieioeaoaainy iieeo. eeoea. Cei eaeao n Caiaaea
(iaoee, oeeinioey e i?i/aa ciaiea). Iaoee – aioeo?enoe/aneay neea, ii
i?eaeaeaao eie ethaeae. aioeo?eno ai anao ioiioaieyo i?eaeaeaoaeai,
iaiaoiaeei (aeaao ciaiea), iaaeoee aiaae, eio. aiciiiee naay Aiaii. A
eaeii iaeeea ii aiieioeeny ia yoio ?ac?

Aeueyeii Oaaei? – aioeo?eno enoiaeeo ec ?innee: naia ?onneay aeeciue
neeoeii aeoia, aanniuneaiia e o.ae. Iao?ea?o Ieeii e oea?ue Aeaenae
Ieoaeeiae/ – aeaa “?iaa aioeo?enoiaa”. Ii i?ecuaae /oaeaeaoueny
nayuaiieeia ieeiieaineiai ?oeiiieiaeaiey.

Aaaaeoi Iao?ia – n/eoae, /oi aioeo?eno yaeony ia ec ?one, ia ec ?onneiai
ia?iaea. Nayoay ?onue ia iiaeao ii?iaeeoue ia nayoia, nayoinoue ia
niaea?aeeo i?ioeaiiieiaeiiai aeaenoaey. Aioeo?eno iiaeao iiyaeoueny oai,
aaea iiyaeeny O?enoin, ec oiai aea eieaia, ec eoaeaeneiai ?iaea.
I?eoanoaea aioeo?enoa aiciiaeii e ?aaeueii, ii aoaeao nii?iaiaeaeaoueny
?ac?ooaieai anaai e any. Iaeuecy ?annoaeaeaoue ia aioeo?enoa, ia iiiiy
aai i?aaeoanoaaiieeia, a oaeiaua – i?aaenoaaeoaee aeanoe –
neaaeiaaoaeueii, ii oaea anoue. Ii! Anee aioeo?eno oaea iiyaeeny, cia/eo
aeieaeai iiyaeoueny e O?enoin. Aioeo?eno yaeony n Caiaaea.

-Oaia ioiioaiey e i?inaauaieth.

Ia ia?aia ianoi Aaaaeoi noaaee aii?in ia “ioa/aneeo i?aaeaieyo”, i
?onneinoe aiiaua, n eio. naycuaae auoea naiiai i?aaineaaey. Aio auea
aeecea oai?ey “Iineaa – o?aoee ?ei” Oeeioay Ineianeiai. Oieueei a
Iineianeie ?one o?enoeainoai inoaaaeinue “/enoi e iaii?i/ii”. Aa?a
ia?iaea e aai ycue niaeanii o/aieth Aaaaeoia iaioaeaeeiu. E ycue, e
a?aiioa aeaiu eaaeaeiio ia?iaeo io Aiaa. E ia iaaei oe?aoaoue aai
oeeinioneeie ae?oaie, e?anii?a/eai, iiae?aaeay “?eineie aa?a” – yoi
aoaeoaeueii aeey i?aaineaaey, aeey eioi?iai “iaaaaeanoai…iaeia/a,
iaaeaee i?aioae?inoue aiaoieo oeeinioia”. Ii i?eoae e iieiiio
io?eoeaieth iaoe e oeeinioee. Iniiaiiieiaeieee ?aneiea i?ioeaeeenue
?ani?ino?aiaieth naaoneiai ia?aciaaiey. O/aiua, eioa?anothueany ciaieai.
Iniaaiii eaeouei n Caiaaea, – i?aaeoanoaaiieee aioeo?enoa. Ciaiea – cai.
ia?ac aeecie. Ia ?one aea eaeaae – nayoinoue. Ciaiea – anaaaea oiaeaiea
nayoinoe. Naii niaie ?acoiaaony, iiaeiaiua cai?aou ia neoaeeee aeeaiio
aeaeo: ai eiy “ioa/aneeo i?aaeaiee” aiae?oaeaeanue iai?iieoeaaiay noaia
io/oaeaeaiey iaaeaeo ?acoiii e aa?ie, iaoeie e oaieiaeae, eioi?ay
caneiiyea io noa?iia?yaeoeaa ai?eciiou /ae. i?ia?anna.

– Aaaaeoi Iao?ia. Iineaiey e /aeiaeoiua. NIa., 1995.

?aeeaeicii-iieeoe/aneay oeeinioey. Eineo Aieioeeee.

Eineoeyinoai – eaeaieiaey “?onneiai aecaioecia”, iiaeaea?aeeaaei
iieeoeeo oeaio?aeecaoee, aunooieei a ?iee “aiaiiieueoeaa oea?ae
iineianeeo”.

Iniiaaoaeue aeaeaeaiey – Eineo (a ie?o Eaai Naiei, 1439 – 1515), aue
eaoiaiii iiianou?y, iaoiaeeaoaainy a oaeaea aieioeeiai eiycy Oaaei?a
Ai?eniae/a. Aiineaaenoaee Aieioeeee iiianou?ue ia?aoae iiae
th?enaeeeoeeth iineianeiai eiycy. Aeaaiaea?y yoiio eioeeiaeaioo –
onei?aiea naeeaeaiey naaoneie e oea?eiaiie aeanoe, nua?aaoaa
ia?ainoaiaiioth ?ieue a iieeo. oeaio?aeecaoeee ?onneiai ainoaea?noaa.

Eineo Aieioeeee i?aaenoaaeye eeieth aeeaai?e/aneiai ?aoeeiiaeecia,
au?aceaoothny a o/aieyo Eea?eiia e Eeeiaioa Niieyoe/a. Aai iaoiaeii
oaeaea auei “aeooiaiia niio?aiea”, ?acoiiia oieeiaaiea Nayuaiiiai
ienaiey. Ii ioee/aeny ino?ie iaeeiiiinoueth e iieeo. i?aaiaoecio e
aeaaea ooeeeoa?ecio.

Ianeaaeea E.A. iaoe?ii, iii aeeth/aao iiiaeanoai iineaiee e aiaineianeeo
ni/eiaiee. Ae. o?oae – “I?inaaoeoaeue, eee Iaee/aiea a?ane
aeeaeianoaothueo”.

A naieo iieeo. iino?iaieyo E.A. iie?aeny i?aaeaea anaai ia Aaooee caaao
(Aaaiaaeea ia iiaeao neoaeeoue aeey iainiiaaiey i?eioeeiia
oeaio?aeeciaai. naiiaea?aeaaiie aeanoe; oieueei a Aaooii caaaoa Aia nai
o/anoaoao a caiiie aeecie, nio/anoiee enoi?e/aneie ie?neie aeecie, aeae
caiiuo, Aia i?iyaeyao naay a ie?o). Caeanue ii iaoiaeee oaeiaioth aeey
naay oi?ioeo aiaiyaeaiey: niaeanii Eineoo, “Aiaeea yaeaiea iiiai?acee/ia
noua”, Aia niiniaai i?aaenoaoue a ethaii ia?aca, a ethaii ea/anoaa.
?oeiaiaenoaoynue yoie eaeaae, ii ?ac?aaioae o/aiea ia iaiaia e eiaa?noaa
Aiaa: Aiao naienoaaiii aeaenoaiaaoue ia oieueei i?aioae?inoueth, ii e
eiaa?noaii – naii aai ai/aeiaa/aiea anoue aeo iaiaia aeueyaiea,
eiaa?noai, oeo?inoue – au?aaeaiea aiaeanoaaiiie i?aioae?inoe e,
neaaeiaaoaeueii, a iauai?iaeaeaioeeaeueiii ieaia ianoo ia/aea anaie?iie
aa?iiiee e aeaaa. O/aiea i “aiaeanoaaiiii eiaa?noaa” Eineo ia?aiinee ia
o?aeoiaeo nouiinoe aaeeeieiyaeaneie, oea?neie aeanoe. Iiia?o – iieiia
iiaeiaea Aiaa ia caiea. Iineianeee ainoaea?ue eeoue anoanoaii iiaeiaai
/aeiaaeo, a aai aeanoue aeaia aio nauoa, ai aeanoe naiae ii iiaeiaai
Aiao. Aio aeieaeiu iiae/eiyoueny ana o?enoeaia, a oii /enea e
aeooiaainoai. Aia a?o/ee aio ana aunoaa – “ieeinoue e noae, e
oea?eiaiia, e iiianou?neia, e anaai i?aaineaaiaai o?enoeainoaa aeanoue e
iiia/aiea”. E oaeaeueiui eiycueyi oaeaea iaaeeaaeeo ieacuaaoue aio
aeieaeiia iineooaiea e iiaeiiaaiea. Na?aeoeaaeio eineoeyinoaa ninoaaeyao
eiia?neay eaeay.

Aeey iainiiaaiey naieo eaeae E.A. iaiaoiaeeii auei, ia iinyaay ia
aeiaiao aiainuiianoaa, nicaeaoue iiaoth o?enoieiaeth, aienuaathuothny a
aai iieeo. oai?eth. Ii naeaeae yoi, enoiaey ec o/aiey i aeaienoaaiiie
i?e?iaea O?enoa: aiaeanoaaiiie ii iooeo e /aeiaa/. ii iaoa?e.

Ii o/aieth iooeia oea?eae, aiaeanoaaiiia iaiinoeaeeii, cia/eo e O?enoin
a naiae aiaeanoaaiiie nouiinoe oaeaea iaiinoeaeei. Neaaeiaaoaeueii,
Aaaiaaeea – i?inoia “/aeia. i?aaeaiea” i Nuia Aiaeeai. Iiyoiio-oi a
Aaaiaaeee O?enoin eiiaaea i?ioeai?a/eo nai naaa, aiai?eo, eae /aeiaae,
eio. no?aaeaao. Iooiai e Aaaiaaeea niaea?aeeo i?ioeai?a/ey: /aeiaa/aneia
ia iiaeao auoue aanno?anoiui, ia iiaeao inoaaaoueny iaeciaiiui e
iaeiiia?iui. Oieueei Aiao aeaii i?aauaaoue oeaeinoii e iaaeaeeii.
O?enoin – eeoue iaeii ec i?iyaeaiee, aiieiuaiee Aiaa, a iiiai?acee/ea
aiaiyaeaiee, ii iiaieth Eineoa, ia aeaeaao iiiaiia?aciui Aiaeanoai. A
?acoeueoaoa – ia ana, /oi nioai?ee O?enoin, iiaeiaaao oai?eoue iai
(ia?acaiea, noaionoaiaaiea, e?auaiea, ia i?e/anoeaoenue), e /aai ia
nioai?ee O?enoin, ia oai?eoue iai. Eineoeyinoai i?ieeaie?iaaei ioeac io
eaeae iiae?aaeaiey O?enoo – iacuaeaiiai iinooeaoa aaaiaaeueneie ii?aee.
Iii ?ac?ooaei n?aaeiaaaeiaua eaiiiu iuoeaiey, noaaeei ia ianoi aa?u
?acoi e ?oeiaiaenoaiaaeinue ii ioiioaieth e ?aeeaee i?inoie
eaeaieiae/aneie oeaeaniia?aciinoueth.

-Ai?ueaa n a?aoeeaie.

Iaiin?aaenoaaiii i?ioea iineianeeo aioeo?eieoa?eaa (a?anue
aeeaeianoaothueo) – “I?inaaoeoaeue. eee Iaee/aiea a?ane
aeeaeianoaothueo”. Aioeo?eieoa?ee ioaa?aaee iiaicaaaoiua eieae,
aunooieee i?ioea oea?eiaiie ea?a?oee, o?aaiaaee aeaoaaie e i?aaaaeiie
oea?eae, io?eoeaee iaiaoiaeeiinoue oe?aoaiey o?aiia, ia i?eciaaaee
nayouo oaeinoa, iiuae, eeii; eaii?e?iaaee iiiaoanoai; io?eoeaee
aiainuiianoai O?enoa, aiai?y, /oi Aia aaeeiinouai e nii?anoieai naaa; ii
eo iiaieth ciaiea ia a?aaeaeaaii Aiao, a?aiioa aeaia /aeiaaeo Aiaii,
/oiau ii oiiiaeae naia ciaiea, neaa?oainoaiaae iiciaiea e iniuneaiii
i?eoae e Aiao.

– I?aa?auaiea o?enoeainoaa a eaeaieiaeth ainoaea?noaa, a neoaeaieo ain.
aeanoe.

Iee Ni?neee e ?onneia ianoyaeaoaeuenoai.

A iniiaa Ienoeee ae?aaia?onneiai ianoyaeaoaeuenoaa – aecaioeeneee
eneoaci (Neiaii Iiaue Aiaineia, A?eai?ee Neiaeo, A?eai?ee Iaeaia). Ia
?one ii cae?aieeny aeaaiaea?y aeayoaeueiinoe iiiaoia Eeaai-Ia/a?neeiai
iiianou?y. Iaeiaei ie a 13. Ie a 14 aaeao aec. Anaeaca ia cao?iioea a
iieiie ia?a ae?aaia?onneoth oea?eiaue. A iae ana inoaaaeinue
ii-i?aaeiaio (neiiiey), a ia?iaea iiiaeeeenue a?ane. A yoie neooaoeee ia
a?aio oea?eiaiie aeecie aunooieei ianoyaeaoaeuenoai, auaeaeioaoaa
eicoia ?aeeaeiciiai e aeooiaiiai iaiiaeaiey. “Aicaeaaeye” yoi aeaeaeaiea
– “aaeeeee noa?aoe” Iee Ni?neee.

Ia niai?a 1503 aiaea noa?aoe ioe?uoi cayaee i iaiaoiaeeiinoe cai?aoa
iiianou?neie nianoaaiiinoe (ei?ieoueny oieueei niano. oec. o?oaeii) e
i?ecaae ioeacaoueny io oe?aoaiee o?aiia. Yoi oa iieiaeaiey a o/aiee
ianoyaeaoaeae, eio. iniaaiii caaeaaaee eineoeyi.

Iaeiaei i?aaeaea anaai Iee Ni?neee ?annoaeaeae ia “oiiii aeaeaiee”,
iiciaiee aiaeanoaaiiiai. Oae eae eiaiii a i?eaeeaeaiee e Aiao ii aeaeae
niune aeecie /aeiaaea, e oai aieaa iiiaoa. Iee Ni?neee ?ac?aaioae naith
eiaeei-ineoieiae/aneoth oai?eth, a eio. niaoeeaeueii enneaaeiaae
i?ioeann ?acaeoey no?anoae. A ie?o /aeiaaea ie?oaeaao iiiaeanoai
niaeaciia. I?aaeiaou e yaeaiey ie?oaeathuaai ie?a iin?aaenoaii /oanoa
ia?aaeathony ?acoio e i?aia?acothony a i?inoua eaeae (“iiiune i?ino”).
Yoa ia/aeueiay noaaeey ?acaeoey no?anoe -“i?eeia”. Nai ii naaa i?eeia
aaca?aoai, anee oi ia inoaiaaeeaaaony ia iai, ia i?iieeaaony aai
niaea?aeaieai. Anee aea oi neeiiyaony e “i?eyoeth iiiunea”, oiaaea
ianooiaao aoi?ay noaaeey – “ni/aoaiea”. “Ni/aoaiea” – niaaeeiaiea
aicieeoae eaeae /aeiaaea n aai aieae. Ia yoie noaaeee aiaioaiaeia
oieueei oa iuneue, eio. iiaeao auoue iai?aaeaia a ?onei aeaaeo aeayiee.
Anyeay ae?oaay iuneue aeieaeia auoue iona/aia, anee aea yoiai ia
i?ienoiaeeo, oi ianooiaao o?aouey noaaeey – “neiaeaiea”, o.a. niaeanea
aeooe n oai, /oi “aeaaieao a?aaeee iiiune”. Caoai ianooiaao “ieaiaiea”,
eiaaea e aeooa e ?acoi /aeiaaea ieacuaathony a ieaio no?anoe,
/oanoaaiiiai ia?aca; a eiia/iii n/aoa ooaa?aeaeaaony “no?anoue” – aunoay
ethaiaue e i?eyoea caiiiai ie?a, /aeiaa/aneeo “ia/oaiee”. No?anoue
oi?ie?oao i?aa /aeiaaea, aai aeeci. iiceoeee.

*oiau ecaaaeaoue ieaiaiey no?anoueth, eaaeaeia aeaei neaaeoao ia/eiaoue
n “ioae?iaaiey”, ?annoaeaeaiey, /oiau aeooa ia ii?aaioeeanue iuouaieyie,
a oi aue i/euai io “eoeaauo iiiuneia”. Aac oaeiai ioae?iaaiey
aoaeoaeueii aeaaea /oaiea oea?eiaiuo eiea (“Ienaiey ai iiiaa, ii ia any
aiaeanoaaiia nooue”) . A aeaeao aa?u nouanoaoao oieueei iaeei e?eoa?ee –
Eenon O?enoin, Aaaiaaeey. Ioae?iaaiea – yoi naiaai ?iaea aeaeaia oia,
aeoo. i?ioeeaeoeea, iicaieythuay inaiaiaeeoue oi io iuouaiee, ia?aaeeoue
aai io ie?neiai, oaa?iiai. *a?ac ioae?iaaiea i?eoiaeeo ?acoiaiea,
aeaai?acoiea aea ooaa?aeaeaaony iea/ai (“neaciia aeaeaiea ie?a”).
?acoiaiea – ?ane?uoea aiaiioe?iaaiiie oaeiu, aeaai?acoiea – oiie/aiea i
iae, i?eciaiea aa iaiinoeaeeiinoe. Aeaai?acoiea o?aaiiaaoeaaao oi,
inaiaiaeaeay aai io neiaaniuo oi?i. Iooiai iii ?aaiineeueii eneoee,
iie/aeueie/anoao.

?onneea eneoanou enoiaeeee ec aaniethoiiai i?eioeeia io?eoeaiey ie?a;
ai?ueaa ni anai a ie?a, /oi ii?iaeaeaao no?anoe. Iie i?eciaaaee oieueei
oec. o?oae (ooiieaiiia oaei ia aeaaeaeao, ia ?iiuao). Iiiaoaneee o?oae –
oieueei aeey ianuuaiey: ieieiaeueiua iio?aaiinoe iiiaoa; io?eoeaiea
iiiaoaneie ieeinouie; oea?eiaue aeieaeia ioeacaoueny io oe?aoaiee
(oe?aoaiea – i?ineaaeaiea aeae /aeiaaea), io?eoeaiea anyeie oea?eiaiie
nianoaaiiinoe. Ianoyaeaoaeuenoai – aoi?ay oi?ia i?aaineaaey,
o?enoieiae/aneay.

Iinea nia?oe Ieea Ni?neiai ianoyaeaoaeuenoai iiaeaa?aeinue ?aceie
iieeoecaoeee. Aai iineaaeiaaoaee – Aanneai Iao?eeaaa (ie. 1470 – iinea
1531), A?oaiee O?ieoeeee, Iaenei A?ae (1470 – 1556).

– Aanneai Iao?eeaaa: ieeinoue aeey a?aoeeia, caueoa nia?aeia
(i?iiaaaiaea a ?aieao aioeeineo. e?eoeee), iieiinoue aiaiaiieiuaiey
(inia?eaae i?oiaeien. o/aiea i aeaienoaaiiie i?e?iaea O?enoa – ia iiaeao
aa/iia, aaneiia/iia niaaeeieoueny n a?aiaiiui, oeaiiui).

– A?oaiee O?ieoeeee: i?iaeaiu ii?aee, i?aanoaaiiinoe – a eaaeaeii
/aeiaaea i?enoonoaoao iaeeiiiinoue e aeia?o (ethaiaue e aeeaeiaio), iiae
aeeyieai yoie aeia?iaeaoaee oai?youeny ana aeaaea aeaea a ie?a, ceiaa
aicieeaao io oiaeaiey aeia?iaeaoaee, i?e/eia cea – nai /aeiaae (naiaiaea
aiee).

– Iaenei A?ae: e?eoeea nia?aiaiiiai iiiaoanoaa, ?annoaeaeaiey i
ioaeanoaa – iii nii?yaeaii n auai?ii, eio. ii?aaeaeyaony naiaiaeie aiee.

E na?aaeeia 16 aaea ianoyaeaoaeuenoai oaeoe/anee nioei ia iao.

Eaaaeueiue ia?eneci e aaoianoai.

Aeaeaeaiea “eaaaeueiuo ia?enenoia” io?ieyeinue ia?yaeo n
“i?oiaeienaeueiui ia?eneciii” a 90-a aiaeu 19 a. (I.A. Aa?aeyaa, N.I.
Aoeaaeia, A.N. Ecaiaa, I.A. No?oaa, N.E. O?aie e ae?.). Ioe?uoi
cayaeyee, /oi aeey ?aaiethoeee aua iao aiciiaeiinoe, iia aanniuneaiia –
iao ie i?ieaoa?eaoa, ie ?acaeouo ao?aeoaciuo, eaieoaeenoe/aneeo
ioiioaiee). Oeaeue aeaeaeaiey – enoi?e/aneia ii?aaaeaiea eaieoaeecia a
?innee, iai?aaeaiiia i?ioea ia?iaeie/aneie eaeaieiaee. Iie i?eieiaee a
ia?enecia eeoue oa iieiaeaiey, eio. iinooee?iaaee iaecaaaeiinoue
ia?aoiaea io oaiaeaeueiiai no?iy e ao?aeoaciiio e ioaa?aaee nioeeaeeci
eae caeiiiia?iia au?aaeaiea iauaeoeaiiai i?ioeanna ye. ?acaeoey
iauanoaa. Nioeeaeeci iiaeii i?eiyoue eeoue a ea/inoaa nioeeaeueiiai
eaeaaea, a ia nioe. i?aaeaeaeaiey (aaaeue anee nioeeaeeci iiaeao
inouanoaeoueny ii caeiiai i?e?iaeu, oiaaea aanniuneaiia anyeay
aeayoaeueiinoue, anyeia oneeea ioaeaeueiie ee/iinoe. Naiaiaea aiee
ianiaianoeia n iauaeoeaiie iaiaoiaeeiinoueth.

Iie auee oaaaeaeaiu a ie?iaicc?ai/aneie iaeo?aeueiinoe ia?enecia,
ionoonoaee a iai no?iai iaeiicia/iiai oeein. iniiaaiey. Ei eacaeinue
i?aaiia?iui naeeaeaiea ia?enecia n ethaie oeeinioneie nenoaiie, iaeiaei
a eioa?anao yoe/aneiai iainiiaaiey nioeeaeecia iie ioaeaaaee
i?aaeii/oaiea eaioianoao.

Aaoianoai, iacaaiiia oae ii nai?ieeo noaoae “Aaoe”, auoaaeoaio a naao
o?aiy ecaeaieyie a 1909a. Yoi aeaeaeaiea i?aoaiaeiaaei ia “iaiiaeaiea”
?onneie eioaeeeaaioeee, ia aa “aeooiaiia aic?iaeaeaiea”. E?eoeeiaaee
ia?iaeie/anoai e ia?eneci. Naia iai?aaeaiea iunee iie iacuaaee
“eiie?aoiui eaeaaeeciii” (io *aaaeaaaa aei Nieiaueaaa e Oienoiai).
“Eiie?aoiue eaeaaeeci” i?iaicaeaoaeny ia oieueei “iniiaie iaoaai
iaoeeiiaeueiiai oeein. oai?/anoaa”, ii e ienoe/aneei ainiieiaieai
“?acoia aa?iiaeneie oeeinioee, iioa?yaoae aeeaia auoea”. Aaoianoai
oi?ie?iaaeinue ia i?eioeeiao nieiaueaaneiai anaaaeeinoaa, ieii/aoaeueii
ia?aaiaey aiaiiiciaiea ec ieineinoe aa?u a ieineinoue aiaieneaoaeuenoaa.

Enoi?einioey *aaaeaaaa.

Iauaa ni neaayiioeeaie – i?eciaiea iianneaineie aoaeouiinoe ?innee, aa
iniaiai eoeueoo?ii-enoi?e/aneiai i?aaeiacia/aiey.

“Oeeinioneea ienueia” – (1829 – 1831).

Iiiuoea ioaaoeoue ia aii?in i noaeueaao ?innee, iaeoe ei?ie nia?aiaiiie
aeecie a i?ioaaeoae enoi?ee. ?inney n naiiai ia/aea ieacaeanue a noi?iia
io “aaeeeie ie?iaie ?aaiou”, ieacaaoenue iaaeaeo Caiaaeii e Ainoieii,
iia iiaea au neioace?iaaoue iieiaeeoaeueiua noi?iiu aeaoo ie?ia, ii iia
inaeanue ia i?eiaaeeaaeauae ie Caiaaeo, ie Ainoieo. Iia ieacaeanue ia
oieueei aia i?ino?ainoaa, ii e aia a?aiaie e eae au auiaea ec
enoi?e/aneiai i?ia?anna. I?e/eia – aa aaeiaay caaeneiinoue io Aecaioee,
/ae “i?aanoaaiiue onoaa” iieiaeeea a iniiao naiaai ainieoaiey. Ec
?acee/ey eaoiee/anoaa e i?aaineaaey auaiaeeony – e yoi aeaaiue ioieo aai
?onneie enoi?einioee – iaiaeeiaeiainoue caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneie e ?onneie
oeeaeeecaoeee. Eiaaea eaoiee/anoai ia Caiaaea oaea ia/eiaei
?acaeaaoueny, ?inney ana aua i?icyaaea a ycu/anoaa. E iiiaioo e?auaiey
?one aaeeiay oea?eiaue ?aneieieanue: eaoiee/anoai nio?aieei enoeiiua
caaaou O?enoa, a i?aaineaaea noaei ?aeeaeae ae?yoeie Aecaioee. A
?acoeueoaoa iia ieacaeanue ioi?aaiiie io aeeaeoaeueiiai o/aiey O?enoa,
caieioeanue a ?aeeaeiciii iainiaeaiee e ie/oi ec i?ienoiaeyuaai a Aa?iia
ia aeinoeaaei aa i?aaeaeia. I?eiya aecaioeeneia i?aaineaaea, n naiiai
ia/aea ?inney ieacaeanue ia?a/aiiie ia ionoaeinoue. “Iu, oioy e iineee
eiy o?enoeai, ia aeaeaaeenue n ianoa”. *aaaeaaa aeaeae auaiae –
aeaenoaeoaeueiue i?ia?ann ceaeaeaony ia enoeiiii o?enoeainoaa, eio.
yaeyaony oieueei eaoieeoeeci. Eaoieeoeeci eae enoi/iee i?ia?anna
aiieiuaao a naaa aaeeiue iooue o?enoeainoaa. Neaaeiaaoaeueii. Aeey
?innee ia nouanoaoao ieeaeiai eiiai iooe ?acaeoey, e?iia
caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneiai. (Iia – o?enoeaineay no?aia, a iioiio o iaa iao
ie/aai iauaai n Ainoieii. Ainoie e ?inney – yoi aeaa ie?a. Anaoeaei
/oaeaeuo ii aeooo e ie?inica?oeaieth). *aaaeaaa ia naiaeee aii?in i
“?onneii iooe” e i?inoiio caiaaeie/anoao. Ioeacaa ?innee a nioeeaeueiie
naiiauoiinoe, ii oai ia iaiaa aeoaiei aa?ee a aa aeooiaiue ianneiieci,
aunieia iacia/aiea a aoaeouai (ia?aia ienueii). “Iaoa iieiaeaiea
n/anoeeaia” – iu noiei ia?aae eeoeii iia?aaeeaoaai ian Caiaaea, iu
“i?eoee iinea ae?oaeo”, a cia/eo “iiaeai aeaeaoue eo/oa eo”, anee noiaai
“i?aaeeueii ioeaieoue” naia i?aeiouanoai e eniieueciaaoue iiuo oae,
“/oiau ia aiaaeaoue a eo ioeaee. A eo caaeoaeaeaiey e noaaa?ey…Aieueoa
oiai, o iaiy anoue aeoaieia oaaaeaeaiea, /oi iu i?ecaaiu ?aoeoue
aieueooth /anoue i?iaeai nioeeaeueiiai ii?yaeea, caaa?oeoue aieueooth
/anoue eaeae, aicieeoeo a noa?uo iauanoaao, ioaaoeoue ia aaaeiaeoea
aii?inu, eaeea caieiatho /aeiaa/anoai”. Yoie i?i?i/aneie iaeneiie ii
no?aieeny i?aiaeieaoue io/oaeaeaiiinoue naiae enoi?einioee io
enoi?e/aneie ii/au, i?eaeaoue ae oa?aeoa? iaoe. eaeaaea.

Eaeaieiaey ianniinoaa.

E. A. Eiiooei “I aioo?aiiae oea?eae”. Iiaeeia.

Ianniinoai aicieeei a 60-70o aiaeao eae ?aaeoeey ia iao?ianeea (?)
i?aia?aciaaiey. Ia?aeeaeueii n ianniinoaii aicieeaao e aoi?ay
oaiaeaioeey – iioeinoai. Aicieeatho eae naiaai ?iaea ?aaeoeey ia
neiiaeaeueioth i?aaineaaioth oea?eiaue: eioaeeeaaionei-aeai?yineay
iiiiceoeey e ?aeeaeiciay iiiiceoeey. Iinea oo?aou ieo?iiieeonoaa
i?aaineaaiay oea?eiaue oo?a/eaaao naiinoiyoaeueiinoue (aeaaa Neiiaea –
“naeoneee aaia?ae”), oaia?ue iia iai?yioth caaeneo io ainoaea?noaa. Ii
oeaco Iao?a oi?acaeiyaony oaeinoai eniiaaaee (aeiiinu ainoaea?th), a
eoiaa io oea?eae iooi?aaaony o?e aeaaiuo oaeinoaa: o?enoioeaio?eci.
E?auaiea (ianeeuenoaaiiue niinia oaea?aeaoue ethaeae a aaeeiiiuneee),
eniiaaaeue. Iae?auaiea – eae oaeo i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe e a?ane.
Neiiaeaeueiia i?aaineaaea oo?a/eaaao naith o?enoeaineoth nouiinoue –
noaiiaeony iaeiei ec ?u/aaia oi?aaeaiey aeanoe. – Iai?eyoea
neiiaeaeueiaie ioeoeeaeueiie oea?eae.

Ianniinoai – ?acoeueoao aeeyiey caiaaeii-ienoe/aneeo oaiaeaioeee.
Ianniiaie auee i?aeoe/anee ana eioaeeeaaiou. Eo iauaaeeiyei iniciaiea
iaiaoiaeeiinoe enoeiiiai aeooiaiiai i?inaauaiey, i?eaioe?iaaiiiai ia
o?enoeainoai. I?ioano i?ioea i?aa?auaiey oea?eae a ao?eaoo ain. aeanoe.
Ianniinoai i?aeoe/anee a naiii ia/aea naiae aeayoaeueiinoe ano?aoeei
?aceia iai?eyoea ni noi?iiu ioeoeeaeueiuo aeanoae – cai?ao ia
ioaeeeaoeee. Ianniinoai ooiaeeo a iiaeiieuea – aeooiaiia i?aaeaeaa?ea
aeaeaa?ecia (oeiea oaeiiai aaaeaiey – ana aeaeaa?enou i?ioee /a?ac iaa).

Iniiaiua /a?ou ianniinoaa:

Ecia/aeueii iii auei i?eaioe?iaaii ia oieaa?naeenoneia o?eno. o/aiea. E.
A. Eiiooei – aaeeinoaaiiue i?eciae enoeiiiai o?enoeaieia – ethaiaue e
aeeaeiaio (ie aa?a, ie iinou, ie iieeoau). Onoaiiaea ia o?enoioeaio?eci.

Ianniinoai ioaa?aaei ana iaycaoaeueiua ?eooaeu, ia?yaeu (eno.
o?enoeaiei, aeaau ia iaeaeaoue ae?oaeo aa?othueo, iiaeao ioi?aaeyoue yoe
ia?yaeu). Enoeiiay oea?eiaue – aioo?aiiyy oea?eiaue, iiy aeooa.
i?aeniieiaiiay ethaae e aeeaeiaio.

Eiaeeaeaeoaeueiay oi?ia ?aeeaeiciinoe. Anyeay ?aeeaey – ee/iinoue.
Ii?aaeaeythuaa ia/aei – ee/iinoue, a ia aa aa?a. Ana inoaeueiia –
ao?eaoou ee/iinoe.

Aioo?aiiyy oea?eiaue – nithc enoeiii aicethaeaoeo o?enoeai aioo?e
o?enoeainoaa, eio. aeieaeiu iaeoe ae?oa ae?oaa. Oaeiue nithc – aeaau ia
iaeaeaoue /oanoa ae?. aa?othueo. Aeaaiay oaeia – aioo?e oea?eiaiinoe iie
nicaeaaaee naith enoeiioth oea?eiaue.

*oi-oi a?iaea cia/aiey: oi?ie?iaaeanue iiaiia/aeueiay eioaeeeaaioeey,
yoi oi?ie?iaaiea iniiauaaeinue ia naeeaeaiee n o?enoeainoaii (aeaaiaea?y
ianniinoao niaa?oeeinue oaea?aeaiea eioaeeeaaioeee a ?aeeaeiciuo
?aieao). Ianniinoai a ianoaiiaea aiiaiee, cai?aoia auaeaeeei ec naay
?aaeeeaeueiia e?uei – aeaeaa?eci. Iniiaa iieeo. aeayoaeueiinoe yoiai
aeaeaeaiey – oi?ioea ethaae e aeeaeiaio (a iieeoeea iniiaa – ii?aeue)

Oa?ey eoeueoo?ii-enoi?e/aneeo oeiia I. ss. Aeaieeaaneiai.

Aaoi? eieae “?inney e Aa?iia” (1871a.).

E?eoeeiaae naieo i?aaeoanoaaiieeia ca oi, /oi iie, ia aai acaeyae,
i?iaicaeanea iaoeeiiaeueioth eaeath, aiana ia aeoiaee i?e yoii i
iaiaoiaeeiinoe “naiiauoiiai iaoeeiiaeueiiai ?acaeoey”, iie ia?aieiaee
eiaeeo aa?iaineie oeeinioee, ia?aiiny inouanoaeaiea iaua/aeiaa/aneie
caaea/e n aa?iiaeneie ii/au ia neaayineoth. Ii n/eoae, /oi ieeiaaea ia
iiaeao neo/eony oae, /oi eaeia-ieaoaeue eoeueoo?ii-enoi?e/aneia ieaiy
eiie?aoii ?aoeei au oaeoth iaua/aeiaa/aneoth caaea/o aeey naay e caiaeii
aeey inoaeueiiai /aeiaa/anoaa. Eaaeaeia ieaiy, eaaeaeue ia?iae
i?aneaaeoao noaoai yaienoe/aneea oeaee, iie?aynue ia nianoaaiiua
eioa?anu, aioo?aiiea neeu e niiniaiinoe. O iaeieo ia?iaeia eo aieueoa, o
ae?oaeo – iaiueoa. Oa ia?iaeu, eio. a eaeii-oi ioiioaiee i?aainoiaeyo
inoaeueiuo, nicaeatho iniaua eoeueoo?ii-enoi?e/aneea oeiu, eee
oeeaeeecaoeee, i?aaenoaaeythuea niaie aiieiuaiea eo iniaie aeooiaiie
nouiinoe. Iiea ecaanoii 10 oaeeo naiiauoiuo oeeaeeecaoeee: 1)
aaeiaoneay, 2) eeoaeneay, 3) oaeaeaeneay eee ae?aaianaieoe/aneay, 4)
eiaeeeneay, 5) e?aineay, 6) aa?aeneay, 7) a?a/aneay, 8) ?eineay, 9)
iiainaieoe/aneay eee a?aaeeneay, 10) aa?iaii-?iiaineay, eee aa?iiaeneay.
Inoaeueiua ia?iaeu, iaiaa oaea/eeaua: eeai – “ae/e Aiaeea”, ?ac?ooeoaee
“ae?yoeuo” oeeaeeecaoeee (aoiiu, iiiaieu, oo?ee); eeai – ninoaaeoaee
yoiia?aoe/aneiai iaoa?eaea aeey ae?oaeo eoeueoo?ii-enoi?e/aneeo oeiia.
Naiiauoiinoue oeeaeeecaoeee icia/aao, /oi ia/aea, eaaeauea a ia?iaea
iaeiiai eoeueoo?ii-enoi?e/aneiai oeia, iiaoo auoue oie/oiaeaiu,
eneaaeaiu, ii ia iiaoo auoue caiaiaiu ae?oaeie ia/aeaie,
i?eiaaeeaaeaueie ia?iaeo eiiai eoeueoo?ii-enoi?. oeia. Iiaeii onaieoue
auaiaeu e iaoiaeu iieiaeeoaeueiuo iaoe, oao. i?eaiu e oniaa?oainoaiaaiey
eneonnoa e i?iiuoeaiiinoe, “ana aea inoaeueiia, a iniaaiiinoe ana,
ioiinyuaany aei iiciaiey /aeiaaea e iauanoaa, a oai aieaa i?aeoe/aneiai
i?eiaiaiey yoiai iiciaaaiey, aiana ia iiaeao auoue i?aaeiaoii
caeinoaiaaiey”.

Iauea caeiiu ?acaeoey naiiauoiuo oeeaeeecaoeee – inouanoaeaiea
ii?aaeaeaiiie oi?iu eoeueoo?iiai oai?/anoaa: iao/iiai, i?aaiaiai,
?aeeaeiciiai eee ooaeiaeanoaaiiiai. Caeiiu yoiai ?acaeoey: 1) aeey
aicieeiiaaiey oeeaeeecaoeee iaiaoiaeeii, /oiau ia?iae iaeaaeae
niioaaonoaothueie “aeooiaiuie caaeaoeaie” e iieueciaaeny iieeo.
naiaiaeie; 2) ia/aea oeeaeeecaoeee iaeiiai eoeueoo?ii-enoi?e/aneiai oeia
ia ia?aaeathony ia?iaeai ae?. oeia; 3) iieiioa e aiaaonoai e.-e. oeia
caaeneo io ?aciiia?acey aoiaeyueo a iaai yoiia?aoe/aneeo yeaiaioia,
“eiaaea iie, ia aoaeo/e iiaeiuaiu iaeiei iieeo. oeaeui, iieuecoynue
iacaaeneiinoueth, ninoaaeytho oaaea?aoeeth, eee iieeo. nenoaio
ainoaea?noa”; 4) ia?eiae ?inoa oeeaeeecaoeee anaaaea iaii?aaeaeaiii
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiaa ia?eiaea oeaaoaiey e ieiaeiiioaiey, iinea eio. iia
enoiuaao naie aeeciaiiua neeu e aieueoa ia aiciaiiaeyaony.

Ii iiaieth Aeaieeaaneiai, Caiaae, nicaeaaoee iineaaeithth enoi?.
oeeaeeecaoeeth, oaea ia?aaeee “aiiaae naiaai oeeaeeecaoeeiiiiai
aaee/ey”, e ia i/a?aaee – aicauoaiea neaayinoaa. Neaayinoai – oa?iei
iaeiiai ii?yaeea n yeeeieciii, eaoeinoaii, aa?iiaeciii. Iniaaiiinoyie
neaayineiai e.-e. oeia aeieaeiu noaoue: “/aou?aoiniiaiinoue”, “neioac
anao noi?ii eoeueoo?iie aeayoaeueiinoe”; i?aoai?aiea a aeeciue
“ni?aaaaeeeai iaania/eaathuaai ia?iaeiua iannu
iauanoaaiii-yeiiiie/aneiai ono?ienoaa” (?iiaioe/aneay i?eaycaiiinoue e
nioeeaeecio).

?inney e Aa?iia ?acaiaeeeenue a ?aciua oeeaeeecaoeeiiiua ieoe, yoi
?acaaaeaiea iieiinoueth eneeth/aao eaeea-eeai ae?oaeanoaaiiua nayce a
oaeaea eneeth/aao ia?niaeoeau i?eia?aiey. Ai?ueaa n Caiaaeii naeaeaeanue
aaeeinoaaiiie nianeoaeueiie caaea/ae ?onneie iieeoeee.

Aii?in i ii?aeueiinoe oaeie iieeoeee. Iaoae oaa?aeoth ii/ao aeey oaeiai
aii?aeecia: caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneee iiuo cae?aiee ioaeaeaiea oea?eae io
ainoaea?noaa – ainoaea?noai, iaoiaeynue aia oea?eae, ii iaiaoiaeeiinoe
auaeaeyao naay “e io oiai, /oi ia?aceo/ii n o?enoeainoaii”, aeaaea caeii
a oaeii ainoaea?noaa oa?yao naycue n o?enoeaineie i?aanoaaiiinoueth e
niueaaony n aoaeciii; e?iia oiai, o?eno. ii?aeue iai?eiaieia e ain.
ioiioaieyi e ii oa?aeoa?o naieo iniiaiiieaaathueo i?eioeeiia. Aeey
o?enoeainoaa i?aanoaaiiue ia?ac aeaenoaee niaiaaeaao n
naiiiiaea?oaiaaieai, e aae. iniiaaiea aeey iaai – aannia?oea, aa/iinoue
aioo?aiiae nouiinoe /aeiaaea. “Ii ainoaea?noaa e ia?iae – nooue yaeaiey
i?aoiaeyuea, nouanoaothuea oieueei ai a?aiaie, e, neaaeiaaoaeueii,
oieueei ia o?aaiaaiee yoiai eo a?aiaiiiai nouanoaiaaiey iiaoo
iniiauaaoueny caeiiu eo aeayoaeueiinoe, o.a. iieeoeee. I?eciaaae oieueei
iaeio iieeoeeo – iieeoeeo iaeeaaaeeecia (caeii cae?aai iiiyoie iieuecu,
anyeiio naia, aaioaiianeee i?eioeei ooeeeoa?iinoe, iei ca iei.

“I?aeoe/aneea ?aeiiaiaeaoeee” ioiineoaeueii aa?iiaeneie iieeoeee: Aa?iia
a?aaeaeaaia iai ii nouiinoe – iu a aaciianiinoe, oieueei anee iia aithao
naia n niaie, ioaeii iieueciaaoueny anaie aa ioeaeaie, anyeeie
aioo?aiieie iao?yaeeoeaie, neaaeoao io?aoeoueny io iunee i eaeie-eeai
nayce n ethauie ec aa?. ainoaea?noa.

I. A. Aiaieue “Aua?aiiua ianoa ec ia?aienee n ae?ocueyie”.

E?eoeea ii?aeenoe/aneiai aoiaiecia.

Ii?aeueiue eaeaae, eio. ii aue “iaea?aeei”, ei naiei aini?eieiaeny eae
ia?aaeueiue e aeaaea iaanoanoaaiiue, eae iaeay ?eoi?eea, ia eiathuay
iii?u a anoanoaaiiii no?ia aeooe. Iniaaiii ino?i oaeay iiceoeey
i?aaenoaao ioiineoaeueii aii?ina ia ioiioaiee e ethaeyi, eae e
“a?aoueyi. “Ii eae ethaeoue a?aoueaa? Eae iiethaeoue ethaeae? Aeooa
oi/ao ethaeoue i?ae?aniia, a aaaeiua ethaee oae ianiaa?oaiiu, e oae a
ieo iaei i?ae?aniiai”. Ii?aeueiua i?eioeeiu aanneeueiu – aeooie aeaeaeao
ia ii?aeueiia ia/aei, a ynoaoe/aneea. Aeooa /aeiaa/aneay ianiiniaia, a
iuiaoiai aa ninoiyiee, e iiaeeeiii ii?aeueiiio aeaenoaeth, o.a. e
ethaae. “*aeiaae 19 aaea iooaeeeaaao io naay a?aoa…Ii aioia iaiyoue ana
/aeiaa/anoai, a a?aoa ia iaieiao”. Iiyoiio ii?aeueiue eaeaae – i?inoi
?eoi?eea. Oaia ii?aee, oaia aeia?a – iaioa?aoeia, iaono?aieia, iia
noieo ia?aae eaaeaeui ai anai naiai no?aoiii e a?iciii iauaia, ii iia ia
eiaao iii?u a iuiaoiai no?ia aeooe. No?aoii oi, /oi iu “a aeia?a ia
aeaeei aeia?a”, – o.a., /oi aeaaea oai, aaea anoue iiaeeeiiia aeia?i, iu
ia a ninoiyiee aini?eiyoue aai eiaiii eae aeia?i.

“Anoanoaaiiue” aii?aeeci nia?aiaiiiai /aeiaaea, ii Aiaieth, naycai n
oai, /oi aiai aeiieie?oao ynoaoe/aneia ia/aei. (a iiaanoe “Oa?an
Aoeueaa” iieiaeie eacae Aiae?ee, ioaa/aiiue ethaiaueth e e?anaaeoea,
a?inaao naiueth, ?iaeeio, aa?o, ii oae oi?ioee?oao iniiaiie i?eioeei
ynoaoe/aneiai ie?iioiioaiey: “?iaeeia iiy oai, aaea iia na?aeoea”; yoi
ia oieueei io?a/aiea io naiiai i?eioeeia ii?aee, ii e ooaa?aeaeaiea
noeoeeiie neeu, ?ieiaiai aeeiaiecia ynoaoe/aneeo aeaeaeaiee, eio.
na?anuaatho ana i?aa?aaeu ii?aeueiiai oa?aeoa?a.

Aiaieue iniciaaae o?aae/aneoth ianiaaeeiaiiinoue a aeooa ynoaoe/aneiai e
ii?aeueiiai ia/ae. Yoa ?acuaaeeiaiiinoue e?aniou e aeia?a a nouiinoe
icia/aao ia?aaeueiinoue ynoaoe/aneiai aoiaiecia; iiaeeeiii niaaeeieoue
e?anioo e aeia?i iiaeao oieueei oi, /oi aeoaaea iaieo ia/ae – o.a.
?aeeaey.

?aeeaey aeey Aiaiey i?ecaaia i?aia?aceoue anoanoaaiiue no?ie /aeiaaea,
aai eoeueoo?o, aai oai?/anoai. A iae ii iuoaaony iaeoe ?ac?aoaiea
iineaaeieo i?iaeai eoeueoo?u. Iiiuoea naycaoue anth eoeueoo?o n
Oea?eiaueth – aian a ?onneoth iuneue eaeath “i?aaineaaiie eoeueoo?u”.

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